Sample records for m7 moustakas alanyali

  1. Clark E. Moustakas (1923-2012). (United States)

    Blau, Diane S


    Presents an obituary for Clark E. Moustakas. Clark E. Moustakas was a consummate educator and a true model of the tenets and values of humanistic psychology, a movement he cofounded in the late 1950s with other pioneers in American psychology, including Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers. This movement, recognized as the "third force" in psychology, had a significant impact in the 1960s and 1970s and became an important component of mainstream practice. Moustakas produced a prolific and influential body of work. He embraced solitude as a time of reflection and did not enjoy notoriety. While he inhabited many roles-professor, scholar, clinician, and author-engagement with others in the moment was always the most essential element in his life. He was a gentle man, full of energy and spirit, exuding warmth and focused attention. In his company, one was immediately struck by his earnestness and caring. People from all over the world respected his expertise and sought his advice. To have this impact and to have informed the field in so many ways is a remarkable accomplishment.

  2. 76 FR 50881 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes (United States)


    ...-025-AD; Amendment 39-16771; AD 2011-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain M7 Aerospace LP Models SA226-T... AD, contact M7 Aerospace, LC, 10823 NE. Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas 78216; telephone (210)...

  3. 78 FR 77618 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT... bulkhead. This proposed AD also requires reporting certain inspection results to M7 Aerospace LLC. We...

  4. 77 FR 54787 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes (United States)


    ...-17177; AD 2012-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT, SA226-T, SA226-T(B), SA226... information identified in this AD, contact M7 Aerospace LP, 10823 NE Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas...

  5. Statement of Basis: Building M7-505 Treatment Tank SWMU 039 (United States)

    Starr, Andrew Scott


    The Statement of Basis (SB) has been developed to inform and give the public an opportunity to comment on a proposed remedy to address contamination at the Building M7-505 Treatment Tank (M7-505) site.

  6. Growth characteristics of primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhou, Yefei; Xing, Xiaolei; Wang, Jibo; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Qingxiang


    The microstructure of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is observed by optical microscopy (OM). The initial growth morphology, the crystallographic structure, the semi-molten morphology and the stacking faults of the primary M7C3 carbide are observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in-suit growth process of the primary M7C3 carbide was observed by confocal laser microscope (CLM). It is found that the primary M7C3 carbide in hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy is irregular polygonal shape with several hollows in the center and gaps on the edge. Some primary M7C3 carbides are formed by layers of shell or/and consist of multiple parts. In the initial growth period, the primary M7C3 carbide forms protrusion parallel to {} crystal planes. The extending and revolving protrusion forms the carbide shell. The electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show that the primary M7C3 carbide consists of multiple parts. The semi-molten M7C3 carbide contains unmelted shell and several small-scale carbides inside, which further proves that the primary M7C3 carbide is not an overall block. It is believed that the coalescence of the primary M7C3 carbides is ascribed to the growing condition of the protrusion and the gap filling process.

  7. The cloning and expression of M7 lysin in Mytilus coruscus%厚壳贻贝M7lysin分子的克隆与表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧慧; 薛超波; 常抗美; 杨刚


    M7 lysin is located in the mussel sperm acrosome. As an important protein for fertilization,it can dissolve vitelline membrane and determine the specificity of sperm-egg recognition of mussel. At present, the M7 lysin sequences of Mytilus edulis Linnaeus,M. Galloprovincialis and M. Trossulus have been recognized, but it hasn' t been reported in M. Coruscus. In this study, we cloned M7 lysin of At. Coruscus with homology cloning method,and it was expressed in E. Coli Rosseta( DE3). The results showed that the amplified product was about 540 bp fragment. The further sequencing revealed that the cDNA of open reading frame was 543 bp, and it had high similarity with those of M. Edulis, M. Galloprovincialis and M. Trossulus. The protein included 180 amino acids through online translation,its molecular weight was 20 ku,and its isoelectric point was 8.48. The phylogenetic tree from the amino acid sequence of M7 lysin showed that M. Edulis and M. Galloprovincialis had closest relationship, followed by M. Trossulus, and finally M. Coruscus. The results suggested that M7 lysin could be used as molecular markers to study mussel' s evolution. The protein of 25 ku was showed in SDS-PAGE when M7 lysin was expressed in the prokaryotes, which included the amino acid sequences in vector. This band was consistent with the expected molecular weight. Disulfide bonds' positions in M7 lysin were highly conservative, which was similar to C-type lectin carbohydrates identification area(CRD). We speculated that M7 lysin dissolved the yolk membrane through combining its sugar and sugar-based protein. The conclusions helped us to reveal the mussel' s reproductive mechanism, and further provide a reference for the cross breeding of mussels.%M7 lysin位于贻贝精子顶体中,是溶解卵黄膜、促进受精作用的重要蛋白质,决定了贻贝种间精卵识别的特异性.采用同源克隆法得到厚壳贻贝M7 lysin分子,并在原核生物中对该分子进行重组表达.

  8. Revealing pre-earthquake signatures in atmosphere and ionosphere associated with 2015 M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal. Preliminary results

    CERN Document Server

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Davidenko, Dmitry


    We analyze retrospectively/prospectively the transient variations of three different physical parameters of atmosphere during the time of M7.8 and M7.3 events in Nepal: outgoing earth radiation (OLR), GPS/TEC and the thermodynamic proprieties in the lower atmosphere. We found that in mid March 2015 a rapid augment of satellite observed earth radiation in atmosphere and the anomaly located in close vicinity to the future M7.8 epicenter reached the maximum on April 21-22. Our continuous satellite analysis revealed prospectively the new strong anomaly on May 3th, which was the reason to contemplate another large event in the area. On May 12, 2015 a large aftershock of M7.3 occurred. The analysis of air temperature from weather ground station near Katmandu shows analogous patterns with offset 1-2 days earlier to the satellite anomalies. The GPS/TEC data analysis indicates an augment and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value during April 22-24 period. A strong negative TEC anomaly in the crest of ...

  9. Three-dimensional model of the honeybee venom allergen Api m 7: structural and functional insights. (United States)

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Greunke, Kerstin; Betzel, Christian


    Api m 7 is one of the major protease allergens of the honeybee venom. It consists of a serine protease-like (SPL) and a CUB domain. The knowledge about the structure and function of Api m 7 is limited mainly to its amino acid sequence. Three-dimensional models of the two structural domains were constructed using their amino acid sequences and the crystallographic coordinates of prophenoloxidase-activating factor (PPAF-II) as a template for the SPL domain and the coordinates of porcine spermadhesin PSP-II for the CUB domain. The structural organization of Api m 7 suggests that the CUB domain is involved in interactions with natural substrates while the SPL domain probably activates zymogens. IgE epitopes and antigenic sites were predicted. Api m 7 shows structural and functional similarity to the members of the PPAF-II family. Possible substrates, function and evolution of the enzyme are discussed in the paper.

  10. MpigE, a gene involved in pigment biosynthesis in Monascus ruber M7. (United States)

    Liu, Qingpei; Xie, Nana; He, Yi; Wang, Li; Shao, Yanchun; Zhao, Hongzhou; Chen, Fusheng


    Monascus pigments (MPs) have been used as food colorants for several centuries in Asian countries. However, MP biosynthesis pathway is still a controversy, and only few related genes have been reported. In this study, the function of MpigE, a gene involved in MP biosynthesis in Monascus ruber M7, was analyzed. The results revealed that the disruption, complementation, and overexpression of MpigE in M. ruber M7 had very little effects on the growth and phenotypes except MPs. The MpigE deletion strain (∆MpigE) just yielded four kinds of yellow MPs and very little red pigments, while the wild-type strain M. ruber M7 produced a MP complex mixture including three (orange, red, and yellow) categories of MP compounds. Two of the four yellow MPs produced by ∆MpigE were the same as those yielded by M. ruber M7. The MpigE complementation strain (∆MpigE::MpigE) recovered the ability to generate orange and red MPs as M. ruber M7. The MP types produced by the MpigE overexpression strain (M7::PtrpC-MpigE) were consistent with those of M. ruber M7, while the color value was about 1.3-fold as that of M. ruber M7 (3,129 U/g red kojic). For the production of citrinin, the disruption of MpigE almost had no influence on the strain, whereas the overexpression of MpigE made citrinin decrease drastically in YES fermentation. This work will make a contribution to the study on the biosynthesis pathway of MPs in M. ruber.

  11. Local Postseismic Relaxation Observed After the 1992 Landers (M=7.3), 1999 Hector Mine (M=7.1), 2002 Denali (M=7.9), and 2003 San Simeon (M=6.5) Earthquakes (United States)

    Svarc, J. L.; Savage, J. C.


    The U. S. Geological Survey has observed the local postseismic deformation following the 1992 Landers (M=7.3), 1999 Hector Mine (M=7.1), 2002 Denali (M=7.9), and 2003 San Simeon (M=6.5) earthquakes. The observations consist of repeated campaign-style GPS surveys of geodetic arrays (aperture ˜ 50 km) in the epicentral area of each earthquake. The data span the intervals from 0.037 to 5.6, 0.0025 to 4.5, 0.022 to 1.6, and 0.005 to 0.55 yr postearthquake for the Landers, Hector Mine, Denali, and San Simeon earthquakes, respectively. We have reduced the observations to positions of the monuments measured relative to another monument within the array. The temporal dependence of the relative displacements for each monument can be approximated by a+bt+c(1-exp[-t/d]) where a, b, c, and d are constants particular to that monument and t is the time after the earthquake. The relaxation times d were found to be 0.367±0.062, 0.274±0.024, 0.145±0.017, and 0.032±0.002 yr for the Landers, Hector Mine, Denali, and San Simeon earthquakes, respectively. The observed increase in d with the duration of the time series fit suggests that the relaxation process involves more than a single relaxation time. An alternative function a'+b't+c'log(1+t/d') where a', b', c', and d' are constants particular to each monument furnishes a better fit to the data. This logarithmic form of the relaxation (Lomnitz creep function), identical to the calculated response of a simple spring-slider system subject to rate-state friction [Marone et al., 1991], contains a continuous spectrum of relaxation times. In fitting data the time constant d' is determined by observations within the first few days postseismic and consequently is poorly defined. Adequate fits to the data are found by simply setting d'=0.001 yr and determining a', b', and c' by linear least squares. That the temporal dependence is so readily fit by both exponential and logarithmic functions suggests that the temporal dependence by itself

  12. Coulomb static stress interactions between simulated M>7 earthquakes and major faults in Southern California (United States)

    Rollins, J. C.; Ely, G. P.; Jordan, T. H.


