WorldWideScience

Sample records for mabs reacted strongly

  1. LpMab-23: A Cancer-Specific Monoclonal Antibody Against Human Podoplanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-07

    Human podoplanin (hPDPN), the ligand of C-type lectin-like receptor-2, is involved in cancer metastasis. Until now, many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been established against hPDPN. However, it is still difficult to develop a cancer-specific mAb (CasMab) against hPDPN because the protein sequence of hPDPN expressed in cancer cells is the same as that in normal cells. Herein, we report LpMab-23 of the mouse IgG1 subclass, a novel CasMab against hPDPN. In an immunohistochemical analysis, LpMab-23 reacted with tumor cells of human oral cancer, but did not react with normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs). In contrast, LpMab-17, another anti-hPDPN mAb, reacted with both tumor cells and LECs. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis revealed that LpMab-23 reacted with hPDPN-expressing cancer cell lines (LN319, RERF-LC-AI/hPDPN, Y-MESO-14/hPDPN, and HSC3/hPDPN) but showed little reaction with normal cells (LECs and HEK-293T), although another anti-hPDPN mAb, LpMab-7, reacted with both hPDPN-expressing cancer cells and normal cells, indicating that LpMab-23 is a CasMab against hPDPN.

  2. Reacting to "Reacting"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Amanda

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the author's experiences as a student participating in a general education program called "Reacting to the Past," in which college students play elaborate games set at pivotal moments in the past, their roles informed by great texts. She found that the experience of reenacting pivotal historical moments produced an intensely…

  3. LpMab-12 Established by CasMab Technology Specifically Detects Sialylated O-Glycan on Thr52 of Platelet Aggregation-Stimulating Domain of Human Podoplanin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukinari Kato

    Full Text Available Podoplanin (PDPN, also known as Aggrus, possesses three tandem repeat of platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG domains in its N-terminus. Among the PLAG domains, sialylated O-glycan on Thr52 of PLAG3 is essential for the binding to C-type lectin-like receptor-2 (CLEC-2 and the platelet-aggregating activity of human PDPN (hPDPN. Although various anti-hPDPN monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been generated, no specific mAb has been reported to target the epitope containing glycosylated Thr52. We recently established CasMab technology to develop mAbs against glycosylated membrane proteins. Herein, we report the development of a novel anti-glycopeptide mAb (GpMab, LpMab-12. LpMab-12 detected endogenous hPDPN by flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical analyses also showed that hPDPN-expressing lymphatic endothelial and cancer cells were clearly labeled by LpMab-12. The minimal epitope of LpMab-12 was identified as Asp49-Pro53 of hPDPN. Furthermore, LpMab-12 reacted with the synthetic glycopeptide of hPDPN, corresponding to 38-54 amino acids (hpp3854: 38-EGGVAMPGAEDDVVTPG-54, which carries α2-6 sialylated N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc on Thr52. LpMab-12 did not recognize non-sialylated GalNAc-attached glycopeptide, indicating that sialylated GalNAc on Thr52 is necessary for the binding of LpMab-12 to hPDPN. Thus, LpMab-12 could serve as a new diagnostic tool for determining whether hPDPN possesses the sialylation on Thr52, a site-specific post-translational modification critical for the hPDPN association with CLEC-2.

  4. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Fusco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston, but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  5. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Marnie L; Hashiguchi, Takao; Cassan, Robyn; Biggins, Julia E; Murin, Charles D; Warfield, Kelly L; Li, Sheng; Holtsberg, Frederick W; Shulenin, Sergey; Vu, Hong; Olinger, Gene G; Kim, Do H; Whaley, Kevin J; Zeitlin, Larry; Ward, Andrew B; Nykiforuk, Cory; Aman, M Javad; Berry, Jody D; Berry, Jody; Saphire, Erica Ollmann

    2015-06-01

    The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP) have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV) strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston), but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  6. Protective mAbs and Cross-Reactive mAbs Raised by Immunization with Engineered Marburg Virus GPs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marnie L Fusco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The filoviruses, which include the marburg- and ebolaviruses, have caused multiple outbreaks among humans this decade. Antibodies against the filovirus surface glycoprotein (GP have been shown to provide life-saving therapy in nonhuman primates, but such antibodies are generally virus-specific. Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs have been described against Ebola virus. In contrast, relatively few have been described against Marburg virus. Here we present ten mAbs elicited by immunization of mice using recombinant mucin-deleted GPs from different Marburg virus (MARV strains. Surprisingly, two of the mAbs raised against MARV GP also cross-react with the mucin-deleted GP cores of all tested ebolaviruses (Ebola, Sudan, Bundibugyo, Reston, but these epitopes are masked differently by the mucin-like domains themselves. The most efficacious mAbs in this panel were found to recognize a novel "wing" feature on the GP2 subunit that is unique to Marburg and does not exist in Ebola. Two of these anti-wing antibodies confer 90 and 100% protection, respectively, one hour post-exposure in mice challenged with MARV.

  7. Influenza B virus-specific CD8+ T-lymphocytes strongly cross-react with viruses of the opposing influenza B lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sandt, Carolien E; Dou, YingYing; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; Westgeest, Kim B; Pronk, Mark R; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fouchier, Ron A M; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Hillaire, Marine L B

    2015-08-01

    Influenza B viruses fall in two antigenically distinct lineages (B/Victoria/2/1987 and B/Yamagata/16/1988 lineage) that co-circulate with influenza A viruses of the H3N2 and H1N1 subtypes during seasonal epidemics. Infections with influenza B viruses contribute considerably to morbidity and mortality in the human population. Influenza B virus neutralizing antibodies, elicited by natural infections or vaccination, poorly cross-react with viruses of the opposing influenza B lineage. Therefore, there is an increased interest in identifying other correlates of protection which could aid the development of broadly protective vaccines. blast analysis revealed high sequence identity of all viral proteins. With two online epitope prediction algorithms, putative conserved epitopes relevant for study subjects used in the present study were predicted. The cross-reactivity of influenza B virus-specific polyclonal CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) populations obtained from HLA-typed healthy study subjects, with intra-lineage drift variants and viruses of the opposing lineage, was determined by assessing their in vitro IFN-γ response and lytic activity. Here, we show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that CTLs directed to viruses of the B/Victoria/2/1987 lineage cross-react with viruses of the B/Yamagata/16/1988 lineage and vice versa.

  8. The REACT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens;

    selected disease and programme interventions and services, within general care and on health systems management. Efforts to improve health sector performance have not yet been satisfactory, and adequate and sustainable improvements in health outcomes have not been shown. Priority setting in health systems...... decisions; and the provision of leadership and the enforcement of conditions. REACT - "REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems" is an EU-funded five-year intervention study, which started in 2006 testing the application and effects of the AFR approach in one district each...... in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Qualitative and quantitative methods are applied in an action research framework. The project baseline surveys have already been completed and indicate both a strong need and a high willingness for change in the study districts. REACT has developed active research...

  9. Serotype-specific anti-Dengue virus NS1 mouse antibodies cross-react with prM and are potentially involved in virus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrinoul, Promsin; Omokoko, Magot Diata; Pambudi, Sabar; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Kurosu, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection induces a strong B-cell immune response against the viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1). Anti-NS1 antibodies (Abs) may affect virus production because they coexist with the virus in the patients' blood. The present study examined whether ten mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) raised against NS1 affected production of the DENV-2. Three MAbs, 4C2, 4G11, and 4E5, showed weak neutralizing activity in a focus reduction assay. In addition, two serotype-specific MAbs, 4C2 and 4G11, protected suckling mice from lethal infection with DENV-2. An immunoprecipitation assay with DENV-2 showed that these MAbs, which were specific for the NS1 of DENV-4 and DENV-1, cross-reacted with the DENV-2 pre-membrane (prM) protein, but not with DENV-2 NS1. Interestingly, high concentrations of MAb 4G11 showed antibody-dependent enhancement of DENV-2 infection in human monocyte THP-1 cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that serotype-specific anti-NS1 MAbs are potentially involved in virus production.

  10. Structure and transmembrane nature of the acetylcholine receptor in amphibian skeletal muscle as revealed by cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    A collection of 126 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) made against acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) from the electric organs of Torpedo californica or Electrophorus electricus was tested for cross-reactivity with AChRs in cryostat sections of skeletal muscle from Rana pipiens and Xenopus laevis by indirect immunofluorescence. 49 mAbs (39%) cross- reacted with AChRs from Rana, and 25 mAbs (20%) cross-reacted with AChRs from Xenopus. mAbs specific for each of the four subunits of electric organ AChR (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) cross-reacted with AChRs from each amphibian species. mAbs cross-reacting with Xenopus AChRs were, with one exception, a subset of the mAbs cross-reacting with Rana AChRs. The major difference detected between the two species was in binding by mAbs specific for the main immunogenic region (MIR) of the alpha-subunit. Whereas 22 of 33 anti-MIR mAbs tested cross- reacted with Rana AChRs, only one of these mAbs cross-reacted with Xenopus AChRs. Some (32) of the cross-reacting mAbs were tested for binding to AChRs in intact muscle. 21 of these mAbs bound to AChRs only when membranes were made permeable with saponin. Electron microscopy using immunoperoxidase or colloidal gold techniques revealed that these mAbs recognize cytoplasmic determinants and that mAbs that do not require saponin in order to bind AChRs in intact muscle recognize extracellular determinants. These results suggest that AChRs in skeletal muscle of Rana and Xenopus are composed of subunits corresponding to the alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-subunits of AChRs from fish electric organs. The subunit specificity of mAbs whose binding was examined by electron microscopy suggests that parts of each subunit (alpha, beta, gamma, delta) are exposed on the cytoplasmic surface and that, as in AChRs from fish electric organs and mammalian muscle, the MIR on alpha-subunits of Rana AChRs is exposed on the extracellular surface. PMID:6363425

  11. H2Mab-77 is a Sensitive and Specific Anti-HER2 Monoclonal Antibody Against Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Fujii, Yuki; Kaneko, Mika K; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Chang, Yao-Wen; Handa, Saori; Takahashi, Maki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-08-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays a critical role in the progression of breast cancers, and HER2 overexpression is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Trastuzumab is an anti-HER2 humanized antibody that leads to significant survival benefits in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancers. In this study, we developed novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and characterized their efficacy in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. Initially, we expressed the full length or ectodomain of HER2 in LN229 glioblastoma cells and then immunized mice with ectodomain of HER2 or LN229/HER2, and performed the first screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using ectodomain of HER2. Subsequently, we selected mAbs according to their efficacy in flow cytometry (second screening), Western blot (third screening), and immunohistochemical analyses (fourth screening). Among 100 mAb clones, only three mAbs reacted with HER2 in Western blot, and clone H2Mab-77 (IgG1, kappa) was selected. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses with H2Mab-77 showed sensitive and specific reactions against breast cancer cells, warranting the use of H2Mab-77 to detect HER2 in pathological analyses of breast cancers.

  12. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 mutation is a frequent event in osteosarcoma detected by a multi-specific monoclonal antibody MsMab-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Kato, Yukinari; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Sugawara, Masato; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Yuta; Naganuma, Yasushi; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Takagi, Michiaki

    2013-12-01

    Somatic mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and IDH2 occur in gliomas, acute myeloid leukemia, and cartilaginous tumors. Somatic mosaic IDH1/2 mutations are also reported in Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome, which are characterized by multiple central cartilaginous tumors. Although IDH1/2 mutation analysis against osteosarcoma has been performed in several studies, no IDH1/2 mutation has been reported. Herein, we newly report the IDH2-R172S mutation in three of 12 (25%) osteosarcoma patients, which was detected by direct DNA sequencing. No monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been reported against IDH2-R172S mutation. However, we demonstrate that the IDH2-R172S peptide was recognized by our established multi-specific anti-mutated IDH1/2 mAb, MsMab-1, in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Western blot analysis revealed that MsMab-1 reacts with PA tag combined recombinant proteins of IDH2-R172S. Furthermore, MsMab-1 stained IDH2-R172S-expressing osteosarcoma tissues in immunohistochemistry. The MsMab-1 stained nine of 32 (28.1%) osteosarcomas in a tissue microarray. This report is the first describing IDH2 mutations in osteosarcoma, which can be detected by MsMab-1 mAb. Taken together, these results show that MsMab-1 can be anticipated for use in immunohistochemical determination of IDH1/2 mutation-bearing osteosarcoma.

  13. Analysis list: mab-5 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mab-5 Embryo,Larvae + ce10 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mab-5.1.tsv http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mab-5.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc....jp/kyushu-u/ce10/target/mab-5.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/mab-5.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/mab-5.Larvae.tsv http://dbar...chive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Embryo.gml,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/colo/Larvae.gml ...

  14. Analysis of HLDA9 mAbs on plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezón, Raquel; Sintes, Jordi; Llinàs, Laia; Benitez-Ribas, Daniel

    2011-01-30

    Dendritic cells are a heterogeneous population of bone marrow derived leucocytes that play a crucial role in both pathogen recognition and the initiation of primary T cell immune responses. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), also known as natural interferon-producing cells, comprise one of two major human dendritic cell subsets that strongly influences immune balance. pDCs remain a poorly characterized subset. Several studies have suggested the existence of a close phenotypic and functional relationship between B-cells and pDCs. The surface reactivity of a panel of 96 monoclonal antibodies submitted to the ninth Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens workshop (HLDA9) B cell section was analyzed using pDCs as target cells. The results showed that eight of the mAbs reacted positively on pDCs: CD86, CD229, CD319, CD305, CD184, CD84, CD85g and FcɛRIa, confirming previously published reports. Interestingly, this study also revealed the expression of eight surface molecules not previously described on pDCs, including CD352(NTBA), CD272(BTLA), CD357(GITR), CD48, CD270(HVEM), Galectin-3, CD148, and CD361. The present report summarizes the expression of these molecules on freshly isolated pDCs. Significantly, we have identified several new molecules expressed by these intriguing cells, ones we believe will open new avenues for the study of pDC functionality and their role in human health and diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Monoclonal antibody proteomics: use of antibody mimotope displaying phages and the relevant synthetic peptides for mAb scouting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdú, István; Flachner, Beáta; Bognár, Melinda; Végh, Barbara M; Dobi, Krisztina; Lőrincz, Zsolt; Lázár, József; Cseh, Sándor; Takács, László; Kurucz, István

    2014-08-01

    Monoclonal antibody proteomics uses nascent libraries or cloned (Plasmascan™, QuantiPlasma™) libraries of mAbs that react with individual epitopes of proteins in the human plasma. At the initial phase of library creation, cognate protein antigen and the epitope interacting with the antibodies are not known. Scouting for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with the best binding characteristics is of high importance for mAb based biomarker assay development. However, in the absence of the identity of the cognate antigen the task represents a challenge. We combined phage display, and surface plasmon resonance (Biacore) experiments to test whether specific phages and the respective mimotope peptides obtained from large scale studies are applicable to determine key features of antibodies for scouting. We show here that mAb captured phage-mimotope heterogeneity that is the diversity of the selected peptide sequences, is inversely correlated with an important binding descriptor; the off-rate of the antibodies and that represents clues for driving the selection of useful mAbs for biomarker assay development. Carefully chosen synthetic mimotope peptides are suitable for specificity testing in competitive assays using the target proteome, in our case the human plasma.

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis Using Antipodocalyxin Monoclonal Antibody PcMab-47 Demonstrates Podocalyxin Expression in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-09-05

    Podocalyxin is a CD34-related type I transmembrane protein that is highly glycosylated with N-glycan, O-glycan, and keratan sulfate. Podocalyxin was originally found in the podocytes of rat kidney and is reportedly expressed in many types of tumors, including brain tumors, colorectal cancers, and breast cancers. Overexpression of podocalyxin is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human podocalyxin, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a novel antipodocalyxin monoclonal antibody (mAb), PcMab-47, which reacts with endogenous podocalyxin-expressing cancer cell lines and normal cell lines independent of glycosylation in Western blot, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemical analyses. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical analysis against oral cancers using PcMab-47. PcMab-47-stained oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a cytoplasmic pattern and detected 26/38 (68.4%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells on tissue microarrays. These results indicate that PcMab-47 is useful in detecting podocalyxin of oral cancers for immunohistochemical analysis.

  17. Expression and purification of Ctomp2aa167-aa434 and preparation of its mAb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN HONG ZUO; LI ZHI TAN; CHAO QUN CHEN; NING ZHENG DONG; XIA BAI; CHANG GENG RUAN

    2006-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis outer membrane protein 2 (Ctomp2) is a major immunogen in chlamydial infections and a highly genus-conserved structural protein of all Chlamydia species. To purify the protein and to prepare monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against it, the recombinant protein was induced by IPTG, which was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and purified by means of a Ni2+ -charged resin column. The denatured protein was refolded in the GSH-GSSH buffer gradually and identified by Western blotting. Then the BALB/c mice were immunized with the recombinant protein to prepare the mAb against Ctomp2. The obtained mAbs were characterized. Genital specimens were tested with indirect ELISA mostly made of the mAb and cell culture in 84 patients with genital symptoms. The results showed that high-level expression of the recombinant protein was achieved, which existed as inclusion body and amounted to 38 % of total bacterium protein. A mAb against Ctomp2 was obtained. It belongs to IgG 2b. The titers were as high as 1:40 000. The Western blotting showed that the mAb only reacted with the recombinant protein. It had no crossing reactions against E. coli, N. gonorhoea, M.hominis, U. urealyticum and M. penetrans. It had high specifity. In comparison with gold standard test-cell culture, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values of indirect ELISA were 95.24%, 100%, 100% and 98.44%, respectively. The above-mentioned research work contributed not only to the further study of the structure and function of this protein, but also to the establishment of the method for its clinical application, for it had not been reported before.

  18. A Method to the mAbNESS?

    OpenAIRE

    McCAIN, JACK

    2004-01-01

    It’s the hottest area of biotech drug development, with more than 100 currently in development. If mAbs make life easier for patients with devastating diseases, demand will skyrocket. Payers want want proof of their value.

  19. The UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the UC Davis/NIH NeuroMab facility is to generate and distribute high quality, validated mouse monoclonal antibodies against molecular targets found...

  20. Preparation for gluing of Carbon prototype MAB at INEGI, Porto

    CERN Multimedia

    Miguel Moreira, Porto, INEGI

    2001-01-01

    MAB's will assure the alignment of the CMS detector. It is equipped with muon cameras, measuring the position of the barrel muon stations and at the same time linking via the link elements, connecting the barrel muon detectors with the Tracker. In addition there is a connection with the endcap. More details can be found on the muon/alignment homepage on the web

  1. Analysis of Japanese Municipalities With Geopark, MAB, and GIAHS Certification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kohsaka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the discussions of Japanese municipalities in their process for obtaining certifications for the Geoparks by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO, the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB by the UNESCO, and the Globally Important Agricultural Heritage systems (GIAHS by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations. The official records at the municipality diet were analyzed in a quantitative manner from 2011 to 2013. As the first step, we analyzed the eight municipalities of Noto and Sado for the GIAHS, the cities Itoigawa and Hakusan for the Geopark, and Katsuyama Yamanouchi village from Nagano for the MAB. As individual examples, we analyzed City of Suzu with GIAHS, Itoigawa (Geopark, and Yamanouchi town (MAB with the text-mining approach. For the GIAHS, it was clear that the larger municipalities with city status tended to discuss certification issues more frequently than the smaller towns and villages. Terms such as conservation and certification tended to be used with GIAHS at the Suzu City. The term brand was used with GIAHS and MAB but not for the Geopark. The findings using quantitative methods are at initial stage for analysis of municipality strategies and require further future research.

  2. MabCent: Arctic marine bioprospecting in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Johan

    2013-01-01

    The deep waters surrounding the coastline of the northern parts of Norway represent an exciting biotope for marine exploration. Dark and cold Arctic water generates a hostile environment where the ability to adapt is crucial to survival. These waters are nonetheless bountiful and a diverse plethora of marine organisms thrive in these extreme conditions, many with the help of specialised chemical compounds. In comparison to warmer, perhaps more inviting shallower tropical waters, the Arctic region has not been as thoroughly investigated. MabCent is a Norwegian initiative based in Tromsø that aims to change this. Since 2007, scientists within MabCent have focussed their efforts on the study of marine organisms inhabiting the Arctic waters with the long term goal of novel drug discovery and development. The activities of MabCent are diverse and range from sampling the Arctic ice shelf to the chemical synthesis of promising secondary metabolites discovered during the screening process. The current review will present the MabCent pipeline from isolation to identification of new bioactive marine compounds via an extensive screening process. An overview of the main activities will be given with particular focus on isolation strategies, bioactivity screening and structure determination. Pitfalls, hard earned lessons and the results so far are also discussed.

  3. Turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Liberman, M.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-11-01

    We study turbulent diffusion of chemically reacting gaseous admixtures in a developed turbulence. In our previous study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 69 (1998), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.69] using a path-integral approach for a delta-correlated in a time random velocity field, we demonstrated a strong modification of turbulent transport in fluid flows with chemical reactions or phase transitions. In the present study we use the spectral τ approximation that is valid for large Reynolds and Peclet numbers and show that turbulent diffusion of the reacting species can be strongly depleted by a large factor that is the ratio of turbulent and chemical times (turbulent Damköhler number). We have demonstrated that the derived theoretical dependence of a turbulent diffusion coefficient versus the turbulent Damköhler number is in good agreement with that obtained previously in the numerical modeling of a reactive front propagating in a turbulent flow and described by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. We have found that turbulent cross-effects, e.g., turbulent mutual diffusion of gaseous admixtures and turbulent Dufour effect of the chemically reacting gaseous admixtures, are less sensitive to the values of stoichiometric coefficients. The mechanisms of the turbulent cross-effects differ from the molecular cross-effects known in irreversible thermodynamics. In a fully developed turbulence and at large Peclet numbers the turbulent cross-effects are much larger than the molecular ones. The obtained results are applicable also to heterogeneous phase transitions.

  4. The effect of unlabelled monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the biodistribution of [sup 131]I-anti-idiotype mAb in murine B cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, J. (Stanford University (United States). Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine); Knox, S.J. (Stanford University Medical Center (United States). Department of Radiation Oncology); Ruhl, W. (Stanford University (United States). Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology); Goris, M.L. (Stanford University Medical Center (United States). Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine)

    1992-07-01

    The 38C13 murine B cell lymphoma model was used to study the effect of the pre-injection of unlabelled anti-idiotype monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the subsequent biodistribution of [sup 131]I-anti-idiotype mAb. Mice with established tumors received 0-500 [mu]g of unlabelled anti-idiotype mAb 24 h prior to the administration of [sup 131]I-anti-idiotype (specific), or both [sup 125]I-anti-idiotype and [sup 131]I-isotype-matched irrelevant control (non-specific) mAb. Mice were counted daily in a gamma counter and sacrificed at 2-144 h following injection. Mice were dissected and the weight and activity of the animals and organs were measured. Mice were bled periodically and circulating idiotype levels were measured using an ELISA assay. 500 [mu]g of unlabelled anti-idiotype mAb increased the retention time of the specific but not the nonspecific mAb in all organs and tumor. Following pretreatment with unlabelled mAb, the cumulative tumor/whole body and tumor/normal organ ratios became similar to those of the nonspecific mAb, with concentration ratios (specific/nonspecific mAb) of approximately 1, which persisted until 96 h post injection when circulating idiotype reappears in antigen excess. In the absence of unlabelled mAb there was less retention in tumor and normal tissue. This is presumed to be due in part to decreased levels of circulating [sup 131]I-mAb secondary to rapid plasma clearance of antigen-body complexes and tumor cell mediated dehalogenation, which results when the specific mAb specifically binds the target antigen. Thus, the addition of unlabelled mAb increased the retention by decreasing the specific behavior of the anti-idiotype antibody. (author). 12 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs.

  5. File list: Oth.ALL.05.mab-5.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.ALL.05.mab-5.AllCell ce10 TFs and others mab-5 All cell types SRX331286,SRX0056...39,SRX331288,SRX005637,SRX331156,SRX331154 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/ce10/assembled/Oth.ALL.05.mab-5.AllCell.bed ...

  6. Direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The development of turbulent combustion models that reflect some of the most important characteristics of turbulent reacting flows requires knowledge about the behavior of key quantities in well defined combustion regimes. In turbulent flames, the coupling between the turbulence and the chemistry is so strong in certain regimes that is is very difficult to isolate the role played by one individual phenomenon. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is an extremely useful tool to study in detail the turbulence-chemistry interactions in certain well defined regimes. Globally, non-premixed flames are controlled by two limiting cases: the fast chemistry limit, where the turbulent fluctuations. In between these two limits, finite-rate chemical effects are important and the turbulence interacts strongly with the chemical processes. This regime is important because industrial burners operate in regimes in which, locally the flame undergoes extinction, or is at least in some nonequilibrium condition. Furthermore, these nonequilibrium conditions strongly influence the production of pollutants. To quantify the finite-rate chemistry effect, direct numerical simulations are performed to study the interaction between an initially laminar non-premixed flame and a three-dimensional field of homogeneous isotropic decaying turbulence. Emphasis is placed on the dynamics of extinction and on transient effects on the fine scale mixing process. Differential molecular diffusion among species is also examined with this approach, both for nonreacting and reacting situations. To address the problem of large-scale mixing and to examine the effects of mean shear, efforts are underway to perform large eddy simulations of round three-dimensional jets.

  7. A new approach to quantification of mAb aggregates using peptide affinity probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Crystal S F; Anderson, Kyle W; Patel, Pooja M; Cade, Keale L; Phinney, Karen W; Turko, Illarion V

    2017-02-10

    Using mAbs as therapeutic molecules is complicated by the propensity of mAbs to aggregate at elevated concentrations, which can lead to a variety of adverse events in treatment. Here, we describe a proof-of-concept for new methodology to detect and quantify mAb aggregation. Assay development included using an aggregated mAb as bait for screening of phage display peptide library and identifying those peptides with random sequence which can recognize mAb aggregates. Once identified, the selected peptides can be used for developing quantitative methods to assess mAb aggregation. Results indicate that a peptide binding method coupled with mass spectrometric detection of bound peptide can quantify mAb aggregation and potentially be useful for monitoring aggregation propensity of therapeutic protein candidates.

  8. Antigen identification and characterization of lung cancer specific monoclonal antibodies produced by mAb proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongdong; Hincapie, Marina; Guergova-Kuras, Mariana; Kadas, Janos; Takacs, Laszlo; Karger, Barry L

    2010-04-05

    A mass spectrometric (MS)-based strategy for antigen (Ag) identification and characterization of globally produced monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is described. Mice were immunized with a mixture of native glycoproteins, isolated from the pooled plasma of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC), to generate a library of IgG-secreting hybridomas. Prior to immunization, the pooled NSCLC plasma was subjected to 3-sequential steps of affinity fractionation, including high abundant plasma protein depletion, glycoprotein enrichment, and polyclonal antibody affinity chromatography normalization. In this paper, to demonstrate the high quality of the globally produced mAbs, we selected 3 mAbs of high differentiating power against a matched, pooled normal plasma sample. After production of large quantities of the mAbs from ascites fluids, Ag identification was achieved by immunoaffinity purification, SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, and MS analysis of in-gel digest products. One antigen was found to be complement factor H, and the other two were mapped to different subunits of haptoglobin (Hpt). The 2 Hpt mAbs were characterized in detail to assess the quality of the mAbs produced by the global strategy. The affinity of one of the mAbs to the Hpt native tetramer form was found to have a K(D) of roughly 10(-9) M and to be 2 orders of magnitude lower than the reduced form, demonstrating the power of the mAb proteomics technology in generating mAbs to the natural form of the proteins in blood. The binding of this mAb to the beta-chain of haptoglobin was also dependent on glycosylation on this chain. The characterization of mAbs in this work reveals that the global mAb proteomics process can generate high-quality lung cancer specific mAbs capable of recognizing proteins in their native state.

  9. MabCampath可有效治疗B-Cell CLL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨绍杰(摘)

    2006-01-01

    根据在《临床肿瘤学杂志》第10期上公布的数据,美国GenzymeOncology集团开发的MabCampath(alemtuzumab)(Ⅰ)与Fludara(fludarabine phosphate,伏达拉滨)(Ⅱ)联合使用可有效治疗B细胞慢性淋巴细胞性白血病(B-Cell CLL),在研究期间总应答率为83%。Berlex公司(Schering AG公司的子公司)在美国销售(Ⅰ)。

  10. Industrialization of mAb production technology The bioprocessing industry at a crossroads

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purificati...

  11. Experimental Vortex Identification and Characterization in Reacting Jets in Crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vedanth; Emerson, Ben; Lieuwen, Timothy

    2016-11-01

    Reacting jets in crossflow (JICF) is an important canonical flow field in combustion problems where there is strong coupling between heat release and the evolution of vortical structures. We use vortex identification studies to experimentally characterize the spatial evolution of vortex dynamics in a reacting JICF. A vortex identification algorithm was designed to operate on particle image velocimetry (PIV) data and its raw Mie scattering images. The algorithm uses the velocity fields to obtain comparisons between the strain rate and the rotation rate. Additionally, the algorithm uses the raw Mie scattering data to identify regions where the high acceleration at vortex cores has centrifuged seeding particles out of the vortex cores. Together, these methods are used to estimate the vortex location and circulation. Analysis was done on 10 kHz PIV data from a reacting JICF experiment, and the resulting vortex trajectory, and growth rate statistics are presented. Results are compared between non-reacting JICF and reacting studies performed with different jet density ratios and different levels of acoustic forcing. We observed how the density ratio, the frequency and amplitude of the acoustic forcing affected the vortex characteristics and growth rate.

  12. Stochastic models for turbulent reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The goal of this program is to develop and apply stochastic models of various processes occurring within turbulent reacting flows in order to identify the fundamental mechanisms governing these flows, to support experimental studies of these flows, and to further the development of comprehensive turbulent reacting flow models.

  13. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964–1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleper, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO’s well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opp

  14. Dynamics of immature mAb glycoform secretion during CHO cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez del Val, Ioscani; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    required to minimise mAb glycoform variability. Our results suggest that the availability of glycosylation machinery relative to cellular secretory capacity may play a crucial role in mAb glycosylation. In the future, the modelling framework presented here may aid in selecting and engineering cell lines...

  15. Immunogenicity of mAbs in non-human primates during nonclinical safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, P.J.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34153790X; Kooijman, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322905788; Brinks, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31395979X; Gispen-de Wied, C.C.; Silva-Lima, B.; Moors, E.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20241664X; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2013-01-01

    The immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals used in clinical practice remains an unsolved challenge in drug development. Non-human primates (NHPs) are often the only relevant animal model for the development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), but the immune response of NHPs to therapeutic mAbs is not con

  16. Mutations in MAB21L2 result in ocular Coloboma, microcornea and cataracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Deml

    Full Text Available Ocular coloboma results from abnormal embryonic development and is often associated with additional ocular and systemic features. Coloboma is a highly heterogeneous disorder with many cases remaining unexplained. Whole exome sequencing from two cousins affected with dominant coloboma with microcornea, cataracts, and skeletal dysplasia identified a novel heterozygous allele in MAB21L2, c.151 C>G, p.(Arg51Gly; the mutation was present in all five family members with the disease and appeared de novo in the first affected generation of the three-generational pedigree. MAB21L2 encodes a protein similar to C. elegans mab-21 cell fate-determining factor; the molecular function of MAB21L2 is largely unknown. To further evaluate the role of MAB21L2, zebrafish mutants carrying a p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation (mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 and a p.(Arg51_Phe52del in-frame deletion (mab21l2R51_F52del were developed with TALEN technology. Homozygous zebrafish embryos from both lines developed variable lens and coloboma phenotypes: mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos demonstrated severe lens and retinal defects with complete lethality while mab21l2R51_F52del mutants displayed a milder lens phenotype and severe coloboma with a small number of fish surviving to adulthood. Protein studies showed decreased stability for the human p.(Arg51Gly and zebrafish p.(Arg51_Phe52del mutant proteins and predicted a complete loss-of-function for the zebrafish p.(Gln48Serfs*5 frameshift truncation. Additionally, in contrast to wild-type human MAB21L2 transcript, mutant p.(Arg51Gly mRNA failed to efficiently rescue the ocular phenotype when injected into mab21l2Q48Sfs*5 embryos, suggesting this allele is functionally deficient. Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization experiments identified retinal invagination defects, an increase in cell death, abnormal proliferation patterns, and altered expression of several ocular markers in the mab21l2 mutants. These findings support the

  17. Neutron Reflection Study of Surface Adsorption of Fc, Fab, and the Whole mAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zongyi; Li, Ruiheng; Smith, Charles; Pan, Fang; Campana, Mario; Webster, John R P; van der Walle, Christopher F; Uddin, Shahid; Bishop, Steve M; Narwal, Rojaramani; Warwicker, Jim; Lu, Jian Ren

    2017-07-12

    Characterizing the influence of fragment crystallization (Fc) and antigen-binding fragment (Fab) on monoclonal antibody (mAb) adsorption at the air/water interface is an important step to understanding liquid mAb drug product stability during manufacture, shipping, and storage. Here, neutron reflection is used to study the air/water adsorption of a mAb and its Fc and Fab fragments. By varying the isotopic contrast, the adsorbed amount, thickness, orientation, and immersion of the adsorbed layers could be determined unambiguously. While Fc adsorption reached saturation within the hour, its surface adsorbed amount showed little variation with bulk concentration. In contrast, Fab adsorption was slower and the adsorbed amount was concentration dependent. The much higher Fc adsorption, as compared to Fab, was linked to its lower surface charge. Time and concentration dependence of mAb adsorption was dominated by Fab behavior, although both Fab and Fc behaviors contributed to the amount of mAb adsorbed. Changing the pH from 5.5 to 8.8 did not much perturb the adsorbed amount of Fc, Fab, or mAb. However, a small decrease in adsorption was observed for the Fc over pH 8-8.8 and vice versa for the Fab and mAb, consistent with a dominant Fab behavior. As bulk concentration increased from 5 to 50 ppm, the thicknesses of the Fc layers were almost constant at 40 Å, while Fab and mAb layers increased from 45 to 50 Å. These results imply that the adsorbed mAb, Fc, and Fab all retained their globular structures and were oriented with their short axial lengths perpendicular to the interface.

  18. Quantitative visualization of the chemical reacting JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Arata, Y.; Sasaki, T.; Madarame, H. [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-10-01

    The sodium-water reaction should be precisely evaluated for the safety analysis of the sodium-cooled nuclear power plant. To evaluate these chemical reacting jet, the characteristics of the reaction and the mole fraction distributions of the reacting material should be known. In this study, to evaluate the basic characteristics, two fluid jet and chemical reacting jet was measured by the PIV and DELIF. The new dye pair for the dual emission LIF technique was proposed to measure the pH distribution. The Quinine for pH sensitive dye with blue emission and Rhodamine 6G for non-sensitive dye with orange emission, were excited by the third harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (355nm). The high accurate measurement could be achieved for the range of pH 4.0 to 5.5. The ammonia jet into acetic acid was measured using the proposed dye. The effectiveness of the present method was demonstrated. (author)

  19. Calorimetry of non-reacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, John P

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume 1: Calorimetry of Non-Reacting Systems covers the heat capacity determinations for chemical substances in the solid, liquid, solution, and vapor states, at temperatures ranging from near the absolute zero to the highest at which calorimetry is feasible.This book is divided into 14 chapters. The first four chapters provide background information and general principles applicable to all types of calorimetry of non-reacting systems. The remaining 10 chapters deal with specific types of calorimetry. Most of the types of calorimetry treated are developed over a c

  20. Anti-podoplanin Monoclonal Antibody LpMab-7 Detects Metastatic Lesions of Osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Oki, Hiroharu; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Takagi, Michiaki; Kato, Yukinari

    2015-06-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor and is highly metastatic to the lungs. Therefore, the development of a novel molecular targeting therapy against metastasis of osteosarcoma is necessary. A platelet aggregation-inducing factor, podoplanin/aggrus, is involved in tumor metastasis. Furthermore, podoplanin expression was reported to be involved in the poor prognosis of osteosarcoma patients. However, the association between podoplanin expression and metastasis of osteosarcoma remains unclear because of the lack of highly sensitive anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this study, we used a novel anti-podoplanin MAb, LpMab-7, which is more sensitive than well-known anti-podoplanin MAbs in immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical analysis using LpMab-7 showed that podoplanin expression at primary lesions is observed in 15 out of 16 (93.8%) cases. Furthermore, podoplanin expression at metastatic lesions was higher compared with primary lesions in three out of four (75%) cases with lung metastasis. Because LpMab-7 has high sensitivity against podoplanin, it is expected to be useful for molecular targeting therapy for osteosarcomas.

  1. Postmortem distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissues of a human cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Koutaro; Wurita, Amin; Minakata, Kayoko; Gonmori, Kunio; Nozawa, Hideki; Yamagishi, Itaru; Watanabe, Kanako; Suzuki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    During the latter part of 2014, we experienced an autopsy case in which 5-fluoro-ADB, one of the most dangerous synthetic cannabinoids, was identified and quantitated in solid tissues and in three herbal blend products [Forensic Toxicol (2015) 33:112-121]. At that time, although we suspected that there may be some drug(s) other than 5-fluoro-ADB in the herbal products, all trials to find it/them were unsuccessful. Subsequently, we carefully re-examined the presence of other synthetic cannabinoid(s) in the above herbal blend products using accurate mass spectrometry and found two new compounds, 5-fluoro-ADB-PINACA and MAB-CHMINACA (Forensic Toxicol. doi: 10.1007/s 11419-015-0264-y). In the present communication, we report the distribution of MAB-CHMINACA in body fluids and solid tissue specimens collected from the same deceased individual (kept frozen at -80 °C) as described above for demonstration of 5-fluoro-ADB. Unexpectedly, unchanged MAB-CHMINACA could be identified and quantitated in whole blood and in pericardial fluid specimens, but it was below the detection limit (0.1 ng/ml) in the urine specimen. A higher concentration of MAB-CHMINACA could be found in all of the nine solid tissues; the highest concentration of MAB-CHMINACA was found in the liver (156 ng/g), followed by the kidney, pancreas and so on. The compounds were detected in all nine solid tissues; their levels were generally higher than those in the whole blood and pericardial fluid. Contrary to expectations, the concentration of MAB-CHMINACA in the adipose tissue was relatively low. Our results show that the victim smoked one of the three herbal blend products containing both MAB-CHMINACA and 5-fluoro-ADB, resulting in the coexistence of both compounds. It should be concluded that 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA synergically exerted their toxicities, leading to death after a short interval. The differences in the distribution of 5-fluoro-ADB and MAB-CHMINACA among the cadaver specimens were

  2. A Novel Monoclonal Antibody Against a Synthetic Peptide from β-Actin can React with its Corresponding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Nazila; Bayat, Ali-Ahmad; Zarei, Omid; Hadavi, Reza; Mahmoudian, Jafar; Mahmoudi, Ahmad R; Darzi, Maryam; Rabbani, Hodjattallah; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Actin is one of the most widely studied structural and multifunctional housekeeping proteins in eukaryotic cells with important roles in many cell functions. Antibodies against β-actin and other housekeeping gene-encoded proteins are used as internal loading controls in Western blot analyses. The aim of this study was to produce a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against a synthetic peptide derived from N-terminal region of β-actin and to study its reactivity with different organisms. A synthetic peptide, derived from β-actin, was designed and used to produce a mAb by hybridoma technology. The produced antibody (clone 4E5- A10) was purified by an affinity chromatography column followed by characterization of purified mAb using SDS-PAGE, ELISA and Western blot. Our results showed that 4E5-A10 was an IgM and had desired purity and excellent reactivity with the immunizing peptide with an affinity constant of 2.7x10(8) M(-1)>. It could detect a band of about 45 kDa, corresponding to β-actin, in Western blot. Furthermore, it could react in a more sensitive manner and with a wider range of organisms than a known commercial anti β-actin antibody. Our data suggest that 4E5-A10 can act as a sensitive probe for detection of β-actin as an internal loading control, for a wide range of organisms, in Western blot analyses.

  3. Dynamics of immature mAb glycoform secretion during CHO cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez del Val, Ioscani; Fan, Yuzhou; Weilguny, Dietmar

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring consistent glycosylation-associated quality of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a priority in pharmaceutical bioprocessing given that the distribution and composition of the carbohydrates (glycans) bound to these molecules determines their therapeutic efficacy and immu......Ensuring consistent glycosylation-associated quality of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has become a priority in pharmaceutical bioprocessing given that the distribution and composition of the carbohydrates (glycans) bound to these molecules determines their therapeutic efficacy...... and immunogenicity. However, the interaction between bioprocess conditions, cellular metabolism and the intracellular process of glycosylation remains to be fully understood. To gain further insight into these interactions, we present a novel integrated modelling platform that links dynamic variations in mAb...... glycosylation with cellular secretory capacity. Two alternative mechanistic representations of how mAb specific productivity (qp) influences glycosylation are compared. In the first, mAb glycosylation is modulated by the linear velocity with which secretory cargo traverses the Golgi apparatus. In the second...

  4. Conservation Compromises: The MAB and the Legacy of the International Biological Program, 1964-1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleper, Simone

    2017-02-01

    This article looks at the International Biological Program (IBP) as the predecessor of UNESCO's well-known and highly successful Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). It argues that international conservation efforts of the 1970s, such as the MAB, must in fact be understood as a compound of two opposing attempts to reform international conservation in the 1960s. The scientific framework of the MAB has its origins in disputes between high-level conservationists affiliated with the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) about what the IBP meant for the future of conservation. Their respective visions entailed different ecological philosophies as much as diverging sets of political ideologies regarding the global implementation of conservation. Within the IBP's Conservation Section, one group propagated a universal systems approach to conservation with a centralized, technocratic management of nature and society by an elite group of independent scientific experts. Within IUCN, a second group based their notion of environmental expert roles on a more descriptive and local ecology of resource mapping as practiced by UNESCO. When the IBP came to an end in 1974, both groups' ecological philosophies played into the scientific framework underlying the MAB's World Network or Biosphere Reserves. The article argues that it is impossible to understand the course of conservation within the MAB without studying the dynamics and discourses between the two underlying expert groups and their respective visions for reforming conservation.

  5. Numerical Methods For Chemically Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, R. J.; Yee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Issues related to numerical stability, accuracy, and resolution discussed. Technical memorandum presents issues in numerical solution of hyperbolic conservation laws containing "stiff" (relatively large and rapidly changing) source terms. Such equations often used to represent chemically reacting flows. Usually solved by finite-difference numerical methods. Source terms generally necessitate use of small time and/or space steps to obtain sufficient resolution, especially at discontinuities, where incorrect mathematical modeling results in unphysical solutions.

  6. Algorithm For Computation Of Chemically Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Chen, Chein-Pin; Shang, Huan-Min

    1995-01-01

    Efficient algorithm developed for use in solving differential equations of transient, chemically reacting flows at all speeds from zero to high mach numbers. Mathematical models represent coupling of thermal, chemical, and dynamical effects. Original intended application is numerical simulation of flows in rocket engines; also applicable to other complex flows affected by finite-rate chemistry - for example, flows in turbines and in internal-combustion engines.

  7. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  8. M.A.B. Vitreous coatings with bactericidal and fungicidal properties; M.A.B. Revestimientos vitreos con propiedades bactericidas y fungicidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuoghi Fenollar, L.; Romero Valiente, J.; Villar Apellaniz, C.; Faubel Serra, V.; Noguera Orti, J. F.; Garcia Ten, J.; Yague Munoz, A.; Duran, A.

    2012-07-01

    This report describes the mosaic M.A.B. (bactericide and fungicide) produced by Togama S.A. belonging to the group Fluidra S.A., which has been awarded with the Silver Alfa Award by the Spanish Society of Ceramics and Glass at the International Fair Cevisama 2012. This award recognizes the R and D efforts developed by Togama, SA, already started with participation in the Alpha Awards 2009 and 2011. (Author)

  9. Stability of compressible reacting mixing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, D. S.; Ferziger, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Linear instability of compressible reacting mixing layers is analyzed with emphasis on the effects of heat release and compressibility. Laminar solutions of the compressible boundary-layer equations are used as the base flows. The parameters of this study are the adiabatic flame temperature, the Mach number of the upper stream, frequency, wavenumber, and the direction of propagation of the disturbance wave. Stability characteristics of the flow are presented. Three groups of unstable modes are found when the Mach number and/or heat release are large. Finally, it is shown that the unstable modes are two-dimensional for large heat release even in highly compressible flow.

  10. The UNC-4 homeobox protein represses mab-9 expression in DA motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jafari, Gholamali; Appleford, Peter J; Seago, Julian;

    2011-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor mab-9 has been shown to be required for the correct fate of the male-specific blast cells B and F, normal posterior hypodermal morphogenesis, and for the correct axon migration of motor neurons that project circumferential commissures to dorsal muscles. In this stud...

  11. Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation in frozen mAb formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy; Hair, Alison; Baker, Priti; Brych, Lejla; Nagapudi, Karthik; Lin, Hong; Cao, Wenjin; Hershenson, Susan; Ratnaswamy, Gayathri

    2015-02-01

    Sorbitol crystallization-induced aggregation of mAbs in the frozen state was evaluated. The effect of protein aggregation resulting from sorbitol crystallization was measured as a function of formulation variables such as protein concentration and pH. Long-term studies were performed on both IgG1 and IgG2 mAbs over the protein concentration range of 0.1-120 mg/mL. Protein aggregation was measured by size-exclusion HPLC (SE-HPLC) and further characterized by capillary-electrophoresis SDS. Sorbitol crystallization was monitored and characterized by subambient differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Aggregation due to sorbitol crystallization is inversely proportional to both protein concentration and formulation pH. At high protein concentrations, sorbitol crystallization was suppressed, and minimal aggregation by SE-HPLC resulted, presumably because of self-stabilization of the mAbs. The glass transition temperature (Tg ') and fragility index measurements were made to assess the influence of molecular mobility on the crystallization of sorbitol. Tg ' increased with increasing protein concentration for both mAbs. The fragility index decreased with increasing protein concentration, suggesting that it is increasingly difficult for sorbitol to crystallize at high protein concentrations.

  12. Multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations: a high throughput quality control process for the production of QuantiPlasma and PlasmaScan mAb libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Andrea; Szekrényes, Akos; Kerékgyártó, Márta; Balogh, Attila; Kádas, János; Lázár, József; Guttman, András; Kurucz, István; Takács, László

    2014-08-01

    Molecular heterogeneity of mAb preparations is the result of various co- and post-translational modifications and to contaminants related to the production process. Changes in molecular composition results in alterations of functional performance, therefore quality control and validation of therapeutic or diagnostic protein products is essential. A special case is the consistent production of mAb libraries (QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™) for proteome profiling, quality control of which represents a challenge because of high number of mAbs (>1000). Here, we devise a generally applicable multicapillary SDS-gel electrophoresis process for the analysis of fluorescently labeled mAb preparations for the high throughput quality control of mAbs of the QuantiPlasma™ and PlasmaScan™ libraries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Crystal structure of the complex mAb 17.2 and the C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi P2β protein: implications in cross-reactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Pizarro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Patients with Chronic Chagas' Heart Disease possess high levels of antibodies against the carboxyl-terminal end of the ribosomal P2ß protein of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcP2ß. These antibodies, as well as the murine monoclonal antibody (mAb 17.2, recognize the last 13 amino acids of TcP2ß (called the R13 epitope: EEEDDDMGFGLFD and are able to cross-react with, and stimulate, the ß1 adrenergic receptor (ß1-AR. Indeed, the mAb 17.2 was able to specifically detect human β1-AR, stably transfected into HEK cells, by flow cytometry and to induce repolarisation abnormalities and first degree atrioventricular conduction block after passive transfer to naïve mice. To study the structural basis of this cross-reactivity, we determined the crystal structure of the Fab region of the mAb 17.2 alone at 2.31 Å resolution and in complex with the R13 peptide at 1.89 Å resolution. We identified as key contact residues on R13 peptide Glu3, Asp6 and Phe9 as was previously shown by alanine scanning. Additionally, we generated a model of human β1-AR to elucidate the interaction with anti-R13 antibodies. These data provide an understanding of the molecular basis of cross-reactive antibodies induced by chronic infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

  14. Facilities GIS Modeling for the REACT System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Real-Time Emergency Action Coordination Tool (REACT) was developed under contract to NASA and deployed for use by the entire agency.  NASA REACT is a...

  15. PDF approach for compressible turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, A. T.; Tsai, Y.-L. P.; Raju, M. S.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to develop a probability density function (pdf) turbulence model for compressible reacting flows for use with a CFD flow solver. The probability density function of the species mass fraction and enthalpy are obtained by solving a pdf evolution equation using a Monte Carlo scheme. The pdf solution procedure is coupled with a compressible CFD flow solver which provides the velocity and pressure fields. A modeled pdf equation for compressible flows, capable of capturing shock waves and suitable to the present coupling scheme, is proposed and tested. Convergence of the combined finite-volume Monte Carlo solution procedure is discussed, and an averaging procedure is developed to provide smooth Monte-Carlo solutions to ensure convergence. Two supersonic diffusion flames are studied using the proposed pdf model and the results are compared with experimental data; marked improvements over CFD solutions without pdf are observed. Preliminary applications of pdf to 3D flows are also reported.

  16. Pdf - Transport equations for chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, W.

    1989-01-01

    The closure problem for the transport equations for pdf and the characteristic functions of turbulent, chemically reacting flows is addressed. The properties of the linear and closed equations for the characteristic functional for Eulerian and Lagrangian variables are established, and the closure problem for the finite-dimensional case is discussed for pdf and characteristic functions. It is shown that the closure for the scalar dissipation term in the pdf equation developed by Dopazo (1979) and Kollmann et al. (1982) results in a single integral, in contrast to the pdf, where double integration is required. Some recent results using pdf methods obtained for turbulent flows with combustion, including effects of chemical nonequilibrium, are discussed.

  17. Multiphase reacting flows modelling and simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Marchisio, Daniele L

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this book describe the most widely applicable modeling approaches and are organized in six groups covering from fundamentals to relevant applications. In the first part, some fundamentals of multiphase turbulent reacting flows are covered. In particular the introduction focuses on basic notions of turbulence theory in single-phase and multi-phase systems as well as on the interaction between turbulence and chemistry. In the second part, models for the physical and chemical processes involved are discussed. Among other things, particular emphasis is given to turbulence modeling strategies for multiphase flows based on the kinetic theory for granular flows. Next, the different numerical methods based on Lagrangian and/or Eulerian schemes are presented. In particular the most popular numerical approaches of computational fluid dynamics codes are described (i.e., Direct Numerical Simulation, Large Eddy Simulation, and Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach). The book will cover particle-based meth...

  18. Mathematical aspects of reacting and diffusing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fife, Paul C

    1979-01-01

    Modeling and analyzing the dynamics of chemical mixtures by means of differ- tial equations is one of the prime concerns of chemical engineering theorists. These equations often take the form of systems of nonlinear parabolic partial d- ferential equations, or reaction-diffusion equations, when there is diffusion of chemical substances involved. A good overview of this endeavor can be had by re- ing the two volumes by R. Aris (1975), who himself was one of the main contributors to the theory. Enthusiasm for the models developed has been shared by parts of the mathematical community, and these models have, in fact, provided motivation for some beautiful mathematical results. There are analogies between chemical reactors and certain biological systems. One such analogy is rather obvious: a single living organism is a dynamic structure built of molecules and ions, many of which react and diffuse. Other analogies are less obvious; for example, the electric potential of a membrane can diffuse like a chemical, and ...

  19. Quick-Mixing Studies Under Reacting Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, May Y.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1996-01-01

    The low-NO(x) emitting potential of rich-burn/quick-mix/lean-burn )RQL) combustion makes it an attractive option for engines of future stratospheric aircraft. Because NO(x) formation is exponentially dependent on temperature, the success of the RQL combustor depends on minimizing high temperature stoichiometric pocket formation in the quick-mixing section. An experiment was designed and built, and tests were performed to characterize reaction and mixing properties of jets issuing from round orifices into a hot, fuel-rich crossflow confined in a cylindrical duct. The reactor operates on propane and presents a uniform, non-swirling mixture to the mixing modules. Modules consisting of round orifice configurations of 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 18 holes were evaluated at a momentum-flux ratio of 57 and jet-to-mainstream mass-flaw ratio of 2.5. Temperatures and concentrations of O2, CO2, CO, HC, and NO(x) were obtained upstream, down-stream, and within the orifice plane to determine jet penetration as well as reaction processes. Jet penetration was a function of the number of orifices and affected the mixing in the reacting system. Of the six configurations tested, the 14-hole module produced jet penetration close to the module half-radius and yielded the best mixing and most complete combustion at a plane one duct diameter from the orifice leading edge. The results reveal that substantial reaction and heat release occur in the jet mixing zone when the entering effluent is hot and rich, and that the experiment as designed will serve to explore satisfactorily jet mixing behavior under realistic reacting conditions in future studies.

  20. Quantitative imaging of turbulent and reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, P.H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Quantitative digital imaging, using planar laser light scattering techniques is being developed for the analysis of turbulent and reacting flows. Quantitative image data, implying both a direct relation to flowfield variables as well as sufficient signal and spatial dynamic range, can be readily processed to yield two-dimensional distributions of flowfield scalars and in turn two-dimensional images of gradients and turbulence scales. Much of the development of imaging techniques to date has concentrated on understanding the requisite molecular spectroscopy and collision dynamics to be able to determine how flowfield variable information is encoded into the measured signal. From this standpoint the image is seen as a collection of single point measurements. The present effort aims at realizing necessary improvements in signal and spatial dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution in the imaging system as well as developing excitation/detection strategies which provide for a quantitative measure of particular flowfield scalars. The standard camera used for the study is an intensified CCD array operated in a conventional video format. The design of the system was based on detailed modeling of signal and image transfer properties of fast UV imaging lenses, image intensifiers and CCD detector arrays. While this system is suitable for direct scalar imaging, derived quantities (e.g. temperature or velocity images) require an exceptionally wide dynamic range imaging detector. To apply these diagnostics to reacting flows also requires a very fast shuttered camera. The authors have developed and successfully tested a new type of gated low-light level detector. This system relies on fast switching of proximity focused image-diode which is direct fiber-optic coupled to a cooled CCD array. Tests on this new detector show significant improvements in detection limit, dynamic range and spatial resolution as compared to microchannel plate intensified arrays.

  1. mab-31 and the TGF-β pathway act in the ray lineage to pattern C. elegans male sensory rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jacky KF

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C. elegans TGF-β-like Sma/Mab signaling pathway regulates both body size and sensory ray patterning. Most of the components in this pathway were initially identified by genetic screens based on the small body phenotype, and many of these mutants display sensory ray patterning defect. At the cellular level, little is known about how and where these components work although ray structural cell has been implicated as one of the targets. Based on the specific ray patterning abnormality, we aim to identify by RNAi approach additional components that function specifically in the ray lineage to elucidate the regulatory role of TGF-β signaling in ray differentiation. Result We report here the characterization of a new member of the Sma/Mab pathway, mab-31, recovered from a genome-wide RNAi screen. mab-31 mutants showed ray cell cluster patterning defect and mis-specification of the ray identity. mab-31 encodes a nuclear protein expressed in descendants of ray precursor cells impacting on the ray cell's clustering properties, orientation of cell division plane, and fusion of structural cells. Genetic experiments also establish its relationship with other Sma/Mab pathway components and transcription factors acting upstream and downstream of the signaling event. Conclusion mab-31 function is indispensable in Sma/Mab signal recipient cells during sensory rays specification. Both mab-31 and sma-6 are required in ray lineage at the late larval stages. They act upstream of C. elegans Pax-6 homolog and repress its function. These findings suggested mab-31 is a key factor that can integrate TFG-β signals in male sensory ray lineage to define organ identity.

  2. EGL-20/Wnt and MAB-5/Hox Act Sequentially to Inhibit Anterior Migration of Neuroblasts in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P Josephson

    Full Text Available Directed neuroblast and neuronal migration is important in the proper development of nervous systems. In C. elegans the bilateral Q neuroblasts QR (on the right and QL (on the left undergo an identical pattern of cell division and differentiation but migrate in opposite directions (QR and descendants anteriorly and QL and descendants posteriorly. EGL-20/Wnt, via canonical Wnt signaling, drives the expression of MAB-5/Hox in QL but not QR. MAB-5 acts as a determinant of posterior migration, and mab-5 and egl-20 mutants display anterior QL descendant migrations. Here we analyze the behaviors of QR and QL descendants as they begin their anterior and posterior migrations, and the effects of EGL-20 and MAB-5 on these behaviors. The anterior and posterior daughters of QR (QR.a/p after the first division immediately polarize and begin anterior migration, whereas QL.a/p remain rounded and non-migratory. After ~1 hour, QL.a migrates posteriorly over QL.p. We find that in egl-20/Wnt, bar-1/β-catenin, and mab-5/Hox mutants, QL.a/p polarize and migrate anteriorly, indicating that these molecules normally inhibit anterior migration of QL.a/p. In egl-20/Wnt mutants, QL.a/p immediately polarize and begin migration, whereas in bar-1/β-catenin and mab-5/Hox, the cells transiently retain a rounded, non-migratory morphology before anterior migration. Thus, EGL-20/Wnt mediates an acute inhibition of anterior migration independently of BAR-1/β-catenin and MAB-5/Hox, and a later, possible transcriptional response mediated by BAR-1/β-catenin and MAB-5/Hox. In addition to inhibiting anterior migration, MAB-5/Hox also cell-autonomously promotes posterior migration of QL.a (and QR.a in a mab-5 gain-of-function.

