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Sample records for ma average current

  1. Overview of the 100 mA average-current RF photoinjector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, D.C. E-mail: dcnguyen@lanl.gov; Colestock, P.L.; Kurennoy, S.S.; Rees, D.E.; Regan, A.H.; Russell, S.; Schrage, D.L.; Wood, R.L.; Young, L.M.; Schultheiss, T.; Christina, V.; Cole, M.; Rathke, J.; Shaw, J.; Eddy, C.; Holm, R.; Henry, R.; Yater, J

    2004-08-01

    High-average-power FELs require high-current, low-emittance and low-energy-spread electron beams. These qualities have been achieved with RF photoinjectors operating at low-duty factors. To date, a high-average-current RF photoinjector operating continuously at 100% duty factor is yet to be demonstrated. The principal challenges of a high-duty-factor normal-conducting RF photoinjector are related to applying a high accelerating gradient continuously, thus generating large ohmic losses in the cavity walls, cooling the injector cavity walls and the high-power RF couplers, and finding a photocathode with reasonable Q.E. that can survive the poor vacuum of the RF photoinjector. We present the preliminary design of a normal-conducting 700 MHz photoinjector with solenoid magnetic fields for emittance compensation. The photoinjector is designed to produce 2.7 MeV electron beams at 3 nC bunch charge and 35 MHz repetition rate (100 mA average current). The photoinjector consists of a 2((1)/(2))-cell, {pi}-mode, RF cavity with on-axis electric coupling, and a non-resonant vacuum plenum. Heat removal in the resonant cells is achieved via dense arrays of internal cooling passages capable of handling high-velocity water flows. Megawatt RF power is coupled into the injector through two tapered ridge-loaded waveguides. PARMELA simulations show that the 2((1)/(2))-cell injector can produce a 7 {mu}m emittance directly. Transverse plasma oscillations necessitate additional acceleration and a second solenoid to realign the phase space envelopes of different axial slices at higher energy, resulting in a normalized rms emittance of 6.5 {mu}m and 34 keV rms energy spread. We are developing a novel cesiated p-type GaN photocathode with 7% quantum efficiency at 350 nm and a cesium dispenser to replenish the cathode with cesium through a porous silicon carbide substrate. These performance parameters will be necessary for the design of the 100 kW FEL.

  2. Overview of the 100 mA average-current RF photoinjector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, D. C.; Colestock, P. L.; Kurennoy, S. S.; Rees, D. E.; Regan, A. H.; Russell, S.; Schrage, D. L.; Wood, R. L.; Young, L. M.; Schultheiss, T.; Christina, V.; Cole, M.; Rathke, J.; Shaw, J.; Eddy, C.; Holm, R.; Henry, R.; Yater, J.

    2004-08-01

    High-average-power FELs require high-current, low-emittance and low-energy-spread electron beams. These qualities have been achieved with RF photoinjectors operating at low-duty factors. To date, a high-average-current RF photoinjector operating continuously at 100% duty factor is yet to be demonstrated. The principal challenges of a high-duty-factor normal-conducting RF photoinjector are related to applying a high accelerating gradient continuously, thus generating large ohmic losses in the cavity walls, cooling the injector cavity walls and the high-power RF couplers, and finding a photocathode with reasonable Q.E. that can survive the poor vacuum of the RF photoinjector. We present the preliminary design of a normal-conducting 700 MHz photoinjector with solenoid magnetic fields for emittance compensation. The photoinjector is designed to produce 2.7 MeV electron beams at 3 nC bunch charge and 35 MHz repetition rate (100 mA average current). The photoinjector consists of a 2 {1}/{2}-cell, π-mode, RF cavity with on-axis electric coupling, and a non-resonant vacuum plenum. Heat removal in the resonant cells is achieved via dense arrays of internal cooling passages capable of handling high-velocity water flows. Megawatt RF power is coupled into the injector through two tapered ridge-loaded waveguides. PARMELA simulations show that the 2 {1}/{2}-cell injector can produce a 7 μm emittance directly. Transverse plasma oscillations necessitate additional acceleration and a second solenoid to realign the phase space envelopes of different axial slices at higher energy, resulting in a normalized rms emittance of 6.5 μm and 34 keV rms energy spread. We are developing a novel cesiated p-type GaN photocathode with 7% quantum efficiency at 350 nm and a cesium dispenser to replenish the cathode with cesium through a porous silicon carbide substrate. These performance parameters will be necessary for the design of the 100 kW FEL.

  3. MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert

    2003-05-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

  4. Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Berthon-Moine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ma (2009 is a single channel video of a mother and child walking together side by side, holding hands. The title is reminiscent of the affectionate nickname for a mother, 'Ma', but also a concealed way to convey maternal ambivalence. Maternal ambivalence is the result of the tension between the idealisation of motherhood and women’s lived experience of mothering. The maternal struggle finds its source in the difficulty of identifying with the ideological representation of the mother. This image still conveys an idealistic and nostalgic, patriarchal image of maternal love bounded by culture and history. http://podcast.ulcc.ac.uk/accounts/BirkbeckCollege/mamsie/MA.mov

  5. High Brightness, High Average Current Injector Development at Cornell

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, C K

    2005-01-01

    Cornell University is constructing a 100 mA average current, high brightness electron injector for a planned Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) hard X-ray synchrotron radiation source. This injector will employ a very high voltage DC gun with a negative electron affinity photoemission cathode. Relatively long duration electron pulses from the photocathode will be drift bunched, and accelerated to 5-15 MeV with five two-cell, 1300 MHz superconducting cavities. The total beam power will be limited to 575 kW by the DC and RF power sources. A genetic algorithm based computational optimization of this injector has resulted in simulated rms normalized emittances of 0.1 mm-mrad at 80 pC/bunch, and 0.7 mm-mrad at 1 nC/bunch. The many technical issues and their design solutions will be discussed. Construction of the gun and the SRF cavities is well underway. The schedule for completion, and the planned measurements, will be presented.

  6. Interfacing transformer for a pulsed load current exceeding 1 MA

    CERN Document Server

    Cliffe, R J; Brown, J

    2003-01-01

    In much pulsed power experimentation a capacitor bank is discharged into an inductive load, but although sufficient energy may be available in the capacitors their voltage rating may considerably exceed that necessary for the load and the current delivered during the experiment may accordingly be too low. This paper describes a novel design of air-cored transformer that has been used as an interfacing or matching device in such a situation, where peak load currents between 1 and 2 MA were required. Design considerations led to the use of an air-cored autotransformer connection wound with copper sheet conductors. Although thick wide conductors and clamping are needed to prevent deformation due to high magnetic pressure, the transformer is nevertheless relatively simple, easy to make, lightweight and inexpensive. This paper describes the design and the winding arrangement of the transformer that was constructed, and presents typical experimental results.

  7. Paleosecular variation and time-averaged field analysis over the last 10 Ma from a new global dataset (PSV10)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G.; Johnson, C. L.; Tauxe, L.; Constable, C.; Jarboe, N.

    2015-12-01

    Previous paleosecular variation (PSV) and time-averaged field (TAF) models draw on compilations of paleodirectional data that lack equatorial and high latitude sites and use latitudinal virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) cutoffs designed to remove transitional field directions. We present a new selected global dataset (PSV10) of paleodirectional data spanning the last 10 Ma. We include all results calculated with modern laboratory methods, regardless of site VGP colatitude, that meet statistically derived selection criteria. We exclude studies that target transitional field states or identify significant tectonic effects, and correct for any bias from serial correlation by averaging directions from sequential lava flows. PSV10 has an improved global distribution compared with previous compilations, comprising 1519 sites from 71 studies. VGP dispersion in PSV10 varies with latitude, exhibiting substantially higher values in the southern hemisphere than at corresponding northern latitudes. Inclination anomaly estimates at many latitudes are within error of an expected GAD field, but significant negative anomalies are found at equatorial and mid-northern latitudes. Current PSV models Model G and TK03 do not fit observed PSV or TAF latitudinal behavior in PSV10, or subsets of normal and reverse polarity data, particularly for southern hemisphere sites. Attempts to fit these observations with simple modifications to TK03 showed slight statistical improvements, but still exceed acceptable errors. The root-mean-square misfit of TK03 (and subsequent iterations) is substantially lower for the normal polarity subset of PSV10, compared to reverse polarity data. Two-thirds of data in PSV10 are normal polarity, most which are from the last 5 Ma, so we develop a new TAF model using this subset of data. We use the resulting TAF model to explore whether new statistical PSV models can better describe our new global compilation.

  8. Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Calaga, R; Cameron, P; Chang, X; Gassner, D M; Hahn, H; Hershcovitch, A; Hseuh, H C; Johnson, P; Kayran, D; Kewisch, J; Lambiase, R F; Litvinenko, Vladimir N; McIntyre, G; Nicoletti, A; Rank, J; Roser, T; Scaduto, J; Smith, K; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Wu, K C; Zaltsman, A; Zhao, Y

    2004-01-01

    High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL’s Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.

  9. High Average Current Electron Guns for High-Power FELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-09

    FELs 10 Appendix B: Thermionic Injectors 11 Appendix C: Grid Fields and Bunch Emittance 13 Appendix D: PARMELA Simulation of an IOT Gun 16...Inductive Output Tube ( IOT ) amplifiers [32-34] and can generate average currents of ~1 A, peak currents of ~ 5-10 A, cathode-anode voltages of ~ 35...of grid wires, centered at z = zG and x = ±a, ±3a, ±5a, ..., is given by <D(JC,Z) = - X n = ±l.±3. Fa(x,z) Gn(x,z) ( C3 ) where *0 = (1 / 2

  10. On the development of a 15 mA direct current H - multicusp source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, T.; Yuan, D.; Jayamanna, K.; McDonald, M.; Baartman, R.; Schmor, P.; Dutto, G.

    1996-03-01

    A 15 mA dc H- multicusp source has been developed for injection into a TR30 cyclotron. This source is also used with a 900 kV tandem accelerator to obtain 10 mA protons at 1.8 MeV. The program is an extension of the 5-7 mA dc H- cusp source developed at TRIUMF during 1989-1990. Major efforts include the search for the optimal filament materials, shape, and location; comparison of cusp line confinement and magnetic filtering of electrons at the extraction region; optimization of extraction lense configuration; and upgrading of vacuum and power systems capability. The source is noncesiated and the maximum arc power available is only 5 kW. After the H- beams pass through an electron suppression grid and a 20 mm collimator, we obtained 15 mA with 0.66 π mm mrad 4 rms normalized emittance. At this output the e/H ratio was about 4. The best normalized emittance occurs around 5-7 mA, having a value of 0.37 π mm mrad. Further development in the near future is planned using cesium and multiple apertures in the hope of increasing dc H- currents to 30 mA while holding the normalized emittance below 0.75 π mm mrad.

  11. Energy transportation via MITL by the linear current flow density up to 7 MA/cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, V. D.; Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Bartov, A. V.; Blinov, P. I.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Chernenko, A. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Kingsep, A. S.; Kazakov, E. D.; Smirnov, V. P.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.

    2006-10-01

    The transmission properties of the magnetically self-insulated vacuum transporting line (MITL) were studied on the S-300 pulsed power machine (3 MA, 100 ns) at the high linear current flow density up to dI/db = 7 MA/cm. Experiments were carried out with the short line sections with 10 ÷ 15 mm length and 3 ÷ 5 mm vacuum gap. For measuring of the plasma parameters, the frame ICT photography with the nanosecond temporal resolution in the SXR range and ICT (Image Converter Tube) chronography in visible range were used. The X-ray radiation in various ranges was recorded by the XRD with thin filters (SXR) and by the semiconductor detectors (HXR). The information about current transmission efficiency was obtained by means of magnetic loops and low-inductance shunt. It was determined that dense plasma arose on both anode and cathode when the linear current flow density was low enough, dI/db ≤ 1 MA/cm. A dense plasma moves across the vacuum gap with the velocity (1 ÷ 2) × 106 cm/s. By recording the current and hard X-ray radiation it was found that electron losses in the current front did not exceed 10 ÷ 100 kA. Under strong magnetization of electrons r H = mvc/eB Conceptual Project of fusion reactor on the base of fast Z-pinch has been brought about.

  12. Enhancement of the power supply systems in RFX-mod towards 2 MA plasma current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novello, Luca, E-mail: luca.novello@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy); Zamengo, Andrea; Ferro, Alberto; Zanotto, Loris; Barp, Marco; Cavazzana, Roberto; Finotti, Claudio; Recchia, Mauro; Gaio, Elena [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Padova (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The recent start-up improvements brought to RFX-mod have allowed increasing the plasma current in the range 1.7-1.9 MA, but still they proved to be not sufficient to routinely and reliably reach higher values of plasma current that would be very useful for the present studies on enhanced confinement. The need for higher poloidal flux variation together with the overabundant available toroidal flux has led to the study of a rearrangement of the power supply system with the aim of increasing the first at the expenses of the latter. Thanks to the flexibility of the power supply system, composed of modular thyristor converters, the rearrangement has been easily obtained and the resulting enhanced poloidal flux capability scenario described in the paper allows a two step plasma current ramp-up. In order to increase as much as possible the plasma current up to the nominal value of 2 MA it is necessary to fully exploit the thyristor converter power capability, in particular in the first ramp-up phase. In the paper a detailed verification of their maximum performance is presented. The first results obtained after power supply reconfiguration are very good, with plasma current kept constant at about 2 MA for 100 ms. The enabled operation at very high plasma current requires also an optimization of the magneto hydro dynamics (MHD) mode coil power supplies that are required to provide higher current values. Therefore a dedicated study of their control system has been worked out, which allowed understanding how to increase as much as possible the output current without losing the dynamic performance, so keeping the efficiency in the control of dominant and secondary modes, which is essential to obtain good and reproducible discharges.

  13. High current, 0.5-MA, fast, 100-ns, linear transformer driver experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Mazarakis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD is a new method for constructing high current, high-voltage pulsed accelerators. The salient feature of the approach is switching and inductively adding the pulses at low voltage straight out of the capacitors through low inductance transfer and soft iron core isolation. Sandia National Laboratories are actively pursuing the development of a new class of accelerator based on the LTD technology. Presently, the high current LTD experimental research is concentrated on two aspects: first, to study the repetition rate capabilities, reliability, reproducibility of the output pulses, switch prefires, jitter, electrical power and energy efficiency, and lifetime measurements of the cavity active components; second, to study how a multicavity linear array performs in a voltage adder configuration relative to current transmission, energy and power addition, and wall plug to output pulse electrical efficiency. Here we report the repetition rate and lifetime studies performed in the Sandia High Current LTD Laboratory. We first utilized the prototype ∼0.4-MA, LTD I cavity which could be reliably operated up to ±90-kV capacitor charging. Later we obtained an improved 0.5-MA, LTD II version that can be operated at ±100  kV maximum charging voltage. The experimental results presented here were obtained with both cavities and pertain to evaluating the maximum achievable repetition rate and LTD cavity performance. The voltage adder experiments with a series of double sized cavities (1 MA, ±100  kV will be reported in future publications.

  14. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  15. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  16. Cesium telluride cathodes for the next generation of high-average current high-brightness photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippetto, D., E-mail: dfilippetto@lbl.gov; Qian, H.; Sannibale, F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-07-27

    We report on the performances of a Cs{sub 2}Te photocathode under extreme conditions of high peak time-dependent accelerating fields, continuous wave operations, and MHz pulse extraction with up to 0.3 mA average current. The measurements, performed in a normal conducting cavity, show extended lifetime and robustness, elucidate the main mechanisms for cathode degradation, and set the required system vacuum performance for compatibility with the operations of a high average power X-ray free electron laser user facility, opening the doors to the next generation of MHz-scale ultrafast scientific instruments.

  17. The average direct current offset values for small digital audio recorders in an acoustically consistent environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Bruce E; Lacey, Douglas S

    2014-07-01

    In this research project, nine small digital audio recorders were tested using five sets of 30-min recordings at all available recording modes, with consistent audio material, identical source and microphone locations, and identical acoustic environments. The averaged direct current (DC) offset values and standard deviations were measured for 30-sec and 1-, 2-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 15-, and 30-min segments. The research found an inverse association between segment lengths and the standard deviation values and that lengths beyond 30 min may not meaningfully reduce the standard deviation values. This research supports previous studies indicating that measured averaged DC offsets should only be used for exclusionary purposes in authenticity analyses and exhibit consistent values when the general acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations were held constant. Measured average DC offset values from exemplar recorders may not be directly comparable to those of submitted digital audio recordings without exactly duplicating the acoustic environment and microphone/recorder configurations.

  18. Predictive Trailing-Edge Modulation Average Current Control in DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LASCU, D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates predictive digital average current control (PDACC in dc/dc converters using trailing-edge modulation (TEM. The study is focused on the recurrence duty cycle equation and then stability analysis is performed. It is demonstrated that average current control using trailing-edge modulation is stable on the whole range of the duty cycle and thus design problems are highly reduced. The analysis is carried out in a general manner, independent of converter topology and therefore the results can then be easily applied for a certain converter (buck, boost, buck-boost, etc.. The theoretical considerations are confirmed for a boost converter first using the MATLAB program based on state-space equations and finally with the CASPOC circuit simulation package.

  19. Investigations of Tracking Phenomena in Silicone Rubber Using Moving Average Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sarathi; S. Chandrasekar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, tracking phenomenon in Silicone rubber material has been studied under AC and DC voltage, with ammonium chloride as a contaminant. It is observed that the tracking is more severe under the DC voltages. The tracking time is less under negative DC compared to the positive DC voltage. The tracking mechanism is explained in detail. The leakage current during the tracking studies was as measured and the moving average technique was adopted to understand the trend in current flow. The leakage current magnitude is high with thermally aged specimens compared to the virgin specimen, irrespective of the type of applied voltage. It is realized that the tracking time and the leakage current magnitude shows an inverse relationship.

  20. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Sinclair

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2×10^{5}   C/cm^{2} and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  1. Direct Experimental Evidence for Current-Transfer Mode Operation of Nested Tungsten Wire Arrays at 16 19 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuneo, M. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Bliss, D. E.; Waisman, E. M.; Porter, J. L.; Stygar, W. A.; Lebedev, S. V.; Chittenden, J. P.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Afeyan, B. B.

    2005-06-01

    Nested tungsten wire arrays (20-mm on 12-mm diam.) are shown for the first time to operate in a current-transfer mode at 16 19 MA, even for azimuthal interwire gaps of 0.2 mm that are the smallest typically used for any array experiment. After current transfer, the inner wire array shows discrete wire ablation and implosion characteristics identical to that of a single array, such as axially nonuniform ablation, delayed acceleration, and trailing mass and current. The presence of trailing mass from the outer and the inner arrays may play a role in determining nested array performance.

  2. Thermodynamic formula for the cumulant generating function of time-averaged current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2011-12-01

    The cumulant generating function of time-averaged current is studied from an operational viewpoint. Specifically, for interacting Brownian particles under nonequilibrium conditions, we show that the first derivative of the cumulant generating function is equal to the expectation value of the current in a modified system with an extra force added, where the modified system is characterized by a variational principle. The formula reminds us of Einstein's fluctuation theory in equilibrium statistical mechanics. Furthermore, since the formula leads to the fluctuation-dissipation relation when the linear response regime is focused on, it is regarded as an extension of the linear response theory to that valid beyond the linear response regime. The formula is also related to previously known theories such as the Donsker-Varadhan theory, the additivity principle, and the least dissipation principle, but it is not derived from them. Examples of its application are presented for a driven Brownian particle on a ring subject to a periodic potential.

  3. Gravitational radiation theory. M.A. Thesis - Rice Univ.; [survey of current research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    A survey is presented of current research in the theory of gravitational radiation. The mathematical structure of gravitational radiation is stressed. Furthermore, the radiation problem is treated independently from other problems in gravitation. The development proceeds candidly through three points of view - scalar, rector, and tensor radiation theory - and the corresponding results are stated.

  4. Microsecond ramp compression of a metallic liner driven by a 5 MA current on the SPHINX machine using a dynamic load current multiplier pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Almeida, T.; Lassalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A.; Maysonnave, T.; Chuvatin, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    SPHINX is a 6 MA, 1-μs Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for imploding Z-pinch loads for radiation effects studies. Among the options that are currently being evaluated to improve the generator performances are an upgrade to a 20 MA, 1-μs LTD machine and various power amplification schemes, including a compact Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM). A method for performing magnetic ramp compression experiments, without modifying the generator operation scheme, was developed using the DLCM to shape the initial current pulse in order to obtain the desired load current profile. In this paper, we discuss the overall configuration that was selected for these experiments, including the choice of a coaxial cylindrical geometry for the load and its return current electrode. We present both 3-D Magneto-hydrodynamic and 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulations which helped guide the design of the experimental configuration. Initial results obtained over a set of experiments on an aluminium cylindrical liner, ramp-compressed to a peak pressure of 23 GPa, are presented and analyzed. Details of the electrical and laser Doppler interferometer setups used to monitor and diagnose the ramp compression experiments are provided. In particular, the configuration used to field both homodyne and heterodyne velocimetry diagnostics in the reduced access available within the liner's interior is described. Current profiles measured at various critical locations across the system, particularly the load current, enabled a comprehensive tracking of the current circulation and demonstrate adequate pulse shaping by the DLCM. The liner inner free surface velocity measurements obtained from the heterodyne velocimeter agree with the hydrocode results obtained using the measured load current as the input. An extensive hydrodynamic analysis is carried out to examine information such as pressure and particle velocity history profiles or magnetic

  5. Microsecond ramp compression of a metallic liner driven by a 5 MA current on the SPHINX machine using a dynamic load current multiplier pulse shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Almeida, T.; Lassalle, F.; Morell, A.; Grunenwald, J.; Zucchini, F.; Loyen, A. [CEA, DAM, GRAMAT, F-46500 Gramat (France); Maysonnave, T. [International Technologies for High Pulsed Power, F-46500 Thégra (France); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-09-15

    SPHINX is a 6 MA, 1-μs Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) operated by the CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for imploding Z-pinch loads for radiation effects studies. Among the options that are currently being evaluated to improve the generator performances are an upgrade to a 20 MA, 1-μs LTD machine and various power amplification schemes, including a compact Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM). A method for performing magnetic ramp compression experiments, without modifying the generator operation scheme, was developed using the DLCM to shape the initial current pulse in order to obtain the desired load current profile. In this paper, we discuss the overall configuration that was selected for these experiments, including the choice of a coaxial cylindrical geometry for the load and its return current electrode. We present both 3-D Magneto-hydrodynamic and 1D Lagrangian hydrodynamic simulations which helped guide the design of the experimental configuration. Initial results obtained over a set of experiments on an aluminium cylindrical liner, ramp-compressed to a peak pressure of 23 GPa, are presented and analyzed. Details of the electrical and laser Doppler interferometer setups used to monitor and diagnose the ramp compression experiments are provided. In particular, the configuration used to field both homodyne and heterodyne velocimetry diagnostics in the reduced access available within the liner's interior is described. Current profiles measured at various critical locations across the system, particularly the load current, enabled a comprehensive tracking of the current circulation and demonstrate adequate pulse shaping by the DLCM. The liner inner free surface velocity measurements obtained from the heterodyne velocimeter agree with the hydrocode results obtained using the measured load current as the input. An extensive hydrodynamic analysis is carried out to examine information such as pressure and particle velocity history profiles or

  6. Average OH density in alternating current dielectric barrier discharge by laser-induced fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongliang; Feng, Chunlei; Gao, Liang; Ding, Hongbin

    2015-10-01

    The average OH density in atmospheric He-H2O(0.4%) needle-plate dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was measured by the asynchronous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique and the fluctuation of OH radical density was measured simultaneously to prove that the average OH density can be obtained by the asynchronous LIF technique. The evolution of the average OH density in four different discharge patterns, namely, negative barrier corona discharge, glow discharge, multi glow discharge, and streamer discharge, was studied, and it was found that the average OH density has an observable increase from corona discharge to streamer discharge. The main mechanism of OH production in the four different discharge patterns was analyzed. It was shown that the main mechanism of OH production in negative barrier corona discharge is electron direct collision dissociation, whereas in the other three discharge patterns the He metastable Penning ionization is the main process.

  7. Depth averaged wave-current interaction in the multi bank morphology of the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komijani, Homayoon; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo Torres, Francisco; Monbaliu, Jaak

    2017-04-01

    The effects of wind induced waves on the barotropic mean flow during a storm event in the southern North Sea are investigated. The well known radiation stress gradient theory of Longuet-Higgins and Stewart (1962, 1964) together with the influence of waves through the Stokes drift (Hasselmann, 1971 and Garret, 1976) are incorporated in the RANS equation system of the COHERENS circulation model (Luyten et al., 2005) following the methodology worked out by Bennis et al. (2011) . The SWAN spectral wave model (version 40.91, http://www.swan.tudelft.nl/) is used to provide the wave information. This allows us to take into account the dissipative terms of wave momentum flux to the mean flow such as depth induced wave breaking and bottom friction as well as the conservative terms of wave effects such as the vortex-force and wave induced pressure gradient. The resulting coupled COHERENS-SWAN model has been validated using the well known planar beach test case proposed by Haas and Warner (2009) in depth averaged mode. For the application in the southern North Sea, a series of nested grids using COHERENS (circulation model) and WAM cycle 4.5.3 (spectral wave model applied to the North Sea shelf area, Monbaliu et al. 2000; Günther, H. and A. Behrens, personal communications, May 2012) is set up to provide the hydrodynamic and wave boundary conditions for the COHERENS-SWAN two way coupled wave-current model for the Belgian coastal zone model. The improvements obtained in hindcasting the circulation processes in the Belgian coastal area during a storm event will be highlighted. But also difficulties faced in the coupling of the models and in the simulation of a real case storm will be discussed. In particular, some of the approaches for dealing with the numerical instabilities due to multi bank morphology of the southern North Sea will be addressed. References : Bennis, A.-C., F. Ardhuin, and F. Dumas (2011). "On the coupling of wave and three-dimensional circulation models

  8. Neutron production in deuterium gas-puff z-pinch with outer plasma shell at current of 3 MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cikhardt, J.; Klir, D.; Rezac, K.; Cikhardtova, B.; Kravarik, J.; Kubes, P.; Sila, O.; Shishlov, A. V.; Cherdizov, R. K.; Frusov, F. I.; Kokshenev, V. A.; Kurmaev, N. E.; Labetsky, A. Yu.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Dudkin, G. N.; Garapatsky, A. A.; Padalko, V. N.; Varlachev, V. A.; Turek, K.; Krasa, J.

    2015-11-01

    Z-pinch experiments at the current of about 3 MA were carried out on the GIT-12 generator. The outer plasma shell of deuterium gas-puff was generated by the system of 48 plasma guns. This configuration exhibits a high efficiency of the production of DD fusion neutrons with the yield of above 1012 neutrons produced in a single shot with the duration of about 20 ns. The maximum energy of the neutrons produced in this pulse exceeded 30 MeV. The neutron radiation was measured using scintillation TOF detectors, CR-39 nuclear track detectors, bubble detectors BD-PND and BDS-10000 and by several types of nuclear activation detectors. These diagnostic tools were used to measure the anisotropy of neutron fluence and neutron energy spectra. It allows us to estimate the total number of DD neutrons, the contribution of other nuclear reactions, the amount of scattered neutrons, and other parameters of neutron production. This work was supported by the MSMT grants LH13283, LD14089.

  9. Analysis of Fast-Scale Bifurcation in Peak Current Controlled Buck-Boost Inverter Based on Unified Averaged Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Dong, Shuai; Guan, Weimin; Liu, Ye

    In this paper, a unified averaged modeling method is proposed to investigate the fast-scale period-doubling bifurcation of a full-bridge integrated buck-boost inverter with peak current control. In order to increase the resolution of the conventional classic averaged model to half the switching frequency, sample-and-hold effect of inductor current is absorbed into the averaged model, i.e. the proposed unified averaged model can capture the high-frequency dynamical characteristics of the buck-boost inverter, which is both an extension and a modification of conventional averaged model. Based on the unified mode, fast-scale bifurcation is identified, and the corresponding bifurcation point is predicted with the help of the locus movement of all the poles, and their underlying mechanisms are revealed. Detailed analysis shows that the occurrence of high-frequency oscillation means fast-scale bifurcation, while the occurrence of low-frequency oscillation leads to slow-scale bifurcation. Finally, it is demonstrated that the unified averaged model can provide not only a general method to investigate both the slow- and fast-scale bifurcations in a unified framework but also a quite straightforward design-oriented method which can be directly applicable.

  10. AVERAGE GEOMETRICAL FEATURES OF THE ELECTRON WAVE PACKAGES DISTRIBUTION IN METALLIC CONDUCTORS WITH PULSED AXIAL CURRENT OF HIGH DENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Calculation and experimental determination of average geometrical features of distributing of macroscopic electron wave packages (EWP in round cylindrical metallic conductors with the pulsed axial current of high density. Methodology. Theoretical bases of the electrical engineering, bases of atomic and quantum physics, electrophysics bases of technique of high voltage and high pulsed currents. Results. The results of the conducted calculation and experimental researches are resulted on close determination of average geometrical features of distribution of longitudinal and radial EWP of macroscopic sizes in the indicated conductors. These descriptions are included by the average widths of «hot» and «cold» longitudinal and radial areas of conductor, and also average steps of division into the periods of similar areas. Results of the executed calculations and high temperature experiments for average geometrical features of longitudinal EWP in the zincked steel wire of diameter of 1.6 mm and length of 320 mm with the aperiodic impulse of current of temporal form 9 ms/160 ms and by amplitude 745 A coincide within the limits of 19 %. Originality. First with the use of methods of atomic and quantum physics the features of the stochastic distributing and mean values of basic geometrical sizes are analysed macroscopic longitudinal and radial EWP in round cylindrical metallic conductors with the pulsed axial current of high density. Practical value. Drawing on the got results in practice will allow more reliably to forecast geometrical sizes and places of localization of arising up in the probed metallic conductors with pulsed axial current of high density longitudinal and radial EWP.

  11. A two-layer depth-averaged model for both the dilute and the concentrated parts of pyroclastic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelfoun, Karim

    2017-06-01

    Pyroclastic currents are very destructive and their complex behavior makes the related hazards difficult to predict. A new numerical model has been developed to simulate the emplacement of both the concentrated and the dilute parts of pyroclastic currents using two coupled depth-averaged approaches. Interaction laws allow the concentrated current (pyroclastic flow) to generate a dilute current (pyroclastic surge) and, inversely, the dilute current to form a concentrated current or a deposit. The density of the concentrated current is assumed to be constant during emplacement, whereas the density of the dilute current changes depending on the particle supply from the concentrated current and the mass lost through sedimentation. The model is explored theoretically using simplified geometries as proxies for natural source conditions and topographies. It reproduces the relationships observed in the field between the surge genesis and the topography: the increase in surge production in constricted valleys, the decoupling between the concentrated and the dilute currents, and the formation of surge-derived concentrated flows. The strong nonlinear link between the surge genesis and the velocity of the concentrated flow beneath it could explain the sudden occurrence of powerful and destructive surges and the difficulty of predicting this occurrence. A companion paper compares the results of the model with the field data for the eruption of Merapi in 2010 and demonstrates that the approach is able to reproduce the natural emplacement of the concentrated and the dilute pyroclastic currents studied with good accuracy.

  12. Monitoring tooth profile faults in epicyclic gearboxes using synchronously averaged motor currents: Mathematical modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Ruszczyk, A.; Broda, D.

    2017-02-01

    Time-varying transmission paths and inaccessibility can increase the difficulty in both acquiring and processing vibration signals for the purpose of monitoring epicyclic gearboxes. Recent work has shown that the synchronous signal averaging approach may be applied to measured motor currents in order to diagnose tooth faults in parallel shaft gearboxes. In this paper we further develop the approach, so that it may also be applied to monitor tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes. A low-degree-of-freedom model of an epicyclic gearbox which incorporates the possibility of simulating tooth faults, as well as any subsequent tooth contact loss due to these faults, is introduced. By combining this model with a simple space-phasor model of an induction motor it is possible to show that, in theory, tooth faults in epicyclic gearboxes may be identified from motor currents. Applying the synchronous averaging approach to experimentally recorded motor currents and angular displacements recorded from a shaft mounted encoder, validate this finding. Comparison between experiments and theory highlight the influence of operating conditions, backlash and shaft couplings on the transient response excited in the currents by the tooth fault. The results obtained suggest that the method may be a viable alternative or complement to more traditional methods for monitoring gearboxes. However, general observations also indicate that further investigations into the sensitivity and robustness of the method would be beneficial.

  13. RTS noise and dark current white defects reduction using selective averaging based on a multi-aperture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Takasawa, Taishi; Seo, Min Woong; Yasutomi, Keita; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-01-16

    In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS) noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor noise at every pixel is proposed. In the multi-aperture imaging system, a very small synthetic F-number which is much smaller than 1.0 is achieved by increasing optical gain with multiple lenses. It is verified by simulation that the effective noise normalized by optical gain in the peak of noise histogram is reduced from 1.38e⁻ to 0.48 e⁻ in a 3 × 3-aperture system using low-noise CMOS image sensors based on folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs. In the experiment, a prototype 3 × 3-aperture camera, where each aperture has 200 × 200 pixels and an imaging lens with a focal length of 3.0 mm and F-number of 3.0, is developed. Under a low-light condition, in which the maximum average signal is 11e⁻ per aperture, the RTS and dark current white defects are removed and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) of the image is increased by 6.3 dB.

  14. RTS Noise and Dark Current White Defects Reduction Using Selective Averaging Based on a Multi-Aperture System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In extremely low-light conditions, random telegraph signal (RTS noise and dark current white defects become visible. In this paper, a multi-aperture imaging system and selective averaging method which removes the RTS noise and the dark current white defects by minimizing the synthetic sensor noise at every pixel is proposed. In the multi-aperture imaging system, a very small synthetic F-number which is much smaller than 1.0 is achieved by increasing optical gain with multiple lenses. It is verified by simulation that the effective noise normalized by optical gain in the peak of noise histogram is reduced from 1.38e⁻ to 0.48 e⁻ in a 3 × 3-aperture system using low-noise CMOS image sensors based on folding-integration and cyclic column ADCs. In the experiment, a prototype 3 × 3-aperture camera, where each aperture has 200 × 200 pixels and an imaging lens with a focal length of 3.0 mm and F-number of 3.0, is developed. Under a low-light condition, in which the maximum average signal is 11e⁻ per aperture, the RTS and dark current white defects are removed and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR of the image is increased by 6.3 dB.

  15. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes of On-Reserve First Nations Schoolchildren Compared to Canadian Averages and Current Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated, in on-reserve First Nations (FN youth in Ontario, Canada, the following: (a the intakes of vegetable and fruit, “other” foods and relevant nutrients as compared to current recommendations and national averages, (b current prevalence rates of overweight and obesity and (c the relationship between latitude and dietary intakes. Twenty-four-hour diet recalls were collected via the Waterloo Web-Based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q (n = 443. Heights and weights of participants were self reported using measured values and Body Mass Index was categorized using the International Obesity Task Force cutoffs. Food group and nutrient intakes were compared to current standards, Southern Ontario Food Behaviour data and the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2, using descriptive statistics. Mean vegetable and fruit, fibre and folate intakes were less than current recommendations. Girls aged 14–18 years had mean intakes of vitamin A below current recommendations for this sub-group; for all sub-groups, mean intakes of vegetables and fruit were below Canadian averages. All sub-groups also had intakes of all nutrients and food groups investigated that were less than those observed in non-FN youth from Southern Ontario, with the exception of “other” foods in boys 12–18 years. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8% and 19.6%, respectively, exceeding rates in the general population. Dietary intakes did not vary consistently by latitude (n = 248, as revealed by ANOVA. This study provided a unique investigation of the dietary intakes of on-reserve FN youth in Ontario and revealed poor intakes of vegetables and fruit and related nutrients and high intakes of “other” foods. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity exceed those of the general population.

  16. Ten minutes of 1 mA transcranial direct current stimulation was well tolerated by children and adolescents: Self-reports and resting state EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliadze, Vera; Andreas, Saskia; Lyzhko, Ekaterina; Schmanke, Till; Gurashvili, Tea; Freitag, Christine M; Siniatchkin, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a promising and well-tolerated method of non-invasive brain stimulation, by which cortical excitability can be modulated. However, the effects of tDCS on the developing brain are still unknown, and knowledge about its tolerability in children and adolescents is still lacking. Safety and tolerability of tDCS was assessed in children and adolescents by self-reports and spectral characteristics of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings. Nineteen typically developing children and adolescents aged 11-16 years participated in the study. Anodal and cathodal tDCS as well as sham stimulation were applied for a duration of 10 min over the left primary motor cortex (M1), each with an intensity of 1 mA. Subjects were unable to identify whether they had received active or sham stimulation, and all participants tolerated the stimulation well with a low rate of adverse events in both groups and no serious adverse events. No pathological oscillations, in particular, no markers of epileptiform activity after 1mA tDCS were detected in any of the EEG analyses. In summary, our study demonstrates that tDCS with 1mA intensity over 10 min is well tolerated, and thus may be used as an experimental and treatment method in the pediatric population.