    We calculate the Coulomb stress changes imparted to major Southern California faults by thirteen simulated worst-case-scenario earthquakes for the region, including the “Big Ten” scenarios (Ely et al, in progress). The source models for the earthquakes are variable-slip simulations from the SCEC CyberShake project (Graves et al, 2010). We find strong stress interactions between the San Andreas and subparallel right-lateral faults, thrust faults under the Los Angeles basin, and the left-lateral Garlock Fault. M>7 earthquakes rupturing sections of the southern San Andreas generally decrease Coulomb stress on the San Jacinto and Elsinore faults and impart localized stress increases and decreases to the Garlock, San Cayetano, Puente Hills and Sierra Madre faults. A M=7.55 quake rupturing the San Andreas between Lake Hughes and San Gorgonio Pass increases Coulomb stress on the eastern San Cayetano fault, consistent with Deng and Sykes (1996). M>7 earthquakes rupturing the San Jacinto, Elsinore, Newport-Inglewood and Palos Verdes faults decrease stress on parallel right-lateral faults. A M=7.35 quake on the San Cayetano Fault decreases stress on the Garlock and imparts localized stress increases and decreases to the San Andreas. A M=7.15 quake on the Puente Hills Fault increases stress on the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults, decreases stress on the Sierra Madre Fault and imparts localized stress increases and decreases to the Newport-Inglewood and Palos Verdes faults. A M=7.25 shock on the Sierra Madre Fault increases stress on the San Andreas and decreases stress on the Puente Hills Fault. These findings may be useful for hazard assessment, paleoseismology, and comparison with dynamic stress interactions featuring the same set of earthquakes.

  13. The Brief Introduction to the April 14,2010 Yushu M7.1 Earthquake Sequence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Gang; Guo Tieshuan; Wang Huimin


    @@ An earthquake with M7.1 occurred in Yushu,Qinghai Province,China,at 07:49 a.m.on April 14,2010,according to the Chinese Seismic Station Network.The sequence is a fore-main-after-shock type sequence.A foreshock with M4.7 occurred 2 hours and 11 minutes before the main shock.There were 12 foreshocks and 2385 aftershocks until June 31,2010.

  14. Predictability of Great Earthquakes: The 25 April 2015 M7.9 Gorkha (Nepal) (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.


    Understanding of seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, has already led to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range prediction of the great and significant earthquakes. The technique based on monitoring charcteristics of seismic static in an area proportional to source size of incipient earthquake is confirmed at the confidence level above 99% by statistics of Global Testing in forward application from 1992 to the present. The semi-annual predictions determined for the next half-year by the algorithm M8 aimed (i) at magnitude 8+ earthquakes in 262 circles of investigation, CI's, each of 667-km radius and (ii) at magnitude 7.5+ earthquakes in 180 CI's, each of 427-km radius are communicated each January and July to the Global Test Observers (about 150 today). The pre-fixed location of CI's cover all seismic regions where the M8 algorithm could run in its original version that requires annual rate of activity of 16 or more main shocks. According to predictions released in January 2015 for the first half of 2015, the 25 April 2015 Nepal MwGCMT = 7.9 earthquake falls outside the Test area for M7.5+, while its epicenter is within the accuracy limits of the alarm area for M8.0+ that spread along 1300 km of Himalayas. We note that (i) the earthquake confirms identification of areas prone to strong earthquakes in Himalayas by pattern recognition (Bhatia et al. 1992) and (ii) it would have been predicted by the modified version of the M8 algorithm aimed at M7.5+. The modified version is adjusted to a low level of earthquake detection, about 10 main shocks per year, and is tested successfully by Mojarab et al. (2015) in application to the recent earthquakes in Eastern Anatolia (23 October 2011, M7.3 Van earthquake) and Iranian Plateau (16 April 2013, M7.7 Saravan and the 24 September 2013, M7.7 Awaran earthquakes).

  15. Long-Delayed Aftershocks in New Zealand and the 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura Earthquake (United States)

    Shebalin, P.; Baranov, S.


    We study aftershock sequences of six major earthquakes in New Zealand, including the 2016 M7.8 Kaikaoura and 2016 M7.1 North Island earthquakes. For Kaikaoura earthquake, we assess the expected number of long-delayed large aftershocks of M5+ and M5.5+ in two periods, 0.5 and 3 years after the main shocks, using 75 days of available data. We compare results with obtained for other sequences using same 75-days period. We estimate the errors by considering a set of magnitude thresholds and corresponding periods of data completeness and consistency. To avoid overestimation of the expected rates of large aftershocks, we presume a break of slope of the magnitude-frequency relation in the aftershock sequences, and compare two models, with and without the break of slope. Comparing estimations to the actual number of long-delayed large aftershocks, we observe, in general, a significant underestimation of their expected number. We can suppose that the long-delayed aftershocks may reflect larger-scale processes, including interaction of faults, that complement an isolated relaxation process. In the spirit of this hypothesis, we search for symptoms of the capacity of the aftershock zone to generate large events months after the major earthquake. We adapt an algorithm EAST, studying statistics of early aftershocks, to the case of secondary aftershocks within aftershock sequences of major earthquakes. In retrospective application to the considered cases, the algorithm demonstrates an ability to detect in advance long-delayed aftershocks both in time and space domains. Application of the EAST algorithm to the 2016 M7.8 Kaikoura earthquake zone indicates that the most likely area for a delayed aftershock of M5.5+ or M6+ is at the northern end of the zone in Cook Strait.

  16. Biological and Histological Studies of Purified Product from Streptomyces janthinus M7 Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik Zahira S.


    Full Text Available Fifteen clinical samples were taken out from patients suffering cancer, these patients being under the treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy. The samples were used for the isolation of bacterial cells surrounding tumor; the samples were collected from Center of Cancer Therapy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical bacterial isolates were purified and identified according to Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology ninth edition (1994. The bacterial isolates were found to be Klebsiella oxytoca m1; Enterobacter cancerogenus m2; P. aeruginosa m3; Citrobacter diversus m4; Enterobacter agglomerans m5; Klebsiella oxytoca m6; Enterobacter dissolvens m7; Serratia fonticola m8; Escherichia coli m9; Citrobacter freundii m10; Staphylococcus aureus m11; Escherichia coli m12; P. aeruginosa m13; Staphylococcus aureus m14; and Bacillus cereus m15. In the present study both primary and secondary screening methods were used to screen the antibacterial activity of St. janthinus M7 against fifteen clinical bacterial isolates. The St. janthinus M7 showed an increase in antibacterial activity against all the tested human bacterial pathogens. In this study Gamma irradiation at dose levels (0.5 and 1.5 kGy was used for the enhancement of the antibacterial activity of Streptomyces strain against the clinical isolates. Several commercial antibiotic discs (Doxorubicin, Augmentin, Norfloxacin, Ofloxacin, Oxacillin, and Cefazolin were used for comparing their antimicrobial activity with purified product. The results declared a significant increase in the antibacterial activity in most cases. The physiochemical properties of the purified product were carried out for determination of Rf, empirical formula, M.W, and chemical structure of product and then analyzed by thin layer chromatography, elemental analysis, UV, Mass, and NMR. The result exhibited brown color, one spot, Rf (0.76, M.W (473, while it recorded 270 nm in UV region and the calculated

  17. Surface Rupture and Slip Distribution Resulting from the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan Earthquake (United States)

    Reitman, N. G.; Gold, R. D.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.


    The 24 September 2013 M7.7 earthquake in Balochistan, Pakistan, produced a ~200 km long left-lateral strike-slip surface rupture along a portion of the Hoshab fault, a moderately dipping (45-75º) structure in the Makran accretionary prism. The rupture is remarkably continuous and crosses only two (0.7 and 1.5 km wide) step-overs along its arcuate path through southern Pakistan. Displacements are dominantly strike-slip, with a minor component of reverse motion. We remotely mapped the surface rupture at 1:5,000 scale and measured displacements using high resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We mapped 295 laterally faulted stream channels, terrace margins, and roads to quantify near-field displacement proximal (±10 m) to the rupture trace. The maximum near-field left-lateral offset is 15±2 m (average of ~7 m). Additionally, we used pre-event imagery to digitize 254 unique landforms in the "medium-field" (~100-200 m from the rupture) and then measured their displacements compared to the post-event imagery. At this scale, maximum left-lateral offset approaches 17 m (average of ~8.5 m). The width (extent of observed surface faulting) of the rupture zone varies from ~1 m to 3.7 km. Near- and medium-field offsets show similar slip distributions that are inversely correlated with the width of the fault zone at the surface (larger offsets correspond to narrow fault zones). The medium-field offset is usually greater than the near-field offset. The along-strike surface slip distribution is highly variable, similar to the slip distributions documented for the 2002 Denali M7.9 earthquake and 2001 Kunlun M7.8 earthquake, although the Pakistan offsets are larger in magnitude. The 2013 Pakistan earthquake ranks among the largest documented continental strike-slip displacements, possibly second only to the 18+ m surface displacements attributed to the 1855 Wairarapa M~8.1 earthquake.

  18. Camera trap records of animal activity prior to a M=7 earthquake in Northern Peru (United States)

    Grant, R.; Raulin, J.; Freund, F.