  3. Non-equilibrium reacting gas flows kinetic theory of transport and relaxation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Nagnibeda, Ekaterina; Nagnibeda, Ekaterina

    2009-01-01

    This volume develops the kinetic theory of transport phenomena and relaxation processes in the flows of reacting gas mixtures. The theory is applied to the modeling of non-equilibrium flows behind strong shock waves, in the boundary layer, and in nozzles.

  4. Plant Recycling for Molecular Biofarming to Produce Recombinant Anti-cancer mAb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deuk-Su Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The expression and glycosylation patterns of anti-colorectal cancer therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb CO17-1A recognizing the tumor-associated antigen GA733-2, expressed in human colorectal carcinoma cells, were observed in the leaf and stem tissues of primary (T2; 0 cycle secondary (1 cycle, and tertiary (2 cycle growths of seedlings obtained from the stem cut of T2 plants. The bottom portion of the stem of T2 seedlings was cut to induce the 1 cycle shoot growth, which was again cut to induce the 2 cycle shoot growth. In the 1 and 2 cycle growths, the periods for floral organ formation was shorter (35 days than that (100 days for the 0 cycle growth. The genes of heavy and light chains of mAb CO17-1A existed at the top, middle, and basal portions of the leaves and stem obtained from the 0, 1, and 2 cycle plants. The protein levels in the leaves and stem tissues from the 1 and 2 cycles were similar to those in the tissues from the 0 cycle. The glycosylation level and pattern in the leaf and stem did not alter dramatically over the different cycles. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR confirmed that mAbs CO17-1A obtained from leaf and stem tissues of the 0, 1, and 2 cycles had similar binding affinity for the GA733-2 antigen. These data suggest that the shoot growth by bottom stem cutting is applicable to speed up the growth of plant biomass expressing anti-colorectal cancer mAb without variation of expression, glycosylation, and functionality.

  5. MAB4-induced auxin sink generates local auxin gradients in Arabidopsis organ formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Masahiko; Nakano, Yasukazu; Tasaka, Masao

    2014-01-21

    In Arabidopsis, leaves and flowers form cyclically in the shoot meristem periphery and are triggered by local accumulations of the plant hormone auxin. Auxin maxima are established by the auxin efflux carrier PIN-formed1 (PIN1). During organ formation, two distinct types of PIN1 polarization occur. First, convergence of PIN1 polarity in the surface of the meristem creates local auxin peaks. Second, basipetal PIN1 polarization causes auxin to move away from the surface in the middle of an incipient organ primordium, thought to contribute to vascular formation. Several mathematical models have been developed in attempts to explain the PIN1 localization pattern. However, the molecular mechanisms that control these dynamic changes are unknown. Here, we show that loss-of-function in the MACCHI-BOU 4 (MAB4) family genes, which encode nonphototropic hypocotyl 3-like proteins and regulate PIN endocytosis, cause deletion of basipetal PIN1 polarization, resulting in extensive auxin accumulation all over the meristem surface from lack of a sink for auxin. These results indicate that the MAB4 family genes establish inward auxin transport from the L1 surface of incipient organ primordia by basipetal PIN1 polarization, and that this behavior is essential for the progression of organ development. Furthermore, the expression of the MAB4 family genes depends on auxin response. Our results define two distinct molecular mechanisms for PIN1 polarization during organ development and indicate that an auxin response triggers the switching between these two mechanisms.

  6. Preparation of knockout extract for determination of really active compound using MAb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Takuhiro; Tuvshintogtokh, Indree; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2011-03-01

    The crude-rhizome extract of P. japonicus was loaded on the immunoaffinity column conjugated with anti- ginsenoside-Rb1 monoclonal antibody (MAb) and washed with the washing solvent, followed by elution solvent, to give fraction 2 containing higher concentration of compound 1. Compound 1 clearly indicated a dammarane saponin having protopanaxadiol as a framework and three sugars in a molecule suggesting that compound 1 is chikusetsusaponin III. Compound 2 was also determined as chikusetsusaponin VI compared to the staining color, its Rf value and the comparison with ginsenoside Rb1. We succeeded in one step purification of ginsenoside-Rb1 by immunoaffinity column conjugated with anti- ginsenoside-Rb1 MAb leading to the knock-out extract which will be useful for pharmacological investigation. The antibody was stable when exposed to the eluent, and the immunoaffinity column showed almost no decrease in capacity after repeated use more than 10 times under the same conditions. From the crude extract of licorice we isolated glycyrrhizin by one-step purification by the immunoaffinity column using anti-glycyrrhizin MAb. Washing fraction contained all components except for only glycyrrhizin and was named as the knockout extract. We confirmed the synergic effect of glycyrrhizin with some other components for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by blocking inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression by using its knockout extract.

  7. Industrialization of mAb production technology: the bioprocessing industry at a crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Manufacturing processes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have evolved tremendously since the first licensed mAb product in 1986. The rapid growth in product demand for mAbs triggered parallel efforts to increase production capacity through construction of large bulk manufacturing plants as well as improvements in cell culture processes to raise product titers. This combination has led to an excess of manufacturing capacity, and together with improvements in conventional purification technologies, promises nearly unlimited production capacity in the foreseeable future. The increase in titers has also led to a marked reduction in production costs, which could then become a relatively small fraction of sales price for future products which are sold at prices at or near current levels. The reduction of capacity and cost pressures for current state-of-the-art bulk production processes may shift the focus of process development efforts and have important implications for both plant design and product development strategies for both biopharmaceutical and contract manufacturing companies.

  8. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  9. Mapping an epitope in EBNA‐1 that is recognized by monoclonal antibodies to EBNA‐1 that cross‐react with dsDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya; Carr, Matthew T.; Yu, Ruby; Mumbey‐Wafula, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) has been associated with the autoimmune disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). EBV nuclear antigen‐I (EBNA‐1) is the major nuclear protein of EBV. We previously generated an IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb) to EBNA‐1, 3D4, and demonstrated that it cross‐reacts with double stranded DNA (dsDNA) and binds the 148 amino acid viral binding site (VBS) in the carboxyl region of EBNA‐1. The aim of the present study was to characterize another antibody to EBNA‐1 that cross‐reacts with dsDNA, compare its immunoglobulin genes to 3D4, and finely map the epitope in EBNA‐1 that is recognized by these cross‐reactive antibodies. Methods We generated an IgM MAb to EBNA‐1, 16D2, from EBNA‐1 injected mice and demonstrated by ELISA that it cross‐reacts with dsDNA and binds the 148 amino acid VBS. We sequenced the variable heavy and light chain genes of 3D4 and 16D2 and compared V gene usage. To more finely map the epitope in EBNA‐1 recognized by these MAbs, we examined their binding by ELISA to 15 overlapping peptides spanning the 148 amino acid domain. Results Sequence analysis revealed that 3D4 and 16D2 utilize different VH and VL genes but identical JH and Jk regions with minimal junctional diversity. This accounts for similarities in their CDR3 regions and may explain their similar dual binding specificity. Epitope mapping revealed 3D4 and 16D2 bind the same peptide in the VBS. Based on the crystal structure of EBNA‐1, we observed that this peptide resides at the base of an exposed proline rich loop in EBNA‐1. Conclusion We have demonstrated that two MAbs that bind EBNA‐1 and cross‐react with dsDNA, recognize the same peptide in the VBS. This peptide may serve as a mimetope for dsDNA and may be of diagnostic and therapeutic value in SLE. PMID:27621818

  10. Results from a survey of the dynamics shaping Uranus' Mab/μ-ring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kartik; de Pater, Imke; Showalter, Mark R.

    2014-11-01

    Based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data, Showalter and Lissauer (2006) reported the discovery of two faint rings beyond Uranus’ main rings: the ν- and μ- rings. They constitute Uranus' outer ring system and are located beyond the ɛ-ring but interior to the large classical moons. After co-adding a series of HST images, Showalter and Lissauer (2006) obtained radial profiles for both new rings. They discovered that the peak radial intensity of the μ-ring aligns closely with the orbit of Mab. Along with numerous other observations, this points to the fact that the Mab/μ-ring system is highly coupled.The discovery of the μ-ring has led to open questions about dust dynamics beyond Uranus' main rings. Like Saturn's E-ring, observations reveal that the μ-ring is blue, indicative of a pre-dominance of sub-micron-sized particles (de Pater et al., 2006). The E-ring results from plumes on Enceladus' south pole, however the origin of the μ-ring remains a mystery. The latter is likely fed by ejecta from micro-meteorite impacts with Mab, much like Jupiter's faint rings are regenerated by companion (small) moons (Burns et al., 1999). The μ-ring's steep size-distribution suggests that there is an unknown mechanism at play that hides or removes large dust particles. We present results from an investigation into the forces shaping the μ-ring. To simulate the motion of dust in the Mab/μ-ring system, we developed a numerical toolbox (Dustsim; Kumar et al., 2015) that uses Tudat (Kumar et al., 2012). We performed integrations using Dustsim that included the effects of Uranus' gravity field, titled magnetic moment, solar radiation pressure, and collisions with a putative suite of large μ-ring bodies, hypothesized as the cause of Mab's anomalous orbital motion (Kumar et al., 2014). Following on from previous studies (e.g., Sfair and Giuliatti Winter, 2009; Sfair and Giuliatti Winter, 2012), we present a survey of the expected lifetime of μ-ring dust, as a function of

  11. Sequence analysis and mRNA expression of mab-21 gene in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂mab-21基因序列分析及表达特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛菲; 吴鹏杰; 李雨时; 王秀红; 国占宝; 徐书法; 吴杰

    2015-01-01

    [目的]探究中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Male abnomal 21(mab-21)基因在不同发育阶段的表达特性及染螨条件下mab-21基因表达变化规律.[方法]本研究利用RT-PCR方法,克隆了中华蜜蜂mab-21的基因编码区;采用荧光定量PCR方法检测了中华蜜蜂mab-21在不同发育时期(新出房蜂、哺育蜂、守卫蜂及采集蜂)工蜂头部中mRNA的表达量以及接种大蜂螨Varroa destructor前后mab-21基因的表达变化.[结果]克隆获得中华蜜蜂mab-21cDNA,命名为Accmab21(GenBank登录号KR000001).序列分析显示,该编码区开放阅读框长为1 098 bp,编码365个氨基酸,推测的编码蛋白的相对分子量和等电点分别为41.63 kD和8.53.系统发育分析表明中华蜜蜂mab-21与西方蜜蜂Apis mellifera mab-21、小蜜蜂Apis florea mab-21和熊蜂Bombus impatiens mab-21聚成一支.该基因在中华蜜蜂工蜂的不同发育时期均有表达,其中哺育蜂阶段显著高于新出房蜂、守卫蜂和采集蜂(P<0.05).接种大蜂螨后,哺育蜂和守卫蜂中mab-21基因的表达下降显著(P<0.05);而在新出房蜂和采集蜂中表达量变化不显著.[结论]该基因可能与中华蜜蜂抗螨行为相关.

  12. Generation of mAbs to foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A and application in a competitive ELISA for serodiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Xu, Wanhong; Bittner, Hilary; Horsington, Jacquelyn; Vosloo, Wilna; Goolia, Melissa; Lusansky, Diana; Nfon, Charles

    2016-11-28

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an economically devastating disease that severely limits international trade of animals. Of the seven FMD virus (FMDV) serotypes, serotype A is one of the most widespread cross the world. Currently antibodies to FMDV are detected in animals using the virus neutralization test (VNT) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The VNT is laborious, time-consuming and reliant on live virus and cell cultures, while ELISA has the advantage of using inactivated antigens and often provides more reproducible results. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable and rapid competitive ELISA (cELISA) for the detection of antibodies to FMDV serotype A (FMDV/A). A panel of FMDV/A specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated and their ability to compete with a polyclonal serum from FMDV/A-infected cattle was examined. Two mAbs inhibited the binding of a polyclonal serum to FMDV/A viruses. The binding epitopes of each were determined as conformational and located on the VP2 viral capsid protein. The FMDV/A cELISA was developed using these two mAbs and FMDV/A inactivated virus as antigen. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity were 99.7 and 99.3% (98.5-100%) respectively, based on a predetermined cut-off of 50% inhibition. When analysing sera from animals experimentally infected with FMDV/A, the cELISA detected antibodies from 5-days post infection (dpi) and remained positive for at least 21-28 days post infection. Comparison based on the Kappa coefficient showed strong agreement (90-94%) between cELISA and VNT. The cELISA results are comparable to the VNT for antibody detection making it a simple and reliable test to detect antibodies against FMDV/A.

  13. [Comparison of the antigenic spectrum A1, A2, and Ax erythrocytes: inhibition of mab with glucoconjugates of lipid and protein nature with different isoelectric properties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevskiĭ, Iu P; Zinchenko, A A

    2007-12-01

    The inhibition of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (anti-A1 2-24, anti-A 2-22, anti- 2-19, and anti- A 2-18; Workshop IV) by glycotopes (glycoconjugates) obtained by the enzymatic treatment of A1, A2, and Ax erythrocytes and by chloroform-methanol method from the membranes of these erythrocytes, followed by ion-exchange gel chromatography was evaluated. According to specificity and isoelectric properties, glycoconjugates (in the sequence of desorption from an anion exchanger) of glycoprotein (A(pr-00), A(pr-0), A(pr-1), A(pr-3)) and glycosphingolipid (A1p,00, A(1p-0), A(1p-1), A(1p-3), A(1p-3)) origin were identified. A1 erythrocytes showed the broad-spectrum inhibiting activity of glycoconjugates, which being at maximum with acid A(1p-00) and A(pr-3) (the ionic points of pH 6.55 and 6.45), as well as with A(lp-00) and A(1p-00) 1 The inhibition of A(pr-3) from A2 was significantly weaker that that from A1. An A(pr-3) fraction from Ax erythrocytes inhibited as strongly as in A1 and A2. The inhibition of A(pr-3p) from Ax either failed to develop at all (MAb 2-19) or turned out be weakened (MAbs 2-22 and 2-18). Thus, the cascade decrease in agglutinogenicity in the order of A1, A2, and Ax correlated with the reduction in the inhibiting capacity of A(pr-3) in all the study groups, including Ax.

  14. A Course in Transport Phenomena in Multicomponent, Multiphase, Reacting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, R. G.; Whitaker, S.

    1978-01-01

    This course concentrates on a rigorous development of the multicomponent transport equations, boundary conditions at phase interfaces, and volume-averaged transport equations for multiphase reacting systems. (BB)

  15. Generation, characterization and therapeutic potential of anti-feline TNF-alpha MAbs for feline infectious peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Yuri; Nakamura, Michiyo; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2013-12-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal infectious disease affecting domestic and wild cats. Several reports suggested that TNF-alpha is related to the progression of FIP. Thus, the administration of a feline TNF-alpha-neutralizing antibody to cats with FIP may reduce the disease progression. In this study, we have prepared nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize feline TNF-alpha. All MAbs neutralized recombinant TNF-alpha. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the MAbs for the cytotoxicity of recombinant TNF-alpha were 5-684 ng/ml. MAb 2-4 exhibited high neutralizing activity against natural TNF-alpha derived from FIPV-infected macrophages, and was confirmed to inhibit the following feline TNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro: (i) an increase in the survival rate of neutrophils from cats with FIP, (ii) aminopeptidase N (APN) mRNA expression in macrophages, and (iii) apoptosis of a feline T-lymphocyte cell line.

  16. Mab-3 is a direct tra-1 target gene regulating diverse aspects of C. elegans male sexual development and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, W; Ross, J M; Zarkower, D

    2000-10-01

    Sex determination is controlled by global regulatory genes, such as tra-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans, Sex lethal in Drosophila, or Sry in mammals. How these genes coordinate sexual differentiation throughout the body is a key unanswered question. tra-1 encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, TRA-1A, that regulates, directly or indirectly, all genes required for sexual development. mab-3 (male abnormal 3), acts downstream of tra-1 and is known to be required for sexual differentiation of at least two tissues. mab-3 directly regulates yolk protein transcription in the intestine and specifies male sense organ differentiation in the nervous system. It encodes a transcription factor related to the products of the Drosophila sexual regulator doublesex (dsx), which also regulates yolk protein transcription and male sense-organ differentiation. The similarities between mab-3 and dsx led us to suggest that some aspects of sex determination may be evolutionarily conserved. Here we find that mab-3 is also required for expression of male-specific genes in sensory neurons of the head and tail and for male interaction with hermaphrodites. These roles in male development and behavior suggest further functional similarity to dsx. In male sensory ray differentiation we find that MAB-3 acts synergistically with LIN-32, a neurogenic bHLH transcription factor. Expression of LIN-32 is spatially restricted by the combined action of the Hox gene mab-5 and the hairy homolog lin-22, while MAB-3 is expressed throughout the lateral hypodermis. Finally, we find that mab-3 transcription is directly regulated in the intestine by TRA-1A, providing a molecular link between the global regulatory pathway and terminal sexual differentiation.

  17. P3 mAb: An Immunogenic Anti-NeuGcGM3 Antibody with Unusual Immunoregulatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Darel; Rodríguez, Nely; Griñán, Tania; Rondón, Teresa; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando; Hernández, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8(+) T cells, since the depletion of CD8(+) or CD4(+) T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8(+) T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8(+) T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8(+) T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Furthermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

  18. P3 mAb: an immunogenic anti-NeuGcGM3 antibody with unusual immunoregulatory properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darel eMartínez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycolilated gangliosides, sulphatides and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self immunoglobuline, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the present paper we show that the high immunogenicity of P3 mAb depends not only on CD4 but also on CD8+ T cells, since the depletion of CD8+ or CD4+ T cells led to the loss of P3 mAb immunogenicity in the syngeneic model. Furthermore, the immunization with P3 mAb enhanced the recovery of the CD8+ T cell population in mice treated with an anti-CD8a antibody. Additionally, the immunization with P3 mAb restored the capacity of immunosuppressed mice to reject allogeneic tumors, a mechanism mediated by the action of CD8+ T cells. Finally, in mice with cyclophosphamide induced lymphopenia, the administration of P3 mAb accelerated the recovery of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. These results show new possibilities for B and CD8+ T cells interactions during the immune response elicited by a self-protein. Furthermore they point to P3 mAb as a potential interesting candidate for the treatment of immunosuppressed patients.

  19. Strong decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Gell-Mann, Murray; Gell-Mann, Murray; Hartle, James B

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a condition for the strong decoherence of a set of alternative histories of a closed quantum-mechanical system such as the universe. The condition applies, for a pure initial state, to sets of homogeneous histories that are chains of projections, generally branch-dependent. Strong decoherence implies the consistency of probability sum rules but not every set of consistent or even medium decoherent histories is strongly decoherent. Two conditions characterize a strongly decoherent set of histories: (1) At any time the operators that effectively commute with generalized records of history up to that moment provide the pool from which --- with suitable adjustment for elapsed time --- the chains of projections extending history to the future may be drawn. (2) Under the adjustment process, generalized record operators acting on the initial state of the universe are approximately unchanged. This expresses the permanence of generalized records. The strong decoherence conditions (1) and (2) guarantee wha...

  20. Measurements of Non-reacting and Reacting Flow Fields of a Liquid Swirl Flame Burner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHONG Cheng Tung; HOCHGREB Simone

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the liquid fuel spray and flow field characteristics inside a combustor is crucial for designing a fuel efficient and low emission device. Characterisation of the flow field of a model gas turbine liquid swirl burner is performed by using a 2-D particle imaging velocimetry(PIV) system. The flow field pattern of an axial flow burner with a fixed swirl intensity is compared under confined and unconfined conditions, i.e., with and without the combustor wall. The effect of temperature on the main swirling air flow is investigated under open and non-reacting conditions. The result shows that axial and radial velocities increase as a result of decreased flow density and increased flow volume. The flow field of the main swirling flow with liquid fuel spray injection is compared to non-spray swirling flow. Introduction of liquid fuel spray changes the swirl air flow field at the burner outlet, where the radial velocity components increase for both open and confined environment. Under reacting condition, the enclosure generates a corner recirculation zone that intensifies the strength of radial velocity. The reverse flow and corner recirculation zone assists in stabilizing the flame by preheating the reactants. The flow field data can be used as validation target for swirl combustion modelling.

  1. Prognostic Role of 14F7 Mab Immunoreactivity against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the prognostic role of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity, against N-Glycolyl GM3 ganglioside, in patients with colon cancer (CC and to evaluate the relationship between its expression and clinicopathological features. Methods. Paraffin-embedded specimens were retrospectively collected from 50 patients with CC operated between 2004 and 2008. 14F7 Mab staining was determined by immunohistochemistry technique and its relation with survival and clinicopathologic features was evaluated. Results. The reactivity of 14F7 Mab was detected in all cases. Most cases had high level of immunostaining (70% that showed statistical correlation with TNM stage (P=0.025. In univariate survival analysis, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity (P=0.0078, TNM Stage (P=0.0007 and lymphovascular invasion (0.027 were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. Among these variables, level of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity  (HR=0.268; 95%  CI  0.078–0.920; P=0.036 and TNM stage (HR=0.249; 95%  CI   0.066–0.932; P=0.039 were independent prognostic factors on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. This study is the first approach on the prognostic significance of 14F7 Mab immunoreactivity in patients with colon adenocarcinoma and this assessment might be used in the prognostic estimate of CC, although further studies will be required to validate these findings.

  2. A Framework for the Modelling of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Sin, Gürkan; O’Connell, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems have a broad application range from organic reactions in pharmaceutical and agro-bio industries to CO 2 capture. However, mathematical modelling of biphasic reacting systems is a formidable challenge due to many phenomena underlying the process such as chemical equilibri...... systems: a PTC-based reaction system and pseudo-PTC system....

  3. Strong Force

    CERN Document Server

    Without the strong force, there could be no life. The carbon in living matter is synthesised in stars via the strong force. Lighter atomic nuclei become bound together in a process called nuclear fusion. A minor change in this interaction would make life impossible. As its name suggests, the strong force is the most powerful of the 4 forces, yet its sphere of influence is limited to within the atomic nucleus. Indeed it is the strong force that holds together the quarks inside the positively charged protons. Without this glue, the quarks would fly apart repulsed by electromagnetism. In fact, it is impossible to separate 2 quarks : so much energy is needed, that a second pair of quarks is produced. Text for the interactive: Can you pull apart the quarks inside a proton?

  4. A 44 bp intestine-specific hermaphrodite-specific enhancer from the C. elegans vit-2 vitellogenin gene is directly regulated by ELT-2, MAB-3, FKH-9 and DAF-16 and indirectly regulated by the germline, by daf-2/insulin signaling and by the TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goszczynski, Barbara; Captan, Vasile V; Danielson, Alicia M; Lancaster, Brett R; McGhee, James D

    2016-05-01

    The Caenorhabditis elegans vitellogenin genes are transcribed in the intestine of adult hermaphrodites but not of males. A 44-bp region from the vit-2 gene promoter is able largely to reconstitute this tissue-, stage- and sex-specific-expression. This "enhancer" contains a binding site for the DM-domain factor MAB-3, the male-specific repressor of vitellogenesis, as well as an activator site that we show is the direct target of the intestinal GATA factor ELT-2. We further show that the enhancer is directly activated by the winged-helix/forkhead-factor FKH-9, (whose gene has been shown by others to be a direct target of DAF-16), by an unknown activator binding to the MAB-3 site, and by the full C. elegans TGF-β/Sma/Mab pathway acting within the intestine. The vit-2 gene has been shown by others to be repressed by the daf-2/daf-16 insulin signaling pathway, which so strongly influences aging and longevity in C. elegans. We show that the activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is abolished by loss of daf-2 but is restored by simultaneous loss of daf-16. DAF-2 acts from outside of the intestine but DAF-16 acts both from outside of the intestine and from within the intestine where it binds directly to the same non-canonical target site that interacts with FKH-9. Activity of the 44 bp vit-2 enhancer is also inhibited by loss of the germline, in a manner that is only weakly influenced by DAF-16 but that is strongly influenced by KRI-1, a key downstream effector in the pathway by which germline loss increases C. elegans lifespan. The complex behavior of this enhancer presumably allows vitellogenin gene transcription to adjust to demands of body size, germline proliferation and nutritional state but we suggest that the apparent involvement of this enhancer in aging and longevity "pathways" could be incidental.

  5. Combined Protein A and size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography for the single-step measurement of mAb, aggregates and host cell proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Schofield, Mark; Cvetkovic, Aleksandar; Gantier, Rene

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of monoclonal antibody (mAb) monomer, mAb aggregates, and host cell proteins (HCPs) is critical for the optimization of the mAb production process. The present work describes a single high throughput analytical tool capable of tracking the concentration of mAb, mAb aggregate and HCPs in a growing cell culture batch. By combining two analytical HPLC methods, Protein A affinity and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), it is possible to detect a relative increase or decrease in the concentration of all three entities simultaneously. A comparison of the combined Protein A-SEC assay to SEC alone was performed, demonstrating that it can be useful tool for the quantification of mAb monomer along with trending data for mAb aggregate and HCP. Furthermore, the study shows that the Protein A-SEC method is at least as accurate as other commonly used analytical methods such as ELISA and Bradford.

  6. Statistical mechanics of reacting dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, F.J.

    1978-11-22

    A review of the quantum statistical theory of strongly coupled many component plasmas is given. The theoretical development is shown to consist of six separate parts. Compensation between bound and scattering state contributions to the partition function and use of the shifted Debye energy levels are important aspects of the analysis. The results are valid when the electrons are moderately coupled to the heavy ions, i.e., ..lambda../sub e..cap alpha../* < 1, but no restriction is placed on the coupling between heavy ions. Another restriction is that lambda/lambda/sub D/ < 1, i.e., the thermal deBroglie wavelength is less than the Debye length. Numerical calculations of PV/N/sub 0/kT and C/sub V/ are given for a Rubidium plasma.

  7. L-asparaginase production by mangrove derived Bacillus cereus MAB5:optimization by response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ThenmozhiC; SankarR; KaruppiahV; SampathkumarP

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To isolate marine bacteria, statistically optimize them for maximum asparaginase production. Methods:In the present study, statistically based experimental designs were applied to maximize the production of L-asparaginase from bacterial strain of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) MAB5 (HQ675025) isolated and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing from mangroves rhizosphere sediment. Results:Plackett-Barman design was used to identify the interactive effect of the eight variables viz. yeast extract, soyabean meal, glucose, magnesium sulphate, KH2PO4, wood chips, aspargine and sodium chloride. All the variables are denoted as numerical factors and investigated at two widely spaced intervals designated as-1 (low level) and+1 (high level). The effect of individual parameters on L-asparaginase production was calculated. Soyabean meal, aspargine, wood chips and sodium chloride were found to be the significant among eight variables. The maximum amount of L-asparaginase produced (51.54 IU/mL) from the optimized medium containing soyabean meal (6.282 8 g/L), aspargine (5.5 g/L), wood chips (1.383 8 g/L) and NaCl (4.535 4 g/L). Conclusions:The study revealed that, it is useful to produce the maximum amount of L-asparaginase from B. cereus MAB5 for the treatment of various infections and diseases.

  8. Nonlinear Krylov acceleration of reacting flow codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Rawat, R.; Smith, P.; Pernice, M. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We are working on computational simulations of three-dimensional reactive flows in applications encompassing a broad range of chemical engineering problems. Examples of such processes are coal (pulverized and fluidized bed) and gas combustion, petroleum processing (cracking), and metallurgical operations such as smelting. These simulations involve an interplay of various physical and chemical factors such as fluid dynamics with turbulence, convective and radiative heat transfer, multiphase effects such as fluid-particle and particle-particle interactions, and chemical reaction. The governing equations resulting from modeling these processes are highly nonlinear and strongly coupled, thereby rendering their solution by traditional iterative methods (such as nonlinear line Gauss-Seidel methods) very difficult and sometimes impossible. Hence we are exploring the use of nonlinear Krylov techniques (such as CMRES and Bi-CGSTAB) to accelerate and stabilize the existing solver. This strategy allows us to take advantage of the problem-definition capabilities of the existing solver. The overall approach amounts to using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations) method and its variants as nonlinear preconditioners for the nonlinear Krylov method. We have also adapted a backtracking approach for inexact Newton methods to damp the Newton step in the nonlinear Krylov method. This will be a report on work in progress. Preliminary results with nonlinear GMRES have been very encouraging: in many cases the number of line Gauss-Seidel sweeps has been reduced by about a factor of 5, and increased robustness of the underlying solver has also been observed.

  9. Species Source Term Mapping for Reacting Flow CFD Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Simulations of reacting flow in applications such as scramjet engines are currently limited in their utility or accuracy by the chemistry sub-models employed....

  10. Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...

  11. Diamond tool machining of materials which react with diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ralph L.; Stewart, Delbert D.; Evans, Christopher J.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus for the diamond machining of materials which detrimentally react with diamond cutting tools in which the cutting tool and the workpiece are chilled to very low temperatures. This chilling halts or retards the chemical reaction between the workpiece and the diamond cutting tool so that wear rates of the diamond tool on previously detrimental materials are comparable with the diamond turning of materials which do not react with diamond.

  12. Numerical simulation of reacting and non-reacting flow in a combustion chamber; Numerisk simulering av reagerande och icke-reagerande stroemning i en braennkammare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, A.; Revstedt, J.

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this work has been to do a preliminary study of how well numerical calculations with different turbulence models can predict the flow and temperature fields of a strongly swirling and combusting flow in an experimental combustion chamber and to see which parameters in the mathematical model are the most important. The combustion chamber on which we have done the calculations is called Validation Rig II and was designed by Volvo Aero Corporation. The main part of the study has been carried out on a non-reacting flow but some work has also been done on reacting flow. In most cases it has not been meaningful to compare the calculations with the measurements because they differ quite a lot from each other. For the non-reacting case the following investigations have been made: * How the solution differs for different turbulence models, * The solutions sensitivity to inlet boundary conditions, * How different types of leakage disturb the flow, and * The difference in results between two different CFD-codes, the commercial code CFDS-Flow3D and a code developed at the department of fluid mechanics. For the reacting cases we have studied the influence of: * one or two reaction steps, * the effects of a change in reaction rate, * the influence of thermal radiation, and * the effects of changing the boundary conditions for temperature on the walls. The results from these calculations show that the inlet turbulence intensity has very little effect on the values of the turbulent quantities as well as the velocity profiles at the outlet. Changing the turbulence model or the outlet boundary conditions gives some change in velocity profiles at the outlet but only marginal effects on the swirl number. 21 refs, 54 figs, 19 tabs

  13. P3 mAb: An Immunogenic Anti-NeuGcGM3 Antibody with Unusual Immunoregulatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Darel; Rodríguez, Nely; Griñán, Tania; Rondón, Teresa; Vázquez, Ana María; Pérez, Rolando; Hernández, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycosylated gangliosides, sulfatides, and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast, and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self-immunoglobulin, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the presen...

  14. P3 mAb: an immunogenic anti-NeuGcGM3 antibody with unusual immunoregulatory properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Darel eMartínez; Nely eRodríguez; Tania eGriñán; Teresa eRondón; Ana María Vázquez1; Rolando ePérez; Ana María eHernández

    2012-01-01

    P3 is a murine IgM mAb that recognize N-glycolilated gangliosides, sulphatides and antigens expressed in melanoma, breast and lung human tumors. This antibody has the ability to trigger an IgG antibody response in the syngeneic BALB/c model, even when it is administered in the absence of adjuvant or carrier protein. The mechanism by which the P3 mAb, a self immunoglobuline, induce this immune response in the absence of co-stimulatory or classical danger signals is still unknown. In the presen...

  15. MAB21L2, a vertebrate member of the Male-abnormal 21 family, modulates BMP signaling and interacts with SMAD1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhi Renato

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Through in vivo loss-of-function studies, vertebrate members of the Male abnormal 21 (mab-21 gene family have been implicated in gastrulation, neural tube formation and eye morphogenesis. Despite mounting evidence of their considerable importance in development, the biochemical properties and nature of MAB-21 proteins have remained strikingly elusive. In addition, genetic studies conducted in C. elegans have established that in double mutants mab-21 is epistatic to genes encoding various members of a Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGF-beta signaling pathway involved in the formation of male-specific sensory organs. Results Through a gain-of-function approach, we analyze the interaction of Mab21l2 with a TGF-beta signaling pathway in early vertebrate development. We show that the vertebrate mab-21 homolog Mab21l2 antagonizes the effects of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 (BMP4 overexpression in vivo, rescuing the dorsal axis and restoring wild-type distribution of Chordin and Xvent2 transcripts in Xenopus gastrulae. We show that MAB21L2 immunoprecipitates in vivo with the BMP4 effector SMAD1, whilst in vitro it binds SMAD1 and the SMAD1-SMAD4 complex. Finally, when targeted to an heterologous promoter, MAB21L2 acts as a transcriptional repressor. Conclusions Our results provide the first biochemical and cellular foundation for future functional studies of mab-21 genes in normal neural development and its pathological disturbances.

  16. ING-1(heMAb, a Monoclonal Antibody to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule, Inhibits Tumor Metastases in a Murine Cancer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry H. Ruan

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available ING-1(heMAb, a human-engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb that specifically targets the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM, kills adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of ING-1(heMAb in a murine model of cancer metastases. Mice received intravenous dosing of 1 mg/kg ING-1(heMAb, twice a week, starting on day 2 or day 5. A negative control group received 1 mg/kg human immunoglobulin G with the same dose frequency starting on day 2. A positive control group received weekly 100 mg/kg 54lurouracil/leucovorin starting on day 2. ING-1(heMAb/day 2 treatment significantly reduced both the number of visible tumor nodules in body cavities (P < .01 and the number of metastases on lung surfaces (P < .005. The treatment also resulted in a 91% reduction of micrometastases in lung tissues (P <.0001. Delaying ING-1(heMAb treatment until day 5 caused 54% reduction in micrometastases (P <.005. Our results indicate that a number of parameters, including treatment starting day, dose level, and dose frequency, are critical in achieving the optimal efficacy of ING-1(heMAb. We conclude that ING-1(heMAb effectively reduced tumor metastases in a murine cancer model. Immunotherapy with ING-1(heMAb may be beneficial in treating human metastatic diseases.

  17. <strong>Mini-project>

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    In this project the goal is to develop the safe * family of containers for the CPH STL. The containers to be developed should be safer and more reliable than any of the existing implementations. A special focus should be put on strong exception safety since none of the existing prototypes available...... at the CPH STL can give this guarantee for all operations. In spite of the safety requirements, the strict running-time requirements specified in the C++ standard, and additional requirements specified in the CPH STL design documents, must be fulfilled....

  18. Dengue Virus Nonstructural Protein 1-Induced Antibodies Cross-React with Human Plasminogen and Enhance Its Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Chun; Lin, Jessica; Lin, Yee-Shin; Wang, Shuying; Yeh, Trai-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is the most common mosquito-borne viral disease, and it can cause life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Abnormal activation of the coagulation and fibrinolysis system is one of the hallmarks of DHF/DSS. However, the mechanism underlying hemorrhage in DHF/DSS remains elusive. In previous studies, plasminogen (Plg) cross-reactive Abs, which can recognize DENV nonstructural protein (NS) 1, have been found in dengue patients. However, it is unclear whether these Abs are indeed induced by DENV NS1. Thus, we immunized mice with recombinant NS1 from both bacteria and drosophila to determine whether NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs. The results from the NS1-immunized mouse sera indicated that NS1 immunization induced Abs that could cross-react with Plg. To study the effects of these NS1-induced Plg cross-reactive Abs on fibrinolysis, we isolated several Plg cross-reactive anti-NS1 mAbs from these mice and found that some of them could enhance Plg activation. In addition, epitope mapping with a phage-displayed random peptide library revealed that one of these mAbs (2A5) could recognize NS1 C-terminal residues 305-311, which share sequence homology with Plg residues 590-597. A synthetic peptide of NS1 residues 305-311 could inhibit the binding of both 2A5 and its Fab to Plg and its enhanced activation. Thus, our results suggest that DENV NS1 can induce Plg cross-reactive Abs through molecular mimicry, which can enhance Plg activation and may contribute to the pathogenesis of DHF/DSS.

  19. Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Richard; Bucher, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A mechanism has been designed to apply the loads (the stirring and the resection forces and torques) in self-reacted friction stir welding. This mechanism differs somewhat from mechanisms used in conventional friction stir welding, as described below. The tooling needed to apply the large reaction loads in conventional friction stir welding can be complex. Self-reacted friction stir welding has become popular in the solid-state welding community as a means of reducing the complexity of tooling and to reduce costs. The main problems inherent in self-reacted friction stir welding originate in the high stresses encountered by the pin-and-shoulder assembly that produces the weld. The design of the present mechanism solves the problems. The mechanism includes a redesigned pin-and-shoulder assembly. The welding torque is transmitted into the welding pin by a square pin that fits into a square bushing with set-screws. The opposite or back shoulder is held in place by a Woodruff key and high-strength nut on a threaded shaft. The Woodruff key reacts the torque, while the nut reacts the tensile load on the shaft.

  20. EPITOPE MAPPING OF SCLC-CLUSTER-2 MABS AND GENERATION OF ANTIBODIES DIRECTED AGAINST NEW EGP-2 EPITOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HELFRICH, W; KONING, PW; THE, TH; DELEIJ, L

    1994-01-01

    Western blot analysis proved that all cluster-2 MAbs recognize identical or overlapping disulfide-bond-dependent epitopes, indicating the presence of a disulfide-bond-stabilized EGP-2 domain carrying highly immunodominant non-linear epitopes. The apparent immunodominance of this domain makes it diff

  1. REACT: Resettable Hold Down and Release Actuator for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro

    2014-07-01

    A new HDRA based on SMA technology, called REACT, has been designed for development of loads and appendixes in space applications. This design involves a rod supported by spheres that block its axial movement during a preload application. The rod shape allows misalignment and blocks the rotation around axial axis for a proper installation of the device. Because of the high preload requirements for this type of actuators, finite element analysis (FEA) has been developed in order to check the structure resistance. The results of the FEA have constrained the REACT design, in terms of dimensions, materials, and shape of the mechanical parts. A complete test campaign for qualification of REACT is proposed. Several qualification models are intended to be built for testing in parallel. Therefore, it is a way to demonstrate margins which allows getting some statistics.

  2. A PDF closure model for compressible turbulent chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, W.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research project was the analysis of single point closures based on probability density function (pdf) and characteristic functions and the development of a prediction method for the joint velocity-scalar pdf in turbulent reacting flows. Turbulent flows of boundary layer type and stagnation point flows with and without chemical reactions were be calculated as principal applications. Pdf methods for compressible reacting flows were developed and tested in comparison with available experimental data. The research work carried in this project was concentrated on the closure of pdf equations for incompressible and compressible turbulent flows with and without chemical reactions.

  3. Development of an ELP-Z based mAb affinity precipitation process using scaled-down filtration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rahul D; Bhut, Bharat V; Jin, Mi; Li, Zhengjian; Chen, Wilfred; Cramer, Steven M

    2014-12-20

    In this work, a proof of concept elastin-like polypeptide-Z domain fusion (ELP-Z) based monoclonal antibody (mAb) affinity precipitation process is developed using scaled-down filtration techniques. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is examined for the recovery of ELP-Z-mAb precipitates formed during the mAb binding step and the ELP-Z precipitates formed during the mAb elution step. TFF results in complete precipitate recovery during both stages of the process and high host cell protein and DNA impurity clearance after diafiltration. Total recycle TFF experiments are then employed to determine permeate flux as a function of the precipitate concentration for both stages of the process. While the ELP-Z-mAb precipitate recovery step resulted in high permeate flux (550-600L/m(2)/h/bar), the ELP-Z precipitates are shown to severely foul the TFF membrane, causing rapid flux decay. Confocal microscopy of the ELP-Z-mAb and ELP-Z precipitates suggests significant differences in the morphology and the kinetics of formation of these precipitates, which is likely responsible for their different behavior during TFF. Finally, an alternative normal flow filtration strategy is developed for the ELP-Z precipitate recovery step during mAb elution, using a combination of 5μm and a 0.45/0.2μm filters. Using this approach, the ELP-Z precipitates are separated from the final mAb elution pool at high volumetric throughputs and high ELP-Z recovery (96%) is obtained after resolubilization from the filter. This study demonstrates that the ELP-Z affinity precipitation process can be readily scaled up using conventional membrane processing.

  4. Authorized manufacturing changes for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezér, Balázs; Buzás, Zsuzsanna; Sebeszta, Miklós; Zrubka, Zsombor

    2016-05-01

    Background The quality of biologicals, including biosimilars, is subject to change as a result of manufacturing process modifications following initial authorization. It is important that such product changes have no adverse impact on product efficacy or safety, including immunogenicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the number and types of manufacturing changes for originator mAbs (the reference for the comparability exercise to confirm biosimilarity) according to European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) documentation and to ascertain the level of risk these changes might impart. The extensive body of evidence contained in the EPAR documents can help support the EMA during the EC marketing authorization approval process for biosimilars, since it provides a broad base of scientific experience. Research designs and methods For EPAR-listed mAbs, details of all changes listed chronologically in the EPAR were evaluated and described. Based on these descriptions the manufacturing changes can be categorized by risk status (low, moderate or high). Results Entries for 29 mAbs with publicly available EPAR reports were reviewed. These contained details of 404 manufacturing changes authorized by the European Medicines Agency (EMA): 22 were categorized as high risk, 286 as moderate risk and 96 as low risk manufacturing changes. A limitation of this analysis is that it only summarizes publicly available data from EPAR documents. Conclusions Manufacturing change data indicate that the EMA has significant experience of process changes for originator mAbs, and the impact they may have on the efficacy and safety of biologicals. This experience will be useful in biosimilar product development to ensure adherence to sound scientific principles. Compared with the established manufacturing process for a reference product, the production of biosimilars will usually be different. Consequently, in addition to a comprehensive comparative functional and physicochemical

  5. [Rituximab (MabThera)--a new biological medicine in rheumatoid arthritis therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, P

    2007-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a serious, chronic, inflammatory disorder that damages the joints. The chronic destructive process causes pain to patients with RA and leads to the development of permanent disability. At present, great emphasis is placed on timely and effective therapy for RA, which is able to halt or slow the development of the disorder. At present we do not have any means of curing RA, the main objective for treatment is to induce remission of the disorder and prevent structural damage to the joints and the development of permanent disability. The relatively frequent failure of disease modifying medications (DMARDs) lead to efforts to find new resources for the treatment of RA. So called biological medicines were recently introduced into therapeutic use. These were mainly TNFalpha blockers. Experience has shown that approximately a third of patients with RA do not respond even to treatment with such medicines. Rituximab (MabThera), a monoclonal antibody against CD20 positive B-lymphocytes, is a new biological medicine approved for RA therapy. It represents a new hope for patients with active RA, for whom earlier therapy with TNFa blockers has failed.

  6. MAB_3551c encodes the primary triacylglycerol synthase involved in lipid accumulation in Mycobacterium abscessus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Albertus; Blaise, Mickael; de Chastellier, Chantal; Kremer, Laurent

    2016-11-01

    Slow growing pathogenic mycobacteria utilize host-derived lipids and accumulate large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the form of intracytoplasmic lipid inclusions (ILI), serving as a source of carbon and energy during prolonged infection. Mycobacterium abscessus is an emerging and rapidly growing species capable to induce severe and chronic pulmonary infections. However, whether M. abscessus, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, possesses the machinery to acquire and store host lipids, remains unaddressed. Herein, we aimed at deciphering the contribution of the seven putative M. abscessus TAG synthases (Tgs) in TAG synthesis/accumulation thanks to a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques and a well-defined foamy macrophage (FM) model along with electron microscopy. Targeted gene deletion and functional complementation studies identified the MAB_3551c product, Tgs1, as the major Tgs involved in TAG production. Tgs1 exhibits a preference for long acyl-CoA substrates and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that His144 and Gln145 are essential for enzymatic activity. Importantly, in the lipid-rich intracellular context of FM, M. abscessus formed large ILI in a Tgs1-dependent manner. This supports the ability of M. abscessus to assimilate host lipids and the crucial role of Tgs1 in intramycobacterial TAG production, which may represent important mechanisms for long-term storage of a rich energy supply.

  7. Direct simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Ralph W.; Mcmurtry, Patrick A.; Jou, Wen-Huei; Riley, James J.; Givi, Peyman

    1988-01-01

    The results of direct numerical simulations of chemically reacting turbulent mixing layers are presented. This is an extension of earlier work to a more detailed study of previous three dimensional simulations of cold reacting flows plus the development, validation, and use of codes to simulate chemically reacting shear layers with heat release. Additional analysis of earlier simulations showed good agreement with self similarity theory and laboratory data. Simulations with a two dimensional code including the effects of heat release showed that the rate of chemical product formation, the thickness of the mixing layer, and the amount of mass entrained into the layer all decrease with increasing rates of heat release. Subsequent three dimensional simulations showed similar behavior, in agreement with laboratory observations. Baroclinic torques and thermal expansion in the mixing layer were found to produce changes in the flame vortex structure that act to diffuse the pairing vortices, resulting in a net reduction in vorticity. Previously unexplained anomalies observed in the mean velocity profiles of reacting jets and mixing layers were shown to result from vorticity generation by baroclinic torques.

  8. Modeling and design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Hodges, George; Piccione, Patrick M.;

    2011-01-01

    , some of the design issues related to improved reaction operation are analyzed. Since the solubility of the different forms of the PTC in the organic solvent affects ultimately the catalyst partition coefficients, therefore, the organic solvent plays an important role in the design of PTC-based reacting...

  9. Termite Proteins Cross-React with Cockroach Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimp are among a group of 8 foods that commonly cause food allergy, and shrimp allergens have been demonstrated to cross-react with arthropod proteins, such as those from cockroaches. Edible insects are beginning to be popularized as an alternate source of protein and have a high nutrition value....

  10. Moment estimation for chemically reacting systems by extended Kalman filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruess, J; Milias-Argeitis, A; Summers, S; Lygeros, J

    2011-01-01

    In stochastic models of chemically reacting systems that contain bimolecular reactions, the dynamics of the moments of order up to n of the species populations do not form a closed system, in the sense that their time-derivatives depend on moments of order n + 1. To close the dynamics, the moments o

  11. A novel monoclonal antibody to human laminin α5 chain strongly inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration on laminins 511 and 521.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondimu, Zenebech; Omrani, Shahin; Ishikawa, Taichi; Javed, Fawad; Oikawa, Yuko; Virtanen, Ismo; Juronen, Erkki; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Patarroyo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Laminins, a large family of αβγ heterotrimeric proteins mainly found in basement membranes, are strong promoters of adhesion and migration of multiple cell types, such as tumor and immune cells, via several integrin receptors. Among laminin α (LMα) chains, α5 displays the widest tissue distribution in adult life and is synthesized by most cell types. Here, we have generated and characterized five novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to the human LMα5 chain to further study the biological relevance of α5 laminins, such as laminins 511 (α5β1γ1) and 521 (α5β2γ1). As detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, each antibody displayed unique properties when compared to mAb 4C7, the prototype LMα5 antibody. Of greatest interest, mAb 8G9, but not any other antibody, strongly inhibited α3β1/α6β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of glioma, melanoma, and carcinoma cells on laminin-511 and, together with mAb 4C7, on laminin-521. Accordingly, mAb 8G9 abolished the interaction of soluble α3β1 integrin with immobilized laminins 511 and 521. Binding of mAb 8G9 to laminin-511 was unaffected by the other mAbs to the LMα5 chain but largely hindered by mAb 4E10 to a LMβ1 chain epitope near the globular domain of laminin-511. Thus, mAb 8G9 defines a novel epitope localized at or near the integrin-binding globular domain of the LMα5 chain, which is essential for cell adhesion and migration, and identifies a potential therapeutic target in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  12. A novel monoclonal antibody to human laminin α5 chain strongly inhibits integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration on laminins 511 and 521.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenebech Wondimu

    Full Text Available Laminins, a large family of αβγ heterotrimeric proteins mainly found in basement membranes, are strong promoters of adhesion and migration of multiple cell types, such as tumor and immune cells, via several integrin receptors. Among laminin α (LMα chains, α5 displays the widest tissue distribution in adult life and is synthesized by most cell types. Here, we have generated and characterized five novel monoclonal antibodies (mAbs to the human LMα5 chain to further study the biological relevance of α5 laminins, such as laminins 511 (α5β1γ1 and 521 (α5β2γ1. As detected by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, immunoprecipitation and Western blotting, each antibody displayed unique properties when compared to mAb 4C7, the prototype LMα5 antibody. Of greatest interest, mAb 8G9, but not any other antibody, strongly inhibited α3β1/α6β1 integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of glioma, melanoma, and carcinoma cells on laminin-511 and, together with mAb 4C7, on laminin-521. Accordingly, mAb 8G9 abolished the interaction of soluble α3β1 integrin with immobilized laminins 511 and 521. Binding of mAb 8G9 to laminin-511 was unaffected by the other mAbs to the LMα5 chain but largely hindered by mAb 4E10 to a LMβ1 chain epitope near the globular domain of laminin-511. Thus, mAb 8G9 defines a novel epitope localized at or near the integrin-binding globular domain of the LMα5 chain, which is essential for cell adhesion and migration, and identifies a potential therapeutic target in malignant and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Verhulst and stochastic models for comparing mechanisms of MAb productivity in six CHO cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirsat, Nishikant; Avesh, Mohd; English, Niall J; Glennon, Brian; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    The present study validates previously published methodologies-stochastic and Verhulst-for modelling the growth and MAb productivity of six CHO cell lines grown in batch cultures. Cytometric and biochemical data were used to model growth and productivity. The stochastic explanatory models were developed to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of growth and productivity, whereas the Verhulst mechanistic models were developed for their predictability. The parameters of the two sets of models were compared for their biological significance. The stochastic models, based on the cytometric data, indicated that the productivity mechanism is cell specific. However, as shown before, the modelling results indicated that G2 + ER indicate high productivity, while G1 + ER indicate low productivity, where G1 and G2 are the cell cycle phases and ER is Endoplasmic Reticulum. In all cell lines, growth proved to be inversely proportional to the cumulative G1 time (CG1T) for the G1 phase, whereas productivity was directly proportional to ER. Verhulst's rule, "the lower the intrinsic growth factor (r), the higher the growth (K)," did not hold for growth across all cell lines but held good for the cell lines with the same growth mechanism-i.e., r is cell specific. However, the Verhulst productivity rule, that productivity is inversely proportional to the intrinsic productivity factor (r x ), held well across all cell lines in spite of differences in their mechanisms for productivity-that is, r x is not cell specific. The productivity profile, as described by Verhulst's logistic model, is very similar to the Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetic equation, suggesting that productivity is more likely enzymatic in nature. Comparison of the stochastic and Verhulst models indicated that CG1T in the cytometric data has the same significance as r, the intrinsic growth factor in the Verhulst models. The stochastic explanatory and the Verhulst logistic models can explain the

  14. Identification of New Synthetic Cannabinoid ADB-CHMINACA (MAB-CHMINACA) Metabolites in Human Hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jeremy; Diao, Xingxing; Sempio, Cristina; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-03-01

    ADB-CHMINACA (MAB-CHMINACA) is a new synthetic cannabinoid with high potency and many reported adverse events and fatalities. The drug is currently scheduled in several countries in Europe and the USA. Analytical methods need to be developed to confirm ADB-CHMINACA intake for clinical and forensic programs. For many synthetic cannabinoids, parent compound is not detectable in biological samples after intake, making the detection of metabolites the only way to prove consumption. Therefore, detection of ADB-CHMINACA metabolites in biological specimens is critical. Since there are currently no published data on ADB-CHMINACA metabolism, we aimed to identify its major metabolites. Cryopreserved human hepatocytes were incubated with 10 μmol/L ADB-CHMINACA for 3 h. Incubations were analyzed with liquid chromatography on a biphenyl column, high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (orbitrap), and metabolite identification software. A reference standard of six commercially available potential metabolites was simultaneously analyzed under the same conditions to allow correct assignment of isomers. We detected ten major metabolites. Biotransformations mainly occurred at the cyclohexylmethyl tail of the compound, as also observed with structural analogs' metabolism. Minor reactions also occurred at the tert-butyl chain. Only two analytical standards of potential metabolites matched an actual metabolite detected in hepatocyte incubations. We recommend A9 (ADB-CHMINACA hydroxycyclohexylmethyl), A4 (ADB-CHMINACA 4″-hydroxycyclohexyl), and A6 (ADB-CHMINACA hydroxycyclohexylmethyl) as metabolite targets to document ADB-CHMINACA intake in clinical and forensic cases. Additionally, these results will guide analytical standard manufacturers to better provide suitable references for further studies on ADB-CHMINACA metabolism.

  15. Investigations into the fouling mechanism of parvovirus filters during filtration of freeze-thawed mAb drug substance solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, James G; Kahn, David; Cetlin, David; Randolph, Theodore W; Carpenter, John F

    2014-03-01

    Filtration to remove viruses is one of the single most expensive steps in the production of mAb drug products. Therefore, virus filtration steps should be fully optimized, and any decline in flow rates warrants investigation into the causes of such membrane fouling. In the current study, it was found that freezing and thawing of a mAb bulk drug solution caused a substantial decrease in viral filter membrane flow rate. Freezing and thawing also caused formation of aggregates and particles across a broad size range, including particles that could be detected by microflow imaging (≥1 μm in size). However, removal of these particles offered little protection against flow rate decline during viral filtration. Further investigation revealed that trace amounts of aggregates (ca. 10⁻⁶ of the total mass of protein in solution) approximately 20-40 nm in size were primarily responsible for the observed membrane fouling.

  16. Adaptarea culturală a MAB-II (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery în România

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Iliescu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the cultural adaptation of the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II in Romania. Cultural adaptation of the items and the standardization process are described. The psychometric characteristics of the Romanian version are shown to be excellent in terms of reliability and construct validity (intertest correlations and EFA. Further studies conducted in Romania are discussed, both on the correlation with other cognitive ability tests and on the criterion validity of the MAB-II.

  17. Adaptarea culturală a MAB-II (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery) în România

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Iliescu; Florin Glintă; Dan Ispas

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the cultural adaptation of the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery II in Romania. Cultural adaptation of the items and the standardization process are described. The psychometric characteristics of the Romanian version are shown to be excellent in terms of reliability and construct validity (intertest correlations and EFA). Further studies conducted in Romania are discussed, both on the correlation with other cognitive ability tests and on the criterion validity of the MAB-II.

  18. The "New Polyethylene Glycol Dilemma": Polyethylene Glycol Impurities and Their Paradox Role in mAb Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Christian; Joos, Lea; Saedler, Rainer; Winter, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Polyethylene glycols (PEG) represent the most successful and frequently applied class of excipients used for protein crystallization. PEG auto-oxidation and formation of impurities such as peroxides and formaldehydes that foster protein drug degradation is known. However, their effect on mAb crystallization has not been studied in detail before. During the present study, a model IgG1 antibody (mAb1) was crystallized in PEG solutions. Aggregate formation was observed during crystallization and storage that was ascribed to PEG degradation products. Reduction of peroxide and formaldehyde levels prior to crystallization by vacuum and freeze-drying was investigated for its effect on protein degradation. Vacuum drying was superior in removal of peroxides but inferior in reducing formaldehyde residues. Consequently, double purification allowed extensive removal of both impurities. Applying of purified PEG led to 50% lower aggregate fractions. Surprisingly, PEG double purification or addition of methionine prior to crystallization prevented crystal formation. With increased PEG concentration or spiking with peroxides and formaldehydes, crystal formation could be recovered again. With these results, we demonstrate that minimum amounts of oxidizing impurities and thus in consequence chemically altered proteins are vital to initiate mAb1 crystallization. The present study calls PEG as good precipitant for therapeutic biopharmaceuticals into question.

  19. Aree Protette del Po e della Collina Torinese: studi propedeutici alla Candidatura MAB - Man and the Biosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimnaghi Elisabetta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il programma MAB fu lanciato dall’UNESCO negli anni ’70 al fine di migliorare il rapporto tra uomo e ambiente. Negli anni il programma ha portato al riconoscimento di Riserve della Biosfera che gli Stati Membri si impegnano a gestire nella prospettiva della conservazione delle risorse. L’Organismo Gestore dell’Area Protetta, partendo, da un lato, dalla consapevolezza della ricchezza ambientale che caratterizza il suo territorio e, dall’altro, del contesto di sviluppo antropico elevato in cui essa è situata, ha riconosciuto nel programma MAB un’opportunità per incrementare le sue attività di protezione e potenziamento delle risorse. Questo articolo descrive i primi risultati ottenuti negli studi preliminari per la Designazione al MAB, con particolare attenzione sia alle opportunità di implementazione di progetti legati al marchio “Collina Po”, creato dall’Organo di Gestione del Parco, si ain termini di scambio di ‘best practices’ con altre Riserve di Biosfera.