  17. Differential-output B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA, 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Wagoner

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator’s 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator’s 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs, and 2 current monitors on the accelerator’s inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator’s power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-Ω balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-Ω cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample, numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  18. Differential B-dot and D-dot monitors for current and voltage measurements on a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, Roy Willlam (ITT Industries, Albuquerque, NM); Gilliland, Terrance Leo (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Lee, James R.; Speas, Christopher Shane; Kim, Alexandre A. (High Current Electronic Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk, Russia); Struve, Kenneth William; York, Mathew William; Leifeste, Gordon T.; Rochau, Gregory Alan; Sharpe, Arthur William; Stygar, William A.; Porter, John Larry Jr.; Wagoner, Tim C. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Reynolds, Paul Gerard (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Slopek, Jeffrey Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, William B. S.; Dinwoodie, Thomas Albert (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Woodring, R. M. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Broyles, Robin Scott (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mills, Jerry Alan; Melville, J. A. (Prodyn Technologies Incorporated, Albuquerque, NM); Dudley, M. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Androlewicz, K. E. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Mourning, R. W. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Moore, J. K. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Serrano, Jason Dimitri (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Ives, H. C. (EG& G, Albuquerque, NM); Johnson, M. F. (Team Specialty Products Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Peyton, B. P. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Leeper, Ramon Joe; Savage, Mark Edward; Donovan, Guy Louis; Spielman, R. B. (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Seamen, Johann F.

    2007-12-01

    We have developed a system of differential-output monitors that diagnose current and voltage in the vacuum section of a 20-MA 3-MV pulsed-power accelerator. The system includes 62 gauges: 3 current and 6 voltage monitors that are fielded on each of the accelerator's 4 vacuum-insulator stacks, 6 current monitors on each of the accelerator's 4 outer magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs), and 2 current monitors on the accelerator's inner MITL. The inner-MITL monitors are located 6 cm from the axis of the load. Each of the stack and outer-MITL current monitors comprises two separate B-dot sensors, each of which consists of four 3-mm-diameter wire loops wound in series. The two sensors are separately located within adjacent cavities machined out of a single piece of copper. The high electrical conductivity of copper minimizes penetration of magnetic flux into the cavity walls, which minimizes changes in the sensitivity of the sensors on the 100-ns time scale of the accelerator's power pulse. A model of flux penetration has been developed and is used to correct (to first order) the B-dot signals for the penetration that does occur. The two sensors are designed to produce signals with opposite polarities; hence, each current monitor may be regarded as a single detector with differential outputs. Common-mode-noise rejection is achieved by combining these signals in a 50-{Omega} balun. The signal cables that connect the B-dot monitors to the balun are chosen to provide reasonable bandwidth and acceptable levels of Compton drive in the bremsstrahlung field of the accelerator. A single 50-{omega} cable transmits the output signal of each balun to a double-wall screen room, where the signals are attenuated, digitized (0.5-ns/sample), numerically compensated for cable losses, and numerically integrated. By contrast, each inner-MITL current monitor contains only a single B-dot sensor. These monitors are fielded in opposite-polarity pairs. The two

  19. ma a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar del Barco, Trad. Davi Pessoa Carneiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Oscar del Barco escreveu o texto “ma a” para o catálogo ma a/Obra pictórica (Cór­doba, 2008, publicado na ocasião da exposição homônima, em que foram ex­postas 150 obras iné­ditas de distintos formatos e técnicas que del Barco vinha reali­zando há mais de 15 anos. Alguns escritores, artistas, ensaís­tas e pesquisadores, como Silvio Mattoni, Antonio Oviedo, Anamaría Ashwell, Gustavo Cosa­cov, Matías Lapezzata, entre outros, parti­ciparam da publi­cação. O texto foi posteriormente in­cluído em Alternativas de lo Posthumano (Buenos Aires: Caja Negra, 2010, com organização de Gabriel Livov e Pablo Gallardo. A tradução é do texto pu­blicado no mesmo livro (p. 279-283. [N.T.

  20. Current long-term negative average annual energy balance of the earth leads to the new little ice age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussamatov Habibullo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The average annual decreasing rate of the total solar irradiance (TSI is increasing from the 22-nd to the 23-rd and 24-th cycles, because the Sun since the 1990 is in the phase decline of quasi-bicentennial variation. The portion of the solar energy absorbed by the Earth is decreasing. Decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 remains uncompensated by the Earth's radiation into space at the previous high level over a time interval determined by the thermal inertia of the Ocean. A long-term negative deviation of the Earth’s average annual energy balance from the equilibrium state is dictating corresponding variations in it’s the energy state. As a result, the Earth will have a negative average annual energy balance also in the future. This will lead to the beginning of the decreasing in the Earth's temperature and of the epoch of the Little Ice Age after the maximum phase of the 24-th solar cycle approximately since the end of 2014. The influence of the consecutive chain of the secondary feedback effects (the increase in the Bond albedo and the decrease in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to cooling will lead to an additional reduction of the absorbed solar energy and reduce the greenhouse effect. The start of the TSI’s Grand Minimum is anticipated in the solar cycle 27±1 in 2043±11 and the beginning of the phase of deep cooling of the 19th Little Ice Age for the past 7,500 years around 2060±11.

  1. Influence of the surface averaging procedure of the current density in assessing compliance with the ICNIRP low-frequency basic restrictions by means of numerical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppetti, N; Andreuccetti, D [IFAC-CNR (' Nello Carrara' Institute for Applied Physics of the Italian National Research Council), Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)], E-mail: N.Zoppetti@ifac.cnr.it, E-mail: D.Andreuccetti@ifac.cnr.it

    2009-08-07

    Although the calculation of the surface average of the low-frequency current density distribution over a cross-section of 1 cm{sup 2} is required by ICNIRP guidelines, no reference averaging algorithm is indicated, neither in the ICNIRP guidelines nor in the Directive 2004/40/EC that is based on them. The lack of a general standard algorithm that fulfils the ICNIRP guidelines' requirements is particularly critical in the prospective of the 2004/40/EC Directive endorsement, since the compliance to normative limits refers to well-defined procedures. In this paper, two case studies are considered, in which the calculation of the surface average is performed using a simplified approach widely used in the literature and an original averaging procedure. This analysis, aimed at quantifying the expected differences and to single out their sources, shows that the choice of the averaging algorithm represents an important source of uncertainty in the application of the guideline requirements.

  2. [MaRS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruljothi, Arunvenkatesh

    2016-01-01

    The Space Exploration Division of the Safety and Mission Assurances Directorate is responsible for reducing the risk to Human Space Flight Programs by providing system safety, reliability, and risk analysis. The Risk & Reliability Analysis branch plays a part in this by utilizing Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) and Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) tools to identify possible types of failure and effective solutions. A continuous effort of this branch is MaRS, or Mass and Reliability System, a tool that was the focus of this internship. Future long duration space missions will have to find a balance between the mass and reliability of their spare parts. They will be unable take spares of everything and will have to determine what is most likely to require maintenance and spares. Currently there is no database that combines mass and reliability data of low level space-grade components. MaRS aims to be the first database to do this. The data in MaRS will be based on the hardware flown on the International Space Stations (ISS). The components on the ISS have a long history and are well documented, making them the perfect source. Currently, MaRS is a functioning excel workbook database; the backend is complete and only requires optimization. MaRS has been populated with all the assemblies and their components that are used on the ISS; the failures of these components are updated regularly. This project was a continuation on the efforts of previous intern groups. Once complete, R&M engineers working on future space flight missions will be able to quickly access failure and mass data on assemblies and components, allowing them to make important decisions and tradeoffs.

  3. Surface layer structure and average contact temperature of copper-containing materials under dry sliding with high electric current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinov, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    Dry sliding of copper and powder composites of Cu-Fe and Cu-Fe-graphite compositions against 1045 steel under electric current of contact density higher than 250 A/cm2 has been studied, which demonstrated the change in surface layer structure and formation of tribolayer consisting of iron, copper and FeO oxide. Signs of quasi-viscous flow of worn surface were observed. It was noted that the thin contact layer containing about 40 at % of oxygen and 40% of Fe was the main factor decreasing the adhesion interaction. It was affirmed that the introduction of graphite into the primary structure of the composite leads to rather low content of FeO oxide and to the increased tendency of surface layer to catastrophic deterioration under sliding with contact current density of about 300 A/cm2. The temperature of contact did not exceed 400°C.

  4. Control for the Three-Phase Four-Wire Four-Leg APF Based on SVPWM and Average Current Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangshun Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel control method is proposed for the three-phase four-wire four-leg active power filter (APF to realize the accurate and real-time compensation of harmonic of power system, which combines space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM with triangle modulation strategy. Firstly, the basic principle of the APF is briefly described. Then the harmonic and reactive currents are derived by the instantaneous reactive power theory. Finally simulation and experiment are built to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method. The simulation results show that the response time for compensation is about 0.025 sec and the total harmonic distortion (THD of the source current of phase A is reduced from 33.38% before compensation to 3.05% with APF.

  5. Western Gulf of Mexico, June 1993 to June 1994 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_wgom_AVG_MMS_1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the western...

  6. Eastern Gulf of Mexico, February 1996 to June 1997 Average Ocean Currents, Geographic NAD83, MMS (1999) [ocean_currents_egom_AVG_MMS_1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is one data set of a data package consisting of thirteen point data sets that have as attributes the direction and velocity of ocean currents in the 'eastern'...

  7. State Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...

  8. Digital Average Current Control Technology of Switching Power Supply%开关电源数字均值电流控制技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆江; 毕艳芳

    2012-01-01

    以连续导电模式(CCM)的Buck变换器为例,详细介绍了数字均值电流控制技术,着重推导后缘、前缘、三角后缘及三角前缘调制DAC控制Buck变换器的占空比算法.证明了双缘调制方式的数字均值电流控制具有优异的负载瞬态特性.%This paper takes CCM(Continuous Conductive Mode) Buck converter for example to introduce the digital average current control technology and the algorithm of the duty ratio with DAC control Buck converter of modifying the trailing edge, leading edge and triangle edge in detail. It shows that double edge modified digital average current control has excellent transient response performance.

  9. Motor current signature analysis for gearbox condition monitoring under transient speeds using wavelet analysis and dual-level time synchronous averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Imaz, Inaki; Davari Ardakani, Hossein; Liu, Zongchang; García-Arribas, Alfredo; Arnaiz, Aitor; Lee, Jay

    2017-09-01

    This paper focuses on analyzing motor current signature for fault diagnosis of gearboxes operating under transient speed regimes. Two different strategies are evaluated, extensively tested and compared to analyze the motor current signature in order to implement a condition monitoring system for gearboxes in industrial machinery. A specially designed test bench is used, thoroughly monitored to fully characterize the experiments, in which gears in different health status are tested. The measured signals are analyzed using discrete wavelet decomposition, in different decomposition levels using a range of mother wavelets. Moreover, a dual-level time synchronous averaging analysis is performed on the same signal to compare the performance of the two methods. From both analyses, the relevant features of the signals are extracted and cataloged using a self-organizing map, which allows for an easy detection and classification of the diverse health states of the gears. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for diagnosing gearbox faults. A slightly better performance was observed for dual-level time synchronous averaging method. Based on the obtained results, the proposed methods can used as effective and reliable condition monitoring procedures for gearbox condition monitoring using only motor current signature.

  10. Scaling of X pinches from 1 MA to 6 MA.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Simon Nicholas (Imperial College, London, United Kingdom); McBride, Ryan D.; Wenger, David Franklin; Sinars, Daniel Brian; Chittenden, Jeremy Paul (imperial College, London, United Kingdom); Pikuz, Sergei A. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Harding, Eric; Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Shelkovenko, Tatiana A. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY); Hansen, Stephanie B.

    2010-09-01

    This final report for Project 117863 summarizes progress made toward understanding how X-pinch load designs scale to high currents. The X-pinch load geometry was conceived in 1982 as a method to study the formation and properties of bright x-ray spots in z-pinch plasmas. X-pinch plasmas driven by 0.2 MA currents were found to have source sizes of 1 micron, temperatures >1 keV, lifetimes of 10-100 ps, and densities >0.1 times solid density. These conditions are believed to result from the direct magnetic compression of matter. Physical models that capture the behavior of 0.2 MA X pinches predict more extreme parameters at currents >1 MA. This project developed load designs for up to 6 MA on the SATURN facility and attempted to measure the resulting plasma parameters. Source sizes of 5-8 microns were observed in some cases along with evidence for high temperatures (several keV) and short time durations (<500 ps).

  11. An investigation of the role of the time averaged ion beam current density upon the defect densities in thin film SIMOX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejim, A.; Marsh, C. D.; Giles, L. F.; Hemment, P. L. F.; Li, Y.; Chater, RJ.; Kilner, J. A.; Booker, G. R.

    1994-02-01

    The effect of the time averaged ion beam current density on the material quality of thin film SIMOX has been investigated. Thin film SOI/SIMOX material has been produced by 200 keV oxygen implantation into 3 in. Fz wafers with a background temperature of 680°C. The dose range of 5 × 10 17-7 × 10 17O+/ cm2 was selected to be near the dose threshold for the formation of a continuous buried oxide after implantation and annealing which is thought to be between 5 × 10 17 and 6 × 10 17 O +/cm 2 for 200 keV [A.E. White et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 50 (1987) 19; P.L.F. Hemment et al., Vacuum 36 (1986) 877; Y. Li et al., in: Proc. V Int. Symp. on SOI Technology and Devices (The Electrochemical Society, 1992) p. 368 [1-3

  12. Perceived Comfort and Blinding Efficacy in Randomised Sham-Controlled Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS Trials at 2 mA in Young and Older Healthy Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Wallace

    Full Text Available tDCS studies typically find that: lowest levels of comfort occur at stimulation-onset; young adult participants experience less comfort than older participants; and participants' blinding seems effective at low current strengths. At 2 mA conflicting results have been reported, questioning the effectiveness of blinding in sham-controlled paradigms using higher current strengths. Investigator blinding is rarely reported.Using a protocol with 30 min of 2 mA stimulation we sought to: (a investigate the level of perceived comfort in young and older adults, ranging in age from 19 to 29 years and 63 to 76 years, respectively; (b test investigator and participant blinding; (c assess comfort over a longer stimulation duration; (d add to the literature on protocols using 2 mA current strength.A two-session experiment was conducted where sham and active stimulation were administered to the frontal cortex at the F8/FP1 sites in a within-subjects manner. Levels of perceived comfort were measured, using a visual analogue scale, at the start and end of stimulation in young and older adults. Post-stimulation, participants and investigators judged whether or not active stimulation was used.Comfort scores were lower at stimulation onset in both age groups. Older adults reported: (i more comfort than young participants overall; (ii comparable levels of comfort in sham and active stimulation; (iii significantly more comfort than the young participants during active stimulation. Stimulation mode was correctly identified above chance in the second of the two sessions; 65% of all participants correctly identified the stimulation mode, resulting in a statistical trend. Similarly, the experimenter correctly identified stimulation mode significantly above chance, with 62% of all investigator judgements correct across 120 judgements.Using 2 mA current strength over 30 minutes, tDCS stimulation comfort is lower at stimulation onset in young and older adults and, overall

  13. Experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the phase averaged performance characteristics of marine current turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.

  14. Progress report on new results of the study of multi-planar and compact cylindrical wire arrays at 0.8-1.3 MA current at UNR Zebra generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsyrev, V. L.; Safronova, A. S.; Esaulov, A. A.; Presura, R.; Williamson, K. M.; Shrestha, I.; Ouart, N. D.; Yilmaz, M. F.; Wilcox, P. G.; Osborne, G. C.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V.; Rudakov, L. I.

    2008-11-01

    The studies that include the measurements of radiation yields, time-gated spectra and images, streak camera and laser probing images, spectral modeling, and magnetostatic and MHD simulations focus on Z-pinch plasma implosion and radiation features (including bright spots properties). The experiments with small size (3-10 mm) single-, double-, triple-, cross- planar, and compact cylindrical wire arrays from various materials at nominal as well as enhanced currents up to 1.3 MA were performed on the Zebra generator. The largest x-ray yields and powers were ranged for W and Mo. Observed multi-step precursor formation in multi-planar arrays may open new paths for radiation pulses shaping. Implosion and spectroscopic features specific for enhanced currents are discussed.

  15. Preparative Isolation and Purification of Four Compounds from Cistanches deserticola Y.C. Ma by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Han

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a constituent enrichment step on a silica gel column, four phenyl-ethanoid glycosides were successfully isolated from Cistanches deserticola and purified by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-ethanol-water (40:6:6:50, v/v/v/v. A total of 30.9 mg acteoside, 13.0 mg isoacteoside, 12.5 mg syringalide A 3'-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and 7.2 mg 2'-acetylacteoside with purity of higher than 95%, as determined by HPLC-ELSD, were obtained in one-step separation from 297 mg of Cistanche deserticola extract, respectively. Their structures were identified by HR-MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  16. Average age at death in infancy and infant mortality level: Reconsidering the Coale-Demeny formulas at current levels of low mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny M. Andreev

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The long-term historical decline in infant mortality has been accompanied by increasing concentration of infant deaths at the earliest stages of infancy. In the mid-1960s Coale and Demeny developed formulas describing the dependency of the average age of death in infancy on the level of infant mortality, based on data obtained up to that time. Objective: In the more developed countries a steady rise in average age of infant death began in the mid-1960s. This paper documents this phenomenon and offers alternative formulas for calculation of the average age of death, taking into account the new mortality trends. Methods: Standard statistical methodologies and a specially developed method are applied to the linked individual birth and infant death datasets available from the US National Center for Health Statistics and the initial (raw numbers of deaths from the Human Mortality Database. Results: It is demonstrated that the trend of decline in the average age of infant death becomes interrupted when the infant mortality rate attains a level around 10 per 1000, and modifications of the Coale-Demeny formulas for practical application to contemporary low levels of mortality are offered. Conclusions: The average age of death in infancy is an important characteristic of infant mortality, although it does not influence the magnitude of life expectancy. That the increase in average age of death in infancy is connected with medical advances is proposed as a possible explanation.

  17. A novel CMOS charge-pump circuit with current mode control 110 mA at 2.7 V for telecommunication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krit, Salahddine; Qjidaa, Hassan; Affar, Imad El; Khadija, Yafrah; Messghati, Ziani; El-Ghzizal, Yassir, E-mail: krit_salah@yahoo.f, E-mail: qjidah@yahoo.f [Faculty of Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Laboratory of Electronic, Signal-Systymes and Informatic (LESSI) Fes (Morocco)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents a novel organization of switch capacitor charge pump circuits based on voltage doubler structures. Each voltage doubler takes a DC input and outputs a doubled DC voltage. By cascading voltage doublers the output voltage increases up to 2 times. A two-phase voltage doubler and a multiphase voltage doubler structures are discussed and design considerations are presented. A simulator working in the Q-V realm was used for simplified circuit level simulation. In order to evaluate the power delivered by a charge pump, a resistive load is attached to the output of the charge pump and an equivalent capacitance is evaluated. To avoid the short circuit during switching, a clock pair generator is used to achieve multi-phase non-overlapping clock pairs. This paper also identifies optimum loading conditions for different configurations of the charge pumps. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by SPICE with TSMC 0.35-{mu}m CMOS technology and operates with a 2.7 to 3.6 V supply voltage. It has an area of 0.4 mm{sup 2}; it was designed with a frequency regulation of 1 MHz and internal current mode to reduce power consumption. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. MaXi Avisen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marianne; Bertelsen, Pernille

    2008-01-01

    maXi-projektets vision er at sprænge rammerne for sundhedsstøtte med it ved at sætte diabetikere og deres familier i centrum og ved at flytte fokus fra sygdom og hospitaler til samfund, hverdagsliv og services. maXi-projektet har til formål at afprøve og gennemføre brugerdreven innovation som...... eksperimenter i et 'living lab' - som etableres i Skagen. I 2009 udvælges nye brugere til deltagelse i projektet. maXi-projektet opbygges som et modelprojekt i samar-bejde mellem Aalborg Universitet, Fonden Skagen Helse, Teknologisk Institut og Edvantage Group. Se http://www.maxi-projektet.dk/ Projektet er...

  19. MaTeam-projektet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Marikka; Damkjær, Helle Sejer; Højgaard, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Projektet MaTeam beskrives med fokus på et toårigt forsøg hvor matematiklærerne på 4.-6. klassetrin på fire skoler i Silkeborg Kommune samarbejdede med forfatterne. Projektet handlede om udvikling af matematiklærerkompetencer med fokus på samarbejdet i de fire skolers matematiklærerfagteam...... matematiklærerfagteam og samarbejdsrelationer der indgår i projektet. Desuden beskriver vi forskellige typer af fagteam og lærere. Metodisk var MaTeam-projektet struktureret som en didaktisk modelleringsproces....

  20. MaXi Avisen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Sørensen, Marianne

    2008-01-01

    eksperimenter i et 'living lab' - som etableres i Skagen. I 2009 udvælges nye brugere til deltagelse i projektet. maXi-projektet opbygges som et modelprojekt i samar-bejde mellem Aalborg Universitet, Fonden Skagen Helse, Teknologisk Institut og Edvantage Group. Se http://www.maxi-projektet.dk/ Projektet er...

  1. Woman Director Ma Yueying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ma Yueying took office as director of the Jiaxing General Silk Mill, which had 200,000 yuan capital fund, in 1975. Since then, this mill has developed greatly. Now it has become an advanced enterprise with an annual output worth RMB¥30 million and fixed assets of RMB¥10 million.

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  6. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  7. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  10. Vortex pinning properties in Co-doped BaFe2As2 thin films with a high critical current density over 2 MA cm-2 at 9 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Pusheng; Xu, Zhongtang; Wang, Dongliang; Zhang, Ming; Li, Jianqi; Ma, Yanwei

    2017-02-01

    Similar to other high-temperature superconductors, the pinning centers largely determine the critical current density (J c) in Co-doped BaFe2As2 (Ba122:Co). Therefore, understanding the vortex pinning mechanism of high-J c Ba122:Co thin films is important for the applications of Ba122:Co. Herein we report the pinning of the naturally grown defects in Ba122:Co thin films with a high critical current density. The transport J c of thin films is up to 2.6 MA cm-2 in 9 T at 4.2 K, which is the highest value in iron-based superconductors. Microstructure investigations reveal a high density of ab-planar defects (stacking faults) and localized vertical defects present in the sample. The Dew-Hughes mode analyses prove that pinning centers by surface defects and by point defects are responsible for H//ab and H//c, respectively. Therefore, the high J c in strong magnetic field for both H//ab and H//c are related to surface and point defects which act as the pinning centers in Ba122:Co films.

  11. 平均电流控制下的DC/DC变换器大小信号统一动态模型%A Unified Large Signal and Small Signal Model for DC/DC Converters With Average Current Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雁飞

    2007-01-01

    A unified large signal and small signal model for DC/DC converters under average current control is presented in the paper. The model can be applied to Buck, Boost and Buck-Boost converters. The proposed model consists of two parts. The first part is an averaged circuit model, and the second part is a model for average current mode control with pulse width modulation (PWM). The model is verified by a Boost converter prototype under average current mode control. The experimental results demonstrate that the model can accurately predict the steady-state, small signal and large signal dynamic behavior of DC/DC converter under average current control.%提出了适合平均电流控制下DC/DC开关变换器的大小信号统一模型.此模型可用于Buck、Boost和Buck-Boost变换器.它由两部份组成:一部份是开关变换器的平均电路模型;另一部分是平均电流控制器的电路模型.以平均电流控制下的Boost变换器为例,通过实验证明所提出的模型能够准确地预测平均电流控制下DC/DC变换器的稳态、小信号和大信号动态特性.

  12. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violat...

  13. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  14. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  15. Discovery and utilization of sorghum genes (Ma5/Ma6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John E; Rooney, William L; Klein, Patricia E; Morishige, Daryl; Murphy, Rebecca; Brady, Jeff A

    2012-11-13

    Methods and composition for the production of non-flowering or late flowering sorghum hybrid. For example, in certain aspects methods for use of molecular markers that constitute the Ma5/Ma6 pathway to modulate photoperiod sensitivity are described. The invention allows the production of plants having improved productivity and biomass generation.

  16. Physical Theories with Average Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Alamino, Roberto C

    2013-01-01

    This Letter probes the existence of physical laws invariant only in average when subjected to some transformation. The concept of a symmetry transformation is broadened to include corruption by random noise and average symmetry is introduced by considering functions which are invariant only in average under these transformations. It is then shown that actions with average symmetry obey a modified version of Noether's Theorem with dissipative currents. The relation of this with possible violations of physical symmetries, as for instance Lorentz invariance in some quantum gravity theories, is briefly commented.

  17. Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available For many philosophers working in the area of Population Ethics, it seems that either they have to confront the Repugnant Conclusion (where they are forced to the conclusion of creating massive amounts of lives barely worth living, or they have to confront the Non-Identity Problem (where no one is seemingly harmed as their existence is dependent on the “harmful” event that took place. To them it seems there is no escape, they either have to face one problem or the other. However, there is a way around this, allowing us to escape the Repugnant Conclusion, by using what I will call Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU – which though similar to anti-frustrationism, has some important differences in practice. Current “positive” forms of utilitarianism have struggled to deal with the Repugnant Conclusion, as their theory actually entails this conclusion; however, it seems that a form of Negative Average Preference Utilitarianism (NAPU easily escapes this dilemma (it never even arises within it.

  18. Towards a 100mA Superconducting RF Photoinjector for BERLinPro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Axel; Anders, W; Burrill, Andrew; Jankowiak, Andreas; Kamps, T; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Lauinger, P; Matveenko, A N; Schmeisser, M; Volker, J; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; Nietubyc, R; Schubert, S G; Smedley, John; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Volkov, V; Will, I; Zaplatin, Evgeny

    2013-09-01

    For BERLinPro, a 100 mA CW-driven SRF energy recovery linac demonstrator facility, HZB needs to develop a photo-injector superconducting cavity which delivers a at least 1mm*mr emittance beam at high average current. To address these challenges of producing a high peak brightness beam at high repetition rate, at first HZB tested a fully superconducting injector with a lead cathode*,followed now by the design of a SC cavity allowing operation up to 4 mA using CW-modified TTF-III couplers and inserting a normal conducting high quantum efficiency cathode using the HZDR-style insert scheme. This talk will present the latest results and an overview of the measurements with the lead cathode cavity and will describe the design and optimization process, the first production results of the current design and an outlook to the further development steps towards the full power version.

  19. 水下滑翔机海洋环境深平均流估计方法%Estimating Depth-averaged Currents of Underwater Gliders in Ocean Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周耀鉴; 俞建成; 王晓辉

    2016-01-01

    提出了水下滑翔机海洋环境深平均流估计方法。首先,基于水下滑翔机稳态运动模型,研究海水密度差异和耐压舱体压缩变形对水下滑翔机运动速度的影响,建立水下滑翔机运动速度快速计算模型,并证明了该模型的正确性及有效性。然后,利用得到的水下滑翔机运动速度和船位推算方法结合,给出了海洋环境深平均流估算方法。利用该深平均流估算方法对3台水下滑翔机海上试验过程中的深平均流进行估算,并分析了估算结果的有效性。实验结果证明利用本文得到的深平均流可以提高水下滑翔机船位推算中的定位精度。%We propose a depth-averaged current estimation method.Firstly,based on a stable motion model of an underwater glider,we discuss the influence of seawater density difference and compression deformation of pressure hull on the movement of the glider.We then build a rapid-calculation model for glider speed,and demonstrate its effectiveness and feasibility.In combination with recalculated glider speed and dead reckon-ing,we present a depth-averaged current estimation method.We estimate the depth-averaged currents from the sea trials of three different gliders using this method,and demonstrate its effectiveness.The results show that the accuracy of dead reckoning positioning of underwater gliders can be improved with the help of depth-averaged currents.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Current-fed IPT System by Generalized State Space Averaging Method%电流型IPT系统广义状态空间平均法建模与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉刚; 方少乾; 唐春森; 李砚玲; 张新军

    2013-01-01

    针对目前关于感应电能传输(IPT)系统建模存在的不足,采用广义状态空间平均法建立了电流型IPT系统的线性定常平均模型.基于该模型,根据线性系统理论方法,分析了系统状态变量的运动规律.此外,还分析了等效负载变化时的稳定性和对副边输出电压的影响,以及不同互感参数及副边电感下的传输功率和效率.结果表明,本文的建模方法和分析结果对于电流型IPT系统的实际运动行为有较强的理论指导意义及对系统的设计具有一定的参考价值.%The linear time-invariant average model about the current-fed IPT system is established using generalized state space averaging method.Based on this model and linear system theory,movement rules about system state variables are analyzed.Stability and secondary output voltage are analyzed when equivalent load changes.Furthermore,transmission power and efficiency with different mutual inductance or secondary inductance are analyzed.It has theoretical significance to the current-fed IPT system's actual movement and the certain reference value to the design of the system by means of the paper's modeling method and all analytical results.

  1. MA-verpakking : oude techniek, nieuwe toepassing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stijger, H.; Boogaard, van den G.J.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Toepassing van MA-verpakking (Modified Atmosphere) bij houtig kleinfruit. Bij MA-verpakking wordt het product in een speciale MA-folie ingepakt, het zogenoemde flowpacken, en al dan niet begast, zodat kwetsbare producten langer in goede conditie blijven

  2. ¿Es ventajosa para México la tecnología actual de maíz trangénico? Is the current transgenic maize technology advantageous to Mexico?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Turrent Fernández

    Full Text Available En 2009, el gobierno mexicano otorgó 24 permisos a varios consorcios multinacionales (CMN, para experimentar con maíz transgénico (MT en 24 localidades de los estados de Sinaloa, Sonora, Chihuahua y Tamaulipas, con protocolos de bioseguridad contra el flujo génico vía polen y vía semilla-polen; hay 14 nuevas solicitudes en consideración. La fracción del agroecosistema de maíz de México (AMM, muestreada por estos permisos tiene 754 000 ha de riego, en una región cohabitada por 5 grupos étnicos y 29 razas nativas de maíz (RNM. Para analizar las consecuencias para el AMM de una hipotética liberación del MT a escala comercial, se analiza: 1 la mega-diversidad del AMM; 2 la tecnología no transgénica disponible; y 3 los riesgos en que incurren las RNM. El protocolo de bioseguridad de la fase experimental no será aplicable a escala comercial, e inevitablemente será sustituido por otro lado que ignorará al flujo génico semilla-polen. Esta vía es parte de las prácticas del mejoramiento genético autóctono, raíz misma de la generación y avance de las RNM en el centro de origen y diversificación, haciendo inevitable la interacción génica MT*RNM. Las 59 RNM se siembran en 75 por ciento del AMM y son clave para la seguridad alimentaria y usos culturales del maíz como alimento; también forman parte de la tecnología no transgénica que sabemos permitiría la autosuficiencia alimentaria. Se concluye que el mega experimento de los CMN en el AMM es desventajoso para México, no es necesario y que habría de ser prohibido.In 2009, the Mexican government granted to several multinational enterprises (MNE 24 permits to experiment with transgenic corn (MT in 24 towns of the states of Sinaloa, Sonora, Chihuahua and Tamaulipas, with biosafety protocols against gene flow via pollen and via seed-pollen; there are 14 new applications in consideration. The fraction of corn agroecosystem of Mexico (AMM sampled for these permits has 754 000 ha

  3. A new 40 MA ranchero explosive pulsed power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goforth, James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Herrera, Dennis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oona, Hank [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Torres, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Atchison, W L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Colgate, S A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guzik, J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holtkamp, D B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Idzorek, G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kirkpatrick, R C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menikoff, R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reardon, P T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, R E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, C L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sgro, A G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tabaka, L J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tierney, T E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Watt, R G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We are developing a new high explosive pulsed power (HEPP) system based on the 1.4 m long Ranchero generator which was developed in 1999 for driving solid density z-pinch loads. The new application requires approximately 40 MA to implode similar liners, but the liners cannot tolerate the 65 {micro}s, 3 MA current pulse associated with delivering the initial magnetic flux to the 200 nH generator. To circumvent this problem, we have designed a system with an internal start switch and four explosively formed fuse (EFF) opening switches. The integral start switch is installed between the output glide plane and the armature. It functions in the same manner as a standard input crowbar switch when armature motion begins, but initially isolates the load. The circuit is completed during the flux loading phase using post hole convolutes. Each convolute attaches the inner (coaxial) output transmission line to the outside of the outer coax through a penetration of the outer coaxial line. The attachment is made with the conductor of an EFF at each location. The EFFs conduct 0.75 MA each, and are actuated just after the internal start switch connects to the load. EFFs operating at these parameters have been tested in the past. The post hole convolutes must withstand as much as 80 kV at peak dl/dt during the Ranchero load current pulse. We describe the design of this new HEPP system in detail, and give the experimental results available at conference time. In addition, we discuss the work we are doing to test the upper current limits of a single standard size Ranchero module. Calculations have suggested that the generator could function at up to {approx}120 MA, the rule of thumb we follow (1 MA/cm) suggests 90 MA, and simple flux compression calculations, along with the {approx}4 MA seed current available from our capacitor bank, suggests 118 MA is the currently available upper limit.

  4. 76 FR 77591 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1099-MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1099-MA AGENCY: Internal Revenue...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1098-MA, Mortgage Assistance... Assistance Payments. OMB Number: 1545-2221. Form Number: Form 1099-MA. Abstract: This form is a...

  5. Aggregation and Averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Irving H.

    The arithmetic processes of aggregation and averaging are basic to quantitative investigations of employment, unemployment, and related concepts. In explaining these concepts, this report stresses need for accuracy and consistency in measurements, and describes tools for analyzing alternative measures. (BH)

  6. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  7. MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, A.-M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-10-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO) is a galaxy integral-field spectroscopic survey within the fourth generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). It will be mapping the composition and kinematics of gas and stars in 10,000 nearby galaxies, using 17 differently sized fiber bundles. MaNGA's goal is to provide new insights in galaxy formation and evolution, and to deliver a local benchmark for current and future high-redshift studies.

  8. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion...

  9. Your Average Nigga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vershawn Ashanti

    2004-01-01

    "Your Average Nigga" contends that just as exaggerating the differences between black and white language leaves some black speakers, especially those from the ghetto, at an impasse, so exaggerating and reifying the differences between the races leaves blacks in the impossible position of either having to try to be white or forever struggling to…

  10. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  11. Cinéma / Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Berthomé, Jean-Pierre; Coulombe, Michel; Dvorak, Marta; Garel, Sylvain; Noguez, Dominique; Suchet, Simone; Vimenet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Longtemps connue en France par le biais de cinéastes québécois tels que Claude Jutra, Gilles Carle, ou Pierre Perrault, l'industrie cinématographique du Canada a dû se développer dans l'ombre d'Hollywood. Elle s'est forgée une réputation internationale d'excellence dans les domaines qui ne concurrençaient pas les studios américains : le documentaire, le court-métrage, et les films d'animation. Nous sommes en présence d'un cinéma fortement subventionné (et même d'un cinéma d'État) qui repose s...

  12. BaMa / Raivo Juurak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juurak, Raivo, 1949-

    2002-01-01

    Eesti ülikoolide üleminekust 3+2 süsteemile. Lühend BaMa on tulnud kasutusele seoses Euroopa ülikoolide õppekavade reformimisega ning tähistab õppekava, kus esimese astme läbimise järel omandatakse bakalaureuse- ja teise järel magistrikraad. Õppekavade tüüpidest Eesti ja Euroopa Liidu kõrgkoolides ning Bologna deklaratsioonist

  13. Covariant approximation averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Shintani, Eigo; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte-Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in $N_f=2+1$ lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte-Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  14. Development of high current electron beam generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sun Kook [and others

    1997-05-01

    A high-current electron beam generator has been developed. The energy and the average current of the electron beam are 2 MeV and 50 mA, respectively. The electron beam generator is composed of an electron gun, RF acceleration cavities, a 260-kW RF generator, electron beam optics components, and control system, etc. The electron beam generator will be used for the development of a millimeter-wave free-electron laser and a high average power infrared free-electron laser. The machine will also be used as a user facility in nuclear industry, environment industry, semiconductor industry, chemical industry, etc. (author). 15 tabs., 85 figs.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Kevin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    I present an overview of the scientific motivation and basic design of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV program, MaNGA: Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory. MaNGA is currently in its second year of operations with roughly 2000 galaxies now observed, already the largest integral field spectroscopic survey of galaxies ever conducted. By combining the wealth of information made available by resolved spectroscopy with the statistical power of a sample of 10,000 galaxies, MaNGA is providing transformative insights on key questions about the life history of galaxies. These questions range from the nature of growth of star-forming disks and stellar spheroidals, to the physical origin of star formation quenching, to the ways in which the different mass components in galaxies interact and assemble over time. MaNGA's success owes to a dedicated team of scientists, engineers, and observers working to optimize the survey operations and develop advanced data processing, analysis, and interface tools in order to fully realize MaNGA's exciting potential. Continuing in the Sloan tradition, MaNGA data products will be made publicly available, with the first release scheduled for Summer 2016.

  16. 33 CFR 80.125 - Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.125 Marblehead Neck, MA to Nahant, MA. The 72 COLREGS apply on the harbors, bays, and inlets on the east coast of Massachusetts...

  17. 33 CFR 80.135 - Hull, MA to Race Point, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hull, MA to Race Point, MA. 80.135 Section 80.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.135 Hull, MA to Race Point, MA....

  18. Ma Ying-jeou’s Presidential Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    "Despite the substantial advances made in cross-Strait relations during Ma Ying-jeou's (Ma Yingjiu) first term, the ROC president's rhetoric varied considerably as he grappled with the difficult reality of implementing campaign and inauguration pledges to establish better relations with China while striving to maintain national respect and sovereignty. In this article, the authors put forward a framework for measuring, analyzing and explaining this variation in President Ma's first-term disco...