    Earthquake (EQ) preparation is associated with geophysical changes occurring over many scales. Some pre-earthquake (pre-EQ) processes affect the ionosphere, others leave their mark on biota. We report (i) on ionospheric anomalies recorded prior to the M=7 Contamana EQ [1] in North-Eastern Peru, 134 km deep, associated with the subduction of the Nazca plate underneath the Northern Andes, (ii) on changes in animal activity recorded in the Yanachaga National Park, about 320 km from the EQ epicentre, over a 30 day period leading up to the M=7 seismic event. Night-time Very Low Frequency (VLF) phase data were analyzed for the period 01 June to 31 Oct. 2011 using propagation paths passing close to the Yanachaga Park from the NAA emitter (USA) to receivers PIU in Piura and PLO in Lima (Peru). Ionospheric phase perturbations were observed starting 2 weeks before the EQ with periodicities from few tens of secs to few minutes. Animal activity data were obtained by evaluating the images of a cluster of 10 motion-triggered cameras of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring Network We analyzed 1359 photographic records for the pre-EQ period and 1491 photographic records for a control period with low seismicity. Animal activity started to noticeably decline 3 weeks before the EQ. Different animal species were found to react differently. The number of rodents declined to zero about one week before the EQ and so did the number of tapirs. Armadillos, a burrowing animal, were recorded in larger numbers. Though the armadillos were presumably also flushed out of their holes, they apparently did not hide like the rodents. We discuss the results in the context of recent advances in solid state physics, which provide plausible mechanisms for pre-EQ ionospheric anomalies and for changes in animal behavior. [1] Tavera, H. (2012), Report on the 24 Aug. 2011 M 7.0 Contamana, Peru, Intermediate Depth Earthquake Seismological Research Letters, 83, 1007-1013, doi: 10.1785/0220120005

  19. Static stress change from the 8 October, 2005 M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake (United States)

    Parsons, T.; Yeats, R.S.; Yagi, Y.; Hussain, A.


    We calculated static stress changes from the devastating M = 7.6 earthquake that shook Kashmir on 8 October, 2005. We mapped Coulomb stress change on target fault planes oriented by assuming a regional compressional stress regime with greatest principal stress directed orthogonally to the mainshock strike. We tested calculation sensitivity by varying assumed stress orientations, target-fault friction, and depth. Our results showed no impact on the active Salt Range thrust southwest of the rupture. Active faults north of the Main Boundary thrust near Peshawar fall in a calculated stress-decreased zone, as does the Raikot fault zone to the northeast. We calculated increased stress near the rupture where most aftershocks occurred. The greatest increase to seismic hazard is in the Indus-Kohistan seismic zone near the Indus River northwest of the rupture termination, and southeast of the rupture termination near the Kashmir basin.

  20. Building M7-0505 Treatment Tank (SWMU 039) Annual Performance Monitoring Report (United States)


    This Annual Performance Monitoring Report presents a summary of Interim Measure (IM) activities and an evaluation of data collected during the third year (June 2014 to September 2015) of operation, maintenance, and monitoring (OM&M) conducted at the Building M7-505 (M505) Treatment Tank area, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida ("the Site"). Under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Corrective Action Program, the M505 Treatment Tank area was designated Solid Waste Management Unit 039. Arcadis U.S., Inc. (Arcadis) began IM activities on January 10, 2012, after completion of construction of an in situ air sparge (IAS) system to remediate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in groundwater at concentrations exceeding applicable Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code, Natural Attenuation Default Concentrations (NADCs). This report presents a summary of the third year of OM&M activities conducted between June 2014 and September 2015.

  1. Ionospheric electromagnetic perturbations observed on DEMETER satellite before Chile M7.9 earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuemin Zhang; Jiadong Qian; Xinyan Ouyang; Xuhui Shen; Jinan Cai; Shufan Zhao


    Based on the ionospheric electromagnetic data observed on DEMETER satellite of France, the ionospheric electromagnetic signals were analyzed within 10 days before Chile M7.9 earthquake on November 14, 2007. It is found that, low frequency electromagnetic disturbances began to increase in a large scale of latitude, and reached to a maximum one week prior to the earthquake, and at about three days before the quake, the peak values shifted to lower latitude. Taking three days as a group, spatial images of a few parameters were analyzed, from which it can be seen during the five days prior to this earthquake, the amplitude and scale of anomalies are enlarged, while the epicenter is located at the boundary of anomalous region. The anomalous tempo-spatial variation in electron density prior to the earthquake were also obtained in terms of tracing the data from revisited orbits in half a year prior to the quake.

  2. Earthquake Forecasts for Gorkha Immediately Following the 25th April, M=7.8 Mainshock (United States)

    Segkou, M.; Parsons, T.


    The M-7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake on the 25th April, 2015 has shaken the central Himalayan front and immediately raised concerns for the severity of future triggered earthquakes. Here, we implement standard and innovative forecast models to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of triggered events. Key challenges addressed are: 1) the limited information on early aftershocks, 2) the low-productivity aftershock sequence in the near-source area, 3) the off-fault (>250 km) triggered events exemplified by the M=5.4 Xegar event, 3 hrs after the mainshock. We apply short-term empirical/statistical ETAS and physical forecast models, the latter based on the combination of rate/state friction law and Coulomb stresses. Within the physics-based model implementation we seek to evaluate the uncertainty related with the rupture style of triggered events by considering: 1) the geometry of active structures, 2) optimally oriented for failure faults and 3) all-potential faults described by the total stress field. The latter is represented by the full stress tensor before and after the mainshock and our analysis suggests that the preseismic stress magnitudes are still sufficient to cause earthquakes even after modification by the mainshock. The above remark reveals that there are no "stress shadows" affecting the spatial distribution of near-field aftershocks. It is also noted that the method allows for an a-priori determination of the rupture plan of the M=7.3 event, within the limit of uncertainty (20˚). The results show that: (1) ETAS models underestimate the number of observed events, since they heavily base their good performance in small magnitude earthquakes, not available in the first few weeks after the mainshock, (2) far field triggered events are captured only by physics-based forecasts, and (3) the total stress method improves the predictability of larger magnitude events. We conclude that frontier regions benefit from the implementation of physics-based models

  3. M/M/1/m系统算子的本征值特性(m=7,8)%The Characteristics of Eigenvalue of M/M/1/m(m = 7,8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟华; 高超


    研究了m=7,8时,M/M/1/m算子本征值特性:相应本征值的代数重为1;m=7,8时,相应的系统算子的非零本征值相互交替;m=8时的最大非零本征值比m=7时更靠近0点.这种特性延续了m=1,2,3,4,5,6时相应的特性.另外给出了m=7,8时,相应的p0(t)图像.%In this paper, studying the characteristic of eigenvalue of M/M/1/m operator,as m = 7, 8. The eigenvalue of every model is simple; The non-zero eigenvalue of the two operator of the system alternate each other. And the maximal nonzero eigenvalue of the latter operator is approximating to zero point. Moreover, the graphs of P0(t) are given, as m = 7, 8.

  4. Seismotectonic environment of occurring the February 3, 1996 Lijiang M=7.0 earthquake, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩竹军; 虢顺民; 向宏发; 张家声; 冉勇康


    Lijiang-Daju fault, the seismogenic fault of the 1996 Lijiang M=7.0 earthquake, can be divided into Lijiang-Yuhu segment in the south and Yuhu-Daju segment in the north. The two segments show clear difference in geological tectonics, but have the similar dynamic features. Both normal dip-slip and sinistral strike-slip coexist on the fault plane. This kind of movement started at the beginning of the Quaternary (2.4~2.5 Ma B.P.). As to the tectonic types, the detachment fault with low angle was developed in the Early Pleistocene and the normal fault with high angle only after the Mid-Pleistocene (0.8 Ma B.P.). Based on the horizontal displacements of gullies and the vertical variance of planation surfaces cross the Lijiang-Daju fault at east piedmont of Yulong-Haba range, the average horizontal and vertical slip rates are calculated. They are 0.84 mm/a and 0.70 mm/a since the Quaternary and 1.56 mm/a and 1.69 mm/a since the Mid-Pleistocene. The movements of the nearly N-S-trending Lijiang-Daju fault are controlled not only by the regional stress field, but also by the variant movement between the Yulong-Haba range and Lijiang basin. The two kinds of dynamic processes form the characteristics of seismotectonic environment of occurring the 1996 Lijiang earthquake.

  5. Tomography of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and Fukushima nuclear power plant area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tong


    Full Text Available High-resolution tomographic images of the crust and upper mantle in and around the area of the 2011 Iwaki earthquake (M 7.0 and the Fukushima nuclear power plant are determined by inverting a large number of high-quality arrival times with both the finite-frequency and ray tomography methods. The Iwaki earthquake and its aftershocks mainly occurred in a boundary zone with strong variations in seismic velocity and Poisson's ratio. Prominent low-velocity and high Poisson's ratio zones are revealed under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant, which may reflect fluids released from the dehydration of the subducting Pacific slab under Northeast Japan. The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw 9.0 caused static stress transfer in the overriding Okhotsk plate, resulting in the seismicity in the Iwaki source area that significantly increased immediately following the Tohoku-oki mainshock. Our results suggest that the Iwaki earthquake was triggered by the ascending fluids from the Pacific slab dehydration and the stress variation induced by the Tohoku-oki mainshock. The similar structures under the Iwaki source area and the Fukushima nuclear power plant suggest that the security of the nuclear power plant site should be strengthened to withstand potential large earthquakes in the future.

  6. Evidence of shallow fault zone strengthening after the 1992 M7.5 landers, california, earthquake (United States)

    Li; Vidale; Aki; Xu; Burdette


    Repeated seismic surveys of the Landers, California, fault zone that ruptured in the magnitude (M) 7.5 earthquake of 1992 reveal an increase in seismic velocity with time. P, S, and fault zone trapped waves were excited by near-surface explosions in two locations in 1994 and 1996, and were recorded on two linear, three-component seismic arrays deployed across the Johnson Valley fault trace. The travel times of P and S waves for identical shot-receiver pairs decreased by 0.5 to 1.5 percent from 1994 to 1996, with the larger changes at stations located within the fault zone. These observations indicate that the shallow Johnson Valley fault is strengthening after the main shock, most likely because of closure of cracks that were opened by the 1992 earthquake. The increase in velocity is consistent with the prevalence of dry over wet cracks and with a reduction in the apparent crack density near the fault zone by approximately 1.0 percent from 1994 to 1996.