  20. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  1. Chemically reacting supersonic flow calculation using an assumed PDF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, M.

    1990-01-01

    This work is motivated by the need to develop accurate models for chemically reacting compressible turbulent flow fields that are present in a typical supersonic combustion ramjet (SCRAMJET) engine. In this paper the development of a new assumed probability density function (PDF) reaction model for supersonic turbulent diffusion flames and its implementation into an efficient Navier-Stokes solver are discussed. The application of this model to a supersonic hydrogen-air flame will be considered.

  2. Physical gasdynamics of reacting media. Fizicheskaia gazodinamika reagiruiushchikh sred

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, B.V.; Grishin, A.M.

    1985-01-01

    The fundamentals of the mechanics of reacting gases (aerothermochemistry) are presented in a systematic manner. Topics discussed include the kinetic theory of gases, elements of thermodynamics and chemical kinetics, transfer coefficients and mathematical models of gas flows, and transfer processes in a radiating gas. Attention is also given to similarity criteria and classification of aerothermochemical phenomena, elements of combustion theory, and some aspects of boundary layer theory. 81 references.

  3. Flow Field Effects on Nucleation in a Reacting Mixture Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    chemically reacting flows has been analysed by Fendell (1965) who considered the effect of the straining motion in a stagnation point flow on ignition...stagnation point diffusion flame ( Fendell , 1965, Linan, 1974). In the present study the effect of the strain rate or velocity gradient on nucleation kinetics...Symposium (International) on Corn- bustion, 799-810, Academic Press. Fendell , F. E. (1965). Ignition and extinction in combustion of initially unmixed

  4. Acoustic imaging for diagnostics of chemically reacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramohalli, K.; Seshan, P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of local diagnostics, in chemically reacting systems, with acoustic imaging is developed. The elements of acoustic imaging through ellipsoidal mirrors are theoretically discussed. In a general plan of the experimental program, the first system is chosen in these studies to be a simple open jet, non premixed turbulent flame. Methane is the fuel and enriched air is the oxidizer. This simple chemically reacting flow system is established at a Reynolds number (based on cold viscosity) of 50,000. A 1.5 m diameter high resolution acoustic mirror with an f-number of 0.75 is used to map the acoustic source zone along the axis of the flame. The results are presented as acoustic power spectra at various distances from the nozzle exit. It is seen that most of the reaction intensity is localized in a zone within 8 diameters from the exit. The bulk reactions (possibly around the periphery of the larger eddies) are evenly distributed along the length of the flame. Possibilities are seen for locally diagnosing single zones in a multiple cluster of reaction zones that occur frequently in practice. A brief outline is given of the future of this work which will be to apply this technique to chemically reacting flows not limited to combustion.

  5. Experimental investigation of a reacting transverse jet in a high pressure oscillating vitiated crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugger, Christopher A.

    near a pressure node of the 1st axial combustor mode, where the dominant flowfield fluctuations are a time-varying crossflow velocity. For the non-reacting jets, the nominal jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio is 19. For the reacting jets, the nominal jet-to-crossflow momentum flux ratio is 6. Two cross sectional planes parallel to the jet injection wall are investigated: 1 and 2.7 jet diameters from the jet injection wall. The combustor crossflow high frequency wall mounted pressure data is given for each test case. The velocity and OH-PLIF data is presented as instantaneous snapshots, time and phase averaged flowfields, modal decompositions using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition and Dynamic Mode Decomposition, and a jet cycle analysis relative to the crossflow acoustic cycle. Analysis of the five test cases shows that the jet cross sectional velocity and OH-PLIF dynamics display a multitude of dynamics. These are often organized into shear layer dynamics and wake dynamics, but are not mutually exclusive. For large unsteady crossflow velocity oscillations at the 1st axial combustor mode, both dynamics show strong organization at the unsteady crossflow frequency. Deciphering these dynamics is complicated by the fact that the ostensible jet response to the time-varying crossflow is a time-varying jet penetration. This drives the jet toward and away from the jet injection wall. These motions are perpendicular to the laser sheet and creates significant out-of-plane motions. The amplitude of crossflow unsteadiness appears to play a role in the sharpness of the wake dynamics. For the non-reacting cases, the wake dynamics are strong and dominant spectral features in the flowfield. For the reacting cases, the wake dynamics are spectrally distinct in the lower amplitude crossflow unsteadiness case, but a large unsteady amplitude crossflow appears to suppress the spectral bands in the frequency range corresponding to wake vortex dynamics.

  6. Nonautonomous Roles of MAB-5/Hox and the Secreted Basement Membrane Molecule SPON-1/F-Spondin in Caenorhabditis elegans Neuronal Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Matthew P; Miltner, Adam M; Lundquist, Erik A

    2016-08-01

    Nervous system development and circuit formation requires neurons to migrate from their birthplaces to specific destinations.Migrating neurons detect extracellular cues that provide guidance information. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the Q right (QR) and Q left (QL) neuroblast descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions. The Hox gene lin-39 cell autonomously promotes anterior QR descendant migration, and mab-5/Hox cell autonomously promotes posterior QL descendant migration. Here we describe a nonautonomous role of mab-5 in regulating both QR and QL descendant migrations, a role masked by redundancy with lin-39 A third Hox gene, egl-5/Abdominal-B, also likely nonautonomously regulates Q descendant migrations. In the lin-39 mab-5 egl-5 triple mutant, little if any QR and QL descendant migration occurs. In addition to well-described roles of lin-39 and mab-5 in the Q descendants, our results suggest that lin-39, mab-5, and egl-5 might also pattern the posterior region of the animal for Q descendant migration. Previous studies showed that the spon-1 gene might be a target of MAB-5 in Q descendant migration. spon-1 encodes a secreted basement membrane molecule similar to vertebrate F-spondin. Here we show that spon-1 acts nonautonomously to control Q descendant migration, and might function as a permissive rather than instructive signal for cell migration. We find that increased levels of MAB-5 in body wall muscle (BWM) can drive the spon-1 promoter adjacent to the Q cells, and loss of spon-1 suppresses mab-5 gain of function. Thus, MAB-5 might nonautonomously control Q descendant migrations by patterning the posterior region of the animal to which Q cells respond. spon-1 expression from BWMs might be part of the posterior patterning necessary for directed Q descendant migration.

  7. ReACT Methodology Proof of Concept Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bri Rolston; Sarah Freeman

    2014-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (DOE-OE) funded INL Researchers to evaluate a novel process for assessing and mitigating cyber security risks. The proof of concept level of the method was tested in an industry environment. This case study, plus additional case studies will support the further development of the method into a tool to assist industry in securing their critical networks. This report provides an understanding of the process developed in the Response Analysis and Characterization Tool (ReACT) project. This report concludes with lessons learned and a roadmap for final development of these tools for use by industry.

  8. Immunotherapeutic synergy between anti-CD137 mAb and intratumoral administration of a cytopathic Semliki Forest virus encoding IL-12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quetglas, José I; Dubrot, Juan; Bezunartea, Jaione; Sanmamed, Miguel F; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Smerdou, Cristian; Melero, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    .... In this study, we provide evidence for powerful synergistic effects of a combined strategy consisting of intratumoral injection of SFV-IL-12 and systemic delivery of agonist anti-CD137 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs...

  9. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies that strongly inhibit Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, M H; Frobert, Y; Grassi, J

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we describe three different monoclonal antibodies (mAbs Elec-403, Elec-408, and Elec-410) directed against Electrophorus electricus acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which were selected as inhibitors for this enzyme. Two of these antibodies (Elec-403 and Elec-410), recognized overlapping but different epitopes, competed with snake venom toxin fasciculin for binding to the enzyme, and thus apparently recognized the peripheral site of AChE. In addition, the binding of Elec-403 was antagonized by 1,5-bis(4-allyldimethylammoniumphenyl)pentan-3-one dibromide (BW284C51) and propidium, indicating that the corresponding epitope encompassed the anionic site involved in the binding of these low-molecular-mass inhibitors. The third mAb (Elec-408), was clearly bound to another site on the AChE molecule, and its inhibitory effect was cumulative with those of Elec-403, Elec-410, and fasciculin. All mAbs bound AChE with high affinity and were as strong inhibitors with an apparent Ki values less than 0.1 nM. Elec-403 was particularly efficient with an inhibitory activity similar to that of fasciculin. Inhibition was observed with both charged (acetylthiocholine) and neutral substrates (o-nitrophenyl acetate) and had the characteristics of a non-competitive process. Elec-403 and Elec-410 probably exert their effect by triggering allosteric transitions from the peripheral site to the active site. The epitope recognized by mAb Elec-408 has not been localized, but it may correspond to a new regulatory site on AChE.

  10. Ultrasonic atomization and subsequent desolvation for monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the glycoprotein (GP) IIIa receptor into drug eluting stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G X; Luo, L L; Yin, T Y; Li, Y; Jiang, T; Ruan, C G; Guidoin, R; Chen, Y P; Guzman, R

    2010-01-01

    An eluting-stent system with mAb dispersed in the PLLA (poly (L-lactic acid)) was validated in vitro. Specifically designed spray equipment based on the principle of ultrasonic atomization was used to produce a thin continuous PLLA (poly (L-lactic acid)) polymer coating incorporating monoclonal antibody (mAb). This PLLA coating was observed in light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The concentration of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa receptor and the eluting rate were then measured by a radioisotope technique with (125)I-labelled GP IIIa mAb. An in vitro perfusion circuit was designed to evaluate the release rates at different velocities (10 or 20 ml min(-1)). The PLLA coating was thin and transparent, uniformly distributed on the surface of the stent. Three factors influenced its thickness: PLLA concentration, duration and gas pressure. The concentration of mAb was influenced by the duration of absorption and the concentration of the mAb solution; the maximum was 1662.23 + or - 38.83 ng. The eluting rate was fast for the first 2 h, then decreased slowly and attained 80% after 2 weeks. This ultrasonic atomization spray equipment and technological process to prepare protein eluting-stents were proved to be effective and reliable.

  11. Molecular characterization of cold-responsive basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MabHLHs that interact with MaICE1 in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Huan-Huan; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2013-11-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are ubiquitously involved in the response of higher plants to various abiotic stresses. However, little is known about bHLH TFs involved in the cold stress response in economically important fruits. Here, five novel full-length bHLH genes, designated as MabHLH1-MabHLH5, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Gene expression profiles revealed that MabHLH1/2/4 were induced by cold stress and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment. Transient assays in tobacco BY2 protoplasts showed that MabHLH1/2/4 promoters were activated by cold stress and MeJA treatments. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MabHLH1/2/4 not only physically interacted with each other to form hetero-dimers in the nucleus, but also interacted with an important upstream component of cold signaling MaICE1, with different interaction domains at their N-terminus. These results indicate that banana fruit cold-responsive MabHLHs may form a big protein complex in the nucleus with MaICE1. Taken together, our findings advance our understanding of the possible involvement of bHLH TFs in the regulatory network of ICE-CBF cold signaling pathway.

  12. Effect of reacted acidic monomer with calcium on bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, K; Ma, S; Aida, M; Maeda, T; Ikemi, T; Hirata, M; Nishiyama, N

    2011-05-01

    We determined the number of reacted and unreacted 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP) molecules with calcium during the demineralization process of hydroxyapatite or dentin by 10-MDP-based one-step (Clearfil Tri-S Bond, TS) or two-step self-etch adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond Primer, SE). We then examined the effects of the number of reacted and/or unreacted 10-MDP molecules on the initial bond strength and bond durability of the resultant adhesive layer. The null hypotheses were that (1) the etching efficacy of tooth apatite by 10-MDP used in TS was the same as that in SE, and (2) the unreacted 10-MDP polymer included within the adhesive layer does not affect bond durability. Addition of hydroxyapatite or dentin to the TS and SE resulted in decreases in the NMR peak intensities for 10-MDP. The peak intensity for 10-MDP showed a greater reduction in SE than in TS, consistent with the observation that SE provided significantly higher initial mean bond strengths than TS. Further, the unreacted 10-MDP polymer within the adhesive layer did not decrease the mean bond strength, despite the application of 20,000x thermo-cycling.

  13. Sticky Tunes: How Do People React to Involuntary Musical Imagery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Victoria J.; Liikkanen, Lassi A.; Jakubowski, Kelly; Stewart, Lauren

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI) or ‘earworms’; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies. PMID:24497938

  14. Sticky tunes: how do people react to involuntary musical imagery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Williamson

    Full Text Available The vast majority of people experience involuntary musical imagery (INMI or 'earworms'; perceptions of spontaneous, repetitive musical sound in the absence of an external source. The majority of INMI episodes are not bothersome, while some cause disruption ranging from distraction to anxiety and distress. To date, little is known about how the majority of people react to INMI, in particular whether evaluation of the experience impacts on chosen response behaviours or if attempts at controlling INMI are successful or not. The present study classified 1046 reports of how people react to INMI episodes. Two laboratories in Finland and the UK conducted an identical qualitative analysis protocol on reports of INMI reactions and derived visual descriptive models of the outcomes using grounded theory techniques. Combined analysis carried out across the two studies confirmed that many INMI episodes were considered neutral or pleasant, with passive acceptance and enjoyment being among the most popular response behaviours. A significant number of people, however, reported on attempts to cope with unwanted INMI. The most popular and effective behaviours in response to INMI were seeking out the tune in question, and musical or verbal distraction. The outcomes of this study contribute to our understanding of the aetiology of INMI, in particular within the framework of memory theory, and present testable hypotheses for future research on successful INMI coping strategies.

  15. Spectral kinetic energy transfer in turbulent premixed reacting flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, C A Z; Poludnenko, A Y; Urzay, J; O'Brien, J; Ihme, M; Hamlington, P E

    2016-05-01

    Spectral kinetic energy transfer by advective processes in turbulent premixed reacting flows is examined using data from a direct numerical simulation of a statistically planar turbulent premixed flame. Two-dimensional turbulence kinetic-energy spectra conditioned on the planar-averaged reactant mass fraction are computed through the flame brush and variations in the spectra are connected to terms in the spectral kinetic energy transport equation. Conditional kinetic energy spectra show that turbulent small-scale motions are suppressed in the burnt combustion products, while the energy content of the mean flow increases. An analysis of spectral kinetic energy transfer further indicates that, contrary to the net down-scale transfer of energy found in the unburnt reactants, advective processes transfer energy from small to large scales in the flame brush close to the products. Triadic interactions calculated through the flame brush show that this net up-scale transfer of energy occurs primarily at spatial scales near the laminar flame thermal width. The present results thus indicate that advective processes in premixed reacting flows contribute to energy backscatter near the scale of the flame.

  16. High speed turbulent reacting flows: DNS and LES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Peyman

    1990-01-01

    Work on understanding the mechanisms of mixing and reaction in high speed turbulent reacting flows was continued. Efforts, in particular, were concentrated on taking advantage of modern computational methods to simulate high speed turbulent flows. In doing so, two methodologies were used: large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS). In the work related with LES the objective is to study the behavior of the probability density functions (pdfs) of scalar properties within the subgrid in reacting turbulent flows. The data base obtained by DNS for a detailed study of the pdf characteristics within the subgrid was used. Simulations are performed for flows under various initializations to include the effects of compressibility on mixing and chemical reactions. In the work related with DNS, a two-dimensional temporally developing high speed mixing layer under the influence of a second-order non-equilibrium chemical reaction of the type A + B yields products + heat was considered. Simulations were performed with different magnitudes of the convective Mach numbers and with different chemical kinetic parameters for the purpose of examining the isolated effects of the compressibility and the heat released by the chemical reactions on the structure of the layer. A full compressible code was developed and utilized, so that the coupling between mixing and chemical reactions is captured in a realistic manner.

  17. Small-Animal PET Imaging of Pancreatic Cancer Xenografts Using a 64Cu-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody, MAb159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Dan; Liu, Shuanglong; Liu, Ren; Yuan, Hong; Krasnoperov, Valery; Shan, Hong; Conti, Peter S; Gill, Parkash S; Li, Zibo

    2015-06-01

    Overexpression of the GRP78 receptor on cell surfaces has been linked with tumor growth, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. We developed a (64)Cu-labeled probe for PET imaging of tumor GRP78 expression based on a novel anti-GRP78 monoclonal antibody, MAb159. MAb159 was conjugated with the (64)Cu-chelator DOTA through lysines on the antibody. DOTA-human IgG was also prepared as a control that did not bind to GRP78. The resulting PET probes were evaluated in BXPC3 pancreatic cancer xenografts in athymic nude mice. The radiotracer was synthesized with a specific activity of 0.8 MBq/μg of antibody. In BXPC3 xenografts, (64)Cu-DOTA-MAb159 demonstrated prominent tumor accumulation (4.3 ± 1.2, 15.4 ± 2.6, and 18.3 ± 1.0 percentage injected dose per gram at 1, 17, and 48 after injection, respectively). In contrast, (64)Cu-DOTA-human IgG had low BXPC3 tumor accumulation (4.8 ± 0.5, 7.5 ± 0.7, and 4.6 ± 0.8 percentage injected dose per gram at 1, 17, and 48 h after injection, respectively). We demonstrated that GRP78 can serve as a valid target for pancreatic cancer imaging. The success of this approach will be valuable for evaluating disease course and therapeutic efficacy at the earliest stages of anti-GRP78 treatment. Moreover, these newly developed probes may have important applications in other types of cancer overexpressing GRP78. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  18. Modifiche compositive e strutturali in soprassuoli in evoluzione naturale della riserva M.a.B. di Montedimezzo (Isernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Manetti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tree species composition and structural dynamics in forest stands under natural evolution in the Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve. This study is included in an experimental protocol established in 1954 aimed at examining the natural dynamics in mixed broadleaves high forests dominated by Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.. Stand development patterns in the last fifteen years are reported. Repeated quantitative and qualitative inventories were carried out in two permanent plots (3 ha each and in two structural transects (0.2 ha each located in Collemeluccio-Montedimezzo M.a.B. reserve (Is. The study highlighted, as already observed in 1954, the differences between the two multilayered stands. In the higher elevation beech is the predominant species recording 53% of importance value index (I, followed by Turkey oak (I=25%. In the lower elevation the dominant species is Turkey oak (I=46%, followed by hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. (I=28% and beech (I=12%. The decreased presence of Turkey oak and the increase of beech density are confirmed in each plot over the last fifteen years. Among the other tree species, importance values rise only for silver fir (Abies alba Mill. (introduced and holly tree (Ilex aquifolium L., while hornbeam and hedge maple have been reducing their own presence.

  19. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: mAbs and pituitary dysfunction: clinical evidence and pathogenic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Francesco; Barnabei, Agnese; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Marchetti, Paolo; Salvatori, Roberto; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2013-12-01

    mAbs are established targeted therapies for several diseases, including hematological and solid malignancies. These agents have shown a favorable toxicity profile, but, despite their high selectivity, new typical side-effects have emerged. In cancer patients, pituitary dysfunction may be mainly due to brain metastases or primary tumors and to related surgery and radiotherapy. Anticancer agents may induce hypopituitarism in patients cured for childhood cancers. These agents infrequently affect pituitary function in adult cancer patients. Notably, hypophysitis, a previously very rare disease, has emerged as a distinctive side-effect of ipilimumab and tremelimumab, two mAbs inhibiting the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 receptor, being occasionally seen with nivolumab, another immune checkpoint inhibitor. Enhanced antitumor immunity is the suggested mechanism of action of these drugs and autoimmunity the presumptive mechanism of their toxicity. Recently, ipilimumab has been licensed for the treatment of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. With the expanding use of these drugs, hypophysitis will be progressively encountered by oncologists and endocrinologists in clinical practice. The optimal management of this potentially life-threatening adverse event needs a rapid and timely diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, requiring prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify several clinical and pathogenic aspects of this new form of secondary pituitary dysfunction.

  20. REAC/TS Radiation Accident Registry: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran M. Christensen, DO, REAC/TS Associate Director and Staff Physician Becky Murdock, REAC/TS Registry and Health Physics Technician

    2012-12-12

    Over the past four years, REAC/TS has presented a number of case reports from its Radiation Accident Registry. Victims of radiological or nuclear incidents must meet certain dose criteria for an incident to be categorized as an “accident” and be included in the registry. Although the greatest numbers of “accidents” in the United States that have been entered into the registry involve radiation devices, the greater percentage of serious accidents have involved sealed sources of one kind or another. But if one looks at the kinds of accident scenarios that have resulted in extreme consequence, i.e., death, the greater share of deaths has occurred in medical settings.

  1. Reacting chemistry at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Morgan, Thomas; Huwel, Lutz; Graham, William

    2016-09-01

    Plasma interaction with gas-liquid interfaces is becoming increasingly important in biological applications, chemical analysis and medicine. It introduces electrons, new ionic species and reactive species and contributes to chemical and electrical self-organization at the interface. To provide insight into the associated physics and chemistry at work in the evolution of the plasma in the air-water interface (AWI), a time-dependent one-dimensional modelling has been developed. The numerical simulation is used to solve the kinetic equations and help identify the important reaction mechanisms and describe the phenomena associated with hundreds of reacting pathways in gas-phase and liquid-phase AWI chemistry. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 16K04998.

  2. Toward parallel, adaptive mesh refinement for chemically reacting flow simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, K.D.; Shadid, J.N.; Salinger, A.G. Hutchinson, S.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hennigan, G.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Adaptive numerical methods offer greater efficiency than traditional numerical methods by concentrating computational effort in regions of the problem domain where the solution is difficult to obtain. In this paper, the authors describe progress toward adding mesh refinement to MPSalsa, a computer program developed at Sandia National laboratories to solve coupled three-dimensional fluid flow and detailed reaction chemistry systems for modeling chemically reacting flow on large-scale parallel computers. Data structures that support refinement and dynamic load-balancing are discussed. Results using uniform refinement with mesh sequencing to improve convergence to steady-state solutions are also presented. Three examples are presented: a lid driven cavity, a thermal convection flow, and a tilted chemical vapor deposition reactor.

  3. 3D Reacting Flow Analysis of LANTR Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.; Krivanek, Thomas M.; Hemminger, Joseph A.; Bulman, M. J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents performance predictions for LANTR nozzles and the system implications for their use in a manned Mars mission. The LANTR concept is rocket thrust augmentation by injecting Oxygen into the nozzle to combust the Hydrogen exhaust of a Nuclear Thermal Rocket. The performance predictions are based on three-dimensional reacting flow simulations using VULCAN. These simulations explore a range of O2/H2 mixture ratios, injector configurations, and concepts. These performance predictions are used for a trade analysis within a system study for a manned Mars mission. Results indicate that the greatest benefit of LANTR will occur with In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). However, Hydrogen propellant volume reductions may allow greater margins for fitting tanks within the launch vehicle where packaging issues occur.

  4. A comparison of the biodistribution and biokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 and {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 with regard to suitability for myeloablative radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, Inga [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Gebaeude 210, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, 55101, Mainz (Germany); Kull, Thomas; Glatting, Gerhard; Kotzerke, Jorg; Rattat, Dirk; Reske, Sven N. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Bunjes, Donald; Dohner, Hartmut [Department of Hematology, University Hospital, Ulm (Germany); Hale, Geoffrey [Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is an effective method of achieving myeloablation in leukaemia patients prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT). We wished to compare the approaches of specific binding to leukaemic blasts and non-specific binding to benign red marrow cells, which results in a myeloablative ''cross-fire'' effect. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the biodistribution and biokinetics of the anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 and the anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 with regard to their suitability for myeloablative RIT. The red marrow selective anti-CD66 mAb BW 250/183 (IgG1) binds to normal granulopoietic cells. In contrast, the anti-CD45 mAb YTH 24.5 (IgG2b) binds to 85-90% of acute leukaemic blasts and almost all haematopoietic white cells. Patients with leukaemic blast infiltration of the marrow <25% and assigned for RIT and SCT were included. Twelve patients (eight male, four female; median age 46{+-}7 years) with AML (5), CML (5) or ALL (2) were examined. Both mAbs were labelled with technetium-99m. Within 48 h, 906{+-}209 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD66 mAb and 760{+-}331 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-anti-CD45 mAb were injected consecutively. Scintigraphic and urinary measurements were performed 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after injection. Serum activities were evaluated 2, 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 min and 2, 4 and 24 h after injection. Compared with the anti-CD45 mAb, the anti-CD66 mAb showed an approximately fourfold higher accumulation in the red marrow, a 2.5-fold lower accumulation in the liver and similar accumulation in the kidneys. The serum activity (% of the injected dose) initially decreased faster for the anti-CD45 mAb but was similar for the two mAbs 24 h after injection: 3.3%{+-}1.2% (anti-CD66 mAb) and 2.4%{+-}1.1% (anti-CD45 mAb). The cumulated urinary excretion was 17%{+-}6.6% (anti-CD66 mAb) and 27.3%{+-}7.9% (anti-CD45 mAb) 24 h after application. In these patients with low tumour load, the anti-CD66 mAb BW 250

  5. Physico-chemical Stability of MabThera Drug-product Solution for Subcutaneous Injection under in-use Conditions with Different Administration Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Claudia; Dietel, Elke; Heynen, Severin R; Nalenz, Heiko; Goldbach, Pierre; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Schmidt, Johannes; Grauschopf, Ulla; Schoenhamnmer, Karin

    2015-01-01

    MabThera is an essential component of the standard-of-care regimens in the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Chronic Lymphatic Leukemia. MabThera for subcutaneous injection is a novel line extension that has been approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This study aimed to evaluate in-use stability data of MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution in single-use syringes for subcutaneous administration according to the European Medicines Agency guideline. The drug-product solution was exposed to material contact surfaces of five different administration setups commonly used in subcutaneous drug delivery. MabThera subcutaneous was transferred under aseptic conditions into polypropylene and polycarbonate syringes and stored for 1, 2, and 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C. After storage, subcutaneous administration was simulated and MabThera subcutaneous drug-product solution quality attributes were evaluated by using compendial physico-chemical tests, as well as suitable and validated molecule- and formulation-specific analytical methods. MabThera subcutaneous vials were treated and analyzed in parallel. The physico-chemical results of MabThera subcutaneous in the different setups were comparable to the control for all timepoints. No change in drug-product quality after storage and simulated administration was found compared to the control. However, since single-dose products do not contain preservatives, microbial contamination and growth needs to be avoided and product sterility needs to be ensured. The results showed that MabThera subcutaneous remains compatible and stable, from a physico-chemical perspective, for up to 4 weeks at 2°C to 8°C followed by 24 hours at 30°C with the contact materials tested in this study. In order to avoid and minimize microbial growth, MabThera subcutaneous should be used immediately after removal from the original

  6. mAb CZP-315.D9: An Antirecombinant Cruzipain Monoclonal Antibody That Specifically Labels the Reservosomes of Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Martin Batista

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservosomes are large round vesicles located at the posterior end of epimastigote forms of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. They are the specific end organelles of the endocytosis pathway of T. cruzi, and they play key roles in nutrient uptake and cell differentiation. These lysosome-like organelles accumulate ingested macromolecules and contain large amounts of a major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain or GP57/51 protein. Aim of this study was to produce a monoclonal antibody (mAb against a recombinant T. cruzi cruzipain (TcCruzipain that specifically labels the reservosomes. BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant TcCruzipain to obtain the mAb. After fusion of isolated splenocytes with myeloma cells and screening, a mAb was obtained by limiting dilution and characterized by capture ELISA. We report here the production of a kappa-positive monoclonal IgG antibody (mAb CZP-315.D9 that recognizes recombinant TcCruzipain. This mAb binds preferentially to a protein with a molecular weight of about 50 kDa on western blots and specifically labels reservosomes by immunofluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The monoclonal CZP-315.D9 constitutes a potentially powerful marker for use in studies on the function of reservosomes of T. cruzi.

  7. Targeting glioblastoma with NK cells and mAb against NG2/CSPG4 prolongs animal survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Aurélie; Wang, Jian; Domingues, Olivia; Planagumà, Jesús; Yan, Tao; Rygh, Cecilie Brekke; Skaftnesmo, Kai Ove; Thorsen, Frits; McCormack, Emmet; Hentges, François; Pedersen, Paal Henning; Zimmer, Jacques; Enger, Per Øyvind; Chekenya, Martha

    2013-09-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor where patients' survival is only 14.6 months, despite multimodal therapy with debulking surgery, concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy. There is an urgent, unmet need for novel, effective therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease. Although several immunotherapies are under development for the treatment of GBM patients, the use of natural killer (NK) cells is still marginal despite this being a promising approach to treat cancer. In regard of our knowledge on the role of NG2/CSPG4 in promoting GBM aggressiveness we investigated the potential of an innovative immunotherapeutic strategy combining mAb9.2.27 against NG2/CSPG4 and NK cells in preclinical animal models of GBM. Multiple immune escape mechanisms maintain the tumor microenvironment in an anti-inflammatory state to promote tumor growth, however, the distinct roles of resident microglia versus recruited macrophages is not elucidated. We hypothesized that exploiting the cytokine release capabilities of activated (NK) cells to reverse the anti-inflammatory axis combined with mAb9.2.27 targeting the NG2/CSPG4 may favor tumor destruction by editing pro-GBM immune responses. Combination treatment with NK+mAb9.2.27 diminished tumor growth that was associated with reduced tumor proliferation, increased cellular apoptosis and prolonged survival compared to vehicle and monotherapy controls. The therapeutic efficacy was mediated by recruitment of CCR2low macrophages into the tumor microenvironment, increased ED1 and MHC class II expression on microglia that might render them competent for GBM antigen presentation, as well as elevated IFN-γ and TNF-α levels in the cerebrospinal fluid compared to controls. Depletion of systemic macrophages by liposome-encapsulated clodronate decreased the CCR2low macrophages recruited to the brain and abolished the beneficial outcomes. Moreover, mAb9.2.27 reversed tumor-promoting effects of patient-derived tumor

  8. Teens impulsively react rather than retreat from threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Michael; Caudle, Kristina; Drysdale, Andrew T; Johnston, Natalie E; Cohen, Alexandra O; Somerville, Leah H; Galván, Adriana; Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A; Casey, B J

    2014-01-01

    There is a significant inflection in risk taking and criminal behavior during adolescence, but the basis for this increase remains largely unknown. An increased sensitivity to rewards has been suggested to explain these behaviors, yet juvenile offences often occur in emotionally charged situations of negative valence. How behavior is altered by changes in negative emotional processes during adolescence has received less attention than changes in positive emotional processes. The current study uses a measure of impulsivity in combination with cues that signal threat or safety to assess developmental changes in emotional responses to threat cues. We show that adolescents, especially males, impulsively react to threat cues relative to neutral ones more than adults or children, even when instructed not to respond. This adolescent-specific behavioral pattern is paralleled by enhanced activity in limbic cortical regions implicated in the detection and assignment of emotional value to inputs and in the subsequent regulation of responses to them when successfully suppressing impulsive responses to threat cues. In contrast, prefrontal control regions implicated in detecting and resolving competing responses show an adolescent-emergent pattern (i.e. greater activity in adolescents and adults relative to children) during successful suppression of a response regardless of emotion. Our findings suggest that adolescence is a period of heightened sensitivity to social and emotional cues that results in diminished regulation of behavior in their presence. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Numerical Investigation of a Statistically Stationary Turbulent Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Matthew R.; Pope, Stephen B.

    1997-11-01

    Direct numerical simulation (DNS) has been very useful in the study of inert scalar mixing in turbulent flows, and has recently become feasible for studies of reacting scalars. We have formulated an accessible inhomogeneous nonpremixed turbulent reactive flow for investigating the effects of mixing on reaction and testing mixing models. The mixture fraction-progress variable approach is used with a model single-step reversible finite-rate thermochemistry, yielding non-trivial stationary solutions corresponding to stable reaction and allowing local extinction to occur. A mean gradient in the mixture fraction gives rise to stationarity without forcing, as well as a flame brush. A range of reaction zone thicknesses and Damkohler numbers are examined, yielding a broad spectrum of behavior, ranging from thick to thin flames, and from local extinction to near equilibrium. Based on this study results from full probability density function (PDF) simulations using the IEM and EMST mixing models are evaluated. Conditional moment closure (CMC) results are evaluated as well.

  10. Adjoint based sensitivity analysis of a reacting jet in crossflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sashittal, Palash; Sayadi, Taraneh; Schmid, Peter

    2016-11-01

    With current advances in computational resources, high fidelity simulations of reactive flows are increasingly being used as predictive tools in various industrial applications. In order to capture the combustion process accurately, detailed/reduced chemical mechanisms are employed, which in turn rely on various model parameters. Therefore, it would be of great interest to quantify the sensitivities of the predictions with respect to the introduced models. Due to the high dimensionality of the parameter space, methods such as finite differences which rely on multiple forward simulations prove to be very costly and adjoint based techniques are a suitable alternative. The complex nature of the governing equations, however, renders an efficient strategy in finding the adjoint equations a challenging task. In this study, we employ the modular approach of Fosas de Pando et al. (2012), to build a discrete adjoint framework applied to a reacting jet in crossflow. The developed framework is then used to extract the sensitivity of the integrated heat release with respect to the existing combustion parameters. Analyzing the sensitivities in the three-dimensional domain provides insight towards the specific regions of the flow that are more susceptible to the choice of the model.

  11. Dynamic Load Balancing Strategies for Parallel Reacting Flow Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciuneri, Patrick; Meneses, Esteban; Givi, Peyman

    2014-11-01

    Load balancing in parallel computing aims at distributing the work as evenly as possible among the processors. This is a critical issue in the performance of parallel, time accurate, flow simulators. The constraint of time accuracy requires that all processes must be finished with their calculation for a given time step before any process can begin calculation of the next time step. Thus, an irregularly balanced compute load will result in idle time for many processes for each iteration and thus increased walltimes for calculations. Two existing, dynamic load balancing approaches are applied to the simplified case of a partially stirred reactor for methane combustion. The first is Zoltan, a parallel partitioning, load balancing, and data management library developed at the Sandia National Laboratories. The second is Charm++, which is its own machine independent parallel programming system developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The performance of these two approaches is compared, and the prospects for their application to full 3D, reacting flow solvers is assessed.

  12. 9519 biotite granodiorite reacted in a temperature gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, R.W.; Bayhurst, G.K.

    1980-10-01

    A biotite granodiorite from the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal system was reacted in a controlled temperature gradient with initially distilled water for 60d. Polished rock prisms were located in the gradient at 72, 119, 161, 209, 270, and 310/sup 0/C. Scanning electron microscope and microprobe analyses show the appearance of secondary phases: Ca-montmorillonite at 72/sup 0/C and 119/sup 0/C; zeolite, either stilbite or heulandite, at 161/sup 0/C; and another zeolite, thomsonite, at higher temperatures. Solution analyses show a steady state equilibrium exists between solution and overgrowths after about 2 weeks of reaction. The chemographic relations for the system are explored in some detail indicating the divariant assemblages may be placed in a reasonable sequence in intensive variable space. These relations predict high and low temperature effects not directly observed experimentally as well as relevant univariant equilibria. Solution chemistry indicates the Na-Ca-K geothermometer more adequately predicts temperature in this system than does the silica geothermometer.

  13. CERN reacts to increased costs to completion of the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of LHC construction. The CERN Council, where the representatives of the 20 Member States of the Organization decide on scientific programmes and financial resources, held its 120th session on 14 December under the chairmanship of Prof. Maurice Bourquin (CH). CERN adjusts to the LHC Director-General, Luciano Maiani, stressed that CERN was now fully engaged in the LHC and outlined the first moves to react to the increased cost to completion of the LHC. The new accelerator is an extremely complex, high-tech project which CERN is building under very severe conditions. However, the technical challenges are solved and industrial production of accelerator elements, and installation are starting. Professor Maiani said that 2001 had been a very hard but decisive year for CERN. An important milestone had been passed during this meeting with the approval of the LHC dipole magnets contract, the last major contract for the accelerator. The new costs to completion of the LHC project are now clear. A first propos...

  14. System visualization of integrated biofuels and high value chemicals developed within the MacroAlgaeBiorefinery (MAB3) project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghetta, Michele; Hasler, Berit; Bastianoni, Simone

    MacroAlgaeBiorefinery (MAB3) may functions as production platform and raw material supplier for future sustainable production chains of biofuels and high value chemicals. Biofuels are interesting energy source but challenges in terms of the composition of the biomass and resulting energy...... efficiencies has to be compensated for to make the biofuel prices competitive in replacing fossil fuel. Since it is difficult to increase the yield of the single biorefinery, the overall system productivity can be improved integrating different sub-systems. In this study, macroalgae cultivation in Denmark...... is integrated with a biogas biorefinery, a bioethanol biorefinery and a fish feed industry. The modeled system is able to adapt itself to different amount and quality of feedstock and to maximize valuable outputs (e.g. bio-fuels and chemical). Macroalgae are harvested and utilized as feedstock in bioethanol...

  15. Humanized mAb H22 binds the human high affinity Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRI), blocks phagocytosis, and modulates receptor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P K; Keler, T; Coleman, K; Fisher, J; Vitale, L; Graziano, R F; Guyre, P M; Fanger, M W

    1997-10-01

    About 10-15% of patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) cannot be controlled by corticosteroid therapy and splenectomy. For these patients treatment with high-dose IVIgG induces partial or complete responses. The clinical benefits of IVIgG could be due to blockade of Fc receptors for IgG (FcgammaR), because several model systems clearly show that functional FcgammaR are essential for establishment of ITP and related diseases. However, the specific contributions of the three individual classes of FcgammaR remain to be more completely defined. Recently monoclonal antibody (mAb) H22, which recognizes an epitope on FcgammaRI (CD64) outside the ligand binding domain, was humanized by grafting its complementarity determining regions onto human IgG1 constant domains. Because FcgammaRI has a high affinity for human IgG1 antibodies, we predicted mAb H22 would also bind to FcgammaRI through its Fc domain and block FcgammaRI-mediated phagocytosis. These studies demonstrate that mAb H22 blocked phagocytosis of opsonized red blood cells 1000 times more effectively than an irrelevant IgG. Moreover, cross-linking FcgammaRI with mAb H22 rapidly down-modulated FcgammaRI expression on monocytes without affecting other surface antigens. We conclude that because mAb H22 is a humanized mAb that blocks the FcgammaRI ligand binding domain and down-modulates FcgammaRI expression, it is a particularly good candidate for evaluating the role of FcgammaRI in patients with ITP.

  16. Development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to feline interferon (fIFN)-γ as tools to evaluate cellular immune responses to feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Ryoichi; Kaku, Ayumi; Satomura, Megumi; Kohori, Michiyo; Noura, Kanako; Furukawa, Tomoko; Kotake, Masako; Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of FIPV infection has been recognised in experimentally infected cats, and cellular immunity is considered to play an important role in preventing the onset of FIP. To evaluate the importance of cellular immunity for FIPV infection, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against feline interferon (fIFN)-γ were first created to establish fIFN-γ detection systems using the MAbs. Six anti-fIFN-γ MAbs were created. Then, the difference in epitope which those MAbs recognise was demonstrated by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and IFN-γ neutralisation tests. Detection systems for fIFN-γ (sandwich ELISA, ELISpot assay, and two-colour flow cytometry) were established using anti-fIFN-γ MAbs that recognise different epitopes. In all tests, fIFN-γ production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from cats experimentally infected with an FIPV isolate that did not develop the disease was significantly increased by heat-inactivated FIPV stimulation in comparison with medium alone. Especially, CD8(+)fIFN-γ(+) cells, but not CD4(+)fIFN-γ(+) cells, were increased. In contrast, fIFN-γ production from PBMCs isolated from cats that had developed FIP and specific pathogen-free (SPF) cats was not increased by heat-inactivated FIPV stimulation. These results suggest that cellular immunity plays an important role in preventing the development of FIP. Measurement of fIFN-γ production with the anti-fIFN-γ MAbs created in this study appeared to be useful in evaluating cellular immunity in cats.

  17. Combining NK cells and mAb9.2.27 to combat NG2-dependent and anti-inflammatory signals in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiecik, Justyna; Gras Navarro, Andrea; Poli, Aurelie; Planagumà, Jesús Planagumà; Zimmer, Jacques; Chekenya, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is a deadly brain cancer with limited treatment options. Targeting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4, best known as NG2) with the monoclonal antibody mAb9.2.27 and activated natural killer (NK) cells abrogated the tumor growth and prolonged the survival of glioblastoma-bearing animals by favoring the establishment of a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. The combination of NK cells and mAb9.2.27 recruited ED1(+)CCR2(low) macrophages that stimulated ED1(+)ED2(low)MHCII(high) microglial cells to exert robust cytotoxicity. Our findings demonstrate the therapeutic potential of targeting salient tumor associated-antigens.

  18. Preparation of single chain variable fragment of MG7 mAb by phage display technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Cai Yu; Jie Ding; Yong-Zhan Nie; Dai-Ming Fan; Xue-Yong Zhang

    2001-01-01

    AIM To develop the single chain variable fragment of MG7 murine anti-human gastric cancer monoclonal antibody using the phage display technology for obtaining a tumor-targeting mediator. METHODS mRNA was isolated from MG7-producing murine hybridoma cell line and converted into cDNA. The variable fragments of heavy and light chain were amplified separately and assembled into ScFv with a specially constructed DNA linker by PCR. The ScFvs DNA was ligated into the phagmid vector pCANTAB5E and the ligated sample was transformed into competent E. Coli TG1. The transformed cells were infected with M13K07 helper phage to form MG7 recombinant phage antibody library. The volume and recombinant rate of the library were evaluated by means of bacterial colony count and restriction analysis. After two rounds of panning with gastric cancer cell line KATOⅢ of highly expressing MG7binding antigen, the phage clones displaying ScFv of the antibody were selected by ELISA from the enriched phage clones. The antigen-binding affinity of the positive clone was detected by competition ELISA. HB2151 E. Coli was transfected with the positive phage clone demonstrated by competition ELISA for production of a soluble form of the MG7 ScFv. ELISA assay was used to detect the antigenbinding affinity of the soluble MG7 ScFv. Finally, the relative molecular mass of soluble MG7 ScFv was measured by SDS-PAGE. RESULTS The VH, VL and ScFv DNAs were about 340bp,320bp and 750bp, respectively. The volume of the library was up to 2 × 106 and 8 of 11 random clones were recombinants. Two phage clones could strongly compete with the original MG7 antibody for binding to the antigen expressed on KATO Ⅲ cells. Within 2 strong positive phage clones, the soluble MG7 ScFv from one clone was found to have the binding activity with KATO Ⅲ cells.SDS-PAGE showed that the relative molecular weight of soluble MG7 ScFv was 32. CONCLUSION The MG7 ScFv was successfully produced by phage antibody technology, which may

  19. Linear models for sound from supersonic reacting mixing layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, P. Shivakanth; Samanta, Arnab

    2016-12-01

    We perform a linearized reduced-order modeling of the aeroacoustic sound sources in supersonic reacting mixing layers to explore their sensitivities to some of the flow parameters in radiating sound. Specifically, we investigate the role of outer modes as the effective flow compressibility is raised, when some of these are expected to dominate over the traditional Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) -type central mode. Although the outer modes are known to be of lesser importance in the near-field mixing, how these radiate to the far-field is uncertain, on which we focus. On keeping the flow compressibility fixed, the outer modes are realized via biasing the respective mean densities of the fast (oxidizer) or slow (fuel) side. Here the mean flows are laminar solutions of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers with an imposed composite (turbulent) spreading rate, which we show to significantly alter the growth of instability waves by saturating them earlier, similar to in nonlinear calculations, achieved here via solving the linear parabolized stability equations. As the flow parameters are varied, instability of the slow modes is shown to be more sensitive to heat release, potentially exceeding equivalent central modes, as these modes yield relatively compact sound sources with lesser spreading of the mixing layer, when compared to the corresponding fast modes. In contrast, the radiated sound seems to be relatively unaffected when the mixture equivalence ratio is varied, except for a lean mixture which is shown to yield a pronounced effect on the slow mode radiation by reducing its modal growth.

  20. Influence of epidermal growth factor receptor monoclony antibody MAb225 on DNA repair of tongue carcinoma cell after radiation%表皮生长因子受体单抗MAb225对舌癌细胞DNA放射后损伤修复的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明国; 王中和

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody MAb225 on repair of DNA double strand break (DNA-DSB) after radiation in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell. Methods The single cell gel electrophoresis(SCGE) was performed to estimate the repair of DNA-DSB induced by radiation in human tongue carcinoma cells Tca8113 treated with or without MAb225. Expression of Ku70 and Ku80 were detected by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western bolt Results Comet tail moment of MAb225 treated cell was significantly higher than untreated cell(P<0.05). The expression of Ku70 and Ku80 were inhibited by MAb225. Conclusion MAb225 can inhibit repair of DNA-DSB induced by down-regulated expression of Ku70 and Ku80.%目的 研究表皮生长因子受体(EGFR)单克隆抗体MAb225对放射所致舌癌细胞DNA损伤修复的影响及其作用机制.方法 应用单细胞凝胶电泳的方法检测MAb225对舌鳞癌细胞Tca8113放射后DNA双链断裂所致的尾矩,半定量逆转录多聚酶链反应和Western blot检测MAb225对DNA蛋白激酶Ku70、Ku80表达的影响.结果 MAb225作用后的细胞单细胞凝胶电泳的彗星尾矩明显高于未处理细胞(P<0.05),并能显著抑制DNA蛋白激酶Ku70、Ku80的表达.结论 MAb225通过抑制DNA蛋白激酶Ku70、Ku80的表达影响了DNA双链断裂的修复能力.

  1. Numerical simulation of high speed chemically reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuricht, Scott Richard

    . The scramjet case demonstrates the usefulness of the method as a predictive tool for reacting flows. The rocket motor nozzle case demonstrates the capability of the method to handle mixed subsonic/transonic/supersonic flow environments. Five different chemical reaction mechanisms were studied illustrating the flexibility of the method.

  2. Public availability of a genotyped, segregating population may foster marker assisted breeding (MAB) and quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery: An example using strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the cost associated with marker discovery for marker assisted breeding (MAB) can be eliminated if a diverse, segregating population is generated, genotyped and made available to the global breeding community. Herein, we present an example of a hybrid, wild-derived family of the octoploid str...

  3. Simulation of Compressible Multi-Phase Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    positivity and entropy preservation. The known instability of this solver to odd-even decoupling and carbuncle phenomenon is cured by employing the HLLE...Two-Shock Riemann Solver and the Roe Riemann solver with Harten-Hyman entropy corrections showed very strong sensitiveness to the instability. The...Paper 2005–0314, 2005. [23] B. Fryxell, K. Olson, P. Ricker, F. X. Timmes, M. Zingale, D. Q. Lamb , P. Mac- Neice, R. Rosner, J. W. Truran, and H. Tufo

  4. Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mengyao; Wang, Yao; Fang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhu, Tengteng; Zhang, Junpeng; Zhang, Shuyi; Wang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq) study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs.

  5. Differential expression of Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 during limb development associated with diversification of limb morphology in mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyao Dai

    Full Text Available Bats are the only mammals capable of self-powered flight using wings. Differing from mouse or human limbs, four elongated digits within a broad wing membrane support the bat wing, and the foot of the bat has evolved a long calcar that spread the interfemoral membrane. Our recent mRNA sequencing (mRNA-Seq study found unique expression patterns for genes at the 5' end of the Hoxd gene cluster and for Tbx3 that are associated with digit elongation and wing membrane growth in bats. In this study, we focused on two additional genes, Meis2 and Mab21l2, identified from the mRNA-Seq data. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH we validated the mRNA-Seq results for differences in the expression patterns of Meis2 and Mab21l2 between bat and mouse limbs, and further characterize the timing and location of the expression of these two genes. These analyses suggest that Meis2 may function in wing membrane growth and Mab21l2 may have a role in AP and DV axial patterning. In addition, we found that Tbx3 is uniquely expressed in the unique calcar structure found in the bat hindlimb, suggesting a role for this gene in calcar growth and elongation. Moreover, analysis of the coding sequences for Meis2, Mab21l2 and Tbx3 showed that Meis2 and Mab21l2 have high sequence identity, consistent with the functions of genes being conserved, but that Tbx3 showed accelerated evolution in bats. However, evidence for positive selection in Tbx3 was not found, which would suggest that the function of this gene has not been changed. Together, our findings support the hypothesis that the modulation of the spatiotemporal expression patterns of multiple functional conserved genes control limb morphology and drive morphological change in the diversification of mammalian limbs.

  6. Anti-CD154 mAb and rapamycin induce T regulatory cell mediated tolerance in rat-to-mouse islet transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick D Muller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anti-CD154 (MR1 monoclonal antibody (mAb and rapamycin (RAPA treatment both improve survival of rat-to-mouse islet xenograft. The present study investigated the effect of combined RAPA/MR1 treatment on rat-to-mouse islet xenograft survival and analyzed the role of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ T regulatory cells (Treg in the induction and maintenance of the ensuing tolerance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C57BL/6 mice were treated with MR1/RAPA and received additional monoclonal anti-IL2 mAb or anti CD25 mAb either early (0-28 d or late (100-128 d post-transplantation. Treg were characterised in the blood, spleen, draining lymph nodes and within the graft of tolerant and rejecting mice by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Fourteen days of RAPA/MR1 combination therapy allowed indefinite islet graft survival in >80% of the mice. Additional administration of anti-IL-2 mAb or depleting anti-CD25 mAb at the time of transplantation resulted in rejection (100% and 89% respectively, whereas administration at 100 days post transplantation lead to lower rejection rates (25% and 40% respectively. Tolerant mice showed an increase of Treg within the graft and in draining lymph nodes early post transplantation, whereas 100 days post transplantation no significant increase of Treg was observed. Rejecting mice showed a transient increase of Treg in the xenograft and secondary lymphoid organs, which disappeared within 7 days after rejection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: These results suggest a critical role for Treg in the induction phase of tolerance early after islet xenotransplantation. These encouraging data support the need of developing further Treg therapy for overcoming the species barrier in xenotransplantation.

  7. ReACT!: An Interactive Educational Tool for AI Planning for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogmus, Zeynep; Erdem, Esra; Patogulu, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents ReAct!, an interactive educational tool for artificial intelligence (AI) planning for robotics. ReAct! enables students to describe robots' actions and change in dynamic domains without first having to know about the syntactic and semantic details of the underlying formalism, and to solve planning problems using…

  8. RECENT ADVANCES IN STUDIES ON MULTIPHASE AND REACTING FLOWS IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周力行

    2002-01-01

    The recent developments and advances of studies on multiphase and reacting flows, including gas-solid, gas-liquid, liquid-solid and reacting flows, in China are reviewed. Special emphasis is laid on the fundamental studies and numerical models. Some important experimental results are also reported. But measurement techniques are not covered.

  9. Strong vector valued integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Strong Bochner type integrals with values in locally convex spaces are introduced. It is shown that the strong integral exists in the same cases as the weak (Gelfand-Pettis) integral is known to exist. The strong integral has better continuity properties that the weak integral.

  10. Structural Analysis of Human and Macaque mAbs 2909 and 2.5B: Implications for the Configuration of the Quaternary Neutralizing Epitope of HIV-1 gp120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurrier, Brett; Sampson, Jared M.; Totrov, Maxim; Li, Huiguang; O; Neal, Timothy; Williams, Constance; Robinson, James; Gorny, Miroslaw K.; Zolla-Pazner, Susan; Kong, Xiang-Peng (Molsoft); (Tulane); (NYUSM)

    2011-08-25

    The quaternary neutralizing epitope (QNE) of HIV-1 gp120 is preferentially expressed on the trimeric envelope spikes of intact HIV virions, and QNE-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) potently neutralize HIV-1. Here, we present the crystal structures of the Fabs of human mAb 2909 and macaque mAb 2.5B. Both mAbs have long beta hairpin CDR H3 regions >20 {angstrom} in length that are each situated at the center of their respective antigen-binding sites. Computational analysis showed that the paratopes include the whole CDR H3, while additional CDR residues form shallow binding pockets. Structural modeling suggests a way to understand the configuration of QNEs and the antigen-antibody interaction for QNE mAbs. Our data will be useful in designing immunogens that may elicit potent neutralizing QNE Abs.

  11. Transfer of a three step mAb chromatography process from batch to continuous: Optimizing productivity to minimize consumable requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjoka, Xhorxhi; Gantier, Rene; Schofield, Mark

    2017-01-20

    The goal of this study was to adapt a batch mAb purification chromatography platform for continuous operation. The experiments and rationale used to convert from batch to continuous operation are described. Experimental data was used to design chromatography methods for continuous operation that would exceed the threshold for critical quality attributes and minimize the consumables required as compared to batch mode of operation. Four unit operations comprising of Protein A capture, viral inactivation, flow-through anion exchange (AEX), and mixed-mode cation exchange chromatography (MMCEX) were integrated across two Cadence BioSMB PD multi-column chromatography systems in order to process a 25L volume of harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF) in less than 12h. Transfer from batch to continuous resulted in an increase in productivity of the Protein A step from 13 to 50g/L/h and of the MMCEX step from 10 to 60g/L/h with no impact on the purification process performance in term of contaminant removal (4.5 log reduction of host cell proteins, 50% reduction in soluble product aggregates) and overall chromatography process yield of recovery (75%). The increase in productivity, combined with continuous operation, reduced the resin volume required for Protein A and MMCEX chromatography by more than 95% compared to batch. The volume of AEX membrane required for flow through operation was reduced by 74%. Moreover, the continuous process required 44% less buffer than an equivalent batch process. This significant reduction in consumables enables cost-effective, disposable, single-use manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. TetraMabs: simultaneous targeting of four oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases for tumor growth inhibition in heterogeneous tumor cell populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Raffaella; Schanzer, Jürgen; Panke, Christian; Jucknischke, Ute; Neubert, Natalie J.; Croasdale, Rebecca; Scheuer, Werner; Auer, Johannes; Klein, Christian; Niederfellner, Gerhard; Kobold, Sebastian; Sustmann, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody-based targeted tumor therapy has greatly improved treatment options for patients. Antibodies against oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), especially the ErbB receptor family, are prominent examples. However, long-term efficacy of such antibodies is limited by resistance mechanisms. Tumor evasion by a priori or acquired activation of other kinases is often causative for this phenomenon. These findings led to an increasing number of combination approaches either within a protein family, e.g. the ErbB family or by targeting RTKs of different phylogenetic origin like HER1 and cMet or HER1 and IGF1R. Progress in antibody engineering technology enabled generation of clinical grade bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) to design drugs inherently addressing such resistance mechanisms. Limited data are available on multi-specific antibodies targeting three or more RTKs. In the present study, we have evaluated the cloning, eukaryotic expression and purification of tetraspecific, tetravalent Fc-containing antibodies targeting HER3, cMet, HER1 and IGF1R. The antibodies are based on the combination of single-chain Fab and Fv fragments in an IgG1 antibody format enhanced by the knob-into-hole technology. They are non-agonistic and inhibit tumor cell growth comparable to the combination of four parental antibodies. Importantly, TetraMabs show improved apoptosis induction and tumor growth inhibition over individual monospecific or BsAbs in cellular assays. In addition, a mimicry assay to reflect heterogeneous expression of antigens in a tumor mass was established. With this novel in vitro assay, we can demonstrate the superiority of a tetraspecific antibody to bispecific tumor antigen-binding antibodies in early pre-clinical development. PMID:27578890

  13. How does the public react when scientists disagree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunka, Agnieszka; Palmqvist, Annemette; Forbes, Valery E.

    The way people perceive risks is an important element of risk communication, that has to be considered by media professionals and food safety authorities alike. Non-experts in risk assessment have to rely on the expertise of others. Therefore, the role of scientific consensus and trust in the jud......The way people perceive risks is an important element of risk communication, that has to be considered by media professionals and food safety authorities alike. Non-experts in risk assessment have to rely on the expertise of others. Therefore, the role of scientific consensus and trust...... NK603 diet in Sprague Dawley rats was published online by the journal of Food and Chemical Toxicology. The results, illustrated by pictures of malformed rat females quickly found their way into leading popular internet media and triggered a heated debate within the scientific community, among...... factor undermining trust both in food safety authorities and the scientific community in general. On the other hand, trust does not only apply to the information source, but to communication content as well. Many studies on risk perception show a very strong bias towards negative information occurring...

  14. Strongly Gorenstein Flat Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia ZHANG; Li Min WANG

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of modules and rings.We show this dimension has nice properties when the ring is coherent,and extend the well-known Hilbert's syzygy theorem to the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of rings.Also,we investigate the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of direct products of rings and (almost)excellent extensions of rings.

  15. Oral and parenteral immunization with synthetic retro-inverso peptides induce antibodies that cross-react with native peptides and parent antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Comis, Alfio; Tyler, Margaret; Howden, Merlin

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether certain retro-inverso peptides have the potential to act as synthetic vaccines in mice, when immunized by injection or orally. Immunization of mice parenterally with conjugates of three such retro-inverso peptides and orally with the unconjugated peptides elicited generally high titres of anti-peptide antibodies. Antibodies against the same three peptides cross-reacted by binding strongly in ELISA to the native peptides and vice versa, regardless of the mode of immunization. Antibodies against a retro-inverso diphtheria peptide also reacted strongly with diphtheria toxin. Seven of 8 mice, immunized by injection of the conjugate of a retro-inverso derivative of robustoxin [a lethal spider (Atrax robustus) venom toxin] were protected from challenge involving injection with twice the minimum lethal dose of A. robustus venom containing the toxin.