  19. Does Moving Average Technical Trading Rule Provide Value for Intraday Stock Trading?: Evidence from the Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ario Harsanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the value of employing simple moving average (SMA and moving average (MA technical trading rules for intraday stock trading in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. We test independently SMA[5], SMA[10], SMA[15], MA[5,50], MA[5,150], and MA[5,200] trading rules. We find all three SMAs and MA[5,200] tend to deliver returns greater than the unconditional basic return (UBR, while MA[5,50] and MA[5,150] generate returns less than UBR. We conclude that SMAs are more valuable than MAs as intraday technical trading rules. ";} // -->activate javascript

  20. M&A Negotiations and Lawyer Expertise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, C.; Malmendier, U.; Sautner, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We use proprietary data to look into the "black box" of M&A negotiations and to shed light on the effects of lawyer expertise on M&A contract design, the bargaining process, and acquisition pricing. Measuring the effects of buyer relative to seller lawyer expertise, we document that more expertise i

  1. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  2. 推挽DC-DC变换器平均电流控制研究%Research of Average Current Mode Control Based on Push-pull DC-DC Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂存兵; 谢运祥; 谢涛; 陈江辉

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the current stability and reliability of the push-pull converter, this paper ana-lyzed the push-pull DC/DC converter operational principle, and on this basis, built its small signal mathe-matical model. With imposing the current-mode dual-loop control strategy into its control system, improved the system dynamic response and protection ability. It has given the design process of the control system of push-pull converter, simulation and experimental research also has been done in the paper. The simulation and experimental results showed that, in view of the push-pull converter, the dual-loop control strategy has got a good dynamic and static control performance.%该文为提高推挽变换器的电流稳定性和系统可靠性,通过分析了DC/DC推挽变换器的工作原理,在此基础上建立了小信号数学模型.并施以电流型双环控制策略,有效的提高系统的动态响应和保护能力.给出了推挽变换器的控制系统的设计过程,并进行了仿真和实验研究,结果表明针对推挽变换器,双环控制策略具有良好动态和静态控制性能.

  3. Average Convexity in Communication Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we study inheritance properties of average convexity in communication situations. We show that the underlying graph ensures that the graphrestricted game originating from an average convex game is average convex if and only if every subgraph associated with a component of the underlyin

  4. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  5. Ma olin Saddami poeg / Latif Jahija

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jahija, Latif

    1995-01-01

    Järg Jan/21.,28. lk. 7,5. L. Jahija sensatsiooniline raamat "Ma olin Saddami poeg", milles ta pajatab kuidas ta a. 1987-1991 oli Iraagi presidendi vanema poja teisik. Lühikokkuvõte sellest jutustusest

  6. Quantized average consensus with delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafarian, Matin; De Persis, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Average consensus problem is a special case of cooperative control in which the agents of the network asymptotically converge to the average state (i.e., position) of the network by transferring information via a communication topology. One of the issues of the large scale networks is the cost of co

  7. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  8. MaRIE Undulator & XFEL Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2015-03-23

    The 22 slides in this presentation treat the subject under the following headings: MaRIE XFEL Performance Parameters, Input Electron Beam Parameters, Undulator Design, Genesis Simulations, Risks, and Summary It is concluded that time-dependent Genesis simulations show the MaRIE XFEL can deliver the number of photons within the required bandwidth, provided a number of assumptions are met; the highest risks are associated with the electron beam driving the XFEL undulator; and risks associated with the undulator and/or distributed seeding technique may be evaluated or retired by performing early validation experiments.

  9. M&A Takeover Fever Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's M&A activity is in turbo-drive. Outward investment is soaring, as many more Chinese companies need and are able to pursue opportunities overseas. Inward investment is accelerating, as foreign firms seek a foothold in the potentially lucrative Chinese market. And domestic consolidation is heating up among the country's fragmented industries due to overcapacity. Now that the Chinese government plans to address policy hurdles affecting M&A and relax foreign currency controls, activity levels should rise across most sectors. But while this may improve market positions and increase synergies for local and foreign investors, credit risks could intensify.

  10. Operation and maintenance in ST-MA

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, R

    2003-01-01

    This paper will review the Operation & Maintenance (O&M) activities in the ST-MA group, giving an overview of the services provided by the Group as well as the contract activities. As an introduction, a conceptual framework for O&M is proposed in order to better situate the domains of Operation and Maintenance respectively. The ST-MA activities shall be looked at through the three main service axes and special emphasis will be given to the contractual implementation, supervision and follow-up methodology.

  11. M&A information technology best practices

    CERN Document Server

    Roehl-Anderson, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    Add value to your organization via the mergers & acquisitions IT function  As part of Deloitte Consulting, one of the largest mergers and acquisitions (M&A) consulting practice in the world, author Janice Roehl-Anderson reveals in M&A Information Technology Best Practices how companies can effectively and efficiently address the IT aspects of mergers, acquisitions, and divestitures. Filled with best practices for implementing and maintaining systems, this book helps financial and technology executives in every field to add value to their mergers, acquisitions, and/or divestitures via the IT

  12. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-08

    security science challenges. Our first issue of Vistas focused on our current national user facilities (the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center [LANSCE], the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory-Pulsed Field Facility, and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies) and the vitality they bring to our Laboratory. These facilities are a magnet for students, postdoctoral researchers, and staff members from all over the world. This, in turn, allows us to continue to develop and maintain our strong staff across the relevant disciplines and conduct world-class discovery science. The second issue of Vistas was devoted entirely to the Laboratory's materials strategy - one of the three strategic science thrusts for the Laboratory. This strategy has helped focus our thinking for MaRIE. We believe there is a bright future in cutting-edge experimental materials research, and that a 21st-century facility with unique capability is necessary to fulfill this goal. The Laboratory has spent the last several years defining MaRIE, and this issue of Vistas presents our current vision of that facility. MaRIE will leverage LANSCE and our other user facilities, as well as our internal and external materials community for decades to come, giving Los Alamos a unique competitive advantage, advancing materials science for the Laboratory's missions and attracting and recruiting scientists of international stature. MaRIE will give the international materials research community a suite of tools capable of meeting a broad range of outstanding grand challenges.

  13. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.

  14. Preserved history of global mean spreading rate: 83 Ma to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Christopher J.; Rowley, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Using an up-to-date global plate rotation model, applied to the endpoints of preserved major spreading ridge isochrons, we have calculated the explicitly reconstructable length-weighted mean global half-spreading rate (HSR), ridge length and area production as a function of time since the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron at 83.0 Ma. Our calculations integrate uncertainties in rotation parameters and chron boundary ages with the partial sampling uncertainties arising from progressive subduction of older oceanic lithosphere and its preserved spreading record. This record of directly reconstructable oceanic ridge production provides a well-constrained baseline that can be compared to reconstructions that include the largely unconstrained extrapolated histories of entirely subducted oceanic plates. The directly reconstructable global mean HSR has not varied by more than ±15 per cent about an average rate of 28.4 ± 4.6 mm a-1 since 83 Ma. No long-term secular trend is evident: a maximum global mean half-rate of 32 ± 6 mm a-1 occurred from 33.1 Ma to about 25.8 Ma, with minima of 26 ± 5 mm a-1 between about 56 and 40.2 Ma, and 24 ± 1 mm a-1 since 3.2 Ma. Only this most recent interval has a rate that differs significantly (at ±2σ) from the long-term mean. The global, reconstructable ridge length at 56 Ma decreases by less than 15 per cent relative to the modern ridge system; by 83 Ma it has decreased by 38 per cent. These relatively high preserved ridge fractions mean that the estimated uncertainty due to partial sampling stays roughly equivalent to the estimated rotation model uncertainties, allowing long-term spreading rate variations of >20 per cent since the Late Cretaceous to be ruled out. In contrast, prior to 83 Ma too little oceanic lithosphere is preserved to reliably reconstruct global spreading rates.

  15. Salatoimikud : ma tahan uskuda / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart

    2008-01-01

    USA sarjale "The X-Files" põhinev teine järjefilm "Salatoimikud: Ma tahan uskuda" ("The X-Files: I Want to Believe") : režissöör Chris Carter : peaosades David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Kanada 2008

  16. Maíz I (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Ortega, Iván; Pérez-Urria Carril, Elena

    2014-01-01

    El maíz es uno de los cultivos básicos más importantes y extendidos en todo el mundo. Constituye una de las fuentes principales de alimento de millones depersonas, sobre todo en América y Asia. Se trata de una de las primeras plantas que se domesticaron y se difundieron por todo el mundo.

  17. 76 FR 36953 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State...

  18. 77 FR 76585 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00052

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00052 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth...

  19. 77 FR 66214 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth...

  20. 76 FR 56859 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00039

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth...

  1. 75 FR 45681 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00028.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00028. AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth...

  2. 75 FR 22874 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  3. 76 FR 56853 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  4. Teacher MA Attainment Rates, 1970-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S. Eric

    2010-01-01

    The share of female teachers in the U.S. with an MA more than doubled between 1970 and 2000. This increase is puzzling, as it is much larger than that of other college-educated women, and it occurred over a period of declining teacher aptitude. I estimate the contribution of changes in teacher demographic characteristics, increases in the returns…

  5. 76 FR 65557 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00043

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00043 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth...

  6. 75 FR 17177 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State...

  7. 76 FR 36952 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  8. 77 FR 76584 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00051

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00051 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth...

  9. 77 FR 2600 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  10. 76 FR 13697 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00032 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance...

  11. 78 FR 2708 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and Disbursement Center... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  12. 78 FR 25336 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: 01/21/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration... CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street...

  13. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-03-16

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule.

  14. Vaccines against stimulants: cocaine and MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Thomas; Domingo, Coreen; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma

    2014-02-01

    While the worldwide prevalence of cocaine use remains significant, medications, or small molecule approaches, to treat drug addictions have met with limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, on the other hand, have demonstrated great potential for treating drug abuse using a distinctly different mechanism of eliciting an antibody response that blocks the pharmacological effects of drugs. We provide a review of vaccine-based approaches to treating stimulant addictions; specifically and cocaine addictions. This selective review article focuses on the one cocaine vaccine that has been into clinical trials and presents new data related to pre-clinical development of a methamphetamine (MA) vaccine. We also review the mechanism of action for vaccine induced antibodies to abused drugs, which involves kinetic slowing of brain entry as well as simple blocking properties. We present pre-clinical innovations for MA vaccines including hapten design, linkage to carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. We provide some new information on hapten structures and linkers and variations in protein carriers. We consider a carrier, outer membrance polysaccharide coat protein (OMPC), that provides some self-adjuvant through lipopolysaccharide components and provide new results with a monophosopholipid adjuvant for the more standard carrier proteins with cocaine and MA. The review then covers the clinical trials with the cocaine vaccine TA-CD. The clinical prospects for advances in this field over the next few years include a multi-site cocaine vaccine clinical trial to be reported in 2013 and phase 1 clinical trials of a MA vaccine in 2014.

  15. Salatoimikud : ma tahan uskuda / Mart Rummo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rummo, Mart

    2008-01-01

    USA sarjale "The X-Files" põhinev teine järjefilm "Salatoimikud: Ma tahan uskuda" ("The X-Files: I Want to Believe") : režissöör Chris Carter : peaosades David Duchovny, Gillian Anderson : Ameerika Ühendriigid - Kanada 2008

  16. Global Plate Driving Forces at 50Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, N. P.; Quevedo, L. E.; Müller, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    We apply a novel workflow utilising the BEM-Earth geodynamic software to analyse the global coupled plate-mantle dynamics at 50 Ma. A subduction history model based on kinematic data going as far back as 80 Ma was developed using the GPlates software. Advection of the plates into the mantle takes into account the absolute plate motions and lithospheric thickness derived from its age to produce an estimated density heterogeneity initial model condition in the upper mantle. The resulting global model consists of regions of a mantle viscosity and density structure that is post-processed to ensure smooth non-overlapping 3D surfaces. BEM-Earth is then free to evolve the model toward the 50 Ma solution. The evolution of the model is driven by self-consistent buoyancy driven mantle dynamics. We use the model velocity output to quantify changes in forces driving the plates before and after 50 Ma. We analyse the rapid change in plate motion of India, Africa and plates in the Pacific Ocean basin by considering slab-pull, ridge-push and mantle drag/suction forces that naturally result from such top-down driven mantle flow. We compare the results with plate kinematic reconstructions and other geological observations.

  17. 77 FR 33263 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00048

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00048 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 05/29/2012. Incident: Lake Williams Condominium Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  18. 76 FR 30748 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 05/19/2011. Incident: Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period: 04/30/2011. Effective...

  19. 75 FR 79064 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 12/07/2010. Incident: Apartment complex fire. Incident Period: 11/21/2010. Effective...

  20. 76 FR 40766 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00035

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00035 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 06/29/2011. Incident: Johnsonia Apartment Building Fire Incident Period:...

  1. 77 FR 12350 - Massachusetts Disaster #MA-00047

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00047 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 02/21/2012. Incident: Brookline Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period:...

  2. 75 FR 3764 - Massachusetts Disaster # MA-00024

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster MA-00024 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts dated 01/15/2010. Incident: Mystic Side Estates Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period:...

  3. 46 CFR 308.550 - Certificate, Form MA-320.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate, Form MA-320. 308.550 Section 308.550... Risk Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.550 Certificate, Form MA-320. Wherever any provision of this... execute a certificate on Form MA-320-A for an individual, on Form MA-320-B for a partnership, or on...

  4. 42 CFR 422.4 - Types of MA plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of MA plans. 422.4 Section 422.4 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM General Provisions § 422.4 Types of MA plans. (a) General rule. An MA plan may be a coordinated care plan, a combination of an MA MSA plan and a contribution into...

  5. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  6. Ergodic averages via dominating processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2006-01-01

    We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...

  7. Asymmetries in conditional mean and variance: Modelling stock returns by asMA-asQGARCH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brännäs, K.; de Gooijer, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The asymmetric moving average model (asMA) is extended to allow for asymmetric quadratic conditional heteroskedasticity (asQGARCH). The asymmetric parametrization of the condi- tional variance encompasses the quadratic GARCH model of Sentana (1995). We introduce a framework for testing asymmetries i

  8. Mañana remisión de V. crepúsculo de la mañana.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Definición del término Mañana remisión de V. crepúsculo de la mañana. en el diccionario Dicter. [EN] Definition of the word Mañana remisión de V. crepúsculo de la mañana. in the dictionary Dicter.

  9. High average power supercontinuum sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J C Travers

    2010-11-01

    The physical mechanisms and basic experimental techniques for the creation of high average spectral power supercontinuum sources is briefly reviewed. We focus on the use of high-power ytterbium-doped fibre lasers as pump sources, and the use of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fibres as the nonlinear medium. The most common experimental arrangements are described, including both continuous wave fibre laser systems with over 100 W pump power, and picosecond mode-locked, master oscillator power fibre amplifier systems, with over 10 kW peak pump power. These systems can produce broadband supercontinua with over 50 and 1 mW/nm average spectral power, respectively. Techniques for numerical modelling of the supercontinuum sources are presented and used to illustrate some supercontinuum dynamics. Some recent experimental results are presented.

  10. Dependability in Aggregation by Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jesus, Paulo; Almeida, Paulo Sérgio

    2010-01-01

    Aggregation is an important building block of modern distributed applications, allowing the determination of meaningful properties (e.g. network size, total storage capacity, average load, majorities, etc.) that are used to direct the execution of the system. However, the majority of the existing aggregation algorithms exhibit relevant dependability issues, when prospecting their use in real application environments. In this paper, we reveal some dependability issues of aggregation algorithms based on iterative averaging techniques, giving some directions to solve them. This class of algorithms is considered robust (when compared to common tree-based approaches), being independent from the used routing topology and providing an aggregation result at all nodes. However, their robustness is strongly challenged and their correctness often compromised, when changing the assumptions of their working environment to more realistic ones. The correctness of this class of algorithms relies on the maintenance of a funda...

  11. Measuring Complexity through Average Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Alamino, Roberto C.

    2015-01-01

    This work introduces a complexity measure which addresses some conflicting issues between existing ones by using a new principle - measuring the average amount of symmetry broken by an object. It attributes low (although different) complexity to either deterministic or random homogeneous densities and higher complexity to the intermediate cases. This new measure is easily computable, breaks the coarse graining paradigm and can be straightforwardly generalised, including to continuous cases an...

  12. Investigating Averaging Effect by Using Three Dimension Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The eddy current displacement sensor's averaging effect has been investigated in this paper,and thefrequency spectrum property of the averaging effect was also deduced. It indicates that the averaging effect has no influences on measuring a rotor's rotating error, but it has visible influences on measuring the rotor's profile error. According to the frequency spectrum of the averaging effect, the actual sampling data can be adjusted reasonably, thus measuring precision is improved.

  13. MaJAZ1 Attenuates the MaLBD5-Mediated Transcriptional Activation of Jasmonate Biosynthesis Gene MaAOC2 in Regulating Cold Tolerance of Banana Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Liang-jie; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies indicated that methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment could effectively reduce the chilling injury of many fruits, including banana, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, one lateral organ boundaries (LOB) domain (LBD) gene, designated as MaLBD5, was isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Expression analysis revealed that accumulation of MaLBD5 was induced by cold temperature and MeJA treatment. Subcellular localization and transactivation assays showed that MaLBD5 was localized to the nucleus and possessed transcriptional activation activity. Protein-protein interaction analysis demonstrated that MaLBD5 physically interacted with MaJAZ1, a potential repressor of jasmonate signaling. Furthermore, transient expression assays indicated that MaLBD5 transactivated a jasmonate biosynthesis gene, termed MaAOC2, which was also induced by cold and MeJA. More interestingly, MaJAZ1 attenuated the MaLBD5-mediated transactivation of MaAOC2. These results suggest that MaLBD5 and MaJAZ1 might act antagonistically in relation to MeJA-induced cold tolerance of banana fruit, at least partially via affecting jasmonate biosynthesis. Collectively, our findings expand the knowledge of the transcriptional regulatory network of MeJA-mediated cold tolerance of banana fruit.

  14. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  15. Cinéma en France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel VIGOUROUX

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available Le cinéma est l’objet de bases de données exhaustives sur les équipements et les fréquentations. Les données sur les salles permettent d’identifier le phénomène de concentration de propriété et d’exploitation. La perspective dynamique peut être observée sur 45 ans. À l’échelle régionale, on peut apprécier le dynamisme du cinéma en haute montagne alpine et la différence de réseaux sur le territoire (France de l’Ouest.

  16. Generalized Heteroskedasticity ACF for Moving Average Models in Explicit Forms

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Khaled Safi

    2014-01-01

    The autocorrelation function (ACF) measures the correlation between observations at different   distances apart. We derive explicit equations for generalized heteroskedasticity ACF for moving average of order q, MA(q). We consider two cases: Firstly: when the disturbance term follow the general covariance matrix structure Cov(wi, wj)=S with si,j ¹ 0 " i¹j . Secondly: when the diagonal elements of S are not all identical but sij = 0 " i¹j, i.e. S=diag(s11, s22,&hellip...

  17. Sobre Juan Bautista Maíno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article published new documents about the activity of the Domenican painter Juan Bautista Maíno specially concerning his concept of the practice of Painting in relation to the other arts. Works hitherto unknown are published here for the first time. Also illustrated are portraits of the Conde de Añover de Tajo and his wife, whose collections were, in addition given valuation by the artista.No disponible

  18. Sobre Juan Bautista Maíno

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Sánchez, Alfonso E.

    1997-01-01

    This article published new documents about the activity of the Domenican painter Juan Bautista Maíno specially concerning his concept of the practice of Painting in relation to the other arts. Works hitherto unknown are published here for the first time. Also illustrated are portraits of the Conde de Añover de Tajo and his wife, whose collections were, in addition given valuation by the artista.No disponible

  19. Vaccines against stimulants: cocaine and MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, Thomas; Domingo, Coreen; Orson, Frank; Kinsey, Berma

    2014-01-01

    While the worldwide prevalence of cocaine use remains significant, medications, or small molecule approaches, to treat drug addictions have met with limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, on the other hand, have demonstrated great potential for treating drug abuse using a distinctly different mechanism of eliciting an antibody response that blocks the pharmacological effects of drugs. We provide a review of vaccine-based approaches to treating stimulant addictions; specifically and cocaine addictions. This selective review article focuses on the one cocaine vaccine that has been into clinical trials and presents new data related to pre-clinical development of a methamphetamine (MA) vaccine. We also review the mechanism of action for vaccine induced antibodies to abused drugs, which involves kinetic slowing of brain entry as well as simple blocking properties. We present pre-clinical innovations for MA vaccines including hapten design, linkage to carrier proteins and new adjuvants beyond alum. We provide some new information on hapten structures and linkers and variations in protein carriers. We consider a carrier, outer membrance polysaccharide coat protein (OMPC), that provides some self-adjuvant through lipopolysaccharide components and provide new results with a monophosopholipid adjuvant for the more standard carrier proteins with cocaine and MA. The review then covers the clinical trials with the cocaine vaccine TA-CD. The clinical prospects for advances in this field over the next few years include a multi-site cocaine vaccine clinical trial to be reported in 2013 and phase 1 clinical trials of a MA vaccine in 2014. PMID:23509915

  20. Mirror averaging with sparsity priors

    CERN Document Server

    Dalalyan, Arnak

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of aggregating the elements of a (possibly infinite) dictionary for building a decision procedure, that aims at minimizing a given criterion. Along with the dictionary, an independent identically distributed training sample is available, on which the performance of a given procedure can be tested. In a fairly general set-up, we establish an oracle inequality for the Mirror Averaging aggregate based on any prior distribution. This oracle inequality is applied in the context of sparse coding for different problems of statistics and machine learning such as regression, density estimation and binary classification.

  1. Microcap M&A: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Turpie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A substantial body of accounting and finance literature has been devoted to the study of Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As dominated by discussions relating to the gains and losses that accrue from transactions involving large public companies. This paper makes a unique contribution to the literature by investigating the M&A experience of microcap businesses. Transactions involving microcap M&A are substantially different to those involving large companies on a number of dimensions. This paper explores the determinants of microcap M&A success and pitfalls and problems from an integration perspective. Due to the paucity of research in the area an exploratory research design is employed, conducting interviews with five CEOs of companies that had each managed multiple transactions. We find microcap M&As are successful when measured against identified goals but generally take longer and cost more than expected. Further, culture and communication are key issues in determining success/failure. We also find the in-house management of integration aspects is problematic for these businesses and suggest this warrants further study.

  2. A new method for discriminating transformer inrush current by combining the average standard deviation of 2-norm of the wave%结合波形后半波2-范数平均标准差鉴别变压器励磁涌流新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凯; 董华英

    2013-01-01

    A new method for discriminating the inrush current by integrating the characteristics of the two kinds of current is presented based on large of simulation and testing.Because of the character that the magnetic inrush current leans to the one side of the time axis and the internal fault current is similar to the sine wave,the difference between the maximum and minimum and the unitary area in cycle is used as a general criterion to discriminate the unsymmetrical inrush current.For the symmetrical inrush current,we set a second criterion,which needs to calculate the average standard deviation of the 2-norm between the part data in the half cycle and the sine wave with the same length.validity of the new method is verified with simulating and testing.%在大量仿真和实验的基础上,综合变压器励磁涌流和内部故障电流的特点,提出了一种鉴别变压器励磁涌流的新方法.该方法基于励磁涌流偏于时间轴一侧和故障电流接近正弦波的特点,以周波内最值差别和归一化面积作为综合判据鉴别非对称的励磁涌流,而对于对称的励磁涌流,以后半周波内一部分数据与同窗长的标准正弦波的2-范数的平均标准差作为判据进行鉴别.仿真和实验验证了方法的正确性.

  3. Digitally compensated beam current transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Kesselman, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is being built by a collaboration of six laboratories. Beam current monitors (BCMs) will be used to record the current of H-minus and H-plus beams ranging from 15 mA (tune-up in the Front End and Linac) to over 60A fully accumulated in the Ring and dumped to the load as a single pulse in the Ring to Beam Target (RTBT). The time structure of these beams ranges from 645ns "mini" bunches at the 1.05 MHz ring revolution rate, to an overall 1 ms long macro-pulse. The requirements for the BCMs will depend upon their location within the system. The need to measure individual mini-pulses, examine the characteristics of the chopper edge, as well as the longer average current pulse of the macropulse, or long duration pulses during Linac tuning place wide requirements upon the response of current transformers. To obtain the desired accuracy and resolution, current transformers must have less than 1 ns rise time and droops of 0.1 %/ms. This places a significant design burden on the cur...

  4. NASA S and MA at the Crossroads; The Role of NASA Quality Insight/Oversight for Commercial Crewed Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The presentation slides examine: The Journey, Current Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Oversight/Insight, The Change, The Issue, Potential NASA relationship with Commercial Partners, and Commercial "X" FRR - Are you Go.

  5. Applying the conventional moving average filter for estimation of low radiation doses using EPR spectroscopy: Benefits and drawbacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghraby, Ahmed M., E-mail: maghrabism@yahoo.com [National Institute of Standards (NIS), Radiation Dosimetry Department, Ministry of Scientific Research, Tersa Street, P.O. Box 136, Giza, Haram 12211 (Egypt); Physics Department, Faculty of Science and Humanities, Salman Bin AbdulAziz University, Alkharj (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-02-11

    Alanine/EPR is the most common dosimetry system for high radiation doses because of its high stability and wide linear response, however, use of alanine in most of medical applications still require special sophisticated methodologies and techniques in order to extend alanine detection limit to low levels of radiation doses. One of these techniques is the use of digital processing of acquired alanine spectra for enhancing useful components in spectra while useless features are suppressed. Simple moving average filter (MA) impacts on alanine EPR spectra have been studied in terms of peak-to-peak height, peak-to-peak line width, and associated uncertainty. Three types of the used filter were investigated: upward MA, central MA, and downward MA filters, effects of each on the peak position for different values of filter width were studied. It was found that MA filter always lead to the reduction in signal intensity and the increase of line width of the central peak of alanine spectrum. Peak position also changes in cases of the upward MA and downward MA filters while no significant changes were observed in the case of central MA. Uncertainties associated to the averaging process were evaluated and plotted versus the filter width resulting in a linear relationship. Filter width value should be carefully selected in order to avoid probable distortion in processed spectra while gaining less noisy spectra with less associated uncertainties.

  6. Exploring MaNGA's kinematic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Different galaxy formation processes leave different imprints on the gas and stellar kinematic patterns for a galaxy. With MaNGA, we now have after one year of observations an unprecedented sample of 1400 nearby galaxies for which we can study gas and stellar kinematics in much detail, based on integral-field spectroscopy. We are measuring kinematic quantities such as LambdaR (angular momentum) and their (possible) correlations with other galaxy properties such as mass, morphology and environment. By quantifying the kinematic (sub)structures in velocity and dispersion maps, we will construct a kinematic galaxy classification that can be linked to their formation processes.

  7. Advanced Query and Data Mining Capabilities for MaROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Paul; Wallick, Michael N.; Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Hy, Franklin H.

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operational Service (MaROS) comprises a number of tools to coordinate, plan, and visualize various aspects of the Mars Relay network. These levels include a Web-based user interface, a back-end "ReSTlet" built in Java, and databases that store the data as it is received from the network. As part of MaROS, the innovators have developed and implemented a feature set that operates on several levels of the software architecture. This new feature is an advanced querying capability through either the Web-based user interface, or through a back-end REST interface to access all of the data gathered from the network. This software is not meant to replace the REST interface, but to augment and expand the range of available data. The current REST interface provides specific data that is used by the MaROS Web application to display and visualize the information; however, the returned information from the REST interface has typically been pre-processed to return only a subset of the entire information within the repository, particularly only the information that is of interest to the GUI (graphical user interface). The new, advanced query and data mining capabilities allow users to retrieve the raw data and/or to perform their own data processing. The query language used to access the repository is a restricted subset of the structured query language (SQL) that can be built safely from the Web user interface, or entered as freeform SQL by a user. The results are returned in a CSV (Comma Separated Values) format for easy exporting to third party tools and applications that can be used for data mining or user-defined visualization and interpretation. This is the first time that a service is capable of providing access to all cross-project relay data from a single Web resource. Because MaROS contains the data for a variety of missions from the Mars network, which span both NASA and ESA, the software also establishes an access control list (ACL) on each data record

  8. 5 MV 30 mA industrial electron processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Y.; Mizusawa, K.

    1991-05-01

    Industrial electron beam processing systems have been in use in various application fields such as: improving heat resistivity of wire insulation; controlling quality of automobile rubber tires and melt index characteristics of PE foams; and curing paintings or printing inks. Recently, there has come up a need for electron beam with an energy higher than 3 MV in order to disinfect salmonella in chicken meat, to kill bugs in fruits, and to sterilize medical disposables. To meet this need we developed a 5 MV 30 mA electron processing system with an X-ray conversion target. The machine was tested in NHV's plant in Kyoto at continuous operation of full voltage and full current. It proved to be very steady in operation with a high efficiency (as much as 72%). Also, the X-ray target was tested in a continuous run of 5 MV 30 mA (150 kW). It proved to be viable in industrial utilization. This paper introduces the process and the results of the development.

  9. 76 FR 58105 - Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA AGENCY... River in Lynn, MA. Establishing this temporary rule will allow the necessary stabilization work to be... on the Energy Systems Pipeline Bridge on the Saugus River in Lynn, MA. The regulated area...

  10. Ma Ying-jeou’s Presidential Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the substantial advances made in cross-Strait relations during Ma Ying-jeou’s (Ma Yingjiu first term, the ROC president’s rhetoric varied considerably as he grappled with the difficult reality of implementing campaign and inauguration pledges to establish better relations with China while striving to maintain national respect and sovereignty. In this article, we put forward a framework for measuring, analysing and explaining this variation in President Ma’s first-term discourse. Analysing a very large number of Ma’s speeches, addresses, etc., we provide empirical assessments of how the content of Ma’s public pronouncements has developed over time, how his rhetoric varies according to the strategic context and timing of a speech, and how his discourse compares to that of his predecessor, Chen Shui-bian (Chen Shuibian. In addressing these questions, the article contributes a quantitative perspective to existing work on political discourse in Taiwan and to the growing methodological and applied literature on how to systematically analyse Chinese political text.

  11. MaNGA: Target selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, David

    2016-01-01

    The 6-year SDSS-IV MaNGA survey will measure spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 nearby galaxies using the Sloan 2.5m telescope and the BOSS spectrographs with a new fiber arrangement consisting of 17 individually deployable IFUs. We present the simultaneous design of the target selection and IFU size distribution to optimally meet our targeting requirements. The requirements for the main samples were to use simple cuts in redshift and magnitude to produce an approximately flat number density of targets as a function of stellar mass, ranging from 1x109 to 1x1011 M⊙, and radial coverage to either 1.5 (Primary sample) or 2.5 (Secondary sample) effective radii, while maximizing S/N and spatial resolution. In addition we constructed a "Color-Enhanced" sample where we required 25% of the targets to have an approximately flat number density in the color and mass plane. We show how these requirements are met using simple absolute magnitude (and color) dependent redshift cuts applied to an extended version of the NASA Sloan Atlas (NSA), how this determines the distribution of IFU sizes and the resulting properties of the MaNGA sample.

  12. Roadmap to MaRIE March 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Cris William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-30

    Los Alamos National Laboratory’s proposed MaRIE facility is slated to introduce the world’s highest energy hard x-ray free electron laser (XFEL). As the light source for the Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes experimental facility (MaRIE), the 42-keV XFEL, with bursts of x-ray pulses at gigahertz repetition for studying fast dynamical processes, will help accelerate discovery and design of the advanced materials needed to meet 21st-century national security and energy security challenges. Yet the science of free-electron lasers has a long and distinguished history at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), where for nearly four decades Los Alamos scientists have been performing research, design, development, and collaboration work in FEL science. The work at Los Alamos has evolved from low-gain amplifier and oscillator FEL development to highbrightness photoinjector development, and later, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) and high-gain amplifier FEL development.

  13. A uniform phase noise QVCO with a feedback current source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chunyuan; Zhang Lei; Qian He

    2012-01-01

    A novel integrated quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) with a feedback current source is presented in this paper.Benefiting from the current adjusting function of the feedback current source,the proposed QVCO exhibits a uniform phase noise over the entire tuning range.This QVCO is implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology.The measurement results show that it draws less than 3-mA average current from a 1.2-V supply and the phase noise is less than -110 dBc/Hz @1MHz offset over the entire tuning range.The fluctuation of phase noise @l MHz offset from the center frequency of 2 84-GHz to 3.27-GHz is less than 1 dBc/Hz,which validates the correctness of the proposed current source feedback technique.

  14. Identification and characterization of novel NuMA isoforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin, E-mail: petersdu2112@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Cell Proliferation and Regulation of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Xu, Zhe [Department of Clinical Laboratory Diagnosis, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Core Laboratory for Clinical Medical Research, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); He, Dacheng [Key Laboratory for Cell Proliferation and Regulation of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Lu, Guanting, E-mail: guantlv@126.com [Beijing DnaLead Science and Technology Co., LTD, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • Seven NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing were categorized into 3 groups: long, middle and short. • Both exons 15 and 16 in long NuMA were “hotspot” for alternative splicing. • Lower expression of short NuMA was observed in cancer cells compared with nonneoplastic controls. • Distinct localization pattern of short isoforms indicated different function from that of long and middle NuMA. - Abstract: The large nuclear mitotic apparatus (NuMA) has been investigated for over 30 years with functions related to the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. However, the existence and functions of NuMA isoforms generated by alternative splicing remains unclear. In the present work, we show that at least seven NuMA isoforms (categorized into long, middle and short groups) generated by alternative splicing from a common NuMA mRNA precursor were discovered in HeLa cells and these isoforms differ mainly at the carboxyl terminus and the coiled-coil domains. Two “hotspot” exons with molecular mass of 3366-nt and 42-nt tend to be spliced during alternative splicing in long and middle groups. Furthermore, full-length coding sequences of long and middle NuMA obtained by using fusion PCR were constructed into GFP-tagged vector to illustrate their cellular localization. Long NuMA mainly localized in the nucleus with absence from nucleoli during interphase and translocated to the spindle poles in mitosis. Middle NuMA displayed the similar cell cycle-dependent distribution pattern as long NuMA. However, expression of NuMA short isoforms revealed a distinct subcellular localization. Short NuMA were present in the cytosol during the whole cycle, without colocalization with mitotic apparatus. These results have allowed us tentatively to explore a new research direction for NuMA’s various functions.

  15. Gondwanaland from 650-500 Ma assembly through 320 Ma merger in Pangea to 185-100 Ma breakup: supercontinental tectonics via stratigraphy and radiometric dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veevers, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    Gondwanaland lasted from the 650-500 Ma (late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian) amalgamation of African and South American terranes to Antarctica-Australia-India through 320 Ma (mid-Carboniferous) merging with Laurussia in Pangea to breakup from 185 to 100 Ma (Jurassic and Early Cretaceous). Gondwanaland straddled the equator at 540 Ma, lay wholly in the Southern Hemisphere by 350 Ma, and then rotated clockwise so that at 250 Ma Australia reached the S pole and Africa the equator. By initial breakup of Pangea at 185 Ma, Gondwanaland had moved northward such that North Africa reached 35°N. The first clear picture of Gondwanaland, in the Cambrian, shows the assembly of continents with later Laurentian, European and Asian terranes along the "northern" margin, and with a trench along the "western" and "southern" margins, reflected by a 10,000-km-long chain of 530-500 Ma granites. The interior was crossed by the Prydz-Leeuwin and Mozambique Orogenic Belts. The shoreline lapped the flanks of uplifts generated during this complex terminal Pan-Gondwanaland (650-500 Ma) deformation, which endowed Gondwanaland with a thick, buoyant crust and lithosphere and a nonmarine siliciclastic facies. During the Ordovician, terranes drifted from Africa as the first of many transfers of material to the "northern" continents. Central Australia was crossed by the sea, and the eastern margin and ocean floor were flooded by grains of quartz (and 600-500 Ma zircon) from Antarctica. Ice centres in North Africa and southern South America/Africa waxed and waned in the latest Ordovician, Early Silurian, latest Devonian, and Early Carboniferous. In the mid-Carboniferous, Laurussia and Gondwanaland merged in the composite called Pangea by definitive right-lateral contact along the Variscan suture, with collisional stress and subsequent uplift felt as far afield as Australia. Ice sheets developed on the tectonic uplands of Gondwanaland south of 30°S. In the Early Permian, the self-induced heat beneath

  16. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ∼1  MA current pulse with a rise time of ∼100  ns into the ∼0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.

  17. Utilization of Practice Session Average Inertial Load to Quantify College Football Injury Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkerson, Gary B; Gupta, Ashish; Allen, Jeff R; Keith, Clay M; Colston, Marisa A

    2016-09-01

    Wilkerson, GB, Gupta, A, Allen, JR, Keith, CM, and Colston, MA. Utilization of practice session average inertial load to quantify college football injury risk. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2369-2374, 2016-Relatively few studies have investigated the potential injury prevention value of data derived from recently developed wearable technology for measurement of body mass accelerations during the performance of sport-related activities. The available evidence has been derived from studies focused on avoidance of overtraining syndrome, which is believed to induce a chronically fatigued state that can be identified through monitoring of inertial load accumulation. Reduced variability in movement patterns is also believed to be an important injury risk factor, but no evidence currently exists to guide interpretation of data derived from inertial measurement units (IMUs) in this regard. We retrospectively analyzed archived data for a cohort of 45 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1-football bowl subdivision football players who wore IMUs on the upper back during practice sessions to quantify any associations between average inertial load measured during practice sessions and occurrence of musculoskeletal sprains and strains. Both the coefficient of variation for average inertial load and frequent exposure to game conditions were found to be strongly associated with injury occurrence. Having either or both of the 2 risk factors provided strong discrimination between injured and noninjured players (χ = 9.048; p = 0.004; odds ratio = 8.04; 90% CI: 2.39, 27.03). Our findings may facilitate identification of individual football players who are likely to derive the greatest benefit from training activities designed to reduce injury risk through improved adaptability to rapidly changing environmental demands.