  7. Simulating Marine New Particle Formation and Growth Using the M7 Modal Aerosol Dynamics Modal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciaran Monahan


    Full Text Available A modal atmospheric aerosol model (M7 is evaluated in terms of predicting marine new particle formation and growth. Simulations were carried out for three different nucleation schemes involving (1 kinetic self-nucleation of OIO (2 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 and (3 nucleation via OIO activation by H2SO4 plus condensation of a low-volatility organic vapour. Peak OIO and H2SO4 vapour concentrations were both limited to 6×106 molecules cm-3 at noontime while the peak organic vapour concentration was limited to 12×106 molecules cm-3. All simulations produced significant concentrations of new particles in the Aitken mode. From a base case particle concentration of 222 cm-3 at radii >15 nm, increases in concentrations to 366 cm-3 were predicted from the OIO-OIO case, 722 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case, and 1584 cm-3 for the OIO-H2SO4 case with additional condensing organic vapours. The results indicate that open ocean new particle production is feasible for clean conditions; however, new particle production becomes most significant when an additional condensable organic vapour is available to grow the newly formed particles to larger sizes. Comparison to sectional model for a typical case study demonstrated good agreement and the validity of using the modal model.

  8. Earthquakes in Oita triggered by the 2016 M7.3 Kumamoto earthquake (United States)

    Yoshida, Shingo


    During the passage of the seismic waves from the M7.3 Kumamoto, Kyushu, earthquake on April 16, 2016, a M5.7 [semiofficial value estimated by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)] event occurred in the central part of Oita prefecture, approximately 80 km far away from the mainshock. Although there have been a number of reports that M 5 triggered events. In this paper, we firstly confirm that this event is a M6-class event by re-estimating the magnitude using the strong-motion records of K-NET and KiK-net, and crustal deformation data at the Yufuin station observed by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan. Next, by investigating the aftershocks of 45 mainshocks which occurred over the past 20 years based on the JMA earthquake catalog (JMAEC), we found that the delay time of the 2016 M5.7 event in Oita was the shortest. Therefore, the M5.7 event could be regarded as an exceptional M > 5 event that was triggered by passing seismic waves, unlike the usual triggered events and aftershocks. Moreover, a search of the JMAEC shows that in the 2016 Oita aftershock area, swarm earthquake activity was low over the past 30 years compared with neighboring areas. We also found that in the past, probably or possibly triggered events frequently occurred in the 2016 Oita aftershock area. The Oita area readily responds to remote triggering because of high geothermal activity and young volcanism in the area. The M5.7 Oita event was triggered by passing seismic waves, probably because large dynamic stress change was generated by the mainshock at a short distance and because the Oita area was already loaded to a critical stress state without a recent energy release as suggested by the past low swarm activity.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Ku70 and ku80 null mutants improve the gene targeting frequency in Monascus ruber M7. (United States)

    He, Yi; Liu, Qingpei; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng


    Normally, gene targeting by homologous recombination occurs rarely during a transformation process since non-homologous recombination is predominant in filamentous fungi. In our previous researches, the average gene replacement frequency (GRF) in Monascus ruber M7 was as low as 15 %. To develop a highly efficient gene targeting system for M. ruber M7, two M. ruber M7 null mutants of ku70 (MrΔku70) and ku80 (MrΔku80) were constructed which had no apparent defects in the development including vegetative growth, colony phenotype, microscopic morphology and spore yield compared with M. ruber M7. In addition, the production of some significant secondary metabolites such as pigments and citrinin had no differences between the two disruptants and the wild-type strain. Further results revealed that the GRFs of triA (encoding a putative acetyltransferase) were 42.2 % and 61.5 % in the MrΔku70 and MrΔku80 strains, respectively, while it was only about 20 % in M. ruber M7. Furthermore, GRFs of these two disruptants at other loci (the pigE, fmdS genes in MrΔku70 and the ku70 gene in MrΔku80) were investigated, and the results indicated that GRFs in the MrΔku70 strain and the MrΔku80 strain were doubled and tripled compared with that in M. ruber M7, respectively. Therefore, the ku70 and ku80 null mutants of M. ruber M7, especially the ku80-deleted strain, will be excellent hosts for efficient gene targeting.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kinematic analysis of M7-L8 dwarfs (Faherty+, 2016) (United States)

    Faherty, J. K.; Riedel, A. R.; Cruz, K. L.; Gagne, J.; Filippazzo, J. C.; Lambrides, E.; Fica, H.; Weinberger, A.; Thorstensen, J. R.; Tinney, C. G.; Baldassare, V.; Lemonier, E.; Rice, E. L.


    The sample of 152 M7-L8 ultra-cool dwarfs comprising our sample (see table 1) were placed on follow-up programs --either imaging (parallax, proper motion), spectroscopy (radial velocity), or both-- to determine kinematic membership in a nearby moving group. For Northern Hemisphere astrometry targets, we obtained I-band images with the MDM Observatory 2.4m Hiltner telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. We also observed 16 of the most southern targets with the Carnegie Astrometric Planet Search Camera (CAPSCam) on the 100 inch du Pont telescope and 5 with the FourStar imaging camera on the Magellan Baade Telescope. Table 2 gives the pertinent astrometric information; Table 3 lists our measured parallaxes and proper motions. New proper-motion measurements are listed in Table 5. See also section 3.1. We used the 6.5m Baade Magellan telescope and the FIRE spectrograph to obtain near-infrared spectra of 36 sources. Observations were made over seven runs between 2013 July and 2014 September. All observations (resolution R~6000) cover the full 0.8-2.5um band with a spatial resolution of 0.18"/pixel. We used the 3m NASA IRTF to obtain low-resolution near-infrared spectroscopy for 10 targets. All of the observations were aligned to the parallactic angle to obtain R~120 spectral data over the wavelength range of 0.7-2.5um. We used the Triple Spectrograph (TSpec) at the 5m Hale Telescope at Palomar Observatory to obtain near-infrared spectra of two targets. TSpec covers simultaneously the range from 1.0 to 2.45um and achieves a resolution of ~2500. Exposure times for each source and the number of images acquired are listed in Table 6; see also section 3.2. Multiple observations of 17 sources were taken in high-resolution mode on Keck II on 2008 September 14-16, using the NIRSPEC-5 filter to obtain H-band spectra in Order 49 (1.545-1.570um ). Observations of 18 sources were taken during semesters 2007B and 2009B using the H6420 filter of the Phoenix instrument (previously on Gemini

  11. Macroscopic anomalies before the September 2010 M = 7.1 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ü. Ulusoy


    Full Text Available Previous published work after the Kobe and İzmit earthquakes (1995 and 1999, respectively demonstrated some reported meteorological and animal behaviour precursors were valid. Predictions were freshly tested for the Christchurch earthquake (M = 7.1, 4 September 2010. An internet survey with nearly 400 valid replies showed relative numbers of reports in precursor categories the day before the quake, were statistically significantly different from those in the preceding three days (excess meteorological events and animal behaviour. The day before the quake, there was also altered relative precursor class occurrence within 56 km compared with further away. Both these confirmed the earlier published work. Owners were woken up by unique pet behaviour 12 times as often in the hour before the quake compared with other hours immediately before (statistically highly significant. Lost and Found pet reports were double normal the week before, and 4.5 times normal both the day before the quake, and 9 days before. (Results were again statistically significant. Unique animal behaviour before the quake was often repeated before the numerous aftershocks. These pet owners claimed an approximate 80% prediction reliability. However, a preliminary telephone survey suggested that animals showing any precursor response are a minority. Some precursors seem real, but usefulness seemed mostly restricted to 7 cases where owners were in, or near, a place of safety through disruptive pet behaviour, and one in which owners were diverted by a pet from being struck by falling fixtures. For a later 22 February 2011 M = 6.3 quake no reports of escape through warning by pets were recorded, which raises serious questions whether such prediction is practically useful, because lives claimed saved are extremely low compared with fatalities. It is shown the lost-pet statistics dates, correspond to ionospheric anomalies recorded using the GPS satellite system and geomagnetic

  12. Illuminating the seismicity pattern of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake aftershocks (United States)

    Gibbons, Steven J.; Kværna, Tormod


    Aftershocks of the October 8, 2005, M = 7.6 Kashmir earthquake continued for many weeks and covered a region extending over an aperture exceeding 100 km. Several hundred events were recorded well at teleseismic distances while many hundreds more are only observed at regional distances. Existing earthquake catalogs for this sequence are poor given an unfavorable distribution of stations, a complex tectonic setting, lack of local and near-regional data, and under-exploitation of the most sensitive stations. Advances in automated signal processing, improvements in seismic velocity models, and innovations in multiple event location algorithms have made it worthwhile revisiting this sequence and attempting a large-scale relocation of the aftershocks. A vast number of new phase readings have been made on permanent and temporary seismic stations both at regional and teleseismic distances and the Bayesian hierarchical multiple event location program Bayesloc was employed in multiple stages, resulting in a far more structured distribution to the seismicity. The relocated aftershocks fall mainly into two distinct clusters. One cluster lies predominantly North East of the Balaklot-Bagh Thrust and South of the Main Central Thrust, with the October 8 main shock at its most northern point. The second cluster occupies the Indus-Kohistan Seismic Zone, North of the Main Central Thrust and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. Both clusters lie North East of a NW-SE trending boundary almost parallel to the southern part of the surface rupture. An East South East trending strand of earthquakes extends from the most northerly turning point of the Main Central Thrust into the Kashmir Basin, and a scattering of events are located North of this line and South of the Main Mantle Thrust. The new location estimates result in those aftershocks with the most similar focal mechanisms being far more spatially clustered than in previously published catalogs. Mapping global CMT solutions before and

  13. GPS-Observed Displacements for the M7.7 October 27, 2012, Haida Gwaii Earthquake (United States)

    Nykolaishen, L.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; Schmidt, M.; Lu, Y.; Schofield, B.