  16. Fabrication of mAb G250-SPIO molecular magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobe for the specific detection of renal cell carcinoma in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailuan Lu

    Full Text Available Molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI has been paid more and more attention for early diagnosis of cancer. A sensitive and specific mMRI probe plays the most important role in this technique. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles and mAb G250 were conjugated as mMRI probe for the detection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC using 3.0-Tesla MRI in vitro. mAb G250 could specifically recognize carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX antigen overexpressed in ccRCC and the SPIO nanoparticles as MRI contrast agent presented excellent MRI response and good biocompatibility. The successful assembly of this nanoprobe was confirmed by UV-vis spectrum, FT-IR spectroscopy and DLS analysis. In vitro MRI study on ccRCC cells and control cells indicated that our fabricated mAb G250-SPIO nanoprobe could be used in the specific labeling of clear cell renal carcinoma cells successfully.

  17. Ambulatory REACT: real-time seizure detection with a DSP microprocessor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Robert P; Faul, Stephen; Marnane, William P

    2010-01-01

    REACT (Real-Time EEG Analysis for event deteCTion) is a Support Vector Machine based technology which, in recent years, has been successfully applied to the problem of automated seizure detection in both adults and neonates. This paper describes the implementation of REACT on a commercial DSP microprocessor; the Analog Devices Blackfin®. The primary aim of this work is to develop a prototype system for use in ambulatory or in-ward automated EEG analysis. Furthermore, the complexity of the various stages of the REACT algorithm on the Blackfin processor is analysed; in particular the EEG feature extraction stages. This hardware profile is used to select a reduced, platform-aware feature set, in order to evaluate the seizure classification accuracy of a lower-complexity, lower-power REACT system.

  18. Rule-Based Multidisciplinary Tool for Unsteady Reacting Real-Fluid Flows Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A design and analysis computational tool is proposed for simulating unsteady reacting flows in combustor devices used in reusable launch vehicles. Key aspects...

  19. KEEFEKTIFAN STRATEGI REACT DITINJAU DARI PRESTASI BELAJAR, KEMAMPUAN PENYELESAIAN MASALAH, KONEKSI MATEMATIS, SELF EFFICACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runtyani Irjayanti Putri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: (1 mendeskripsikan keefektifan strategi pembelajaran REACT pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, (2 menentukan strategi pembelajaran yang lebih efektif diantara strategi REACT dan pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Penelitian ini adalah penelitian quasi experiment. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah teknik tes dan nontes. Teknik analisis data yang digunakan adalah uji one sample t-test, uji T2 Hotelling’s, dan uji t-Bonferroni. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: (1 strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang, dan (2 strategi pembelajaran REACT lebih efektif daripada pembelajaran konvensional pada pembelajaran turunan fungsi ditinjau dari aspek prestasi belajar matematika, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA Negeri 4 Magelang. Kata Kunci: strategi REACT, prestasi belajar, kemampuan penyelesaian masalah matematis, kemampuan koneksi matematis, dan Self efficacy siswa SMA   THE EFFECTIVENESS OF REACT STRATEGY VIEWED FROM LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT, PROBLEM SOLVING ABILITY, MATHEMATICAL CONNECTION, SELF EFFICACY Abstract The aims of this study are to: (1 to describe the effectiveness of the REACT strategy viewed from Mathematics Learning Achievement, Mathematics Problem Solving Ability, Mathematics Connection Ability, and Student Self efficacy of State Senior High School 4 Magelang Students, and (2 determine a more effective

  20. Strong Field, Noncommutative QED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Ilderton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of strong background fields in noncommutative QED. Beginning with the noncommutative Maxwell and Dirac equations, we describe how combined noncommutative and strong field effects modify the propagation of fermions and photons. We extend these studies beyond the case of constant backgrounds by giving a new and revealing interpretation of the photon dispersion relation. Considering scattering in background fields, we then show that the noncommutative photon is primarily responsible for generating deviations from strong field QED results. Finally, we propose a new method for constructing gauge invariant variables in noncommutative QED, and use it to analyse the physics of our null background fields.

  1. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Alloy Circumferential Weld Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Gerry; Cantrell, Mark; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding is an innovative weld process that continues to grow in use, in the commercial, defense, and space sectors. It produces high quality and high strength welds in aluminum alloys. The process consists of a rotating weld pin tool that plasticizes material through friction. The plasticized material is welded by applying a high weld forge force through the weld pin tool against the material during pin tool rotation. The high weld forge force is reacted against an anvil and a stout tool structure. A variation of friction stir welding currently being evaluated is self-reacting friction stir welding. Self-reacting friction stir welding incorporates two opposing shoulders on the crown and root sides of the weld joint. In self-reacting friction stir welding, the weld forge force is reacted against the crown shoulder portion of the weld pin tool by the root shoulder. This eliminates the need for a stout tooling structure to react the high weld forge force required in the typical friction stir weld process. Therefore, the self-reacting feature reduces tooling requirements and, therefore, process implementation costs. This makes the process attractive for aluminum alloy circumferential weld applications. To evaluate the application of self-reacting friction stir welding for aluminum alloy circumferential welding, a feasibility study was performed. The study consisted of performing a fourteen-foot diameter aluminum alloy circumferential demonstration weld using typical fusion weld tooling. To accomplish the demonstration weld, weld and tack weld development were performed and fourteen-foot diameter rings were fabricated. Weld development consisted of weld pin tool selection and the generation of a process map and envelope. Tack weld development evaluated gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding for tack welding rings together for circumferential welding. As a result of the study, a successful circumferential demonstration weld was produced leading

  2. Cross-reactivity virtual profiling of the human kinome by X-react(KIN): a chemical systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brylinski, Michal; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2010-12-06

    Many drug candidates fail in clinical development due to their insufficient selectivity that may cause undesired side effects. Therefore, modern drug discovery is routinely supported by computational techniques, which can identify alternate molecular targets with a significant potential for cross-reactivity. In particular, the development of highly selective kinase inhibitors is complicated by the strong conservation of the ATP-binding site across the kinase family. In this paper, we describe X-React(KIN), a new machine learning approach that extends the modeling and virtual screening of individual protein kinases to a system level in order to construct a cross-reactivity virtual profile for the human kinome. To maximize the coverage of the kinome, X-React(KIN) relies solely on the predicted target structures and employs state-of-the-art modeling techniques. Benchmark tests carried out against available selectivity data from high-throughput kinase profiling experiments demonstrate that, for almost 70% of the inhibitors, their alternate molecular targets can be effectively identified in the human kinome with a high (>0.5) sensitivity at the expense of a relatively low false positive rate (cross-reactivity profiles for the human kinome are freely available to the academic community at http://cssb.biology.gatech.edu/kinomelhm/ .

  3. Autoreactive antibodies are present in sheep with Johne's disease and cross-react with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sven; Bannantine, John P; Griffin, J Frank T

    2007-07-01

    Mycobacterial infection has been linked to the generation of autoantibodies, including anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA), in clinical studies and small animal models. In an attempt to identify antibodies that react with both self and mycobacterial antigens in naturally infected ruminants, we generated a phage display library comprising single chain antibody fragments (scFv) from sheep with Johne's disease (JD). The library was screened simultaneously against ovine small intestinal tissue and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A clone (termed AutoH1) reacted strongly with host tissue and MAP, recognizing a proteinase-susceptible 32 kDa determinant in ovine gut tissues and lymphatics, and in blood granulocytes but not mononuclear cells. In granulocytes, binding was to cytoplasmic granules and cell membranes; in MAP, AutoH1 bound bacterial cell wall determinants. We further identified a synthetic peptide sequence recognized by AutoH1, using this to generate a carrier:peptide fusion protein (paH1). Sera of normal and JD sheep were screened for AutoH1-like autoantibody activity; 7/11 JD animals showed autoreactivity that could be blocked by paH1, while 0/21 normal animals showed no such serological reactivity. It is possible that the severe pathology observed in ruminant JD may have an autoimmune component, possibly due to ANCA-type binding; this remains to be further investigated.

  4. Communique: Special Issue on the International Scientific Conference and Exhibit and the 7th Session of the International Co-Ordinating Council for MAB (Paris, Sept. 22-Oct. 2, 1981) = Numero special sur la Conference Scientifique Internationale et Exposition et al 7e session du Counseil International de Coordination du MAB (Paris, du 22 Sept. au 2 Oct. 1981).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communique, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presented are summaries of two separate but closely-related conferences. The International Scientific Conference and Exhibit, organized to mark the 10th anniversary of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB), was based on the theme "ecology in practice: establishing a scientific basis for land management." This summary includes: a 10…

  5. How strong is the strong interaction?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomgren, J.; Bergenwall, B.; Hildebrand, A.; Johansson, C.; Klug, J.; Mermod, P.; Nilsson, L.; Pomp, S.; Oesterlund, M. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Tippawan, U. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand); Jonsson, O.; Prokofiev, A.V. [The Svedberg Lab., Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Nadel-Turonski, P. [Dept. of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden); Olsson, N. [Dept. of Neutron Research, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Dangtip, S. [Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand)

    2003-07-01

    Elastic neutron scattering plays a key role in establishing the neutron-nucleus potential, i.e., the interaction strength between a neutron and a nucleus. In ADS applications, this information is useful in many different ways. Elastic scattering data are needed when determining the neutron intensity profile in and ADS system. In addition, the optical potentials derived from elastic neutron scattering data are used as input in every model calculation with a neutron in the incident or exit channel. Recently, there has been intense international debate on the neutron-proton scattering cross section. In the global data base, the backward cross section differs by 10% or even more at energies above 100 MeV. It is difficult to overemphasize the importance of this issue. The np scattering cross section is used as cross section reference in essentially all measurements of neutron-induced cross sections. Thus, for many applied cross sections the absolute scale is uncertain by the same amount. Moreover, the np scattering cross section has been used to derive the pion-nucleon coupling constant, i.e., the absolute strength of the strong interaction. It is annoying to have such a large uncertainty for such a fundamental parameter. We are presenting new data on elastic neutron scattering at 96 MeV from {sup 12}C and {sup 208}Pb, where the latter is part of the HINDAS project. In addition, new data on np scattering at 190 MeV will be presented. The impact on ADS and fundamental physics will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Development of Comprehensive Reduced Kinetic Models for Supersonic Reacting Shear Layer Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, A. C.; Chelliah, H. K.; Drummond, J. P.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale simulations of multi-dimensional unsteady turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport can be computationally extremely intensive even on distributed computing architectures. With the development of suitable reduced chemical kinetic models, the number of scalar variables to be integrated can be decreased, leading to a significant reduction in the computational time required for the simulation with limited loss of accuracy in the results. A general MATLAB-based automated mechanism reduction procedure is presented to reduce any complex starting mechanism (detailed or skeletal) with minimal human intervention. Based on the application of the quasi steady-state (QSS) approximation for certain chemical species and on the elimination of the fast reaction rates in the mechanism, several comprehensive reduced models, capable of handling different fuels such as C2H4, CH4 and H2, have been developed and thoroughly tested for several combustion problems (ignition, propagation and extinction) and physical conditions (reactant compositions, temperatures, and pressures). A key feature of the present reduction procedure is the explicit solution of the concentrations of the QSS species, needed for the evaluation of the elementary reaction rates. In contrast, previous approaches relied on an implicit solution due to the strong coupling between QSS species, requiring computationally expensive inner iterations. A novel algorithm, based on the definition of a QSS species coupling matrix, is presented to (i) introduce appropriate truncations to the QSS algebraic relations and (ii) identify the optimal sequence for the explicit solution of the concentration of the QSS species. With the automatic generation of the relevant source code, the resulting reduced models can be readily implemented into numerical codes.

  7. Strong Cosmic Censorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isenberg, James

    2017-01-01

    The Hawking-Penrose theorems tell us that solutions of Einstein's equations are generally singular, in the sense of the incompleteness of causal geodesics (the paths of physical observers). These singularities might be marked by the blowup of curvature and therefore crushing tidal forces, or by the breakdown of physical determinism. Penrose has conjectured (in his `Strong Cosmic Censorship Conjecture`) that it is generically unbounded curvature that causes singularities, rather than causal breakdown. The verification that ``AVTD behavior'' (marked by the domination of time derivatives over space derivatives) is generically present in a family of solutions has proven to be a useful tool for studying model versions of Strong Cosmic Censorship in that family. I discuss some of the history of Strong Cosmic Censorship, and then discuss what is known about AVTD behavior and Strong Cosmic Censorship in families of solutions defined by varying degrees of isometry, and discuss recent results which we believe will extend this knowledge and provide new support for Strong Cosmic Censorship. I also comment on some of the recent work on ``Weak Null Singularities'', and how this relates to Strong Cosmic Censorship.

  8. A 65+ Gflop/s unstructured finite element simulation of chemically reacting flows on the Intel Paragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Moffat, H.K.; Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.W. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hennigan, G.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Many scientific and engineering applications require a detailed analysis of complex systems with strongly coupled fluid flow, thermal energy transfer, mass transfer and non-equilibrium chemical reactions. Here they describe the performance of a newly developed application code, SALSA, designed to simulate these complex flows on large-scale parallel machines such as the Intel Paragon. SALSA uses 3D unstructure finite element methods to model geometrically complex flow systems. Fully implicit time integration multicomponent mass transport and general gas phase and surface species non-equilibrium chemical kinetics are employed. Using these techniques they have obtained over 65 Gflop/s on a 3D chemically reacting flow CVD problem for Silicon Carbide (SiC) deposition. This represents 46% of the peak performance of the 1904 node Intel Paragon, an outstanding computational rate in view of the required unstructured data communication.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to intermediate filament proteins of human cells: unique and cross-reacting antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, A M; Vogel, A M

    1982-11-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were generated against the intermediate filament proteins of different human cells. The reactivity of these antibodies with the different classes of intermediate filament proteins was determined by indirect immunofluorescence on cultured cells, immunologic indentification on SDS polyacrylamide gels ("wester blot" experiments), and immunoperoxidase assays on intact tissues. The following four antibodies are described: (a) an antivimentin antibody generated against human fibroblast cytoskeleton; (b), (c) two antibodies that recognize a 54-kdalton protein in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells; and (d) an antikeratin antibody made to stratum corneum that recognizes proteins of molecular weight 66 kdaltons and 57 kdaltons. The antivimentin antibody reacts with vimentin (58 kdaltons), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and keratins from stratum corneum, but does not recognize hepatoma intermediate filaments. In immunofluorescence assays, the antibody reacts with mesenchymal cells and cultured epithelial cells that express vimentin. This antibody decorates the media of blood vessels in tissue sections. One antihepatoma filament antibody reacts only with the 54 kdalton protein of these cells and, in immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase assays, only recognizes epithelial cells. It reacts with almost all nonsquamous epithelium. The other antihepatoma filament antibody is much less selective, reacting with vimentin, GFAP, and keratin from stratum corneum. This antibody decorates intermediate filaments of both mesenchymal and epithelial cells. The antikeratin antibody recognizes 66-kdalton and 57-kdalton proteins in extracts of stratum corneum and also identifies proteins of similar molecular weights in all cells tested. However, by immunofluorescence, this antibody decorates only the intermediate filaments of epidermoid carcinoma cells. When assayed on tissue sections, the antibody reacts with squamous epithelium and some, but not all

  10. Strongly correlated Bose gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevy, F.; Salomon, C.

    2016-10-01

    The strongly interacting Bose gas is one of the most fundamental paradigms of quantum many-body physics and the subject of many experimental and theoretical investigations. We review recent progress on strongly correlated Bose gases, starting with a description of beyond mean-field corrections. We show that the Efimov effect leads to non universal phenomena and to a metastability of the low temperature Bose gas through three-body recombination to deeply bound molecular states. We outline differences and similarities with ultracold Fermi gases, discuss recent experiments on the unitary Bose gas, and finally present a few perspectives for future research.

  11. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  12. Study of Transport and Micro-structural properties of Magnesium Di-Boride Strand under react and bend mode and bend and react mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Ananya; Das, Subrat Kumar; Bano, Anees; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    I-V characterization of commercial multi-filamentary Magnesium Di-Boride (MgB2) wire of diameter 0.83 mm were studied in Cryocooler at self-field I-V characterization system under both react and bend mode and bend and react mode for a range of temperature 6 K - 25 K. This study is of practical technical relevance where the heat treatment of the superconducting wire makes the wire less flexible for winding in magnet and in other applications. In the present work the bending diameter was varied from 40 mm to 20 mm and for each case critical current (Ic) of the strand is measured for above range of temperature. A customized sample holder is fabricated and thermally anchored with the 2nd cold stage of Cryocooler. It is observed from the measurement that the strand is more susceptible to degradation for react and bend cases. The transport measurement of the strand was accompanied by SEM analyses of bend samples. Also the tensile strength of the raw strands and the heat treated strands were carried out at room temperature in Universal Testing Machine (UTM) to have an estimate about the limiting winding tension value during magnet fabrication.

  13. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  14. Strong Little Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Did you know that some strong little cylindrical magnets available in local hardware stores can have an effective circumferential current of 2500 A? This intriguing information can be obtained by hanging a pair of magnets at the center of a coil, as shown in Fig. 1, and measuring the oscillation frequency as a function of coil current.

  15. Effects of interleukin-18 and Anti-interleukin-18-mAb on Experimental immunological Liver Fibrosis induced by Repeatedly Administered Concanavalin A and its Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-wen Tan; Jian-cheng Wu; Yun Ye; Li Chen; Peng-li Pai

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevention of IL-18 or anti-IL-18-mAb to the immune liver fibrosis model induced by repeated injection of concanavalin A in BALB/c mice and its mechanism. Methods Total of 120 BALB/c mice were divided into four groups, control group mice (Ga) were injected weekly with normal saline, concanavalin A group was divided into Gb, Gc, Gd. All mice were injected with concanavalin A (15 mg/kg) once a week. Moreover, Gc, Gd mice were injected weekly with IL-18 (7.5 mg/kg) and anti-IL-18-mAb (10 mg/kg) 2 hours before treatment with concanavalin A, respectively. Twenty-four hours after concanavalin A challenge at 1, 5, 12 and 20 weeks, 3 mice were killed by vena orbitalis, repectively. The sera were storaged at 4℃for detecting of up TNF-αand IFN-γby ELISA. The liver of mice in different groups were excised and fixed in 10%formalin for HE staining and Masson staining or frozen in liquid nitrogen for immunohistochemical staining forα-SMA. After extracting of total RNA from liver tissue, MMP-2 and TIMP-1 A messenger RNA were amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Products were electrophoresed on agrose gel containing ethidium bromide and visualized under ultraviolet light. Densitometric RT-PCR data were standardized withβ-actin signals. Results After experiment, the number of dead mice of Ga, Gb, Gc and Gd were 0, 6, 15 and 3, respectively. There were significant difference on each group (P<0.05). At the fifth week of experiment, hepatocellular necrosis in IL-18 administered group mice had become widespread throughout the lobule. Evidence of liver fibrosis was observed during this period. However, at the twelfth week of experimemt, bridging fibrosis and large fibrosis strip in the parenchyma with hepatocellular necrosis was detectable in Gb, but at twentieth week, only the small fibrosis strip had been found in anti-IL-18-mAb administered group mice by HE staining and Masson staining. The serum levels of TNF-αand IFN

  16. An experimental and numerical study of confined non-reacting and reacting turbulent jets to facilitate homogeneous combustion in industrial furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Insu

    Confined non-reacting turbulent jets are ideal for recirculating the hot flue gas back into the furnace from an external exhaust duct. Such jets are also used inside the furnace to internally entrain and recirculate the hot flue gas to preheat and dilute the reactants. Both internal and external implementation of confined turbulent jets increase the furnace thermal efficiency. For external implementation, depending on the circumstances, the exhaust gas flow may be co- or counter-flow relative to the jet flow. Inside the furnaces, fuel and air jets are injected separately. To create a condition which can facilitate near homogeneous combustion, these jets have to first mix with the burned gas inside the furnace and simultaneously being heated and diluted prior to combustion. Clearly, the combustion pattern and emissions from reacting confined turbulent jets are affected by jet interactions, mixing and entrainment of hot flue gas. In this work, the flow and mixing characteristics of a non-reacting and reacting confined turbulent jet are investigated experimentally and numerically. This work consists of two parts: (i) A study of flow and mixing characteristics of non-reacting confined turbulent jets with co- or counter-flowing exhaust/flue gas. Here the axial and radial distributions of temperature, velocity and NO concentration (used as a tracer gas) were measured. FLUENT was used to numerically simulate the experimental results. This work provides the basic understanding of the flow and mixing characteristics of confined turbulent jets and develops some design considerations for recirculating flue gas back into the furnace as expressed by the recirculation zone and the stagnation locations. (ii) Numerical calculations of near homogeneous combustion are performed for the existing furnace. The exact geometry of the furnace in the lab is used and the real dimensional boundary conditions are considered. The parameters such as air nozzle diameter (dair), fuel nozzle

  17. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. I. Immunochemical quantification of allergens by RAST-inhibition, Mab-ELISA, basophil histamine release, and counter current immuno electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, C R; Abrahamsen, L; Stahl Skov, P;

    1991-01-01

    The aim was to compare IgE and IgG4 RAST-inhibition assay (RI), monoclonal antibody ELISA (Mab-ELISA), counter current immuno electrophoresis (CCIE) and histamine release from basophil leukocytes (HR) for allergen quantification with special reference to aeroallergen detection. As components...... and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml), and 10(2)-10(3) SQ-U/ML for dog. Because of cross-reactivity, a minor degree of interference was observed in the IgE-RI and the HR test for the highest concentration of cat and dog allergens....

  18. Immune response of sheep to Haemonchus contortus: serum antibodies against cross reacting antigens between parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charley, J; Bourdieu, C; Luffau, G; Pery, P

    1981-01-01

    Normal and H. contortus infected sera were studied by ELISA technique against different stages of the parasites. In all cases antibody activity was detected. This activity in serum is partially eliminated after absorption with an adult worm extract of N brasiliensis. N. brasiliensis and H. contortus antigens were analysed by TCIEP with a rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum to examine shared antigens of H. contortus. A minimum of seven cross reacting antigens were detected. H. contortus adult worm extract was absorbed by the rabbit anti-N. brasiliensis serum. After absorption all cross reacting antigens were removed but at least one antigen reacting with a rabbit serum anti-H. Contortus is maintained. When this antigen is tested in elisa technique only a weak antibody activity is found in normal serum.

  19. Process to separate alkali metal salts from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, John Howard; Alvare, Javier; Larsen, Dennis; Killpack, Jeff

    2017-06-27

    A process to facilitate gravimetric separation of alkali metal salts, such as alkali metal sulfides and polysulfides, from alkali metal reacted hydrocarbons. The disclosed process is part of a method of upgrading a hydrocarbon feedstock by removing heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals from the hydrocarbon feedstock composition. This method reacts the oil feedstock with an alkali metal and an upgradant hydrocarbon. The alkali metal reacts with a portion of the heteroatoms and/or one or more heavy metals to form an inorganic phase containing alkali metal salts and reduced heavy metals, and an upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock. The inorganic phase may be gravimetrically separated from the upgraded hydrocarbon feedstock after mixing at a temperature between about 350.degree. C. to 400.degree. C. for a time period between about 15 minutes and 2 hours.

  20. Strong Field Spherical Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Dormy, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models of the geodynamo are usually classified in two categories: those denominated dipolar modes, observed when the inertial term is small enough, and multipolar fluctuating dynamos, for stronger forcing. I show that a third dynamo branch corresponding to a dominant force balance between the Coriolis force and the Lorentz force can be produced numerically. This force balance is usually referred to as the strong field limit. This solution co-exists with the often described viscous branch. Direct numerical simulations exhibit a transition from a weak-field dynamo branch, in which viscous effects set the dominant length scale, and the strong field branch in which viscous and inertial effects are largely negligible. These results indicate that a distinguished limit needs to be sought to produce numerical models relevant to the geodynamo and that the usual approach of minimizing the magnetic Prandtl number (ratio of the fluid kinematic viscosity to its magnetic diffusivity) at a given Ekman number is mi...

  1. Strongly Correlated Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H.; Si, Qimiao

    2013-01-01

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective ...

  2. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  3. Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-03

    Research Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 Condensed Matter, Topological Phases of Matter REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S...Strongly Correlated Topological Insulators In the past year, the grant was used for work in the field of topological phases, with emphasis on finding...surface of topological insulators. In the past 3 years, we have started a new direction, that of fractional topological insulators. These are materials

  4. Strong Coupling and Classicalization

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2016-01-01

    Classicalization is a phenomenon in which a theory prevents itself from entering into a strong-coupling regime, by redistributing the energy among many weakly-interacting soft quanta. In this way, the scattering process of some initial hard quanta splits into a large number of soft elementary processes. In short, the theory trades the strong coupling for a high-multiplicity of quanta. At very high energies, the outcome of such a scattering experiment is a production of soft states of high occupation number that are approximately classical. It is evident that black hole creation in particle collision at super-Planckian energies is a result of classicalization, but there is no a priory reason why this phenomenon must be limited to gravity. If the hierarchy problem is solved by classicalization, the LHC has a chance of detecting a tower of new resonances. The lowest-lying resonances must appear right at the strong coupling scale in form of short-lived elementary particles. The heavier members of the tower must b...

  5. Effects of Fusion Tack Welds on Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.; Pendleton, M. L.; Brooke, S. A.; Russell, C. K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to know whether fusion tack welds would affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir seam welds in 2195-T87 aluminum alloy, the fracture stresses of 144 tensile test coupons cut from 24 welded panels containing segments of friction stir welds were measured. Each of the panels was welded under unique processing conditions. A measure of the effect of the tack welds for each panel was devised. An analysis of the measures of the tack weld effect supported the hypothesis that fusion tack welds do not affect the strength of self-reacting friction stir welds to a 5% level of confidence.

  6. A STRONG LINK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Trade frictions should not affect the mainstream of Sino-U.S. mutually beneficial economic and trade cooperation China and the United States have a complicated relationship, one that can be called a competitive partnership. The U.S. trade deficit with China, its third largest trading partner, hit a staggering $201.6 billion last year, an imbalance that is a major bone of contention. Yet, while frictions over trade, intellectual property rights and other issues grab the headlines, there is strong-and grow...

  7. Liposomal co-entrapment of CD40mAb induces enhanced IgG responses against bacterial polysaccharide and protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Hatzifoti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibody against CD40 is effective in enhancing immune responses to vaccines when chemically conjugated to the vaccine antigen. Unfortunately the requirement for chemical conjugation presents some difficulties in vaccine production and quality control which are compounded when multivalent vaccines are required. We explore here an alternative to chemical conjugation, involving the co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody and antigens in liposomal vehicles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-mouse CD40 mAb or isotype control mAb were co-entrapped individually in cationic liposomal vehicles with pneumococcal polysaccharides or diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. Retention of CD40 binding activity upon liposomal entrapment was assessed by ELISA and flow cytometry. After subcutaneous immunization of BALB/c female mice, anti-polysaccharide and DT/TT responses were measured by ELISA. Simple co-encapsulation of CD40 antibody allowed for the retention of CD40 binding on the liposome surface, and also produced vaccines with enhanced imunogenicity. Antibody responses against both co-entrapped protein in the form of tetanus toxoid, and Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharide, were enhanced by co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody. Surprisingly, liposomal encapsulation also appeared to decrease the toxicity of high doses of CD40 antibody as assessed by the degree of splenomegaly induced. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Liposomal co-encapsulation with CD40 antibody may represent a practical means of producing more immunogenic multivalent vaccines and inducing IgG responses against polysaccharides without the need for conjugation.

  8. Quantitative definition and monitoring of the host cell protein proteome using iTRAQ - a study of an industrial mAb producing CHO-S cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiverton, Lesley M; Evans, Caroline; Pandhal, Jagroop; Landels, Andrew R; Rees, Byron J; Levison, Peter R; Wright, Phillip C; Smales, C Mark

    2016-08-01

    There are few studies defining CHO host cell proteins (HCPs) and the flux of these throughout a downstream purification process. Here we have applied quantitative iTRAQ proteomics to follow the HCP profile of an antibody (mAb) producing CHO-S cell line throughout a standard downstream purification procedure consisting of a Protein A, cation and anion exchange process. We used both 6 sample iTRAQ experiment to analyze technical replicates of three samples, which were culture harvest (HCCF), Protein A flow through and Protein A eluate and an 8 sample format to analyze technical replicates of four sample types; HCCF compared to Protein A eluate and subsequent cation and anion exchange purification. In the 6 sample iTRAQ experiment, 8781 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 819 proteins (including the mAb chains). Across both the 6 and 8 sample experiments 936 proteins were identified. In the 8 sample comparison, 4187 spectra were confidently matched to peptides from 219 proteins. We then used the iTRAQ data to enable estimation of the relative change of individual proteins across the purification steps. These data provide the basis for application of iTRAQ for process development based upon knowledge of critical HCPs. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. lmmunofiuorescent Labeling of Human HepG2 Cells with CdTe Quantum Dot Probe Conjugated with Anti-pan CK MAb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Yu-jie; ZHANG Gui-zhen; WANG Qian; WANG Ya-li; WU Mei; DU Zhen-wu; ZHANG Jie; JIANG Ri-hua

    2011-01-01

    A relatively sensitive, specific, and photostable method for the detection of cytokeratin of cancer cells via conjugation with cadmium telluride quantum dots(CdTe QDs) was described. Water soluble CdTe QDs were conjugated to anti-pan-cytokeratin(CK) monoclonal antibody(MAb) through coupling reagent [1-ethyi-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl)carbodiimide, EDC] and the conjugates were purified by dialysis. The expression of pan CK protein in HepG2 cells was observed by immunocytochemistry and direct immunofluorescence via QDs-Ab conjugates respectively. Fluorescence intensity and photostability of QDs were compared with those of FITC(fiuorescein isothiocyanate). The results show that the QDs-Ab conjugates recognized specifically pan CK protein in HepG2 cells. Compared with FITC, CdTe QDs had higher brightness and photostability without obvious photobleaching under continuous exciting light illumination for 30 min and after the placement at room temperature for 3 d. The results indicate that conjugates of CdTe quantum dot with anti-pan CK MAb can be used for labeling cancer cells derived from epithelial tissues, which provides the basis for the detection of circulating tumor cells(CTCs).

  10. Elucidating the Weak Protein-Protein Interaction Mechanisms behind the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a mAb Solution by Different Types of Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang Co-First, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-07-25

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (kD) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Systemic administration of Abeta mAb reduces retinal deposition of Abeta and activated complement C3 in age-related macular degeneration mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Catchpole

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a leading cause of legal blindness in the Western world. There are effective treatments for the vascular complications of neo-vascular AMD, but no effective therapies are available for the dry/atrophic form of the disease. A previously described transgenic CFH-gene deficient mouse model, (cfh-/-, shows hallmarks of early AMD. The ocular phenotype has been further analysed to demonstrate amyloid beta (Aβ rich basement membrane deposits associated with activated complement C3. Cfh-/- mice were treated systemically in both prophylactic and therapeutic regimes with an anti-Aβ monoclonal antibody (mAb, 6F6, to determine the effect on the cfh-/- retinal phenotype. Prophylactic treatment with 6F6 demonstrated a dose dependent reduction in the accumulation of both Aβ and activated C3 deposition. A similar reduction in the retinal endpoints could be seen after therapeutic treatment. Serum Aβ levels after systemic administration of 6F6 show accumulation of Aβ in the periphery suggestive of a peripheral sink mechanism. In summary, anti-Aβ mAb treatment can partially prevent or reverse ocular phenotypes of the cfh-/- mouse. The data support this therapeutic approach in humans potentially modulating two key elements in the pathogenesis of AMD - Aβ and activated, complement C3.

  12. Strongly correlated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morosan, Emilia; Natelson, Douglas; Nevidomskyy, Andriy H; Si, Qimiao

    2012-09-18

    Strongly correlated materials are profoundly affected by the repulsive electron-electron interaction. This stands in contrast to many commonly used materials such as silicon and aluminum, whose properties are comparatively unaffected by the Coulomb repulsion. Correlated materials often have remarkable properties and transitions between distinct, competing phases with dramatically different electronic and magnetic orders. These rich phenomena are fascinating from the basic science perspective and offer possibilities for technological applications. This article looks at these materials through the lens of research performed at Rice University. Topics examined include: Quantum phase transitions and quantum criticality in "heavy fermion" materials and the iron pnictide high temperature superconductors; computational ab initio methods to examine strongly correlated materials and their interface with analytical theory techniques; layered dichalcogenides as example correlated materials with rich phases (charge density waves, superconductivity, hard ferromagnetism) that may be tuned by composition, pressure, and magnetic field; and nanostructure methods applied to the correlated oxides VO₂ and Fe₃O₄, where metal-insulator transitions can be manipulated by doping at the nanoscale or driving the system out of equilibrium. We conclude with a discussion of the exciting prospects for this class of materials.

  13. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2009-01-01

    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  14. Specific IgG Antibodies React to Mimotopes of BK Polyomavirus, a Small DNA Tumor Virus, in Healthy Adult Sera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrobon, Silvia; Bononi, Ilaria; Mazzoni, Elisa; Lotito, Francesca; Manfrini, Marco; Puozzo, Andrea; Destro, Federica; Guerra, Giovanni; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro G.

    2017-01-01

    BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) was isolated in 1971 from the urine of a kidney transplant patient. Soon after its identification, BKPyV was characterized as a kidney-tropic virus, which is responsible of a significant fraction of the rejection of transplant kidney in the host. Moreover, in experimental conditions, BKPyV is able to transform different types of animal and human cells and to induce tumors of different histotypes in experimental animals. BKPyV DNA sequences have been detected in healthy individuals and cancer patients using polymerase chain reaction/Shouthern blot hybridization methods. Serum antibodies against this polyomavirus were revealed using immunological techniques, which, however, cross-react with other polyomaviruses such as JC (JCPyV) and Simian Virus 40. These non-specific data indicate the need of novel immunological methods and new investigations to check in a specific manner, BKPyV spread in humans. To this aim, mimotopes from BKPyV structural capsid protein 1 (VP1) were employed for specific immunological reactions to IgG antibodies of human serum samples. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with synthetic peptides mimicking immunogenic epitopes of BKPyV VP1 was set up and employed to test sera of healthy adult subjects. Data from this innovative immunological assay indicate that serum antibodies against BKPyV VP1 mimotopes are detectable in healthy subjects ranging from 18 to 90 years old. The overall prevalence of serum samples that reacted to BKPyV VP1 mimotopes was 72%. The strong points from this investigation are the novelty of the immunological method, its simplicity of the approach, and the specificity of BKPyV antibody reaction to VP1 mimotopes. PMID:28321224

  15. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Conceptual Change Texts in the REACT Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ültay, Neslihan; Durukan, Ümmü Gülsüm; Ültay, Eser

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of conceptual change text (CCT) in the REACT strategy for students' conceptions of solutions. A quasi-experimental method was used in the study. The study was carried out in the spring term of the 2012-2013 academic year with 61 freshmen students (aged 18-20 years) studying in the Elementary Education…

  16. Identification of a Campylobacter jejuni protein that cross-reacts with cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M John; Haridas, Shilpa; Steer, David; Dhaunsi, Gursev S; Smith, A Ian; Adler, Ben

    2007-06-01

    The question of whether Campylobacter jejuni produces a cholera toxin-like toxin (CTLT) has been controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the factor that cross-reacts with CT from C. jejuni. Filtrates of C. jejuni grown in four different liquid media reported to promote CTLT production were tested by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell elongation assay and for reactivity with CT antibody using GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Protein sequence was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI TOF-TOF). Filtrates from seven reference strains reported to produce CTLT and from 80 clinical strains were negative in the CHO cell assay, but those from three reference strains and 16 clinical strains were positive by GM1 ELISA. All strains tested, including C. jejuni NCTC 11168, which does not contain a CT gene homologue, possessed a 53-kDa protein which reacted with CT antibody by immunoblotting. This band was identified as the major outer membrane protein, PorA, of C. jejuni. CT antibody reacted by immunoblotting with a recombinant PorA, but antibody to the recombinant PorA did not react with CT. Our results indicate that C. jejuni does not produce a functional CTLT, but the reactivity of PorA with CT antibody would lead to the erroneous conclusion that C. jejuni produces a functional CTLT.

  17. Identification of a Campylobacter jejuni Protein That Cross-Reacts with Cholera Toxin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M. John; Haridas, Shilpa; Steer, David; Dhaunsi, Gursev S.; Smith, A. Ian; Adler, Ben

    2007-01-01

    The question of whether Campylobacter jejuni produces a cholera toxin-like toxin (CTLT) has been controversial. The objective of this study was to identify the factor that cross-reacts with CT from C. jejuni. Filtrates of C. jejuni grown in four different liquid media reported to promote CTLT production were tested by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell elongation assay and for reactivity with CT antibody using GM1 ganglioside enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblotting. Protein sequence was determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI TOF-TOF). Filtrates from seven reference strains reported to produce CTLT and from 80 clinical strains were negative in the CHO cell assay, but those from three reference strains and 16 clinical strains were positive by GM1 ELISA. All strains tested, including C. jejuni NCTC 11168, which does not contain a CT gene homologue, possessed a 53-kDa protein which reacted with CT antibody by immunoblotting. This band was identified as the major outer membrane protein, PorA, of C. jejuni. CT antibody reacted by immunoblotting with a recombinant PorA, but antibody to the recombinant PorA did not react with CT. Our results indicate that C. jejuni does not produce a functional CTLT, but the reactivity of PorA with CT antibody would lead to the erroneous conclusion that C. jejuni produces a functional CTLT. PMID:17438040

  18. A framework for the design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Shaw, Andrew; Hodges, George;

    2012-01-01

    A generic modelling framework for phase transition catalyst based reacting systems has been developed and converted into a software tool. The modelling framework accommodates models of different types representing different sub-systems of the PTCbased reactive system; databases of model parameter...

  19. A framework for the design of reacting systems with phase transfer catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piccolo, Chiara; Shaw, Andrew; Hodges, George;

    A generic modelling framework for phase transition catalyst based reacting systems has been developed and converted into a software tool. The modelling framework accommodates models of different types representing different sub-systems of the PTCbased reactive system; databases of model parameter...

  20. A NEW METHOD TO DETECT ACROSOME-REACTED SPERMATOZOA USING BIOTINYLATED SOYBEAN TRYPSIN-INHIBITOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ARTS, EGJM; KUIKEN, J; JAGER, S

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To develop a method to detect acrosome-reacted spermatozoa on human zonae pellucidae using only commercially available reagents and without need for sperm fixation. Design: Sperm head labeling with biotinylated soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI-biotin) was compared with results of a known m

  1. Serum and plasma fibronectin binds to complement reacted immune complexes primarily via Clq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Svehag, S E

    1986-01-01

    The binding of fibronectin to human Clq, C3b, and complement-reacted immune complexes (IC) was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Microplates were coated with BSA followed by incubation with rabbit-anti-BSA IgG or F(ab')2 fragments of rabbit anti-BSA. Incubation of the solid phas...

  2. Imines that React with Phenols in Water over a Wide pH Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Maki; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Cyclic imine derivatives that react with phenols, including tyrosine residues of peptides, have been developed. Reactions of the imines with phenols proceeded in water over a wide pH range (pH 2-10) at room temperature to 37 °C and afforded Mannich products without the need of additional catalysts. PMID:18844415

  3. Heat and mass transfer for turbulent flow of chemically reacting gas in eccentric annular channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besedina, T. V.; Tverkovkin, B. E.; Udot, A. V.; Yakushev, A. P.

    1987-08-01

    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the velocity, temperature, and concentration fields under conditions of cooling of a cylindrical heat-releasing rod, placed off-center in a circular casing pipe, by a longitudinal flow of chemically reacting gas [N2O4].

  4. Flu Plan: Colleges Struggle with How They Would React to a Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Lila

    2005-01-01

    Administrators of various education schools have vowed to ready their institutions for the next major disaster of flu pandemic. While a few colleges with expertise or interest in the area are trying to determine how their campuses should react to a flu pandemic, most seem to be struggling with how to fit all the unknowns of such a crisis into…

  5. Prediction of reacting atoms for the major biotransformation reactions of organic xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudik, Anastasia V; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Lagunin, Alexey A; Filimonov, Dmitry A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of drug metabolite structures is essential at the early stage of drug discovery to understand the potential liabilities and risks connected with biotransformation. The determination of the site of a molecule at which a particular metabolic reaction occurs could be used as a starting point for metabolite identification. The prediction of the site of metabolism does not always correspond to the particular atom that is modified by the enzyme but rather is often associated with a group of atoms. To overcome this problem, we propose to operate with the term "reacting atom", corresponding to a single atom in the substrate that is modified during the biotransformation reaction. The prediction of the reacting atom(s) in a molecule for the major classes of biotransformation reactions is necessary to generate drug metabolites. Substrates of the major human cytochromes P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases from the Biovia Metabolite database were divided into nine groups according to their reaction classes, which are aliphatic and aromatic hydroxylation, N- and O-glucuronidation, N-, S- and C-oxidation, and N- and O-dealkylation. Each training set consists of positive and negative examples of structures with one labelled atom. In the positive examples, the labelled atom is the reacting atom of a particular reaction that changed adjacency. Negative examples represent non-reacting atoms of a particular reaction. We used Labelled Multilevel Neighbourhoods of Atoms descriptors for the designation of reacting atoms. A Bayesian-like algorithm was applied to estimate the structure-activity relationships. The average invariant accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-one-out and 20-fold cross-validation procedures for five human isoforms of cytochrome P450 and all isoforms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase varies from 0.86 to 0.99 (0.96 on average). We report that reacting atoms may be predicted with reasonable accuracy for the major classes of metabolic reactions

  6. Strongly Coupled Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V

    2014-01-01

    Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.

  7. On Strong Cosmic Censorship

    CERN Document Server

    Isenberg, James

    2015-01-01

    For almost half of the one hundred year history of Einstein's theory of general relativity, Strong Cosmic Censorship has been one of its most intriguing conjectures. The SCC conjecture addresses the issue of the nature of the singularities found in most solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations: Are such singularities generically characterized by unbounded curvature? Is the existence of a Cauchy horizon (and the accompanying extensions into spacetime regions in which determinism fails) an unstable feature of solutions of Einstein's equations? In this short review article, after briefly commenting on the history of the SCC conjecture, we survey some of the progress made in research directed either toward supporting SCC or toward uncovering some of its weaknesses. We focus in particular on model versions of SCC which have been proven for restricted families of spacetimes (e.g., the Gowdy spacetimes), and the role played by the generic presence of Asymptotically Velocity Term Dominated behavior in th...

  8. LIGO: The strong belief

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2016-01-01

    Twenty years of designing, building and testing a number of innovative technologies, with the strong belief that the endeavour would lead to a historic breakthrough. The Bulletin publishes an abstract of the Courier’s interview with Barry Barish, one of the founding fathers of LIGO.   The plots show the signals of gravitational waves detected by the twin LIGO observatories at Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington. (Image: Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab) On 11 February, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo collaborations published a historic paper in which they showed a gravitational signal emitted by the merger of two black holes. These results come after 20 years of hard work by a large collaboration of scientists operating the two LIGO observatories in the US. Barry Barish, Linde Professor of Physics, Emeritus at the California Institute of Technology and former Director of the Global Design Effort for the Internat...

  9. Keefektifan Strategi Pembelajaran React Pada Kemampuan Siswa Kelas VII Aspek Komunikasi Matematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pembelajaran dengan strategi REACT efektif ter-hadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan de-ngan metode dokumentasi, tes, dan observasi. Hasil uji proporsi menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen pada aspek kemampuan komunikasi matematis telah men-capai ketuntasan klasikal, mencapai lebih dari 80 % yaitu sebesar 96,7%. Dilihat dari nilai rata-rata tes kemampuan komunikasi matematis kelas eksperimen  adalah 83,61 sedangkan kelas kontrol adalah 73,79 dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kon-trol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif terhadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa materi segiempat kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Gembong. Kata kunci:      keefektifan, kemampuan komunikasi matematis, Relating Experiencing Applying Cooperating Transferring (REACT  AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the application of REACT learning strategy approach to mathematic communication ability of students. Methods of data collection is done by the method of documentation, testing, and observation. The test results showed that the proportion of student learning outcomes in the experimental class with the aspects of mathematic communication ability has reached the classical completeness, reached more than 80% is equal to 96.7%. Judging from the value of the average test learners' ability to mathematic communication experimental class was 83.61 while the control class is 73.79 it can be concluded that the mathematic communication skills of learners experimental classes are better than mathematic communication abilities of learners control class. The results showed that the application of REACT learning strategy approach effective to mathematic communication abilities of students of class VII

  10. Syngeneic anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibodies to an anti-NeuGc-containing ganglioside monoclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, A M; Pérez, A; Hernández, A M; Macías, A; Alfonso, M; Bombino, G; Pérez, R

    1998-12-01

    An IgM monoclonal antibody (MAb), named P3, has the characteristic to react specifically with a broad battery of N-glycolyl containing-gangliosides and with antigens expressed on breast tumors. When this MAb was administered alone in syngeneic mice, an specific IgG anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) response was induced, this Ab2 response was increased when P3 MAb was injected coupled to a carrier protein and in the presence of Freund's adjuvant. Spleen cells from these mice were used in somatic-cell hybridization experiments, using the murine myeloma cell line P3-X63-Ag8.653 as fusion partner. Five Ab2 MAbs specific to P3 MAb were selected. These IgG1 Ab2 MAbs were able to block the binding of P3 MAb to GM3(NeuGc) ganglioside and to a human breast carcinoma cell line. Cross-blocking experiments demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are recognizing the same or very close sites on the Abl MAb. The five Ab2 MAbs were injected into syngeneic mice and four of them produced strong anti-anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab3) response. While these Ab2 MAbs were unable to generate Ab3 antibodies with the same antigenic specificity than P3 MAb, three of them induced antibodies bearing P3 MAb idiotopes (Ag-Id+ Ab3). These results demonstrated that these Ab2 MAbs are not "internal image" antibodies, but they could define "regulatory idiotopes."

  11. Finding Strong Bridges and Strong Articulation Points in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Laura, Luigi; Santaroni, Federico

    Given a directed graph G, an edge is a strong bridge if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. Similarly, we say that a vertex is a strong articulation point if its removal increases the number of strongly connected components of G. In this paper, we present linear-time algorithms for computing all the strong bridges and all the strong articulation points of directed graphs, solving an open problem posed in [2].

  12. Differing Event-Related Patterns of Gamma-Band Power in Brain Waves of Fast- and Slow-Reacting Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Wilhelm Wundt proposed that there are two types of subjects in sim- ple RT experiments: fast-reacting subjects, who respond before they fully...quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects...accord with the hypothesis of Wundt and others that slower ("sensorial") responders wait to fully perceive a stimulus and then react to their perception

  13. Specific Binding of 17D3 Anti-pZP mAb to Porcine and Human Zona Pellucida but not to Other Tissue Antigens Identified by ABC Immunohistochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To characterize the binding effects of 1 7D3 anti-pZP monoclonal antibody (mAb) on porcine and human ZP, ovary and other important tissues Methods The 1 7D3 anti-pZP mAb was produced by immunizing mouse with porcine zona pellucida and hybridoma and monoclonal antibody preparation. An ABCimmunohistochemistry was used to evaluate reaction of mAb 17D3pZP to porcine and human ZP antigens as well as important human tissue antigens.Results mAb 1 7D3pZP specifically bound to porcine and human ZP antigen, but not to other cells of ovaries and other important human tissue antigens.Conclusion 17D3 anti-pZP mAb can recognize porcine and human ZP antigen without cross-reaction with other human tissue antigens including ovary, so it may further help us to abstract and purify corresponding target antigen and settle basis for producing human ZP contraceptive vaccine.

  14. John Strong (1941 - 2006)

    CERN Multimedia

    Wickens, F

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on Monday 31st July, a few days before his 65th birthday John started his career working with a group from Westfield College, under the leadership of Ted Bellamy. He obtained his PhD and spent the early part of his career on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), but after the early 1970s his research was focussed on experiments in CERN. Over the years he made a number of notable contributions to experiments in CERN: The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras to record the sparks in the spark chambers; He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems; He was responsible for the second level trigger system for the ALEPH detector and spent five years leading a team that designed and built the system, which ran for twelve years with only minor interventions. Following ALEPH he tur...

  15. Foreshocks of strong earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmi, A. V.; Sobisevich, L. E.; Sobisevich, A. L.; Lavrov, I. P.

    2014-07-01

    The specific enhancement of ultra-low-frequency (ULF) electromagnetic oscillations a few hours prior to the strong earthquakes, which was previously mentioned in the literature, motivated us to search for the distinctive features of the mechanical (foreshock) activity of the Earth's crust in the epicentral zones of the future earthquakes. Activation of the foreshocks three hours before the main shock is revealed, which is roughly similar to the enhancement of the specific electromagnetic ULF emission. It is hypothesized that the round-the-world seismic echo signals from the earthquakes, which form the peak of energy release 2 h 50 min before the main events, act as the triggers of the main shocks due to the cumulative action of the surface waves converging to the epicenter. It is established that the frequency of the fluctuations in the foreshock activity decreases at the final stages of the preparation of the main shocks, which probably testifies to the so-called mode softening at the approach of the failure point according to the catastrophe theory.

  16. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doisneau, François; Arienti, Marco; Oefelein, Joseph C.

    2017-01-01

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier-Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle-particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  17. A semi-Lagrangian transport method for kinetic problems with application to dense-to-dilute polydisperse reacting spray flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doisneau, François, E-mail: fdoisne@sandia.gov; Arienti, Marco, E-mail: marient@sandia.gov; Oefelein, Joseph C., E-mail: oefelei@sandia.gov

    2017-01-15

    For sprays, as described by a kinetic disperse phase model strongly coupled to the Navier–Stokes equations, the resolution strategy is constrained by accuracy objectives, robustness needs, and the computing architecture. In order to leverage the good properties of the Eulerian formalism, we introduce a deterministic particle-based numerical method to solve transport in physical space, which is simple to adapt to the many types of closures and moment systems. The method is inspired by the semi-Lagrangian schemes, developed for Gas Dynamics. We show how semi-Lagrangian formulations are relevant for a disperse phase far from equilibrium and where the particle–particle coupling barely influences the transport; i.e., when particle pressure is negligible. The particle behavior is indeed close to free streaming. The new method uses the assumption of parcel transport and avoids to compute fluxes and their limiters, which makes it robust. It is a deterministic resolution method so that it does not require efforts on statistical convergence, noise control, or post-processing. All couplings are done among data under the form of Eulerian fields, which allows one to use efficient algorithms and to anticipate the computational load. This makes the method both accurate and efficient in the context of parallel computing. After a complete verification of the new transport method on various academic test cases, we demonstrate the overall strategy's ability to solve a strongly-coupled liquid jet with fine spatial resolution and we apply it to the case of high-fidelity Large Eddy Simulation of a dense spray flow. A fuel spray is simulated after atomization at Diesel engine combustion chamber conditions. The large, parallel, strongly coupled computation proves the efficiency of the method for dense, polydisperse, reacting spray flows.

  18. Numerical Investigation into CO Emission, O Depletion, and Thermal Decomposition in a Reacting Slab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Makinde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emission of carbon dioxide (CO2 is closely associated with oxygen (O2 depletion, and thermal decomposition in a reacting stockpile of combustible materials like fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, and natural gas. Moreover, it is understood that proper assessment of the emission levels provides a crucial reference point for other assessment tools like climate change indicators and mitigation strategies. In this paper, a nonlinear mathematical model for estimating the CO2 emission, O2 depletion, and thermal stability of a reacting slab is presented and tackled numerically using a semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. It is assumed that the slab surface is subjected to a symmetrical convective heat and mass exchange with the ambient. Both numerical and graphical results are presented and discussed quantitatively with respect to various parameters embedded in the problem.

  19. Reacting gas mixtures in the state-to-state approach: The chemical reaction rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kustova, Elena V. [Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Saint Petersburg State University, 198504 Universitetskiy pr., 28, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Kremer, Gilberto M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-980 Curitiba (Brazil)

    2014-12-09

    In this work chemically reacting mixtures of viscous flows are analyzed within the framework of Boltzmann equation. By applying a modified Chapman-Enskog method to the system of Boltzmann equations general expressions for the rates of chemical reactions and vibrational energy transitions are determined as functions of two thermodynamic forces: the velocity divergence and the affinity. As an application chemically reacting mixtures of N{sub 2} across a shock wave are studied, where the first lowest vibrational states are taken into account. Here we consider only the contributions from the first four single quantum vibrational-translational energy transitions. It is shown that the contribution to the chemical reaction rate related to the affinity is much larger than that of the velocity divergence.

  20. Reacting gas mixtures in the state-to-state approach: The chemical reaction rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustova, Elena V.; Kremer, Gilberto M.

    2014-12-01

    In this work chemically reacting mixtures of viscous flows are analyzed within the framework of Boltzmann equation. By applying a modified Chapman-Enskog method to the system of Boltzmann equations general expressions for the rates of chemical reactions and vibrational energy transitions are determined as functions of two thermodynamic forces: the velocity divergence and the affinity. As an application chemically reacting mixtures of N2 across a shock wave are studied, where the first lowest vibrational states are taken into account. Here we consider only the contributions from the first four single quantum vibrational-translational energy transitions. It is shown that the contribution to the chemical reaction rate related to the affinity is much larger than that of the velocity divergence.

  1. High-throughput screening techniques for rapid PEG-based precipitation of IgG4 mAb from clarified cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevelman, Carol; Davies, Jim; Allen, Lee; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2010-01-01

    Locating optimal protein precipitation conditions for complex biological feed materials is problematic. This article describes the application of a series of high-throughput platforms for the rapid identification and selection of conditions for the precipitation of an IgG(4) monoclonal antibody (mAb) from a complex feedstock using only microliter quantities of material. The approach uses 96-microwell filter plates combined with high-throughput analytical methods and a method for well volume determination for product quantification. The low material, time and resource requirements facilitated the use of a full factorial Design of Experiments (DoE) for the rapid investigation into how critical parameters impact the IgG(4) precipitation. To aid the DoE, a set of preliminary range-finding studies were conducted first. Data collected through this approach describing Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) precipitation of the IgG(4) as a function of mAb concentration, precipitant concentration, and pH are presented. Response surface diagrams were used to explore interactions between parameters and to inform selection of the most favorable conditions for maximum yield and purification. PEG concentrations required for maximum yield and purity were dependant on the IgG(4) concentration; however, concentrations of 14 to 20% w/v, pH 6.5, gave optimal levels of yield and purity. Application of the high-throughput approach enabled 1,155 conditions to be examined with less than 1 g of material. The level of insights gained over such a short time frame is indicative of the power of microwell experimentation in allowing the rapid identification of appropriate processing conditions for key bioprocess operations. Copyright 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers

  2. Production of different glycosylation variants of the tumour-targeting mAb H10 in Nicotiana benthamiana: influence on expression yield and antibody degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Raffaele; Donini, Marcello; Villani, Maria Elena; Brunetti, Patrizia; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Paul, Matthew; Ma, Julian K-C; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2012-10-01

    We previously described the expression of a tumour-targeting antibody (mAb H10) in Nicotiana benthamiana by vacuum-agro-infiltration and the remarkable yields of highly pure protein achieved. The objective of the present work was to investigate different strategies for transient overexpression of the mAb H10 in which glycan configuration was modulated and assess how these strategies affect the accumulation yield and stability of the antibody. To this aim, three procedures have been assayed: (1) Site-directed mutagenesis to abolish the glycosylation site; (2) endoplasmic reticulum retention (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion) to ensure predominantly high-mannose type glycans; and (3) expression in a N. benthamiana RNAi down-regulated line in which β1,2-xylosyltransferase and α1,3-fucosyltransferase gene expression is silenced. The three antibody variants (H10-Mut) (H10-SEKDEL) (H10(XylT/FucT)) were transiently expressed, purified and characterised for their glycosylation profile, expression/purification yield and antibody degradation pattern. Glycosylation analysis of H10(XylT/FucT) demonstrated the absence of plant complex-type sugars, while H10-SEKDEL, although substantially retained in the ER, revealed the presence of β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues, indicating a partial escape from the ER retrieval system. Antibody accumulation and purification yields were not enhanced by ER retention. All H10 antibody glyco-forms revealed greater degradation compared to the original, resulting mostly in the formation of Fab fragments. In the case of aglycosylated H10-Mut, more than 95% of the heavy chain was cleaved, confirming the pivotal role of the sugar moiety in protein stability. Identification of possible 'fragile' sites in the H10 antibody hinge region could be of general interest for the development of new strategies to reduce antibody degradation and increase the yield of intact IgGs in plants.