  18. The Data Reduction Pipeline for the SDSS-IV MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, David R.; Cherinka, Brian; Yan, Renbin; Andrews, Brett H.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bundy, Kevin; Chen, Yanmei; Drory, Niv; D'Souza, Richard; Fu, Hai; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen L.; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Parejko, John K.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Schlegel, David J.; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B.; Zhang, Kai

    2016-10-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) is an optical fiber-bundle integral-field unit (IFU) spectroscopic survey that is one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). With a spectral coverage of 3622-10354 Å and an average footprint of ˜500 arcsec2 per IFU the scientific data products derived from MaNGA will permit exploration of the internal structure of a statistically large sample of 10,000 low-redshift galaxies in unprecedented detail. Comprising 174 individually pluggable science and calibration IFUs with a near-constant data stream, MaNGA is expected to obtain ˜100 million raw-frame spectra and ˜10 million reduced galaxy spectra over the six-year lifetime of the survey. In this contribution, we describe the MaNGA Data Reduction Pipeline algorithms and centralized metadata framework that produce sky-subtracted spectrophotometrically calibrated spectra and rectified three-dimensional data cubes that combine individual dithered observations. For the 1390 galaxy data cubes released in Summer 2016 as part of SDSS-IV Data Release 13, we demonstrate that the MaNGA data have nearly Poisson-limited sky subtraction shortward of ˜8500 Å and reach a typical 10σ limiting continuum surface brightness μ = 23.5 AB arcsec-2 in a five-arcsecond-diameter aperture in the g-band. The wavelength calibration of the MaNGA data is accurate to 5 km s-1 rms, with a median spatial resolution of 2.54 arcsec FWHM (1.8 kpc at the median redshift of 0.037) and a median spectral resolution of σ = 72 km s-1.

  19. Glaciation and topographic evolution of the Central Patagonian Andes since 6 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christeleit, E. C.; Laemel, R.; De Wolf, W. E.; Shuster, D. L.; Brandon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    New and existing thermochronological data are used to model glacial erosion and topographic evolution of the central Patagonian Andes (~47S) over the last 6 Ma. The modern Andes are cut by large valleys and fjords with local valley relief of at least 2.5 km. It is currently thought that a formerly uniformly high Andes was 'buzzed' down to the elevation of the equilibrium line altitude, presumably in the last 2 Ma concurrent with late Cenozoic global cooling. However, studies of glacial debris show that glaciers were present in Patagonia as early as 6 Ma. The extent of these early glaciations is unclear, but recent work suggests that glacial valleys in the central Patagonian Andes were carved at a steady rate beginning at 6 Ma, implying that valley incision may be an important process in the topographic evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, rather than cirque retreat. To understand how valley relief has formed in the Andes, we dated 30 samples from Steffen Fjord in Chile using apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology. We use this new data and existing thermochronological data in the region to estimate the topographic form of the central Andes at 6 Ma and model how the valley relief has evolved since the initiation of glaciation using Pecube.

  20. 7 CFR 1209.12 - On average.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false On average. 1209.12 Section 1209.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS....12 On average. On average means a rolling average of production or imports during the last two...

  1. SCHeMA open and modular in situ sensing solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercier-Waeber, Marie Louise; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    innovative approaches and devices successfully developed and currently explored. Potentiality of the SCHeMA individual probes and integrated system to provide new type of high-resolution environmental data will be illustrated by examples of field application in selected coastal areas. www.schema-ocean.eu

  2. 论维吾尔语否定成分-ma-/-ma-的句法特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    力提甫·托乎提

    2011-01-01

    本文在乔姆斯基最简方案理论的启发下,首先肯定维吾尔语否定成分-ma-/-ma-可以构成否定短语(NEGP=negation phrase)。在此基础上,探讨-ma-/-ma-的否定范围,包括无标记否定结构、用音强缩小或转移否定范围、否定焦点的选定、否定意义的强化、否定结构的歧义以及句子的否定、复杂结构中的否定和双否定等问题,揭示-ma-/-ma-的句法特性。%The Chomskyan theory of generative syntax, especially the Minimalist Program, enables us to rethink on Uyghur inflectional suffixes. Guided by this theory, this paper first confirms that the Uyghur negative suffix -ma-/-ma-can form its own NEGP (negation phrase). Then it explores the scope of negation, including the unmarked negation structure, reduced or transferred negation, focus of negation, intensified negation, ambiguity of negation, sentential negation, and complex and double negation, attempting to explain the syntactic property of the negative suffix-ma-/-ma-.

  3. MaTeLo: Automated Testing Suite for Software Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, A.; Acquaroli, B.; Martelli, A.

    It is universally known that testing has a predominant role when developing software: more and more efforts are spent on testing to detect programming faults, to evaluate the code reliability or performance, to ensure that a critical function of a system meets given requirements. The ratio of time spent on testing should not be neglected and this explains why there is a real need to improve the development process, especially as systems are becoming larger and larger. It is necessary to keep under control the schedule and budget of developments, and controlling the testing phase is a real issue, often underestimated in many industrial sectors. The industry is heightened at different stages regarding testing, and the MaTeLo project is committed to promote the use of statistical tools &methods to answer European industry's needs: • have the ability to choose relevant test cases instead of a human- biased selection • know when to stop testing (definition of a stopping criteria) instead of a vague and informal criteria • adopt an identical strategy for different developments • automate the testing process, and thus to make testing not human error prone MaTeLo (Markov Test Logic) study is a study currently under development in the frame of the IST program of the European Community. The aim of the project is to define, implement and validate a new approach for supporting the software testing activities in various industrial fields. One of the major goals is in particular to provide the software teams with a new tool able to automatically produce and execute the Test Cases starting from the software specifications. Further, the tool is conceived to provide metrics that could help technical staff to determine software quality and to evaluate how much expected results are met. The tool is based on Markov chains theory and belongs to statistical testing software tools family [Runeson] [Whittaker].

  4. Changing the S and MA [Safety and Mission Assurance] Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: 1) Optimize S&MA organization to best facilitate Shuttle transition in 2010, successfully support Ares developmental responsibilities, and minimize the impacts of the gap between last Shuttle flight and start of Ares V Project. 2) Improve leveraging of critical skills and experience between Shuttle and Ares. 3) Split technical and supervisory functions to facilitate technical penetration. 4) Create Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) stand-alone position for successfully implementation of S&MA Technical Authority. 5) Minimize disruption to customers. 6) Provide early involvement of S&MA leadership team and frequent/open communications with S&MA team members and steak-holders.

  5. The Data Reduction Pipeline for the SDSS-IV MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Law, David R; Yan, Renbin; Andrews, Brett H; Bershady, Matthew A; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A; Blanton, Michael R; Bolton, Adam S; Brownstein, Joel R; Bundy, Kevin; Chen, Yanmei; Drory, Niv; D'Souza, Richard; Fu, Hai; Jones, Amy; Kauffmann, Guinevere; MacDonald, Nicholas; Masters, Karen L; Newman, Jeffrey A; Parejko, John K; Sánchez-Gallego, José R; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Schlegel, David J; Thomas, Daniel; Wake, David A; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Westfall, Kyle B; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) is an optical fiber-bundle integral-field unit (IFU) spectroscopic survey that is one of three core programs in the fourth-generation Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-IV). With a spectral coverage of 3622 - 10,354 Angstroms and an average footprint of ~ 500 arcsec^2 per IFU the scientific data products derived from MaNGA will permit exploration of the internal structure of a statistically large sample of 10,000 low redshift galaxies in unprecedented detail. Comprising 174 individually pluggable science and calibration IFUs with a near-constant data stream, MaNGA is expected to obtain ~ 100 million raw-frame spectra and ~ 10 million reduced galaxy spectra over the six-year lifetime of the survey. In this contribution, we describe the MaNGA Data Reduction Pipeline (DRP) algorithms and centralized metadata framework that produces sky-subtracted, spectrophotometrically calibrated spectra and rectified 3-D data cubes that combine individual dithered observa...

  6. Development of a Hydronic Rooftop Unit-HyPak-MA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eric; Berman, Mark

    2009-11-14

    The majority of U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTUs). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTUs are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. 36% percent of annual U.S. energy, and two-thirds of electricity, is consumed in and by buildings. Commercial buildings consume approximately 4.2 quads of energy each year at a cost of $230 billion per year, with HVAC equipment consuming 1.2 quads of electricity. More than half of all U.S. commercial floor space is cooled by packaged HVAC units, most of which are rooftop units (RTUs). Inefficient RTUs create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming5. Also, RTUs often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration, reducing indoor air quality. This is the second HyPak project to be supported by DOE through NETL. The prior project, referred to as HyPak-1 in this report, had two rounds of prototype fabrication and testing as well as computer modeling and market research. The HyPak-1 prototypes demonstrated the high performance capabilities of the HyPak concept, but made it clear that further development was required to reduce heat exchanger cost and improve system reliability before HyPak commercialization can commence. The HyPak-1 prototypes were limited to about 25% ventilation air fraction, limiting performance and marketability. The current project is intended to develop a 'mixed-air' product that is capable of full 0-100% modulation in ventilation air fraction, hence it was referred to as HyPak-MA in the proposal. (For simplicity, the -MA has been dropped when referencing the current project.) The objective of the HyPak Project is to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over

  7. Transient current distributions in porous zinc electrodes in KOH electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, M.B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Cook, G.M.; Yao, N.P.

    1981-02-01

    A zero-resistance ammeter circuit with a 10-channel operational amplifier was used to measure the current distribution during a discharge of 10 to 100 mA with simulated zinc porous electrodes in 7.24 M KOH saturated with ZnO. The reaction distribution was found to be highly nonuniform, with 70 to 78% of the charge transfer reaction completed in a depth of 0.01 cm. The high nonuniformity of the initial reaction profile was believed to be due to low conductivity of the electrolyte in the electrode pores. The current distribution changes during passivation of the electrode were experimentally obtained. A mathematical model based upon a macroscope averaging technique was used to predict the time dependence of charge transfer reaction profiles. With mathematical model, current distributions and overpotentials were predicted as a function of time for the segmented zinc electrode discharged at a current of 10 to 100 mA; for these predictions, assumed values of both precipitation rate constants for porous ZnO and diffusion coefficients for hydroxide and zincate ions were used. A gradual decrease in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte to 20% of the initial value during discharge yields predictions of current distributions and overpotentials in good agreement with the experimental data. The extent of reduction in the specific conductivity of the pore electrolyte implies a supersaturation of zincate of four times chemical saturation, which was been observed experimentally.At high discharge current (25 to 100 mA), the passivation behavior of the electrode has been simulated. The results of the experiments and mathematical model show that the effective reaction penetration depth is less than 0.02 cm.

  8. New compact hohlraum configuration research at the 1.7 MA Z-pinch generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: victor@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Safronova, A. S.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Osborne, G. C.; Astanovitsky, A. L.; Weller, M. E.; Stafford, A.; Schultz, K. A.; Cooper, M. C. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratorie de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rudakov, L. I. [Icarus Research Inc., P.O. Box 30780, Bethesda, MD 20824-0780 (United States); Velikovich, A. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Cuneo, M. E.; Jones, B.; Vesey, R. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87110 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A new compact Z-pinch x-ray hohlraum design with parallel-driven x-ray sources was experimentally demonstrated in a full configuration with a central target and tailored shine shields (to provide a symmetric temperature distribution on the target) at the 1.7 MA Zebra generator. This presentation reports on the joint success of two independent lines of research. One of these was the development of new sources – planar wire arrays (PWAs). PWAs turned out to be a prolific radiator. Another success was the drastic improvement in energy efficiency of pulsed-power systems, such as the Load Current Multiplier (LCM). The Zebra/LCM generator almost doubled the plasma load current to 1.7 MA. The two above-mentioned innovative approaches were used in combination to produce a new compact hohlraum design for ICF, as jointly proposed by SNL and UNR. Good agreement between simulated and measured radiation temperature of the central target is shown. Experimental comparison of PWAs with planar foil liners (PFL) - another viable alternative to wire array loads at multi-MA generators show promising data. Results of research at the University of Nevada Reno allowed for the study of hohlraum coupling physics at University-scale generators. The advantages of new hohlraum design applications for multi-MA facilities with W or Au double PWAs or PFL x-ray sources are discussed.

  9. 42 CFR 422.50 - Eligibility to elect an MA plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility to elect an MA plan. 422.50 Section 422... Eligibility to elect an MA plan. For this subpart, all references to an MA plan include MA-PD and both MA local and MA regional plans, as defined in § 422.2 unless specifically noted otherwise. (a)...

  10. 42 CFR 422.103 - Benefits under an MA MSA plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Benefits under an MA MSA plan. 422.103 Section 422... Benefits under an MA MSA plan. (a) General rule. An MA organization offering an MA MSA plan must make...) Countable expenses. An MA organization offering an MA MSA plan must count toward the annual deductible...

  11. Level sets of multiple ergodic averages

    CERN Document Server

    Ai-Hua, Fan; Ma, Ji-Hua

    2011-01-01

    We propose to study multiple ergodic averages from multifractal analysis point of view. In some special cases in the symbolic dynamics, Hausdorff dimensions of the level sets of multiple ergodic average limit are determined by using Riesz products.

  12. MaROS: Information Management Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.; Gladden, Roy E.; Wright, Jesse J.; Hy, Franklin H.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Wallick, Michael N.

    2011-01-01

    This software is provided by the Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) task to a variety of Mars projects for the purpose of coordinating communications sessions between landed spacecraft assets and orbiting spacecraft assets at Mars. The Information Management Service centralizes a set of functions previously distributed across multiple spacecraft operations teams, and as such, greatly improves visibility into the end-to-end strategic coordination process. Most of the process revolves around the scheduling of communications sessions between the spacecraft during periods of time when a landed asset on Mars is geometrically visible by an orbiting spacecraft. These relay sessions are used to transfer data both to and from the landed asset via the orbiting asset on behalf of Earth-based spacecraft operators. This software component is an application process running as a Java virtual machine. The component provides all service interfaces via a Representational State Transfer (REST) protocol over https to external clients. There are two general interaction modes with the service: upload and download of data. For data upload, the service must execute logic specific to the upload data type and trigger any applicable calculations including pass delivery latencies and overflight conflicts. For data download, the software must retrieve and correlate requested information and deliver to the requesting client. The provision of this service enables several key advancements over legacy processes and systems. For one, this service represents the first time that end-to-end relay information is correlated into a single shared repository. The software also provides the first multimission latency calculator; previous latency calculations had been performed on a mission-by-mission basis.

  13. Measurement of the Neutrino Neutral-Current Elastic Differential Cross Section

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    We report a measurement of the flux-averaged neutral-current elastic differential cross section for neutrinos scattering on mineral oil (CH$_2$) as a function of four-momentum transferred squared. It is obtained by measuring the kinematics of recoiling nucleons with kinetic energy greater than 50~MeV which are readily detected in MiniBooNE. This differential cross-section distribution is fit with fixed nucleon form factors apart from an axial mass, $M_{A}$, that provides a best fit for $M_A= 1.39\\pm0.11$~GeV. Additionally, single protons with kinetic energies above 350 MeV can be distinguished from neutrons and multiple nucleon events. Using this marker, the strange quark contribution to the neutral-current axial vector form factor at $Q^2 = 0$, $\\Delta s$, is found to be $\\Delta s=0.08\\pm0.26$.

  14. Accurate Switched-Voltage voltage averaging circuit

    OpenAIRE

    金光, 一幸; 松本, 寛樹

    2006-01-01

    Abstract ###This paper proposes an accurate Switched-Voltage (SV) voltage averaging circuit. It is presented ###to compensated for NMOS missmatch error at MOS differential type voltage averaging circuit. ###The proposed circuit consists of a voltage averaging and a SV sample/hold (S/H) circuit. It can ###operate using nonoverlapping three phase clocks. Performance of this circuit is verified by PSpice ###simulations.

  15. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    CERN Document Server

    del Rio, Rafael; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-01-01

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  16. 人物专栏:马军%Personage Column: MA Jun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Ma Jun is the Head of Harbin Institute of Hematology & Oncology that serves as a teaching, research and medical center of hematology and oncology in China. Dr. Ma is a very famous professor of Hematology and Oncology in the county and abroad now.

  17. Van maïsstengel tot ethanol, eiwitten en energie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Maïs wordt in een bioethanolinstallatie in Lelystad verwerkt voor de productie van ethanol, eiwitten en energie. ZeaFuels heeft een methode ontwikkeld waarmee direct bij de boerderij via de vergisting van maïs het maximale uit de grondstof kan worden gehaald

  18. 77 FR 1503 - Massasoit National Wildlife Refuge, Plymouth, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Massasoit National Wildlife Refuge, Plymouth, MA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... Hill Road, Sudbury, MA 01776. In-Person Drop-off: You may drop off comments during regular...

  19. "Sel kevadel olen ma eriti ilus..." : [luuletused] / Triin Soomets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomets, Triin

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: "Sel kevadel olen ma eriti ilus..." ; "Tahaksin teha midagi tõelist; midagi suurt..." ; "veebruaris on keha nii valge et syda läheb pahaks..." ; "kõige kohutavamad lepingud..." ; "Igal loojangul kutsun sind ja igal koidikul tõukan su ära..." ; "need hakid..." ; "Põhja vajudes on viimane asi, mida ma näen, rohelised sähvatused..."

  20. Pediatric Stroke and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation: Methods for Rational Individualized Dose Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette T Gillick

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background- Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been investigated mainly in adults and doses may not be appropriate in pediatric applications. In perinatal stroke where potential applications are promising, rational adaptation of dosage for children remains under investigation.Objective - Construct child-specific tDCS dosing parameters through case study within a perinatal stroke tDCS safety and feasibility trial. Methods- 10-year-old subject with a diagnosis of presumed perinatal ischemic stroke and hemiparesis was identified. T1 MRI scans used to derive computerized model for current flow and electrode positions. Workflow using modeling results and consideration of dosage in previous clinical trials was incorporated. Prior Ad hoc adult montages versus de novo optimized montages provided distinct risk benefit analysis. Approximating adult dose required consideration of changes in both peak brain current flow and distribution which further tradeoff between maximizing efficacy and adding safety factors. Electrode size, position, current intensity, compliance voltage, and duration were controlled independently in this process.Results- Brain electric fields modeled and compared to values previously predicted models. Approximating conservative brain current flow patterns and intensities used in previous adult trials for comparable indications, the optimal current intensity established was 0.7 mA for 10 minutes with a tDCS C3/C4 montage. Specifically 0.7 mA produced comparable peak brain current intensity of an average adult receiving 1.0 mA. Electrode size of 5x7 cm2 with 1.0 mA and low-voltage tDCS was employed to maximize tolerability. Safety and feasibility confirmed with subject tolerating the session well and no serious adverse events.Conclusion- Rational approaches to dose customization, with steps informed by computational modeling, may improve guidance for pediatric stroke tDCS trials.

  1. Average-Time Games on Timed Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Trivedi, Ashutosh

    2009-01-01

    An average-time game is played on the infinite graph of configurations of a finite timed automaton. The two players, Min and Max, construct an infinite run of the automaton by taking turns to perform a timed transition. Player Min wants to minimise the average time per transition and player Max wants to maximise it. A solution of average-time games is presented using a reduction to average-price game on a finite graph. A direct consequence is an elementary proof of determinacy for average-tim...

  2. Application of spectral linear mixing to rock slabs analyses at various scales using Ma_Miss BreadBoard instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Manzari, Paola; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Altieri, Francesca; Carli, Cristian; Agrosì, Giovanna

    2017-09-01

    Focus of this work is the analysis of rock slabs by means of the Ma_Miss BreadBoard instrument. Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies, Coradini et al., 2001; De Sanctis et al., 2017) is the miniaturized imaging spectrometer onboard the ESA Exomars 2020 mission. Here we report the results of the analysis carried out on rock slabs using the Ma_Miss breadboard (BB) (De Angelis et al., 2014, 2015) and a Spectro-Goniometer (SPG). The samples are three volcanic rocks (from the Aeolian Islands and Montiferru volcanoes, Italy) and two carbonate rocks (from Central Apennines, Italy). Visible and near infrared spectroscopic characterization has been first performed on all the samples with a Spectro-goniometer (SPG). Successively, higher spatial resolution spectra were acquired with the Ma_Miss BB setup in each of the areas analyzed with the SPG. We compared the spectra of the same areas of the slabs, acquired with SPG and Ma_Miss BB. Three different analysis approaches have been performed on the spectra: arithmetical averaging of the spectra, linear mixing of reflectances and linear mixing of Single Scattering Albedoes (using Hapke model). The comparison shows that: (i) Ma_Miss instrument has great capabilities for the investigation of rock surfaces with high detail; a large number of different mineralogical phases can be recognized thanks to Ma_Miss high resolution within each millimeter-sized analyzed area; (ii) the agreement with SPG spectra is excellent especially when linear mixing is applied for the convolution of Ma_Miss BB spectra.

  3. HLS bunch current measurement system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Bunch current is an important parameter for studying the injection fill-pattern in the storage ring and the instability threshold of the bunch, and the bunch current monitor also is an indispensable tool for the top-up injection. A bunch current measurement (BCM) system has been developed to meet the needs of the upgrade project of Hefei Light Source (HLS). This paper presents the layout of the BCM system. The system based on a high-speed digital oscilloscope can be used to measure the bunch current and synchronous phase shift. To obtain the absolute value of bunch-by-bunch current, the calibration coefficient is measured and analyzed. Error analysis shows that the RMS of bunch current is less than 0.01 mA when bunch current is about 5 mA, which can meet project requirement.

  4. Simple Moving Average: A Method of Reporting Evolving Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Samuel M; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Hattrup, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Surgeons often cite published complication rates when discussing surgery with patients. However, these rates may not truly represent current results or an individual surgeon's experience with a given procedure. This study proposes a novel method to more accurately report current complication trends that may better represent the patient's potential experience: simple moving average. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving procedure with highly variable reported complication rates. The authors used an RSA model to test and evaluate the usefulness of simple moving average. This study reviewed 297 consecutive RSA procedures performed by a single surgeon and noted complications in 50 patients (16.8%). Simple moving average for total complications as well as minor, major, acute, and chronic complications was then calculated using various lag intervals. These findings showed trends toward fewer total, major, and chronic complications over time, and these trends were represented best with a lag of 75 patients. Average follow-up within this lag was 26.2 months. Rates for total complications decreased from 17.3% to 8% at the most recent simple moving average. The authors' traditional complication rate with RSA (16.8%) is consistent with reported rates. However, the use of simple moving average shows that this complication rate decreased over time, with current trends (8%) markedly lower, giving the senior author a more accurate picture of his evolving complication trends with RSA. Compared with traditional methods, simple moving average can be used to better reflect current trends in complication rates associated with a surgical procedure and may better represent the patient's potential experience. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e869-e876.].

  5. P-MaNGA: full spectral fitting and stellar population maps from prototype observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Coccato, Lodovico; Tojeiro, Rita; Cappellari, Michele; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Blanton, Mike; Bundy, Kevin; Cales, Sabrina; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen; Tremonti, Christy; Wake, David; Wang, Enci; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr SDSS-IV (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV) survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we derive spatially resolved stellar population properties and radial gradients by performing full spectral fitting of observed galaxy spectra from P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. These data include spectra for 18 galaxies, covering a large range of morphological type. We derive age, metallicity, dust, and stellar mass maps, and their radial gradients, using high spectral-resolution stellar population models, and assess the impact of varying the stellar library input to the models. We introduce a method to determine dust extinction which is able to give smooth stellar mass maps even in cases of high and spatially non-uniform dust attenuation. With the spectral fitting, we produce detailed maps of stellar population properties which allow us to identify galactic features among this diverse sample such as spiral structure, smooth radial profiles with little azimuthal structure in spheroidal galaxies, and spatially distinct galaxy sub-components. In agreement with the literature, we find the gradients for galaxies identified as early type to be on average flat in age, and negative (-0.15 dex/Re) in metallicity, whereas the gradients for late-type galaxies are on average negative in age (-0.39 dex/Re) and flat in metallicity. We demonstrate how different levels of data quality change the precision with which radial gradients can be measured. We show how this analysis, extended to the large numbers of MaNGA galaxies, will have the potential to shed light on galaxy structure and evolution.

  6. Slow steady exhumation of the high elevation Deosai Plateau (Northern Pakistan Himalaya) since 40 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Melle, J.; van der Beek, P.; Guillot, S.; Pecher, A.; Latif, M.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges of the north-western Himalaya in Pakistan show strongly contrasting relief, opposing steep, deeply incised topography with extremely high peaks such as the Karakorum Range and Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif (NPHM), to high-altitude, low-relief areas such as the Deosai Plateau located between the Karakorum and NPHM and the Tso-Morari Massif in Eastern Ladakh. In contrast, mean elevations of the different mountain ranges are comparable, the Deosai Plateau being on average even slightly higher than the adjacent NPHM. The aim of this study is to quantify the exhumation history the Deosai Plateau, in order to understand how to build such a high-altitude, low-relief plateau and how to preserve it over million-year timescales. Here, we report the first low-temperature thermochronologic data from the Deosai Plateau, to compare its exhumation history to that of the surrounding massifs. Apatite Fission Track (AFT) ages reported in the literature from the NPHM and Karakorum are extremely young (1 km/Ma. In contrast, our AFT ages from the Deosai Plateau are 15-27 Ma; an order of magnitude older than those of the surrounding massifs. Zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He ages (measured at U of Arizona, HeDWaAZ program) range from 23-45 Ma, and 12-15 Ma, respectively. Modeling the combined AFT and He ages requires continuous and very slow long term cooling rates (around 4 ° C/Ma), consistent with an exhumation rate of about 0.15 km/Ma for typical geothermal gradients. Our data thus suggest steady slow unroofing of the Deosai Plateau since at least 40 Ma. A clear link between cooling age patterns and the geomorphology is also evident, with strongly incised, high-relief massifs showing exhumation at rates an order of magnitude faster than the low-relief plateau. AFT and ZFT ages similar to our data have been reported from the Tso Morari massif further east, characterised by similar high-elevation low-relief morphology. These morphologic zones cross the Indus and Shyok Suture

  7. Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO: The MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, David R.; MaNGA Team

    2014-01-01

    MaNGA is a new survey that will begin in August 2014 as part of SDSS-IV with the aim of obtaining integral-field spectroscopy for an unprecedented sample of 10,000 nearby galaxies. MaNGA's key goals are to understand the "life cycle" of present day galaxies from imprinted clues of their birth and assembly, through their ongoing growth via star formation and merging, to their death from quenching at late times. To achieve these goals, MaNGA will channel the impressive capabilities of the SDSS-III BOSS spectrographs in a fundamentally new direction by marshaling the unique power of 2D spectroscopy. MaNGA will deploy 17 pluggable Integral Field Units (IFUs) made by grouping fibers into hexagonal bundles ranging from 19 to 127 fibers each. The spectra obtained by MaNGA will cover the wavelength range 3600-10,000 Angstroms (with a velocity resolution of ~ 60 km/s) and will characterize the internal composition and the dynamical state of a sample of 10,000 galaxies with stellar masses greater than 10^9 Msun and an average redshift of z ~ 0.03. Such IFU observations enable a leap forward because they provide an added dimension to the information available for each galaxy. MaNGA will provide two-dimensional maps of stellar velocity and velocity dispersion, mean stellar age and star formation history, stellar metallicity, element abundance ratio, stellar mass surface density, ionized gas velocity, ionized gas metallicity, star formation rate, and dust extinction for a statistically powerful sample. This legacy dataset will address urgent questions in our understanding of galaxy formation, including 1) The formation history of galaxy subcomponents, including the disk, bulge, and dark matter halo, 2) The nature of present-day galaxy growth via merging and gas accretion, and 3) The processes responsible for terminating star formation in galaxies. Finally, MaNGA will also play a vital role in the coming era of advanced IFU instrumentation, serving as the low-z anchor for

  8. Morotochoerus from Uganda (17.5 Ma and Kenyapotamus from Kenya (13-11 Ma: implications for hippopotamid origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickford, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe and interpret suiform teeth from Moroto, Uganda, and Ngorora, Kenya, which contribute to the debate about hippo-anthracothere-whale relationships. The early stages of hippopotamid evolution are relatively poorly known on account of the paucity of their fossil record older than 7 Ma. New specimens of Morotochoerus from Uganda reveal that it is not closely related to Hippopotamidae; the superficial resemblances of the cheek teeth to those of hippos represent convergences and not homologies. Restricted samples of Palaeopotamus ternani are available from the Middle Miocene of Kenya {Maboko, ca 16 Ma; Muruyur, ca 14.5 Ma; Fort Ternan, ca 13.7 Ma} while from the base of the late Miocene, Kenyapotamus coryndonae is known from Kenya {Ngerngerwa, ca 10.5-10 Ma; Nakali, ca 10.5 Ma; Samburu Hills, ca 9.5 Ma}, Ethiopia {Ch’orora, ca 10.5 Ma} and Tunisia {Beglia Formation ca 11-10 Ma}. The recovery of specimens of Kenyapotamus from the Ngorora Formation, Kenya, aged ca 11 Ma, is of interest because it includes well preserved teeth, including an m/3 in good condition. These specimens support the hypothesis that hippopotamids descended from palaeochoerids and not from anthracotheres.El objetivo de este trabajo es describir e interpretar los dientes suiformes de Moroto, Uganda, y Ngorora, Kenia, que contribuyen al debate sobre las relaciones hipo-anthracothere-whale. Las primeras etapas de la evolución de los hipopotámidos son relativamente poco conocidas a causa de la escasez de su registro fósil en edades superiors a los 7 Ma. Nuevos ejemplares de Morotochoerus en Uganda revelan que no están estrechamente relacionados con Hippopotamidae, las semejanzas superficiales de los dientes de la mandíbula con los de los hipopótamos representan convergencias y no homologías. Algunas muestras de Palaeopotamus ternani aparecen en el Medio Mioceno de Kenia {Maboko, ca 16 Ma; Muruyur, ca 14.5 Ma; Fort Ternan, ca 13.7 Ma

  9. Characterization and expression profiles of MaACS and MaACO genes from mulberry (Morus alba L.)%桑树MaACS和MaACO基因的鉴定和表达模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-ying LIU; Shu-mei HAN; Cheng LU; Mao-de YU; Rui-hua LÜ; Jun LI; Ai-chun ZHAO; Xi-ling WANG; Umuhoza DIANE; Xiao-hong WANG; Chuan-hong WANG; Ya-sheng YU

    2014-01-01

    研究目的:分离和鉴定桑树中参与乙烯生物合成的酶的编码基因MaACS 和MaACO,研究其表达模式。创新要点:基于最新公布的桑树基因组数据库数据,获得5个MaACS 基因和2个MaACO 基因,对其进行了生物信息分析,同时鉴定了其在不同桑树组织中、不同发育时期桑椹中和不同激素作用下的表达模式。研究方法:通过生物信息学方法筛选和鉴定基因,利用荧光定量逆转录聚合酶链式反应(qRT-PCR)分析基因的表达量。重要结论:MaACS 和MaACO 基因在根、茎、叶等不同组织中呈现出不同的表达模式,在桑椹发育过程中呈现出两种表达模式,其表达量被脱落酸和乙烯利上调。%1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase (ACS) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) are encoded by multigene families and are involved in fruit ripening by catalyzing the production of ethylene throughout the development of fruit. However, there are no reports on ACS or ACO genes in mulberry, partly because of the limited molecular research background. In this study, we have obtained five ACS gene sequences and two ACO gene sequences from Morus Genome Database. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed that their amino acids are conserved compared with ACO proteins from other species. MaACS1 and MaACS2 are type I, MaACS3 and MaACS4 are type II, and MaACS5 is type III, with different C-terminal se-quences. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) expression analysis showed that the transcripts of MaACS genes were strongly expressed in fruit, and more weakly in other tissues. The expression of MaACO1 and MaACO2 showed different patterns in various mulberry tissues. MaACS and MaACO genes demon-strated two patterns throughout the development of mulberry fruit, and both of them were strongly up-regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and ethephon.

  10. WIDTHS AND AVERAGE WIDTHS OF SOBOLEV CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永平; 许贵桥

    2003-01-01

    This paper concerns the problem of the Kolmogorov n-width, the linear n-width, the Gel'fand n-width and the Bernstein n-width of Sobolev classes of the periodicmultivariate functions in the space Lp(Td) and the average Bernstein σ-width, averageKolmogorov σ-widths, the average linear σ-widths of Sobolev classes of the multivariatequantities.

  11. Stochastic averaging of quasi-Hamiltonian systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱位秋

    1996-01-01

    A stochastic averaging method is proposed for quasi-Hamiltonian systems (Hamiltonian systems with light dampings subject to weakly stochastic excitations). Various versions of the method, depending on whether the associated Hamiltonian systems are integrable or nonintegrable, resonant or nonresonant, are discussed. It is pointed out that the standard stochastic averaging method and the stochastic averaging method of energy envelope are special cases of the stochastic averaging method of quasi-Hamiltonian systems and that the results obtained by this method for several examples prove its effectiveness.

  12. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  13. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Survey Design and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renbin; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing SDSS-IV/MaNGA Survey will obtain integral field spectroscopy at a resolution of R~2000 with a wavelength coverage from 3,600A to 10,300A for 10,000 nearby galaxies. Within each 3 degree diameter pointing of the 2.5m Sloan Telescope, we deploy 17 hexagonal fiber bundles with sizes ranging from 12 to 32 arcsec in diameter. The bundles are build with 2 arcsec fibers and have a 56% fill factor. During observations, we obtained sets of exposures at 3 different dither positions to achieve near-critical sampling of the effective point spread function, which has a FWHM about 2.5 arcsec, corresponding to 1-2 kpc for the majority of the galaxies targeted. The flux calibration is done using 12 additional mini-fiber-bundles targeting standard stars simultaneously with science targets, achieving a calibration accuracy better than 5% over 90% of the wavelength range. The target galaxies are selected to ensure uniform spatial coverage in units of effective radii for the majority of the galaxies while maximizing spatial resolution. About 2/3 of the sample is covered out to 1.5Re (primary sample) and 1/3 of the sample covered to 2.5Re (secondary sample). The sample is designed to have approximately equal representation from high and low mass galaxies while maintaining volume-limited selection at fixed absolute magnitudes. We obtain an average S/N of 4 per Angstrom in r-band continuum at a surface brightness of 23 AB arcsec-2. With spectral stacking in an elliptical annulus covering 1-1.5Re, our primary sample galaxies have a median S/N of ~60 per Angstrom in r-band.

  14. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  15. Subduction of the South Chile active spreading ridge: A 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnet, E.; Arnaud, N.; Guivel, C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Scalabrino, B.; Espinoza, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4-3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  16. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  17. Average sampling theorems for shift invariant subspaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sampling theorem is one of the most powerful results in signal analysis. In this paper, we study the average sampling on shift invariant subspaces, e.g. wavelet subspaces. We show that if a subspace satisfies certain conditions, then every function in the subspace is uniquely determined and can be reconstructed by its local averages near certain sampling points. Examples are given.

  18. Testing linearity against nonlinear moving average models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Brännäs, K.; Teräsvirta, T.

    1998-01-01

    Lagrange multiplier (LM) test statistics are derived for testing a linear moving average model against an additive smooth transition moving average model. The latter model is introduced in the paper. The small sample performance of the proposed tests are evaluated in a Monte Carlo study and compared

  19. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW situ

  20. Averaging Einstein's equations : The linearized case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoeger, William R.; Helmi, Amina; Torres, Diego F.

    We introduce a simple and straightforward averaging procedure, which is a generalization of one which is commonly used in electrodynamics, and show that it possesses all the characteristics we require for linearized averaging in general relativity and cosmology for weak-field and perturbed FLRW

  1. Average excitation potentials of air and aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, M.; Koudijs, B.

    1951-01-01

    By means of a graphical method the average excitation potential I may be derived from experimental data. Average values for Iair and IAl have been obtained. It is shown that in representing range/energy relations by means of Bethe's well known formula, I has to be taken as a continuously changing fu

  2. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  3. New results on averaging theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-08-01

    The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.

  4. Analogue Divider by Averaging a Triangular Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvam, Krishnagiri Chinnathambi

    2017-08-01

    A new analogue divider circuit by averaging a triangular wave using operational amplifiers is explained in this paper. The triangle wave averaging analog divider using operational amplifiers is explained here. The reference triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level up towards positive power supply voltage level. Its positive portion is obtained by a positive rectifier and its average value is obtained by a low pass filter. The same triangular waveform is shifted from zero voltage level to down towards negative power supply voltage level. Its negative portion is obtained by a negative rectifier and its average value is obtained by another low pass filter. Both the averaged voltages are combined in a summing amplifier and the summed voltage is given to an op-amp as negative input. This op-amp is configured to work in a negative closed environment. The op-amp output is the divider output.

  5. A Study of Wind Statistics Through Auto-Regressive and Moving-Average (ARMA) Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹彰; 周宗仁

    2001-01-01

    Statistical properties of winds near the Taichung Harbour are investigated. The 26 years′incomplete data of wind speeds, measured on an hourly basis, are used as reference. The possibility of imputation using simulated results of the Auto-Regressive (AR), Moving-Average (MA), and/or Auto-Regressive and Moving-Average (ARMA) models is studied. Predictions of the 25-year extreme wind speeds based upon the augmented data are compared with the original series. Based upon the results, predictions of the 50- and 100-year extreme wind speeds are then made.