    On October 27, 2012, Canada's second largest (M7.7) instrumentally-recorded earthquake occurred off the west coast of southern Haida Gwaii. Unlike the 1949 M8.1 earthquake on the Queen Charlotte Fault, which involved characteristic strike-slip motion between the Pacific and North America plates, this earthquake involved low-angle thrust almost perpendicular to the coastal margin and generated large tsunami waves on the local coast. Here, the age of the underthrusting Pacific plate is only about 8 Ma, similar to that of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate along the Cascadia subduction zone, resulting in a very warm thermal environment. As a shallow rupture along a 'warm megathrust', the Haida Gwaii event can be viewed as a small-scale analogy of a great Cascadia earthquake. To refine regional source models, we investigate the associated co- and post-seismic displacements using a small, high precision GPS network installed in the weeks following the event. Co-seismic offsets at four re-occupied stations were estimated using historical data sets, with pre-earthquake positions determined by extrapolating linear velocities derived from earlier repeated campaigns. Preliminary results indicate movement at the coastal station closest (~30 km) to the epicentre of 1.2 m to the SSW, with 30 cm of subsidence. Operated by the Province of British Columbia, the only continuously recording station on Haida Gwaii, ~80 km from the epicentre, provided a more robust co-seismic estimate of 23 cm to the SSW. To date, estimates of cumulative post-seismic displacements from seven sites indicate up to 4 cm of motion, with a systematic along-strike variation in azimuthal directions between SSW and SE. The co-seismic results are consistent with a shallow-dipping thrust rupture underlying the Queen Charlotte Terrace which is located immediately seaward of the Queen Charlotte Fault; however, the observed horizontal and vertical displacements are not fully explained by rupture models based on

  14. Versatility of Streptomyces sp. M7 to bioremediate soils co-contaminated with Cr(VI) and lindane. (United States)

    Aparicio, JuanDaniel; Solá, María Zoleica Simón; Benimeli, Claudia Susana; Amoroso, María Julia; Polti, Marta Alejandra


    The aim of this work was to study the impact of environmental factors on the bioremediation of Cr(VI) and lindane contaminated soil, by an actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. M7, in order to optimize the process. Soil samples were contaminated with 25 µg kg(-1) of lindane and 50 mg kg(-1) of Cr(VI) and inoculated with Streptomyces sp. M7. The lowest inoculum concentration which simultaneously produced highest removal of Cr(VI) and lindane was 1 g kg(-1). The influence of physical and chemical parameters was assessed using a full factorial design. The factors and levels tested were: Temperature: 25, 30, 35°C; Humidity: 10%, 20%, 30%; Initial Cr(VI) concentration: 20, 50, 80 mg kg(-1); Initial lindane concentration: 10, 25, 40 µg kg(-1). Streptomyces sp. M7 exhibited strong versatility, showing the ability to bioremediate co-contaminated soil samples at several physicochemical conditions. Streptomyces sp. M7 inoculum size was optimized. Also, it was fitted a model to study this process, and it was possible to predict the system performance, knowing the initial conditions. Moreover, optimum temperature and humidity conditions for the bioremediation of soil with different concentrations of Cr(VI) and lindane were determined. Lettuce seedlings were a suitable biomarker to evaluate the contaminants mixture toxicity. Streptomyces sp. M7 carried out a successful bioremediation, which was demonstrated through ecotoxicity test with Lactuca sativa.

  15. The M7 October 21, 1868 Hayward Earthquake, Northern California-140 Years Later (United States)

    Brocher, T. M.; Boatwright, J.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Schwartz, D. P.; Garcia, S.


    October 21, 2008 marks the 140th anniversary of the M7 1868 Hayward earthquake. This large earthquake, which occurred slightly before 8 AM, caused extensive damage to San Francisco Bay Area and remains the nation's 12th most lethal earthquake. Property loss was extensive and about 30 people were killed. This earthquake culminated a decade-long series of earthquakes in the Bay Area which started with an M~6 earthquake in the southern Peninsula in 1856, followed by a series of four M5.8 to M6.1 sized earthquakes along the northern Calaveras fault, and ended with a M~6.5 earthquake in the Santa Cruz Mountains in 1865. Despite this flurry of quakes, the shaking from the 1868 earthquake was the strongest that the new towns and growing cities of the Bay Area had ever experienced. The effect on the brick buildings of the time was devastating: walls collapsed in San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose, and buildings cracked as far away as Napa, Santa Rosa, and Hollister. The area that was strongly shaken (at Modified Mercalli Intensity VII or higher) encompassed about 2,300 km2. Aftershocks continued into November 1868. Surface cracking of the ground along the southern end of the Hayward Fault was traced from Warm Springs in Fremont northward 32 km to San Leandro. As Lawson (1908) reports, "the evidence to the northward of San Leandro is not very satisfactory. The country was then unsettled, and the information consisted of reports of cow- boys riding on the range". Analysis of historical triangulation data suggest that the fault moved as far north as Berkeley, and from these data the average slip along the fault is inferred to be about 1.9 ± 0.4 meters. The paleoseismic record from the southern end of the Hayward Fault provides evidence for 10 earthquakes before 1868. The average interval between these earthquakes is 170 ± 80 years, but the last five earthquakes have had an average interval of only 140 ± 50 years. The 1868 Hayward earthquake and more recent analogs such

  16. Cloning and functional validation of early inducible Magnaporthe oryzae responsive CYP76M7 promoter from rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshitha eVijayan


    Full Text Available Cloning and functional characterization of plant pathogen inducible promoters is of great significance for their use in the effective management of plant diseases. The rice gene CYP76M7 was up regulated at 24, 48 and 72 hours post inoculation (hpi with two isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae Mo-ei-11 and Mo-ni-25. In this study, the promoter of CYP76M7 gene was cloned from rice cultivar HR-12, characterized and functionally validated. The Transcription Start Site of CYP76M7 was mapped at 45 bases upstream of the initiation codon. To functionally validate the promoter, 5′ deletion analysis of the promoter sequences was performed and the deletion fragments fused with the GUS reporter gene were used for generating stable transgenic Arabidopsis plants as well as for transient expression in rice. The spatial and temporal expression pattern of GUS in transgenic Arabidopsis plants and also in transiently expressed rice leaves revealed that the promoter of CYP76M7 gene was induced by M. oryzae. The induction of CYP76M7 promoter was observed at 24 hpi with M. oryzae. We report that, sequences spanning -222 bp to -520 bp, with the cluster of three W-boxes, two ASF1 motifs and a single GT-1 element may contribute to the M. oryzae inducible nature of CYP76M7 promoter. The promoter characterized in this study would be an ideal candidate for the overexpression of defence genes in rice for developing durable blast resistance rice lines.

  17. Effect of Silicon on M7C3 Phases and Abrasion Resistance of Open Arc Hardfacing Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Bing


    Full Text Available Fe-17Cr-4C-2V-Mn-Si-Ti complex system hardfacing alloys were deposited by using flux-cored wire self-shielded open arc welding. The effects of silicon on their M7C3 ( M =Fe, Cr, V, Mn phases and abrasion resistance were investigated by OM, XRD and SEM. The results show that, with silicon content increasing from 0.6%(mass fraction to 2.4%, the size of primary M7C3carbides gradually reduces and transites from rod-like shape to block-like shape in dispersion distributing state. γ-Fe phases, which adjacent to those primary M7C3 grains, progressively reduce until disappear. It dues to that silicon can change the precursor of primary M7C3 nucleates in nature, e.g. liquid high carbon atom clusters and it results in the change of their morphology, distribution and size. The wear test results indicate that the abrasion resistance of open arc hardfacing alloys improves firstly and then reduces when silicon content increases from 0.6% to 2.4%. The optimum abrasion resistance is acquired at 1.5%Si. The analysis on the surface worn morphologies show that the micro-cutting and micro-spalling wearing mechanisms coexist.

  18. Post-test analysis of components from selenide isotope generator modules M-7, M-15, and M-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, G.C.; Keiser, J.R.; Crouse, R.S.; Allen, M.D.; Schaffhauser, A.C.


    Several critical components removed from SIG (Selenide Isotope Generator) thermoelectric modules M-7, M-15C, M-15D, and M-18 were examined. These modules failed to show the predicted stability and conversion efficiency. Understanding the degradation and identifying means for preventing it necessitated detailed post-test examinations of key parts in the modules. Steel springs, which provided pressure for contacts at the hot and cold ends of P- or N-legs, relaxed more than expected. Beryllium oxide insulators had dark deposits that caused electrical shorts. The GdSe/sub 1/ /sub 49/ N-leg exhibited cracking. The (Cu,Ag)/sub 2/Se P-leg lost weight or sublimed excessively in module M-7 and more than expected in the other modules.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase from Escherichia coli (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Weili; Zhou, Huihao; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen


    Transfer RNA (tRNA) (m7G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) belongs to the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) family and uses S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) as the methyl-group donor to catalyze the formation of N 7-­methylguanosine (m7G) at position 46 in the variable loop of tRNAs. After attempts to crystallize full-length Escherichia coli TrmB (EcTrmB) failed, a truncated protein lacking the first 32 residues of the N-terminus but with an additional His6 tag at the C-terminus was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) as precipitant at 283 K. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected using a single flash-cooled crystal that belonged to space group P21. PMID:18678947

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase from Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Gao, Yang; Yang, Weili; Zhou, Huihao; Gao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Xiao; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen


    Transfer RNA (tRNA) (m(7)G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) belongs to the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) family and uses S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) as the methyl-group donor to catalyze the formation of N(7)-methylguanosine (m(7)G) at position 46 in the variable loop of tRNAs. After attempts to crystallize full-length Escherichia coli TrmB (EcTrmB) failed, a truncated protein lacking the first 32 residues of the N-terminus but with an additional His(6) tag at the C-terminus was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG 3350) as precipitant at 283 K. An X-ray diffraction data set was collected using a single flash-cooled crystal that belonged to space group P2(1).