  3. Life-cycle and cost of goods assessment of fed-batch and perfusion-based manufacturing processes for mAbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnak, Phumthep; Allmendinger, Richard; Ramasamy, Sri V; Lettieri, Paola; Titchener-Hooker, Nigel J

    2016-09-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment tool that quantifies the environmental impact associated with a product or a process (e.g., water consumption, energy requirements, and solid waste generation). While LCA is a standard approach in many commercial industries, its application has not been exploited widely in the bioprocessing sector. To contribute toward the design of more cost-efficient, robust and environmentally-friendly manufacturing process for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a framework consisting of an LCA and economic analysis combined with a sensitivity analysis of manufacturing process parameters and a production scale-up study is presented. The efficiency of the framework is demonstrated using a comparative study of the two most commonly used upstream configurations for mAb manufacture, namely fed-batch (FB) and perfusion-based processes. Results obtained by the framework are presented using a range of visualization tools, and indicate that a standard perfusion process (with a pooling duration of 4 days) has similar cost of goods than a FB process but a larger environmental footprint because it consumed 35% more water, demanded 17% more energy, and emitted 17% more CO2 than the FB process. Water consumption was the most important impact category, especially when scaling-up the processes, as energy was required to produce process water and water-for-injection, while CO2 was emitted from energy generation. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the perfusion process can be made more environmentally-friendly than the FB process if the pooling duration is extended to 8 days. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1324-1335, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  4. Life‐cycle and cost of goods assessment of fed‐batch and perfusion‐based manufacturing processes for mAbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnak, Phumthep; Allmendinger, Richard; Ramasamy, Sri V.; Lettieri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Life‐cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental assessment tool that quantifies the environmental impact associated with a product or a process (e.g., water consumption, energy requirements, and solid waste generation). While LCA is a standard approach in many commercial industries, its application has not been exploited widely in the bioprocessing sector. To contribute toward the design of more cost‐efficient, robust and environmentally‐friendly manufacturing process for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), a framework consisting of an LCA and economic analysis combined with a sensitivity analysis of manufacturing process parameters and a production scale‐up study is presented. The efficiency of the framework is demonstrated using a comparative study of the two most commonly used upstream configurations for mAb manufacture, namely fed‐batch (FB) and perfusion‐based processes. Results obtained by the framework are presented using a range of visualization tools, and indicate that a standard perfusion process (with a pooling duration of 4 days) has similar cost of goods than a FB process but a larger environmental footprint because it consumed 35% more water, demanded 17% more energy, and emitted 17% more CO2 than the FB process. Water consumption was the most important impact category, especially when scaling‐up the processes, as energy was required to produce process water and water‐for‐injection, while CO2 was emitted from energy generation. The sensitivity analysis revealed that the perfusion process can be made more environmentally‐friendly than the FB process if the pooling duration is extended to 8 days. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1324–1335, 2016 PMID:27390260

  5. Aeroallergen analyses and their clinical relevance. I. Immunochemical quantification of allergens by RAST-inhibition, Mab-ELISA, basophil histamine release, and counter current immuno electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, C R; Abrahamsen, L; Stahl Skov, P; Johansen, N; Poulsen, L K

    1991-10-01

    The aim was to compare IgE and IgG4 RAST-inhibition assay (RI), monoclonal antibody ELISA (Mab-ELISA), counter current immuno electrophoresis (CCIE) and histamine release from basophil leukocytes (HR) for allergen quantification with special reference to aeroallergen detection. As components of indoor aeroallergens, cat, dog, and Derm. pter. allergen extracts were selected for the experiments. To evaluate unspecific interference, these allergens were compared mutually and with Cladosporium herbarum. Allergen extracts in varying dilutions were mixed with crushed glass fibre filter materials, eluted, recovered by centrifugation, and allergen concentration quantified by the assays. Equal sensitivity was found for both IgE- and IgG4-RI assaying cat allergen (in the range 5-50 SQ-U/ml) and dog allergen (in the range 10(2)-10(3) SQ-U/ml). The IgG4-RI assaying Derm. pter. was more sensitive (50 SQ-U/ml) than IgE-RI (2*10(3) SQ-U/ml). The ranges of allergen detection limits for the Mab-ELISA were equal for cat and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml). The range of allergen detection limits for CCIE, assaying dog were 10(4)-10(5) SQ-U/ml. The ranges of allergen detection limits for HR were equal for cat and Derm. pter. (10-10(2) SQ-U/ml), and 10(2)-10(3) SQ-U/ML for dog. Because of cross-reactivity, a minor degree of interference was observed in the IgE-RI and the HR test for the highest concentration of cat and dog allergens.

  6. Reacting to anticipations : energy crises and energy policy in the 1970s ; an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bösch, Frank; Graf, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the energy sector cannot be sufficiently described as reactions to past and present energy problems. Rather, politicians and companies alike always react to the anticipation of future challenges. Sharing this assumption, the articles in this HSR Special Issue reexamine the energy crises of the 1970s. Their assessments broaden the temporal and spatial scope of analysis and integrate various energy resources into the picture, while examining how to situate the first...

  7. A seizure response dog: video recording of reacting behaviour during repetitive prolonged seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vito, Lidia; Naldi, Ilaria; Mostacci, Barbara; Licchetta, Laura; Bisulli, Francesca; Tinuper, Paolo

    2010-06-01

    Seizure response and alerting behaviour may spontaneously develop in dogs living with children or adults with epilepsy. Some dogs can also be reliably trained to respond and anticipate seizures. We describe the case of a dog, not previously trained for assistance work, showing complex seizure response behaviour. This is the first release of a home video recording of a dog reacting to its owner's seizure.

  8. Competitor's marketing : How banks acquire and react to knowledge about their competitor's marketing.

    OpenAIRE

    Puelma, Rodrigo; Persson, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Abstract   Introduction The way banks compete has changed dramatically during recent years, mostly because of international trends such as advances in information technology, globalisation and deregulations. This has made competition harsher meaning that survival and success requires knowledge about the competitors and understanding about the way they act and react. Within marketing there is a need to identify suitable strategies to acquire knowledge about competitor’s marketing and methods t...

  9. (U) Design Considerations for Obtaining Deep Release in Reacted Epon 828

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lang, John Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dattelbaum, Dana Mcgraw [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bennett, Langdon Stanford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-16

    Our document summarizes results from one-dimensional calculations performed to investigate the release behavior of reacted Epon 828. Two design goals were set, (1) the product phase had to be achieved upon the initial shock loading, and (2) a deep release state could be achieved. Both transmission and front surface impact geometry were investigated. Moreover, the two design criteria were met with the front surface impact design employing a modi ed projectile.

  10. Recent progress of laser metrology in chemically reacting flows at onera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Dorval, N.; Vilmart, G.; Orain, M.; George, R.; Scherman, M.; Nafa, M.; Bresson, A.; Attal-Tretout, B.; Lefebvre, M.

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents some of the development actions performed these last years at ONERA using laser spectroscopic techniques to probe chemically reacting flows. Techniques like laser absorption, laser induced fluorescence (LIF), and Raman scattering will be described with focus on present drawbacks as well as expectations from new laser technologies (Interband Cascade Lasers (ICL) diodes, Optical Parametrical Oscillators (OPO), frequency comb, and femto/picosecond lasers) before showing some results of recent applications in ground facilities.

  11. Phased Array Ultrasound: Initial Development of PAUT Inspection of Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rairigh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Phased Array Ultrasound (PAUT) as a non-destructive examination method for Self Reacting Friction Stir Welds (SR-FSW). PAUT is the only NDE method which has been shown to detect detrimental levels of Residual Oxide Defect (ROD), which can result in significant decrease in weld strength. The presentation reviews the PAUT process, and shows the results in comparison with x-ray radiography.

  12. Enhancement effect of pre-reacted glass on strength of glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monmaturapoj, Naruporn; Soodsawang, Wiwaporn; Tanodekaew, Siriporn

    2012-02-03

    In this paper, we report on the enhanced strength of glass ionomer cement (GIC) by using the process of pre acid-base reaction and spray drying in glass preparation. The pre acid-base reaction was induced by prior mixing of the glass powder with poly(alkenoic acid). The weight ratios of glass powder to poly(alkenoic acid) were varied to investigate the extent of the pre acid-base reaction of the glass. The effect of the spray drying process which produced spherical glass particles on cement strength was also studied and discussed. The results show that adding 2%-wt of poly(alkenoic acid) liquid in the pre-reacted step improved cement strength. GICs prepared using a mixture of pre-reacted glass with both spherical and irregular powders at 60:40 by weight exhibited the highest compressive strength at 138.64±7.73 MPa. It was concluded that glass ionomer cements containing pre-reacted glass with mixed glass morphology using both spherical and irregular forms are promising as restorative dental materials with improved mechanical properties and handling characteristics.

  13. Small molecular, macromolecular, and cellular chloramines react with thiocyanate to give the human defense factor hypothiocyanite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xulu, Bheki A; Ashby, Michael T

    2010-03-09

    Thiocyanate reacts noncatalytically with myeloperoxidase-derived HOCl to produce hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-)), thereby potentially limiting the propensity of HOCl to inflict host tissue damage that can lead to inflammatory diseases. However, the efficiency with which SCN(-) captures HOCl in vivo depends on the concentration of SCN(-) relative to other chemical targets. In blood plasma, where the concentration of SCN(-) is relatively low, proteins may be the principal initial targets of HOCl, and chloramines are a significant product. Chloramines eventually decompose to irreversibly damage proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that SCN(-) reacts efficiently with chloramines in small molecules, in proteins, and in Escherichia coli cells to give OSCN(-) and the parent amine. Remarkably, OSCN(-) reacts faster than SCN(-) with chloramines. These reactions of SCN(-) and OSCN(-) with chloramines may repair some of the damage that is inflicted on protein amines by HOCl. Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids.

  14. Small Molecular, Macromolecular and Cellular Chloramines React with Thiocyanate to Give the Human Defense Factor Hypothiocyanite†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xulu, Bheki A.; Ashby, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Thiocyanate reacts non-catalytically with myeloperoxidase-derived HOCl to produce hypothiocyanite (OSCN−), thereby potentially limiting the propensity of HOCl to inflict host tissue damage that can lead to inflammatory diseases. However, the efficiency with which SCN− captures HOCl in vivo depends on the concentration of SCN− relative to other chemical targets. In blood plasma, where the concentration of SCN− is relatively low, proteins may be the principal initial targets of HOCl, and chloramines are a significant product. Chloramines eventually decompose to irreversibly damage proteins. In the present study, we demonstrate that SCN− reacts efficiently with chloramines in small molecules, in proteins, and in Escherichia coli cells to give OSCN− and the parent amine. Remarkably, OSCN− reacts faster than SCN− with chloramines. These reactions of SCN− and OSCN− with chloramines may repair some of the damage that is inflicted on protein amines by HOCl. Our observations are further evidence for the importance of secondary reactions during the redox cascades that are associated with oxidative stress by hypohalous acids. PMID:20085320

  15. ReactPRED: a tool to predict and analyze biochemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Tadi Venkata; Giri, Varun; Park, Jin Hwan; Kim, Tae Yong; Bhaduri, Anirban

    2016-11-15

    Biochemical pathways engineering is often used to synthesize or degrade target chemicals. In silico screening of the biochemical transformation space allows predicting feasible reactions, constituting these pathways. Current enabling tools are customized to predict reactions based on pre-defined biochemical transformations or reaction rule sets. Reaction rule sets are usually curated manually and tailored to specific applications. They are not exhaustive. In addition, current systems are incapable of regulating and refining data with an aim to tune specificity and sensitivity. A robust and flexible tool that allows automated reaction rule set creation along with regulated pathway prediction and analyses is a need. ReactPRED aims to address the same. ReactPRED is an open source flexible and customizable tool enabling users to predict biochemical reactions and pathways. The tool allows automated reaction rule creation from a user defined reaction set. Additionally, reaction rule degree and rule tolerance features allow refinement of predicted data. It is available as a flexible graphical user interface and a console application. ReactPRED is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/reactpred/ CONTACT: anirban.b@samsung.com or ty76.kim@samsung.comSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Characterization of Aeromonas trota strains that cross-react with Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M J; Ansaruzzaman, M; Shimada, T; Rahman, A; Bhuiyan, N A; Nahar, S; Qadri, F; Islam, M S

    1995-12-01

    It has previously been shown that Vibrio cholerae O139 Bengal shares antigens with V. cholerae serogroups O22 and O155. We detected six surface water isolates of Aeromonas trota that agglutinated in polyclonal antisera to V. cholerae O139 and V. cholerae O22 but not in antiserum to V. cholerae O155. On the basis of agglutinin-absorption studies, the antigenic relationship between the cross-reacting bacteria were found to be in an a,b-a,c fashion, where a is the common antigenic epitope and b and c are unique epitopes. The antigen sharing between A. trota strains and V. cholerae O139 was confirmed in immunoblot studies. However, A. trota strains did not react with two monoclonal antibodies specific for V. cholerae O139 and, consequently, tested negative in the Bengal SMART rapid diagnostic test for V. cholerae O139 which uses one of the monoclonal antibodies. A polyclonal antiserum to a cross-reacting A. trota strain cross-protected infant mice against cholera on challenge with virulent V. cholerae O139. All A. trota strains were cytotoxic for HeLa cells, positive for adherence to HEp-2 cells, and weakly invasive for HEp-2 cells; one strain was heat-stable toxin positive in the suckling mouse assay; however, all strains were negative for cholera toxin-like enterotoxin. Studies on bacteria that share somatic antigen with V. cholerae O139 may shed further light on the genesis of V. cholerae O139.

  17. Myeloablative radioimmunotherapy with {sup 188}Re-CD66mAb before stem cell transplantation. No increase of proinflammatory cytokine levels of TNF-{alpha}; Myeloablative Radioimmuntherapie mit {sup 188}Re-CD66mAb vor Stammzelltransplantation. Kein Anstieg proinflammatorischer Zytokinspiegel von TNF-{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutschler, J.; Reske, S.N. [Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Steinbach, G. [Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Abt. Klinische Chemie; Bunjes, D. [Universitaetsklinik Ulm (Germany). Medizinische Klinik III; Buchmann, I. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2009-07-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) serum levels may increase due to intensive conditioning regimes with high-dose chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) before stem cell transplantation. This increases the risk for developing acute graft versus host disease (aGvHD) after stem cell transplantation. In this prospective study we investigated the influence of radioimmunotherapy with {sup 188}Re-CD-66-mAb on changes on TNF-{alpha} serum levels. Patients, methods: In 18 patients we measured TNF-{alpha} before and up to 96 hours after radioimmunotherapy, in 2 patients in addition following TBI, in 9 patients also following chemotherapy. For measuring TNF-{alpha} we used an automated immunochemiluminescence assay (Immulite 1000 DPC Biermann, Bad Nauheim). The mean follow up period to record incidence of aGVHD was 100 days after stem cell transplantation. Compared to the basal levels before, the levels of TNF-{alpha} after conditioning with {sup 188}Re-CD-66-mAb did not increase significantly and remained in the physiological range. In contrast, these initial physiological cytokine levels increased and became pathological following 48 h after total body irradiation (13.2 {+-} 6.6 pg/ml) and chemotherapy (10.8 {+-} 15.7 pg/ml). In our study we found a low incidence of aGvHD (22.2%, n = 4/18). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that additional conditioning therapy with {sup 188}Re-CD-66-mAb does not increase proinflammatory cytokine levels of TNF-{alpha}. This finding may indicate that additive radioimmunotherapy may not be a significant factor for increasing the rate of conditioning- associated aGvHD. (orig.)

  18. Monte Carlo Simulation of Ion Trajectories of Reacting Chemical Systems: Mobility of Small Water Clusters in Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissdorf, Walter; Seifert, Luzia; Derpmann, Valerie; Klee, Sonja; Vautz, Wolfgang; Benter, Thorsten

    2013-04-01

    For the comprehensive simulation of ion trajectories including reactive collisions at elevated pressure conditions, a chemical reaction simulation (RS) extension to the popular SIMION software package was developed, which is based on the Monte Carlo statistical approach. The RS extension is of particular interest to SIMION users who wish to simulate ion trajectories in collision dominated environments such as atmospheric pressure ion sources, ion guides (e.g., funnels, transfer multi poles), chemical reaction chambers (e.g., proton transfer tubes), and/or ion mobility analyzers. It is well known that ion molecule reaction rate constants frequently reach or exceed the collision limit obtained from kinetic gas theory. Thus with a typical dwell time of ions within the above mentioned devices in the ms range, chemical transformation reactions are likely to occur. In other words, individual ions change critical parameters such as mass, mobility, and chemical reactivity en passage to the analyzer, which naturally strongly affects their trajectories. The RS method simulates elementary reaction events of individual ions reflecting the behavior of a large ensemble by a representative set of simulated reacting particles. The simulation of the proton bound water cluster reactant ion peak (RIP) in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) was chosen as a benchmark problem. For this purpose, the RIP was experimentally determined as a function of the background water concentration present in the IMS drift tube. It is shown that simulation and experimental data are in very good agreement, demonstrating the validity of the method.

  19. Analysis of two monoclonal antibodies reactive with envelope proteins of murine retroviruses: one pan specific antibody and one specific for Moloney leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Leonard H; Boi, Stefano; Malik, Frank; Wehrly, Kathy; Peterson, Karin E; Chesebro, Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) reactive with various proteins of murine leukemia viruses (MuLVs) have been developed. In this report two additional MAbs with differing and unusual specificities are described. MAb 573 is reactive with the envelope protein of all MuLVs tested including viruses in the ecotropic, xenotropic, polytropic and amphotropic classes. Notably, MAb 573 is one of only two reported MAbs that react with the envelope protein of amphotropic MuLVs. This MAb appears to recognize a conformational epitope within the envelope protein, as it reacts strongly with live virus and live infected cells, but does not react with formalin-fixed or alcohol-fixed infected cells or denatured viral envelope protein in immunoblots. In contrast, Mab 538 reacts only with an epitope unique to the envelope protein of the Moloney (Mo-) strain of MuLV, a prototypic ecotropic MuLV that is the basis for many retroviral tools used in molecular biology. MAb 538 can react with live cells and viruses, or detergent denatured or fixed envelope protein. The derivation of these antibodies as well as their characterization with regard to their isotype, range of reactivity with different MuLVs and utility in different immunological procedures are described in this study.

  20. Tyrosine-derived 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate reacts with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, James; Green, Richard M

    2010-09-01

    The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is key in tyrosine catabolism. Inhibition of HPPD results in tyrosinemia and increased urinary excretion of 3 phenylketones: 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate (HPPA), 4-hydroxyphenyllactate (HPLA), and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate (HPAA). A previous study involving administration of a novel HPPD inhibitor to dogs resulted in detection of ketonuria in treated animals using urine dipsticks read by reflectance photometry. Dipstick-positive results were suspected to be false because high concentrations of urinary phenylketones have been reported to react with ketone test fields of urine dipsticks, but visual confirmation was not performed. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the 4- hydroxyphenolic acids produced by HPPD inhibition react with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks. Canine urine samples were prepared with HPPA, HPLA, HPAA, and lithium acetoacetate (positive control) at 6 concentrations. Unmodified urine samples were used as negative controls. All samples were tested for ketones using Combur 10 Test M dipsticks read by a Miditron dipstick analyzer. Urinalysis was also performed by visually inspecting ketone test fields on the Combur 10 Test M, Multistix 10 SG, and Aution 10 EA dipsticks. Urine samples containing HPPA were positive for ketones with Combur 10 Test M dipsticks read by the Miditron analyzer and produced a red–brown color change in ketone test fields of all 3 dipsticks. Urine samples containing HPLA and HPAA were negative by all methods. The phenylketone HPPA reacts with ketone test fields of 3 commercially available urine dipsticks, producing a red–brown color change that may be misinterpreted as positive for ketones by reflectance photometry.

  1. Antigen-binding properties of monoclonal antibodies reactive with EBNA1 and use in immunoaffinity chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Duellman

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 was overexpressed and purified from Escherichia coli. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs were prepared that react with EBNA1. Eleven high affinity mAbs were recovered. Nine mAbs are isotype IgG (all subisotype IgG(1 and two mAbs are isotype IgM. All mAbs react strongly with EBNA1 in an ELISA assay while only one mAb (designated 1EB6 fails to react in a Western blot assay. The epitopes for these mAbs were mapped to seven different regions, providing good coverage of the entire EBNA1 protein. The mAbs had differing affinity for an EBNA1/DNA complex with four mAbs able to supershift the complex completely. All mAbs can immunoprecipitate EBNA1 from E. coli overexpressing EBNA1. A modified ELISA assay, termed ELISA-elution assay, was used to screen for mAbs that release EBNA1 in the presence of a low molecular weight polyhydroxylated compound (polyol and a nonchaotropic salt. MAbs with this property, termed polyol-responsive (PR-mAbs, allow gentle elution of labile proteins and protein complexes. Four mAbs are polyol-responsive with two showing usefulness in gentle immunoaffinity chromatography. Purification with these PR-mAbs may be useful in purifying EBNA1 complexes and elucidating EBNA1-associated proteins. This panel of anti-EBNA1 mAbs will advance the study of EBV by providing new tools to detect and purify EBNA1.

  2. Flow-distributed oscillations: Stationary chemical waves in a reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kærn, Mads; Menzinger, Michael

    1999-10-01

    A recent prediction of stationary waves in open, reacting flows is experimentally verified. We show that stationary waves are generated by a mechanism whereby the flow carries a time-oscillating subelement, behaving like a batch reactor, through space while a fixed boundary condition at the inflow locks the phase of the oscillation. This mechanism can generate stationary patterns when all diffusion coefficients are equal. The experimental system is the ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in a tubular reactor, fed by the outflow of a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR). Parameter conditions are such that the concentrations are constant in the CSTR while they oscillate in the flow tube.

  3. Numerical Computation of the Chemically Reacting Flow around the National Aero-Space Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannehill, J. C.

    1999-01-01

    This final report summarizes the research accomplished. The research performed during the grant period can be divided into the following major areas: (1) Computation of chemically reacting Supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) flowfields. (2) Application of a two-equation turbulence model to supersonic combustion flowfields. (3) Computation of the integrated aerodynamic and propulsive flowfields of a generic hypersonic space plane. (4) Computation of hypersonic flows with finite-catalytic walls. (5) Development of an upwind Parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code for thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flows.

  4. Analysis of reacting flowfields in low-thrust rocket engines and plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan Mitchell

    The mixing and combustion processes in small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thrusters and plumes are studied by means of a computational model developed as a general purpose analytic procedure for solving low speed, reacting, internal flowfields. The model includes the full Navier-Stokes equations coupled with species diffusion equations for a hydrogen-oxygen reaction kinetics system as well as the option to use either the k-Epsilon or q-Omega low Reynolds number, two-equation turbulence models. Solution of the governing equations is accomplished by a finite-volume formulation with central-difference spatial discretizations and an explicit, four-stage, Runge Kutta time-integration procedure. The Runge-Kutta scheme appears to provide efficient convergence when applied to the calculation of turbulent, reacting flowfields in these small thrusters. Appropriate boundary conditions are developed to properly model propellant mass flowrates and regenerative wall cooling. The computational method is validated against measured engine performance parameters on a global level, as well as experimentally obtained exit plane and plume flowfield properties on a local level. The model does an excellent job of predicting the measured performance trends of an auxiliary thruster as a function of O/F ratio, although the performance levels are consistently underpredicted by approximately 4 percent. These differences arise because the extent to which the wall coolant layer and combustion gases mix and react is underpredicted. Predictions of velocity components, temperature and species number densities in the near-field plume regions of several low-thrust engines show reasonable agreement with experimental data obtained by two separate laser diagnostic techniques. Discrepancies between the predictions and measurements are primarily due to three-dimensional mixing processes which are not accounted for in the analysis. Both comparisons with experiment and the evident reason for errors in absolute

  5. The conformation alteration of mouse hepatic histones after reacting with nicotine in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    UV differential spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy assays have been applied to studying the conformation alteration of mouse hepatic histones H1 and H3 after reacting with nicotine in vitro. The results indicate that their conformation changes from regular form to random form with the increasing reaction dose of nicotine. The adduction of nicotine or its metabolites with histones H1 and H3 accounts for the conformation alteration. Nicotine may affect the structure, function and expression of genes of chromosome by changing the conformation of histones.

  6. Self-Reacting Friction Stir Welding for Aluminum Complex Curvature Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Randy J.; Martin, W.; Schneider, J.; Hartley, P. J.; Russell, Carolyn; Lawless, Kirby; Jones, Chip

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph representation provides an overview of sucessful research conducted by Lockheed Martin and NASA to develop an advanced self-reacting friction stir technology for complex curvature aluminum alloys. The research included weld process development for 0.320 inch Al 2219, sucessful transfer from the 'lab' scale to the production scale tool and weld quality exceeding strenght goals. This process will enable development and implementation of large scale complex geometry hardware fabrication. Topics covered include: weld process development, weld process transfer, and intermediate hardware fabrication.

  7. HOW DOES THE CANADIAN STOCK MARKET REACT TO THE FED'S POLICY?

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Shahrestani; Nahid Kalbasi Anaraki

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the Canadian stock market reacts to the Fed’s policy. Although many research studies have measured the bilateral correlation among national stock markets, rarely have they investigated this correlation within a Free Trade Zone (FTZ). We use a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) accounting for monetary and exchange rate policies to measure the long-term elasticity of Toronto Stock Exchange (TSE) not only to the Fed’s policy, through the movements of Federal Fund Ra...

  8. Rapid desensitization of mice with anti-FcγRIIb/FcγRIII mAb safely prevents IgG-mediated anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodoun, Marat V; Kucuk, Zeynep Yesim; Strait, Richard T; Krishnamurthy, Durga; Janek, Kevin; Clay, Corey D; Morris, Suzanne C; Finkelman, Fred D

    2013-12-01

    Stimulatory IgG receptors (FcγRs) on bone marrow-derived cells contribute to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Monoclonal antibodies that block FcγRs might suppress these diseases, but they can induce anaphylaxis. We wanted to determine whether a rapid desensitization approach can safely suppress IgG/FcγR-mediated anaphylaxis. Mice were injected with serially increasing doses of 2.4G2, a rat mAb that blocks the inhibitory FcγR, FcγRIIb, and the stimulatory receptor, FcγRIII. Rectal temperature was used to detect the development of anaphylaxis. Passive and active IgG-mediated anaphylaxis were evaluated in mice that had been rapidly desensitized with 2.4G2 or mock-desensitized in mice in which monocyte/macrophages, basophils, or neutrophils had been depleted or desensitized and in mice in which FcγRI, FcγRIII, and/or FcγRIV had been deleted or blocked. Rapid desensitization with 2.4G2 prevented 2.4G2-induced shock and completely suppressed IgG-mediated anaphylaxis. Rapid desensitization of ovalbumin-sensitized mice with 2.4G2 was safer and more effective than rapid desensitization with ovalbumin. 2.4G2 treatment completely blocked FcγRIII and removed most FcγRI and FcγRIV from nucleated peripheral blood cells. Because IgG(2a)-mediated anaphylaxis was partially FcγRI and FcγRIV dependent, the effects of 2.4G2 on FcγRI and FcγRIV were probably crucial for its complete inhibition of IgG(2a)-mediated anaphylaxis. IgG(2a)-mediated anaphylaxis was partially inhibited by depletion or desensitization of monocyte/macrophages, basophils, or neutrophils. IgG-mediated anaphylaxis can be induced by ligation of FcγRI, FcγRIII, or FcγRIV on monocycte/macrophages, basophils, or neutrophils and can be safely suppressed by rapid desensitization with anti-FcγRII/RIII mAb. A similar approach may safely suppress other FcγR-dependent immunopathology. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Development of a MAb-based immunoassay for the simultaneous determination of O,O-diethyl and O,O-dimethyl organophosphorus pesticides in vegetable and fruit samples pretreated with QuEChERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fengchun; Hu, Chunyan; Wang, Huimin; Zhao, Longyu; Yang, Zhengyou

    2015-12-01

    To develop a broad-specificity immunoassay for organophosphorus pesticides (OPs), a broad-specificity monoclonal antibody (MAb) for OPs against a generic hapten, O,O-diethyl O-(3-carboxyphenyl) phosphorothioate with the carboxy group in the meta position of the benzene ring, was produced. Eight haptens were prepared and covalently attached to ovalbumin (OVA) for use as coating antigens, and the optimum coating antigen was selected. Then, a sensitive and broadly class selective competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ciELISA) based on the MAb and the optimum coating antigen (hapten H-OVA, possessing an O,O-dimethyl generic structure and linked through a linear spacer arm) was developed and optimized. The MAb developed in this study showed quite different cross-reactivity and selectivity compared to previously produced anti-OPs broad-specificity MAbs. Specifically, the MAb showed high and uniform sensitivity to seven O,O-diethyl OPs and six O,O-dimethyl OPs. With the optimum ciELISA, the IC50 values of the 13 OPs were determined as 23.1∼151.2 ng mL(-1). The average IC50 and coefficient of variation (CV) for the IC50 values of the 13 OPs were 74.6 ng mL(-1) and 33.9%, respectively. For the recovery study, a QuEChERS approach based on dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) was implemented to decrease the matrix effects of vegetable and fruit samples. The recoveries of six representative OPs from the spiked samples ranged from 89.4 to 135.5%; the CV ranged from 3.5 to 15.7%. The ciELISA was also applied to real samples, followed by confirmation with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The results demonstrated that the ciELISA is suitable for monitoring OP contamination in vegetable and fruit samples.

  10. Efficient removal of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through reacting with recycled electroplating sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhou, Ji Zhi; Liu, Qiang; Qian, Guangren; Xu, Zhi Ping

    2013-06-18

    This paper reports that recycled electroplating sludge is able to efficiently remove greenhouse gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). The removal process involves various reactions of SF6 with the recycled sludge. Remarkably, the sludge completely removed SF6 at a capacity of 1.10 mmol/g (SF6/sludge) at 600 °C. More importantly, the evolved gases were SO2, SiF4, and a limited amount of HF, with no toxic SOF4, SO2F2, or SF4 being detected. These generated gases can be readily captured and removed by NaOH solution. The reacted solids were further found to be various metal fluorides, thus revealing that SF6 removal takes place by reacting with various metal oxides and silicate in the sludge. Moreover, the kinetic investigation revealed that the SF6 reaction with the sludge is a first-order chemically controlled process. This research thus demonstrates that the waste electroplating sludge can be potentially used as an effective removal agent for one of the notorious greenhouse gases, SF6.

  11. Reacting to different types of concept drift: the Accuracy Updated Ensemble algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Dariusz; Stefanowski, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Data stream mining has been receiving increased attention due to its presence in a wide range of applications, such as sensor networks, banking, and telecommunication. One of the most important challenges in learning from data streams is reacting to concept drift, i.e., unforeseen changes of the stream's underlying data distribution. Several classification algorithms that cope with concept drift have been put forward, however, most of them specialize in one type of change. In this paper, we propose a new data stream classifier, called the Accuracy Updated Ensemble (AUE2), which aims at reacting equally well to different types of drift. AUE2 combines accuracy-based weighting mechanisms known from block-based ensembles with the incremental nature of Hoeffding Trees. The proposed algorithm is experimentally compared with 11 state-of-the-art stream methods, including single classifiers, block-based and online ensembles, and hybrid approaches in different drift scenarios. Out of all the compared algorithms, AUE2 provided best average classification accuracy while proving to be less memory consuming than other ensemble approaches. Experimental results show that AUE2 can be considered suitable for scenarios, involving many types of drift as well as static environments.

  12. Combined LAURA-UPS solution procedure for chemically-reacting flows. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William A.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure seeks to combine the thin-layer Navier-Stokes solver LAURA with the parabolized Navier-Stokes solver UPS for the aerothermodynamic solution of chemically-reacting air flowfields. The interface protocol is presented and the method is applied to two slender, blunted shapes. Both axisymmetric and three dimensional solutions are included with surface pressure and heat transfer comparisons between the present method and previously published results. The case of Mach 25 flow over an axisymmetric six degree sphere-cone with a noncatalytic wall is considered to 100 nose radii. A stability bound on the marching step size was observed with this case and is attributed to chemistry effects resulting from the noncatalytic wall boundary condition. A second case with Mach 28 flow over a sphere-cone-cylinder-flare configuration is computed at both two and five degree angles of attack with a fully-catalytic wall. Surface pressures are seen to be within five percent with the present method compared to the baseline LAURA solution and heat transfers are within 10 percent. The effect of grid resolution is investigated and the nonequilibrium results are compared with a perfect gas solution, showing that while the surface pressure is relatively unchanged by the inclusion of reacting chemistry the nonequilibrium heating is 25 percent higher. The procedure demonstrates significant, order of magnitude reductions in solution time and required memory for the three dimensional case over an all thin-layer Navier-Stokes solution.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Single-mode, Reacting Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability Using Detailed Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attal, Nitesh; Ramaprabhu, Praveen

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of a shock wave with a chemically reacting front is of importance to the design of supersonic combustors and scramjets where mixing from the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) could be tapped to increase combustion efficiency. We will describe results of shock-driven, reacting RMI of a sinusoidally perturbed, single-mode interface separating Hydrogen (fuel) and Oxygen at 300 K and 1625 K respectively. The non-premixed interface was accelerated by a Mach 1.2 shock traversing from the light (H2) to heavy (O2) fluid (Atwood number = 0.5) in a numerical shock tube of aspect ratio 12. The 2D simulations were performed using the compressible flow code FLASH, with modifications to handle detailed chemistry and temperature-dependent material properties. The initial thickness of the material interface was systematically varied to study the effect of the diffusion thickness on the flame and instability dynamics. Product formation and heat release as a result of chemical reactions were described according to the 9-species, 19-steps detailed reaction mechanism.

  14. Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemically Reacting Mixtures and Their Kinetics: Example of a Mixture of Three Isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekař, Miloslav

    2016-10-18

    Thermodynamics provides consequences of and restrictions on chemically reacting mixtures, particularly their kinetics, which have not been fully explored. Herein, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis is illustrated for a reacting mixture of three isomers. The rate equation is first derived on the basis of the results of nonequilibrium continuum thermodynamics of linear fluids, and is then subjected to the requirement of consistency with entropic inequality (the second law). This consistency test involves the correct representation of the reaction rate as a function of affinities. It is shown that entropic inequality restricts the signs or values of coefficients in the constitutive equations for reaction rates/rate constants. The use of reverse rate constants and the identification of thermodynamic and kinetic equilibrium constants are not necessary in this approach. Although the presented thermodynamic analysis works only for independent reactions, the rates of dependent reactions are not excluded from having effects on kinetics. It is shown that the rates of dependent reactions are combined from the rates of independent reactions differently than dependent reactions are combined from independent reactions. The results are compared to the classical mass-action rate equations, and new restrictions on the values of the classical rate constants are derived.

  15. On one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a reacting mixture in unbounded domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siran

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we consider the one-dimensional Navier-Stokes system for a heat-conducting, compressible reacting mixture which describes the dynamic combustion of fluids of mixed kinds on unbounded domains. This model has been discussed on bounded domains by Chen (SIAM J Math Anal 23:609-634, 1992) and Chen-Hoff-Trivisa (Arch Ration Mech Anal 166:321-358, 2003), among others, in which the reaction rate function is a discontinuous function obeying the Arrhenius' law of thermodynamics. We prove the global existence of weak solutions to this model on one-dimensional unbounded domains with large initial data in H^1. Moreover, the large-time behaviour of the weak solution is identified. In particular, the uniform-in-time bounds for the temperature and specific volume have been established via energy estimates. For this purpose we utilise techniques developed by Kazhikhov-Shelukhin (cf. Kazhikhov in Siber Math J 23:44-49, 1982; Solonnikov and Kazhikhov in Annu Rev Fluid Mech 13:79-95, 1981) and refined by Jiang (Commun Math Phys 200:181-193, 1999, Proc R Soc Edinb Sect A 132:627-638, 2002), as well as a crucial estimate in the recent work by Li-Liang (Arch Ration Mech Anal 220:1195-1208, 2016). Several new estimates are also established, in order to treat the unbounded domain and the reacting terms.

  16. Ensemble Averaged Probability Density Function (APDF) for Compressible Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a concept of the averaged probability density function (APDF) for studying compressible turbulent reacting flows. The APDF is defined as an ensemble average of the fine grained probability density function (FG-PDF) with a mass density weighting. It can be used to exactly deduce the mass density weighted, ensemble averaged turbulent mean variables. The transport equation for APDF can be derived in two ways. One is the traditional way that starts from the transport equation of FG-PDF, in which the compressible Navier- Stokes equations are embedded. The resulting transport equation of APDF is then in a traditional form that contains conditional means of all terms from the right hand side of the Navier-Stokes equations except for the chemical reaction term. These conditional means are new unknown quantities that need to be modeled. Another way of deriving the transport equation of APDF is to start directly from the ensemble averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The resulting transport equation of APDF derived from this approach appears in a closed form without any need for additional modeling. The methodology of ensemble averaging presented in this paper can be extended to other averaging procedures: for example, the Reynolds time averaging for statistically steady flow and the Reynolds spatial averaging for statistically homogeneous flow. It can also be extended to a time or spatial filtering procedure to construct the filtered density function (FDF) for the large eddy simulation (LES) of compressible turbulent reacting flows.

  17. Immunoreactivity of the 14F7 Mab (Raised against N-Glycolyl GM3 Ganglioside as a Positive Prognostic Factor in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rancés Blanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Therefore, numerous studies are focusing on the assessment of other biological and molecular prognostic factors in these tumors. We evaluated the relationship between 14F7 Mab reactivity, pathological features, DNA-content and S-phase fraction (SPF, and their impact in the survival of NSCLC patients. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry optical microscopy assays as well as DNA content and SPF measuring using flow cytometry were performed. The 14F7 reactivity was widely observed in NSCLC sections, no depending of the clinicopathological characteristics. We also obtained differences in the intensity of reaction with 14F7 as well as in the SPF between diploid and aneuploid carcinomas. Patients with diploid tumors showing higher SPF and 14F7 reaction joint to a low mitotic index displayed higher survival rates. Our results are in agreement with the assumption of the possible positive prognostic value of 14F7 staining in NSCLC.

  18. Gevokizumab, an anti-IL-1β mAb for the potential treatment of type 1 and 2 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiler, Janina; McDermott, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    The inflammatory cytokine IL-1β has an essential role in the innate immune response. High levels of IL-1β have been implicated in the development of many diseases, including type 1 and 2 diabetes (T1D and T2D), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and cardiovascular disease. XOMA is developing gevokizumab (XOMA-052), an IgG2 humanized mAb against human IL-1β, for the potential treatment of these diseases. Gevokizumab has a high affinity for IL-1β and a long t1/2, which would allow for once-monthly dosing and offer a considerable advantage for patients over agents requiring more frequent dosing. Data from preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that gevokizumab is a potentially effective and well-tolerated treatment for the indicated diseases. At the time of publication, phase II clinical trials were ongoing in patients with T1D, T2D and RA, with the T2D trials assessing key cardiovascular markers. Following promising data from a recent pilot trial, XOMA was also planning a phase I/II trial of gevokizumab for the potential treatment of uveitis in patients with the vasculitic inflammatory disorder Behçet's disease and the autoinflammatory conditions familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome and Muckle-Wells syndrome.

  19. Strong convergence theorems for strongly relatively nonexpansive sequences and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Koji; Kohsaka, Fumiaki

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to establish strong convergence theorems for a strongly relatively nonexpansive sequence in a smooth and uniformly convex Banach space. Then we employ our results to approximate solutions of the zero point problem for a maximal monotone operator and the fixed point problem for a relatively nonexpansive mapping.

  20. The Role of Biosphere Reserves in Environmental Education and Training = Le Role des reserves de la biosphere dans l'education et la formation environnementales. Report of the Unesco/MAB Symposium Held During the Unesco/UNEP International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 17-21, 1987). Report 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George, Ed.

    Environmental education and training have been key elements of Unesco's Program on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) since its inception in 1971. The MAB Program is an intergovernmental program of research, training, demonstration and distribution of information, aimed at providing the scientific background and the trained personnel to deal with…

  1. The Role of Biosphere Reserves in Environmental Education and Training = Le Role des reserves de la biosphere dans l'education et la formation environnementales. Report of the Unesco/MAB Symposium Held During the Unesco/UNEP International Congress on Environmental Education and Training (Moscow, USSR, August 17-21, 1987). Report 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, George, Ed.

    Environmental education and training have been key elements of Unesco's Program on Man and the Biosphere (MAB) since its inception in 1971. The MAB Program is an intergovernmental program of research, training, demonstration and distribution of information, aimed at providing the scientific background and the trained personnel to deal with…

  2. Strongly Irreducible Submodules of Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. KHAKSARI; M. ERSHAD; H. SHARIF

    2006-01-01

    Strongly irreducible submodules of modules are defined as follows: A submodule N of an R-module M is said to be strongly irreducible if for submodules L and K of M, the inclusion L ∩ K (∈) TV implies that either L (∈) N or K (∈) N. The relationship among the families of irreducible, strongly irreducible, prime and primary submodules of an .R-module M is considered, and a characterization of Noetherian modules which contain a non-prime strongly irreducible submodule is given.

  3. Short proofs of strong normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Wojdyga, Aleksander

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents simple, syntactic strong normalization proofs for the simply-typed lambda-calculus and the polymorphic lambda-calculus (system F) with the full set of logical connectives, and all the permutative reductions. The normalization proofs use translations of terms and types to systems, for which strong normalization property is known.

  4. Strongly Zero-Dimensional Locales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOU Hui; LUO Mao Kang

    2002-01-01

    New kinds of strongly zero-dimensional locales are introduced and characterized, whichare different from Johnstone's, and almost all the topological properties for strongly zero-dimensionalspaces have the pointless localic forms. Particularly, the Stone-Cech compactification of a stronglyzero-dimensional locale is stongly zero-dimensional.

  5. About Strongly Universal Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Margenstern

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we construct a strongly universal cellular automaton on the line with 11 states and the standard neighbourhood. We embed this construction into several tilings of the hyperbolic plane and of the hyperbolic 3D space giving rise to strongly universal cellular automata with 10 states.

  6. A Reacting-Shrinking Core Model for Pyrolysis and Combustion of a Single Biomass Particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Alfredo L.; Avila, Claudio R.; Garcia, Ximena A. (Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Univ. of Concepcion (Chile)). e-mail: algordon@udec.cl

    2008-10-15

    Consecutive heating and pyrolysis of the solid due to incident heat flow represented by a shrinking reacting core approximation and combustion, described by a shrinking unreacting core description, allow modeling the combustion of a cylindrical biomass particle. A bi-dimensional approach (radial and axial) describes mass and heat balances and first order kinetics characterizes the reaction rates. A finite differences algorithm numerically solved the model. Results showed good agreement with available experimental data. The parameter analysis for the pyrolysis step shows high sensibility to the kinetic constants, the incident heat flow, the initial moisture and particle size. Parameters with a significant effect on combustion are the concentration and effective diffusivity of the oxidizing agent in the atmosphere around the reaction surface

  7. Global energy crunch. How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories. (author)

  8. Global energy crunch: How different parts of the world would react to a peak oil scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, Joerg, E-mail: joerg.friedrichs@qeh.ox.ac.u [University of Oxford, Department of International Development, Queen Elizabeth House, 3 Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TB (United Kingdom); St Cross College, 61 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3LZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    Peak oil theory predicts that oil production will soon start a terminal decline. Most authors imply that no adequate alternate resource and technology will be available to replace oil as the backbone resource of industrial society. This article uses historical cases from countries that have gone through a similar experience as the best available analytical strategy to understand what will happen if the predictions of peak oil theorists are right. The author is not committed to a particular version of peak oil theory, but deems the issue important enough to explore how various parts of the world should be expected to react. From the historical record he is able to identify predatory militarism, totalitarian retrenchment, and socioeconomic adaptation as three possible trajectories.

  9. Performance of coils wound from long lengths of surface-coated, reacted, BSCCO-2212 conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, M.S.; Hazelton, D.W.; Gardner, M.T. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Latham, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    React-before-wind surface-coated BSCCO-2212 is being established as a relatively low cost HTS conductor for practical applications. Quality tape is presently being manufactured in 450-500m lengths at a cost estimated to be 1/3-1/5 of the industry costs of BSCCO-2223 powder-in-tube tape. Robust, mechanically sound coils for applications ranging from NMR insert magnets to transformer windings are being made from this BSCCO-2212 tape. The coils have performed consistently through test and thermal cycling without degradation and as projected from short sample measurements. A hybrid approach, which uses mainly BSCCO- 2212 augmented by BSCCO-2223 conductor in the high radial field end regions, is expected to halve magnet system costs.

  10. Kinetic study of pentosan solubility during heating and reacting processes of steam treatment of green bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiaojuan; Hu, Huichao; Li, Canghai; Cao, Shilin; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui

    2013-02-01

    Green bamboo was hydrolyzed over a range of durations at different temperatures. A simple pseudo-homogeneous irreversible first order kinetic model was developed to describe pentosan solubility during steam treatment of green bamboo. To avoid the influence of soluble pentosan during heating process, kinetic parameters were effectively dissolved based on the data in the reacting process. Moreover, the pentosan solubility during heating process was also well modeled by numerical algorithm method. According to the origin of H factor, a modified parameter called steam treatment factor (f(P)) was proposed in this paper based on the determined kinetic constants. Finally, residual pentosan in whole process could be predicted properly based on the f(P) and the introducing of potential hydrolysis degree (h(d)). After using f(P) to combine reaction temperature and time into a single factor, comparative result showed that steam treatment is more effective for removing pentosan compared with hot water extraction.

  11. Methods for Prediction of High-Speed Reacting Flows in Aerospace Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip

    2014-01-01

    Research to develop high-speed airbreathing aerospace propulsion systems was underway in the late 1950s. A major part of the effort involved the supersonic combustion ramjet, or scramjet, engine. Work had also begun to develop computational techniques for solving the equations governing the flow through a scramjet engine. However, scramjet technology and the computational methods to assist in its evolution would remain apart for another decade. The principal barrier was that the computational methods needed for engine evolution lacked the computer technology required for solving the discrete equations resulting from the numerical methods. Even today, computer resources remain a major pacing item in overcoming this barrier. Significant advances have been made over the past 35 years, however, in modeling the supersonic chemically reacting flow in a scramjet combustor. To see how scramjet development and the required computational tools finally merged, we briefly trace the evolution of the technology in both areas.

  12. Cysteine reacts to form blue-green pigments with thiosulfinates obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Keum; Kyung, Kyu Hang

    2014-01-01

    Cysteine was found to form pigments with garlic thiosulfinates in this investigation, in contrast to previous reports. Pigments were formed only when the molar concentration ratios of cysteine to total thiosulfinates were smaller than 2:1. Cysteine does not form pigments with thiosulfinates in the same manner as other pigment-forming amino compounds because it has a sulfhydryl (SH) group. A colour reaction of cysteine with thiosulfinates is proposed where colourless disulphide-type S-alk(en)yl mercaptocysteines (SAMCs) are formed first by the SH-involved reaction between cysteine and thiosulfinates, and then SAMCs react with residual thiosulfinates to form pigments. When the cysteine to total thiosulfinate molar concentration ratio was 2:1 or greater, total thiosulfinates were consumed to form SAMCs without leaving any thiosulfinates remaining available for the following colour reactions.

  13. Pironetin reacts covalently with cysteine-316 of α-tubulin to destabilize microtubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Taijing; Jiang, Jian; Botting, Catherine H.; Liu, Huanting; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Jinliang; Naismith, James H.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lijuan

    2016-06-01

    Molecules that alter the normal dynamics of microtubule assembly and disassembly include many anticancer drugs in clinical use. So far all such therapeutics target β-tubulin, and structural biology has explained the basis of their action and permitted design of new drugs. However, by shifting the profile of β-tubulin isoforms, cancer cells become resistant to treatment. Compounds that bind to α-tubulin are less well characterized and unexploited. The natural product pironetin is known to bind to α-tubulin and is a potent inhibitor of microtubule polymerization. Previous reports had identified that pironetin reacts with lysine-352 residue however analogues designed on this model had much lower potency, which was difficult to explain, hindering further development. We report crystallographic and mass spectrometric data that reveal that pironetin forms a covalent bond to cysteine-316 in α-tubulin via a Michael addition reaction. These data provide a basis for the rational design of α-tubulin targeting chemotherapeutics.

  14. CFD prediction of the reacting flow field inside a subscale scramjet combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitsomboon, T.; Northam, G. B.; Rogers, R. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    1988-01-01

    A three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes CFD code has been used to calculate the reacting flowfield inside a hydrogen-fueled, subscale scramjet combustor. Pilot fuel was injected transversely upstream of the combustor and the primary fuel was injected transversely downstream of a backward facing step. A finite rate combustion model with two-step kinetics was used. The CFD code used the explicit MacCormack algorithm with point-implicit treatment of the chemistry source terms. Turbulent mixing of the jets with the airstream was simulated by a simple mixing length scheme, whereas near wall turbulence was accounted for by the Baldwin-Lomax model. Computed results were compared with experimental wall pressure measurements.

  15. Longitudinally Vibrating Elastic Rods with Locally and Non-Locally Reacting Viscous Dampers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şefaatdin Yüksel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Eigencharacteristics of a longitudinally vibrating elastic rod with locally and non-locally reacting damping are analyzed. The rod is considered as a continuous system and complex eigenfrequencies are determined as solution of a characteristic equation. The variation of the damping ratios with respect to damper locations and damping coefficients for the first four eigenfrequencies are obtained. It is shown that at any mode of locally or non-locally damped elastic rod, the variation of damping ratio with damper location is linearly proportional to absolute value of the mode shape of undamped system. It is seen that the increasing damping coefficient does not always increase the damping ratio and there are optimal values for the damping ratio. Optimal values for external damping coefficients of viscous dampers and locations of the dampers are presented.

  16. Mathematical modeling of turbulent reacting plumes - I. General theory and model formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A new, comprehensive model for a chemically reacting plume is presented that accounts for the effects of incomplete turbulent macro- and micromixing on chemical reactions between plume and atmospheric constituents. The model is modular in nature, allowing for the use of different levels of approximation of the phenomena involved. The core of the model consists of the evolution equations for reaction progress variables appropriate for evolving spatially varying systems. These equations estimate the interaction of mixing and chemical reaction and require input parameters characterizing internal plume behavior, such as relative dispersion and fine scale plume segregation. The model addresses deficiencies in previous reactive plume models. Part II is devoted to atmospheric application of the model. (authors).

  17. Slow Growth Formulation for DNS of Chemically Reacting Temporal Boundary Layers with Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Moser, Robert

    2012-11-01

    Extensions to a previously developed formulation for DNS of temporally evolving boundary layers are presented. The original formulation, which allows characterization of turbulence in a temporal boundary layer at a chosen stage of the development, uses a multiscale approach where the fast evolution of the turbulent fluctuations is simulated directly while the slow evolution of averaged quantities is modeled. Specifically, the source terms from slow evolution are modeled assuming self-similarity in the evolution of mean and RMS quantities. Here, the formulation is extended to enable DNS of chemically reacting boundary layers with forcing. These extensions are used to obtain DNS data for conditions similar to those observed in the boundary layer during athmospheric reentry of the NASA CEV. Data from this simulation will be used to inform turbulence model calibration and UQ. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  18. Maximum Genus of Strong Embeddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Er-ling Wei; Yan-pei Liu; Han Ren

    2003-01-01

    The strong embedding conjecture states that any 2-connected graph has a strong embedding on some surface. It implies the circuit double cover conjecture: Any 2-connected graph has a circuit double cover.Conversely, it is not true. But for a 3-regular graph, the two conjectures are equivalent. In this paper, a characterization of graphs having a strong embedding with exactly 3 faces, which is the strong embedding of maximum genus, is given. In addition, some graphs with the property are provided. More generally, an upper bound of the maximum genus of strong embeddings of a graph is presented too. Lastly, it is shown that the interpolation theorem is true to planar Halin graph.

  19. Identification of a uniquely immunodominant, cross-reacting site in the human immunodeficiency virus endonuclease protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björling, E; Utter, G; Stålhandske, P; Norrby, E; Chiodi, F

    1991-01-01

    One of the features of the life cycle of retroviruses is insertion of the proviral DNA into host chromosomes. A protein encoded by the 3' end of the pol gene of the virus genome has been shown to possess endonuclease activity (D. P. Grandgenett, A. C. Vora, and R. D. Schiff, Virology 89:119-132, 1978), which is necessary for DNA integration. Sera from the majority of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals react with endonuclease protein p31 in serological tests (J. S. Allan, J. E. Coligan, T.-H. Lee, F. Barin, P. J. Kanki, S. M'Boup, M. F. McLane, J. E. Groopman, and M. Essex, Blood 69:331-333, 1987; E. F. Lillehoj, F. H. R. Salazar, R. J. Mervis, M. G. Raum, H. W. Chan, N. Ahmad, and S. Venkatesan, J. Virol. 62:3053-3058, 1988; K. S. Steimer, K. W. Higgins, M. A. Powers, J. C. Stephans, A. Gyenes, G. George-Nascimento, P. A. Liciw, P. J. Barr, R. A. Hallewell, and R. Sanchez-Pescador, J. Virol. 58:9-16, 1986). It is not known, however, which part of the protein represents the target(s) for antibody response. To study this, we synthesized peptides and used them in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system to map the reactivity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-positive sera to the different regions of the HIV endonuclease. A uniquely antigenic, HIV-1- and HIV-2-cross-reacting site was identified in the central part of this protein from Phe-663 to Trp-670. PMID:2072463

  20. A heterogeneous optimization algorithm for reacted singlet oxygen for interstitial PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Altschuler, Martin D.; Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the major cytotoxic agent for type II photodynamic therapy (PDT). The production of 1O2 involves the complex reactions among light, oxygen molecule, and photosensitizer. From universal macroscopic kinetic equations which describe the photochemical processes of PDT, the reacted 1O2 concentration, [1O2]rx, with cell target can be expressed in a form related to time integration of the product of 1O2 quantum yield and the PDT dose rate. The object of this study is to develop optimization procedures that account for the optical heterogeneity of the patient prostate, the tissue photosensitizer concentrations, and tissue oxygenation, thereby enable delivery of uniform reacted singlet oxygen to the gland. We use the heterogeneous optical properties measured for a patient prostate to calculate a light fluence kernel. Several methods are used to optimize the positions and intensities of CDFs. The Cimmino feasibility algorithm, which is fast, linear, and always converges reliably, is applied as a search tool to optimize the weights of the light sources at each step of the iterative selection. Maximum and minimum dose limits chosen for sample points in the prostate constrain the solution for the intensities of the linear light sources. The study shows that optimization of individual light source positions and intensities is feasible for the heterogeneous prostate during PDT. To study how different photosensitizer distributions as well as tissue oxygenation in the prostate affect optimization, comparisons of light fluence rate were made with measured distribution of photosensitizer in prostate under different tissue oxygenation conditions. PMID:25995533

  1. A heterogeneous optimization algorithm for reacted singlet oxygen for interstitial PDT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Timothy C.; Altschuler, Martin D.; Hu, Yida; Wang, Ken; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Cengel, Keith; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2010-02-01

    Singlet oxygen (1O2) is the major cytotoxic agent for type II photodynamic therapy (PDT). The production of 1O2 involves the complex reactions among light, oxygen molecule, and photosensitizer. From universal macroscopic kinetic equations which describe the photochemical processes of PDT, the reacted 1O2 concentration, [1O2]rx, with cell target can be expressed in a form related to time integration of the product of 1O2 quantum yield and the PDT dose rate. The object of this study is to develop optimization procedures that account for the optical heterogeneity of the patient prostate, the tissue photosensitizer concentrations, and tissue oxygenation, thereby enable delivery of uniform reacted singlet oxygen to the gland. We use the heterogeneous optical properties measured for a patient prostate to calculate a light fluence kernel. Several methods are used to optimize the positions and intensities of CDFs. The Cimmino feasibility algorithm, which is fast, linear, and always converges reliably, is applied as a search tool to optimize the weights of the light sources at each step of the iterative selection. Maximum and minimum dose limits chosen for sample points in the prostate constrain the solution for the intensities of the linear light sources. The study shows that optimization of individual light source positions and intensities is feasible for the heterogeneous prostate during PDT. To study how different photosensitizer distributions as well as tissue oxygenation in the prostate affect optimization, comparisons of light fluence rate were made with measured distribution of photosensitizer in prostate under different tissue oxygenation conditions.