  6. Contact Aligner 2 (Front Side): Suss Microtec MA8

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: SussMA8This system utilizes 1X contact lithography to transfer photomask patterns onto substrates Specifications / Capabilities:UV broadband...

  7. 76 FR 19911 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Apponagansett River, Dartmouth, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Apponagansett River, Dartmouth, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  8. 76 FR 37041 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Apponagansett River, Dartmouth, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting..., Dartmouth, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast...

  9. 77 FR 25890 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Manchester Harbor, Manchester, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The...

  10. Zhi Liao:Ma Liang Solo Visual Exhibition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jade; Franklin

    2007-01-01

    can prove to be simultaneously amusing and macabre, as if to him there is no distinction between the two. Prior to focusing on photography Ma Liang worked as a short-film director and cinematographer. The evidence of this is

  11. Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.

    2013-07-01

    Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different

  12. 46 CFR 7.15 - Massachusetts Bay, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Massachusetts Bay, MA. 7.15 Section 7.15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.15 Massachusetts Bay, MA. A line drawn from latitude 42°37.9′ N. longitude 70°31.2′ W. (Cape...

  13. Under-performance of listed companies? Real earnings management and M&A: Chinese empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziqiao Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether acquiring firms attempt to adopt real earnings management strategy to upward reported earnings in the period of M&A announcement and provide an explanation for the underperformance of post-M&A in share payment M&A affairs occurring in China’s capital market from 2008-2010. Design/methodology/approach: The author uses Roychowdhury’s(2006 methodology to measure the magnitude of real earnings management of acquiring firms in stock for stock M&A by exploiting financial date from 2006 to 2011. The methodology includes three models, which are cash ?ow from operations, production costs and discretionary expenditures, respectively. Findings: It was found that firms using stock as a financing medium exhibit significant negative abnormal cash flows and abnormal discretionary expenses yet abnormal production costs significantly positive during the current period of M&A. Moreover, it was also documented that acquiring firms use real activities manipulation to overstate earnings for the purpose of improving market confidence. Finally, a negative association was found between REM and under-performance of post-M&A. Research limitations/implications: To some extent, these results explain the puzzle of performance decline over the following period of post-M&A. Meanwhile, our study adds to prior literature that capital market pressures induce acquiring firms inflate reported earnings by manipulating real activities in stock-financed M&A occurring in China’s capital market. Practical implications: The author’s result imply that investors, analysts and regulators cannot ignore more undetectable opportunism behaviors underlying reported earnings than accrual-based earnings management and the impact on the performance of post-M&A when they use financial statements to evaluate acquiring firms. Social implications: Our study plays important role in making public policies. Furthermore, it is necessary to

  14. Averaged Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Isidro, Eddy G Chirinos; Piattella, Oliver F; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    We consider cosmological backreaction effects in Buchert's averaging formalism on the basis of an explicit solution of the Lema\\^itre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) dynamics which is linear in the LTB curvature parameter and has an inhomogeneous bang time. The volume Hubble rate is found in terms of the volume scale factor which represents a derivation of the simplest phenomenological solution of Buchert's equations in which the fractional densities corresponding to average curvature and kinematic backreaction are explicitly determined by the parameters of the underlying LTB solution at the boundary of the averaging volume. This configuration represents an exactly solvable toy model but it does not adequately describe our "real" Universe.

  15. Average-passage flow model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark

    1989-01-01

    A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.

  16. FREQUENTIST MODEL AVERAGING ESTIMATION: A REVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiying WANG; Xinyu ZHANG; Guohua ZOU

    2009-01-01

    In applications, the traditional estimation procedure generally begins with model selection.Once a specific model is selected, subsequent estimation is conducted under the selected model without consideration of the uncertainty from the selection process. This often leads to the underreporting of variability and too optimistic confidence sets. Model averaging estimation is an alternative to this procedure, which incorporates model uncertainty into the estimation process. In recent years, there has been a rising interest in model averaging from the frequentist perspective, and some important progresses have been made. In this paper, the theory and methods on frequentist model averaging estimation are surveyed. Some future research topics are also discussed.

  17. Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752

  18. Experimental Demonstration of Squeezed State Quantum Averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lassen, Mikael; Sabuncu, Metin; Filip, Radim; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2010-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The harmonic mean protocol can be used to efficiently stabilize a set of fragile squeezed light sources with statistically fluctuating noise levels. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented harmonic mean outperforms the standard arithmetic mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested both for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources with sub-Poissonian shot noise or super-Poissonian shot noise characteristics.

  19. The Average Lower Connectivity of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Aslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For a vertex v of a graph G, the lower connectivity, denoted by sv(G, is the smallest number of vertices that contains v and those vertices whose deletion from G produces a disconnected or a trivial graph. The average lower connectivity denoted by κav(G is the value (∑v∈VGsvG/VG. It is shown that this parameter can be used to measure the vulnerability of networks. This paper contains results on bounds for the average lower connectivity and obtains the average lower connectivity of some graphs.

  20. Cosmic inhomogeneities and averaged cosmological dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T P

    2008-10-31

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a "dark energy." However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be "no." Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  1. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoen, Robert; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL) has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure......, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE), to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate...

  2. Increase in physical activities in kindergarten children with cerebral palsy by employing MaKey-MaKey-based task systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Yu; Chang, Yu-Ming

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we employed Flash- and Scratch-based multimedia by using a MaKey-MaKey-based task system to increase the motivation level of children with cerebral palsy to perform physical activities. MaKey MaKey is a circuit board that converts physical touch to a digital signal, which is interpreted by a computer as a keyboard message. In this study, we used conductive materials to control this interaction. This study followed single-case design using ABAB models in which A indicated the baseline and B indicated the intervention. The experiment period comprised 1 month and a half. The experimental results demonstrated that in the case of two kindergarten children with cerebral palsy, their scores were considerably increased during the intervention phrases. The developmental applications of the results are also discussed.

  3. Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirocha, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation

  4. Sea Surface Temperature Average_SST_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sea surface temperature collected via satellite imagery from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/gridded/data.noaa.ersst.html and averaged for each region using ArcGIS...

  5. Appeals Council Requests - Average Processing Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides annual data from 1989 through 2015 for the average processing time (elapsed time in days) for dispositions by the Appeals Council (AC) (both...

  6. Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  7. Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  8. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  9. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  10. Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  15. Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  18. MN Temperature Average (1961-1990) - Polygon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set depicts 30-year averages (1961-1990) of monthly and annual temperatures for Minnesota. Isolines and regions were created using kriging and...

  19. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) Cosmological Measures

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2014-01-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmolo...

  20. A practical guide to averaging functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakov, Gleb; Calvo Sánchez, Tomasa

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an easy-to-use and practice-oriented reference guide to mathematical averages. It presents different ways of aggregating input values given on a numerical scale, and of choosing and/or constructing aggregating functions for specific applications. Building on a previous monograph by Beliakov et al. published by Springer in 2007, it outlines new aggregation methods developed in the interim, with a special focus on the topic of averaging aggregation functions. It examines recent advances in the field, such as aggregation on lattices, penalty-based aggregation and weakly monotone averaging, and extends many of the already existing methods, such as: ordered weighted averaging (OWA), fuzzy integrals and mixture functions. A substantial mathematical background is not called for, as all the relevant mathematical notions are explained here and reported on together with a wealth of graphical illustrations of distinct families of aggregation functions. The authors mainly focus on practical applications ...

  1. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friese, Daniel H., E-mail: daniel.h.friese@uit.no; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth [Centre for Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, University of Tromsø — The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2014-11-28

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  2. Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friese, Daniel H.; Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth

    2014-11-01

    Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.

  3. Monthly snow/ice averages (ISCCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 11.5 percent per decade, relative to the 1979 to 2000 average. Data from NASA show that the land ice sheets in...

  4. Average Annual Precipitation (PRISM model) 1961 - 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  5. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  6. Cosmic Inhomogeneities and the Average Cosmological Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a `dark energy'. However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the \\emph{in}homogeneous Universe, the averaged \\emph{homogeneous} Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic ini...

  7. Average Bandwidth Allocation Model of WFQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Balogh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new iterative method for the calculation of average bandwidth assignment to traffic flows using a WFQ scheduler in IP based NGN networks. The bandwidth assignment calculation is based on the link speed, assigned weights, arrival rate, and average packet length or input rate of the traffic flows. We prove the model outcome with examples and simulation results using NS2 simulator.

  8. The LENS 7 MeV, 10 mA Proton Linac

    CERN Document Server

    Derenchuk, Vladimir Peter; Bogdanov, Alexander; Jones, William P; Rinckel, Thomas; Solberg, Keith

    2005-01-01

    The Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) has constructed and placed in operation a Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS) using a 10 mA, 7 MeV proton beam incident on a beryllium target. The proton delivery system (PDS) consists of a 25 keV proton injector, an AccSys Technology, Inc. PL7 Linac* and a beam transport line with non-linear beam spreading.** The accelerator and beamline equipment used in this construction are refurbished and upgraded components from the IUCF CIS/Cooler synchrotron*** facility. After commissioning the beam current at 7 MeV will be 10 mA with a pulse width of up to 300 μs and > 1% duty factor. The PDS was constructed and commissioning started in 2004. First operating results will be described.

  9. How many IVUs can we install without sacrificing 16-mA operation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Y.-C.; Accelerator Systems Division (APS)

    2010-01-21

    In this note, the authors examine the following hypothetical scenario: replacing existing 8-mm gap chambers with an in-vacuum undulator (IVU) one by one until they hit the boundary condition of 16-mA single-bunch operation. This is a continuation of a previous technical note on the topics of IVUs. The authors evaluated the impedance of IVU for various gaps. The result showed that the present 8-mm gap chamber can be replaced by the 8.754-mm IVU while maintaining the same 16-mA operational current. The estimates in this note make certain simplifying assumptions bearing on the effectiveness of nonlinear tapers. Subsequent evaluation of the effect of such tapers for APS parameters has cst considerable doubt on their usefulness. This results from the fact that APS has a fairly short electron bunch compared to the vacuum chamber dimensions. Investigation of other methods to decrease the impedance is on-going.

  10. 75 FR 38128 - Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known As Airpax Corp., Cambridge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Sensata Technologies MA, Inc., Power Controls Division, Formerly Known..., 2010, applicable to workers of Sansata Technologies MA, Incorporated, Power Controls Division, formerly... under the control of the Cambridge, Maryland location of Sensata Technologies MA, Incorporated,...

  11. Preliminary experiments to estimate the PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) offshore behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Marta; Piermattei, Viviana; Stefanì, Chiara; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The phytoplankton community is controlled not only by local environmental conditions but also by physical processes occurring on different temporal and spatial scales. Hydrodynamic local conditions play an important role in marine ecosystems. Several studies have shown that hydrodynamic conditions can influence the phytoplankton settling velocity, vertical and horizontal distribution and formation of cyanobacterial blooms. Mesocosms are useful structures to simulate marine environment at mesoscale resolution; allowing to closely approximate biotic or abiotic parameters of interest directly in nature. In this work an innovative structure named PE.MA.M (PElagic MArine Mesocosm) is presented and tested. Laboratory experiments have been conducted in order to observe seasonal variations of biomass behaviour in two different hydrodynamic conditions: outside as well as whithin the PE.MA.M. We have evaluated whether it is possible to isolate a natural system from external water mass hydrodynamic exchanges and to assume that phytoplankton cells' transition is limited at the net and sea interface. Preliminary experiments test the isolating capacity of the net, to determine the currents' attenuation rate and to estimate the possible PE.MA.M. offshore behaviour. In the first investigation, we monitored the diffusion of phytoplankton cells. The PE.MA.M. exterior and interior were simulated using a plexiglass tank divided into two half-tanks (Aout-Bin) by a septum consisting of a net like a PE.MA.M. The tank was filled up with 10 L of water and only the half-tank Aout was filled up with 10 ml of phytoplankton culture (Clorella sp.). We monitored the chlorophyll concentrations for 24 hours. The two tanks had similar concentrations after 4 hours (2.70322 mg/m³ Aout and 2.37245 mg/m3 Bin) and this constant relationship was maintened until the end of the test. In the second investigation we used clod cards to measure water motions.We conducted two experiments within tank, the first

  12. Averaged controllability of parameter dependent conservative semigroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohéac, Jérôme; Zuazua, Enrique

    2017-02-01

    We consider the problem of averaged controllability for parameter depending (either in a discrete or continuous fashion) control systems, the aim being to find a control, independent of the unknown parameters, so that the average of the states is controlled. We do it in the context of conservative models, both in an abstract setting and also analysing the specific examples of the wave and Schrödinger equations. Our first result is of perturbative nature. Assuming the averaging probability measure to be a small parameter-dependent perturbation (in a sense that we make precise) of an atomic measure given by a Dirac mass corresponding to a specific realisation of the system, we show that the averaged controllability property is achieved whenever the system corresponding to the support of the Dirac is controllable. Similar tools can be employed to obtain averaged versions of the so-called Ingham inequalities. Particular attention is devoted to the 1d wave equation in which the time-periodicity of solutions can be exploited to obtain more precise results, provided the parameters involved satisfy Diophantine conditions ensuring the lack of resonances.

  13. Average Temperatures in the Southwestern United States, 2000-2015 Versus Long-Term Average

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This indicator shows how the average air temperature from 2000 to 2015 has differed from the long-term average (1895–2015). To provide more detailed information,...

  14. Pyroxenite in the Galapagos plume source at 65 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, W. T.; Gazel, E.; Vidito, C. A.; Herzberg, C. T.; Class, C.; Bizimis, M.; Alvarado-Induni, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mantle plumes originate from boundary layers below the upper mantle. Their surface expressions as hotspot tracks have been linked to voluminous outpourings of lava in the form of large igneous provinces. The Galapagos hotspot has been active since ~90 Ma and the oldest lavas of its associated submarine ridge have been dated to ~14 Ma, subducting at the Middle America Trench, off Costa Rica. The Galapagos plume head magmatic production is preserved as the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). A series of 15-65 Ma accreted Galapagos paleo-ridges and islands/seamounts are accreted in the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Panama. One of these accreted terranes, the Quepos block on the west coast of Costa Rica is an ancient, ~65 Ma Galapagos island. Olivine phenocrysts from Quepos picrites have elevated Ni and low Ca and Mn and Fe/Mn indicative of a dominant pyroxenite source component while CLIP samples are dominated by a peridotite source. The mantle potential temperature (max) of the plume changed from ~1650 to ~1550 C at 65 Ma. This change correlates with the first appearance of the pyroxenite component and an EMII signature (Northern Galapagos Domain) in the Galapagos plume. A relatively dense pyroxenite component may provide a mechanism for the change in Tp due to its effect on the plume's bouyancy. Alternatively, the pyroxenite component was diluted by high peridotite melt fraction during the massive production of the CLIP.

  15. Molecular evolution of the Sorghum Maturity Gene Ma3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tan, Lubin; Fu, Yongcai; Zhu, Zuofeng; Liu, Fengxia; Sun, Chuanqing; Cai, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Time to maturity is a critical trait in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) breeding, as it determines whether a variety can be grown in a particular cropping system or ecosystem. Understanding the nucleotide variation and the mechanisms of molecular evolution of the maturity genes would be helpful for breeding programs. In this study, we analyzed the nucleotide diversity of Ma3, an important maturity gene in sorghum, using 252 cultivated and wild sorghum materials from all over the world. The nucleotide variation and diversity were analyzed based both on race- and usage-based groups. We also sequenced 12 genes around the Ma3 gene in 185 of these materials to search for a selective sweep and found that purifying selection was the strongest force on Ma3, as low nucleotide diversity and low-frequency amino acid variants were observed. However, a very special mutation, described as ma3R, seemed to be under positive selection, as indicated by dramatically reduced nucleotide variation not only at the loci but also in the surrounding regions among individuals carrying the mutations. In addition, in an association study using the Ma3 nucleotide variations, we detected 3 significant SNPs for the heading date at a high-latitude environment (Beijing) and 17 at a low-latitude environment (Hainan). The results of this study increases our understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms of the maturity genes in sorghum and will be useful in sorghum breeding.

  16. Testing averaged cosmology with type Ia supernovae and BAO data

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, B; Devi, N Chandrachani; Alcaniz, J S

    2016-01-01

    An important problem in precision cosmology is the determination of the effects of averaging and backreaction on observational predictions, particularly in view of the wealth of new observational data and improved statistical techniques. In this paper we discuss the observational viability of a class of averaged cosmologies which consist of a simple parametrized phenomenological two-scale backreaction model with decoupled spatial curvature parameters. We perform a Bayesian model selection analysis and find that this class of averaged phenomenological cosmological models is favored with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological scenario when a joint analysis of current SNe Ia and BAO data is performed. In particular, the analysis provides observational evidence for non-trivial spatial curvature.

  17. Paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 autoantibodies as specific blood biomarkers for detection of early recurrence of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Cui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs belong to a rare group of cancers. Most patients have developed metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, for which there is currently no cure. The delay in diagnosis is a major issue in the clinical management of the patients and new markers are urgently needed. We have previously identified paraneoplastic antigen Ma2 (PNMA2 as a novel SI-NET tissue biomarker. Therefore, we evaluated whether Ma2 autoantibodies detection in the blood stream is useful for the clinical diagnosis and recurrence of SI-NETs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A novel indirect ELISA was set up to detect Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples of patients with SI-NET at different stages of disease. The analysis was extended to include typical and atypical lung carcinoids (TLC and ALC, to evaluate whether Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood stream become a general biomarker for NETs. In total, 124 blood samples of SI-NET patients at different stages of disease were included in the study. The novel Ma2 autoantibody ELISA showed high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy with ROC curve analysis underlying an area between 0.734 and 0.816. Ma2 autoantibodies in the blood from SI-NET patients were verified by western blot and sequential immunoprecipitation. Serum antibodies of patients stain Ma2 in the tumor tissue and neurons. We observed that SI-NET patients expressing Ma2 autoantibody levels below the cutoff had a longer progression and recurrence-free survival compared to those with higher titer. We also detected higher levels of Ma2 autoantibodies in blood samples from TLC and ALC patients than from healthy controls, as previously shown in small cell lung carcinoma samples. CONCLUSION: Here we show that high Ma2 autoantibody titer in the blood of SI-NET patients is a sensitive and specific biomarker, superior to chromogranin A (CgA for the risk of recurrence after radical operation of these tumors.

  18. Cosmic structure, averaging and dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Wiltshire, David L

    2013-01-01

    These lecture notes review the theoretical problems associated with coarse-graining the observed inhomogeneous structure of the universe at late epochs, of describing average cosmic evolution in the presence of growing inhomogeneity, and of relating average quantities to physical observables. In particular, a detailed discussion of the timescape scenario is presented. In this scenario, dark energy is realized as a misidentification of gravitational energy gradients which result from gradients in the kinetic energy of expansion of space, in the presence of density and spatial curvature gradients that grow large with the growth of structure. The phenomenology and observational tests of the timescape model are discussed in detail, with updated constraints from Planck satellite data. In addition, recent results on the variation of the Hubble expansion on < 100/h Mpc scales are discussed. The spherically averaged Hubble law is significantly more uniform in the rest frame of the Local Group of galaxies than in t...

  19. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available For the 20(th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  20. Benchmarking statistical averaging of spectra with HULLAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, Marcel; Busquet, Michel

    2008-11-01

    Knowledge of radiative properties of hot plasmas is important for ICF, astrophysics, etc When mid-Z or high-Z elements are present, the spectra are so complex that one commonly uses statistically averaged description of atomic systems [1]. In a recent experiment on Fe[2], performed under controlled conditions, high resolution transmission spectra were obtained. The new version of HULLAC [3] allows the use of the same model with different levels of details/averaging. We will take advantage of this feature to check the effect of averaging with comparison with experiment. [1] A Bar-Shalom, J Oreg, and M Klapisch, J. Quant. Spectros. Rad. Transf. 65, 43 (2000). [2] J. E. Bailey, G. A. Rochau, C. A. Iglesias et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 265002-4 (2007). [3]. M. Klapisch, M. Busquet, and A. Bar-Shalom, AIP Conference Proceedings 926, 206-15 (2007).

  1. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  2. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  3. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

    2001-05-23

    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  4. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real

  5. A singularity theorem based on spatial averages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J M M Senovilla

    2007-07-01

    Inspired by Raychaudhuri's work, and using the equation named after him as a basic ingredient, a new singularity theorem is proved. Open non-rotating Universes, expanding everywhere with a non-vanishing spatial average of the matter variables, show severe geodesic incompletness in the past. Another way of stating the result is that, under the same conditions, any singularity-free model must have a vanishing spatial average of the energy density (and other physical variables). This is very satisfactory and provides a clear decisive difference between singular and non-singular cosmologies.

  6. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  7. SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Goluoglu

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.

  8. An approximate analytical approach to resampling averages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malzahn, Dorthe; Opper, M.

    2004-01-01

    Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach for appr......Using a novel reformulation, we develop a framework to compute approximate resampling data averages analytically. The method avoids multiple retraining of statistical models on the samples. Our approach uses a combination of the replica "trick" of statistical physics and the TAP approach...

  9. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Feragen, Aasa; Black, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can...... to vectors (subspaces) or elements of vectors; we focus on the latter and use a trimmed average. The resulting Trimmed Grassmann Average (TGA) is particularly appropriate for computer vision because it is robust to pixel outliers. The algorithm has low computational complexity and minimal memory requirements...

  10. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S

    2015-09-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t

  11. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the

  12. L'espace des francs-maçons

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    À l’heure où l’on commémore avec faste les 275 ans de la franc-maçonnerie en France, ce livre est né d’un constat inquiétant et d’un espoir. Longtemps pionnière dans l’observation des formes de sociabilité, l’histoire de la franc-maçonnerie peine aujourd’hui à trouver un second souffle. Elle est même menacée de marginalisation universitaire et scientifique. Paradoxalement, la situation n’a sans doute jamais été aussi propice à une relance de la recherche : l’ouverture des fonds maçonniques de...

  13. Atmel maXTouch控制器支持Windows 8

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    爱特梅尔公司(Atmel Corporation)宣布,爱特梅尔maXTouch mXT1386率先成为能够支持微软(Microsoft)公司全新的以触摸为中心的Windows 8操作系统的触摸控制器,此前mXT1386控制器已经用于三星(Samsung)公司的Windows Developer Preview(开发者预览版)PC。mXT1386控制器利用爱特梅尔获得验证的maXTouch技术,是爱特梅尔maXTouch系列中首款支持Windows8操作系统的产品,适用于多种尺寸的触摸屏。

  14. Examples for Clinical Use of Ma Zi Ren Wan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书文

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ma Zi Ren Wan (麻子仁丸), originally recorded in Treatise on Febrile Diseases (伤寒论), is composed of Ma Zi Ren (麻子仁Fructus Cannabis), Bai Shao (白芍Radix Paeoniae Alba), Zhi Shi (枳实Fructus Aurantii Immaturus), Da Huang (大黄Radix etRhizoma Rhei), Hou Po (厚朴cortex Magnoliae Officinalis) and Xing Ren (杏仁Semen Armeniacae Amarum). Good therapeutic results have been achieved by using Ma ZiRen Wan in treatment of febrile disease at the restoring stage, chronic consumptive diseases, hemorrhoid, disorders in women after delivery, chronic kidney disease, senile constipation, pulmonary heart disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension. Some illustrative cases are introduced below.

  15. Changing the Safety and Mission Assurance (S and MA) Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Roy W.; Safie, Fayssal M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the change in the work and impact of the Safety and Mission Assurance directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center. It reviews the background and the reasons given for a strong Safety & Mission Assurance presence in all planning for space flight. This was pointed out by the Rogers Commission Report after the Space Challenger accident, by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) and by a 2006 NASA Exploration Safety Study (NESS) Team. The overall objective of the work in this area was to improve and maintain S&MA expertise and skills. Training for this work was improved and the S&MA organization was reorganized. This has resulted in a paradigm shift for NASA's safety efforts, which is described. The presentation then reviews the impact of the new S&MA work in the Ares I design and development.

  16. Roadway management plan based on rockfall modelling calibration and validation. Application along the Ma-10 road in Mallorca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Sarro, Roberto; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul

    2016-04-01

    The Tramuntana range, in the northwestern sector of the island of Mallorca (Spain), is frequently affected by rockfalls which have caused significant damage, mainly along the road network. The Ma-10 road constitutes the main transportation corridor on the range with a heavy traffic estimated at 7,200 vehicles per day on average. With a length of 111 km and a tortuous path, the road is the connecting track for 12 municipalities and constitutes a strategic road on the island for many tourist resorts. For the period spanning from 1995 to current times, 63 rockfalls have affected the Ma-10 road with volumes ranging from 0.3m3 to 30,000 m3. Fortunately, no fatalities occurred but numerous blockages on the road took place which caused significant economic losses, valued of around 11 MEuro (Mateos el al., 2013). In this work we present the procedure we have applied to calibrate and validate rockfall modelling in the Tramuntana region, using 103 cases of the available detailed rockfall inventory (Mateos, 2006). We have exploited STONE (Guzzetti et al. 2002), a GIS based rockfall simulation software which computes 2D and 3D rockfall trajectories starting from a DTM and maps of the dynamic rolling friction coefficient and of the normal and tangential energy restitution coefficients. The appropriate identification of these parameters determines the accuracy of the simulation. To calibrate them, we have selected 40 rockfalls along the range which include a wide variety of outcropping lithologies. Coefficients values have been changed in numerous attempts in order to select those where the extent and shape of the simulation matched the field mapping. Best results were summarized with the average statistical values for each parameter and for each geotechnical unit, determining that mode values represent more precisely the data. Initially, for the validation stage, 10 well- known rockfalls exploited in the calibration phase have been selected. Confidence tests have been applied

  17. Parameterized Traveling Salesman Problem: Beating the Average

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutin, G.; Patel, V.

    2016-01-01

    In the traveling salesman problem (TSP), we are given a complete graph Kn together with an integer weighting w on the edges of Kn, and we are asked to find a Hamilton cycle of Kn of minimum weight. Let h(w) denote the average weight of a Hamilton cycle of Kn for the weighting w. Vizing in 1973 asked

  18. On averaging methods for partial differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, F.

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of weakly nonlinear partial differential equations both qualitatively and quantitatively is emerging as an exciting eld of investigation In this report we consider specic results related to averaging but we do not aim at completeness The sections and contain important material which

  19. Discontinuities and hysteresis in quantized average consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceragioli, Francesca; Persis, Claudio De; Frasca, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    We consider continuous-time average consensus dynamics in which the agents’ states are communicated through uniform quantizers. Solutions to the resulting system are defined in the Krasowskii sense and are proven to converge to conditions of ‘‘practical consensus’’. To cope with undesired chattering

  20. Bayesian Averaging is Well-Temperated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai

    2000-01-01

    Bayesian predictions are stochastic just like predictions of any other inference scheme that generalize from a finite sample. While a simple variational argument shows that Bayes averaging is generalization optimal given that the prior matches the teacher parameter distribution the situation...

  1. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  2. Generalized Jackknife Estimators of Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    With the aim of improving the quality of asymptotic distributional approximations for nonlinear functionals of nonparametric estimators, this paper revisits the large-sample properties of an important member of that class, namely a kernel-based weighted average derivative estimator. Asymptotic li...

  3. Bootstrapping Density-Weighted Average Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Crump, Richard K.; Jansson, Michael

    Employing the "small bandwidth" asymptotic framework of Cattaneo, Crump, and Jansson (2009), this paper studies the properties of a variety of bootstrap-based inference procedures associated with the kernel-based density-weighted averaged derivative estimator proposed by Powell, Stock, and Stoker...

  4. Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single qu...

  5. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  6. Average utility maximization: A preference foundation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.V. Kothiyal (Amit); V. Spinu (Vitalie); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides necessary and sufficient preference conditions for average utility maximization over sequences of variable length. We obtain full generality by using a new algebraic technique that exploits the richness structure naturally provided by the variable length of the sequen

  7. High average-power induction linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prono, D.S.; Barrett, D.; Bowles, E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Clark, J.C.; Coffield, F.; Newton, M.A.; Nexsen, W.; Ravenscroft, D.

    1989-03-15

    Induction linear accelerators (LIAs) are inherently capable of accelerating several thousand amperes of /approximately/ 50-ns duration pulses to > 100 MeV. In this paper we report progress and status in the areas of duty factor and stray power management. These technologies are vital if LIAs are to attain high average power operation. 13 figs.

  8. High Average Power Optical FEL Amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Zvi, I; Litvinenko, V

    2005-01-01

    Historically, the first demonstration of the FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL amplifier and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance a 100 kW average power FEL. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting energy recovery linacs combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs with some advantages. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Li...

  9. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter;

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...

  10. Full averaging of fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Skripnik

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the substantiation of the method of full averaging for fuzzy impulsive differential inclusions is studied. We extend the similar results for impulsive differential inclusions with Hukuhara derivative (Skripnik, 2007, for fuzzy impulsive differential equations (Plotnikov and Skripnik, 2009, and for fuzzy differential inclusions (Skripnik, 2009.

  11. Materials for high average power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, J.E.; Pertica, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Unique materials properties requirements for solid state high average power (HAP) lasers dictate a materials development research program. A review of the desirable laser, optical and thermo-mechanical properties for HAP lasers precedes an assessment of the development status for crystalline and glass hosts optimized for HAP lasers. 24 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Akuntansi dalam Penetapan Sĩma Masa Jawa Kuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novrida Qudsi Lutfillah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to uncover the accounting practices of Sĩma. The archaeological context is used as a research method to collect data, to interpret and to understand a culture. The results concluded that the accounting practices of sima had purposes to: (1 give privileges to certain areas; (2 establish and balanced the powers of social religious institution. The accounting practices and the role of the accountant (called Citralekha are visible on the ritual ceremonies of Sĩma. The values reflected in the accounting practice were the blessings and the peace of life, as well as the self purity.

  13. Stratigraphic-structural characteristics of Mačva basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carević Ivana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stratigraphic-structural features of Mačva basin had been conducted in this paper on the basis of data obtained with deep exploratory boring performed for the needs of hydrogeothermal research project for the purpose of identifying the reserves of geothermal energy of Mačva. The research has been carried out with the aim of finding out the relation between the Tertiary and its Triassic bedrock (Ladinian and Carnian stages in which process the considerable realistic image of paleorelief (the bedrock of Tertiary deposits was obtained.

  14. CPAPD Vice President Mr. Ma Biao Visits Morocco and Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    At the respective invitation of the Amadeus Institute and the World Peace Council(WPC),Mr.Ma Biao,Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC)and Vice President of the Chinese People’s Association for Peace and Disarmament(CPAPD)led a CPAPD delegation on a good-will visit to Morocco and Greece during November 10 to 19,2015.During the stay in Morocco,Mr.Ma Biao respectively met with Moroccan Senate Vice

  15. Constraining the mass-richness relationship of redMaPPer clusters with angular clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Eric J.; Rozo, Eduardo; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Rykoff, Eli; Wechsler, Risa H.

    2016-11-01

    The potential of using cluster clustering for calibrating the mass-richness relation of galaxy clusters has been recognized theoretically for over a decade. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to achieve high-precision mass calibration using redMaPPer clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey North Galactic Cap. By including cross-correlations between several richness bins in our analysis, we significantly improve the statistical precision of our mass constraints. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is constrained to 7 per cent statistical precision by our analysis. However, the error budget is systematics dominated, reaching a 19 per cent total error that is dominated by theoretical uncertainty in the bias-mass relation for dark matter haloes. We confirm the result from Miyatake et al. that the clustering amplitude of redMaPPer clusters depends on galaxy concentration as defined therein, and we provide additional evidence that this dependence cannot be sourced by mass dependences: some other effect must account for the observed variation in clustering amplitude with galaxy concentration. Assuming that the observed dependence of redMaPPer clustering on galaxy concentration is a form of assembly bias, we find that such effects introduce a systematic error on the amplitude of the mass-richness relation that is comparable to the error bar from statistical noise. The results presented here demonstrate the power of cluster clustering for mass calibration and cosmology provided the current theoretical systematics can be ameliorated.

  16. Investigation of MA Content Effect on Kinetic Parameter in ADS Core%MA 含量对 ADS 堆芯动力学参数的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗润; 宋洪兵; 赵福宇

    2016-01-01

    The effective delayed neutron fraction (βef ),mean neutron generation time (Λ)and reactivity feedback coefficient (α)are the most important parameters in nuclear reactor kinetics.In this study,Monte Carlo method was applied to calculate the kinetic parameters of accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS)cores,and the effect of mi-nor actinides (MA)content on these parameters was analyzed.The different contents of MA in the fuel were investigated to determine its effect on the kinetic parameters.The results show that when the content of MA reaches 5% in the fuel,theβef andΛ decrease by about 18% and 31%,respectively.With the increase of MA content from 0% to 5%,the average value of Doppler feedback coefficientαD varies from -0.56 pcm/K to-0.36 pcm/K,and the average value of coolant feedback coefficient αC varies from-2.1 1 pcm/K to -1.73 pcm/K.%有效缓发中子份额(βef )、平均中子代时间(Λ)和反应性反馈系数(α)是核反应堆动力学中至关重要的参数。本文采用蒙特卡罗方法计算了加速器驱动的次临界系统(ADS)堆芯的动力学参数,并分析了次锕系核素(MA)装载量对这些参数的影响。通过在燃料中添加不同含量的 MA,来研究其对 ADS堆芯动力学参数的影响。结果表明,当 MA 在燃料中的含量从0%增加到5%时,βef 和Λ的值分别降低了18%和31%,多普勒反馈系数平均值αD 由-0.56 pcm/K 变化到-0.36 pcm/K,冷却剂反馈系数平均值αC 由-2.11 pcm/K变化到-1.73 pcm/K。

  17. Supplier Selection for Enterprises Information Integration Based on MA-OWA and Grey Evaluation%基于MA-OWA和灰色评估法的企业信息集成服务供应商选择研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于小兵

    2012-01-01

    为了降低企业信息集成的风险,提出了通过多数集(Majority Additive,MA)的有序加权平均(Ordered Weighted Averaging,OWA)和灰色评估法来选择集成服务供应商.构建了企业信息集成服务供应商评价指标体系.针对供应商选择问题的复杂性,提出了基于MA-OWA和灰色评估法相结合的选择决策模型.通过具体案例研究证明了整个评价指标体系及模型是可操作、实用和有效的.%MA-OWA and grey evaluation are proposed to select suppliers for enterprises information integration so that the risk of integration will become lower. A supplier evaluation index system is established. A selection decision model based on MA-OWA and grey evaluation is presented for the complexity of the supplier selection problem. An empirical study used to prove that the whole evaluation index system and the selection model are operable, practical and effective.

  18. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Nantucket County, MA, Current Address Ranges Relationship File

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  19. Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Meehan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.

  20. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Faming

    2010-01-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400--407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305--320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE al...

  1. ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE AVERAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen BOGHEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Productivity in agriculture most relevantly and concisely expresses the economic efficiency of using the factors of production. Labour productivity is affected by a considerable number of variables (including the relationship system and interdependence between factors, which differ in each economic sector and influence it, giving rise to a series of technical, economic and organizational idiosyncrasies. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the underlying factors of the average work productivity in agriculture, forestry and fishing. The analysis will take into account the data concerning the economically active population and the gross added value in agriculture, forestry and fishing in Romania during 2008-2011. The distribution of the average work productivity per factors affecting it is conducted by means of the u-substitution method.

  2. Time-average dynamic speckle interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    For the study of microscopic processes occurring at structural level in solids and thin biological objects, a method of dynamic speckle interferometry successfully applied. However, the method has disadvantages. The purpose of the report is to acquaint colleagues with the method of averaging in time in dynamic speckle - interferometry of microscopic processes, allowing eliminating shortcomings. The main idea of the method is the choice the averaging time, which exceeds the characteristic time correlation (relaxation) the most rapid process. The method theory for a thin phase and the reflecting object is given. The results of the experiment on the high-cycle fatigue of steel and experiment to estimate the biological activity of a monolayer of cells, cultivated on a transparent substrate is given. It is shown that the method allows real-time visualize the accumulation of fatigue damages and reliably estimate the activity of cells with viruses and without viruses.

  3. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  4. Endogenous average cost based access pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Fjell, Kenneth; Foros, Øystein; Pal, Debashis

    2006-01-01

    We consider an industry where a downstream competitor requires access to an upstream facility controlled by a vertically integrated and regulated incumbent. The literature on access pricing assumes the access price to be exogenously fixed ex-ante. We analyze an endogenous average cost based access pricing rule, where both firms realize the interdependence among their quantities and the regulated access price. Endogenous access pricing neutralizes the artificial cost advantag...

  5. The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities without averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2009-01-01

    The Ghirlanda-Guerra identities are one of the most mysterious features of spin glasses. We prove the GG identities in a large class of models that includes the Edwards-Anderson model, the random field Ising model, and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the presence of a random external field. Previously, the GG identities were rigorously proved only `on average' over a range of temperatures or under small perturbations.

  6. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  7. Average Light Intensity Inside a Photobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herby Jean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For energy production, microalgae are one of the few alternatives with high potential. Similar to plants, algae require energy acquired from light sources to grow. This project uses calculus to determine the light intensity inside of a photobioreactor filled with algae. Under preset conditions along with estimated values, we applied Lambert-Beer's law to formulate an equation to calculate how much light intensity escapes a photobioreactor and determine the average light intensity that was present inside the reactor.

  8. Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballatore, P.

    Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.