  1. Accuracy of inflationary versus deflationary oscillometry in pregnancy and preeclampsia: OMRON-MIT versus OMRON-M7. (United States)

    de Greeff, Annemarie; Beg, Zara; Gangji, Zahra; Dorney, Edwina; Shennan, Andrew H


    To assess the accuracy of the OMRON-MIT (inflationary) and OMRON-M7 (deflationary) devices for measuring blood pressure in a pregnant population, including women with preeclampsia, according to the British Hypertension Society protocol. Forty-five pregnant women, including 15 with preeclampsia, were recruited at a large teaching hospital. Nine sequential same arm measurements were taken from each patient alternating between the test device and mercury sphygmomanometry. Both devices were assessed in the same women. Data were analysed according to the British Hypertension Society protocol. The OMRON-MIT achieved an A/A grade in both pregnancy and preeclampsia with an overall mean difference (SD) of -1.3 (5.6) mmHg and 0.4 (5.6) mmHg for systolic and diastolic pressures, respectively. The OMRON-M7 achieved an A/A grade in pregnancy and a B/B grade in preeclampsia with an overall mean difference (SD) of -5.3 (6.6) mmHg and -3.5 (6.9) mmHg. Both the OMRON-MIT and the OMRON-M7 can be recommended for use in pregnancy and preeclampsia. Inflationary oscillometry (OMRON-MIT) was more accurate in preeclampsia.

  2. Evidence of α-, β- and γ-HCH mixture aerobic degradation by the native actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M7. (United States)

    Sineli, P E; Tortella, G; Dávila Costa, J S; Benimeli, C S; Cuozzo, S A


    The organochlorine insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH, lindane) and its non-insecticidal α- and β-isomers continue to pose serious environmental and health concerns, although their use has been restricted or completely banned for decades. In this study we report the first evidence of the growth ability of a Streptomyces strain in a mineral salt medium containing high doses of α- and β-HCH (16.6 mg l(-1)) as a carbon source. Degradation of HCH isomers by Streptomyces sp. M7 was investigated after 1, 4, and 7 days of incubation, determining chloride ion release, and residues in the supernatants by GC with µECD detection. The results show that both the α- and β-HCH isomers were effectively metabolized by Streptomyces sp. M7, with 80 and 78 % degradation respectively, after 7 days of incubation. Moreover, pentachlorocyclohexenes and tetrachlorocyclohexenes were detected as metabolites. In addition, the formation of possible persistent compounds such as chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were studied by GC-MS, while no phenolic compounds were detected. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that Streptomyces sp. M7 can degrade α- and β-isomers individually or combined with γ-HCH and could be considered as a potential agent for bioremediation of environments contaminated by organochlorine isomers.

  3. 7-methylguanosine diphosphate (m(7)GDP) is not hydrolyzed but strongly bound by decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes and potently inhibits their activity. (United States)

    Wypijewska, Anna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Davis, Richard E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Decapping scavenger (DcpS) enzymes catalyze the cleavage of a residual cap structure following 3' → 5' mRNA decay. Some previous studies suggested that both m(7)GpppG and m(7)GDP were substrates for DcpS hydrolysis. Herein, we show that mononucleoside diphosphates, m(7)GDP (7-methylguanosine diphosphate) and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP (2,2,7-trimethylguanosine diphosphate), resulting from mRNA decapping by the Dcp1/2 complex in the 5' → 3' mRNA decay, are not degraded by recombinant DcpS proteins (human, nematode, and yeast). Furthermore, whereas mononucleoside diphosphates (m(7)GDP and m(3)(2,2,7)GDP) are not hydrolyzed by DcpS, mononucleoside triphosphates (m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP) are, demonstrating the importance of a triphosphate chain for DcpS hydrolytic activity. m(7)GTP and m(3)(2,2,7)GTP are cleaved at a slower rate than their corresponding dinucleotides (m(7)GpppG and m(3)(2,2,7)GpppG, respectively), indicating an involvement of the second nucleoside for efficient DcpS-mediated digestion. Although DcpS enzymes cannot hydrolyze m(7)GDP, they have a high binding affinity for m(7)GDP and m(7)GDP potently inhibits DcpS hydrolysis of m(7)GpppG, suggesting that m(7)GDP may function as an efficient DcpS inhibitor. Our data have important implications for the regulatory role of m(7)GDP in mRNA metabolic pathways due to its possible interactions with different cap-binding proteins, such as DcpS or eIF4E.

  4. Coseismic Slip Model of the M 7.8 2015 Nepal Earthquake and its M 7.2 Aftershock from Joint Inversion of InSAR and GPS Data (United States)

    Cheloni, D.; Tolomei, C.; Bignami, C.; D'Agostino, N.; Atzori, S.


    We derived a coseismic slip model for the M 7.8 2015 Nepal earthquake on the basis of radar line-of-sight displacements retrieved from RADARSAT, ALOS and SENTINEL interferograms and GPS data. We use the surface trace of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) and moment tensor solution to approximate the earthquake rupture plane with a planar thrust fault having a strike of ~295° and a dip of ~10°. Our rupture model suggests that the slip area is about 120 x 50 km, with the most of the moment release limited to a depth between 10-20 km. Therefore the earthquake did not reach the surface suggesting a marked shallow slip deficit in the slip depth distribution. The earthquake released a seismic moment of 7.88E+20 Nm, corresponding to a Mw 7.88. Adopting the same fault geometry we also estimated the slip distribution related to the M 7.2 aftershock that occurred near the eastern end of the main coseismic asperity. The aftershock rupture model shows a more compact slip area of about 30 x 30 km, releasing a moment of 5.49E+19 Nm and corresponding to a Mw 7.13. We calculated the static stress changes on the assumed fault plane due to the mainshock. The result suggests loading of the fault around the main coseismic patch where indeed most of the aftershocks, comprising the M 7.2 event, were primarily distributed. Future researches will be focused on the up-dip locked portions of the MHT that did not break during the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake and the monitoring of the post-seismic phase by means of InSAR and GPS data.

  5. Sensitivity of black carbon concentrations and climate impact to aging and scavenging in OsloCTM2-M7 (United States)

    Lund, Marianne T.; Berntsen, Terje K.; Samset, Bjørn H.


    Accurate representation of black carbon (BC) concentrations in climate models is a key prerequisite for understanding its net climate impact. BC aging and scavenging are treated very differently in current models. Here, we examine the sensitivity of three-dimensional (3-D), temporally resolved BC concentrations to perturbations to individual model processes in the chemistry transport model OsloCTM2-M7. The main goals are to identify processes related to aerosol aging and scavenging where additional observational constraints may most effectively improve model performance, in particular for BC vertical profiles, and to give an indication of how model uncertainties in the BC life cycle propagate into uncertainties in climate impacts. Coupling OsloCTM2 with the microphysical aerosol module M7 allows us to investigate aging processes in more detail than possible with a simpler bulk parameterization. Here we include, for the first time in this model, a treatment of condensation of nitric acid on BC. Using kernels, we also estimate the range of radiative forcing and global surface temperature responses that may result from perturbations to key tunable parameters in the model. We find that BC concentrations in OsloCTM2-M7 are particularly sensitive to convective scavenging and the inclusion of condensation by nitric acid. The largest changes are found at higher altitudes around the Equator and at low altitudes over the Arctic. Convective scavenging of hydrophobic BC, and the amount of sulfate required for BC aging, are found to be key parameters, potentially reducing bias against HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) flight-based measurements by 60 to 90 %. Even for extensive tuning, however, the total impact on global-mean surface temperature is estimated to less than 0.04 K. Similar results are found when nitric acid is allowed to condense on the BC aerosols. We conclude, in line with previous studies, that a shorter atmospheric BC lifetime broadly improves the

  6. Landslides caused by the M 7.6 Tecomán, Mexico earthquake of January 21, 2003 (United States)

    Keefer, David K.; Wartman, Joseph; Navarro, Ochoa C.; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Wieczorek, Gerald F.


    The Tecomán, Mexico earthquake (also called the “Colima earthquake”) of January 21, 2003 (M 7.6) triggered several hundreds of landslides in the coastal cordilleras of Colima State, near the earthquake source, and several thousands in the volcanic highlands north and northwest of Colima City. These landslides, mostly shallow and disrupted failures, caused minor damage to roads, to a railroad, and to irrigation systems. In one area, extensive, post-earthquake rock-fall activity indicates a possible long-term instability that could threaten dwellings and other infrastructure located nearby. In the coastal cordilleras, most of the landslides were generated by failures of artificially cut slopes, especially along roads. The rocks of the coastal cordilleras are generally well indurated, and landslides occurred only where the rocks were made locally susceptible by weathering, the presence of prominent discontinuities with unfavorable orientations, or intense fracturing or shearing.