  2. Nanovid microscopy for assessing sperm membrane changes induced by in vitro capacitating and acrosomal reacting procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degelos, S D; Wilson, M P; Chandler, J E

    1994-01-01

    This study was to verify the usefulness of Nanovid microscopy techniques for evaluating induced modifications in bovine spermatozoal membranes. Frozen thawed bovine sperm were labeled with 20-nm colloidal gold particles bound to concanavalin A (ConA) or heparin ligands. Sperm membrane changes were induced in vitro by capacitating and acrosome-reacting procedures. Capacitation was induced by incubation with 10 micrograms/ml of heparin for 4 hours at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2, and high humidity. Membrane changes associated with the acrosome reaction were induced by addition of lysophosphatidylcholine (100 micrograms/ml) and incubation for 15 minutes at 37 degrees C, 5% CO2, and high humidity. Gray intensity (black = 0; white = 255) of sperm (ONCELL) and background (OFFCELL) were evaluated with computer-enhanced videomicroscopy with either differential interference contrast (DIC) or Nanovid optics. A high gold concentration on a membrane region produced blacker video pictures with Nanovid microscopy. Gray intensity of video pictures of a region with little or no gold would have a gray intensity equal to or greater than that of the background, that is, toward white. Weighted least squares methods were used to analyze ONCELL data using OFFCELL as a covariate. In experiment 1, ONCELL intensities of cells labeled with ConA-gold complex were lower than those labeled with heparin-gold at the same treatment level. In experiment 2, ONCELL intensity decreased as the concentration of heparin-gold increased from 0 to 0.041 microgram/microliter heparin. ONCELL intensity significantly decreased after sperm were treated with the highest heparin-gold level and acrosome reacted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Insulation and Heat Treatment of Bi-2212 Wire for Wind-and-React Coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter K. F. Hwang

    2007-10-22

    Higher Field Magnets demand higher field materials such as Bi-2212 round superconducting wire. The Bi-2212 wire manufacture process depends on the coil fabrication method and wire insulation material. Considering the wind-and-react method, the coil must unifirmly heated to the melt temperature and uniformly cooled to the solidification temperature. During heat treat cycle for tightly wound coils, the leakage melt from conductor can chemically react with insulation on the conductor and creat short turns in the coils. In this research project, conductor, insulation, and coils are made to systemically study the suitable insulation materials, coil fabrication method, and heat treatment cycles. In this phase I study, 800 meters Bi-2212 wire with 3 different insulation materials have been produced. Best insulation material has been identified after testing six small coils for insulation integrity and critical current at 4.2 K. Four larger coils (2" dia) have been also made with Bi-2212 wrapped with best insulation and with different heattreatment cycle. These coils were tested for Ic in a 6T background field and at 4.2 K. The test result shows that Ic from 4 coils are very close to short samples (1 meter) result. It demonstrates that HTS coils can be made with Bi-2212 wire with best insulation consistently. Better wire insulation, improving coil winding technique, and wire manufacture process can be used for a wide range of high field magnet application including acclerators such as Muon Collider, fusion energy research, NMR spectroscopy, MRI, and other industrial magnets.

  4. Effects of strong disorder in strongly correlated superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Debmalya; Sensarma, Rajdeep; Ghosal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effect of strong disorder on a system with strong electronic repulsion. In the absence of disorder, the system has a d-wave superconducting ground state with strong non-BCS features due to its proximity to a Mott insulator. We find that while strong correlations make superconductivity in this system immune to weak disorder, superconductivity is destroyed efficiently when disorder strength is comparable to the effective bandwidth. The suppression of charge motion in regions of strong potential fluctuation leads to the formation of Mott insulating patches, which anchor a larger nonsuperconducting region around them. The system thus breaks into islands of Mott insulating and superconducting regions, with Anderson insulating regions occurring along the boundary of these regions. Thus, electronic correlation and disorder, when both are strong, aid each other in destroying superconductivity, in contrast to their competition at weak disorder. Our results shed light on why zinc impurities are efficient in destroying superconductivity in cuprates, even though it is robust to weaker impurities.

  5. Distribution of anticancer antibiotic daunomycin in the rat heart and kidney revealed by immunocytochemistry using monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujiwara, Kunio; Shin, Masashi; Hougaard, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (ADM-1-11 and 79-31 mAbs) were raised against daunomycin (DM) conjugated to bovine serum albumin via the cross-linker N-(gamma-maleimidobutyryloxy)succinimide. The monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specifically detected DM as well as its analogs doxorubicin and epirubicin......, but did not react with other anticancer antibiotics, including pepleomycin, mitomycin C, and actinomycin D. The mAbs reacted strongly with glutaraldehyde-conjugated DM in an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used as a model system for immunocytochemistry as well as in appropriately pretreated...

  6. New quarks: exotic versus strong

    OpenAIRE

    Holdom, B.

    2011-01-01

    The new quarks of a fourth family are being pushed into the strongly interacting regime due to the lower limits on their masses. The theoretical basis and experimental implications of such quarks are compared with exotic quarks.

  7. Cavity quantum electrodynamics: Beyond strong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Kater

    2017-01-01

    When light and matter are strongly coupled, they lose their distinct character and merge into a hybrid state. Three experiments explore this exotic regime using artificial atoms, with promise for quantum technologies.

  8. Strong nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2017-01-01

    This book outlines an analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system, offering a solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter. Includes exercises.

  9. Creating and Nurturing Strong Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kaye M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses ways to create and sustain strong teaching teams, including matching curriculum goals, complementary professional strengths, and exercise of autonomy. Elaborates the administrator's role in nurturing and supporting teamwork. (JPB)

  10. Characterization of periplasmic protein BP26 epitopes of Brucella melitensis reacting with murine monoclonal and sheep antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinlang; Wang, Wenjing; Wu, Jingbo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Chen, Chuangfu; Gao, Goege F; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Li, Chengyao

    2012-01-01

    More than 35,000 new cases of human brucellosis were reported in 2010 by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. An attenuated B. melitensis vaccine M5-90 is currently used for vaccination of sheep and goats in China. In the study, a periplasmic protein BP26 from M5-90 was characterized for its epitope reactivity with mouse monoclonal and sheep antibodies. A total of 29 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against recombinant BP26 (rBP26) were produced, which were tested for reactivity with a panel of BP26 peptides, three truncated rBP26 and native BP26 containing membrane protein extracts (NMP) of B. melitensis M5-90 in ELISA and Western-Blot. The linear, semi-conformational and conformational epitopes from native BP26 were identified. Two linear epitopes recognized by mAbs were revealed by 28 of 16mer overlapping peptides, which were accurately mapped as the core motif of amino acid residues ⁹³DRDLQTGGI¹⁰¹ (position 93 to 101) or residues ¹⁰⁴QPIYVYPD¹¹¹, respectively. The reactivity of linear epitope peptides, rBP26 and NMP was tested with 137 sheep sera by ELISAs, of which the two linear epitopes had 65-70% reactivity and NMP 90% consistent with the results of a combination of two standard serological tests. The results were helpful for evaluating the reactivity of BP26 antigen in M5-90.

  11. The Study Effect of Fill and React Period Change on the Performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azwar Azwar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The operation of the sequencing batch reactor (SBR can be optimized by controlling the dissolved oxygen concentration, the dosage of external carbon, nitrification and denitrification, and the phase length of aeration (fills and react period. In this work, the analyses and tested with open loop identification the effect of fill and react period change on the performance of the SBR were studied. The process dynamic has been tested to determine the effect of Fill (tf and React (trperiod changes on soluble substrate (Ss, soluble intermediate product (Ps, inert substrate (Si, particulate organics concentration (Xs, active biomass concentration (Xa, inert biomass concentration (Xi, the total biomass concentration (Xto and the effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD concentration in the SBR. In all simulations the total Fill and React time were set at 6 h, with the Fill time varied at 0.5 h, 1 h, 1.5 h, 2 h, 2.5 h, 3 h, and the corresponding react time set at 5.5 h, 5 h, 4.5 h, 4 h, 3.5 h, and 3 h, respectively. Keywords: fill time and reaction time, sequencing batch reactor, wastewater treatment

  12. ClassSTRONG: Classical simulations of Strong Field processes

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Lewenstein, M

    2013-01-01

    A set of Mathematica functions is presented to model classically two of the most important processes in strong field physics, namely high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and above-threshold ionization (ATI). Our approach is based on the numerical solution of the Newton-Lorentz equation of an electron moving on an electric field and takes advantage of the symbolic languages features and graphical power of Mathematica. Similarly as in the Strong Field Approximation (SFA), the effects of atomic potential on the motion of electron in the laser field are neglected. The SFA has proven to be an essential tool in strong field physics in the sense that it is able to predict with great precision the harmonic (in the HHG) and energy (in the ATI) limits. We have extended substantially the conventional classical simulations, where the electric field is only dependent on time, including spatial nonhomogeneous fields and spatial and temporal synthesized fields. Spatial nonhomogeneous fields appear when metal nanosystems int...

  13. Serial coupling of ion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography to determine aggregation levels in mAbs in the presence of a proteinaceous excipient, recombinant human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbjerg, Paul Luigi Gargani; Caspersen, Mikael Bjerg; Cook, Ken; Van De Weert, Marco

    2015-02-01

    Aggregation levels of therapeutic proteins may be difficult to determine in mixtures containing other proteinaceous excipients. We performed a feasibility study of using serial coupling of an anion exchange and size exclusion column to determine the aggregation levels of four different model monoclonal antibodies (mAb) mixed with the model proteinaceous excipient recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA). For three of the four mAbs suitable elution conditions could be established. From the limitations imposed by the pI of the rHSA, the pI of the mAb and the nature of the columns used, it was possible to propose a set of general conditions that allows quantification of the aggregation level of a therapeutic protein in the presence of a proteinaceous excipient: The excipient protein and protein of interest should differ in pI by a minimum of 0.5 units, and the pI of the protein of interest should not be higher than ca. 8.5.

  14. COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CZECHOWICZ, DG; CASTILLO, ER; NIKROO, A

    2002-04-01

    OAK A271 COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES OF STRONG GLOW DISCHARGE POLYMER COATINGS. An investigation of the chemical composition and structure of strong glow discharge (GDP) polymer shells made for cryogenic experiments at OMEGA is described. The investigation was carried out using combustion and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The strongest coatings were observed to have the lowest hydrogen content or hydrogen/carbon H/C ratio, whereas the weakest coatings had the highest hydrogen content or H/C ratio. Chemical composition results from combustion were used to complement FTIR analysis to determine the relative hydrogen content of as-fabricated coatings. Good agreement was observed between composition results obtained from combustion and FTIR analysis. FTIR analysis of coating structures showed the strongest coatings to have less terminal methyl groups and a more double bond or olefinic structure. Strong GDP coatings that were aged in air react more with oxygen and moisture than standard GDP coatings. In addition to a more olefinic structure, there may also be more free-radial sites present in strong GDP coatings, which leads to greater oxygen uptake.

  15. High-Speed Turbulent Reacting Flows: Intrinsic Flame Instability and its Effects on the Turbulent Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poludnenko, Alexei

    2016-11-01

    Turbulent reacting flows are pervasive both in our daily lives on Earth and in the Universe. They power modern society being at the heart of many energy generation and propulsion systems, such as gas turbines, internal combustion and jet engines. On astronomical scales, thermonuclear turbulent flames are the driver of some of the most powerful explosions in the Universe, knows as Type Ia supernovae. Despite this ubiquity in Nature, turbulent reacting flows still pose a number of fundamental questions often exhibiting surprising and unexpected behavior. In this talk, we will discuss several such phenomena observed in direct numerical simulations of high-speed, premixed, turbulent flames. We show that turbulent flames in certain regimes are intrinsically unstable even in the absence of the surrounding combustor walls or obstacles, which can support the thermoacoustic feedback. Such instability can fundamentally change the structure and dynamics of the turbulent cascade, resulting in a significant (and anisotropic) redistribution of kinetic energy from small to large scales. In particular, three effects are observed. 1) The turbulent burning velocity can develop pulsations with significant peak-to-peak amplitudes. 2) Unstable burning can result in pressure build-up and the formation of pressure waves or shocks when the flame speed approaches or exceeds the speed of a Chapman-Jouguet deflagration. 3) Coupling of pressure and density gradients across the flame can lead to the anisotropic generation of turbulence inside the flame volume and flame acceleration. We extend our earlier analysis, which relied on a simplified single-step reaction model, by demonstrating existence of these effects in realistic chemical flames (hydrogen and methane) and in thermonuclear flames in degenerate, relativistic plasmas found in stellar interiors. Finally, we discuss the implications of these results for subgrid-scale LES combustion models. This work was supported by the Air Force

  16. Assay interference caused by antibodies reacting with rat kappa light-chain in human sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, Søren E; Andersen, Stig Henrik; Jensen, Lisbeth; Thiel, Steffen; Jensenius, Jens C

    2011-09-30

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its derivatives are powerful tools used in research, in the clinic, and in many other analytical and quality control settings. In general, ELISAs are robust, reproducible and reliable. However, a number of pitfalls of ELISAs have been described over the years. The issue of rheumatoid factor (RF), autoantibodies against the Fc portion of IgG, is well recognized (yet often forgotten), as are problems arising from heterophilic antibodies induced by external antigens that cross-react with self-antigens. A few years ago focus was on human anti-mouse antibodies (HAMA) concomitant with the increased use of mouse monoclonal antibody therapy, a problem that is now diminishing due to development of humanized antibodies. Issues pertaining to food antigens or environmentally encountered antigens are less recognized. We report a recently encountered example of the latter resulting in interference in a solid-phase sandwich assay. Due to the set-up employing a monoclonal rat IgG for capture and a monoclonal rat IgM for development the interference had to be human antibodies reacting with rat light-chain. Out of 102 Danish Caucasian blood donors we found a prevalence of anti-rat kappa light chain antibodies of close to 40% (39/102, defined as at least 2-fold elevated measurements), with around 6% (6/102) having very high levels (defined as at least 4-fold elevated measurements), yielding significantly higher measurements in the assay designed to measure the complement component MAp19 in serum samples. The interference could be blocked by the addition of rat immunoglobulin to the sample buffer. An individual, who had been followed over time, demonstrated a periodic increase of interfering antibodies, highlighting that it is an independently varying parameter and thereby a variable interference in assays. Our results highlight a major pitfall of potential relevance to many sandwich-type assays, as well as an approach to rectify such

  17. Tomographic imaging of reacting flows in 3D by laser absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, J.; Martin, P. A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the development of an infrared laser absorption tomography system for the 3D volumetric imaging of chemical species and temperature in reacting flows. The system is based on high-resolution near-infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for the measurement of water vapour above twin, mixed fuel gas burners arranged with an asymmetrical output. Four parallel laser beams pass through the sample region and are rotated rapidly in a plane to produce a wide range of projection angles. A rotation of 180° with 0.5° sampling was achieved in 3.6 s. The effects of changes to the burner fuel flow were monitored in real time for the 2D distributions. The monitoring plane was then moved vertically relative to the burners enabling a stack of 2D images to be produced which were then interpolated to form a 3D volumetric image of the temperature and water concentrations above the burners. The optical transmission of each beam was rapidly scanned around 1392 nm and the spectrum was fitted to find the integrated absorbance of the water transitions and although several are probed in each scan, two of these transitions possess opposite temperature dependencies. The projections of the integrated absorbances at each angle form the sinogram from which the 2D image of integrated absorbance of each line can be reconstructed by the direct Fourier reconstruction based on the Fourier slice theorem. The ratio of the integrated absorbances of the two lines can then be related to temperature alone in a method termed, two-line thermometry. The 2D temperature distribution obtained was validated for pattern and accuracy by thermocouple measurements. With the reconstructed temperature distribution, the temperature-dependent line strengths could be determined and subsequently the concentration distribution of water across the 2D plane whilst variations in burner condition were carried out. These results show that the measurement system based on TDLAS can be

  18. The Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teaching (REACT): the dimensionality of student perceptions of the instructional environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M; Demers, Joseph A; Christ, Theodore J

    2014-06-01

    This study details the initial development of the Responsive Environmental Assessment for Classroom Teachers (REACT). REACT was developed as a questionnaire to evaluate student perceptions of the classroom teaching environment. Researchers engaged in an iterative process to develop, field test, and analyze student responses on 100 rating-scale items. Participants included 1,465 middle school students across 48 classrooms in the Midwest. Item analysis, including exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, was used to refine a 27-item scale with a second-order factor structure. Results support the interpretation of a single general dimension of the Classroom Teaching Environment with 6 subscale dimensions: Positive Reinforcement, Instructional Presentation, Goal Setting, Differentiated Instruction, Formative Feedback, and Instructional Enjoyment. Applications of REACT in research and practice are discussed along with implications for future research and the development of classroom environment measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Sound attenuation in rectangular and circular cross-section ducts with flow and bulk-reacting liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies, D. A.; Hansen, C. H.; Bridges, G. E.

    1991-04-01

    A generalized theory is presented for sound propagation in lined ducts of arbitrary cross-section where acoustic wave propagation in the lining is also taken into account. The effects of a mean fluid flow in the duct airway, an anisotropic bulk reacting liner and a limp, impervious membrane covering the liner are all taken into account. Simple extension of the formalism to include the effect of a perforated facing is also provided. Bulk reacting and locally reacting liners are treated as limiting cases. The general analysis is applied to ducts of both rectangular and circular cross-section, taking into account higher order modes as well as plane wave sound propagation. Design charts for duct attenuation in octave frequency band averages and in terms of dimensionless parameters are presented.

  20. Computation of Non-Equilibrium Chemically Reacting Hypersonic Flow from a Cartesian Mesh with Near Wall Viscous Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solution methodology has been developed to solve chemically reacting laminar hypersonic flow in chemical Non-equilibrium and thermal equilibrium, by a Cartesian mesh based hybrid solution methodology, which uses an unstructured prism layer solution near the wall and a Cartesian mesh solution away from the wall. The unstructured prism layer for near wall solution is obtained from the normal projection of wall panels of the Cartesian mesh and are stitched with the outer Cartesian mesh. The solver, developed based on this approach when compared with other chemically reacting CFD codes and limited experimental results show good comparison. This procedure has a good potential to handle near-wall resolution for chemically reacting flows with a Cartesian mesh for complex geometries as well.

  1. Non-reacting Flow Analysis from Combustor Inlet to Outlet using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ananda Reddy

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes non-reacting flow analysis of a gas turbine combustion system. The method is based on the solution of Navier-Strokes equations using generalised non-orthogonal coordinate system. The turbulence effects are modelled through the renormalisation group k-E model. The method has been applied to a practical gas turbine combustor. The combustionsystem includes swirler vane passages, fuel nozzles, rotor bleed, customer bleed, air-blast atomiser, swirl cone, and all holes in primary , dilution , dome, flare, and cooling ring. Thetotal geometry has been created using the pre-processors GAMBIT and CATIA, and the meshing has been done using GAMBIT, and the analysis carried out in a FLUENT solver. The interaction between the diffuser and the combustor external flows plays a key role in controlling the pressure loss, air flow distribution around the combustor liner, durability, and stability. The aero gas turbine combustor designs are generally guided by experimental methods and past experience; however, experimental methods are inherently slow, costly, especially at hightemperature engine-operating conditions. These drawbacks and the growing need to understand the complex flow-field phenomenon involved, have led to the development of a numericalmodel for predicting flow in the gas turbine combustor. These models are used to optimise the design of the combustor and its subcomponents, and reduce cost, time, and the number ofexperiments.

  2. MP Salsa: a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 1--theoretical development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadid, J.N.; Moffat, H.K.; Hutchinson, S.A.; Hennigan, G.L.; Devine, K.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    The theoretical background for the finite element computer program, MPSalsa, is presented in detail. MPSalsa is designed to solve laminar, low Mach number, two- or three-dimensional incompressible and variable density reacting fluid flows on massively parallel computers, using a Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation. The code has the capability to solve coupled fluid flow, heat transport, multicomponent species transport, and finite-rate chemical reactions, and to solver coupled multiple Poisson or advection-diffusion- reaction equations. The program employs the CHEMKIN library to provide a rigorous treatment of multicomponent ideal gas kinetics and transport. Chemical reactions occurring in the gas phase and on surfaces are treated by calls to CHEMKIN and SURFACE CHEMKIN, respectively. The code employs unstructured meshes, using the EXODUS II finite element data base suite of programs for its input and output files. MPSalsa solves both transient and steady flows by using fully implicit time integration, an inexact Newton method and iterative solvers based on preconditioned Krylov methods as implemented in the Aztec solver library.

  3. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  4. Microbiological Insights of the Cycling of Chloroperoxidase-Reacted Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzmarzick, M. J.; Boothe, M.; Lim, M. L.; Wang, X.; Brooks, M.

    2016-12-01

    Chloroperoxidase (CPO) enzymes from fungi are one mechanism in which organic matter is halogenated in terrestrial soils. In microcosm experiments, 17 groups of bacteria were found to substantially become enriched upon CPO-reacted organic matter amendment (CPO-OM). Though some enriched groups were organohalide-respiring bacteria, most were not related to any cultured isolates of bacteria and were either loosely linked to organohalide-degrading cultures or not at all. The large diversity of uncultured bacteria that is enriched from this substrate raises new questions regarding the pathways and mechanisms of the turnover of natural organochlorides. Upon changes in organic matter source material, salinity, temperature, and fermentable substrate, large changes in the CPO-OM enrichment culture occurred due to salinity, temperature, and fermentable substrate, though organic matter source material had a minimal effect. Thus, changes in geophysical conditions, not organic matter (pine forest vs oak forest), dominate the selection of bacteria implicated in the turnover of natural organochlorides. In related experiments, the CPO-OM enrichment culture expresses increased activity towards the dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes, indicating a direct connection between natural organochloride turnover and anthropogenic organochloride degradation and bioremediation, and could partly explain the heterogeneity of natural bioremediation potential at contaminated sites.

  5. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  6. Comparison of PDF and Moment Closure Methods in the Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andrew T.; Hsu, Andrew T.

    1994-01-01

    In modeling turbulent reactive flows, Probability Density Function (PDF) methods have an advantage over the more traditional moment closure schemes in that the PDF formulation treats the chemical reaction source terms exactly, while moment closure methods are required to model the mean reaction rate. The common model used is the laminar chemistry approximation, where the effects of turbulence on the reaction are assumed negligible. For flows with low turbulence levels and fast chemistry, the difference between the two methods can be expected to be small. However for flows with finite rate chemistry and high turbulence levels, significant errors can be expected in the moment closure method. In this paper, the ability of the PDF method and the moment closure scheme to accurately model a turbulent reacting flow is tested. To accomplish this, both schemes were used to model a CO/H2/N2- air piloted diffusion flame near extinction. Identical thermochemistry, turbulence models, initial conditions and boundary conditions are employed to ensure a consistent comparison can be made. The results of the two methods are compared to experimental data as well as to each other. The comparison reveals that the PDF method provides good agreement with the experimental data, while the moment closure scheme incorrectly shows a broad, laminar-like flame structure.

  7. Pironetin reacts covalently with cysteine-316 of α-tubulin to destabilize microtubule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Taijing; Jiang, Jian; Botting, Catherine H.; Liu, Huanting; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Jinliang; Naismith, James H.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lijuan

    2016-01-01

    Molecules that alter the normal dynamics of microtubule assembly and disassembly include many anticancer drugs in clinical use. So far all such therapeutics target β-tubulin, and structural biology has explained the basis of their action and permitted design of new drugs. However, by shifting the profile of β-tubulin isoforms, cancer cells become resistant to treatment. Compounds that bind to α-tubulin are less well characterized and unexploited. The natural product pironetin is known to bind to α-tubulin and is a potent inhibitor of microtubule polymerization. Previous reports had identified that pironetin reacts with lysine-352 residue however analogues designed on this model had much lower potency, which was difficult to explain, hindering further development. We report crystallographic and mass spectrometric data that reveal that pironetin forms a covalent bond to cysteine-316 in α-tubulin via a Michael addition reaction. These data provide a basis for the rational design of α-tubulin targeting chemotherapeutics. PMID:27357539

  8. How Do Patients and Providers React to Different Incentives in the Chinese Multiple Health Security Systems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: China has achieved universal health insurance coverage. This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes. Methods: The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing. We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives. Results: Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates. Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage, patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year. The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers. Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives, and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use.

  9. How do patients and providers react to different incentives in the Chinese multiple health security systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-03-05

    China has achieved universal health insurance coverage. This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes. The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing. We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives. Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates. Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage, patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year. The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider. Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers. Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives, and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use.

  10. Linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis reacts with multiple laminins and integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Tsuchisaka, Atsunari; Qian, Hua; Teye, Kwesi; Ishii, Norito; Sogame, Ryosuke; Harada, Kazutoshi; Nakagomi, Daiki; Shimada, Shinji; Tateishi, Chiharu; Hirako, Yoshiaki; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Since the original description by Zone et al in 1994, the disease entity and target antigens in linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis (LAGBD) have not been clarified in 20 years. To determine autoantibodies and autoantigens in a new LAGBD case which showed atypical clinical and histopathological findings without apparent mucosal involvement. We performed various indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies. Indirect immunofluorescence of 1M NaCl-split skin showed IgG and IgA reactivity with both epidermal and dermal sides. Immunoblotting studies using various antigen sources revealed circulating IgG and IgA antibodies reactive with laminin-332, laminin-γ1 and integrin α6β4 in various patterns. Absorption study using recombinant proteins of laminin-γ1 indicated that the patient serum reacted with different epitopes between laminin-γ1 and laminin-γ2. This study presented for the first time a LAGBD patient with IgG and IgA antibodies to various laminins and integrins.

  11. Prediction of engine and near-field plume reacting flows in low-thrust chemical rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan M.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    A computational model is employed to study the reacting flow within the engine and near-field plumes of several small gaseous hydrogen-oxygen thrusters. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations coupled with species diffusion equations for a hydrogen-oxygen reaction kinetics system and includes a two-equation q-omega model for turbulence. Predictions of global performance parameters and localized flowfield variables are compared with experimental data in order to assess the accuracy with which these flowfields are modeled and to identify aspects of the model which require improvement. Predicted axial and radial velocities 3 mm downstream of the exit plane show reasonable agreement with the measurements. The predicted peak in axial velocity in the hydrogen film coolant along the nozzle wall shows the best agreement; however, predictions within the core region are roughly 15 percent below measured values, indicating an underprediction of the extent to which the hydrogen diffuses and mixes with the core flow. There is evidence that this is due to three-dimensional mixing processes which are not included in the axisymmetric model.

  12. Immunolocalization of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium antigens reacting with their Egyptian snail vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dafrawy, Shadia M; Mohamed, Amira H; Hammam, Olfat A; Rabia, Ibrahim

    2007-12-01

    The reaction of the haemolymph and the tissue of infected intermediate hosts, Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus to Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium antigens were investigated using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique. A new technique, Agarose cell block was used in collection of haemolymph which helped in collecting plenty of well formed cells in comparison to the ordinary one using the cytospin. Collected haemolymph and prepared tissues of uninfected and infected B. alexandria and B. truncatus were fixed and then reacted with anti-S. mansoni and anti-S. haematobium IgG polyclonal antibodies. The haemolymph and tissue of infected B. alexandrina and B. truncatus gave a positive peroxidase reaction represented by a brown colour. In haemolymph, the positive peroxidase reaction was detected mainly in the cytoplasm of the amoebocytes. In the tissue, it was detected in epithelial cells lining the tubules, male cells in the lumen of the tubules and in female oogonia cells along the periphery of the tubules. The similarity in the strength and distribution of positive reaction in B. alexandrina and B. truncates was observed as compared to control. Thus, the immunoperoxidase technique proved to be an effective indicator for the schistosome-antigen in the snails.

  13. On the Navier-Stokes Equations for Exothermically Reacting Compressible Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Qiang Chen; David Hoff; Konstantina Trivisa

    2002-01-01

    We analyze mathematical models governing planar flow of chemical reaction from unburnt gases to burnt gases in certain physical regimes in which diffusive effects such as viscosity and heat conduction are significant. These models can be then formulated as the Navier-Stokes equations for exothermically reacting compressible fluids. We first establish the existence and dynamic behavior, including stability, regularity, and large-time behavior, of global discontinuous solutions of large oscillation to the Navier-Stokes equations with constant adiabatic exponent γ and specific heat Cv. Our approach for the existence and regularity is to combine the difference approximation techniques with the energy methods, total variation estimates, and weak convergence arguments to deal with large jump discontinuities; and for large-time behavior is an a posteriori argument directly from the weak form of the equations. The approach and ideas we develop here can be applied to solving a more complicated model where γ and Cv vary as the phase changes; and we then describe this model in detail and contrast the results on the asymptotic behavior of the solutions of these two different models. We also discuss other physical models describing dynamic combustion.

  14. MPSalsa a finite element computer program for reacting flow problems. Part 2 - user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salinger, A.; Devine, K.; Hennigan, G.; Moffat, H. [and others

    1996-09-01

    This manual describes the use of MPSalsa, an unstructured finite element (FE) code for solving chemically reacting flow problems on massively parallel computers. MPSalsa has been written to enable the rigorous modeling of the complex geometry and physics found in engineering systems that exhibit coupled fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, and detailed reactions. In addition, considerable effort has been made to ensure that the code makes efficient use of the computational resources of massively parallel (MP), distributed memory architectures in a way that is nearly transparent to the user. The result is the ability to simultaneously model both three-dimensional geometries and flow as well as detailed reaction chemistry in a timely manner on MT computers, an ability we believe to be unique. MPSalsa has been designed to allow the experienced researcher considerable flexibility in modeling a system. Any combination of the momentum equations, energy balance, and an arbitrary number of species mass balances can be solved. The physical and transport properties can be specified as constants, as functions, or taken from the Chemkin library and associated database. Any of the standard set of boundary conditions and source terms can be adapted by writing user functions, for which templates and examples exist.

  15. Statistical analysis of the velocity and scalar fields in reacting turbulent wall-jets

    CERN Document Server

    Pouransari, Z; Johansson, A V

    2015-01-01

    The concept of local isotropy in a chemically reacting turbulent wall-jet flow is addressed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) data. Different DNS databases with isothermal and exothermic reactions are examined. The chemical reaction and heat release effects on the turbulent velocity, passive scalar and reactive species fields are studied using their probability density functions (PDF) and higher order moments for velocities and scalar fields, as well as their gradients. With the aid of the anisotropy invariant maps for the Reynolds stress tensor the heat release effects on the anisotropy level at different wall-normal locations are evaluated and found to be most accentuated in the near-wall region. It is observed that the small-scale anisotropies are persistent both in the near-wall region and inside the jet flame. Two exothermic cases with different Damkohler number are examined and the comparison revealed that the Damkohler number effects are most dominant in the near-wall region, where the wall cooli...

  16. How Do Patients and Providers React to Different Incentives in the Chinese Multiple Health Security Systems?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Yu Zhang; Hideki Hashimoto

    2015-01-01

    Background:China has achieved universal health insurance coverage.This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes.Methods:The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing.We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives.Results:Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates.Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage,patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year.The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider.Conclusions:Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers.Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives,and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use.

  17. Selective Removal of Iron from Low-Grade Ti Ore by Reacting with Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jungshin; Okabe, Toru H.

    2016-09-01

    Recently, titanium metal production by molten salt electrolysis using CaCl2 as molten salt and TiO2 or rutile (94 to 96 pct TiO2) as feedstock has been drawing attention. However, when a low-grade Ti ore (mainly FeTiO3) is used as feedstock, removal of iron (Fe) from the ore is indispensable. In this study, the influence of reaction temperature, reaction time, particle size of the ore, and source country for the ore on the removal of iron by selective chlorination using CaCl2 was assessed. Experimental results showed that the mass percent of iron in the ore decreased from 49.7 to 1.79 pct under certain conditions by selective removal of iron as FeCl2. As a result, high-grade CaTiO3 was produced when the ore particles smaller than 74 µm reacted with CaCl2 at 1240 K (967 °C) for 8 to 10 hours. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the removal of iron from the ore is feasible through the selective chlorination process using CaCl2 by optimizing the variables.

  18. Methane reacts with heteropolyacids chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Miao

    2013-01-16

    Selective functionalization of methane at moderate temperature is of crucial economic, environmental, and scientific importance. Here, we report that methane reacts with heteropolyacids (HPAs) chemisorbed on silica to produce acetic acid under soft conditions. Specially, when chemisorbed on silica, H 4SiW12O40, H3PW12O 40, H4SiMo12O40, and H 3PMo12O40 activate the primary C-H bond of methane at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. With these systems, acetic acid is produced directly from methane, in a single step, in the absence of Pd and without adding CO. Extensive surface characterization by solid-state NMR spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests that C-H activation of methane is triggered by the protons in the HPA-silica interface with concerted reduction of the Keggin cage, leading to water formation and hydration of the interface. This is the simplest and mildest way reported to date to functionalize methane. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  19. A numerical scheme for modelling reacting flow with detailed chemistry and transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knio, Omar M. (The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Najm, Habib N.; Paul, Phillip H. (Eksigent Technologies LLC, Livermore, CA)

    2003-09-01

    An efficient projection scheme is developed for the simulation of reacting flow with detailed kinetics and transport. The scheme is based on a zero-Mach-number formulation of the compressible conservation equations for an ideal gas mixture. It is a modified version of the stiff operator-split scheme developed by Knio, Najm & Wyckoff (1999, J. Comput. Phys. 154, 428). Similar to its predecessor, the new scheme relies on Strang splitting of the discrete evolution equations, where diffusion is integrated in two half steps that are symmetrically distributed around a single stiff step for the reaction source terms. The diffusive half-step is integrated using an explicit single-step, multistage, Runge-Kutta-Chebyshev (RKC) method, which replaces the explicit, multi-step, fractional sub-step approach used in the previous formulation. This modification maintains the overall second-order convergence properties of the scheme and enhances the efficiency of the computations by taking advantage of the extended real-stability region of the RKC scheme. Two additional efficiency-enhancements are also explored, based on an extrapolation procedure for the transport coefficients and on the use of approximate Jacobian data evaluated on a coarse mesh. By including these enhancement schemes, performance tests using 2D computations with a detailed C{sub 1}C{sub 2} methane-air mechanism and a detailed mixture-averaged transport model indicate that speedup factors of about 15 are achieved over the previous split-stiff scheme.

  20. Simulation of the Partially Ionized Reacting Plasma Flow in a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos; Averkin, Sergey; Olson, Lynn

    2012-10-01

    A High Pressure Discharge Negative Ion Source (HPDNIS) operating on hydrogen is been under investigation. The Negative Ion Production (NIP) section of the HPDNIS attaches to the 10-100 Torr RF-discharge chamber with a micronozzle and ends with a grid that extracts the negative ion beam. The partially ionized and reacting plasma flow in the NIP section is simulated using an unstructured three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (U3DSMC) code. The NIP section contains a low-pressure plasma that includes H2, vibrationally-rotationally excited H2^*, negative hydrogen atoms H^-, and electrons. Primary reactions in the NIP section are dissociate attachment, H2^*+e->H^0+H^-and electron collisional detachment, e+H^-->H+2e. The U3DSMC computational domain includes the entrance to the NIP nozzle and the extraction grid at the exit. The flow parameters at the entrance are based on conditions in the RF-discharge chamber and are implemented in U3DSMC using a Kinetic-Moment subsonic boundary conditions method. The rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom in U3DSMC are implemented using the Larsen-Borgnakke model. Chemical reactions are implemented in U3DSMC using the Quantum-Kinetic model. Simulations cover the regime of operation of the HPDNIS and examine the flow characteristics inside the NIP section.

  1. Role of the reacting free radicals on the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galano, Annia, E-mail: agalano@prodigy.net.mx [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Diduk, Ruslan; Ramirez-Silva, Maria Teresa; Alarcon-Angeles, Georgina; Rojas-Hernandez, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Quimica, Area de Quimica Analitica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, Iztapalapa, C.P. 09340, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-09-18

    Density functional theory is used to study the antioxidant mechanism of curcumin. Five different mechanisms are considered: single electron transfer (SET), radical adduct formation (RAF), H atom transfer from neutral curcumin (HAT), H atom transfer from deprotonated curcumin (HAT-D), and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). The influence of the environment is investigated for polar and non-polar surroundings. The apparent contradictions among previous experimental results are explained by the role of the nature of the reacting free radical on the relative importance of the above mentioned mechanism. It is proposed that the curcumin + DPPH reaction actually takes place mainly through the SPLET mechanism, while the reaction with {sup {center_dot}}OCH{sub 3}, and likely with other alkoxyl radicals, is governed by the HAT mechanism. Branching ratios for the {sup {center_dot}}OCH{sub 3} + curcumin reaction are reported for the first time. The calculated overall rate constants for this reaction are 1.16 x 10{sup 10} (benzene) and 5.52 x 10{sup 9} (water) L mol{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The role of phenolic groups on the antioxidant activity of curcumin has been experimentally confirmed.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulation of a Compressible Reacting Boundary Layer using a Temporal Slow Growth Homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalian, Victor; Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A DNS of a compressible, reacting boundary layer flow at Reθ ~ 430 was performed using a temporal slow-growth homogenization, for a multispecies flow model of air at supersonic regime. The overall scenario parameters are related to those of the flow over an ablating surface of a space capsule upon Earth's atmospheric re-entry. The simulation algorithm features Fourier spatial discretization in the streamwise and spanwise directions, B-splines in the wall normal direction, and is marched semi-implicitly in time using the SMR91 scheme. Flow statistics will be presented for relevant flow quantities, in particular those related with RANS modeling. Since analogous slow growth computations can be performed using RANS to predict the flow mean profiles, the use of data gathered from this type of simulation as a vehicle for the calibration and uncertainty quantification of RANS models will be discussed. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  3. How Do Patients and Providers React to Different Incentives in the Chinese Multiple Health Security Systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Yu; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Background: China has achieved universal health insurance coverage. This study examined how patients and hospitals react to the different designs of the plans and to monitoring of patients by the local authority in the Chinese multiple health security schemes. Methods: The sample for analysis consisted of 1006 orthopedic inpatients who were admitted between January and December 2011 at a tertiary teaching hospital located in Beijing. We conducted general linear regression analyses to investigate whether medical expenditure and length of stay differed according to the different incentives. Results: Patients under plans with lower copayment rates consumed significantly more medication compared with those under plans with higher copayment rates. Under plans with an annual ceiling for insurance coverage, patients spent significantly more in the second half of the year than in the first half of the year. The length of stay was shorter among patients when there were government monitoring and a penalty to the hospital service provider. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the different designs and monitoring of the health security systems in China cause opportunistic behavior by patients and providers. Reformation is necessary to reduce those incentives, and improve equity and efficiency in healthcare use. PMID:25698195

  4. The SNAP Strong Lens Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, P.

    2005-01-03

    Basic considerations of lens detection and identification indicate that a wide field survey of the types planned for weak lensing and Type Ia SNe with SNAP are close to optimal for the optical detection of strong lenses. Such a ''piggy-back'' survey might be expected even pessimistically to provide a catalogue of a few thousand new strong lenses, with the numbers dominated by systems of faint blue galaxies lensed by foreground ellipticals. After sketching out our strategy for detecting and measuring these galaxy lenses using the SNAP images, we discuss some of the scientific applications of such a large sample of gravitational lenses: in particular we comment on the partition of information between lens structure, the source population properties and cosmology. Understanding this partitioning is key to assessing strong lens cosmography's value as a cosmological probe.

  5. Strongly interacting ultracold polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Gadway, Bryce

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in the study of strongly interacting systems of dipolar molecules. Heteronuclear molecules feature large and tunable electric dipole moments, which give rise to long-range and anisotropic dipole-dipole interactions. Ultracold samples of dipolar molecules with long-range interactions offer a unique platform for quantum simulations and the study of correlated many-body physics. We provide an introduction to the physics of dipolar quantum gases, both electric and magnetic, and summarize the multipronged efforts to bring dipolar molecules into the quantum regime. We discuss in detail the recent experimental progress in realizing and studying strongly interacting systems of polar molecules trapped in optical lattices, with particular emphasis on the study of interacting spin systems and non-equilibrium quantum magnetism. Finally, we conclude with a brief discussion of the future prospects for studies of strongly interacting dipolar molecules.

  6. Effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the flow-field of a transverse reacting jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Pratikash P.; Busari, Oluwatobi; Lucht, Robert P.; Laster, Walter R.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of the nature of vitiated crossflow on the structure and dynamics of non-reacting/reacting transverse jets is investigated. In this study, the vitiated crossflow is produced either by a low-swirl burner (LSB) that adds a swirling component to the crossflow or a bluff-body burner (BBB) that produces a uniform crossflow. The jet fluid is injected through a contoured injector, which provides a top-hat velocity profile. The swirling crossflow exhibits considerable swirl at the point of injection of the transverse jet. Two component high-repetition-rate PIV measurements demonstrate the influence of a vitiated crossflow generated by a low-swirl/bluff-body burner on the near-wake flow-field of the jet. Measurements at a plane below the injection location of the jet indicate that there is a continuous entrainment of PIV particles in case of swirling crossflow. The time-averaged flow-field shows that the velocity field for reacting/non-reacting jets in the LSB crossflow exhibits higher velocity gradients, in the measurement plane along jet cross section, as compared to BBB crossflow. It is found that the vorticity magnitude is lower in case of jets in the BBB crossflow and there is a delay in the formation of the wake vortex structure. The conditional turbulent statistics of the jet flow-field in the two crossflows shows that there is a higher degree of intermittency related to the wake vortex structure in case of a BBB crossflow, which results in a non-Gaussian distribution of the turbulent statistics. The wake Strouhal number calculation shows the influence of the nature of crossflow on the rate of wake vortex shedding. The wake Strouhal number for the jets in BBB crossflow is found to be lower than for the LSB crossflow. A decrease in the wake Strouhal number is observed with an increase in the nozzle separation distance. There is an increase in the dilatation rate owing to heat release which results in higher wake Strouhal number for reacting jets as compared

  7. Critical temperatures and pressures of reacting mixture in synthesis of dimethyl carbonate with methanol and carbon dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Cui Guo; Zhang Feng Qin; Guo Fu Wang; Jian Guo Wang

    2008-01-01

    Critical temperatures and pressures of nominal reacting mixture in synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC)from methanol and carbon dioxide(quaternary mixture of carbon dioxide+methanol+water+DMC)were measured using a high-pressure view cell.The results suggested that the critical properties of the reacting mixture depended on the reaction extent as well as its initial composition(initial ratio of carbon dioxide to methanol).Such information is essential for determining the reaction conditions when one intends to carry out the synthesis of DMC with CO2 and methanol under supercritical conditions.

  8. Orientation of llama antibodies strongly increases sensitivity of biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilling, Anke K; Hesselink, Thamara; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Cordewener, Jan H G; Jongsma, Maarten A; Schoffelen, Sanne; van Hest, Jan C M; Zuilhof, Han; Beekwilder, Jules

    2014-10-15

    Sensitivity of biosensors depends on the orientation of bio-receptors on the sensor surface. The objective of this study was to organize bio-receptors on surfaces in a way that their analyte binding site is exposed to the analyte solution. VHH proteins recognizing foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) were used for making biosensors, and azides were introduced in the VHH to function as bioorthogonal reactive groups. The importance of the orientation of bio-receptors was addressed by comparing sensors with randomly oriented VHH (with multiple exposed azide groups) to sensors with uniformly oriented VHH (with only a single azide group). A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chip exposing cyclooctyne was reacted to azide functionalized VHH domains, using click chemistry. Comparison between randomly and uniformly oriented bio-receptors showed up to 800-fold increase in biosensor sensitivity. This technique may increase the containment of infectious diseases such as FMDV as its strongly enhanced sensitivity may facilitate early diagnostics.

  9. Strong Photoassociation in Ultracold Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Jamison, Alan; Rvachov, Timur; Ebadi, Sepher; Son, Hyungmok; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there are still open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system and to engineer Hamiltonians using dissipation. We propose the possibility to slow down decoherence by photoassociation through the quantum Zeno effect. This can realized by shining strong photoassociation light on the superposition of the lowest two hyperfine states of Lithium 6. NSF, ARO-MURI, Samsung, NSERC.

  10. PREFACE: Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, David; Senatore, Gaetano

    2009-05-01

    This special issue contains papers presented at the International Conference on Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems (SCCS), held from 29 July-2 August 2008 at the University of Camerino. Camerino is an ancient hill-top town located in the Apennine mountains of Italy, 200 kilometres northeast of Rome, with a university dating back to 1336. The Camerino conference was the 11th in a series which started in 1977: 1977: Orleans-la-Source, France, as a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Strongly Coupled Plasmas (hosted by Marc Feix and Gabor J Kalman) 1982: Les Houches, France (hosted by Marc Baus and Jean-Pierre Hansen) 1986: Santa Cruz, California, USA (hosted by Forrest J Rogers and Hugh E DeWitt) 1989: Tokyo, Japan (hosted by Setsuo Ichimaru) 1992: Rochester, New York, USA (hosted by Hugh M Van Horn and Setsuo Ichimaru) 1995: Binz, Germany (hosted by Wolf Dietrich Kraeft and Manfred Schlanges) 1997: Boston, Massachusetts, USA (hosted by Gabor J Kalman) 1999: St Malo, France (hosted by Claude Deutsch and Bernard Jancovici) 2002: Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA (hosted by John F Benage and Michael S Murillo) 2005: Moscow, Russia (hosted by Vladimir E Fortov and Vladimir Vorob'ev). The name of the series was changed in 1996 from Strongly Coupled Plasmas to Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems to reflect a wider range of topics. 'Strongly Coupled Coulomb Systems' encompasses diverse many-body systems and physical conditions. The purpose of the conferences is to provide a regular international forum for the presentation and discussion of research achievements and ideas relating to a variety of plasma, liquid and condensed matter systems that are dominated by strong Coulomb interactions between their constituents. Each meeting has seen an evolution of topics and emphases that have followed new discoveries and new techniques. The field has continued to see new experimental tools and access to new strongly coupled conditions, most recently in the areas of warm matter, dusty plasmas

  11. Strong near-epoch dependence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Zhengyan

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a new class of dependent sequences of random variables, which is a subclass of near-epoch dependent sequences, but can also be approximated by mixing sequences. For this kind of sequences of random variables, we call them strong nearepoch dependent sequences, a p-order, p > 2, (maximum) moment inequality is established under weaker dependence sizes.

  12. Strong decays of qqq baryons

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R; Leviatan, A

    1997-01-01

    We study strong decays of nonstrange baryons by making use of the algebraic approach to hadron structure. Within this framework we derive closed expressions for decay widths in an elementary-meson emission model and use these to analyze the experimental data for $N^* \\rightarrow N + \\pi$, $N^* + \\pi$, $\\Delta^* \\rightarrow \\Delta + \\pi$ and $\\Delta^* \\rightarrow \\Delta +

  13. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  14. Strong metric dimension: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratica Jozef

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong metric dimension has been a subject of considerable amount of research in recent years. This survey describes the related development by bringing together theoretical results and computational approaches, and places the recent results within their historical and scientific framework. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 174010 i br. 174033

  15. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.;

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  16. Modeling Multiphase Chemical Kinetics of OH Radical Reacting with Biomass Burning Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arangio, Andrea; Slade, Jonathan H.; Berkemeier, Thomas; Knopf, Daniel A.; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2014-05-01

    Levoglucosan, abietic acid and nitroguaiacol are commonly used as molecular tracers of biomass burning in source apportionment. Recent studies have demonstrated the decay of levoglucosan when the particles were exposed to atmospherically relevant concentration of OH radicals [1-3]. However, multiphase chemical kinetics of OH radical reacting with such compounds has not fully understood. Here we apply the kinetic multi-layer model for gas-particle interactions (KM-GAP) [4] to experimental data of OH exposure to levoglucosan, abietic acid and nitroguaiacol [1]. KM-GAP resolves the following mass transport and chemical reactions explicitly: gas-phase diffusion, reversible surface adsorption, surface reaction, surface-bulk transport, bulk diffusion and reaction. The particle shrink due to the evaporation of volatile reaction products is also considered. The time- and concentration-dependence of reactive uptake coefficient of OH radicals were simulated by KM-GAP. The measured OH uptake coefficients were fitted by a Monte Carlo (MC) filtering coupled with a genetic algorithm (GA) to derive physicochemical parameters such as bulk diffusion coefficient, Henry's law coefficient and desorption lifetime of OH radicals. We assessed the relative contribution of surface and bulk reactions to the overall uptake of OH radicals. Chemical half-life and the evaporation time scale of these compounds are estimated in different scenarios (dry, humid and cloud processing conditions) and at different OH concentrations. REFERENCES [1] J. H. Slade, D. A. Knopf, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 5898. [2] S. H. Kessler, J. D. Smith, D.L. Che, D.R. Worsnop, K. R. Wilson, J. H. Kroll, Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44, 7005. [3] C. J. Hennigan, A. P. Sullivan, J. L. Collett Jr, A. L. Robinson, Geophys. Res. Lett., 2010, 37, L09806. [4] M. Shiraiwa, C. Pfrang, T. Koop, U. Pöschl, Atmos. Chem. Phys, 2012, 12, 2777.

  17. A numerical study of mixing in stationary, nonpremixed, turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Matthew Ryan

    1998-10-01

    In this work a detailed numerical study is made of a statistically-stationary, non-premixed, turbulent reacting model flow known as Periodic Reaction Zones. The mixture fraction-progress variable approach is used, with a mean gradient in the mixture fraction and a model, single-step, reversible, finite-rate thermochemistry, yielding both stationary and local extinction behavior. The passive scalar is studied first, using a statistical forcing scheme to achieve stationarity of the velocity field. Multiple independent direct numerical simulations (DNS) are performed for a wide range of Reynolds numbers with a number of results including a bilinear model for scalar mixing jointly conditioned on the scalar and x2-component of velocity, Gaussian scalar probability density function tails which were anticipated to be exponential, and the quantification of the dissipation of scalar flux. A new deterministic forcing scheme for DNS is then developed which yields reduced fluctuations in many quantities and a more natural evolution of the velocity fields. This forcing method is used for the final portion of this work. DNS results for Periodic Reaction Zones are compared with the Conditional Moment Closure (CMC) model, the Quasi-Equilibrium Distributed Reaction (QEDR) model, and full probability density function (PDF) simulations using the Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree (EMST) and the Interaction by Exchange with the Mean (IEM) mixing models. It is shown that CMC and QEDR results based on the local scalar dissipation match DNS wherever local extinction is not present. However, due to the large spatial variations of scalar dissipation, and hence local Damkohler number, local extinction is present even when the global Damkohler number is twenty-five times the critical value for extinction. Finally, in the PDF simulations the EMST mixing model closely reproduces CMC and DNS results when local extinction is not present, whereas the IEM model results in large error.

  18. Autoantibodies From Single Circulating Plasmablasts React With Citrullinated Antigens and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Yu, Yangsheng; Yue, Yinshi; Liao, Hongyan; Xie, Wanqin; Thai, Jessica; Mikuls, Ted R; Thiele, Geoffrey M; Duryee, Michael J; Sayles, Harlan; Payne, Jeffrey B; Klassen, Lynell W; O'Dell, James R; Zhang, Zhixin; Su, Kaihong

    2016-03-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the molecular basis for ACPA production is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if circulating plasmablasts from RA patients produce ACPAs and whether Porphyromonas gingivalis facilitates the generation of ACPAs. Using a single-cell antibody cloning approach, we generated 217 and 110 monoclonal recombinant antibodies from circulating plasmablasts from 7 RA patients and 4 healthy controls, respectively. Antibody reactivity with citrullinated antigens was tested by a second-generation anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) kit and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) against citrullinated human antigens. Antibody reactivity with P gingivalis was tested by ELISAs against outer membrane antigens (OMAs) and citrullinated enolase from P gingivalis. Approximately 19.5% of plasmablast-derived antibodies from anti-CCP-positive RA patients, but none from 1 anti-CCP-negative RA patient or the healthy controls, specifically recognized citrullinated antigens. The immunoglobulin genes encoding these ACPAs were highly mutated, with increased ratios of replacement mutations to silent mutations, suggesting the involvement of active antigen selection in ACPA generation. Interestingly, 63% of the ACPAs cross-reacted with OMAs and/or citrullinated enolase from P gingivalis. The reactivity of ACPAs against citrullinated proteins from P gingivalis was confirmed by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. Furthermore, some germline-reverted ACPAs retained their reactivity with P gingivalis antigens but completely lost their reactivity with citrullinated human antigens. These results suggest that circulating plasmablasts in RA patients produce ACPAs and that this process may be facilitated by anti-P gingivalis immune responses. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  19. Multiphase integral reacting flow computer code (ICOMFLO): User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    A copyrighted computational fluid dynamics computer code, ICOMFLO, has been developed for the simulation of multiphase reacting flows. The code solves conservation equations for gaseous species and droplets (or solid particles) of various sizes. General conservation laws, expressed by elliptic type partial differential equations, are used in conjunction with rate equations governing the mass, momentum, enthalpy, species, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation. Associated phenomenological submodels of the code include integral combustion, two parameter turbulence, particle evaporation, and interfacial submodels. A newly developed integral combustion submodel replacing an Arrhenius type differential reaction submodel has been implemented to improve numerical convergence and enhance numerical stability. A two parameter turbulence submodel is modified for both gas and solid phases. An evaporation submodel treats not only droplet evaporation but size dispersion. Interfacial submodels use correlations to model interfacial momentum and energy transfer. The ICOMFLO code solves the governing equations in three steps. First, a staggered grid system is constructed in the flow domain. The staggered grid system defines gas velocity components on the surfaces of a control volume, while the other flow properties are defined at the volume center. A blocked cell technique is used to handle complex geometry. Then, the partial differential equations are integrated over each control volume and transformed into discrete difference equations. Finally, the difference equations are solved iteratively by using a modified SIMPLER algorithm. The results of the solution include gas flow properties (pressure, temperature, density, species concentration, velocity, and turbulence parameters) and particle flow properties (number density, temperature, velocity, and void fraction). The code has been used in many engineering applications, such as coal-fired combustors, air

  20. Convective instability in a two-layer system of reacting fluids with concentration-dependent diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitova, E. V.; Bratsun, D. A.; Kostarev, K. G.; Mizev, A. I.; Mosheva, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The development of convective instability in a two-layer system of miscible fluids placed in a narrow vertical gap has been studied theoretically and experimentally. The upper and lower layers are formed with aqueous solutions of acid and base, respectively. When the layers are brought into contact, the frontal neutralization reaction begins. We have found experimentally a new type of convective instability, which is characterized by the spatial localization and the periodicity of the structure observed for the first time in the miscible systems. We have tested a number of different acid-base systems and have found a similar patterning there. In our opinion, it may indicate that the discovered effect is of a general nature and should be taken into account in reaction-diffusion-convection problems as another tool with which the reaction can govern the movement of the reacting fluids. We have shown that, at least in one case (aqueous solutions of nitric acid and sodium hydroxide), a new type of instability called as the concentration-dependent diffusion convection is responsible for the onset of the fluid flow. It arises when the diffusion coefficients of species are different and depend on their concentrations. This type of instability can be attributed to a variety of double-diffusion convection. A mathematical model of the new phenomenon has been developed using the system of reaction-diffusion-convection equations written in the Hele-Shaw approximation. It is shown that the instability can be reproduced in the numerical experiment if only one takes into account the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the reagents. The dynamics of the base state, its linear stability and nonlinear development of the instability are presented. It is also shown that by varying the concentration of acid in the upper layer one can achieve the occurrence of chemo-convective solitary cell in the bulk of an almost immobile fluid. Good agreement between the

  1. 4-n-butylresorcinol, a depigmenting agent used in cosmetics, reacts with tyrosinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Jimenez, Antonio; Teruel-Puche, Jose Antonio; Ortiz-Ruiz, Carmen Vanessa; Berna, Jose; Tudela, Jose; Garcia-Canovas, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    4-n-Butylresorcinol (BR) is considered the most potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, which is why it is used in cosmetics as a depigmenting agent. However, this work demonstrates that BR is a substrate of this enzyme. The Em (met-tyrosinase) form is not active on BR, but Eox (oxy-tyrosinase) can act on this molecule, hydroxylating it to o-diphenol. In turn, this is oxidized to an o-quinone, which isomerizes to a red p-quinone. Thus, for tyrosinase to act on this compound, a mechanism to generate Eox in the medium is required, which can be achieved by means of hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. A kinetic analysis of the proposed mechanism allows its kinetic characterization: catalytic constant kcatBR (8.49 ± 0.20 s(-1) ) and Michaelis-constant KMBR (60.26 ± 8.76 μM). These findings are compared with those for other monophenolic substrates of tyrosinase. Studies of BR docking to the Em form of the enzyme show that the hydroxyl group in C-1 position is oriented toward the copper atom A (CuA), as in it is L-tyrosine. As regards Eox , BR is oriented with the carbon in C-6 position ready to be hydroxylated. The reaction of BR originates o-quinones, which isomerize to p-quinones, which in turn, could react with thiol compounds, a finding that could have important implications for pharmacology and the cosmetic industry. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(8):663-672, 2016.

  2. Parallelization of Lower-Upper Symmetric Gauss-Seidel Method for Chemically Reacting Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seokkwan; Jost, Gabriele; Chang, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    Development of technologies for exploration of the solar system has revived an interest in computational simulation of chemically reacting flows since planetary probe vehicles exhibit non-equilibrium phenomena during the atmospheric entry of a planet or a moon as well as the reentry to the Earth. Stability in combustion is essential for new propulsion systems. Numerical solution of real-gas flows often increases computational work by an order-of-magnitude compared to perfect gas flow partly because of the increased complexity of equations to solve. Recently, as part of Project Columbia, NASA has integrated a cluster of interconnected SGI Altix systems to provide a ten-fold increase in current supercomputing capacity that includes an SGI Origin system. Both the new and existing machines are based on cache coherent non-uniform memory access architecture. Lower-Upper Symmetric Gauss-Seidel (LU-SGS) relaxation method has been implemented into both perfect and real gas flow codes including Real-Gas Aerodynamic Simulator (RGAS). However, the vectorized RGAS code runs inefficiently on cache-based shared-memory machines such as SGI system. Parallelization of a Gauss-Seidel method is nontrivial due to its sequential nature. The LU-SGS method has been vectorized on an oblique plane in INS3D-LU code that has been one of the base codes for NAS Parallel benchmarks. The oblique plane has been called a hyperplane by computer scientists. It is straightforward to parallelize a Gauss-Seidel method by partitioning the hyperplanes once they are formed. Another way of parallelization is to schedule processors like a pipeline using software. Both hyperplane and pipeline methods have been implemented using openMP directives. The present paper reports the performance of the parallelized RGAS code on SGI Origin and Altix systems.