  9. Unscrambling The "Average User" Of Habbo Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The “user” is an ambiguous concept in human-computer interaction and information systems. Analyses of users as social actors, participants, or configured users delineate approaches to studying design-use relationships. Here, a developer’s reference to a figure of speech, termed the “average user,” is contrasted with design guidelines. The aim is to create an understanding about categorization practices in design through a case study about the virtual community, Habbo Hotel. A qualitative analysis highlighted not only the meaning of the “average user,” but also the work that both the developer and the category contribute to this meaning. The average user a represents the unknown, b influences the boundaries of the target user groups, c legitimizes the designer to disregard marginal user feedback, and d keeps the design space open, thus allowing for creativity. The analysis shows how design and use are intertwined and highlights the developers’ role in governing different users’ interests.

  10. On Backus average for generally anisotropic layers

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Len; Slawinski, Michael A; Stanoev, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, following the Backus (1962) approach, we examine expressions for elasticity parameters of a homogeneous generally anisotropic medium that is long-wave-equivalent to a stack of thin generally anisotropic layers. These expressions reduce to the results of Backus (1962) for the case of isotropic and transversely isotropic layers. In over half-a-century since the publications of Backus (1962) there have been numerous publications applying and extending that formulation. However, neither George Backus nor the authors of the present paper are aware of further examinations of mathematical underpinnings of the original formulation; hence, this paper. We prove that---within the long-wave approximation---if the thin layers obey stability conditions then so does the equivalent medium. We examine---within the Backus-average context---the approximation of the average of a product as the product of averages, and express it as a proposition in terms of an upper bound. In the presented examination we use the e...

  11. A simple algorithm for averaging spike trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julienne, Hannah; Houghton, Conor

    2013-02-25

    Although spike trains are the principal channel of communication between neurons, a single stimulus will elicit different spike trains from trial to trial. This variability, in both spike timings and spike number can obscure the temporal structure of spike trains and often means that computations need to be run on numerous spike trains in order to extract features common across all the responses to a particular stimulus. This can increase the computational burden and obscure analytical results. As a consequence, it is useful to consider how to calculate a central spike train that summarizes a set of trials. Indeed, averaging responses over trials is routine for other signal types. Here, a simple method for finding a central spike train is described. The spike trains are first mapped to functions, these functions are averaged, and a greedy algorithm is then used to map the average function back to a spike train. The central spike trains are tested for a large data set. Their performance on a classification-based test is considerably better than the performance of the medoid spike trains.

  12. Changing mortality and average cohort life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Schoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Period life expectancy varies with changes in mortality, and should not be confused with the life expectancy of those alive during that period. Given past and likely future mortality changes, a recent debate has arisen on the usefulness of the period life expectancy as the leading measure of survivorship. An alternative aggregate measure of period mortality which has been seen as less sensitive to period changes, the cross-sectional average length of life (CAL has been proposed as an alternative, but has received only limited empirical or analytical examination. Here, we introduce a new measure, the average cohort life expectancy (ACLE, to provide a precise measure of the average length of life of cohorts alive at a given time. To compare the performance of ACLE with CAL and with period and cohort life expectancy, we first use population models with changing mortality. Then the four aggregate measures of mortality are calculated for England and Wales, Norway, and Switzerland for the years 1880 to 2000. CAL is found to be sensitive to past and present changes in death rates. ACLE requires the most data, but gives the best representation of the survivorship of cohorts present at a given time.

  13. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  14. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU HePing; YANG ZhiYong; TIAN FuQiang

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial heterogeneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overestimate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hydrological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  15. Spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    To quantify the influences of soil heterogeneity on infiltration, a spatial averaging infiltration model for layered soil (SAI model) is developed by coupling the spatial averaging approach proposed by Chen et al. and the Generalized Green-Ampt model proposed by Jia et al. In the SAI model, the spatial hetero- geneity along the horizontal direction is described by a probability distribution function, while that along the vertical direction is represented by the layered soils. The SAI model is tested on a typical soil using Monte Carlo simulations as the base model. The results show that the SAI model can directly incorporate the influence of spatial heterogeneity on infiltration on the macro scale. It is also found that the homogeneous assumption of soil hydraulic conductivity along the horizontal direction will overes- timate the infiltration rate, while that along the vertical direction will underestimate the infiltration rate significantly during rainstorm periods. The SAI model is adopted in the spatial averaging hydrological model developed by the authors, and the results prove that it can be applied in the macro-scale hy- drological and land surface process modeling in a promising way.

  16. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Fong, W; Meadows, V S; Snively, H; Velusamy, T; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Meadows, Victoria S.; Snively, Heather; Tinetti, Giovanna; Velusamy, Thangasamy

    2004-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and ESA Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earth-sized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of the planet Mars to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPF-C) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model which uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially-resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions (phase angles) and viewing geometries. Results presented here include disk averaged synthetic spectra, light-cur...

  17. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  18. DVD-d. Shrek Kolmas; Ma olen legend / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustused USA 2007.a. filmidele : animafilm "Shrek Kolmas" ("Shrek the Third", režissöörid Chris Miller, Raman Hui) ja ulmefilm "Ma olen legend" ("I Am Legend"; režissöör Francis Lawrence)

  19. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  20. Ma Shi Wen Tong and its Theory of Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Ma Shi Wen Tong is a very influential book in the field of linguistics.Its theory of language is closely related to the social background of China at that time.The paper will deal with concept of language in this book from a cultural and historical perspective.

  1. China's Overseas M&A in Global Economic Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Kang

    2009-01-01

    @@ verseas Merger and Acquisition (M&A) is not only the major means for the enterprises to expand rapid-ly and operate globally, but also the significant stra-tegic tools for acquiring advanced technotegy from other companies and seizing the market and other resources.

  2. Ma Junren’s Track Team Stuns the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    At the Fourth World Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, Germany, Chinese runners, most Ma Junren’s, triumphed. They won the gold in the 1,500, gold and silver in the 10,000 and swept the 3,000. Twenty-four days later at the National Games in Beijing, Ma’s team broke many world records.

  3. Organisational Learning through International M&A Integration Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wayne; Salama, Alzira

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to explore the learning process associated with international mergers and acquisitions (M&A) integration strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The paper employs a comparative case study methodology, utilising qualitative data through in-depth interviews with top management responsible for…

  4. 75 FR 65567 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Mystic River, Charlestown, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Mystic River, Charlestown, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander,...

  5. 75 FR 25305 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00027

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00027 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  6. 75 FR 25305 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  7. 76 FR 58558 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  8. 78 FR 37455 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... regulation was published in the Federal Register (78 FR 35756) under the same name and docket number. This... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA...

  9. 77 FR 6963 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Merrimack River, Amesbury, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Merrimack River, Amesbury, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander,...

  10. 46 CFR 308.544 - Facultative binder, Form MA-315.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative binder, Form MA-315. 308.544 Section 308.544 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Iii-Facultative War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.544 Facultative binder, Form...

  11. 46 CFR 308.533 - Closing report, Form MA-313.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Closing report, Form MA-313. 308.533 Section 308.533 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.533 Closing report, Form...

  12. 76 FR 67245 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Disaster Declaration 12803 and 12804 Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential...

  13. 77 FR 65619 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Taunton River, MA AGENCY:...

  14. 76 FR 45644 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ] ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  15. 78 FR 35756 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Charles River, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander,...

  16. 76 FR 53019 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 1. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the...

  17. 75 FR 30872 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the...

  18. 78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; West Bay, Osterville, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  19. 75 FR 39059 - Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Massachusetts Disaster Number MA-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 3. SUMMARY: This is an amendment of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for...

  20. DVD-d. Shrek Kolmas; Ma olen legend / Andres Laasik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laasik, Andres, 1960-2016

    2008-01-01

    Lühiarvustused USA 2007.a. filmidele : animafilm "Shrek Kolmas" ("Shrek the Third", režissöörid Chris Miller, Raman Hui) ja ulmefilm "Ma olen legend" ("I Am Legend"; režissöör Francis Lawrence)

  1. Thesis Writing Challenges for Non-Native MA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Karim; Shirzad Khajepasha, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Writing in a second (L2)/foreign language is generally a challenging activity, and writing an MA thesis, as an example of academic enterprise, can be daunting when done in a language in which the writer is not fully competent. The challenge such a genre of writing poses for L2 writers has not been properly addressed. To fill in the gap in this…

  2. MaRGEE: Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dordevic, Mladen M.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.

    2015-12-01

    Google Earth is recognized as a highly effective visualization tool for geospatial information. However, there remain serious limitations that have hindered its acceptance as a tool for research and education in the geosciences. One significant limitation is the inability to translate or rotate geometrical elements on the Google Earth virtual globe. Here we present a new JavaScript web application to "Move and Rotate Google Earth Elements" (MaRGEE). MaRGEE includes tools to simplify, translate, and rotate elements, add intermediate steps to a transposition, and batch process multiple transpositions. The transposition algorithm uses spherical geometry calculations, such as the haversine formula, to accurately reposition groups of points, paths, and polygons on the Google Earth globe without distortion. Due to the imminent deprecation of the Google Earth API and browser plugin, MaRGEE uses a Google Maps interface to facilitate and illustrate the transpositions. However, the inherent spatial distortions that result from the Google Maps Web Mercator projection are not apparent once the transposed elements are saved as a KML file and opened in Google Earth. Potential applications of the MaRGEE toolkit include tectonic reconstructions, the movements of glaciers or thrust sheets, and time-based animations of other large- and small-scale geologic processes.

  3. BioMaPS: A Roadmap for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Maeve L.; Fister, K. Renee

    2010-01-01

    The manuscript outlines the impact that our National Science Foundation Interdisciplinary Training for Undergraduates in Biological and Mathematical Sciences program, BioMaPS, has had on the students and faculty at Murray State University. This interdisciplinary program teams mathematics and biology undergraduate students with mathematics and…

  4. 42 CFR 422.74 - Disenrollment by the MA organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Basis of disenrollment for disruptive behavior. An organization may disenroll an individual whose... MA organization has fulfilled the requirements to request disenrollment for disruptive behavior. If... established under paragraph (d)(1) of this section. (ii) The individual has engaged in disruptive...

  5. The Authority and Charismas of Jack Ma's Leadership

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈希

    2014-01-01

    Jack Ma is the top manager of Ali Baba group, with a strong leadership. He mixes autocratic leadership and charismatic leadership together. The powers he used are from his position, the reward system of the company and the charismas to gain his leading power. In addition, he uses his charismas and his achievements to win the trust of the employees, which develop his leadership.

  6. M&A New Rules May Trigger Merger Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUBERT TSE

    2006-01-01

    @@ The Chinese government issued a series of new M&A and takeover rules in July and August 2006 to further regulate and facilitate foreign investors' acquisition activities in China.The new rules are aimed at offering more flexibility, reducing costs and increasing takeover efficiencies for foreign-funded M&As in the world's fastest-growing major economy.

  7. 42 CFR 422.104 - Special rules on supplemental benefits for MA MSA plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules on supplemental benefits for MA MSA... Beneficiary Protections § 422.104 Special rules on supplemental benefits for MA MSA plans. (a) An MA organization offering an MA MSA plan may not provide supplemental benefits that cover expenses that...

  8. Device characterization and optimization of small molecule organic solar cells assisted by modelling simulation of the current-voltage characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Yi; Wan, Xiangjian; Long, Guankui; Kan, Bin; Ni, Wang; Zhang, Hongtao; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-07-15

    In order to understand the photovoltaic performance differences between the recently reported DR3TBTT-HD and DR3TBDT2T based solar cells, a modified two-diode model with Hecht equation was built to simulate the corresponding current-voltage characteristics. The simulation results reveal that the poor device performance of the DR3TBDTT-HD based device mainly originated from its insufficient charge transport ability, where an average current of 5.79 mA cm(-2) was lost through this pathway at the maximum power point for the DR3TBDTT-HD device, nearly three times as large as that of the DR3TBDT2T based device under the same device fabrication conditions. The morphology studies support these simulation results, in which both Raman and 2D-GIXD data reveal that DR3TBTT-HD based blend films exhibit lower crystallinity. Spin coating at low temperature was used to increase the crystallinity of DR3TBDTT-HD based blend films, and the average current loss through insufficient charge transport at maximum power point was suppressed to 2.08 mA cm(-2). As a result, the average experimental power conversion efficiency of DR3TBDTT-HD based solar cells increased by over 40%.

  9. Synergistic effect of nanoclay and EPR-g-MA on the properties of nylon6/EPR blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Sumana; Das, Tanya; Das, C K; Khatua, B B

    2009-05-01

    The effect of EPR-g-MA, nanoclay and a combination of the two on phase morphology and properties of (70/30 w/w) nylon6/EPR blends prepared by melt processing technique has been studied. We found that the number average domain diameter (D(n)) of the dispersed EPR phase in the blend decreased in presence of EPR-g-MA, and clay. This observation indicated that nanoclay could be used as an effective compatibilizer in nylon6/EPR blend. X-ray diffraction study and TEM analysis of the blend/clay nanocomposites revealed the delaminated clay morphology and preferential location of the exfoliated clay platelets in nylon6 phase. Thus, selective dispersion of the clay platelets with delaminated morphology in the matrix phase acted as the barrier and thereby prevented the coalescence of dispersed EPR domains during melt processing. However, addition of nanoclay in the blend did not improve the impact property of the blend. Interestingly, the impact strength of the nylon6/EPR/EPR-g-MA/clay blend was much higher than the nylon6/EPR/EPR-g-MA and nylon6/EPR/clay blends at certain compositions with comparable D(n) values. This could be explained by assuming the presence of delaminated clay platelets at the interface, which were stiffer than the polymers. Hence, the bending energy of the interfaces was high.

  10. MaMiCo: Software design for parallel molecular-continuum flow simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Neumann, Philipp

    2015-11-19

    . Solution method: We couple existing MD and CFD solvers via MaMiCo (macro-micro coupling tool). Data exchange and coupling algorithmics are abstracted and incorporated in MaMiCo. Once an algorithm is set up in MaMiCo, it can be used and extended, even if other solvers are used (as soon as the respective interfaces are implemented). Restrictions: Currently, only single-centered Lennard-Jones systems are supported. Running time: Runtime depends on the underlying coupled problem and may range from minutes to days. The provided test cases for all different solver couplings (incl. one complete coupling cycle of avg. domain size) take ca. 10 h on a regular Desktop.

  11. SDSS IV MaNGA: Discovery of an Hα Blob Associated with a Dry Galaxy Pair—Ejected Gas or a “Dark” Galaxy Candidate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Jing-Hua; Hsu, Chin-Hao; Fu, Hai; Huang, Song; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Gwyn, Stephen; Gelfand, Joseph D.; Cheung, Edmond; Masters, Karen; Peirani, Sébastien; Rujopakarn, Wiphu; Stark, David V.; Belfiore, Francesco; Bothwell, M. S.; Bundy, Kevin; Hagen, Alex; Hao, Lei; Huang, Shan; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Lintott, Chris; Maiolino, Roberto; Roman-Lopes, Alexandre; Wang, Wei-Hao; Xiao, Ting; Yuan, Fangting; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Malanushenko, Elena; Drory, Niv; Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Pace, Zach; Pan, Kaike; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    We report the discovery of a mysterious giant Hα blob that is ˜8 kpc away from the main MaNGA target 1-24145, one component of a dry galaxy merger, and has been identified in the first-year SDSS-IV MaNGA data. The size of the Hα blob is ˜3-4 kpc in radius, and the Hα distribution is centrally concentrated. However, there is no optical continuum counterpart in the deep broadband images reaching ˜26.9 mag arcsec-2 in surface brightness. We estimate that the masses of the ionized and cold gases are 3.3× {10}5 {M}⊙ and MaNGA 1-24145 to the Hα blob, suggesting that the primary ionizing source may come from MaNGA 1-24145, likely a low-activity AGN. Possible explanations for this Hα blob include the AGN outflow, the gas remnant being tidally or ram-pressure stripped from MaNGA 1-24145, or an extremely low surface brightness galaxy. However, the stripping scenario is less favored according to galaxy merger simulations and the morphology of the Hα blob. With the current data, we cannot distinguish whether this Hα blob is ejected gas due to a past AGN outburst, or a special category of “ultra-diffuse galaxy” interacting with MaNGA 1-24145 that further induces the gas inflow to fuel the AGN in MaNGA 1-24145.

  12. Wagnerite-MA5BC From Granulite-Facies Paragneiss, Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L.; Grew, E. S.; Xiong, M.; Ma, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Wagnerite-Ma5bc, which is one of three new polytypes of (Mg,Fe)_2(PO_4)(F,OH) (Chopin, Armbruster &Leyx, this conference), occurs in paragneiss associated with banded cordierite-prismatine gneiss. It forms anhedral to euhedral grains mostly 0.5-2 mm across, some with a tabular habit. Textures are consistent with a primary assemblage wagnerite-Ma5bc + plagioclase + apatite + magnetite + ilmenite-hematite that crystallized under granulite-facies conditions (750 - ˜860^oC, 6-7 kbar). Also present are biotite, quartz, K-feldspar, monazite, xenotime, corundum, hercynite, sulfide. Electron microprobe analyses give P_2O_5 41.39, SiO_2 0.06, TiO_2 0.88, FeO 4.16, MnO 0.09, MgO 44.54, CaO 0.09, F 6.87, H_2O (calculated for OH + F = 1) 2.04, O=F -2.89, total 97.22 wt%, corresponding to (Mg1.88Fe0.10Ti0.02)(P0.99O_4)(F0.61OH0.39). Space group is Ia. Lattice parameters a = 9.645(2)Å, b = 31.659(6) Å , c = 11.914(2) Å, â=108.26 (3)^o, V= 3455(1) Å^3 for Z=40, Dcalc = 3.18(1) g/cm^3. The crystal structure has been solved by direct methods and refined to R_1=0.0413 for the independent 4521 reflections [I>2σ(I)] using MoKα radiation. The primary difference among the wagnerite polytypes is ordering of the (F,OH) positions. F can occupy one of two positions resulting in two distinct configurations along the a direction. In magniotriplite the sequence of configurations in the b direction is disordered, whereas in wagnerite-Ma2bc the sequence is ordered 121212... and in wagnerite-Ma5bc, 12112... Magniotriplite and the wagnerite polytypes do not overlap in composition: minerals richer in Fe and Mn (average ionic radius >= 0.76 Å) crystallize as the disordered minerals in the triplite group, whereas highly magnesian minerals (average ionic radius = 86% of the Mg end member) crystallize as the ordered wagnerite polytypes. Magniotriplite formed at moderate temperatures (e.g., amphibolite-facies), whereas wagnerite-Ma2bc is found in rocks formed under a wide range of P

  13. A vacuum sealed high emission current and transmission efficiency carbon nanotube triode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Di

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A vacuum sealed carbon nanotubes (CNTs triode with a concave and spoke-shaped Mo grid is presented. Due to the high aperture ratio of the grid, the emission current could be modulated at a relatively high electric field. Totally 75mA emission current has been obtained from the CNTs cathode with the average applied field by the grid shifting from 8 to 13 V/μm. Whilst with the electron transmission efficiency of the grid over 56%, a remarkable high modulated current electron beam over 42mA has been collected by the anode. Also contributed by the high aperture ration of the grid, desorbed gas molecules could flow away from the emission area rapidly when the triode has been operated at a relative high emission current, and finally collected by a vacion pump. The working pressure has been maintained at ∼1 × 10−7 Torr, seldom spark phenomena occurred. Nearly perfect I-V curve and corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (FN plot confirmed the accuracy of the measured data, and the emission current was long term stable and reproducible. Thusly, this kind of triode would be used as a high-power electron source.

  14. A vacuum sealed high emission current and transmission efficiency carbon nanotube triode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yunsong; Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Du, Xiaofei; Yu, Cairu

    2016-04-01

    A vacuum sealed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) triode with a concave and spoke-shaped Mo grid is presented. Due to the high aperture ratio of the grid, the emission current could be modulated at a relatively high electric field. Totally 75mA emission current has been obtained from the CNTs cathode with the average applied field by the grid shifting from 8 to 13 V/μm. Whilst with the electron transmission efficiency of the grid over 56%, a remarkable high modulated current electron beam over 42mA has been collected by the anode. Also contributed by the high aperture ration of the grid, desorbed gas molecules could flow away from the emission area rapidly when the triode has been operated at a relative high emission current, and finally collected by a vacion pump. The working pressure has been maintained at ˜1 × 10-7 Torr, seldom spark phenomena occurred. Nearly perfect I-V curve and corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plot confirmed the accuracy of the measured data, and the emission current was long term stable and reproducible. Thusly, this kind of triode would be used as a high-power electron source.

  15. A vacuum sealed high emission current and transmission efficiency carbon nanotube triode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Qilong; Zhang, Xiaobing, E-mail: bell@seu.edu.cn; Lei, Wei; Du, Xiaofei; Yu, Cairu [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2016-04-15

    A vacuum sealed carbon nanotubes (CNTs) triode with a concave and spoke-shaped Mo grid is presented. Due to the high aperture ratio of the grid, the emission current could be modulated at a relatively high electric field. Totally 75 mA emission current has been obtained from the CNTs cathode with the average applied field by the grid shifting from 8 to 13 V/μm. Whilst with the electron transmission efficiency of the grid over 56%, a remarkable high modulated current electron beam over 42 mA has been collected by the anode. Also contributed by the high aperture ration of the grid, desorbed gas molecules could flow away from the emission area rapidly when the triode has been operated at a relative high emission current, and finally collected by a vacion pump. The working pressure has been maintained at ∼1 × 10{sup −7} Torr, seldom spark phenomena occurred. Nearly perfect I-V curve and corresponding Fowler-Nordheim (FN) plot confirmed the accuracy of the measured data, and the emission current was long term stable and reproducible. Thusly, this kind of triode would be used as a high-power electron source.

  16. Fixed Points of Averages of Resolvents: Geometry and Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Bauschke, Heinz H; Wylie, Calvin J S

    2011-01-01

    To provide generalized solutions if a given problem admits no actual solution is an important task in mathematics and the natural sciences. It has a rich history dating back to the early 19th century when Carl Friedrich Gauss developed the method of least squares of a system of linear equations - its solutions can be viewed as fixed points of averaged projections onto hyperplanes. A powerful generalization of this problem is to find fixed points of averaged resolvents (i.e., firmly nonexpansive mappings). This paper concerns the relationship between the set of fixed points of averaged resolvents and certain fixed point sets of compositions of resolvents. It partially extends recent work for two mappings on a question of C. Byrne. The analysis suggests a reformulation in a product space. Furthermore, two new algorithms are presented. A complete convergence proof that is based on averaged mappings is provided for the first algorithm. The second algorithm, which currently has no convergence proof, iterates a map...

  17. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle1.2-MA0 chip.

  18. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle 1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle 1.2-MA0 chip.

  19. Bayesian Model Averaging and Weighted Average Least Squares : Equivariance, Stability, and Numerical Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) estimator and the Weighted Average Least Squa

  20. Cell-laden photocrosslinked GelMA-DexMA copolymer hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hang; Zhou, Lei; Liao, Jingwen; Tan, Ying; Ouyang, Kongyou; Ning, Chenyun; Ni, Guoxin; Tan, Guoxin

    2014-09-01

    To effectively repair or replace damaged tissues, it is necessary to design three dimensional (3D) extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking scaffolds with tunable biomechanical properties close to the desired tissue application. In the present work, gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and dextran glycidyl methacrylate (DexMA) with tunable mechanical and biological properties were utilized to prepared novel bicomponent polymeric hydrogels by cross-linking polymerization using photoinitiation. We controlled the degree of substitution (DS) of glycidyl methacrylate in DexMA so that they could obtain relevant mechanical properties. The results indicated that copolymer hydrogels demonstrated a lower swelling ratio and higher compressive modulus as compared to the GelMA. Moreover, all of the hydrogels exhibited a honeycomb-like architecture, the pore sizes decreased as DS increased, and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts encapsulated in these hydrogels all exhibited excellent viability. These characteristics suggest a class of photocrosslinkable, tunable mechanically copolymer hydrogels that may find potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.

  1. A sixth order averaged vector field method

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Haochen; Wang, Yushun; Qin, Mengzhao

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, based on the theory of rooted trees and B-series, we propose the concrete formulas of the substitution law for the trees of order =5. With the help of the new substitution law, we derive a B-series integrator extending the averaged vector field (AVF) method to high order. The new integrator turns out to be of order six and exactly preserves energy for Hamiltonian systems. Numerical experiments are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and the energy-preserving property of the s...

  2. Phase-averaged transport for quasiperiodic Hamiltonians

    CERN Document Server

    Bellissard, J; Schulz-Baldes, H

    2002-01-01

    For a class of discrete quasi-periodic Schroedinger operators defined by covariant re- presentations of the rotation algebra, a lower bound on phase-averaged transport in terms of the multifractal dimensions of the density of states is proven. This result is established under a Diophantine condition on the incommensuration parameter. The relevant class of operators is distinguished by invariance with respect to symmetry automorphisms of the rotation algebra. It includes the critical Harper (almost-Mathieu) operator. As a by-product, a new solution of the frame problem associated with Weyl-Heisenberg-Gabor lattices of coherent states is given.

  3. Sparsity averaging for radio-interferometric imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, Rafael E; Wiaux, Yves

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel regularization method for compressive imaging in the context of the compressed sensing (CS) theory with coherent and redundant dictionaries. Natural images are often complicated and several types of structures can be present at once. It is well known that piecewise smooth images exhibit gradient sparsity, and that images with extended structures are better encapsulated in wavelet frames. Therefore, we here conjecture that promoting average sparsity or compressibility over multiple frames rather than single frames is an extremely powerful regularization prior.

  4. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benet, L [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Flores, J [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Hernandez-Saldana, H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Izrailev, F M [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Leyvraz, F [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Seligman, T H [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, Chamilpa, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2003-02-07

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  5. The average free volume model for liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the molar volume thermal expansion coefficient of 59 room temperature ionic liquids is compared with their van der Waals volume Vw. Regular correlation can be discerned between the two quantities. An average free volume model, that considers the particles as hard core with attractive force, is proposed to explain the correlation in this study. A combination between free volume and Lennard-Jones potential is applied to explain the physical phenomena of liquids. Some typical simple liquids (inorganic, organic, metallic and salt) are introduced to verify this hypothesis. Good agreement from the theory prediction and experimental data can be obtained.

  6. Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average

    CERN Document Server

    Bénet, L; Hernandez-Saldana, H; Izrailev, F M; Leyvraz, F; Seligman, T H

    2003-01-01

    Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.

  7. Grassmann Averages for Scalable Robust PCA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    As the collection of large datasets becomes increasingly automated, the occurrence of outliers will increase—“big data” implies “big outliers”. While principal component analysis (PCA) is often used to reduce the size of data, and scalable solutions exist, it is well-known that outliers can arbitrarily corrupt the results. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches for robust PCA do not scale beyond small-to-medium sized datasets. To address this, we introduce the Grassmann Average (GA), whic...

  8. Structure Character of M-A Constituent in CGHAZ of New Ultra-Low Carbon Bainitic Steel under Laser Welding Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin ZHAO; Wuzhu CHEN; Xudong ZHANG; Jiguo SHAN

    2006-01-01

    800 MPa grade new ultra-low carbon bainitic (NULCB) steel is the recently developed new generation steel.The microstructure in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of NULCB steel under laser welding conditions was investigated by thermal simulation. The influence of the cooling time from 800℃ to 500℃,t8/5 (0.3~30 s), on the microstructure of the CGHAZ was discussed. The experimental results indicate that the microstructure of the CGHAZ is only the granular bainite which consists of bainitic ferrite (BF) lath and M-A constituent while t8/5 is 0.3~30 s. The M-A constituent consists of twinned martensite and residual austenite, and the change of the volume fraction of the residual austenite in the M-A constituent is very small when t8/5 is between 0.3 and 30 s. The morphology of the M-A constituent obviously changes with the variation of t8/5. As t8/5 increases, the average width, gross and shape parameter of the M-A constituent increase, while the line density of the M-A constituent decreases.

  9. Seismic azimuthal anisotropy in the oceanic lithosphere and asthenosphere from broadband surface wave analysis of OBS array records at 60 Ma seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, A.; Kawakatsu, H.; Isse, T.; Nishida, K.; Sugioka, H.; Ito, A.; Shiobara, H.; Suetsugu, D.

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed seismic ambient noise and teleseismic waveforms of nine broadband ocean bottom seismometers deployed at a 60 Ma seafloor in the southeastward of Tahiti island, the South Pacific, by the Tomographic Investigation by seafloor ARray Experiment for the Society hotspot project. We first obtained one-dimensional shear wave velocity model beneath the array from average phase velocities of Rayleigh waves at a broadband period range of 5-200 s. The obtained model shows a large velocity reduction at depths between 40 and 80 km, where the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary might exist. We then estimated shear wave azimuthal anisotropy at depths of 20-100 km by measuring azimuthal dependence of phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The obtained model shows peak-to-peak intensity of the azimuthal anisotropy of 2%-4% with the fastest azimuth of NW-SE direction both in the lithosphere and asthenosphere. This result suggests that the ancient flow frozen in the lithosphere is not perpendicular to the strike of the ancient mid-ocean ridge but is roughly parallel to the ancient plate motion at depths of 20-60 km. The fastest azimuths in the current asthenosphere are subparallel to current plate motion at depths of 60-100 km. Additional shear wave splitting analysis revealed possible perturbations of flow in the mantle by the hot spot activities and implied the presence of azimuthal anisotropy in the asthenosphere down to a depth of 190-210 km.

  10. Detrending moving average algorithm for multifractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gao-Feng; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-07-01

    The detrending moving average (DMA) algorithm is a widely used technique to quantify the long-term correlations of nonstationary time series and the long-range correlations of fractal surfaces, which contains a parameter θ determining the position of the detrending window. We develop multifractal detrending moving average (MFDMA) algorithms for the analysis of one-dimensional multifractal measures and higher-dimensional multifractals, which is a generalization of the DMA method. The performance of the one-dimensional and two-dimensional MFDMA methods is investigated using synthetic multifractal measures with analytical solutions for backward (θ=0) , centered (θ=0.5) , and forward (θ=1) detrending windows. We find that the estimated multifractal scaling exponent τ(q) and the singularity spectrum f(α) are in good agreement with the theoretical values. In addition, the backward MFDMA method has the best performance, which provides the most accurate estimates of the scaling exponents with lowest error bars, while the centered MFDMA method has the worse performance. It is found that the backward MFDMA algorithm also outperforms the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. The one-dimensional backward MFDMA method is applied to analyzing the time series of Shanghai Stock Exchange Composite Index and its multifractal nature is confirmed.

  11. Trajectory averaging for stochastic approximation MCMC algorithms

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Faming

    2010-10-01

    The subject of stochastic approximation was founded by Robbins and Monro [Ann. Math. Statist. 22 (1951) 400-407]. After five decades of continual development, it has developed into an important area in systems control and optimization, and it has also served as a prototype for the development of adaptive algorithms for on-line estimation and control of stochastic systems. Recently, it has been used in statistics with Markov chain Monte Carlo for solving maximum likelihood estimation problems and for general simulation and optimizations. In this paper, we first show that the trajectory averaging estimator is asymptotically efficient for the stochastic approximation MCMC (SAMCMC) algorithm under mild conditions, and then apply this result to the stochastic approximation Monte Carlo algorithm [Liang, Liu and Carroll J. Amer. Statist. Assoc. 102 (2007) 305-320]. The application of the trajectory averaging estimator to other stochastic approximationMCMC algorithms, for example, a stochastic approximation MLE algorithm for missing data problems, is also considered in the paper. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2010.

  12. Averaged null energy condition from causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Thomas; Kundu, Sandipan; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2017-07-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey mi-crocausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, ∫ duT uu , must be non-negative. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to n-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form ∫ duX uuu··· u ≥ 0. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment on the relation to the recent derivation of the averaged null energy condition from relative entropy, and suggest a more general connection between causality and information-theoretic inequalities in QFT.

  13. Intensity contrast of the average supergranule

    CERN Document Server

    Langfellner, J; Gizon, L

    2016-01-01

    While the velocity fluctuations of supergranulation dominate the spectrum of solar convection at the solar surface, very little is known about the fluctuations in other physical quantities like temperature or density at supergranulation scale. Using SDO/HMI observations, we characterize the intensity contrast of solar supergranulation at the solar surface. We identify the positions of ${\\sim}10^4$ outflow and inflow regions at supergranulation scales, from which we construct average flow maps and co-aligned intensity and magnetic field maps. In the average outflow center, the maximum intensity contrast is $(7.8\\pm0.6)\\times10^{-4}$ (there is no corresponding feature in the line-of-sight magnetic field). This corresponds to a temperature perturbation of about $1.1\\pm0.1$ K, in agreement with previous studies. We discover an east-west anisotropy, with a slightly deeper intensity minimum east of the outflow center. The evolution is asymmetric in time: the intensity excess is larger 8 hours before the reference t...

  14. Local average height distribution of fluctuating interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Height fluctuations of growing surfaces can be characterized by the probability distribution of height in a spatial point at a finite time. Recently there has been spectacular progress in the studies of this quantity for the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in 1 +1 dimensions. Here we notice that, at or above a critical dimension, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in a broad class of linear surface growth models unless the model is regularized at small scales. The regularization via a system-dependent small-scale cutoff leads to a partial loss of universality. As a possible alternative, we introduce a local average height. For the linear models, the probability density of this quantity is well defined in any dimension. The weak-noise theory for these models yields the "optimal path" of the interface conditioned on a nonequilibrium fluctuation of the local average height. As an illustration, we consider the conserved Edwards-Wilkinson (EW) equation, where, without regularization, the finite-time one-point height distribution is ill defined in all physical dimensions. We also determine the optimal path of the interface in a closely related problem of the finite-time height-difference distribution for the nonconserved EW equation in 1 +1 dimension. Finally, we discuss a UV catastrophe in the finite-time one-point distribution of height in the (nonregularized) KPZ equation in 2 +1 dimensions.

  15. Asymptotic Time Averages and Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad El-Taha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consider an arbitrary nonnegative deterministic process (in a stochastic setting {X(t,  t≥0} is a fixed realization, i.e., sample-path of the underlying stochastic process with state space S=(-∞,∞. Using a sample-path approach, we give necessary and sufficient conditions for the long-run time average of a measurable function of process to be equal to the expectation taken with respect to the same measurable function of its long-run frequency distribution. The results are further extended to allow unrestricted parameter (time space. Examples are provided to show that our condition is not superfluous and that it is weaker than uniform integrability. The case of discrete-time processes is also considered. The relationship to previously known sufficient conditions, usually given in stochastic settings, will also be discussed. Our approach is applied to regenerative processes and an extension of a well-known result is given. For researchers interested in sample-path analysis, our results will give them the choice to work with the time average of a process or its frequency distribution function and go back and forth between the two under a mild condition.

  16. Evolutionary Prisoner's Dilemma Game Based on Pursuing Higher Average Payoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-Jian; WANG Bing-Hong; YANG Han-Xin; LING Xiang; CHEN Xiao-Jie; JIANG Rui

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the prisoner's dilemma game based on a new rule: players will change their current strategies to opposite strategies with some probability if their neighbours' average payoffs are higher than theirs. Compared with the cases on regular lattices (RL) and Newman-Watts small world network (NW), cooperation can be best enhanced on the scale-free Barabasi-Albert network (BA). It is found that cooperators are dispersive on RL network, which is different from previously reported results that cooperators will form large clusters to resist the invasion of defectors. Cooperative behaviours on the BA network are discussed in detail. It is found that large-degree individuals have lower cooperation level and gain higher average payoffs than that of small-degree individuals. In addition, we find that small-degree individuals more frequently change strategies than do large-degree individuals.

  17. The B-dot Earth Average Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Rakoczy, John; Sanders, Devon

    2013-01-01

    The average Earth's magnetic field is solved with complex mathematical models based on mean square integral. Depending on the selection of the Earth magnetic model, the average Earth's magnetic field can have different solutions. This paper presents a simple technique that takes advantage of the damping effects of the b-dot controller and is not dependent of the Earth magnetic model; but it is dependent on the magnetic torquers of the satellite which is not taken into consideration in the known mathematical models. Also the solution of this new technique can be implemented so easily that the flight software can be updated during flight, and the control system can have current gains for the magnetic torquers. Finally, this technique is verified and validated using flight data from a satellite that it has been in orbit for three years.

  18. Disk-averaged Spectra & light-curves of Earth

    CERN Document Server

    Tinetti, G; Crisp, D; Fong, W; Kiang, N; Fishbein, E; Velusamy, T; Bosc, E; Turnbull, M

    2005-01-01

    We are using computer models to explore the observational sensitivity to changes in atmospheric and surface properties, and the detectability of biosignatures, in the globally averaged spectra and light-curves of the Earth. Using AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) data, as input for atmospheric and surface properties, we have generated spatially resolved high-resolution synthetic spectra using the SMART radiative transfer model, for a variety of conditions, from the UV to the far-IR (beyond the range of current Earth-based satellite data). We have then averaged over the visible disk for a number of different viewing geometries to quantify the sensitivity to surface types and atmospheric features as a function of viewing geometry, and spatial and spectral resolution. These results have been processed with an instrument simulator to improve our understanding of the detectable characteristics of Earth-like planets as viewed by the first generation extrasolar terrestrial planet detection and characterization mis...

  19. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2014-10-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments in large partially ordered sets and demonstrate its applicability in ontology quality assurance. Using MaPLE in a 30-node Hadoop local cloud, we systematically extracted non-lattice fragments in 8 SNOMED CT versions from 2009 to 2014 (each containing over 300k concepts), with an average total computing time of less than 3 hours per version. With dramatically reduced time, MaPLE makes it feasible not only to perform exhaustive structural analysis of large ontological hierarchies, but also to systematically track structural changes between versions. Our change analysis showed that the average change rates on the non-lattice pairs are up to 38.6 times higher than the change rates of the background structure (concept nodes). This demonstrates that fragments around non-lattice pairs exhibit significantly higher rates of change in the process of ontological evolution.