  7. Was the 2015 Hindu-Kush intermediate-depth earthquake a repeat of the previous M~7 earthquakes ? (United States)

    Harada, Tomoya; Satake, Kenji; Ishibashi, Katsuhiko


    On Oct. 26, 2015, an Mw7.5 earthquake occurred at intermediate depth (230 km) beneath Hindu-Kush. This event took place in the source region of the six previous M~7 earthquakes which recurred about every nine years:1956 (mb 6.5), 1965 (mb 7.5), 1974 (mb 7.1), 1983 (Mw 7.4), 1993 (Mw 7.0), and 2002 (Mw 7.3). On the basis of these past events, Harada and Ishibashi (2012, EGU) proposed that next event might be imminent in this region. However, recurrence interval between the 2002 and 2015 events is longer than those of events before 2002. In this study, in order to examine whether the 2015 earthquake re-ruptured the source region of the repeating M~7 earthquakes, we performed the same analysis of Harada and Ishibashi (2012) for the previous M~7 intermediate-depth earthquakes; namely, simultaneous relocation of the 1956 main shock and the earthquakes from 1964 to 2015, and mechanism determination / slip distribution estimation of the six events by tele-seismic body-wave analysis. As a result, the 2015 main shock is located close to the 1956, 1965, 1974, and 1983 main shocks and the 1993 foreshock (Mw 6.3) which occurred about 30 minutes before the main shock. The 2015 mechanism solution is very similar to those of the former six events (ESE-WNW striking and southward-dipping high-angle reverse faulting with a down-dip tension). However, the 2015 slip is distributed at the un-ruptured area by the five earthquakes from 1965 to 2002. The 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1993 events rupture the same region repeatedly. The main slips of the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events do not overlap each other; this was confirmed by re-analysis of the waveforms recorded at the same stations. As for the 1965, 1974, and 1983 earthquakes, overlap of the slip distributions may be caused by the low quality of the waveform data. From slip distributions, the M~7 earthquakes, at least for the 1993, 2002, and 2015 events, may not be considered as characteristic earthquakes. However, it is notable that main

  8. Stress-based aftershock forecasting: the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan, and 2013 M=6.6 Lushan earthquakes (United States)

    Parsons, T.


    Immediately after the 12 May 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, static stress change calculations were made on the on major faults surrounding the rupture zone. The purpose was two-fold: (1) to identify the most likely locations (stress increases) of dangerous aftershocks, and (2) to conduct a prospective test of stress mapping as a rapid-response forecast tool. The occurrence of the 20 April M=6.6 Lushan earthquake in the Longmen fault zone near Ya'an was consistent with the static stress forecast, but a formal evaluation of the post Wenchuan forecast performance was not favorable because the anticipated aftershock distribution was violated, with clear seismicity rate increases in stress shadow zones. Here I look at reconciling these results and ask the question, are static stress change calculations more applicable to larger aftershocks? A single case such as the Wenchuan-Lushan pairing could readily be a coincidence, so I look at additional large continental earthquakes and their aftershock magnitude relations. Results show (1) the most probable place that high magnitude aftershocks will occur is in areas with the highest aftershock activity, (2) high magnitude aftershocks are most likely to happen where stress change calculations are greatest, and (3) high magnitude aftershocks are most likely to happen on well developed fault zones. All three of these points are fairly obvious, but a conclusion that can be drawn from the 2008 M=7.9 Wenchuan and 2013 M=6.6 Lushon pair is that all three are necessary considerations. The location of the 2013 M=6.6 Lushon earthquake was consistent with stress change calculations, although there was virtually no precursory activity in the immediate vicinity. Therefore a forecast based only on elevated activity rates would not have anticipated its location.

  9. Transfer fault earthquake in compressionally reactivated back-arc failed rift: 1948 Fukui earthquake (M7.1), Japan (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Koshiya, Shin


    Back-arc rift structures in many subduction zones are recognized as mechanically and thermally weak zones that possibly play important roles in strain accommodation at later post-rift stages within the overriding plates. In case of Miocene back-arc failed rift structures in the Sea of Japan in the Eurasian-Pacific subduction system, the mechanical contrasts between the crustal thrust wedges of the pre-rift continental crust and high velocity lower crust have fundamentally controlled the styles of post-rift, Quaternary active deformation (Ishiyama et al. 2016). In this study, we show a possibility that strike-slip M>7 devastating earthquakes in this region have been gregion enerated by reactivation of transfer faults highly oblique to the rift axes. The 1948 Fukui earthquake (M7.1), onshore shallow seismic event with a strike-slip faulting mechanism (Kanamori, 1973), resulted in more than 3,500 causalities and destructive damages on the infrastructures. While geophysical analyses on geodetic measurements based on leveling and triangulation networks clearly show coseismic left-lateral fault slip on a NNW striking vertical fault plane beneath the Fukui plain (Sagiya, 1999), no evidence for coseismic surface rupture has been identified based on both post-earthquake intensive fieldwork and recent reexamination of stereopair interpretations using 1/3,000 aerial photographs taken in 1948 (Togo et al., 2000). To find recognizable fault-related structures that deform Neogene basin fill sediments, we collected new 9.6-km-long high-resolution seismic reflection data across the geodetically estimated fault plane and adjacent subparallel active strike slip faults, using 925 offline recorders and Envirovib truck as a seismic source. A depth-converted section to 1.5 km depth contains discontinuous seismic reflectors correlated to Miocene volcaniclastic deposits and depression of the overlying Plio-Pleistocene sediments above the geodetically determined fault plane. We interpreted

  10. Rupture directivity and local site effects: the M7.3 Honduras earthquake of May 23, 2009 (United States)

    Shulman, D.; Mooney, W. D.


    On May 28, 2009, at 2:24 AM local time, a M 7.3 earthquake struck off the coast of Honduras on the Motagua-Swan Fault System (MSFS), part of the boundary between the North America and Caribbean plates. This plate boundary has an average slip rate of 20 mm/year. This left-lateral earthquake had an average slip of 1.5 m on a 100-km-long near-vertical fault plane (Hayes and Ji, 2009). The hypocenter depth is estimated at 10 km. The main shock caused 130 structures, including homes and office buildings, to collapse or suffer significant damage in northern Honduras. Seven deaths were reported. Due to a lack of recordings in the area, the available documentation of the local effects of this earthquake are the USGS "Did you feel it?" responses and the data collected during our field seismic intensity investigation. We conducted a field investigation in Honduras between May 30 and June 6, 2009, focused on areas with local reports of damage, including the cities of La Ceiba, El Progresso, San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes in northern Honduras and the island of Roatan in the Caribbean Sea. The damage ascertained at these five sites shows that the severity of damage did not decrease with distance from the epicenter as predicted by standard attenuation relations. Instead, a concentration of damage was observed in El Progresso, approximately 75 km directly south from the SW end of the rupture and 160 km from the epicenter. The island of Roatan, just 30 km from the epicenter, was graded as VI on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale while, El Progresso was graded as VIII (one unit higher than “Did you feel it?”). These intensity anomalies can be explained by two factors: (1) SW-directed rupture propagation and proximity to a localized 3.0m slip pulse (asperity) that occurred near the SW end of the fault (Hayes and Ji, 2009) that focused energy toward the city of El Progress on the mainland and; (2) local site effects, particularly the Precambrian schists and gneisses on the

  11. Quantitative mapping of precursory seismic quiescence before the 1989, M 7.1off-Sanriku earthquake, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Umino


    Full Text Available The first main shock of the off-Sanriku earthquake sequence (02/11/89, M 7.1; 18/07/92, M 6.9; 28/12/94, M 7.5 was preceded by a precursory seismic quiescence lasting 2.5 ± 1 year and up to this main shock. The detailed properties of this quiescence were mapped as a function of time and space by a gridding technique using the ZMAP computer code, and the statistical significance was estimated by generating a synthetic catalog based on the microearthquake catalog of Tohoku University, which was the data set used. The statistically most significant expression of this precursory quiescence has a probability of 0.1% to have occurred at random and was located in the eastern part of the 1989 aftershock area, at a point to which the 1994 aftershocks extended also. If we define the dimensions of the quiescence anomaly by a vertical cylinder with the depth of the entire seismogenic layer, centered at the point of most significant quiescence and showing a rate decrease of 75%, then we find its radius is 25 ± 9 km. If we allow other shapes, such as the simplified aftershock volume of 1989, or other simple geometric figures, to define the rate decrease we find dimensions of 80 by 80 km. The characteristics of the quiescence anomaly do not depend strongly on the choice of free parameters within the following ranges: 100 ? number of events ? 400, 2.0 ? Mmin £ 3.0, 1 ? time window ? 3 years. With our method, a thorough analysis of the period before the 1994 main shock is not possible because of the interference of the extended aftershock sequence of 1989. Nevertheless, we identified a quiescence of nearly zero earthquakes located near the center of the 1994 aftershock area that lasted for one year up to that main shock. However, this quiescence period ranked only 46th in significance, behind other quiescences of equal duration and similar dimensions distributed in time and space through the data set. Because of the ubiquitous existence of periods of near

  12. Post-Seismic Fault Healing on the Rupture Zone of the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine, California Earthquake (United States)

    Li, Y.; Vidale, J. E.; Day, S. M.; Oglesby, D. D.; Cochran, E.; Gross, K.; Burdette, T.; Alvarez, M.


    We probed the rupture zone of the October 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake using repeated near-surface explosions in October, 2000 and November, 2001. Three dense linear seismic arrays were deployed across the north and south Lavic Lake faults (LLF) that broke to the surface in the mainshock, and across the Bullion fault (BF) that experienced minor slip in that event. Two explosions each year were detonated in the rupture zone on the middle and south LLF, respectively. We found that P and S velocities of fault-zone rocks increased by ~0.7 to 1.4% and ~0.5 to 1.0% between 2000 and 2001, respectively. In contrast, the velocities for P and S waves in surrounding rocks increased much less. This trend indicates the Hector Mine rupture zone has been healing by strengthening after the mainshock, which we attribute to the closure of cracks that opened during the 1999 earthquake. The 'crack dilatancy' mechanisms are most likely to operate for fault healing at shallow depth although the healing may be controlled by a combination of mechanical and chemical processes on the fault during the earthquake cycle. The observed fault-zone strength recovery is consistent with an apparent crack density decrease of 1.5% within the rupture zone. The ratio of travel time decrease for P to S waves was 0.72, consistent with partially fluid-filled cracks near the fault zone were. We also find variability in healing rates between the fault segments. The velocity increase with time varies from one fault segment to another at the Hector Mine rupture zone. We see greater changes on the LLF than on the BF, and the greatest change is on the middle LLF at shallow depth. We speculate that greater damage was inflicted, and thus greater healing is observed, in regions with larger slip in the mainshock. This post-seismic restrengthening of the Hector Mine rupture zone is similar to that observed on the Johnson Valley fault which ruptured in the 1992 M7.4 Landers earthquake (Li and Vidale, GRL, 2001

  13. Rapid earthquake characterization using MEMS accelerometers and volunteer hosts following the M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, Earthquake (United States)

    Lawrence, J. F.; Cochran, E.S.; Chung, A.; Kaiser, A.; Christensen, C. M.; Allen, R.; Baker, J.W.; Fry, B.; Heaton, T.; Kilb, Debi; Kohler, M.D.; Taufer, M.