  3. Nonlinear dynamics and intermittency in a turbulent reacting wake with density ratio as bifurcation parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresha, Suhas; Sujith, R. I.; Emerson, Benjamin; Lieuwen, Tim

    2016-10-01

    The flame or flow behavior of a turbulent reacting wake is known to be fundamentally different at high and low values of flame density ratio (ρu/ρb ), as the flow transitions from globally stable to unstable. This paper analyzes the nonlinear dynamics present in a bluff-body stabilized flame, and identifies the transition characteristics in the wake as ρu/ρb is varied over a Reynolds number (based on the bluff-body lip velocity) range of 1000-3300. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) of the experimentally obtained time series of the flame edge fluctuations reveals that the time series is highly aperiodic at high values of ρu/ρb and transitions to increasingly correlated or nearly periodic behavior at low values. From the RQA of the transverse velocity time series, we observe that periodicity in the flame oscillations are related to periodicity in the flow. Therefore, we hypothesize that this transition from aperiodic to nearly periodic behavior in the flame edge time series is a manifestation of the transition in the flow from globally stable, convective instability to global instability as ρu/ρb decreases. The recurrence analysis further reveals that the transition in periodicity is not a sudden shift; rather it occurs through an intermittent regime present at low and intermediate ρu/ρb . During intermittency, the flow behavior switches between aperiodic oscillations, reminiscent of a globally stable, convective instability, and periodic oscillations, reminiscent of a global instability. Analysis of the distribution of the lengths of the periodic regions in the intermittent time series and the first return map indicate the presence of type-II intermittency.

  4. Modulation of the genotoxicity of pesticides reacted with redox-modified smectite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Kara C; Stucki, Joseph W; Warner, Richard E; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Pesticides are toxic agents intentionally released into the environment; their use raises public health and environmental concerns. In recent years there has been much attention to the biotic degradation of pesticides. Abiotic mechanisms in the soil can contribute to pesticide degradation yet the toxicological impact of such degradation is unclear. This study combines for the first time an investigation into abiotic mechanisms of degradation coupled with toxicological endpoints in mammalian cells. The genotoxicity of three commonly used agricultural pesticides was assessed before and after exposure to redox-modified clay minerals. The objectives of the study were to determine the genotoxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), dicamba, and oxamyl, using single cell gel electrophoresis with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, and to determine the effect of the iron oxidation state in clay minerals (ferruginous smectite SWa-1) on the genotoxic potency of the pesticides. 2,4-D alone or following reaction with redox-modified clays did not induce DNA damage in CHO cells. Oxamyl alone induced a concentration-dependent increase in genomic DNA damage; however, its genotoxicity declined after reaction with reduced clay minerals. Dicamba was not genotoxic when directly analyzed. When dicamba was reacted with reduced clay, a concentration-dependent increase in genomic DNA damage was observed. This is the first reported case of a pesticide being converted into a genotoxin after exposure to redox-modified smectites. These data introduce a new paradigm on the interaction between redox-modified clays and pesticide-related environmental genotoxicity.

  5. Reacting fluids analysis and polluting emissions; Analisis de fluidos reactivos y emisiones contaminantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo, Ramon; Ley Koo, Marcos [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Varela Ham, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1992-12-31

    A problem is set up of a reacting flow which occurs in a gas exhausting duct, which is boiled down to a problem of initial conditions (temperature, pressure and concentration of species) freeing the selection of reaction mechanisms. Through some pre-established algorithms calculation routines can be programmed in specific problems of chemistry kinetics. With the calculation routines set forth in base of the selected mechanism, the temperature, pressure, etc., conditions, a general program is obtained containing the differential equations for the mechanisms, and with its solution, with a certain degree of uncertainty, the gases at a duct outlet can be predicted. The exhaust gases will carry unburned particles and products that can be polluting or not. If we vary the working conditions, we can find the optimum values to work with equipment that produces exhaust gases, anticipating with it the more efficient utilization of the equipment and the energy with the least possible pollution. [Espanol] Se plantea un problema de un flujo reactivo que se lleva a cabo en un ducto de salida de gases de escape, para lo cual se reduce a un problema de condiciones iniciales (temperatura, presion y concentracion de especies), y dejando en libertad la seleccion de mecanismos de reaccion. Mediante algunos algoritmos preestablecidos se pueden programar las rutinas de calculo en problemas especificos de cinetica quimica. Con las rutinas de calculo planteadas en base al mecanismo seleccionado, las condiciones de temperatura, presion, etc. se obtiene un programa general que contiene las ecuaciones diferenciales para el mecanismo y con su solucion se puede predecir con cierto grado de incertidumbre los gases a la salida de un ducto, los gases de salida llevaran particulas inquemadas y productos que pueden ser contaminantes o no, si hacemos variacion en las condiciones de trabajo podemos encontrar los valores optimos para trabajar con equipos que producen gases de escape, previendo con ello

  6. Application of the e-KT-UNIFAC Model for the Improved and Innovative Design of Biphasic Reacting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantpinijwatna, Amata; Kim, Sun H.; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Biphasic reacting systems contain effectively immiscible aqueous and organic liquid phases in which reactants, products, and catalysts can partition. These conditions allow novel synthesis paths, higher yields, and faster reactions, as well as facilitate product(s) separation. A systematic modeli...... of epoxidation of palm oil and production of furan derivatives....

  7. Social Studies: Application Units. Course II, Teachers. Computer-Oriented Curriculum. REACT (Relevant Educational Applications of Computer Technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecnica Education Corp., San Carlos, CA.

    This book is one of a series in Course II of the Relevant Educational Applications of Computer Technology (REACT) Project. It is designed to point out to teachers two of the major applications of computers in the social sciences: simulation and data analysis. The first section contains a variety of simulation units organized under the following…

  8. Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) for the computational analyses of high speed reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givi, Peyman; Madnia, Cyrus K.; Steinberger, C. J.; Frankel, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    The principal objective is to extend the boundaries within which large eddy simulations (LES) and direct numerical simulations (DNS) can be applied in computational analyses of high speed reacting flows. A summary of work accomplished during the last six months is presented.

  9. Recent advances in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy: Fundamental developments and applications in reacting flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Sukesh [Spectral Energies, LLC, 5100 Springfield Street, Ste. 301, Dayton, OH 45431 (United States); Gord, James R. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Patnaik, Anil K. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Physics, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy is widely used for measuring temperature and species concentration in reacting flows. This paper reviews the advances made over the last twelve years in the development and application of CARS spectroscopy in gas-phase reacting flows. The advent of high-power nanosecond (ns) lasers and off-the-shelf compact picosecond (ps) and femtosecond (fs) lasers is enabling the rapid expansion of the application of single-shot or high-bandwidth CARS spectroscopy in a way that would have been quite unimaginable two decades ago. Furthermore, compact ps lasers are paving the way for the development of a fiber-based CARS system for use in harsh environments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of recent progresses in ns-, ps-, and fs-CARS spectroscopy for gas-phase thermometry and species-concentration measurements since the second edition of A.C. Eckbreth's book entitled Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species, which was published in 1996. During the last two decades, four encompassing issues have driven the fundamental development and application of CARS spectroscopy in reacting flows: 1) measurement of temperature and concentration of multiple species with one CARS system, 2) extension of the application of traditional ns-CARS to challenging reacting flow environments, 3) performance of nonresonant background-free and collision-free measurements in high-pressure reacting flows, and 4) measurement of temperature and species concentration at high bandwidth, typically 1 kHz or greater, to address the instability and transient phenomena associated with turbulent reacting flows in the combustors and augmentors of modern propulsion systems. This review is focused on identifying and discussing the recent results of gas-phase CARS spectroscopy related to the four issues mentioned above. The feasibility of performing high-bandwidth CARS spectroscopy with one laser beam as well as the

  10. Strongly nonlinear oscillators analytical solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cveticanin, Livija

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the presentation of the motion of pure nonlinear oscillatory systems and various solution procedures which give the approximate solutions of the strong nonlinear oscillator equations. The book presents the original author’s method for the analytical solution procedure of the pure nonlinear oscillator system. After an introduction, the physical explanation of the pure nonlinearity and of the pure nonlinear oscillator is given. The analytical solution for free and forced vibrations of the one-degree-of-freedom strong nonlinear system with constant and time variable parameter is considered. Special attention is given to the one and two mass oscillatory systems with two-degrees-of-freedom. The criteria for the deterministic chaos in ideal and non-ideal pure nonlinear oscillators are derived analytically. The method for suppressing chaos is developed. Important problems are discussed in didactic exercises. The book is self-consistent and suitable as a textbook for students and also for profess...

  11. Kinetic mixing at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Zotto, Michele; Heckman, Jonathan J.; Kumar, Piyush; Malekian, Arada; Wecht, Brian

    2017-01-01

    A common feature of many string-motivated particle physics models is additional strongly coupled U (1 )'s. In such sectors, electric and magnetic states have comparable mass, and integrating out modes also charged under U (1 ) hypercharge generically yields C P preserving electric kinetic mixing and C P violating magnetic kinetic mixing terms. Even though these extra sectors are strongly coupled, we show that in the limit where the extra sector has approximate N =2 supersymmetry, we can use formal methods from Seiberg-Witten theory to compute these couplings. We also calculate various quantities of phenomenological interest such as the cross section for scattering between visible sector states and heavy extra sector states as well as the effects of supersymmetry breaking induced from coupling to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model.

  12. Strongly correlated systems numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2013-01-01

    This volume presents, for the very first time, an exhaustive collection of those modern numerical methods specifically tailored for the analysis of Strongly Correlated Systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and material science, belong to this class of systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognized main contributors. The exposition has a clear pedagogical cut and fully reports on the most relevant case study where the specific technique showed to be very successful in describing and enlightening the puzzling physics of a particular strongly correlated system. The book is intended for advanced graduate students and post-docs in the field as textbook and/or main reference, but also for other researchers in the field who appreciate consulting a single, but comprehensive, source or wishes to get acquainted, in a as painless as possi...

  13. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  14. Flavour Democracy in Strong Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, S A; Abel, Steven; King, Steven

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fermion mass spectrum may naturally be understood in terms of flavour democratic fixed points in supersymmetric theories which have a large domain of attraction in the presence of "strong unification". Our approach provides an alternative to the approximate Yukawa texture zeroes of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. We discuss a particular model based on a broken gauged $SU(3)_L\\times SU(3)_R$ family symmetry which illustrates our approach.

  15. Numerical micromagnetism of strong inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Christian [Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, Strasbourg (France); Gliga, Sebastian [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratory for Mesoscopic Systems, Department of Materials, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hertel, Riccardo, E-mail: hertel@ipcms.unistra.fr [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504, Strasbourg (France)

    2014-08-01

    The size of micromagnetic structures, such as domain walls or vortices, is comparable to the exchange length of the ferromagnet. Both, the exchange length of the stray field l{sub s} and the magnetocrystalline exchange length l{sub k}, are material-dependent quantities that usually lie in the nanometer range. This emphasizes the theoretical challenges associated with the mesoscopic nature of micromagnetism: the magnetic structures are much larger than the atomic lattice constant, but at the same time much smaller than the sample size. In computer simulations, the smallest exchange length serves as an estimate for the largest cell size admissible to prevent appreciable discretization errors. This general rule is not valid in special situations where the magnetization becomes particularly inhomogeneous. When such strongly inhomogeneous structures develop, micromagnetic simulations inevitably contain systematic and numerical errors. It is suggested to combine micromagnetic theory with a Heisenberg model to resolve such problems. We analyze cases where strongly inhomogeneous structures pose limits to standard micromagnetic simulations, arising from fundamental aspects as well as from numerical drawbacks. - Highlights: • We discuss the impact of strong inhomogeneities on micromagnetic simulations. • Analysis of fundamental and numerical errors in micromagnetic point singularities. • Numerical and methodological errors in exchange energy terms are quantified. • Suggestion to combine atomistic Heisenberg models with micromagnetism in such cases.

  16. Disordered strongly correlated electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan Mard, Hossein

    Disorder can have a vast variety of consequences for the physics of phase transitions. Some transitions remain unchanged in the presence of disorder while others are completely destroyed. In this dissertation we study the effects of quenched disorder on electronic systmens at zero temperature. First, we perform variational studies of the interaction-localization problem to describe the interaction-induced renormalizations of the effective (screened) random potential seen by quasiparticles. Here we present results of careful finite-size scaling studies for the conductance of disordered Hubbard chains at half-filling and zero temperature. While our results indicate that quasiparticle wave functions remain exponentially localized even in the presence of moderate to strong repulsive interactions, we show that interactions produce a strong decrease of the characteristic conductance scale g* signaling the crossover to strong localization. This effect, which cannot be captured by a simple renormalization of the disorder strength, instead reflects a peculiar non-Gaussian form of the spatial correlations of the screened disordered potential, a hitherto neglected mechanism to dramatically reduce the impact of Anderson localization (interference) effects. Second, we formulate a strong-disorder renormalization-group (SDRG) approach to study the beta function of the tight-binding model in one dimension with both diagonal and off-diagonal disorder for states at the band center. We show that the SDRG method, when used to compute transport properties, yields exact results since it is identical to the transfer matrix method. The beta function is shown to be universal when only off-diagonal disorder is present even though single-parameter scaling is known to be violated. A different single-parameter scaling theory is formulated for this particular (particle-hole symmetric) case. Upon breaking particle-hole symmetry (by adding diagonal disorder), the beta function is shown to

  17. PREFACE: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Siddharth S.; Littlewood, P. B.

    2012-07-01

    This special section is dedicated to the Strongly Correlated Electron Systems Conference (SCES) 2011, which was held from 29 August-3 September 2011, in Cambridge, UK. SCES'2011 is dedicated to 100 years of superconductivity and covers a range of topics in the area of strongly correlated systems. The correlated electronic and magnetic materials featured include f-electron based heavy fermion intermetallics and d-electron based transition metal compounds. The selected papers derived from invited presentations seek to deepen our understanding of the rich physical phenomena that arise from correlation effects. The focus is on quantum phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, quantum magnetism, unconventional superconductivity and metal-insulator transitions. Both experimental and theoretical work is presented. Based on fundamental advances in the understanding of electronic materials, much of 20th century materials physics was driven by miniaturisation and integration in the electronics industry to the current generation of nanometre scale devices. The achievements of this industry have brought unprecedented advances to society and well-being, and no doubt there is much further to go—note that this progress is founded on investments and studies in the fundamentals of condensed matter physics from more than 50 years ago. Nevertheless, the defining challenges for the 21st century will lie in the discovery in science, and deployment through engineering, of technologies that can deliver the scale needed to have an impact on the sustainability agenda. Thus the big developments in nanotechnology may lie not in the pursuit of yet smaller transistors, but in the design of new structures that can revolutionise the performance of solar cells, batteries, fuel cells, light-weight structural materials, refrigeration, water purification, etc. The science presented in the papers of this special section also highlights the underlying interest in energy-dense materials, which

  18. An experimental investigation of reacting and nonreacting coaxial jet mixing in a laboratory rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Stephen Alexander

    Coaxial jets are commonly used as injectors in propulsion and combustion devices due to both the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing they provide. In liquid rocket engines it is common to use coaxial jets in the context of airblast atomization. However, interest exists in developing rocket engines using a full flow staged combustion cycle. In such a configuration both propellants are injected in the gaseous phase. In addition, gaseous coaxial jets have been identified as an ideal test case for the validation of the next generation of injector modeling tools. For these reasons an understanding of the fundamental phenomena which govern mixing in gaseous coaxial jets and the effect of combustion on these phenomena in coaxial jet diffusion flames is needed. A study was performed to better understand the scaling of the stoichiometric mixing length in reacting and nonreacting coaxial jets with velocity ratios greater than one and density ratios less than one. A facility was developed that incorporates a single shear coaxial injector in a laboratory rocket engine capable of ten atmospheres. Optical access allows the use of flame luminosity and laser diagnostic techniques such as Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). Stoichiometric mixing lengths (LS), which are defined as the distance along the centerline where the stoichiometric condition occurs, were measured using PLIF. Acetone was seeded into the center jet to provide direct PLIF measurement of the average and instantaneous mixture fraction fields for a range of momentum flux ratios for the nonreacting cases. For the coaxial jet diffusion flames, LS was measured from OH radical contours. For nonreacting cases the use of a nondimensional momentum flux ratio was found to collapse the mixing length data. The flame lengths of coaxial jet diffusion flames were also found to scale with the momentum flux ratio but different scaling constants are required which depended on the chemistry of the reaction. The

  19. Strongly interacting light dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggisser, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.

    2016-07-15

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small-energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  20. Strongly Interacting Light Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bruggisser, Sebastian; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of approximate global symmetries that forbid relevant interactions, strongly coupled light Dark Matter (DM) can appear weakly coupled at small energy and generate a sizable relic abundance. Fundamental principles like unitarity restrict these symmetries to a small class, where the leading interactions are captured by effective operators up to dimension-8. Chiral symmetry, spontaneously broken global symmetries and non-linearly realized supersymmetry are examples of this. Their DM candidates (composite fermions, pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Bosons and Goldstini) are interesting targets for LHC missing-energy searches.

  1. Scalar strong interaction hadron theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hoh, Fang Chao

    2015-01-01

    The scalar strong interaction hadron theory, SSI, is a first principles' and nonlocal theory at quantum mechanical level that provides an alternative to low energy QCD and Higgs related part of the standard model. The quark-quark interaction is scalar rather than color-vectorial. A set of equations of motion for mesons and another set for baryons have been constructed. This book provides an account of the present state of a theory supposedly still at its early stage of development. This work will facilitate researchers interested in entering into this field and serve as a basis for possible future development of this theory.

  2. Strong Completeness for Markovian Logics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozen, Dexter; Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Hilbert-style axiomatizations for three logics for reasoning about continuous-space Markov processes (MPs): (i) a logic for MPs defined for probability distributions on measurable state spaces, (ii) a logic for MPs defined for sub-probability distributions and (iii) a logic...... defined for arbitrary distributions. These logics are not compact so one needs infinitary rules in order to obtain strong completeness results. We propose a new infinitary rule that replaces the so-called Countable Additivity Rule (CAR) currently used in the literature to address the problem of proving...

  3. Is Global Strong Wind Declining?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongci Zhao; Yong Luo; Ying Jiang

    2011-01-01

    1 Introduction To mitigate global warming,the call for using clean energy,developing low-carbon economy and initiating green environmental protection has never been louder.One of the hot topics,which has received widespread attentions in the world,is the development and utilization of wind energy.At the same time,some of the climate change studies focus on the changes in global wind speeds and strong winds which are related to wind energy utilization.The issues,which are the subjects of these studies,can be summarized in the following.

  4. Strong sequences and independent sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jureczko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A family $\\mathcal{S} \\in \\mathcal{P}(\\omega$ is \\textit{an independent family} if for each pair $\\mathcal{A, B}$ of disjoint finite subsets of $\\mathcal{S}$ the set $\\bigcap \\mathcal{A} \\cap (\\omega \\setminus \\bigcup \\mathcal{B}$ is nonempty. The fact that there is an independent family on $\\omega$ of size continuum was proved by Fichtenholz and Kantorowicz in \\cite{FK}. If we substitute $\\mathcal{P}(\\omega$ by a set $(X, r$ with arbitrary relation \\textit{r} it is natural question about existence and length of an independent set on $(X, r$. In this paper special assumptions of such existence will be considered. On the other hand in 60s' of the last century the strong sequences method was introduced by Efimov. He used it for proving some famous theorems in dyadic spaces like: Marczewski theorem on cellularity, Shanin theorem on a calibre, Esenin-Volpin theorem and others. In this paper there will be considered: length of strong sequences, the length of independent sets and other well known cardinal invariants and there will be examined inequalities among them.

  5. Interference Channels with Strong Secrecy

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiang

    2009-01-01

    It is known that given the real sum of two independent uniformly distributed lattice points from the same nested lattice codebook, the eavesdropper can obtain at most 1 bit of information per channel regarding the value of one of the lattice points. In this work, we study the effect of this 1 bit information on the equivocation expressed in three commonly used information theoretic measures, i.e., the Shannon entropy, the Renyi entropy and the min entropy. We then demonstrate its applications in an interference channel with a confidential message. In our previous work, we showed that nested lattice codes can outperform Gaussian codes for this channel when the achieved rate is measured with the weak secrecy notion. Here, with the Renyi entropy and the min entropy measure, we prove that the same secure degree of freedom is achievable with the strong secrecy notion as well. A major benefit of the new coding scheme is that the strong secrecy is generated from a single lattice point instead of a sequence of lattic...

  6. Intracontinental basins and strong earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓起东; 高孟潭; 赵新平; 吴建春

    2004-01-01

    The September 17, 1303 Hongtong M=8 earthquake occurred in Linfen basin of Shanxi down-faulted basin zone. It is the first recorded M=8 earthquake since the Chinese historical seismic records had started and is a great earthquake occurring in the active intracontinental basin. We had held a Meeting of the 700th Anniversary of the 1303 Hongtong M=8 Earthquake in Shanxi and a Symposium on Intracontinental Basins and Strong Earthquakes in Taiyuan City of Shanxi Province on September 17~18, 2003. The articles presented on the symposium discussed the relationships between active intracontinental basins of different properties, developed in different regions, including tensional graben and semi-graben basins in tensile tectonic regions, compression-depression basins and foreland basins in compressive tectonic regions and pull-apart basins in strike-slip tectonic zones, and strong earthquakes in China. In this article we make a brief summary of some problems. The articles published in this special issue are a part of the articles presented on the symposium.

  7. EDITORIAL: Strongly correlated electron systems Strongly correlated electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronning, Filip; Batista, Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons is an exciting and diverse field in condensed matter physics. This special issue aims to capture some of that excitement and recent developments in the field. Given that this issue was inspired by the 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems (SCES 2010), we briefly give some history in order to place this issue in context. The 2010 International Conference on Strongly Correlated Electron Systems was held in Santa Fe, New Mexico, a reunion of sorts from the 1989 International Conference on the Physics of Highly Correlated Electron Systems that also convened in Santa Fe. SCES 2010—co-chaired by John Sarrao and Joe Thompson—followed the tradition of earlier conferences, in this century, hosted by Buzios (2008), Houston (2007), Vienna (2005), Karlsruhe (2004), Krakow (2002) and Ann Arbor (2001). Every three years since 1997, SCES has joined the International Conference on Magnetism (ICM), held in Recife (2000), Rome (2003), Kyoto (2006) and Karlsruhe (2009). Like its predecessors, SCES 2010 topics included strongly correlated f- and d-electron systems, heavy-fermion behaviors, quantum-phase transitions, non-Fermi liquid phenomena, unconventional superconductivity, and emergent states that arise from electronic correlations. Recent developments from studies of quantum magnetism and cold atoms complemented the traditional subjects and were included in SCES 2010. 2010 celebrated the 400th anniversary of Santa Fe as well as the birth of astronomy. So what's the connection to SCES? The Dutch invention of the first practical telescope and its use by Galileo in 1610 and subsequent years overturned dogma that the sun revolved about the earth. This revolutionary, and at the time heretical, conclusion required innovative combinations of new instrumentation, observation and mathematics. These same combinations are just as important 400 years later and are the foundation of scientific discoveries that were discussed

  8. Tailoring strong lensing cosmographic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Eric V.

    2015-04-01

    Strong lensing time delay cosmography has excellent complementarity with other dark energy probes and will soon have abundant systems detected. We investigate two issues in the imaging and spectroscopic follow-up required to obtain the time delay distance. The first is optimization of spectroscopic resources. We develop a code to optimize the cosmological leverage under the constraint of constant spectroscopic time and find that sculpting the lens system redshift distribution can deliver a 40% improvement in dark energy figure of merit. The second is the role of systematics, correlated between different quantities of a given system or model errors common to all systems. We show how the levels of different systematics affect the cosmological parameter estimation and derive guidance for the fraction of double image vs quad image systems to follow as a function of differing systematics between them.

  9. Breathers in strongly anharmonic lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Philip; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2014-02-01

    We present and study a family of finite amplitude breathers on a genuinely anharmonic Klein-Gordon lattice embedded in a nonlinear site potential. The direct numerical simulations are supported by a quasilinear Schrodinger equation (QLS) derived by averaging out the fast oscillations assuming small, albeit finite, amplitude vibrations. The genuinely anharmonic interlattice forces induce breathers which are strongly localized with tails evanescing at a doubly exponential rate and are either close to a continuum, with discrete effects being suppressed, or close to an anticontinuum state, with discrete effects being enhanced. Whereas the D-QLS breathers appear to be always stable, in general there is a stability threshold which improves with spareness of the lattice.

  10. Strong Langmuir turbulence at Jupiter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir wave packets with short scale lengths less than an approximately equal to 100 lambda e have been observed in Jupiter's foreshock. Theoretical constraints on the electric fields and scale sizes of collapsing wave packets are summarized, extended and placed in a form suitable for easy comparison with Voyager and Ulysses data. The published data are reviewed and possible instrumental underestimation of fields discussed. New upper limits for the fields of the published wave packets are estimated. Wave packets formed at the nucleation scale from the observed large-scale fields cannot collapse because they are disrupted before collapse occurs. The published wave packets are quantitatively inconsistent with strong turbulence collapse. Strict constraints exist for more intense wave packets to be able to collapse: E greater than or approximately equals to 1-8 mV/m for scales less than or approximately equal to 100 lambda e. Means for testing these conclusions using Voyager and Ulysses data are suggested.

  11. Strong embeddings of minimum genus

    CERN Document Server

    Mohar, Bojan

    2009-01-01

    A "folklore conjecture, probably due to Tutte" (as described in [P.D. Seymour, Sums of circuits, Graph theory and related topics (Proc. Conf., Univ. Waterloo, 1977), pp. 341-355, Academic Press, 1979]) asserts that every bridgeless cubic graph can be embedded on a surface of its own genus in such a way that the face boundaries are cycles of the graph. In this paper we consider closed 2-cell embeddings of graphs and show that certain (cubic) graphs (of any fixed genus) have closed 2-cell embedding only in surfaces whose genus is very large (proportional to the order of these graphs), thus providing plethora of strong counterexamples to the above conjecture. The main result yielding such counterexamples may be of independent interest.

  12. Electrophoresis in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barany, Sandor

    2009-01-01

    Two kinds of non-linear electrophoresis (ef) that can be detected in strong electric fields (several hundred V/cm) are considered. The first ("classical" non-linear ef) is due to the interaction of the outer field with field-induced ionic charges in the electric double layer (EDL) under conditions, when field-induced variations of electrolyte concentration remain to be small comparatively to its equilibrium value. According to the Shilov theory, the non-linear component of the electrophoretic velocity for dielectric particles is proportional to the cubic power of the applied field strength (cubic electrophoresis) and to the second power of the particles radius; it is independent of the zeta-potential but is determined by the surface conductivity of particles. The second one, the so-called "superfast electrophoresis" is connected with the interaction of a strong outer field with a secondary diffuse layer of counterions (space charge) that is induced outside the primary (classical) diffuse EDL by the external field itself because of concentration polarization. The Dukhin-Mishchuk theory of "superfast electrophoresis" predicts quadratic dependence of the electrophoretic velocity of unipolar (ionically or electronically) conducting particles on the external field gradient and linear dependence on the particle's size in strong electric fields. These are in sharp contrast to the laws of classical electrophoresis (no dependence of V(ef) on the particle's size and linear dependence on the electric field gradient). A new method to measure the ef velocity of particles in strong electric fields is developed that is based on separation of the effects of sedimentation and electrophoresis using videoimaging and a new flowcell and use of short electric pulses. To test the "classical" non-linear electrophoresis, we have measured the ef velocity of non-conducting polystyrene, aluminium-oxide and (semiconductor) graphite particles as well as Saccharomice cerevisiae yeast cells as a

  13. Early combined immunosuppression for the management of Crohn's disease (REACT): a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Reena; Bressler, Brian; Levesque, Barrett G; Zou, Guangyong; Stitt, Larry W; Greenberg, Gordon R; Panaccione, Remo; Bitton, Alain; Paré, Pierre; Vermeire, Séverine; D'Haens, Geert; MacIntosh, Donald; Sandborn, William J; Donner, Allan; Vandervoort, Margaret K; Morris, Joan C; Feagan, Brian G

    2015-11-07

    Conventional management of Crohn's disease features incremental use of therapies. However, early combined immunosuppression (ECI), with a TNF antagonist and antimetabolite might be a more effective strategy. We compared the efficacy of ECI with that of conventional management for treatment of Crohn's disease. In this open-label cluster randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of an Algorithm for Crohn's Treatment, REACT), we included community gastroenterology practices from Belgium and Canada that were willing to be assigned to either of the study groups, participate in all aspects of the study, and provide data on up to 60 patients with Crohn's disease. These practices were randomly assigned (1:1) to either ECI or conventional management. The computer-generated randomisation was minimised by country and practice size. Up to 60 consecutive adult patients were assessed within practices. Patients who were aged 18 years or older; documented to have Crohn's disease; able to speak or understand English, French, or Dutch; able to access a telephone; and able to provide written informed consent were followed up for 2 years. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients in corticosteroid-free remission (Harvey-Bradshaw Index score ≤ 4) at 12 months at the practice level. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01030809. This study took place between March 15, 2010, and Oct 1, 2013. Of the 60 practices screened, 41 were randomly assigned to either ECI (n=22) or conventional management (n=19). Two practices (one in each group) discontinued because of insufficient resources. 921 (85%) of the 1084 patients at ECI practices and 806 (90%) of 898 patients at conventional management practices completed 12 months follow-up and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. The 12 month practice-level remission rates were similar at ECI and conventional management practices (66·0% [SD 14·0] and 61·9% [16·9]; adjusted difference 2·5%, 95

  14. A Study of Acoustic Forcing on Gas Centered Swirl Coaxial Reacting Flows (Conference Paper with Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a ...Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 December 2016 – 11 January 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Study of Acoustic...in collaboration with Sierra Lobo , Inc., UCLA; Conference Paper with Briefing Charts 14. ABSTRACT The reacting flow from a single gas-centered

  15. StartReact Effects Support Different Pathophysiological Mechanisms Underlying Freezing of Gait and Postural Instability in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnekes, Jorik; de Kam, Digna; Nijhuis, Lars B. Oude; van Geel, Karin; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Geurts, Alexander; Weerdesteyn, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pathophysiology underlying postural instability in Parkinson’s disease is poorly understood. The frequent co-existence with freezing of gait raises the possibility of shared pathophysiology. There is evidence that dysfunction of brainstem structures contribute to freezing of gait. Here, we evaluated whether dysfunction of these structures contributes to postural instability as well. Brainstem function was assessed by studying the StartReact effect (acceleration of latencies by a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS)). Methods We included 25 patients, divided in two different ways: 1) those with postural instability (HY = 3, n = 11) versus those without (HYpostural responses by translating a balance platform in the forward direction, resulting in backward balance perturbations. In 25% of trials, the start of the balance perturbation was accompanied by a SAS. Results The amplitude of automatic postural responses and length of the first balance correcting step were smaller in patients with postural instability compared to patients without postural instability, but did not differ between freezers and non-freezers. In contrast, the StartReact effect was intact in patients with postural instability but was attenuated in freezers. Discussion We suggest that the mechanisms underlying freezing of gait and postural instability in Parkinson’s disease are at least partly different. Underscaling of automatic postural responses and balance-correcting steps both contribute to postural instability. The attenuated StartReact effect was seen only in freezers and likely reflects inadequate representation of motor programs at upper brainstem level. PMID:25803045

  16. Cross-reacting antibacterial auto-antibodies are produced within coronary atherosclerotic plaques of acute coronary syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Canducci

    Full Text Available Coronary atherosclerosis, the main condition predisposing to acute myocardial infarction, has an inflammatory component caused by stimuli that are yet unknown. We molecularly investigated the nature of the immune response within human coronary lesion in four coronary plaques obtained by endoluminal atherectomy from four patients. We constructed phage-display libraries containing the IgG1/kappa antibody fragments produced by B-lymphocytes present in each plaque. By immunoaffinity, we selected from these libraries a monoclonal antibody, arbitrarily named Fab7816, able to react both with coronary and carotid atherosclerotic tissue samples. We also demonstrated by confocal microscopy that this monoclonal antibody recognized human transgelin type 1, a cytoskeleton protein involved in atherogenesis, and that it co-localized with fibrocyte-like cells transgelin+, CD68+, CD45+ in human sections of coronary and carotid plaques. In vitro fibrocytes obtained by differentiating CD14+ cells isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells also interacted with Fab7816, thus supporting the hypothesis of a specific recognition of fibrocytes into the atherosclerotic lesions. Interestingly, the same antibody, cross-reacted with the outer membrane proteins of Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella pneumoniae (and possibly with homologous proteins of other enterobacteriaceae present in the microbiota. From all the other three libraries, we were able to clone, by immunoaffinity selection, human monoclonal antibodies cross-reacting with bacterial outer membrane proteins and with transgelin. These findings demonstrated that in human atherosclerotic plaques a local cross-reactive immune response takes place.

  17. Do OH radicals react with organic substances in gamma-irradiated frozen cells of golden hamster embryo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Toru; Miyazaki, Tetsuo; Mochizuki, Shigehiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Watanabe, Masami

    Reactivity of OH radicals, produced by γ-irradiation, in golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells and in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solutions containing nuclei of the GHE cells was studied at 77 and 111 K by ESR spectroscopy. Since OH radicals do not diffuse in frozen cells at 77 K, they do not react with organic substances, such as protein and DNA, in the cells at 77 K. The efficiency of production and trapping of OH radicals at high concentration of organic substances in cells are the same as that at low concentration. Thus OH radicals produced near the organic substances do not react with them, being trapped at 77 K. When GHE cells or PBS-nuclei solutions are irradiated by γ-rays at 77 K and then warmed to 111 K, OH radicals decay fast, while the amounts of organic radicals remain constant at this temperature. These results indicate that OH radicals do not react with organic substances in γ-irradiated cells during warming of the irradiated cells. Therefore it was concluded that OH radicals are not the main reactive species responsible for biological effects in γ-irradiated frozen cells.

  18. A New Solar Chemical Reactor with an Internally Circulating Fluidized bed for Direct Irradiation of Reacting Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, T.; Enomoto, S.; Hatamachi, T.; Gokon, N.

    2006-07-01

    Solar thermochemical processes require the development of a high temperature solar reactor operating at 1000-1500 degree celsius, such as solar gasification of coal and the thermal reduction of metal oxides as part of a two-step water splitting cycle. Direct solar energy absorption by reacting particles of coal or metal oxides provides efficient heat transfer directly to the reaction site. The present paper describes a new type of the windowed solar chemical reactor directly illuminating reacting particles in an internally circulating fluidized bed. The reactor body is made of stainless steel having a quartz window on the top as aperture. A draft tube is centrally inserted in the fluidized bed region. Gases such as steam, CO2, or N2 are introduced into the draft tube and annulus regions in the bed separately. The concentrated solar radiation passes downwards TROUGH the window and directly heats the internally circulating fluidized bed of reacting particles. The prototype reactor was constructed in a laboratory scale and demonstrated on CO2 gasification of coal coke using solar-simulated, concentrated visible light from sun-simulator as the energy source. About 12% of the maximum chemical storage efficiency was obtained by the solar-simulated gasification of the coke. This new reactor will be also applied for a two-step water splitting cycle using redox metal-oxide particles. (Author)

  19. Strong Ideal Convergence in Probabilistic Metric Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celaleddin Şençimen; Serpil Pehlivan

    2009-06-01

    In the present paper we introduce the concepts of strongly ideal convergent sequence and strong ideal Cauchy sequence in a probabilistic metric (PM) space endowed with the strong topology, and establish some basic facts. Next, we define the strong ideal limit points and the strong ideal cluster points of a sequence in this space and investigate some properties of these concepts.

  20. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-05-16

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines1, 2, 3, 4. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number5. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes6. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  1. John Strong - 1941-2006

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Our friend and colleague John Strong was cruelly taken from us by a brain tumour on 31 July, a few days before his 65th birthday. John started his career and obtained his PhD in a group from Westfield College, initially working on experiments at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). From the early 1970s onwards, however, his research was focused on experiments in CERN, with several particularly notable contributions. The Omega spectrometer adopted a system John had originally developed for experiments at RAL using vidicon cameras (a type of television camera) to record the sparks in the spark chambers. This highly automated system allowed Omega to be used in a similar way to bubble chambers. He contributed to the success of NA1 and NA7, where he became heavily involved in the electronic trigger systems. In these experiments the Westfield group joined forces with Italian colleagues to measure the form factors of the pion and the kaon, and the lifetime of some of the newly discovered charm particles. Such h...

  2. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  3. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D.; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-01

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  4. Cosmology with Strong Lensing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Shuo; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Piórkowska, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we assemble a catalog of 118 strong gravitational lensing systems from SLACS, BELLS, LSD and SL2S surveys and use them to constrain the cosmic equation of state. In particular we consider two cases of dark energy phenomenology: $XCDM$ model where dark energy is modeled by a fluid with constant $w$ equation of state parameter and in Chevalier - Polarski - Linder (CPL) parametrization where $w$ is allowed to evolve with redshift: $w(z) = w_0 + w_1 \\frac{z}{1+z}$. We assume spherically symmetric mass distribution in lensing galaxies, but relax the rigid assumption of SIS model in favor to more general power-law index $\\gamma$, also allowing it to evolve with redshifts $\\gamma(z)$. Our results for the $XCDM$ cosmology show the agreement with values (concerning both $w$ and $\\gamma$ parameters) obtained by other authors. We go further and constrain the CPL parameters jointly with $\\gamma(z)$. The resulting confidence regions for the parameters are much better than those obtained with a similar metho...

  5. Strongly correlated perovskite fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhou, Hua; Ramadoss, Koushik; Adam, Suhare; Liu, Huajun; Lee, Sungsik; Shi, Jian; Tsuchiya, Masaru; Fong, Dillon D; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2016-06-09

    Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiencies and environmental benefits, as compared with traditional heat engines. Yttria-stabilized zirconia is perhaps the material with the most potential as an electrolyte in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), owing to its stability and near-unity ionic transference number. Although there exist materials with superior ionic conductivity, they are often limited by their ability to suppress electronic leakage when exposed to the reducing environment at the fuel interface. Such electronic leakage reduces fuel cell power output and the associated chemo-mechanical stresses can also lead to catastrophic fracture of electrolyte membranes. Here we depart from traditional electrolyte design that relies on cation substitution to sustain ionic conduction. Instead, we use a perovskite nickelate as an electrolyte with high initial ionic and electronic conductivity. Since many such oxides are also correlated electron systems, we can suppress the electronic conduction through a filling-controlled Mott transition induced by spontaneous hydrogen incorporation. Using such a nickelate as the electrolyte in free-standing membrane geometry, we demonstrate a low-temperature micro-fabricated SOFC with high performance. The ionic conductivity of the nickelate perovskite is comparable to the best-performing solid electrolytes in the same temperature range, with a very low activation energy. The results present a design strategy for high-performance materials exhibiting emergent properties arising from strong electron correlations.

  6. Relational Representations of Strongly Algebraic Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guang-hong; RAO San-ping

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,we introduce and investigate the strongly regular relation.Then we give the relational representations and an intrinsic characterization of strongly algebraic lattices via mapping relation and strongly regular relation.

  7. The strong maximum principle revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  8. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  9. Large Eddy Simulation of Spatially Developing Turbulent Reacting Shear Layers with the One-Dimensional Turbulence Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffie, Andreas Frank

    Large eddy simulation (LES) combined with the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model is used to simulate spatially developing turbulent reacting shear layers with high heat release and high Reynolds numbers. The LES-ODT results are compared to results from direct numerical simulations (DNS), for model development and validation purposes. The LES-ODT approach is based on LES solutions for momentum and pressure on a coarse grid and solutions for momentum and reactive scalars on a fine, one-dimensional, but three-dimensionally coupled ODT subgrid, which is embedded into the LES computational domain. Although one-dimensional, all three velocity components are transported along the ODT domain. The low-dimensional spatial and temporal resolution of the subgrid scales describe a new modeling paradigm, referred to as autonomous microstructure evolution (AME) models, which resolve the multiscale nature of turbulence down to the Kolmogorv scales. While this new concept aims to mimic the turbulent cascade and to reduce the number of input parameters, AME enables also regime-independent combustion modeling, capable to simulate multiphysics problems simultaneously. The LES as well as the one-dimensional transport equations are solved using an incompressible, low Mach number approximation, however the effects of heat release are accounted for through variable density computed by the ideal gas equation of state, based on temperature variations. The computations are carried out on a three-dimensional structured mesh, which is stretched in the transverse direction. While the LES momentum equation is integrated with a third-order Runge-Kutta time-integration, the time integration at the ODT level is accomplished with an explicit Forward-Euler method. Spatial finite-difference schemes of third (LES) and first (ODT) order are utilized and a fully consistent fractional-step method at the LES level is used. Turbulence closure at the LES level is achieved by utilizing the Smagorinsky

  10. PENGARUH STRATEGI REACT DITINJAU DARI GAYA KOGNITIF TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH, PRESTASI BELAJAR DAN APRESIASI SISWA TERHADAP MATEMATIKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inggrid Marlissa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mendeskripsikan pengaruh strategi pembelajaran dan gaya kognitif terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika, prestasi belajar matematika, dan apre-siasi siswa terhadap matematika. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimen semu yang populasinya mencakup seluruh siswa kelas X SMA Negeri 10 Ambon yang terdiri dari enam kelas. Teknik pengumpulan data dalam penelitian ini adalah tes dan non tes sedangkan instrumen yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data meliputi soal tes kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika, soal tes prestasi belajar matematika, dan angket apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Untuk melihat pengaruh strategi REACT dan gaya kognitif terhadap ketiga variabel dependen secara simultan, data dianalisis menggunakan uji statistik Analisis Varians Multivariat Dua Jalur (Two Way MANOVA, sedangkan untuk menganalisis masing-masing gaya kognitif terhadap ketiga variabel dependen secara simultan, digunakan uji statistik Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA. Hasil penelitian pada taraf signi-fikan 5%, menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh strategi REACT terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika, prestasi belajar matematika, dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika pada siswa SMA Negeri 10 Ambon. Berdasarkan analisis yang dilakukan, siswa dengan gaya kognitif field inde-pendent lebih baik dari siswa dengan gaya kognitif field dependent ditinjau dari kemampuan pemecah-an masalah matematika, prestasi belajar matematika, dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika. Kata kunci: strategi REACT, gaya kognitif, kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika, prestasi belajar matematika, dan apresiasi siswa terhadap matematika.   THE EFFECT OF REACT STRATEGY IN TERMS OF COGNITIVE STYLE ON THE PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS, LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT, AND MATHEMATICAL APPRECIATION OF STUDENTS Abstract The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of learning strategies and cognitive style on mathematical problem solving skills

  11. An improved high-order scheme for DNS of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows based on stiff chemistry solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rixin; Yu, Jiangfei; Bai, Xue-Song

    2012-06-01

    We present an improved numerical scheme for numerical simulations of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows with detailed chemistry and transport. The method is based on a semi-implicit operator-splitting scheme with a stiff solver for integration of the chemical kinetic rates, developed by Knio et al. [O.M. Knio, H.N. Najm, P.S. Wyckoff, A semi-implicit numerical scheme for reacting flow II. Stiff, operator-split formulation, Journal of Computational Physics 154 (2) (1999) 428-467]. Using the material derivative form of continuity equation, we enhance the scheme to allow for large density ratio in the flow field. The scheme is developed for direct numerical simulation of turbulent reacting flow by employing high-order discretization for the spatial terms. The accuracy of the scheme in space and time is verified by examining the grid/time-step dependency on one-dimensional benchmark cases: a freely propagating premixed flame in an open environment and in an enclosure related to spark-ignition engines. The scheme is then examined in simulations of a two-dimensional laminar flame/vortex-pair interaction. Furthermore, we apply the scheme to direct numerical simulation of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) process in an enclosure studied previously in the literature. Satisfactory agreement is found in terms of the overall ignition behavior, local reaction zone structures and statistical quantities. Finally, the scheme is used to study the development of intrinsic flame instabilities in a lean H2/air premixed flame, where it is shown that the spatial and temporary accuracies of numerical schemes can have great impact on the prediction of the sensitive nonlinear evolution process of flame instability.

  12. Prevalence of Allergy to Natural Rubber Latex and Potential Cross Reacting Food in Operation Room Staff in Shiraz Hospitals -2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nabavizade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.

  13. Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydell, Niclas; Sjöholm, Ingvar

    2005-04-15

    Mucosal vaccination has the advantage of eliciting a local mucosal immune response as well as a systemic response. In this investigation, polyacryl starch microparticles were conjugated to diphtheria toxin cross-reacting material (CRM197) as a mucosal adjuvant for oral or intranasal immunisation of mice. Various methods of stabilising CRM197 with formaldehyde were investigated. A good systemic and local mucosal immune response was attained with oral immunisation when CRM197 was treated with a relatively low formaldehyde concentration prior to conjugation to the microparticles. No immune response was seen after intranasal immunisation.

  14. Mathematical modeling of turbulent reacting plumes - II. Application to the NO-NO/sub 2/-O/sub 3/ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgopoulos, P.G.; Seinfeld, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Calculations performed with the Turbulent Reacting plume model (TPRM) developed in Part I are compared with the experimental data of Builtjes (1981, Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Div. of Technology for Soc., Ref. No. 81-013563) for the reaction between NO in a point source plume and ambient O/sub 3/, taking place in a wind tunnel simulating a neutral atmospheric boundary layer. The comparison shows the TRPM capable of quantitatively predicting the retardation imposed on the evolution of nonlinear plume chemistry by incomplete mixing. (authors).

  15. Most influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes react with antigenic epitopes associated with internal virus determinants

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    This paper shows that most murine (C57BL/6) influenza A virus-specific memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clones tested in limiting dilution did not react with the influenza A virus surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). This lysis of syngeneic target cells infected with the influenza A virus strains, Aichi (H3N2), PR8 (H1N1), or recombinant strain X31 (H3N2) indicates that most antigenic epitopes recognized are associated with internal virus determinants. X31 and ...

  16. Strong Room-Temperature Photoluminescence from the Novel Adduct of C60 with Aliphatic Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Strong room-temperature photoluminescence from the adducts of C60 reacting with five different aliphatic amines, namely propylethylamine (PPA), n-butyl amine (BTA), n-heptylamine (HPA) and dodecylamine (DDA) and diethylamine (DEA), was firstly found from their toluene solution at relatively shorter wavelength around 519 nm.The fluorescence intensity has a good correlation with the length of n-alkyl group chain, the steric position and concentration of different amines and setting of solution as well as the UV-radiation. Their fluorescence quenching by concentration and by aromatic electron-donor N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA) were first investigated and determined.

  17. Strong Completeness of Medium Logic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Zhenghua; Zhu Wujia

    2005-01-01

    The strong completeness of medium logic system is discussed. The following results are proved: medium propositional logic system MP and its extension MP * are strong complete; medium predicate logic system MF and its extensions ( MF * and ME * ) are not strong complete; and generally, if a consistent formal system is not strong complete, then any consistent extensions of this formai system are not strong complete either.

  18. How do human cells react to the absence of mitochondrial DNA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Mineri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial biogenesis is under the control of two different genetic systems: the nuclear genome (nDNA and the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA. The mtDNA is a circular genome of 16.6 kb encoding 13 of the approximately 90 subunits that form the respiratory chain, the remaining ones being encoded by the nDNA. Eukaryotic cells are able to monitor and respond to changes in mitochondrial function through alterations in nuclear gene expression, a phenomenon first defined in yeast and known as retrograde regulation. To investigate how the cellular transcriptome is modified in response to the absence of mtDNA, we used Affymetrix HG-U133A GeneChip arrays to study the gene expression profile of two human cell lines, 143BTK(- and A549, which had been entirely depleted of mtDNA (rho(o cells, and compared it with that of corresponding undepleted parental cells (rho(+ cells. RESULTS: Our data indicate that absence of mtDNA is associated with: i a down-regulation of cell cycle control genes and a reduction of cell replication rate, ii a down-regulation of nuclear-encoded subunits of complex III of the respiratory chain and iii a down-regulation of a gene described as the human homolog of ELAC2 of E. coli, which encodes a protein that we show to also target to the mitochondrial compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a strong correlation between mitochondrial biogenesis and cell cycle control and suggest that some proteins could have a double role: for instance in controlling both cell cycle progression and mitochondrial functions. In addition, the finding that ELAC2 and maybe other transcripts that are located into mitochondria, are down-regulated in rho(o cells, make them good candidates for human disorders associated with defective replication and expression of mtDNA.

  19. A literatura como resistência política: traços neorrealistas na produção literária do Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (MAB)

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Alves Pereira

    2014-01-01

    Este trabalho busca analisar as relações existentes entre as produções literárias do inicio do século XX, com o surgimento da corrente neo-realista, e a literatura produzida pelo Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (MAB), como manifestação de resistência à cultura elitista, no que tange ao espaço das criações artísticas. Para tanto, discute-se a característica do neo-realismo como expressão literária definidora dos aspectos sociais e políticos representados nas obras da época. Analisa-se, t...

  20. Inherent enumerability of strong jump-traceability

    CERN Document Server

    Diamondstone, David; Turetsky, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We show that every strongly jump-traceable set obeys every benign cost function. Moreover, we show that every strongly jump-traceable set is computable from a computably enumerable strongly jump-traceable set. This allows us to generalise properties of c.e.\\ strongly jump-traceable sets to all such sets. For example, the strongly jump-traceable sets induce an ideal in the Turing degrees; the strongly jump-traceable sets are precisely those that are computable from all superlow Martin-L\\"{o}f random sets; the strongly jump-traceable sets are precisely those that are a base for $\\text{Demuth}_{\\text{BLR}}$-randomness; and strong jump-traceability is equivalent to strong superlowness.

  1. Eco-friendly synthesis for MCM-41 nanoporous materials using the non-reacted reagents in mother liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Nanoporous materials such as Mobil composite material number 41 (MCM-41) are attractive for applications such as catalysis, adsorption, supports, and carriers. Green synthesis of MCM-41 is particularly appealing because the chemical reagents are useful and valuable. We report on the eco-friendly synthesis of MCM-41 nanoporous materials via multi-cycle approach by re-using the non-reacted reagents in supernatant as mother liquor after separating the solid product. This approach was achieved via minimal requirement of chemical compensation where additional fresh reactants were added into the mother liquor followed by pH adjustment after each cycle of synthesis. The solid product of each successive batch was collected and characterized while the non-reacted reagents in supernatant can be recovered and re-used to produce subsequent cycle of MCM-41. The multi-cycle synthesis is demonstrated up to three times in this research. This approach suggests a low cost and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoporous material since less waste is discarded after the product has been collected, and in addition, product yield can be maintained at the high level. PMID:23497184

  2. The tumour metabolism inhibitors GSAO and PENAO react with cysteines 57 and 257 of mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Danielle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GSAO (4-(N-(S-glutathionylacetylamino phenylarsonous acid and PENAO (4-(N-(S-penicillaminylacetylamino phenylarsonous acid are tumour metabolism inhibitors that target adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT of the inner-mitochondrial membrane. Both compounds are currently being trialled in patients with solid tumours. The trivalent arsenical moiety of GSAO and PENAO reacts with two matrix facing cysteine residues of ANT, inactivating the transporter. This leads to proliferation arrest and death of tumour and tumour-supporting cells. Results The two reactive ANT cysteine residues have been identified in this study by expressing cysteine mutants of human ANT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and measuring interaction with the arsenical moiety of GSAO and PENAO. The arsenic atom of both compounds cross-links cysteine residues 57 and 257 of human ANT1. Conclusions The sulphur atoms of these two cysteines are 20 Å apart in the crystal structures of ANT and the optimal spacing of cysteine thiolates for reaction with As (III is 3-4 Å. This implies that a significant conformational change in ANT is required for the organoarsenicals to react with cysteines 57 and 257. This conformational change may relate to the selectivity of the compounds for proliferating cells.

  3. On a consistent high-order finite difference scheme with kinetic energy conservation for simulating turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisjono, Philipp; Kang, Seongwon; Pitsch, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to present an accurate and consistent numerical framework for turbulent reacting flows based on a high-order finite difference (HOFD) scheme. It was shown previously by Desjardins et al. (2008) [4] that a centered finite difference scheme discretely conserving the kinetic energy and an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport can be combined into a useful scheme for turbulent reacting flows. With a high-order spatial accuracy, however, an inconsistency among discretization schemes for different conservation laws is identified, which can disturb a scalar field spuriously under non-uniform density distribution. Various theoretical and numerical analyses are performed on the sources of the unphysical error. From this, the derivative of the mass-conserving velocity and the local Péclet number are identified as the primary factors affecting the error. As a solution, an HOFD stencil for the mass conservation is reformulated into a flux-based form that can be used consistently with an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport. The effectiveness of the proposed formulation is verified using two-dimensional laminar flows such as a scalar transport problem and a laminar premixed flame, where unphysical oscillations in the scalar fields are removed. The applicability of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in an LES of a turbulent stratified premixed flame.

  4. Identification of epitope recognized by mAb 15 A11 sepecific against cartilage oli-gomeric matrix protein%COMP特异性单抗15 A11的表位特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞玲; 韩冬; 韩魏巍; 邓灵福; 袁永泽; 熊丽; 刘德立; 耿辉

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the epitope of mAb15A11 which is specific against RA associated autoantigen cartilage oligomeric matrix protein ( COMP ).Methods: A filamentous phage library displaying random linear dodecapeptides was used to mapping the epitope of mAb15A11.After three rounds of screenings,40 phage clones were selected at random and sequenced.The specificity of phages was confirmed by enzyme immunoassays.Homology search by ClustalW2 and structure analysis by PyMol to identified the epitope amino acid sequence.Western blot analysis of COMP and ELISA analysis of COMP-derived peptides were used to confirm epitope′s characterization.Results: After repeated screenings using bio-panning method, 2 clones were identified, which interacted specifically with mAb 15A11.Homology search did not find succession consensus sequence within COMP molecular,which indicated that the epitope was not linear.PyMol Structure analysis identified the rationality of conformational epitope.Western blot analysis and ELISA of EDTA-treated COMP further prove an conformational structure of the epitope recognized by mAb 15A11.ELISA analysis of COMP-derived peptides demonstrated both disulfide bonds between 229 C-243 C and 237 C-253 C and every epitope amino acid of 232 G,238 H,240 H,241 A,244 V,247 R and 251 R were essential to the binding of mAb 15A11 with COMP.Conclusion: In this study, the potential B cell antigentic epitopes of mAb 15A11 was identified by phage display library.The epitope amino acids sequence and char-acterization were also recognized.It may have important theoretical value for the study of reaction mechanism of COMP antibody and antigen and may also show application significance in the detection of rheumatoid arthritis.%目的:鉴定RA相关自身抗原COMP的一株特异性单克隆抗体15A11的表位特征。方法:选用随机十二肽噬菌体库对mAb 15A11进行三轮筛选,随机挑取40个单噬菌斑,提取DNA,测序;ELISA检测

  5. How does a tidal embayment morphodynamically react on sea level rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wegen, Mick

    2010-05-01

    Conditions for (assumed) equilibrium in tidal embayments have been studied extensively in the past years with morphodynamic 1D models (Van Dongeren and De Vriend, 1994; Schuttelaars and de Swart, 1996, 2000; Lanzoni and Seminara, 2002) and 2D models (Hibma et al. [2003], Van der Wegen and Roelvink [2008]) Van der Wegen et al 2008). The current research addresses the impact of sea level rise on tidal embayments. Although effects of sea level rise may only become apparent after decades, the character of the embayment can change considerably. Examples are the (dis)appearance or re-allocation of intertidal flats, increased tidal resonance, shift from sediment export to import, deepening of channel area and other related (ecological) parameters. The research applies a 2D morphodynamic model (Delft3D) in an idealized environment. The model is based on the 2 D shallow water equations, the Engelund -Hansen transport formula and includes bed slope effects, drying and flooding procedures and an advanced morphodynamic update scheme (Roelvink 2006). The initial condition of the bathymetry is generated by 3000 years of morphodynamic calculations in a 80 km long and 2.5 km wide rectangular tidal embayment under constant M2 tidal forcing conditions (Van der Wegen and Roelvink [2008]). After this period sea level rise gradually developing towards a rate of 0.4 m/century is added to the boundary conditions. Model results describe development towards less intertidal area and a transition from an exporting system to a importing system. Model results are evaluated in terms of M2, M4 and M6 tidal constituents as well as against Vs/Vc (shoal volume over channel volume) versus a/h (amplitude over water depth) relationship as proposed by Friedrichs and Aubrey (1988). Although the model describes morphodynamic development in a strongly idealized environment the results can provide an excellent tool to systematically study the impact of sea level rise in tidal embayments as well as the time

  6. Discovering Classes of Strongly Equivalent Logic Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.; Lin, F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply computer-aided theorem discovery technique to discover theorems about strongly equivalent logic programs under the answer set semantics. Our discovered theorems capture new classes of strongly equivalent logic programs that can lead to new program simplification rules that preserve strong equivalence. Specifically, with the help of computers, we discovered exact conditions that capture the strong equivalence between a rule and the empty set, between two rules, between t...