  20. El concepto pneûma en el Anonymus Londinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Saumell, Jordi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has chiefly to do with a Greek concept especially subject to overlap in meaning: pneûma. Translated into Latin as ‘spiritus’, pneûma is a unique term doubtlessly accounting for the handful of ideas grounding Western tradition. Pneûma’s former significations look to be substantially different to the major one with which the term has come down and stands for the time being. Hence, it seems worthwhile enquiring into its origins in ancient scientific literature. In order to do so, the papyrus called Anonymus Londinensis, a master piece in the History of Medicine, will be examined and put alongside Aristotle’s biological views. Attention is therefore focused on the occurrences of pneûma in the papyrus, its different meanings when contrasted to cognate terms like ‘phŷsa’ or ‘air’, as well as the special way that very term may have displayed by the different physicians reported in the document.El presente artículo versa sobre un término griego especialmente sujeto a la polisemia: pneûma. Traducido al latín como ‘spiritus’, pneûma es uno de los conceptos que, sin duda, se encuentra en la base y ha conformado la tradición especulativa occidental. Dado que los primeros significados de pneûma parecen substancialmente distintos al sentido mayoritario y general por el que se lo tiene en la actualidad, parece conveniente indagar su uso en la literatura científica griega. Para ello se estudia su empleo en el seno de una de las obras claves de la Historia de la Medicina, el llamado papiro Anonymus Londinensis, y se contrasta con la biología griega del s. IV a.C. tal y como se encuentra en los Parva Naturalia de Aristóteles. La atención, por tanto, se centra en el uso y significado del término en dicho papiro, su significado particular cuando se lo compara con algunos términos afines como ‘phŷsa’ o ‘aire’, así como el modo especial con el que lo usan los diferentes médicos de los que el papiro da

  1. Synthesis of thoria nano-particles at low temperature through base electrogeneration on steel 316L surface: Effect of current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Taher; Torab-Mostaedi, Meisam; Mobtaker, Hossein Ghasemi; Keshtkar, Ali Reza

    2016-10-01

    The strategy developed in this study, offers significant advantages (simplicity and cleanness of method and also a product purity and new morphology of the product) over the conventional routes for the synthesis of ThO2 nanostructure. The effect of current density on morphology was studied. The synthesized powder was characterized by means of Powder X-ray Diffraction (PXRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Phillips EM 2085) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The results show that the current density has a great effect on the morphology of the samples. The average size of the particles decreases as the applied current density increases and the average size of the samples decreases from 50 to 15 nm when the current density increases from 2 to 5 mA cm-2.

  2. High-Current Energy-Recovering Electron Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolitsa Merminga; David Douglas; Geoffrey Krafft

    2003-12-01

    The use of energy recovery provides a potentially powerful new paradigm for generation of the charged particle beams used in synchrotron radiation sources, high-energy electron cooling devices, electron-ion colliders, and other applications in photon science and nuclear and high-energy physics. Energy-recovering electron linear accelerators (called energy-recovering linacs, or ERLs) share many characteristics with ordinary linacs, as their six-dimensional beam phase space is largely determined by electron source properties. However, in common with classic storage rings, ERLs possess a high average-current-carrying capability enabled by the energy recovery process, and thus promise similar efficiencies. The authors discuss the concept of energy recovery and its technical challenges and describe the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Infrared Demonstration Free-Electron Laser (IR Demo FEL), originally driven by a 3548-MeV, 5-mA superconducting radiofrequency (srf) ERL, which provided the most substantial demonstration of energy recovery to date: a beam of 250 kW average power. They present an overview of envisioned ERL applications and a development path to achieving the required performance. They use experimental data obtained at the JLab IR Demo FEL and recent experimental results from CEBAF-ERL GeV-scale, comparatively low-current energy-recovery demonstration at JLab to evaluate the feasibility of the new applications of high-current ERLs, as well as ERLs' limitations and ultimate performance.

  3. Reflexiones sobre la identidad en Macunaíma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessica Giohanna Espejo Velásquez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo de reflexión es una aproximación a la problemática de identidad existente dentro de la novela Macunaíma de Mario de Andrade. Abordaré dicha temática a partir de los planteamientos de Fernando Ortiz y Leopoldo Zea; planteamientos que se configuran en tres personajes que dentro de la obra cumplen un papel primordial para comprender la propuesta del escritor brasilero. Estos son: Macunaíma, Venceslao Pietro Pietra y las Icamiabas. De este modo, analizo diferentes fragmentos de la novela con el fin de evidenciar ese afán por reconocer y reafirmar la identidad del hombre brasilero.

  4. Traditional Confucianism in modern China:Ma Yifu's ethical thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chai Wenhua

    2006-01-01

    Modern neo-Confucianism is studied at two levels,one is at the historical level and the other at the academic level.Modern neo-Confucianism at the historical level was developed in the modern context,but its basic content belongs to the traditional Confucianism or the study of Confucian classics.Modern neo-Confucianism at the academic level recognizes both the deficiencies of the traditional Confucianism and rationality of western learning,and dedicates itself to the modernization of Confucianism.Though Ma Yifu's moral philosophy is developed in the context of modern Chinese culture,it fails to deal with the problem of modern transformation of Confucian ethical values and its content still belongs to the traditional Confucianism.So it should be labeled as the modern neo-Confucianism in the historical sense.In this Paper,the author makes a systematic exploration and an evaluation of Ma Yifu's ethical thought.

  5. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  6. Averaged Null Energy Condition from Causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas; Tajdini, Amirhossein

    2016-01-01

    Unitary, Lorentz-invariant quantum field theories in flat spacetime obey microcausality: commutators vanish at spacelike separation. For interacting theories in more than two dimensions, we show that this implies that the averaged null energy, $\\int du T_{uu}$, must be positive. This non-local operator appears in the operator product expansion of local operators in the lightcone limit, and therefore contributes to $n$-point functions. We derive a sum rule that isolates this contribution and is manifestly positive. The argument also applies to certain higher spin operators other than the stress tensor, generating an infinite family of new constraints of the form $\\int du X_{uuu\\cdots u} \\geq 0$. These lead to new inequalities for the coupling constants of spinning operators in conformal field theory, which include as special cases (but are generally stronger than) the existing constraints from the lightcone bootstrap, deep inelastic scattering, conformal collider methods, and relative entropy. We also comment ...

  7. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI, AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition.

  8. Geographic Gossip: Efficient Averaging for Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dimakis, Alexandros G; Wainwright, Martin J

    2007-01-01

    Gossip algorithms for distributed computation are attractive due to their simplicity, distributed nature, and robustness in noisy and uncertain environments. However, using standard gossip algorithms can lead to a significant waste in energy by repeatedly recirculating redundant information. For realistic sensor network model topologies like grids and random geometric graphs, the inefficiency of gossip schemes is related to the slow mixing times of random walks on the communication graph. We propose and analyze an alternative gossiping scheme that exploits geographic information. By utilizing geographic routing combined with a simple resampling method, we demonstrate substantial gains over previously proposed gossip protocols. For regular graphs such as the ring or grid, our algorithm improves standard gossip by factors of $n$ and $\\sqrt{n}$ respectively. For the more challenging case of random geometric graphs, our algorithm computes the true average to accuracy $\\epsilon$ using $O(\\frac{n^{1.5}}{\\sqrt{\\log ...

  9. Bivariate phase-rectified signal averaging

    CERN Document Server

    Schumann, Aicko Y; Bauer, Axel; Schmidt, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) was shown to be a powerful tool for the study of quasi-periodic oscillations and nonlinear effects in non-stationary signals. Here we present a bivariate PRSA technique for the study of the inter-relationship between two simultaneous data recordings. Its performance is compared with traditional cross-correlation analysis, which, however, does not work well for non-stationary data and cannot distinguish the coupling directions in complex nonlinear situations. We show that bivariate PRSA allows the analysis of events in one signal at times where the other signal is in a certain phase or state; it is stable in the presence of noise and impassible to non-stationarities.

  10. Cosmological bounds in MaVaN models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boriero, D.F.; Holanda, P.C. de [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP, 13083-859, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-08-15

    Mass varying neutrino (MaVaN) is a class of models which in cosmology try to explain the coincidence of dark energy density through a tracking mechanism related with neutrinos. This special model couples the quintessential scalar field with neutrino generating an effective mass which becomes variable. Furthermore, it has been shown that an additional coupling among the quintessential field and baryons could generate specific dependences of neutrino mass with baryonic density.

  11. Portraits de Maîtres offerts à Olga Weijers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwen, M.J.; Angotti, C.; Brînzei, M.

    2013-01-01

    En 2011, le répertoire d’Olga Weijers, Le travail intellectuel à la faculté des arts de Paris : textes et maîtres (ca. 1200-1500), en neuf volumes, est arrivé à son terme. Cet instrument de travail a également inauguré la collection Studia Artistarum dans laquelle Olga Weijers a accueilli ces quinze

  12. Summary of ST-MA deliverables for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cennini, E; Ninin, P; Nunes, R; Scibile, L; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2003-01-01

    The ST/MA group is responsible for the monitoring of the CERN Technical Infrastructure as well as the design, installation and maintenance of personnel protection system such as access control system, fire and gas leak detection, safety alarm monitoring systems and radiation monitoring systems (in collaboration with TIS). This paper provides an overview of the main projects and services managed in the group and outlines the scope, the organisation and the planning of the main deliverables for LHC.

  13. Ma Xinlan Reflects on a 23-year Teaching Career

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    SHE wears a white cap typically worn by women of the Hui ethnic nationality and a smile which often appears on her amiable face. And when the smile comes, her face betrays the races years left on it, which leads me to believe that she doesn’t live a relaxed life. She is Ma Xinlan, 42, principal of the Weizhou Hui Nationality Girls Primary School in Ningxia Hui Nationality Autonomous Region.

  14. Design of a 500 MJ, 5 MA power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, J. A.; Headifen, G. R.; Weldon, J. M.; Wright, J. C.; Zowarka, R. C.; Aanstoos, T. A.; Kajs, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    The design of a 500 MJ, 5 MA power supply for rail gun experiments under the Battery Upgraded Supply (BUS) program is examined. About 50,000 12-volt lead acid batteries are required to reach this level. BUS will be required to perform up to two discharges per week. Therefore, BUS is designed to be a low-maintenance, reliable, and fault-tolerant power supply. The design of BUS and the details of its subsystems are described.

  15. Status report on a dc 130-mA, 75-keV proton injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, J.; Arvin, A.; Hodgkins, D. [and others

    1997-10-01

    A 110-mA, 75-keV dc proton injector is being developed at Los Alamos. We use a microwave proton source coupled to a two solenoid, space-charge neutralized, low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system. The ion source produces 110-mA proton current at 75 keV using 600 - 800 W of 2.45 GHz input discharge power. Typical proton fraction is 85-90% of the total extracted ion current, and the rms normalized beam emittance after transport through a prototype 2.1 m LEBT is 0.20 ({pi}mm-mrad). Beam space-charge neutralization is measured to be > 98% which enables the solenoid magnetic transport to successfully match the injector beam into a radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). Beam simulations indicate small emittance growth in the proposed 2.8 m low-energy demonstration accelerator (LEDA) LEBT. The LEBT also contains beam diagnostics, steering, and a beam deflector for variable duty factor and accelerator fast protect functions. The injector computer controls and reliability status are also discussed.

  16. The tectonic structure of the Song Ma fault zone, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Strong; Yeh, Yu-Lien; Tang, Chi-Cha; Phong, Lai Hop; Toan, Dinh Van; Chang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chau-Huei

    2015-08-01

    Indochina area is a tectonic active region where creates complex topographies and tectonic structures. In particular, the Song Ma fault zone plays an important role in understanding the mechanism and revolution of the collision between the Indian plate and Eurasian plate. In order to have better understanding the seismotectonic structures of the Song Ma fault zone, a three-year project is proposed to study the seismotectonic structures of crust in this region. The main goal of this project is to deploy temporary broad-band seismic stations around/near the shear zone to record high quality microearthquakes. By using the data recorded by the temporary array and the local seismic network, we are able to conduct seismological studies which include using waveform inversion to obtain precise fault plane solutions of microearthquakes, one-dimensional (1-D) velocity structure of the crust in the region as well as the characteristics of seismogeneric zone. From the results of earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms, we find that the spatial distribution of events occurred in Song Ma fault zone forms in several distinct groups which are well correlated local geological structures and further use to gain insights on tectonic evolution.

  17. LU60645GT and MA132843GT Catalogues of Lunar and Martian Impact Craters Developed Using a Crater Shape-based Interpolation Crater Detection Algorithm for Topography Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamuniccar, Goran; Loncaric, Sven; Mazarico, Erwan Matias

    2012-01-01

    For Mars, 57,633 craters from the manually assembled catalogues and 72,668 additional craters identified using several crater detection algorithms (CDAs) have been merged into the MA130301GT catalogue. By contrast, for the Moon the most complete previous catalogue contains only 14,923 craters. Two recent missions provided higher-quality digital elevation maps (DEMs): SELENE (in 1/16° resolution) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (we used up to 1/512°). This was the main motivation for work on the new Crater Shape-based interpolation module, which improves previous CDA as follows: (1) it decreases the number of false-detections for the required number of true detections; (2) it improves detection capabilities for very small craters; and (3) it provides more accurate automated measurements of craters' properties. The results are: (1) LU60645GT, which is currently the most complete (up to D>=8 km) catalogue of Lunar craters; and (2) MA132843GT catalogue of Martian craters complete up to D>=2 km, which is the extension of the previous MA130301GT catalogue. As previously achieved for Mars, LU60645GT provides all properties that were provided by the previous Lunar catalogues, plus: (1) correlation between morphological descriptors from used catalogues; (2) correlation between manually assigned attributes and automated measurements; (3) average errors and their standard deviations for manually and automatically assigned attributes such as position coordinates, diameter, depth/diameter ratio, etc; and (4) a review of positional accuracy of used datasets. Additionally, surface dating could potentially be improved with the exhaustiveness of this new catalogue. The accompanying results are: (1) the possibility of comparing a large number of Lunar and Martian craters, of e.g. depth/diameter ratio and 2D profiles; (2) utilisation of a method for re-projection of datasets and catalogues, which is very useful for craters that are very close to poles; and (3) the extension of the

  18. DC feedback for wide band frequency fixed current source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoday Hashim Mohamad Al-Rawi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alternating current sources are mainly used in bioelectrical impedance devices. Nowadays 50 – 100 kHz bioelectrical impedance devices are commonly used for body composition analysis. High frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices are mostly used in bioimpedance tomography and blood analysis. High speed op-amps and voltage comparators are used in this circuit. Direct current feedback is used to prevent delay. An N-Channel J-FET transistor was used to establish the voltage controlled gain amplifier (VCG. A sine wave signal has been applied as input voltage. The value of this signal should be constant in 170 mV rms to keep the output current in about 1 mA rms. Four frequencies; 100 kHz, 1 MHz, 2 MHz and 3.2 MHz were applied to the circuit and the current was measured for different load resistances. The results showed that the current was stable for changes in the resistor load, bouncing around an average point as a result of bouncing DC feedback.

  19. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  20. The search for a 100MA RancheroS magnetic flux compression generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, Robert Gregory [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Eulerian AMR rad-hydro-MHD code Roxane was used to investigate modifications to existing designs of the new RancheroS class of Magnetic Flux Compression Generators (FCGs) which might allow some members of this FCG family to exceed 100 MA driving a 10 nH static load. This report details the results of that study and proposes a specific generator modification which seems to satisfy both the peak current and desired risetime for the current pulse into the load. The details of the study and necessary modifications are presented. For details of the LA43S RancheroS FCG design and predictions for the first use of the generator refer to the relevant publications.

  1. Erosion in southern Tibet shut down at ∼10 Ma due to enhanced rock uplift within the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Marissa M.; Fox, Matthew; Schmidt, Jennifer L.; Tripathy-Lang, Alka; Wielicki, Matthew M.; Harrison, T. Mark; Zeitler, Peter K.; Shuster, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Exhumation of the southern Tibetan plateau margin reflects interplay between surface and lithospheric dynamics within the Himalaya–Tibet orogen. We report thermochronometric data from a 1.2-km elevation transect within granitoids of the eastern Lhasa terrane, southern Tibet, which indicate rapid exhumation exceeding 1 km/Ma from 17–16 to 12–11 Ma followed by very slow exhumation to the present. We hypothesize that these changes in exhumation occurred in response to changes in the loci and rate of rock uplift and the resulting southward shift of the main topographic and drainage divides from within the Lhasa terrane to their current positions within the Himalaya. At ∼17 Ma, steep erosive drainage networks would have flowed across the Himalaya and greater amounts of moisture would have advected into the Lhasa terrane to drive large-scale erosional exhumation. As convergence thickened and widened the Himalaya, the orographic barrier to precipitation in southern Tibet terrane would have strengthened. Previously documented midcrustal duplexing around 10 Ma generated a zone of high rock uplift within the Himalaya. We use numerical simulations as a conceptual tool to highlight how a zone of high rock uplift could have defeated transverse drainage networks, resulting in substantial drainage reorganization. When combined with a strengthening orographic barrier to precipitation, this drainage reorganization would have driven the sharp reduction in exhumation rate we observe in southern Tibet. PMID:26371325

  2. SDSS IV MaNGA: Gradients in Recent Star Formation Histories as Diagnostics for Galaxy Growth and Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The spatially resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA allows the radial gradients of recent star formation histories (SFH), as indicated by the 4000Å break (D4000) and the equivalent width of both Hδ absorption line and Hα emission line, to be obtained with high accuracy for a large sample of galaxies in the nearby universe. Analyses of both a dozen galaxies observed by the MaNGA prototype run (P-MaNGA) and ~700 galaxies in the current MaNGA sample have shown that the SFH gradients are useful for understanding disk growth and star formation cessation in local galaxies. We find the SFH gradient of a galaxy to strongly depend on the evolution stage of its central region. Centrally star-forming galaxies generally show very weak or no radial variations. In contrast, centrally quiescent galaxies present significant radial gradients in the sense that Dn(4000) decreases, while both EW(HδA) and EW(Hα) increase from the galactic center outward. This effect is seen mainly for high-mass galaxies with stellar mass above a few ×1010 M⊙, and depends weakly on galaxy morphology type. These results are consistent with a picture in which the cessation of star formation propagates from the center of a galaxy outward as it moves to the red sequence. In this talk I will present these analyses and discuss their implications on galaxy evolution.

  3. Industrial Applications of High Average Power FELS

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Michelle D

    2005-01-01

    The use of lasers for material processing continues to expand, and the annual sales of such lasers exceeds $1 B (US). Large scale (many m2) processing of materials require the economical production of laser powers of the tens of kilowatts, and therefore are not yet commercial processes, although they have been demonstrated. The development of FELs based on superconducting RF (SRF) linac technology provides a scaleable path to laser outputs above 50 kW in the IR, rendering these applications economically viable, since the cost/photon drops as the output power increases. This approach also enables high average power ~ 1 kW output in the UV spectrum. Such FELs will provide quasi-cw (PRFs in the tens of MHz), of ultrafast (pulsewidth ~ 1 ps) output with very high beam quality. This talk will provide an overview of applications tests by our facility's users such as pulsed laser deposition, laser ablation, and laser surface modification, as well as present plans that will be tested with our upgraded FELs. These upg...

  4. A new approach for Bayesian model averaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN XiangJun; XIE ZhengHui; WANG AiHui; YANG XiaoChun

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is a recently proposed statistical method for calibrating forecast ensembles from numerical weather models.However,successful implementation of BMA requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble.Two methods,namely the Expectation-Maximization (EM) and the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms,are widely used for BMA model training.Both methods have their own respective strengths and weaknesses.In this paper,we first modify the BMA log-likelihood function with the aim of removing the additional limitation that requires that the BMA weights add to one,and then use a limited memory quasi-Newtonian algorithm for solving the nonlinear optimization problem,thereby formulating a new approach for BMA (referred to as BMA-BFGS).Several groups of multi-model soil moisture simulation experiments from three land surface models show that the performance of BMA-BFGS is similar to the MCMC method in terms of simulation accuracy,and that both are superior to the EM algorithm.On the other hand,the computational cost of the BMA-BFGS algorithm is substantially less than for MCMC and is almost equivalent to that for EM.

  5. Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Gui Zhi (Ramulus Cinnamomi on Ma Huang- (Herb Ephedra- Induced Toxicity in Rats Treated with a Ma Huang-Gui Zhi Herb Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-hao Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6 rats/group were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg, and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of gui zhi (ramulus cinnamomi) on ma huang- (herb ephedra-) induced toxicity in rats treated with a ma huang-gui zhi herb pair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fang-Hao; Wei, Ping; Huo, Hui-Ling; Xing, Xue-Feng; Chen, Fei-Long; Tan, Xiao-Mei; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Herb Ephedra (Ma Huang in Chinese) and Ramulus Cinnamomi (Gui Zhi in Chinese) are traditional Chinese herbs, often used together to treat asthma, nose and lung congestion, and fever with anhidrosis. Due to the adverse effects of ephedrine, clinical use of Ma Huang is restricted. However, Gui Zhi extract has been reported to decrease spontaneous activity in rats and exert anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. The present study explored the possible inhibitory effect of Gui Zhi on Ma Huang-induced neurotoxicity in rats when the two herbs were used in combination. All Ma Huang and Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts were prepared using methods of traditional Chinese medicine and were normalized based on the ephedrine content. Two-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 rats/group) were administered Ma Huang or the Ma Huang-Gui Zhi herb pair extracts for 7 days (ephedrine = 48 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was measured. After 7 days, oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex was measured. Gui Zhi decreased hyperactivity and sensitization produced by repeated Ma Huang administration and attenuated oxidative stress induced by Ma Huang. The results of this study demonstrate the neuroprotective potential of Gui Zhi in Ma Huang-induced hyperactivity and oxidative damage in the prefrontal cortex of rats when used in combination.

  8. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.

  9. MaLDA:medication analysis based on LDA%MaLDA:基于LDA的用药分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周靖; 佘玉轩; 熊赟

    2016-01-01

    为了给医生及病人安全、合理、高效用药提供决策支持,提出了一种基于LDA(Latent Dirichlet Allocation)的用药分析方法MaLDA(Medication Analysis based on LDA)。该方法结合了用药记录和就诊记录,将药物看作文档、药物功能看作主题、疾病看作词语,通过主题模型LDA发现隐含的药物功能,通过药物功能,将相关药物、相关疾病和药物与疾病联系起来。根据药物对药物功能的分布对药物进行聚类,每一类药物被相关的疾病所描述,进而对临床用药进行分析。MaLDA不仅能发现临床用药中针对某一类疾病效用较好的药物,而且能发现隐含的联合用药。实验数据来源于上海市某医院137510位病人的用药记录和就诊记录。实验结果证实了MaLDA相对于其他方法在对电子就医记录进行用药分析的有效性。%To provide support for doctors and patients to use drugs in a safer, more rational and efficient way, this paper proposes a framework for medication analysis based on LDA(Latent Dirichlet Allocation), MaLDA(Medication Analysis based on the LDA). MaLDA combines the usage of medication records and diagnostic records, infers the function of each drug using topic-based inference model LDA, which regards a drug as a document, a function as a topic, and a disease as a word. As a result, related drugs, drug and disease, related diseases are associated by functions. Then clustering all drugs according to its distribution of functions, and each cluster is described by related diseases. Finally, it analyzes the clinical medication based on the results of clustering. The result generated by MaLDA can not only find the drug which is better in treatment, but also find the drug combination which lays the foundation for mining drug side effects and the complications of disease. The method is evaluated by using 137 510 patients’diagnostic records and medication records. The results justify

  10. Woodland: Dynamics of Deciduous Tree Stand Average Diameters of the Principal Forest Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ziganshin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of age dynamics of average diameters of a deciduous tree stands of different forest types at Highland Khamar-Daban (natural woodland in South-East Baikal Lake region has been done. The aggregate data of average tree stand diameters by age classes, as well as tree stand current periodic and overall average increment are presented and discussed in the paper. Forest management appraisal is done.

  11. Astronaut Scott Carpenter being recovered from Ocean after MA-7 flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut M. Scott Carpenter, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 7 (MA-7) mission, is seen being recovered from Atlantic Ocean after MA-7 flight. A diver helps Carpenter into a life raft while the capsule floats nearby.

  12. 75 FR 61096 - Regulated Navigation Area; Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... Navigation Areas: Reserved Channel, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA (a) Location. The following areas are...

  13. 77 FR 22611 - Cape Cod National Seashore Advisory Commission; Cape Cod National Seashore, South Wellfleet, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Wellfleet, MA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Two Hundred Eighty-Fourth Notice of Meeting..., Wellfleet, MA 02667. Dated: April 9, 2012. George E. Price, Jr., Superintendent. BILLING CODE 4310-WV-P...

  14. 42 CFR 495.206 - Timeframe for payment to qualifying MA organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... organizations for qualifying MA-affiliated eligible hospitals under common corporate governance are made under... common corporate governance under the Medicare FFS EHR incentive program, payment is made under the MA...

  15. Diätetische Maßnahmen bei Prostatakarzinom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hübner W

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Der Einfluß diätetischer Gewohnheiten und Maßnahmen auf Krebserkrankungen und im speziellen auf das Entstehen eines Prostatakarzinoms haben im vergangenen Jahr auch in Europa große Publizität gewonnen. Es ist unsere Aufgabe als Urologen, auch auf diesem Gebiet kompetente Hilfestellung für unsere Patienten zu bieten. In der Folge möchte ich kurz auf Möglichkeiten, Grenzen und Indikationen diätetischer Maßnahmen beim Prostatakarzinom eingehen. Der Zusammenhang zwischen diätetischen Maßnahmen und klinischem Entstehen eines Prostatakarzinoms ist uns aus den sogenannten Emigrantenstudien bekannt. So konnte festgestellt werden, daß das Verhältnis der Prostatakrebsentstehung zwischen Japanern und weißen Amerikanern 1:5 beträgt, sich aber bei Japanern, die in 2. Generation in Amerika leben, gegenüber den weißen Amerikanern auf 1:1 verändert. Von den verschiedenen Umweltfaktoren und Lebensgewohnheiten werden in erster Linie Änderungen der Eßgewohnheiten nach der Emigration dafür verantwortlich gemacht. Der Einfluß verschiedener Eßgewohnheiten auf die Karzinomentstehung wurde in der Vergangenheit nicht nur von Naturheilern und Komplementärmedizinern angesprochen, in mehr als 1500 Artikeln zum Thema "Krebs und Diät" wurde diese Thematik in den vergangenen 2 Jahren auch in den Standard- und Topjournals der medizinischen Fachliteratur behandelt. Informationen zu den wichtigsten Diätinhaltsstoffen möchte ich hier zusammenfassen.

  16. SDSS-IV/MaNGA: Spectrophotometric Calibration Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Renbin; Tremonti, Christy; Bershady, Matthew A.; Law, David R.; Schlegel, David J.; Bundy, Kevin; Drory, Niv; MacDonald, Nicholas; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Blanton, Michael R.; Cherinka, Brian; Eigenbrot, Arthur; Gunn, James E.; Harding, Paul; Hogg, David W.; Sánchez-Gallego, José R.; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Wake, David A.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Zhang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA), one of three core programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV, is an integral-field spectroscopic survey of roughly 10,000 nearby galaxies. It employs dithered observations using 17 hexagonal bundles of 2″ fibers to obtain resolved spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range of 3600-10300 Å. To map the internal variations within each galaxy, we need to perform accurate spectral surface photometry, which is to calibrate the specific intensity at every spatial location sampled by each individual aperture element of the integral field unit. The calibration must correct only for the flux loss due to atmospheric throughput and the instrument response, but not for losses due to the finite geometry of the fiber aperture. This requires the use of standard star measurements to strictly separate these two flux loss factors (throughput versus geometry), a difficult challenge with standard single-fiber spectroscopy techniques due to various practical limitations. Therefore, we developed a technique for spectral surface photometry using multiple small fiber-bundles targeting standard stars simultaneously with galaxy observations. We discuss the principles of our approach and how they compare to previous efforts, and we demonstrate the precision and accuracy achieved. MaNGA's relative calibration between the wavelengths of Hα and Hβ has an rms of 1.7%, while that between [N ii] λ6583 and [O ii] λ3727 has an rms of 4.7%. Using extinction-corrected star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities as an illustration, this level of precision guarantees that flux calibration errors will be sub-dominant when estimating these quantities. The absolute calibration is better than 5% for more than 89% of MaNGA's wavelength range.

  17. SDSS-IV/MaNGA: SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC CALIBRATION TECHNIQUE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Renbin; Sánchez-Gallego, José R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, 505 Rose St., Lexington, KY 40506-0057 (United States); Tremonti, Christy; Bershady, Matthew A.; Eigenbrot, Arthur; Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Winsconsin-Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706-1582 (United States); Law, David R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Physics Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720-8160 (United States); Bundy, Kevin [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Drory, Niv [McDonald Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); MacDonald, Nicholas [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Camino el Observatorio 1515, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Blanton, Michael R.; Hogg, David W. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cherinka, Brian [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Gunn, James E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Harding, Paul [Department of Astronomy, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); Sánchez, Sebastian F., E-mail: yanrenbin@uky.edu [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2016-01-15

    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA), one of three core programs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV, is an integral-field spectroscopic survey of roughly 10,000 nearby galaxies. It employs dithered observations using 17 hexagonal bundles of 2″ fibers to obtain resolved spectroscopy over a wide wavelength range of 3600–10300 Å. To map the internal variations within each galaxy, we need to perform accurate spectral surface photometry, which is to calibrate the specific intensity at every spatial location sampled by each individual aperture element of the integral field unit. The calibration must correct only for the flux loss due to atmospheric throughput and the instrument response, but not for losses due to the finite geometry of the fiber aperture. This requires the use of standard star measurements to strictly separate these two flux loss factors (throughput versus geometry), a difficult challenge with standard single-fiber spectroscopy techniques due to various practical limitations. Therefore, we developed a technique for spectral surface photometry using multiple small fiber-bundles targeting standard stars simultaneously with galaxy observations. We discuss the principles of our approach and how they compare to previous efforts, and we demonstrate the precision and accuracy achieved. MaNGA's relative calibration between the wavelengths of Hα and Hβ has an rms of 1.7%, while that between [N ii] λ6583 and [O ii] λ3727 has an rms of 4.7%. Using extinction-corrected star formation rates and gas-phase metallicities as an illustration, this level of precision guarantees that flux calibration errors will be sub-dominant when estimating these quantities. The absolute calibration is better than 5% for more than 89% of MaNGA's wavelength range.

  18. SelMa - Self-guided Learning in Teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang WEBER

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the project ``Self-guided Learning in Teaching Mathematics - SEC II'' (SelMa, five authoring schools are working out scenarios, media and materials for phases of self-guided learning, which will be tested systematically by 10 trial schools with regard to their everyday suitability. In this paper three approaches to such learning arrangements (independent learning centre, jigsaw classroom and learning at stations are being outlined and relevant experiences are being made available. Learning diaries prove to be useful for the learners' reflection of their learning process. The development as well as the management of such learning arrangements does place new demands on the teachers.

  19. Website MA: herramienta para automatizar métricas web

    OpenAIRE

    Lafuente, Guillermo Javier; Olsina Santos, Luis Antonio

    2000-01-01

    El presente paper analiza detalles de diseño e implementación de la herramienta Website MA (Metric Automation), la cual permite automatizar algunos pasos del proceso de evaluación de la metodología Web-site QEM (Quality Evaluation Methodology). Particularmente, permite la recolección de datos automática a partir de un URL de un sitio o aplicación Web; la obtención de métricas Web, y la posterior generación de informes textuales y gráficos de las mismas. Por lo tanto, se analizará los principa...

  20. Morphology and conduction properties of graphite-filled immiscible PVDF/PPgMA blends

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Zhidong; Saracco, Guido; FINA, Alberto; Gross, U; Mainil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Graphite was dispersed in immiscible polyvinylidene "uoride/maleated polypropylene (PVDF/PPgMA) blends to improve electrical and thermal conductive properties by building a double-percolation structure. The morphology of PVDF/PPgMA blends was !rst investigated for several compositions by selective solvent extraction, scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. Blends of PVDF and PPgMA were prepared in different relative fractions, and a PVDF/PPgMA ratio of 7/3 showe...

  1. 42 CFR 422.56 - Enrollment in an MA MSA plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Enrollment in an MA MSA plan. 422.56 Section 422.56... Enrollment in an MA MSA plan. (a) General. An individual is not eligible to elect an MA MSA plan unless the... Department of Defense under 38 U.S.C. chapter 17, may not enroll in an MA MSA plan. (c) Individuals...

  2. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  3. PP/Talc/MA-SEBS复合材料的力学性能研究%The Mechanical Properties of PP/Talc/MA-SEBS Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晓春

    2011-01-01

    PP/Talc composites compatibilized by MA-SEBS(maleic anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene copolymer) were prepared by melt extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effects of Talc and MA-SEBS on mechanical properties of PP/Talc/MA-SEBS composites were systematically investigated. The results indicated that Talc mixing into PP could obviously improve the impact strength of PP at room temperature. After the entry of MA-SEBS to the PP/Talc composites, the impact strength increased even more. MA-SEBS acted as a toughening agent as well as a compatilizer, enhancing the toughening effect of Talc. The rigid Talc particles made the flexural strength increase markedly, and the flexural moduls go up with the increase of Talc content; and elastomer MA-SEBS got the flexural performance of composites obviously deteriorated. Talc had no bad effect on the PP tensile properties; if adding Talc and MA-SEBS at the same time,the tensile strength would go down, and tend to decrease with increasing MA-SEBS content in the composites.%选用MA-SEBS为增容剂,制备了PP/滑石粉(Talc)/MA-SEBS复合材料,研究了Talc和MA-SEBS的含量对复合材料力学性能的影响.结果表明,单纯加入一定量Talc可以明显提高PP冲击强度,再加入MA-SEBs后,复合材料的冲击强度进一步增加.MA-SEBS除了作为相容剂.也充当增韧剂.刚性粒子Talc使材料的弯曲强度明显增大,弯曲模量随Talc含量增加而增大;而弹性体MA-SEBS使材料弯曲性能明显变差.单纯加入Talc对PP的拉伸性能无负面影响;若同时加入Tak和MA-SEBS,材料的拉伸强度明显下降,且MA-SEBS含量越大降幅越大.

  4. PuMaII: A wide band pulsar machine for the WSRT

    CERN Document Server

    Karuppusamy, Ramesh; van Straten, Willem

    2008-01-01

    The Pulsar Machine II (PuMa II) is the new flexible pulsar processing backend system at the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT), specifically designed to take advantage of the upgraded WSRT. The instrument is based on a computer cluster running the Linux operating system, with minimal custom hardware. A maximum of 160 MHz analogue bandwidth sampled as 8X20 MHz subbands with 8-bit resolution can be recorded on disks attached to separate computer nodes. Processing of the data is done in the additional 32-nodes allowing near real time coherent dedispersion for most pulsars observed at the WSRT. This has doubled the bandwidth for pulsar observations in general, and has enabled the use of coherent dedispersion over a bandwidth eight times larger than was previously possible at the WSRT. PuMa II is one of the widest bandwidth coherent dedispersion machines currently in use and has a maximum time resolution of 50ns. The system is now routinely used for high precision pulsar timing studies, polarization studi...

  5. Studies of Cylindrical Liner Z-Pinches at 1 MA on COBRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoyan, Levon; Byvank, Tom; Cahill, Adam; Potter, William; de Grouchy, Philip; Kusse, Bruce; Hammer, David

    2014-10-01

    Tests of the magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) concept will make use of the 27 MA Z-machine to implode a cylindrical metal liner onto a preheated plasma contained within it. While most pulsed power machines produce much lower currents than the Z-machine, there are questions that can be addressed on smaller scale facilities. Recent work on the 1 MA Cornell Beam Research Accelerator (COBRA) has made use of 10 mm long cylindrical metal liners having a 4 mm diameter and a varying wall thickness to study the initiation of plasma on the liner's outer surface as well as axial magnetic field compression. We will present experimental results with both imploding and non-imploding liners, investigating the impact the liner's external surface structure has on initiation, outer surface ablation, and implosion. The effect of a uniform axial external magnetic field on observed surface striations will also be discussed. This research is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration Stewardship Sciences Academic Programs under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-NA0001836.

  6. Identifying Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized Gas in a Sample of MaNGA Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Ryan J.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency with which galaxies convert gas into stars is driven by the continuous cycle of accretion and feedback processes within the circumgalactic medium. Extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (eDIG) can provide insights into the tumultuous processes that govern the evolution of galactic disks because eDIG emission traces both inflowing and outflowing gas. With the help of state-of-the-art, spatially-resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we developed a computational method to identify eDIG based on the strength of and spatial extent of optical emission lines for a diverse sample of 550 nearby galaxies. This sample includes roughly half of the MaNGA galaxies that will become publicly available in summer 2016 as part of the Thirteenth Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We identified signatures of eDIG in 8% of the galaxies in this sample, and we found that these signatures are particularly common among galaxies with active star formation and inclination angles >45 degrees. Our analysis of the morphology, incidence, and kinematics of eDIG has important implications for current models of accretion and feedback processes that regulate star formation in galaxies. We acknowledge support from the Astrophysics REU program at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the National Astronomy Consortium, and The Grainger Foundation.

  7. Fast single-element PN acquisition for the TDRSS MA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davisson, Lee D.; Flikkema, Paul G.