  7. An Accessory Protease Inhibitor to Increase the Yield and Quality of a Tumour-Targeting mAb in Nicotiana benthamiana Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Philippe V; Marusic, Carla; Lonoce, Chiara; Deflers, Carole; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Michaud, Dominique; Donini, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    The overall quality of recombinant IgG antibodies in plants is dramatically compromised by host endogenous proteases. Different approaches have been developed to reduce the impact of endogenous proteolysis on IgGs, notably involving site-directed mutagenesis to eliminate protease-susceptible sites or the in situ mitigation of host protease activities to minimize antibody processing in the cell secretory pathway. We here characterized the degradation profile of H10, a human tumour-targeting monoclonal IgG, in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana also expressing the human serine protease inhibitor α1-antichymotrypsin or the cysteine protease inhibitor tomato cystatin SlCYS8. Leaf extracts revealed consistent fragmentation patterns for the recombinant antibody regardless of leaf age and a strong protective effect of SlCYS8 in specific regions of the heavy chain domains. As shown using an antigen-binding ELISA and LC-MS/MS analysis of antibody fragments, SlCYS8 had positive effects on both the amount of fully-assembled antibody purified from leaf tissue and the stability of biologically active antibody fragments containing the heavy chain Fc domain. Our data confirm the potential of Cys protease inhibitors as convenient antibody-stabilizing expression partners to increase the quality of therapeutic antibodies in plant protein biofactories.

  8. Strong reality of finite simple groups

    CERN Document Server

    Vdovin, E P

    2010-01-01

    The classification of finite simple strongly real groups is complete. It is easy to see that strong reality for every nonabelian finite simple group is equivalent to the fact that each element can be written as a product of two involutions. We thus obtain a solution to Problem 14.82 from the Kourovka notebook from the classification of finite simple strongly real groups.

  9. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv) ...

  10. Monoclonal Antibodies Recognising Sialyl-Tn: Production and Application to Immunochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter L. Devine

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop reagents that can detect the exposed sialyl-Tn antigen (NeuAcα2,6GaINAcα 1-O-Ser/Thr on tumour-associated mucins, we have prepared monoclonal antibodies (mabs 3C2 and 301, both IgM against ovine submaxillary mucin (OSM; >98% of glycans as sialyl-Tn. These mabs showed strong reactivity with OSM and bovine submaxillary mucin (BSM; 50% of glycans as sialyl-Tn but did not react with desialylated OSM or BSM. Sialic acid at I mg/ml did not significantly inhibit mab binding to OSM, suggesting that the linkage to GalNAc may be important for mab binding. 3C2 and 3D I also showed similar reactivity to sialyl-Tn reactive mab Bn.3, and detected Bn.3 capturedOSM in a sandwich ELISA. In Western blotting of mucus from a patient with a mucinous ovarian tumour, the mabs reacted with high molecular weight (>200 kDa species. In immunohistochemistry, these mabs showed strong reactivity with most cancers of the colon, lung, and stomach, and also some tumours of the ovary and breast. There was only limited reactivity in normal tissue from these sites. The antibodies should be useful reagents for the detection of the sialyl-Tn antigen in human cancers.

  11. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients (REACT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierink Joanne C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computed tomography (CT scanning has become essential in the early diagnostic phase of trauma care because of its high diagnostic accuracy. The introduction of multi-slice CT scanners and infrastructural improvements made total-body CT scanning technically feasible and its usage is currently becoming common practice in several trauma centers. However, literature provides limited evidence whether immediate total-body CT leads to better clinical outcome then conventional radiographic imaging supplemented with selective CT scanning in trauma patients. The aim of the REACT-2 trial is to determine the value of immediate total-body CT scanning in trauma patients. Methods/design The REACT-2 trial is an international, multicenter randomized clinical trial. All participating trauma centers have a multi-slice CT scanner located in the trauma room or at the Emergency Department (ED. All adult, non-pregnant, severely injured trauma patients according to predefined criteria will be included. Patients in whom direct scanning will hamper necessary cardiopulmonary resuscitation or who require an immediate operation because of imminent death (both as judged by the trauma team leader are excluded. Randomization will be computer assisted. The intervention group will receive a contrast-enhanced total-body CT scan (head to pelvis during the primary survey. The control group will be evaluated according to local conventional trauma imaging protocols (based on ATLS guidelines supplemented with selective CT scanning. Primary outcome will be in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes are differences in mortality and morbidity during the first year post trauma, several trauma work-up time intervals, radiation exposure, general health and quality of life at 6 and 12 months post trauma and cost-effectiveness. Discussion The REACT-2 trial is a multicenter randomized clinical trial that will provide evidence on the value of immediate total-body CT scanning

  12. Does roflumilast decrease exacerbations in severe COPD patients not controlled by inhaled combination therapy? the REACT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calverley PM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Peter MA Calverley,1 Fernando J Martinez,2 Leonardo M Fabbri,3 Udo-Michael Goehring,4 Klaus F Rabe5–71Clinical Science Center, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, MI, USA; 3Department of Respiratory Diseases, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy; 4Nycomed (a Takeda company, Konstanz, Germany; 5University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany; 6Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf, Center for Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 7Department of Pulmonology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD continue to suffer exacerbations, even when treated with maximum recommended therapy (eg, inhaled combinations of long-acting β2-agonist and high dose inhaled corticosteroids, with or without a long-acting anticholinergic [long-acting muscarinic antagonist]. Roflumilast is approved to treat severe COPD in patients with chronic bronchitis – and a history of frequent exacerbations – as an add-on to bronchodilators.Purpose: The REACT (Roflumilast in the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations While Taking Appropriate Combination Treatment study (identification number RO-2455-404-RD, clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01329029 will investigate whether roflumilast further reduces exacerbations when added to inhaled combination therapy in patients still suffering from frequent exacerbations.Patients and methods: REACT is a 1-year randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III/IV study of roflumilast 500 µg once daily or placebo on top of a fixed long-acting β2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroid combination. A concomitant long-acting muscarinic antagonist will be allowed at stable doses. The primary outcome is the rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. Using a Poisson regression model with a two-sided significance level of 5%, a sample size of 967 patients per treatment group

  13. Strong Bisimilarity of Simple Process Algebras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jirí

    2003-01-01

    We study bisimilarity and regularity problems of simple process algebras. In particular, we show PSPACE-hardness of the following problems: (i) strong bisimilarity of Basic Parallel Processes (BPP), (ii) strong bisimilarity of Basic Process Algebra (BPA), (iii) strong regularity of BPP, and (iv......) strong regularity of BPA. We also demonstrate NL-hardness of strong regularity problems for the normed subclasses of BPP and BPA. Bisimilarity problems of simple process algebras are introduced in a general framework of process rewrite systems, and a uniform description of the new techniques used...

  14. Strongly Irreducible Operators on Banach Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Nan ZHANG; Huai Jie ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    This paper firstly discusses the existence of strongly irreducible operators on Banach spaces.It shows that there exist strongly irreducible operators on Banach spaces with w*-separable dual.It also gives some properties of strongly irreducible operators on Banach spaces. In particular,if T is a strongly irreducible operator on an infinite-dimensional Banach space,then T is not of finite rank and T is not an algebraic operator. On Banach spaces with subsymmetric bases,including infinite-dimensional separable Hilbert spaces,it shows that quasisimilarity does not preserve strong irreducibility.In addition,we show that the strong irreducibility of an operator does not imply the strong irreducibility of its conjugate operator,which is not the same as the property in Hilbert spaces.

  15. An Inviscid Decoupled Method for the Roe FDS Scheme in the Reacting Gas Path of FUN3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle B.; Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    An approach is described to decouple the species continuity equations from the mixture continuity, momentum, and total energy equations for the Roe flux difference splitting scheme. This decoupling simplifies the implicit system, so that the flow solver can be made significantly more efficient, with very little penalty on overall scheme robustness. Most importantly, the computational cost of the point implicit relaxation is shown to scale linearly with the number of species for the decoupled system, whereas the fully coupled approach scales quadratically. Also, the decoupled method significantly reduces the cost in wall time and memory in comparison to the fully coupled approach. This work lays the foundation for development of an efficient adjoint solution procedure for high speed reacting flow.

  16. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  17. Cholestatic liver disease after rituximab and adalimumab and the possible role of cross-reacting antibodies to Fab 2 fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joerg Latus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Millions of patients are treated with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (Tmabs for miscellaneous diseases. We investigated sera from six patients who received immune globulin, from one patient with refractory anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA-associated granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA who developed two episodes of acute cholestatic liver disease, one after treatment with rituximab and a second after adalimumab and a healthy control group. METHODS: Three sera from the patient and six sera from patients who received immune globulin were analyzed for antibodies to rituximab and adalimumab by ELISA. Additionally, sera from the patients and from nine healthy blood donors were coated with the Fab fragment of an unrelated humanized monoclonal antibody, with human Fc proteins as well as a mouse IgG globulin. RESULTS: Viral serology for hepatitis A, B, C and autoantibodies specific for autoimmune liver disorders were negative. In all three sera from the patient antibodies to rituximab could be detected, but also antibodies to adalimumab were present even at time points when the patient had not yet received adalimumab, indicating cross reactivity between both substances. Testing against an unrelated human Fab fragment revealed positive results, indicating that the patient had antibodies against human Fab fragments in general. The Fc proteins were negative, and patients' sera did also not react with mouse IgG globulins. Remarkably, 2 out of 5 patients which were treated with immune globulin had antibodies against human Fab fragments in general whereas in none of the samples from healthy controls antibodies to Fab fragment could be detected. CONCLUSION: This is the first study demonstrating cholestatic liver disease induced by two different Tmabs. Cross - reacting antibodies to Fab2 fragments in general are probably involved. Further studies must show if these Fab2 antibodies in general are related with drug-induced side effects

  18. Nonlinear magnetoplasmons in strongly coupled Yukawa plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, M; Ott, T; Kaehlert, H; Hartmann, P

    2010-01-01

    The existence of plasma oscillations at multiples of the magnetoplasmon frequency in a strongly coupled two-dimensional magnetized Yukawa plasma is reported, based on extensive molecular dynamics simulations. These modes are the analogues of Bernstein modes which are renormalized by strong interparticle correlations. Their properties are theoretically explained by a dielectric function incorporating the combined effect of a magnetic field, strong correlations and finite temperature.

  19. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-14

    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  20. Theme: The Profession Reacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartin, Stacy A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The theme is the National Academy of Sciences study of agricultural education at the secondary level. Reactors discuss educational change, leadership training, student organizations, supervised occupational experience programs, delivery systems, teacher education, and the future of vocational agriculture. (JOW)

  1. Broadcasting, Reacting, Engaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Symmetric communication and relationship building are core principles of public relations, which have been highlighted for CSR communication. In this paper three different communication strategies for CSR communication in Twitter are developed, of which each contributes differently to t...... use social media to foster symmetric communication and relationship management, nor which CSR topics they address...... to the ideals of symmetric communication and relationship building. The framework is then applied to analyze how companies use the micro-blogging service Twitter for CSR communication. Design/methodology/approach - Social network analysis is used to identify the 30 most central corporate accounts in a CSR...... rights, employee relation, and governance find less attention. Philanthropy is the only CSR topic that is weighted differently by the three strategies. Originality/value - So far neither much is known how social media, such as Twitter, contribute to the core principles of public relations, if companies...

  2. The REACT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Paul; Blystad, Astrid; Byskov, Jens

    partners and, not least, the populations concerned. A new focus for priority setting is needed. AFR is a framework for legitimate and fair priority setting that provides decision-makers with an explicit tool for identifying and considering a wide range of relevant values, and defines priority...... has mainly been based on the burden of disease approach, cost effectiveness and other evidence-based measures. However, these approaches do not equip decision-makers to address a broader range of values - such as compassion, equity, accountability and transparency - that are of concern to other...... collaborations with an increasing range of actors, including the communities themselves, into a joint research and development process for priority setting for health. The AFR concept and the analysis of the baseline results will be presented and their broad applicability in terms of making sustainable...

  3. EXISTENCE OF OPTIMAL STRONG PARTIALLY BALANCED DESIGNS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Beiliang

    2007-01-01

    A strong partially balanced design SPBD(v, b, k; λ,0) whose b is the maximum number of blocks in all SPBD(v, b, k; λ, 0), as an optimal strong partially balanced design, briefly OSPBD(v, k, λ) is studied. In investigation of authentication codes it has been found that the strong partially balanced design can be used to construct authentication codes. This note investigates the existence of optimal strong partially balanced design OSPBD(v, k, 1) for k = 3and 4, and shows that there exists an OSPBD(v, k, 1) for any v ≥ k.

  4. Computational studies of reacting flows with applications to zinc selenide nanoparticle synthesis and methane/hydrogen separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsona, Maria

    This work is a numerical study of the design and operation of two reacting flow systems, each with great potential in their fields. The design of reacting flow systems by computer simulations are successfully used in science and engineering to evaluate design geometries and operation, without resorting to experimental trial and error that is expensive, time consuming and, in some cases, dangerous. The models of the two systems described in this work are based on fundamental conservation equations for momentum and mass transfer coupled with chemical reaction kinetics and particle dynamics. The first part of this work is a study aiming to elucidate the transport phenomena and chemical reactions that control the size of ZnSe nanoparticles formed by a new vapor-phase synthesis route. The nanoparticles are synthesized by reacting vapors of (CH3)2Zn:N(C2H 5)3 adduct with H2Se gas (diluted in hydrogen) fed continuously from opposite sides into a counterflow jet reactor. The nuclei of the nanocrystals are formed by a direct condensation reaction near the stagnation point. The nuclei grow into nanoparticles by coalescence/coagulation and by surface growth reactions. A 2D model of an axially symmetric reactor was developed that includes descriptions of flow, mass transfer by convection and diffusion, chemical kinetics, particle nucleation, coagulation and surface growth. The coupled nonlinear partial differential equations of the model were solved using the Galerkin Finite Element Method. The model was used to study the relative importance of the underlying physical and chemical phenomena in controlling particle size and particle size distribution. Model predictions compared well with the limited experimental data available for this system. The model was also used for model-assisted design of the experimental counterflow jet reactor, where vapor-phase synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles was demonstrated for the first time. The second part of this work involves the development of

  5. Strong decays of nucleon and $\\Delta$ resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1996-01-01

    We study the strong couplings of the nucleon and delta resonances in a collective model. In the ensuing algebraic treatment we derive closed expressions for decay widths which are used to analyze the experimental data for strong decays into the pion and eta channels.

  6. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  7. Strong monotonicity for analytic ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Walcher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for the flow of an analytic ordinary differential equation to be strongly monotone; equivalently, strongly order-preserving. The criterion is given in terms of the reducibility set of the derivative of the right-hand side. Some applications to systems relevant in biology and ecology, including nonlinear compartmental systems, are discussed.

  8. Strong Connections and Invertible Weak Entwining Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N.ALONSO (A)LVAREZ; J.M.FERN(A)NDEZ VILABOA; R.GONZ(A)LEZ RODR(I)GUEZ

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we obtain a criterion under which the bijectivity of the canonical morphism of a weak Galois extension associated to a weak invertible entwining structure is equivalent to the existence of a strong connection form.Also we obtain an explicit formula for a strong connection under equivariant projective conditions or under coseparability conditions.

  9. 78 FR 15710 - Strong Sensitizer Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... document is intended to clarify the ``strong sensitizer'' definition, assist manufacturers in understanding.... Consumer Product Safety Commission, 5 Research Place, Rockville, MD 20850; telephone (301) 987-2564... definition of ``strong sensitizer'' found at 16 CFR 1500.3(c)(5). The Commission is proposing to revise...

  10. On the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Jason

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, our aim is the study the Vanishing of Maps of Tor Conjecture of Hochster and Huneke. We mainly focus on an equivalent characterization called the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture, due to N. Ranganathan. Our results are separated into three chapters. In Chapter 3, we prove special cases of the Strong Direct Summand Conjecture in…

  11. Strong jump traceability and Demuth randomness

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Noam

    2011-01-01

    We solve the covering problem for Demuth randomness, showing that a computably enumerable set is computable from a Demuth random set if and only if it is strongly jump-traceable. We show that on the other hand, the class of sets which form a base for Demuth randomness is a proper subclass of the class of strongly jump-traceable sets.

  12. About strong interaction of fundamental particles

    CERN Document Server

    Sannikov-Proskuryakov, S S

    2002-01-01

    We concentrate upon the main properties of strong interaction of hadrons. It is demonstrated that, due to the unusual character of the field propagator in a fiber (at very small distances) where strong interaction is switched on, a new symmetric Green function is used as a field propagator. As a result, the unitary scattering matrix of strong interaction is represented as a T sub s -time ordered chronological exponent. It is shown that the particle skeleton algebra plays an important role in finding the full interaction Lagrangian. Coupling constants of strong interactions are determined. In Appendix, the radiative corrections to the nucleon mass and the masses of eta, pi, KAPPA mesons transferring the strong interactions are calculated.

  13. Treatment with anti-C5aR mAb leads to early-onset clinical and mechanistic effects in the murine delayed-type hypersensitivity arthritis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atkinson, Sara Marie; Nansen, Anneline; Usher, Pernille A.;

    2015-01-01

    Blockade of the complement cascade at the C5a/C5a receptor (C5aR)-axis is believed to be an attractive treatment avenue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the effects of such interventions during the early phases of arthritis remain to be clarified. In this study we use the murine delayed...... lymph node is also reduced following a single dose of anti-C5aR, suggesting that modulation of the C5a/C5aR axis results in effects on the T cell compartment in inflammatory arthritis. In summary, these data demonstrate that blockade of C5aR leads to rapid and significant effects on arthritic disease......-type hypersensitivity arthritis (DTHA) model to study the very early effects of a blocking, non-depleting anti-C5aR mAb on joint inflammation with treatment synchronised with disease onset, an approach not previously described. The DTHA model is a single-paw inflammatory arthritis model characterised by synchronised...

  14. The MHC class II ligand lymphocyte activation gene-3 is co-distributed with CD8 and CD3-TCR molecules after their engagement by mAb or peptide-MHC class I complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannier, S; Triebel, F

    1999-11-01

    Previous studies indicated that signaling through lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3), a MHC class II ligand, induced by multivalent anti-receptor antibodies led to unresponsiveness to TCR stimulation. Here, lateral distribution of the LAG-3 molecules and its topological relationship (mutual proximity) to the TCR, CD8, CD4, and MHC class I and II molecules were studied in the plasma membrane of activated human T cells in co-capping experiments and conventional fluorescence microscopy. Following TCR engagement by either TCR-specific mAb or MHC-peptide complex recognition in T-B cell conjugates, LAG-3 was found to be specifically associated with the CD3-TCR complex. Similarly, following CD8 engagement LAG-3 and CD8 were co-distributed on the cell surface while only a low percentage of CD4-capped cells displayed LAG-3 co-caps. In addition, LAG-3 was found to be associated with MHC class II (i.e. DR, DP and DQ) and partially with MHC class I molecules. The supramolecular assemblies described here between LAG-3, CD3, CD8 and MHC class II molecules may result from an organization in raft microdomains, a phenomenon known to regulate early events of T cell activation.

  15. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part Two: Multi-Dimensional Analysis †

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available hy2Foam is a newly-coded open-source two-temperature computational fluid dynamics (CFD solver that has previously been validated for zero-dimensional test cases. It aims at (1 giving open-source access to a state-of-the-art hypersonic CFD solver to students and researchers; and (2 providing a foundation for a future hybrid CFD-DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code within the OpenFOAM framework. This paper focuses on the multi-dimensional verification of hy2Foam and firstly describes the different models implemented. In conjunction with employing the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV chemistry–vibration model, novel use is made of the quantum-kinetic (QK rates in a CFD solver. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with previously published data for a Mach 11 nitrogen flow over a blunted cone and with the dsmcFoam code for a Mach 20 cylinder flow for a binary reacting mixture. This latter case scenario provides a useful basis for other codes to compare against.

  16. Simulations of Spray Reacting Flows in a Single Element LDI Injector With and Without Invoking an Eulerian Scalar PDF Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical simulations of the Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single element lean direct injection (LDI) injector by using the National Combustion Code (NCC) with and without invoking the Eulerian scalar probability density function (PDF) method. The flow field is calculated by using the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS and URANS) with nonlinear turbulence models, and when the scalar PDF method is invoked, the energy and compositions or species mass fractions are calculated by solving the equation of an ensemble averaged density-weighted fine-grained probability density function that is referred to here as the averaged probability density function (APDF). A nonlinear model for closing the convection term of the scalar APDF equation is used in the presented simulations and will be briefly described. Detailed comparisons between the results and available experimental data are carried out. Some positive findings of invoking the Eulerian scalar PDF method in both improving the simulation quality and reducing the computing cost are observed.

  17. İstanbul Youth and Sport Management’s employees react the new system of total quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Alpullu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about, how the İstanbul Youth and Sport Management’s employees react the new system of Total Qualıty Management. The fourty-one questıonare survey used on employees whose work in İstanbul Youth and Sport Management. Results show that, employees said an institution not a school. On survey, used eighty-nine male and twenty-one female of total one hundred and ten employees and four factors of Total Qualıty Management effects the employees. These four factors are: 1. Leadership, 2. Develop of employee’s work and join their work, 3. Relationship with the organizations who work together, 4. Customers come first in the organization. Differences in approaching to the total quality management among the employees in an institution has been analized according to their age group, working period in that institution, their status, title, position and educational level. To indicate the variation in approaching to the total quality management among the employees, data taken by the survey result has been recorded in SPPS 13 programme and diagonal ( crosswise table, frekans (periodicity and ki kare comparisons have been applied. Our survey ( research , questionnaire, analysis results show certain difference that approach to the total quality of management among the employees in an institution has varied according to their age, qualifications, working period in that institution, skills and their educational level.

  18. Microhardness and Strain Field Characterization of Self-Reacting Friction Stir and Plug Welds of Dissimilar Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Karla Renee

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process with potential advantages for aerospace and automotive industries dealing with light alloys. Self-reacting friction stir welding (SR-FSW) is one variation of the FSW process being developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for use in the fabrication of propellant tanks. Friction plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential SR-FSW. This work reports on material properties and strain patterns developed in a SR-FSW with a friction plug weld. Specifically, this study examines the behavior of a SR-FSW formed between an AA 2014-T6 plate on the advancing side and an AA 2219-T87 plate on the retreating side and a SR-FSW (AA 2014-T6 to AA 2219-T87) with a 2219-T87 plug weld. This study presents the results of a characterization of the micro-hardness, joint strength, and strain field characterization of SR-FSW and FPW joints tested at room temperature and cryogenic temperatures.

  19. A Two-Temperature Open-Source CFD Model for Hypersonic Reacting Flows, Part One: Zero-Dimensional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Casseau

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A two-temperature CFD (computational fluid dynamics solver is a prerequisite to any spacecraft re-entry numerical study that aims at producing results with a satisfactory level of accuracy within realistic timescales. In this respect, a new two-temperature CFD solver, hy2Foam, has been developed within the framework of the open-source CFD platform OpenFOAM for the prediction of hypersonic reacting flows. This solver makes the distinct juncture between the trans-rotational and multiple vibrational-electronic temperatures. hy2Foam has the capability to model vibrational-translational and vibrational-vibrational energy exchanges in an eleven-species air mixture. It makes use of either the Park TTv model or the coupled vibration-dissociation-vibration (CVDV model to handle chemistry-vibration coupling and it can simulate flows with or without electronic energy. Verification of the code for various zero-dimensional adiabatic heat baths of progressive complexity has been carried out. hy2Foam has been shown to produce results in good agreement with those given by the CFD code LeMANS (The Michigan Aerothermodynamic Navier-Stokes solver and previously published data. A comparison is also performed with the open-source DSMC (direct simulation Monte Carlo code dsmcFoam. It has been demonstrated that the use of the CVDV model and rates derived from Quantum-Kinetic theory promote a satisfactory consistency between the CFD and DSMC chemistry modules.

  20. Changes in the Chemistry of Groundwater Reacted with CO2: Comparison of Laboratory Results with the ZERT Field Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Thordsen, James J.; Abedini, Atosa A.; Beers, Sarah; Thomas, Burt

    2017-01-01

    As part of the ZERT program, sediments from two wells at the ZERT site, located in Bozeman, Montana, USA were reacted with a solution having the composition of local groundwater. A total of 50 water samples were collected from 7 containers placed for 15 days in a glove box with one atmosphere of CO2 to investigate detailed changes in the concentrations of major, minor and trace inorganic compounds, and to compare these with changes observed in groundwater at the ZERT site following CO2 injection. Laboratory results included rapid changes in pH (8.6 to 5.7), alkalinity (243 to 1295 mg/L as HCO3), electrical conductance (539 to 1822 μS/cm), Ca (28 to 297 mg/L), Mg (18 to 63 mg/L), Fe (5 to 43 μg/L) and Mn (2 to 837 μg/L) following CO2 injection. These chemical changes, which are in general agreement with those obtained from sampling the ZERT monitoring wells, could provide early detection of CO2 leakage into shallow groundwater. Dissolution of calcite, some dolomite and minor Mn-oxides, and desorption/ion exchange are likely the main geochemical processes responsible for the observed changes.

  1. On Modeling the Response of Synovial Fluid: Unsteady Flow of a Shear-Thinning, Chemically-Reacting Fluid Mixture

    CERN Document Server

    Bridges, Craig; Rajagopal, K R

    2010-01-01

    We study the flow of a shear-thinning, chemically-reacting fluid that could be used to model the flow of the synovial fluid. The actual geometry where the flow of the synovial fluid takes place is very complicated, and therefore the governing equations are not amenable to simple mathematical analysis. In order to understand the response of the model, we choose to study the flow in a simple geometry. While the flow domain is not a geometry relevant to the flow of the synovial fluid in the human body it yet provides a flow which can be used to assess the efficacy of different models that have been proposed to describe synovial fluids. We study the flow in the annular region between two cylinders, one of which is undergoing unsteady oscillations about their common axis, in order to understand the quintessential behavioral characteristics of the synovial fluid. We use the three models suggested by Hron et al. [ J. Hron, J. M\\'{a}lek, P. Pust\\v{e}jovsk\\'{a}, K. R. Rajagopal, On concentration dependent shear-thinni...

  2. An evaluation of mathematical models of the transport of biologically reacting solutes in saturated soils and aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baveye, Philippe; Valocchi, Albert

    1989-06-01

    Three different conceptual frameworks have been adopted in the past for the development of mathematical models of bacterial growth and biologically reacting solute transport in saturated porous media. Two schools of thought are based upon assuming that the pore scale geometrical configuration of the attached bacteria consists of biofilms or microcolonies; the third school of thought represents the traditional approach where pore scale processes are neglected and the bacteria are assumed to respond to the macroscopic bulk fluid substrate concentration. On the basis of a schematic block diagram representation of a saturated porous medium hosting a microbial population, it is shown that these frameworks share a common theoretical foundation, and that they differ only by the choice of particular constitutive equations for several transfer parameters. Using one possible option in this respect, we derive a mathematical model that involves no unwarranted assumption about the distribution of the microorganisms in the pore space. The governing equations of this latter model are shown to be formally identical to those obtained by F.J. Molz et al. (1986), using the concept of microcolony, and to those that would result from adopting a simple form of biofilm model to describe bacterial growth in the pore space. Some of the consequences of this formal similarity between macroscopic transport equations obtained in different conceptual frameworks are discussed from an operational standpoint and in terms of model validation.

  3. Dependence and withdrawal reactions to benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. How did the health authorities react?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Margrethe; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to explore communications from drug agencies about benzodiazepine dependence and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) withdrawal reactions over time. Documentary study. We searched the web-sites of the European Medicines Agency and the drug agencies in USA, UK, and Denmark for documents mentioning benzodiazepines or SSRIs. We supplemented with other relevant literature that could contribute to our study. The searches were performed in 2009 in PubMed, Google, BMJ and JAMA. It took many years before the drug regulators acknowledged benzodiazepine dependence and SSRI withdrawal reactions and before the prescribers and the public were informed. Drug regulators relied mainly on the definitions of dependence and withdrawal reactions from the diagnostic psychiatric manuals, which contributed to the idea that SSRIs do not cause dependence, although it is difficult for many patients to stop treatment. In the perspective of a precautionary principle, drug agencies have failed to acknowledge that SSRIs can cause dependence and have minimised the problem with regard to its frequency and severity. In the perspective of a risk management principle, the drug agencies have reacted in concordance with the slowly growing knowledge of adverse drug reactions and have sharpened the information to the prescribers and the public over time. However, solely relying on spontaneous reporting of adverse effects leads to underestimation and delayed information about the problems. Given the experience with the benzodiazepines, we believe the regulatory bodies should have required studies from the manufacturers that could have elucidated the dependence potential of the SSRIs before marketing authorization was granted.

  4. Lie Group Solution for Free Convective Flow of a Nanofluid Past a Chemically Reacting Horizontal Plate in a Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is employed to investigate the steady laminar incompressible free convective flow of a nanofluid past a chemically reacting upward facing horizontal plate in a porous medium taking into account heat generation/absorption and the thermal slip boundary condition. Using similarity transformations developed by Lie group analysis, the continuity, momentum, energy, and nanoparticle volume fraction equations are transformed into a set of coupled similarity equations. The OHAM solutions are obtained and verified by numerical results using a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method. The effect of the emerging flow controlling parameters on the dimensionless velocity, temperature, and nanoparticle volume fraction have been presented graphically and discussed. Good agreement is found between analytical and numerical results of the present paper with published results. This close agreement supports our analysis and the accuracy of the numerical computations. This paper also includes a representative set of numerical results for reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers in a table for various values of the parameters. It is concluded that the reduced Nusselt number increases with the Lewis number and reaction parameter whist it decreases with the order of the chemical reaction, thermal slip, and generation parameters.

  5. Oxidative stress in leukocytes is a possible link between blood pressure, blood glucose, and C-reacting protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, Kenichi; Maeda, Kensaku; Nakamura, Munehiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2002-03-01

    Because oxidative stress and inflammation are believed to play roles in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, oxidative stress in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) has been measured. A total of 529 subjects participated this study. Intracellular oxidative stress in PMNs and MNCs was measured by gated flow cytometry using carboxyfluorescin diacetate bis-acetoxymethyl ester. C-reacting protein (CRP), insulin action (homeostasis model assessment), and traditional risk factors such as age, gender, body mass index, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, hemoglobin A(1c), and mean blood pressure were also measured. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between mean blood pressure and PMN oxidative stress (r=0.104, P=0.018). It also demonstrated a significant correlation between hemoglobin A(1c) and PMN oxidative stress (r=0.112, P=0.021). A significant correlation was also found between CRP and MNC oxidative stress (r=0.116, P=0.008) by multiple regression analysis. In patients with both hypertension and diabetes, both PMN and MNC oxidative stress was increased (n=21, P=0.022 and P=0.006). These results suggest that both hypertension and diabetes lead to increased oxidative stress of PMNs and MNCs, and that CRP is related to MNC oxidative stress.

  6. A Semi-Implicit, Fourier-Galerkin/B-Spline Collocation Approach for DNS of Compressible, Reacting, Wall-Bounded Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Todd; Ulerich, Rhys; Topalian, Victor; Malaya, Nick; Moser, Robert

    2013-11-01

    A discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for efficient DNS of compressible, reacting, wall-bounded flows is developed and applied. The spatial discretization uses a Fourier-Galerkin/B-spline collocation approach. Because of the algebraic complexity of the constitutive models involved, a flux-based approach is used where the viscous terms are evaluated using repeated application of the first derivative operator. In such an approach, a filter is required to achieve appropriate dissipation at high wavenumbers. We formulate a new filter source operator based on the viscous operator. Temporal discretization is achieved using the SMR91 hybrid implicit/explicit scheme. The linear implicit operator is chosen to eliminate wall-normal acoustics from the CFL constraint while also decoupling the species equations from the remaining flow equations, which minimizes the cost of the required linear algebra. Results will be shown for a mildly supersonic, multispecies boundary layer case inspired by the flow over the ablating surface of a space capsule entering Earth's atmosphere. This work is supported by the Department of Energy [National Nuclear Security Administration] under Award Number [DE-FC52-08NA28615].

  7. Semi-strong split domination in graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alwardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G = (V,E$, a dominating set $D subseteq V$ is called a semi-strong split dominating set of $G$ if $|V setminus D| geq 1$ and the maximum degree of the subgraph induced by $V setminus D$ is 1. The minimum cardinality of a semi-strong split dominating set (SSSDS of G is the semi-strong split domination number of G, denoted $gamma_{sss}(G$. In this work, we introduce the concept and prove several results regarding it.

  8. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  9. The lambda sigma calculus and strong normalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schack-Nielsen, Anders; Schürmann, Carsten

    Explicit substitution calculi can be classified into several dis- tinct categories depending on whether they are confluent, meta-confluent, strong normalization preserving, strongly normalizing, simulating, fully compositional, and/or local. In this paper we present a variant of the λσ-calculus......, which satisfies all seven conditions. In particular, we show how to circumvent Mellies counter-example to strong normalization by a slight restriction of the congruence rules. The calculus is implemented as the core data structure of the Celf logical framework. All meta-theoretic aspects of this work...

  10. Strong photoassociation in a degenerate fermi gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rvachov, Timur; Jamison, Alan; Jing, Li; Son, Hyungmok; Ebadi, Sepehr; Jiang, Yijun; Zwierlein, Martin; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2016-05-01

    Despite many studies there remain open questions about strong photoassociation in ultracold gases. We study the effects of strong photoassociation in ultracold fermions. Photoassociation occurs only at short range and thus can be used as a tool to probe and control the two-body correlation function in an interacting many-body system. We study the effects of strong photoassociation in 6 Li, the onset of saturation, and its effects on spin polarized and interacting spin-mixtures. This work was funded by the NSF, ARO-MURI, SAMSUNG, and NSERC.

  11. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Revati; Dash, Shisir R; Mukhopadhyay, Alok; Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Marx, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units) of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA(®) 10. Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness planning. Additionally each facility should maintain contingency funds for

  12. Prepared to react? Assessing the functional capacity of the primary health care system in rural Orissa, India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marx

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early detection of an impending flood and the availability of countermeasures to deal with it can significantly reduce its health impacts. In developing countries like India, public primary health care facilities are frontline organizations that deal with disasters particularly in rural settings. For developing robust counter reacting systems evaluating preparedness capacities within existing systems becomes necessary. Objective: The objective of the study is to assess the functional capacity of the primary health care system in Jagatsinghpur district of rural Orissa in India to respond to the devastating flood of September 2008. Methods: An onsite survey was conducted in all 29 primary and secondary facilities in five rural blocks (administrative units of Jagatsinghpur district in Orissa state. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was administered face to face in the facilities. The data was entered, processed and analyzed using STATA® 10. Results: Data from our primary survey clearly shows that the healthcare facilities are ill prepared to handle the flood despite being faced by them annually. Basic utilities like electricity backup and essential medical supplies are lacking during floods. Lack of human resources along with missing standard operating procedures; pre-identified communication and incident command systems; effective leadership; and weak financial structures are the main hindering factors in mounting an adequate response to the floods. Conclusion: The 2008 flood challenged the primary curative and preventive health care services in Jagatsinghpur. Simple steps like developing facility specific preparedness plans which detail out standard operating procedures during floods and identify clear lines of command will go a long way in strengthening the response to future floods. Performance critiques provided by the grass roots workers, like this one, should be used for institutional learning and effective preparedness

  13. Generalized Strongly Nonlinear Implicit Quasivariational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin  

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove an existence theorem for solution of generalized strongly nonlinear implicit quasivariational inequality problems and convergence of iterative sequences with errors, involving Lipschitz continuous, generalized pseudocontractive and generalized -pseudocontractive mappings in Hilbert spaces.

  14. From individual to strongly coupled metallic nanocavities

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, Adi; Kolkowski, Radoslaw; Zyss, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Localized plasmonic modes of metallic nanoparticles may hybridize like those of atoms forming a molecule. However, the rapid decay of the plasmonic fields outside the metal severely limits the range of these interactions to tens of nanometers. Herein, we demonstrate very strong coupling of nanocavities in metal films, sparked by propagating surface plasmons and evident even at much larger distances of hundreds of nanometers for the properly selected metal/wavelength combination. Such strong coupling drastically changes the symmetry of the charge distribution around the nanocavities making it amenable to probing by the nonlinear optical response of the medium. We show that when strongly coupled, equilateral triangular nanocavities lose their individual three-fold symmetry to adopt the lower symmetry of the coupled system and then respond like a single dipolar entity. A quantitative model is suggested for the transition from individual to strongly coupled nanocavities.

  15. Green jobs and a strong middle class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John D

    2009-01-01

    Green jobs are critical to building a strong middle class, and millions of green jobs can be created through energy efficiency. The models already exist for this work, but we need sustained investment to bring them to scale.

  16. Probing Strong Field Gravity Through Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Choptuik, Matthew W; Pretorius, Frans

    2015-01-01

    This article is an overview of the contributions numerical relativity has made to our understanding of strong field gravity, to be published in the book "General Relativity and Gravitation: A Centennial Perspective", commemorating the 100th anniversary of general relativity.

  17. Strong-force theorists scoop Noble Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    Durrani, Matin

    2004-01-01

    Three US theorists have shared the 2004 Nobel Prize in Physics "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction". Their theoretical work explains why quarks behave almost as free particles at high energies (½ page)

  18. Conforming finite elements with embedded strong discontinuities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias-da-Costa, D.; Alfaiate, J.; Sluys, L.J.; Areias, P.; Fernandes, C.; Julio, E.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of embedding strong discontinuities into finite elements allowed the simulation of different problems, namely, brickwork masonry fracture, dynamic fracture, failure in finite strain problems and simulation of reinforcement concrete members. However, despite the significant contributi

  19. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  20. Strongly magnetized accretion discs require poloidal flux

    CERN Document Server

    Salvesen, Greg; Simon, Jacob B; Begelman, Mitchell C

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by indirect observational evidence for strongly magnetized accretion discs around black holes, and the novel theoretical properties of such solutions, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. To this end, we perform local simulations of accretion discs with an initially purely toroidal magnetic field of equipartition strength. We demonstrate that discs with zero net vertical magnetic flux and realistic boundary conditions cannot sustain a strong toroidal field. However, a magnetic pressure-dominated disc can form from an initial configuration with a sufficient amount of net vertical flux and realistic boundary conditions. Our results suggest that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion discs.

  1. Diffusive Mixing in Strongly Coupled Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaw, Abdourahmane; Murillo, Michael

    2016-10-01

    A multispecies hydrodynamic model based on moments of the Born-Bogolyubov-Green-Kirkwood-Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy is developed for physical conditions relevant to astrophysical plasmas. The modified transport equations incorporate strong correlations through a density functional theory closure, while fluctuations enters through a mixture BGK operator. This model extends the usual Burgers equations for a dilute gas to strongly coupled and isothermal plasmas mixtures. The diffusive currents for these strongly coupled plasmas is self-consistently derived. The settling of impurities and its impact on cooling of white dwarfs and neutron stars can be greatly affected by strong Coulomb coupling, which we show can be quantified using the direct-correlation function. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Grant No. FA9550-12-1-0344).

  2. Strongly correlated electrostatics of viral genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Toan T

    2013-03-01

    The problem of viral packaging (condensation) and ejection from viral capsid in the presence of multivalent counterions is considered. Experiments show divalent counterions strongly influence the amount of DNA ejected from bacteriophage. In this paper, the strong electrostatic interactions between DNA molecules in the presence of multivalent counterions is investigated. It is shown that experiment results agree reasonably well with the phenomenon of DNA reentrant condensation. This phenomenon is known to cause DNA condensation in the presence of tri- or tetra-valent counterions. For divalent counterions, the viral capsid confinement strongly suppresses DNA configurational entropy, therefore the correlation between divalent counterions is strongly enhanced causing similar effect. Computational studies also agree well with theoretical calculations.

  3. Finding quantum effects in strong classical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegelich, B. Manuel; Labun, Lance; Labun, Ou Z.

    2017-06-01

    The long-standing challenge to describing charged particle dynamics in strong classical electromagnetic fields is how to incorporate classical radiation, classical radiation reaction and quantized photon emission into a consistent unified framework. The current, semiclassical methods to describe the dynamics of quantum particles in strong classical fields also provide the theoretical framework for fundamental questions in gravity and hadron-hadron collisions, including Hawking radiation, cosmological particle production and thermalization of particles created in heavy-ion collisions. However, as we show, these methods break down for highly relativistic particles propagating in strong fields. They must therefore be improved and adapted for the description of laser-plasma experiments that typically involve the acceleration of electrons. Theory developed from quantum electrodynamics, together with dedicated experimental efforts, offer the best controllable context to establish a robust, experimentally validated foundation for the fundamental theory of quantum effects in strong classical potentials.

  4. Strong Completeness of Coalgebraic Modal Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Canonical models are of central importance in modal logic, in particular as they witness strong completeness and hence compactness. While the canonical model construction is well understood for Kripke semantics, non-normal modal logics often present subtle difficulties - up to the point that canonical models may fail to exist, as is the case e.g. in most probabilistic logics. Here, we present a generic canonical model construction in the semantic framework of coalgebraic modal logic, which pinpoints coherence conditions between syntax and semantics of modal logics that guarantee strong completeness. We apply this method to reconstruct canonical model theorems that are either known or folklore, and moreover instantiate our method to obtain new strong completeness results. In particular, we prove strong completeness of graded modal logic with finite multiplicities, and of the modal logic of exact probabilities.

  5. Strongly Correlated Quantum Walks in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Preiss, Philipp M.; Ma, Ruichao; Tai, M. Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Zupancic, Philip; Lahini, Yoav; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Full control over the dynamics of interacting, indistinguishable quantum particles is an important prerequisite for the experimental study of strongly correlated quantum matter and the implementation of high-fidelity quantum information processing. Here we demonstrate such control over the quantum walk - the quantum mechanical analogue of the classical random walk - in the strong interaction regime. Using interacting bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, we directly observe fundamental effects...

  6. Model reduction of strong-weak neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Steven James Cox; Bosen eDu; Danny eSorensen

    2014-01-01

    We consider neurons with large dendritic trees that are weakly excitable in the sense that back propagating action potentials are severly attenuated as they travel from the small, strongly excitable, spike initiation zone. In previous work we have shown that the computational size of weakly excitable cell models may be reduced by two or more orders of magnitude, and that the size of strongly excitable models may be reduced by at least one order of magnitude, without sacrificing the spatio–tem...

  7. Evolutionary games on cycles with strong selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altrock, P. M.; Traulsen, A.; Nowak, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    Evolutionary games on graphs describe how strategic interactions and population structure determine evolutionary success, quantified by the probability that a single mutant takes over a population. Graph structures, compared to the well-mixed case, can act as amplifiers or suppressors of selection by increasing or decreasing the fixation probability of a beneficial mutant. Properties of the associated mean fixation times can be more intricate, especially when selection is strong. The intuition is that fixation of a beneficial mutant happens fast in a dominance game, that fixation takes very long in a coexistence game, and that strong selection eliminates demographic noise. Here we show that these intuitions can be misleading in structured populations. We analyze mean fixation times on the cycle graph under strong frequency-dependent selection for two different microscopic evolutionary update rules (death-birth and birth-death). We establish exact analytical results for fixation times under strong selection and show that there are coexistence games in which fixation occurs in time polynomial in population size. Depending on the underlying game, we observe inherence of demographic noise even under strong selection if the process is driven by random death before selection for birth of an offspring (death-birth update). In contrast, if selection for an offspring occurs before random removal (birth-death update), then strong selection can remove demographic noise almost entirely.

  8. Earthquake, strong tide and global low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    "La Madre" is a kind of upper atmospheric air current, and occurs as "warm phase" and "cold phase" in the sky of Pacific Ocean alternately. There exists this phenomenon, called "Oscillation Decade in the Pacific" (ODP), for 20~30years. It is concerned with 60 year cycle of the tides. Lunar oscillations explain an intriguing 60-year cycle in the world's temperature. Strong tides increase the vertical mixing of water in the oceans, drawing cold ocean water from the depths to surface, where it cools the atmosphere above. The first strong seismic episode in China was from 1897 to 1912; the second to the fifth was the in1920-1937, 1946-1957, 1966-1980, 1991-2002, tsrectruely. The alternative boundaries of"La Madre" warm phase and cold phase were in 1890, 1924, 1946 and 2000, which were near the boundaries of four strong earthquakes. It indicated the strong earthquakes closedly related with the substances' motion of atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere, the change of gravity potential, and the exchange of angular momentum. The strong earthquakes in the ocean bottom can bring the cool waters at the deep ocean up to the ocean surface and make the global climate cold. the earthquake, strong tide and global low temperature are close inrelntion for each othen.

  9. Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms, 1933-1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Strong Motion Earthquake Data Values of Digitized Strong-Motion Accelerograms is a database of over 15,000 digitized and processed accelerograph records from...

  10. Formation of stable nanocomposite clays from small peptides reacted with montmorillonite and illite-smectite mixed layer clays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, K. A.; Katz, A.; LeBlanc, J.; Peña, S.; Gottlieb, P.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how organic compounds interact with clay minerals and which functional groups result in the strongest bonds is pivotal to achieving a better understanding of how mineral composition affects the residence time of carbon and nitrogen in soils. In this work, we describe how small peptides derived from tryptone casein digest are dissolved and suspended with clay minerals to examine the nature of OM adsorption to mineral surfaces and the resulting effect on clay mineral structure. XRD analyses indicate that peptides intercalation results in expansion of the d001 spacing of montmorillonite (Mt) and the smectite component of a 70-30 illite-smectite mixed layer clay (I-S) and poorer crystallinity overall as a result of exfoliation of tactoids. Peptide adsorption is concentration-dependent, however, surface adsorption appears to mediate interlayer adsorption in Mt reaching a maximum of 16% of the mass of the organoclay complex, indicating that at a critical concentration, peptide intercalation will supersede surface adsorption resulting in a more stable attachment. In I-S the degree of surface adsorption and intercalation is proportional to concentration, however, surface adsorption is not a priming mechanism for interlayer adsorption. Thermogravimetric analysis of the organoclay complexes determined by TGA coupled to GC-MS indicate that the most prominent product species measured was 1-(1-Trimethylsiloxyethenyl)-3-trimethylsiloxy-benzene, likely from tryptophan monomer decomposition. The compound was detected over a broad temperature range, greater than 300 oC, during pyrolysis and suggests a carbon-silicon covalent bond formed between the peptide and tetrahedral layers in the clay. An additional silicon-bearing VOC detected at lower pyrolysis temperature by GC was N,N-Diethyl-1-(trimethylsilyl)-9,10-didehydroergoline-8-carboxamide, likely derived from a lysine-bearing peptide derivative. We hypothesize that hydrophobic (non-ionic) peptides react with silanol

  11. Mesenchymal stem cells from reaming material possess high osteogenic potential and react sensitively to bone morphogenetic protein 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellig, Melanie; Westhauser, Fabian; Kornienko, Kira; Xiao, Kai; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Moghaddam, Arash

    2017-01-26

    Femoral material harvested using the Reamer-Irrigator-Aspirator (RIA) system is an alternative source for autogenous bone material in the treatment of non-unions, especially in combination with bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). So far, there is no in vivo evidence of BMP-7 interacting with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from RIA material (RIA-MSCs) and iliac crest autogenous bone (BMSCs). The aim of this study was to compare their osteogenic potential when stimulated with BMP-7 in vivo. RIA-MSC and BMSC from 11 donors were isolated and the character of MSCs was investigated in vitro. Constructs consisting of MSC, β-tricalcium phosphate and 2 concentrations of BMP-7 (0.1 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL) were implanted in mice for 8 weeks. Bone formation in the constructs was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. All cell populations used were determined to be MSCs. The qualitative in vivo analysis showed formation of bone tissue. With regard to quantity, bone formation was significantly higher in RIA constructs without or with stimulation with 0.1 µg/mL BMP-7, compared with BMSC constructs. We found no significant differences between constructs stimulated with 1 µg/mL BMP-7. In the RIA group, we observed a significant increase in bone formation after stimulation with 0.1 µg/mL BMP-7. No significant change could be found using a higher concentration. In the BMSC group, we detected a significant increase when using 0.1 µg/mL and 1 µg/mL BMP-7. RIA material is a source of MSCs with high osteogenic potential. Our results showed that stimulation by BMP-7 leads to an increased osteogenic potential of MSCs. In this respect, RIA-MSCs reacted more sensitively than BMSCs.

  12. İstanbul Youth and Sport Management’s employees react the new system of total quality management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Alpullu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The research is about, how the İstanbul Youth and Sport Management’s employees react the new system of Total Qualıty Management. The fourty-one questıonare survey used on employees whose work in İstanbul Youth and Sport Management. Results show that, employees said an institution not a school. On survey, used eighty-nine male and twenty-one female of total one hundred and ten employees and four factors of Total Qualıty Management effects the employees. These four factors are: 1. Leadership, 2. Develop of employee’s work and join their work, 3. Relationship with the organizations who work together, 4. Customers come first in the organization. Differences in approaching to the  total  quality  management among  the  employees in an institution has been analized  according  to their  age group, working period  in that  institution,  their status,  title,  position  and  educational level. To indicate  the variation in approaching to the total quality management among the employees, data  taken by  the survey  result has been recorded in SPPS 13 programme and diagonal ( crosswise table, frekans (periodicity  and ki kare  comparisons have been  applied. Our survey ( research , questionnaire, analysis results show certain difference that  approach to the  total  quality of management among the  employees in an  institution has  varied  according  to their age, qualifications, working period in that  institution, skills  and their  educational  level.

  13. Semi-implicit iterative methods for low Mach number turbulent reacting flows: Operator splitting versus approximate factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArt, Jonathan F.; Mueller, Michael E.

    2016-12-01

    Two formally second-order accurate, semi-implicit, iterative methods for the solution of scalar transport-reaction equations are developed for Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of low Mach number turbulent reacting flows. The first is a monolithic scheme based on a linearly implicit midpoint method utilizing an approximately factorized exact Jacobian of the transport and reaction operators. The second is an operator splitting scheme based on the Strang splitting approach. The accuracy properties of these schemes, as well as their stability, cost, and the effect of chemical mechanism size on relative performance, are assessed in two one-dimensional test configurations comprising an unsteady premixed flame and an unsteady nonpremixed ignition, which have substantially different Damköhler numbers and relative stiffness of transport to chemistry. All schemes demonstrate their formal order of accuracy in the fully-coupled convergence tests. Compared to a (non-)factorized scheme with a diagonal approximation to the chemical Jacobian, the monolithic, factorized scheme using the exact chemical Jacobian is shown to be both more stable and more economical. This is due to an improved convergence rate of the iterative procedure, and the difference between the two schemes in convergence rate grows as the time step increases. The stability properties of the Strang splitting scheme are demonstrated to outpace those of Lie splitting and monolithic schemes in simulations at high Damköhler number; however, in this regime, the monolithic scheme using the approximately factorized exact Jacobian is found to be the most economical at practical CFL numbers. The performance of the schemes is further evaluated in a simulation of a three-dimensional, spatially evolving, turbulent nonpremixed planar jet flame.

  14. Chiral N-phosphonyl imine chemistry: asymmetric synthesis of alpha-alkyl beta-amino ketones by reacting phosphonyl imines with ketone-derived enolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Teng; Han, Jianlin; Chen, Zhong-Xiu; Li, Guigen

    2009-02-01

    A series of new chiral syn-alpha-branched beta-amino ketones has been synthesized by reacting chiral phosphonyl imines with ketone-derived enolates. The N-protection group on imine auxiliary was found to be crucial to the asymmetric induction. The absolute stereochemistry has been unambiguously determined by converting a product to a known sample.

  15. Cross-reacting antigens between Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and other species of mycoplasma of animal origin, shown by ELISA and immunoblotting with reference antisera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirkell, D; Spooner, R K; Jones, G E; Russell, W C; Voice, M W

    1991-02-01

    Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae as antigen, the cross-reactivity of antigens between this species and 22 other mycoplasma species was examined using reference polyclonal antisera. Significant cross-reactivity with M. ovipneumoniae was demonstrated by five species, only, viz. M. bovoculi, M. dispar, M. flocculare, M. hyopneumoniae and M. hyorhinis. Using one-dimensional SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting techniques with homologous and heterologous antisera, cross-reacting antigens of M. dispar, M. flocculare, M. hyopneumoniae and M. ovipneumoniae were further investigated. Cross-reacting antigens with apparent molecular weights of 64, 44 and 32 kDa were common to all and a 184 kDa cross-reacting antigen occurred in all except M. ovipneumoniae. Further cross-reacting antigens (one-way and two-way) between two of the four species are reported. Four monoclonal antibodies against different antigens of M. ovipneumoniae did not recognise any antigen in the other three species examined.

  16. INDIVIDUAL STABILITY OF STEREOTYPES OF IMMUNE REACTING AND MODERN POSSIBILITIES OF THEIR DIAGNOSTIC IN ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION (IMMUNE-PHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF A PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Onischenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors prove variants of immune reacting of an human organism in organ transplantation by existence of individual specific programs of reacting on alloantigens which, using natural activatory and inhibitory mecha- nisms, form various degree of stability of two physiological stereotypes of “behavior of immune system” – ef- fectoric and tolerogenic. For identification of an individual predominant stereotype of recipient immune reacting on a graft and for forecasting changes of an immunological homeostasis in a human organism, authors suggest to use indexes of reactance of immune system – conservatism and plasticity which can be taped by selection of the conforming biomarkers. Now the system of markers characterizing inflammatory reactions (infections/ inflammation for recognition organ rejection and related complications, is widely used. For forecasting of an individual dominant stereotype of reacting in immunologically quiet post-transplant follow-up authors suggest to study a system of informative cellular markers of adaptive immunity and to use them for a formation of complex informative diagnostic immuno-cellular modules. 

  17. Non-travelling wave solutions to a (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and a simplified model for reacting mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tingxuan [Huaian University of Radio and TV, Huaian, Jiangsu 223005 (China); Xuan, Heng-Nong [School of Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Finance and Economics, Nanjing 210003 (China)]. E-mail: hn_xuan@yahoo.com.cn; Zhang Dafang [School of Software, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang Changji [Computer Science Department, Sun Yet-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2007-11-15

    In the paper, the generalized projective Riccati equation method is extended to construct some non-travelling wave solutions to a (3 + 1)-dimensional potential-YTSF equation and a simplified model for reacting mixtures. When some arbitrary functions included in these solutions are taken as some special functions, these solutions possess abundant structures.

  18. Does "Reacting to the Past" Increase Student Engagement? An Empirical Evaluation of the Use of Historical Simulations in Teaching Political Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenfeld, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Kenneth E.

    2017-01-01

    Within the teaching of political theory, an assumption is emerging that "Reacting to the Past" simulations are an effective tool because they encourage greater student engagement with ideas and history. While previous studies have assessed the advantages of simulations in other political science subfields or offered anecdotal evidence of…

  19. IN-SITU MONITORING OF PRODUCT STREAMS FROM A SPINNING TUBE-IN-TUBE REACTOR USING A METTLER-TOLEDO REACT-IR

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Mettler-Toledo ReactIR system has been used for in-line, real-time monitoring of the product stream from a spinning tube-in-tube reactor (STT®, Kreido Laboratories, Camarillo California). This combination of a process intensified continuous-flow reactor and an in-situ analytic...

  20. Prevalence estimation of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in dogs from Finland using novel dog anti-TBEV IgG MAb-capture and IgG immunofluorescence assays based on recombinant TBEV subviral particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanov, Lev; Vera, Cristina Pérez; Vapalahti, Olli

    2016-07-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human neurological infections occurring in Europe and Northern parts of Asia with thousands of cases and millions vaccinated against it. The risk of TBE might be assessed through analyses of the samples taken from wildlife or from animals which are in close contact with humans. Dogs have been shown to be a good sentinel species for these studies. Serological assays for diagnosis of TBE in dogs are mainly based on purified and inactivated TBEV antigens. Here we describe novel dog anti-TBEV IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture assay which is based on TBEV prME subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicon as well as IgG immunofluorescence assay (IFA) which is based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the same SFV replicon. We further demonstrate their use in a small-scale TBEV seroprevalence study of dogs representing different regions of Finland. Altogether, 148 dog serum samples were tested by novel assays and results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA), hemagglutination inhibition test and IgG IFA with TBEV infected cells. Compared to reference tests, the sensitivities of the developed assays were 90-100% and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. Analysis of the dog serum samples showed a seroprevalence of 40% on Åland Islands and 6% on Southwestern archipelago of Finland. In conclusion, a specific and sensitive EIA and IFA for the detection of IgG antibodies in canine sera were developed. Based on these assays the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies in dogs from different regions of Finland was assessed and was shown to parallel the known human disease burden as the Southwestern archipelago and Åland Islands in particular had considerable dog TBEV antibody prevalence and represent areas with high risk of TBE for humans.