    1988-11-01

    A description is given and a performance analysis presented of a novel pseudonoise (PN) code acquisition approach for the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS) multiaccess (MA) return subsystem. The MA subsystem uses a phased array onboard the TDRS with 30 elements whose received signals are each independently retransmitted to the ground for beam forming. In the current operational system, acquisition is performed by using a serial search of the possible PN epochs on the beam-formed 30-element signal. The approach performs acquisition on a single (arbitrary) element signal using a parallel (i.e., simultaneous) search of all possible PN epochs. Since only one element signal is used, no beam forming is required prior to PN acquisition. The approach is based on sampling and digital processing of the received signal and incorporates techniques which counteract the effects of Doppler and asynchronous data symboling. The probability of correct acquisition as a function of acquisition time, signal-to-noise ratio, data rate, and user satellite Doppler is analyzed.

  8. Enhanced performance of dispenser printed MA n-type Bi₂Te₃ composite thermoelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Deepa; Wang, Zuoqian; Chen, Alic; Juang, Rei-Cheng; Keist, Jay; Wright, Paul K; Evans, Jim W

    2012-11-01

    This work presents performance advancements of dispenser printed composite thermoelectric materials and devices. Dispenser printed thick films allow for low-cost and scalable manufacturing of microscale energy harvesting devices. A maximum ZT value of 0.31 has been achieved for mechanically alloyed (MA) n-type Bi₂Te₃-epoxy composite films with 1 wt % Se cured at 350 °C. The enhancement of ZT is a result of increase in the electrical conductivity through the addition of Se, which ultimately lowers the sintering temperature (350 °C). A 62 single-leg thermoelectric generator (TEG) prototype with 5 mm ×700 μm × 120 μm printed element dimensions was fabricated on a custom designed polyimide substrate with thick metal contacts. The prototype device produced a power output of 25 μW at 0.23 mA current and 109 mV voltage for a temperature difference of 20 °C, which is sufficient for low power generation for autonomous microsystem applications.

  9. Magnetic force microscopy/current contrast imaging: A new technique for internal current probing of ICs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, A.N.; Cole, E.I. Jr.; Dodd, B.A.; Anderson, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This invited paper describes recently reported work on the application of magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to image currents in IC conductors [1]. A computer model for MFM imaging of IC currents and experimental results demonstrating the ability to determine current direction and magnitude with a resolution of {approximately} 1 mA dc and {approximately} 1 {mu}A ac are presented. The physics of MFM signal generation and applications to current imaging and measurement are described.

  10. Circuit models and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations of a 1-MA linear transformer driver stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A 3D fully electromagnetic (EM model of the principal pulsed-power components of a high-current linear transformer driver (LTD has been developed. LTD systems are a relatively new modular and compact pulsed-power technology based on high-energy density capacitors and low-inductance switches located within a linear-induction cavity. We model 1-MA, 100-kV, 100-ns rise-time LTD cavities [A. A. Kim et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402] which can be used to drive z-pinch and material dynamics experiments. The model simulates the generation and propagation of electromagnetic power from individual capacitors and triggered gas switches to a radially symmetric output line. Multiple cavities, combined to provide voltage addition, drive a water-filled coaxial transmission line. A 3D fully EM model of a single 1-MA 100-kV LTD cavity driving a simple resistive load is presented and compared to electrical measurements. A new model of the current loss through the ferromagnetic cores is developed for use both in circuit representations of an LTD cavity and in the 3D EM simulations. Good agreement between the measured core current, a simple circuit model, and the 3D simulation model is obtained. A 3D EM model of an idealized ten-cavity LTD accelerator is also developed. The model results demonstrate efficient voltage addition when driving a matched impedance load, in good agreement with an idealized circuit model.

  11. Planar wire array performance scaling at multi-MA levels on the Saturn generator.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuvatin, Alexander S. (Laboratoire du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France); Jones, Michael; Vesey, Roger Alan; Waisman, Eduardo M.; Esaulov, Andrey A. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Ampleford, David J.; Kantsyrev, Victor Leonidovich (University of Nevada, Reno, NV); Cuneo, Michael Edward; Rudakov, L. I. (Icarus Research Inc., Bethesda, MD); Coverdale, Christine Anne; Jones, Brent Manley; Safronova, Alla S. (University of Nevada, Reno, NV)

    2007-10-01

    A series of twelve shots were performed on the Saturn generator in order to conduct an initial evaluation of the planar wire array z-pinch concept at multi-MA current levels. Planar wire arrays, in which all wires lie in a single plane, could offer advantages over standard cylindrical wire arrays for driving hohlraums for inertial confinement fusion studies as the surface area of the electrodes in the load region (which serve as hohlraum walls) may be substantially reduced. In these experiments, mass and array width scans were performed using tungsten wires. A maximum total radiated x-ray power of 10 {+-} 2 TW was observed with 20 mm wide arrays imploding in {approx}100 ns at a load current of {approx}3 MA, limited by the high inductance. Decreased power in the 4-6 TW range was observed at the smallest width studied (8 mm). 10 kJ of Al K-shell x-rays were obtained in one Al planar array fielded. This report will discuss the zero-dimensional calculations used to design the loads, the results of the experiments, and potential future research to determine if planar wire arrays will continue to scale favorably at current levels typical of the Z machine. Implosion dynamics will be discussed, including x-ray self-emission imaging used to infer the velocity of the implosion front and the potential role of trailing mass. Resistive heating has been previously cited as the cause for enhanced yields observed in excess of jxB-coupled energy. The analysis presented in this report suggests that jxB-coupled energy may explain as much as the energy in the first x-ray pulse but not the total yield, which is similar to our present understanding of cylindrical wire array behavior.

  12. 33 CFR 165.120 - Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. 165.120 Section 165.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.120 Safety Zone: Chelsea River, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA. (a) Location. The following area... downstream of the Chelsea Street Bridge on the Chelsea, MA side of the Chelsea River—hereafter referred to...

  13. 42 CFR 422.618 - How an MA organization must effectuate standard reconsidered determinations or decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How an MA organization must effectuate standard... Grievances, Organization Determinations and Appeals § 422.618 How an MA organization must effectuate standard reconsidered determinations or decisions. (a) Reversals by the MA organization—(1) Requests for service. If,...

  14. 46 CFR 308.532 - Release of surety bond, Form MA-312.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Release of surety bond, Form MA-312. 308.532 Section 308.532 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK..., Form MA-312. The Standard Form of Release of Surety bond, Form MA-312, may be obtained from...

  15. 46 CFR 308.545 - Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Facultative cargo policy, Form MA-316. 308.545 Section 308.545 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK... policy, Form MA-316. The standard form of War Risk Facultative Cargo Policy, Form MA-316, may be...

  16. 46 CFR 308.549 - Application for appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Form MA-319. 308.549 Section 308.549 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... appointment of Cargo Underwriting Agent, Form MA-319. Any domestic insurance company authorized to do a marine... by submitting to the Maritime Administrator a letter and Form MA-399, which may be obtained from...

  17. 46 CFR 308.306 - Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. 308.306... RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.306 Second Seamen's War Risk Policy, Form MA-242. (a) The standard form of Second Seamen's War Risk Policy Form MA-242, may be obtained from...

  18. 46 CFR 308.547 - Application for return premium, Form MA-317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-317. 308.547... for return premium, Form MA-317. An application for the return of premium must be filed in duplicate with the Underwriting Agent on Form MA-317, which may be obtained from the American War Risk Agency...

  19. 46 CFR 308.527 - Application for return premium, Form MA-307.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for return premium, Form MA-307. 308.527... for return premium, Form MA-307. An application for the return of premium, which may be obtained from... MA-307....

  20. 46 CFR 308.517 - Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. 308.517 Section 308.517... Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.517 Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-300. The standard form of War Risk Open Cargo, Form MA-300, may be obtained from the American War...

  1. 46 CFR 308.534 - Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA... § 308.534 Certificate to be attached to closing report, Form MA-313-A. The standard form of Certificate to be attached to the closing report, Form MA-313-A, may be obtained from the American War...

  2. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MA-304. 308.524 Section 308.524 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 308.524 Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304. The standard form of application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  3. 42 CFR 422.553 - Effect of leasing of an MA organization's facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of leasing of an MA organization's... Ownership or Leasing of Facilities During Term of Contract § 422.553 Effect of leasing of an MA organization's facilities. (a) General effect of leasing. If an MA organization leases all or part of...

  4. Cell cycle-dependent SUMO-1 conjugation to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Sung; Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Sun-Jick; Bang, Jiyoung; Kim, Eun-A; Sung, Ki Sa [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyun-Joo [TissueGene Inc. 9605 Medical Center Dr., Rockville, MD 20850 (United States); Yoo, Hae Yong [Department of Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Cheol Yong, E-mail: choicy@skku.ac.kr [Department of Biological Sciences, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •NuMA is modified by SUMO-1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner. •NuMA lysine 1766 is the primary target site for SUMOylation. •SUMOylation-deficient NuMA induces multiple spindle poles during mitosis. •SUMOylated NuMA induces microtubule bundling. -- Abstract: Covalent conjugation of proteins with small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle control, replication, and transcriptional regulation. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) localizes to spindle poles during mitosis, and is an essential component in the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles. Here we show that NuMA is a target for covalent conjugation to SUMO-1. We find that the lysine 1766 residue is the primary NuMA acceptor site for SUMO-1 conjugation. Interestingly, SUMO modification of endogenous NuMA occurs at the entry into mitosis and this modification is reversed after exiting from mitosis. Knockdown of Ubc9 or forced expression of SENP1 results in impairment of the localization of NuMA to mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. The SUMOylation-deficient NuMA mutant is defective in microtubule bundling, and multiple spindles are induced during mitosis. The mitosis-dependent dynamic SUMO-1 modification of NuMA might contribute to NuMA-mediated formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis.

  5. 29 CFR 548.306 - Average earnings for year or quarter year preceding the current quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (at a later date) plus $7.14 as overtime premium pay (7 hours×2.04× 1/2 ). It does not matter that the... avoided and all overtime premium pay due under the Act, including premium pay due on such a commission... an alternate method of paying overtime premium pay by permitting an employer, under...

  6. Time-averaged currents in the Northeast Corridor Reserve during November 2013.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2D numerical model, CMS-Flow, was implemented for the Northeast Corridor Reserve (NECR) using a telescoping grid. Tide and wind forcing was provided to the model...

  7. Markov random field driven region-based active contour model (MaRACel): application to medical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Monaco, James P; Madabhushi, Anant

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a Markov random field (MRF) driven region-based active contour model (MaRACel) for medical image segmentation. State-of-the-art region-based active contour (RAC) models assume that every spatial location in the image is statistically independent of the others, thereby ignoring valuable contextual information. To address this shortcoming we incorporate a MRF prior into the AC model, further generalizing Chan & Vese's (CV) and Rousson and Deriche's (RD) AC models. This incorporation requires a Markov prior that is consistent with the continuous variational framework characteristic of active contours; consequently, we introduce a continuous analogue to the discrete Potts model. To demonstrate the effectiveness of MaRACel, we compare its performance to those of the CV and RD AC models in the following scenarios: (1) the qualitative segmentation of a cancerous lesion in a breast DCE-MR image and (2) the qualitative and quantitative segmentations of prostatic acini (glands) in 200 histopathology images. Across the 200 prostate needle core biopsy histology images, MaRACel yielded an average sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 71%, 95%, 74% with respect to the segmented gland boundaries; the CV and RD models have corresponding values of 19%, 81%, 20% and 53%, 88%, 56%, respectively.

  8. Hearing Office Average Processing Time Ranking Report, February 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — A ranking of ODAR hearing offices by the average number of hearings dispositions per ALJ per day. The average shown will be a combined average for all ALJs working...

  9. MaROS Strategic Relay Planning and Coordination Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) is designed to provide planning and analysis tools in support of ongoing Mars Network relay operations. Strategic relay planning requires coordination between lander and orbiter mission ground data system (GDS) teams to schedule and execute relay communications passes. MaROS centralizes this process, correlating all data relevant to relay coordination to provide a cohesive picture of the relay state. Service users interact with the system through thin-layer command line and web user interface client applications. Users provide and utilize data such as lander view periods of orbiters, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna tracks, and reports of relay pass performance. Users upload and download relevant relay data via formally defined and documented file structures including some described in Extensible Markup Language (XML). Clients interface with the system via an http-based Representational State Transfer (ReST) pattern using Javascript Object Notation (JSON) formats. This paper will provide a general overview of the service architecture and detail the software interfaces and considerations for interface design.

  10. MaROS Strategic Relay Planning and Coordination Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Relay Operations Service (MaROS) is designed to provide planning and analysis tools in support of ongoing Mars Network relay operations. Strategic relay planning requires coordination between lander and orbiter mission ground data system (GDS) teams to schedule and execute relay communications passes. MaROS centralizes this process, correlating all data relevant to relay coordination to provide a cohesive picture of the relay state. Service users interact with the system through thin-layer command line and web user interface client applications. Users provide and utilize data such as lander view periods of orbiters, Deep Space Network (DSN) antenna tracks, and reports of relay pass performance. Users upload and download relevant relay data via formally defined and documented file structures including some described in Extensible Markup Language (XML). Clients interface with the system via an http-based Representational State Transfer (ReST) pattern using Javascript Object Notation (JSON) formats. This paper will provide a general overview of the service architecture and detail the software interfaces and considerations for interface design.

  11. ANTINOMY OF THE MODERN AVERAGE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Listvin

    2017-01-01

    of ways of their decision and options of the valid upgrade of the SPE system answering to the requirements of economy. The inefficiency of the concept of one-leveled SPE and its non-competitiveness against the background of development of an applied bachelor degree at the higher school is shown. It is offered to differentiate programs of basic level for training of skilled workers and the program of the increased level for training of specialists of an average link (technicians, technologists on the basis of basic level for forming of a single system of continuous professional training and effective functioning of regional systems of professional education. Such system will help to eliminate disproportions in a triad «a worker – a technician – an engineer», and will increase the quality of professional education. Furthermore, it is indicated the need of polyprofessional education wherein the integrated educational structures differing in degree of formation of split-level educational institutions on the basis of network interaction, convergence and integration are required. According to the author, in the regions it is necessary to develop two types of organizations and SPE organizations: territorial multi-profile colleges with flexible variable programs and the organizations realizing educational programs of applied qualifications in specific industries (metallurgical, chemical, construction, etc. according to the specifics of economy of territorial subjects.Practical significance. The results of the research can be useful to specialists of management of education, heads and pedagogical staff of SPE institutions, and also representatives of regional administrations and employers while organizing the multilevel network system of training of skilled workers and experts of middle ranking.

  12. 40 CFR 80.205 - How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...

  13. The monthly-averaged and yearly-averaged cosine effect factor of a heliostat field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rabghi, O.M.; Elsayed, M.M. (King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Thermal Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Calculations are carried out to determine the dependence of the monthly-averaged and the yearly-averaged daily cosine effect factor on the pertinent parameters. The results are plotted on charts for each month and for the full year. These results cover latitude angles between 0 and 45[sup o]N, for fields with radii up to 50 tower height. In addition, the results are expressed in mathematical correlations to facilitate using them in computer applications. A procedure is outlined to use the present results to preliminary layout the heliostat field, and to predict the rated MW[sub th] reflected by the heliostat field during a period of a month, several months, or a year. (author)

  14. Lagrangian averages, averaged Lagrangians, and the mean effects of fluctuations in fluid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D.

    2002-06-01

    We begin by placing the generalized Lagrangian mean (GLM) equations for a compressible adiabatic fluid into the Euler-Poincare (EP) variational framework of fluid dynamics, for an averaged Lagrangian. This is the Lagrangian averaged Euler-Poincare (LAEP) theorem. Next, we derive a set of approximate small amplitude GLM equations (glm equations) at second order in the fluctuating displacement of a Lagrangian trajectory from its mean position. These equations express the linear and nonlinear back-reaction effects on the Eulerian mean fluid quantities by the fluctuating displacements of the Lagrangian trajectories in terms of their Eulerian second moments. The derivation of the glm equations uses the linearized relations between Eulerian and Lagrangian fluctuations, in the tradition of Lagrangian stability analysis for fluids. The glm derivation also uses the method of averaged Lagrangians, in the tradition of wave, mean flow interaction. Next, the new glm EP motion equations for incompressible ideal fluids are compared with the Euler-alpha turbulence closure equations. An alpha model is a GLM (or glm) fluid theory with a Taylor hypothesis closure. Such closures are based on the linearized fluctuation relations that determine the dynamics of the Lagrangian statistical quantities in the Euler-alpha equations. Thus, by using the LAEP theorem, we bridge between the GLM equations and the Euler-alpha closure equations, through the small-amplitude glm approximation in the EP variational framework. We conclude by highlighting a new application of the GLM, glm, and alpha-model results for Lagrangian averaged ideal magnetohydrodynamics. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  15. Normalized Weighted Averages for Tracing Continuous Trends of Data and Easy Filtering of Discontinuous Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. PURUSHOTHAMAN NAIR

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a set of normalized weighted averages which may be called as bi-average, tri-average, quadric-average or in general kth poly average, k=2,3,4,… is introduced. The weights can be easily assigned using the integer k. The linear combination of the weights with the samples is biased to latest samples of a given discrete data set when the samples are considered chronologically or sequentially. Hence these averages can generate moving and realistic trends of data without being a moving average. Computations of these averages are not explicitly depending on the size of the data set and can be done in a progressive way. The advantage is that it is not necessary to store the data samples or its size for computing these averages. An inferring mechanism is derived based on which one can easily decide whether current sample is continuous or not with previous samples based on the computed average. Illustrative examples are presented to establish the effectiveness of this inferring mechanism in testing continuous trends and filtering of discontinuous samples of flight telemetry data of a typical launch vehicle and that of sample data sets of standard continuous signals. Mathematical properties ofthese averages are discussed.

  16. Average weighted receiving time in recursive weighted Koch networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DAI MEIFENG; YE DANDAN; LI XINGYI; HOU JIE

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the empirical observation in airport networks and metabolic networks, we introduce the model of the recursive weighted Koch networks created by the recursive division method. As a fundamental dynamical process, random walks have received considerable interest in the scientific community. Then, we study the recursive weighted Koch networks on random walk i.e., the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves uniformly to any of itsneighbours. In order to study the model more conveniently, we use recursive division method again to calculate the sum of the mean weighted first-passing times for all nodes to absorption at the trap located in the merging node. It is showed that in a large network, the average weighted receiving time grows sublinearly with the network order.

  17. Ocean tides in GRACE monthly averaged gravity fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per

    2003-01-01

    aims at. In this analysis the results of Knudsen and Andersen (2002) have been verified using actual post-launch orbit parameter of the GRACE mission. The current ocean tide models are not accurate enough to correct GRACE data at harmonic degrees lower than 47. The accumulated tidal errors may affect......The GRACE mission will map the Earth's gravity fields and its variations with unprecedented accuracy during its 5-year lifetime. Unless ocean tide signals and their load upon the solid earth are removed from the GRACE data, their long period aliases obscure more subtle climate signals which GRACE...... the GRACE data up to harmonic degree 60. A study of the revised alias frequencies confirm that the ocean tide errors will not cancel in the GRACE monthly averaged temporal gravity fields. The S-2 and the K-2 terms have alias frequencies much longer than 30 days, so they remain almost unreduced...

  18. Rapidity dependence of the average transverse momentum in hadronic collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durães, F. O.; Giannini, A. V.; Gonçalves, V. P.; Navarra, F. S.

    2016-08-01

    The energy and rapidity dependence of the average transverse momentum in p p and p A collisions at energies currently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are estimated using the color glass condensate (CGC) formalism. We update previous predictions for the pT spectra using the hybrid formalism of the CGC approach and two phenomenological models for the dipole-target scattering amplitude. We demonstrate that these models are able to describe the RHIC and LHC data for hadron production in p p , d Au , and p Pb collisions at pT≤20 GeV. Moreover, we present our predictions for and demonstrate that the ratio / decreases with the rapidity and has a behavior similar to that predicted by hydrodynamical calculations.

  19. Seismicity and average velocities beneath the Argentine Puna Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Rietbrock, A.; Kind, R.; Pardo, M.; Heit, B.; Monfret, T.

    A network of 60 seismographs was deployed across the Andes at ∼23.5°S. The array was centered in the backarc, atop the Puna high plateau in NW Argentina. P and S arrival times of 426 intermediate depth earthquakes were inverted for 1-D velocity structure and hypocentral coordinates. Average velocities and υp/υs in the crust are low. Average mantle velocities are high but difficult to interpret because of the presence of a fast velocity slab at depth. Although the hypocenters sharply define a 35° dipping Benioff zone, seismicity in the slab is not continuous. The spatial clustering of earthquakes is thought to reflect inherited heterogeneties of the subducted oceanic lithosphere. Additionally, 57 crustal earthquakes were located. Seismicity concentrates in the fold and thrust belt of the foreland and Eastern Cordillera, and along and south of the El Toro-Olacapato-Calama Lineament (TOCL). Focal mechanisms of two earthquakes at this structure exhibit left lateral strike-slip mechanisms similar to the suggested kinematics of the TOCL. We believe that the Puna north of the TOCL behaves like a rigid block with little internal deformation, whereas the area south of the TOCL is weaker and currently deforming.

  20. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeling, W. N.; Cinnella, P.; Dwight, R. P.

    2014-10-01

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  1. Predictive RANS simulations via Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edeling, W.N., E-mail: W.N.Edeling@tudelft.nl [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid laboratory, 151 Boulevard de l' Hospital, 75013 Paris (France); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Kluyverweg 2, Delft (Netherlands); Cinnella, P., E-mail: P.Cinnella@ensam.eu [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, DynFluid laboratory, 151 Boulevard de l' Hospital, 75013 Paris (France); Dwight, R.P., E-mail: R.P.Dwight@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Kluyverweg 2, Delft (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    The turbulence closure model is the dominant source of error in most Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes simulations, yet no reliable estimators for this error component currently exist. Here we develop a stochastic, a posteriori error estimate, calibrated to specific classes of flow. It is based on variability in model closure coefficients across multiple flow scenarios, for multiple closure models. The variability is estimated using Bayesian calibration against experimental data for each scenario, and Bayesian Model-Scenario Averaging (BMSA) is used to collate the resulting posteriors, to obtain a stochastic estimate of a Quantity of Interest (QoI) in an unmeasured (prediction) scenario. The scenario probabilities in BMSA are chosen using a sensor which automatically weights those scenarios in the calibration set which are similar to the prediction scenario. The methodology is applied to the class of turbulent boundary-layers subject to various pressure gradients. For all considered prediction scenarios the standard-deviation of the stochastic estimate is consistent with the measurement ground truth. Furthermore, the mean of the estimate is more consistently accurate than the individual model predictions.

  2. Construction of a high modulus asphalt (HiMA) trial section Ethekwini: South Africa's first practical experience with design, manufacturing and paving of HiMA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkgapele, M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A trial section was paved with the recently introduced High Modulus Asphalt (HiMA) technology on South Coast road in eThekwini (Durban). The trial section forms part of an effort to transfer HiMA technology to South Africa, in an initiative aimed...

  3. Global Paleobathymetry for the Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a paleo-ocean bathymetry reconstruction for Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma) time in a 0.1°x0.1° resolution for use in paleo-climate studies. Age of the ocean floor for the Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma) is from Müller et al. (2008 a,b); coastlines are from the PALEOMAP Project (Scotese, 2011). To reconstruct paleo-ocean bathymetry, we use a plate model equation to model depth to basement (Turcotte and Schubert, 2002). We estimate plate model equation parameter values from measurements of modern oceans (Crosby et al., 2006). On top of the depth to basement, we isostatically add a multilayer sediment model derived from area-corrected sediment thickness data (Divins, 2003; Whittaker et al., 2013). Lastly, we parameterize the modern continental shelf, slope, and rise in a "sediment wedge model" to connect the coastline with the closest ocean crust as defined by Müller et al. (2008 a, b). These parameters are defined using empirical relationships obtained from study of modern ocean transects where a complete rifting history is preserved (Atlantic and Southern oceans), and the closest approach of the respective oceanic crust (Müller et al., 2008a,b) to the coastline. We use the modern ocean as a test, comparing maps and cross sections of modern ocean bathymetry modeled using our reconstruction method with that of ETOPO1 (Amante and Eakins, 2009). Adding sea plateaus and seamounts minimize the difference between our modeled bathymetry and ETOPO1. Finally, we also present a comparison of our reconstructed paleo-bathymetry to that of Müller et al. (2008 a,b) for the Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma). References: Amante, C., Eakins, B.W., 2009, NOAA Tech. Memo. NESDIS NGDC-24, 19 p. Crosby, A., McKenzie, D., Sclater, J.G., 2006, Geophysical Journal Int. 166.2, 553-573. Divins, D., 2003, NOAA NGDC, Boulder, CO. Müller, R., Sdrolias, M., Gaina, C., Roest, W., 2008b, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, Q04006, doi:10.1029/2007GC001743 Müller, R., Sdrolias, M., Gaina

  4. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, A. S., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Kantsyrev, V. L., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Weller, M. E., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Shlyaptseva, V. V., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Shrestha, I. K., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Esaulov, A. A., E-mail: alla@unr.edu; Stafford, A., E-mail: alla@unr.edu [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Chuvatin, A. S. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, 91128 (France); Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  5. DESIGN NOTE: A very high output resistance current source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayatleh, K.; Terzopoulos, N.; Hart, B. L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertical stacking of two identical sub-circuits—improved versions of a bipolar transistor configuration proposed by Baxandall and Swallow—driven by dual output current mirrors, facilitates the design of a current generator producing a direct current of 1 mA with an incremental output resistance exceeding 200 GΩ.

  6. MaRV (maneuverable reentry vehicles) PoP (probability of penetration) vs CEP (circular error probability) analysis concept study (MaRV Penetration Study Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J M

    1986-08-01

    The performance analysis of maneuverable reentry vehicles (MaRV) in terms of its probability of penetration (PoP) against terminal engagement with a ballistic missile defense (BMD) system and in terms of its associate circular error probability (CEP), at impact is a very complex problem. A thorough study of this problem under the MaRV Penetration Study Project will require the development of a number of analytical and simulation tools. As a result of a preliminary study, a MaRV PoP vs CEP analysis concept has been formulated to support the MaRV Penetration Study Project. The concept is based on analytical models and techniques and, moreover, exploits the existing knowledge base and is physically intuitive. The analysis concept, as formulated, is applicable to arbitrary MaRV's and BMD systems.

  7. Estimation of breast dose saving potential using a breast positioning technique for organ-based tube current modulated CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sturgeon, Gregory; Agasthya, Greeshma; Segars, William Paul; Goodsitt, Mitchell M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    In thoracic CT, organ-based tube current modulation (OTCM) reduces breast dose by lowering the tube current in the 120° anterior dose reduction zone of patients. However, in practice the breasts usually expand to an angle larger than the dose reduction zone. This work aims to simulate a breast positioning technique (BPT) to constrain the breast tissue to within the dose reduction zone for OTCM and to evaluate the corresponding potential reduction in breast dose. Thirteen female anthropomorphic computational phantoms were studied (age range: 27-65 y.o., weight range: 52-105.8 kg). Each phantom was modeled in the supine position with and without application of the BPT. Attenuation-based tube current (ATCM, reference mA) was generated by a ray-tracing program, taking into account the patient attenuation change in the longitudinal and angular plane (CAREDose4D, Siemens Healthcare). OTCM was generated by reducing the mA to 20% between +/- 60° anterior of the patient and increasing the mA in the remaining projections correspondingly (X-CARE, Siemens Healthcare) to maintain the mean tube current. Breast tissue dose was estimated using a validated Monte Carlo program for a commercial scanner (SOMATOM Definition Flash, Siemens Healthcare). Compared to standard tube current modulation, breast dose was significantly reduced using OTCM by 19.8+/-4.7%. With the BPT, breast dose was reduced by an additional 20.4+/-6.5% to 37.1+/-6.9%, using the same CTDIvol. BPT was more effective for phantoms simulating women with larger breasts with the average breast dose reduction of 30.2%, 39.2%, and 49.2% from OTCMBP to ATCM, using the same CTDIvol for phantoms with 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 kg breasts, respectively. This study shows that a specially designed BPT improves the effectiveness of OTCM.

  8. Studies into the averaging problem: Macroscopic gravity and precision cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijenayake, Tharake S.

    2016-08-01

    With the tremendous improvement in the precision of available astrophysical data in the recent past, it becomes increasingly important to examine some of the underlying assumptions behind the standard model of cosmology and take into consideration nonlinear and relativistic corrections which may affect it at percent precision level. Due to its mathematical rigor and fully covariant and exact nature, Zalaletdinov's macroscopic gravity (MG) is arguably one of the most promising frameworks to explore nonlinearities due to inhomogeneities in the real Universe. We study the application of MG to precision cosmology, focusing on developing a self-consistent cosmology model built on the averaging framework that adequately describes the large-scale Universe and can be used to study real data sets. We first implement an algorithmic procedure using computer algebra systems to explore new exact solutions to the MG field equations. After validating the process with an existing isotropic solution, we derive a new homogeneous, anisotropic and exact solution. Next, we use the simplest (and currently only) solvable homogeneous and isotropic model of MG and obtain an observable function for cosmological expansion using some reasonable assumptions on light propagation. We find that the principal modification to the angular diameter distance is through the change in the expansion history. We then linearize the MG field equations and derive a framework that contains large-scale structure, but the small scale inhomogeneities have been smoothed out and encapsulated into an additional cosmological parameter representing the averaging effect. We derive an expression for the evolution of the density contrast and peculiar velocities and integrate them to study the growth rate of large-scale structure. We find that increasing the magnitude of the averaging term leads to enhanced growth at late times. Thus, for the same matter content, the growth rate of large scale structure in the MG model

  9. 40 CFR 1033.710 - Averaging emission credits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging emission credits. 1033.710... Averaging emission credits. (a) Averaging is the exchange of emission credits among your engine families. You may average emission credits only as allowed by § 1033.740. (b) You may certify one or more engine...

  10. 7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...

  11. 7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average... average quality loss factors that are reflected in the market by county or part of a county. (c)...

  12. Teresa Uzeda e i suoi Maîtres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Galvagno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La biografia diTeresa Uzeda narrata da Federico De Roberto nell’Illusione (1891, il primo grande romanzo del ciclo degli Uzedainsieme a I Viceré (1894 e a L’imperio (1929, comprende anche l’istruzionedella giovane eroina, che comincia a studiare dapprima - ha 10 anni all’iniziodel romanzo - sotto la direzione di Miss, per essere poi seguita da altriprofessori di lettere, di storia, di disegno, di canto, fino all’età di 17 annicirca. Ma, accanto all’istruzione ‘scolastica’, Teresa avrà accesso, graziealla sua devotissima serva Stefana, all’universo incantato e perturbante dellefiabe, e quindi, spinta dalla sua trasgressiva curiositas, all’universo altrettanto incantato e periglioso deiromanzi e del teatro, il melodramma innanzitutto.Quale Bildung si prefigura allora per ildestino di Teresa, questa infelice, incompresa e originalissima Bovarysiciliana?

  13. Isolated Galaxies versus Interacting Pairs with MaNGA

    CERN Document Server

    Argudo-Fernández, M; Shen, S; Yin, J; Chang, R; Feng, S

    2015-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the spectral analysis on the radial distributions of the star formation history in both, a galaxy merger and a spiral isolated galaxy observed with MaNGA. We find that the central part of the isolated galaxy is composed by older stellar population ($\\sim$2 Gyr) than in the outskirts ($\\sim$7 Gyr). Also, the time-scale is gradually larger from 1 Gyr in the inner part to 3 Gyr in the outer regions of the galaxy. In the case of the merger, the stellar population in the central region is older than in the tails, presenting a longer time-scale in comparison to central part in the isolated galaxy. Our results are in agreement with a scenario where spiral galaxies are built from inside-out. In the case of the merger, we find evidence that interactions enhance star formation in the central part of the galaxy.

  14. maíz con Datura stramonium en ganado vacuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FX Bofill

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente hemos observado dos intoxicaciones en ganado vacuno lechero, en granjas de Cataluña, debidas a la ingestión de estramonio (Datura stramonium. La planta había sido en ambos casos erróneamente recolectada junto con el maíz empleado para la alimentación de los animales. El cuadro fue leve y, básicamente, cursó con problemas digestivos y descenso en la producción lechera, y remitió con la retirada del alimento contaminado. Debido a factores ambientales y económicos, el problema podría estar en aumento.

  15. Le Maître des aveux, Thierry Cruvellier

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Benaiche

    2013-01-01

    Le livre de Thierry Cruvellier porte sur le procès de Duch, le directeur de la prison S-21 où périrent environ 14 000 détenus sous le régime khmer rouge (1975-1979). Le titre est à double sens : Duch était celui qui présidait à l’obtention des aveux des détenus avant leur « écrasement », c’est-à-dire leur exécution, mais il est également celui qui fait ses propres aveux au travers de ce tribunal, tout en en restant « maître », dans la mesure du possible. L’ossature de l’ouvrage – 360 pages dé...

  16. Le Maître des aveux, Thierry Cruvellier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Benaiche

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Le livre de Thierry Cruvellier porte sur le procès de Duch, le directeur de la prison S-21 où périrent environ 14 000 détenus sous le régime khmer rouge (1975-1979. Le titre est à double sens : Duch était celui qui présidait à l’obtention des aveux des détenus avant leur « écrasement », c’est-à-dire leur exécution, mais il est également celui qui fait ses propres aveux au travers de ce tribunal, tout en en restant « maître », dans la mesure du possible. L’ossature de l’ouvrage – 360 pages dé...

  17. Isolated Galaxies versus Interacting Pairs with MaNGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María; Yuan, Fangting; Shen, Shiyin; Yin, Jun; Chang, Ruixiang; Feng, Shuai

    2015-10-01

    We present preliminary results of the spectral analysis on the radial distributions of the star formation history in both, a galaxy merger and a spiral isolated galaxy observed with MaNGA. We find that the central part of the isolated galaxy is composed by older stellar population ($\\sim$2 Gyr) than in the outskirts ($\\sim$7 Gyr). Also, the time-scale is gradually larger from 1 Gyr in the inner part to 3 Gyr in the outer regions of the galaxy. In the case of the merger, the stellar population in the central region is older than in the tails, presenting a longer time-scale in comparison to central part in the isolated galaxy. Our results are in agreement with a scenario where spiral galaxies are built from inside-out. In the case of the merger, we find evidence that interactions enhance star formation in the central part of the galaxy.

  18. Ein Universum nach Maß. Bedingungen unserer Existenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribbin, J.; Rees, M.

    This book is a German translation, by A. Ehlers, of the English original "Cosmic coincidences. Dark matter, mankind, and anthropic cosmology", published in 1989 (see 52.003.043). Contents: I. Zufälle im Weltall. 1. Wie außergewöhnlich ist unsere Welt? 2. Himmelskunde. 3. Zwei Arten dunkler Materie. II. Der Stoff aus dem die Welt besteht. 4. Der Teilchenzoo. 5. Halomaterie. 6. Der Stoff, aus dem die Kerne sind. 7. Kosmische Strings. 8. Die Schwerkraft als Fernrohr. 9. Der Lyman-Wald: Entstehung und Entwickluing von Galaxien. III. Ein Universum nach Maß? 10. Dem Menschen auf den Leib geschneidert? 11. Ein Weltall von der Stange?

  19. de labranza en el cultivo de maíz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paneque Rondón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de las investigaciones que se llevan a cabo en la Universidad Agraria de La Habana (UNAH, en el Centro de Mecanización Agropecuaria (CEMA, dirigidas al desarrollo de la Agricultura de Conservación, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el costo energético de las principales operaciones agrícolas mecanizadas en tres sistemas de preparación de suelo, cuantificar su posible ahorro utilizando los sistemas de labranza conservacionistas, en relación con el sistema convencional, partiendo de la hipótesis de que es posible economizar energía usando dichos sistemas. El trabajo fue desarrollado en las áreas docentes de la Universidad Agraria de La Habana (UNAH, La Habana, Cuba, donde está localizado el polígono de la Facultad de Agronomía, fueron utilizados diseños experimentales en bloques al azar para determinar el costo energético y los indicadores agrotécnicos del cultivo del maíz a diferentes profundidades de preparación de suelo. Los resultados de la investigación permitieron llegar a las siguientes conclusiones: la labranza cero tiene un costo energético de sólo 48,29 % del costo del sistema convencional y la labranza reducida alcanza 77,18 %, siendo posible ahorrar entre 2 326,81 y 1 026,67 MJ•ha-1 equivalentes a 48,68 y 21,48 litros de combustible diesel por cada hectárea trabajada. Los otros resultados de la investigación no indican diferencias significativas en los tratamientos a distintas profundidades de preparación del suelo, por lo que es favorable sembrar el maíz a menos de 10 cm de profundidad

  20. Approaching Long Genomic Regions and Large Recombination Rates with msParSm as an Alternative to MaCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemuiño, Carlos; Espinosa, Antonio; Moure, Juan C.; Vera, Gonzalo; Hernández, Porfidio; Ramos-Onsins, Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    The msParSm application is an evolution of msPar, the parallel version of the coalescent simulation program ms, which removes the limitation for simulating long stretches of DNA sequences with large recombination rates, without compromising the accuracy of the standard coalescence. This work introduces msParSm, describes its significant performance improvements over msPar and its shared memory parallelization details, and shows how it can get better, if not similar, execution times than MaCS. Two case studies with different mutation rates were analyzed, one approximating the human average and the other approximating the Drosophila melanogaster average. Source code is available at https://github.com/cmontemuino/msparsm. PMID:27721650