    We test the feasibility of rapidly detecting and characterizing earthquakes with the Quake‐Catcher Network (QCN) that connects low‐cost microelectromechanical systems accelerometers to a network of volunteer‐owned, Internet‐connected computers. Following the 3 September 2010 M 7.2 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake we installed over 180 QCN sensors in the Christchurch region to record the aftershock sequence. The sensors are monitored continuously by the host computer and send trigger reports to the central server. The central server correlates incoming triggers to detect when an earthquake has occurred. The location and magnitude are then rapidly estimated from a minimal set of received ground‐motion parameters. Full seismic time series are typically not retrieved for tens of minutes or even hours after an event. We benchmark the QCN real‐time detection performance against the GNS Science GeoNet earthquake catalog. Under normal network operations, QCN detects and characterizes earthquakes within 9.1 s of the earthquake rupture and determines the magnitude within 1 magnitude unit of that reported in the GNS catalog for 90% of the detections.

  14. Analysis of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Peng


    Full Text Available The pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies that occurred before the global M = 7.0+ earthquakes in 2010 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC from the global ionosphere map (GIM. We analyze the possible causes of the ionospheric anomalies based on the space environment and magnetic field status. Results show that some anomalies are related to the earthquakes. By analyzing the time of occurrence, duration, and spatial distribution of these ionospheric anomalies, a number of new conclusions are drawn, as follows: earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies are not bound to appear; both positive and negative anomalies are likely to occur; and the earthquake-related ionospheric anomalies discussed in the current study occurred 0–2 days before the associated earthquakes and in the afternoon to sunset (i.e. between 12:00 and 20:00 local time. Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies occur mainly in areas near the epicenter. However, the maximum affected area in the ionosphere does not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter of the subsequent earthquake. The directions deviating from the epicenters do not follow a fixed rule. The corresponding ionospheric effects can also be observed in the magnetically conjugated region. However, the probability of the anomalies appearance and extent of the anomalies in the magnetically conjugated region are smaller than the anomalies near the epicenter. Deep-focus earthquakes may also exhibit very significant pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies.

  15. Screening, purification, and characterization of a novel organic solvent-tolerant esterase, Lip2, from Monascus purpureus strain M7. (United States)

    Kang, Li-Jing; Meng, Zi-Tong; Hu, Chen; Zhang, Yan; Guo, Hai-Lun; Li, Qing; Li, Mu


    Organic solvent-tolerant esterases are proven to be excellent biocatalysts in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. A novel organic solvent-tolerant esterase gene, lip2, was isolated from filamentous fungi Monascus purpureus M7. The sequence analysis suggested that lip2 has a conserved "GDSL" motif near the active center. The multiple-sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that Lip2 displayed two unique amino-acid sequence motifs that clearly separate it from any other previously described lipase family. After incubation in 20% methanol and ethanol for 3 h, the Lip2 displayed 190 and 180% residual activities, respectively. It retained 99-110% relative activity in 20% (v/v) hydrophilic organic solvents after incubation for 1 day. This esterase showed optimal activity at 40 °C and retained about 70% maximal activity at 60 °C. The enzyme also displayed more than 50% residual activity over a range of pH 5-11. In the presence of most of metal ions or additives, Lip2 retained most of the activity. These unique properties of Lip2 make it a promising as biocatalyst for industrial processes.

  16. Crystal structure of Bacillus subtilis TrmB, the tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase. (United States)

    Zegers, Ingrid; Gigot, Daniel; van Vliet, Françoise; Tricot, Catherine; Aymerich, Stéphane; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Kosinski, Jan; Droogmans, Louis


    The structure of Bacillus subtilis TrmB (BsTrmB), the tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase, was determined at a resolution of 2.1 A. This is the first structure of a member of the TrmB family to be determined by X-ray crystallography. It reveals a unique variant of the Rossmann-fold methyltransferase (RFM) structure, with the N-terminal helix folded on the opposite site of the catalytic domain. The architecture of the active site and a computational docking model of BsTrmB in complex with the methyl group donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine and the tRNA substrate provide an explanation for results from mutagenesis studies of an orthologous enzyme from Escherichia coli (EcTrmB). However, unlike EcTrmB, BsTrmB is shown here to be dimeric both in the crystal and in solution. The dimer interface has a hydrophobic core and buries a potassium ion and five water molecules. The evolutionary analysis of the putative interface residues in the TrmB family suggests that homodimerization may be a specific feature of TrmBs from Bacilli, which may represent an early stage of evolution to an obligatory dimer.

  17. Variation of Outgoing Longwave Radiation around the Time of New Zealand Earthquake M7. 1, 2010%2010年新西兰M7.1地震前的长波辐射变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆凤; 申旭辉; 康春丽; 熊攀; 孙珂


    以2001_2011年美国NOAA长波辐射数据为背景数据,利用涡度背景场法研究2010年9月3日新西兰南岛M7.1级地震前后卫星长波辐射数据变化特征。结果表明,地震当月在震中西南侧出现显著的长波辐射异常变化,这种变化在全年各月及2001-2011年11年历年同月变化中都是最为显著的,认为其是本次地震的1次映震表现。用同样方法对区内2001-2011年11年间发生6次7.0级以上地震的长波辐射数据进行分析,结果在3次陆地地震发震前都检测到了长波辐射异常变化,而海域地震前则未发现这种现象。检索前人的相关研究结果,发现仅有2次海域地震(2004年12月26日印度尼西亚苏门答腊西北海域8.7级地震和2010年1月12日海地7.0级地震)前有长波辐射异常变化的报道,而根据全球云量分布资料显示,这2个地震所发生的区域是全球洋面云量分布最少的2个区域,而新西兰地震发生的区域位于全球洋面云量分布最多的区域。因此,认为由于水汽和云层对地表红外辐射的强吸收作用,长波辐射捕捉陆地地震红外辐射异常变化更加灵敏,对陆地地震的映震效能要强于海洋地震。%The variation characteristics of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) around the time of New Zealand Earthquake M7.1 September 3, 2010 have been analyzed based on eleven years (2001-2011) background data using vorticity background method. The results indicated that the maximum increase of OLR was found in the month of the main shock and the position of the variation was distributed in the south-west of the epicenter. This variation was the most remarkable during the annual monthly data and monthly data in September from 2001 to'2011, which can be considered as the reflection to this earthquake. Six earthquakes with the magnitude greater than 7.0 in this region from 2001 to 2011 have been analyzed using the same method. The

  18. Identification and role analysis of an intermediate produced by a polygenic mutant of Monascus pigments cluster in Monascus ruber M7. (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Zhou, Youxiang; Yi, Tao; Zhao, Mingming; Xie, Nana; Lei, Ming; Liu, Qingpei; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng


    Monascus pigments (Mps) are a group of azaphilonic secondary metabolites produced by Monascus spp. via a polyketide pathway. A mutant deleted an about 30 kb region of Mps gene cluster from Monascus ruber M7 was isolated previously, which produces a high amount of a light yellow pigment. The current study revealed that the mutant named ΔMpigJ-R lost proximate eight genes of the Mps gene cluster in M. ruber M7 through genetic analysis at DNA and RNA levels. The produced light yellow material was identified as a benzaldehyde derivative named as 6-(4-hydroxy-2-oxopentyl)-3-methyl-2, 4-dioxocyclohexane carb-aldehyde (M7PKS-1) by FT-IR, NMR, and MS. The sodium acetate-1-(13)C feeding experiment indicated that M7PKS-1 was a product produced from polyketide pathway. Finally, the feeding of M7PKS-1 helped to induce and regain Mps production of the mutants (ΔMpigA and ΔMpigE) which were previously unable to biosynthesize Mps and proved that M7PKS-1 was an initial intermediate of Mps. The results in this study provide a line of action to unveil Monascus pigments biosynthesis pathway.

  19. Strong ground motion in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, during the M7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hough, Susan E; Given, Doug; Taniguchi, Tomoyo; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, Dieuseul; Mildor, S-L.


    No strong motion records are available for the 12 January 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake. We use aftershock recordings as well as detailed considerations of damage to estimate the severity and distribution of mainshock shaking in Port-au-Prince. Relative to ground motions at a hard - rock reference site, peak accelerations are amplified by a factor of approximately 2 at sites on low-lying deposits in central Port-au-Prince and by a factor of 2.5 - 3.5 on a steep foothill ridge in the southern Port-au-Prince metropolitan region. The observed amplification along the ridge cannot be explained by sediment - induced amplification , but is consistent with predicted topographic amplification by a steep, narrow ridge. Although damage was largely a consequence of poor construction , the damage pattern inferred from analysis of remote sensing imagery provides evidence for a correspondence between small-scale (0.1 - 1.0 km) topographic relief and high damage. Mainshock shaking intensity can be estimated crudely from a consideration of macroseismic effects . We further present detailed, quantitative analysis of the marks left on a tile floor by an industrial battery rack displaced during the mainshock, at the location where we observed the highest weak motion amplifications. Results of this analysis indicate that mainshock shaking was significantly higher at this location (~0.5 g , MMI VIII) relative to the shaking in parts of Port-au-Prince that experienced light damage. Our results further illustrate how observations of rigid body horizontal displacement during earthquakes can be used to estimate peak ground accelerations in the absence of instrumental data .

  20. Growth of a Structure Connecting the 2010 M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah Rupture with the Elsinore Faul (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Parker, J. W.


    The M 7.2 El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake occurred on 4 April 2010 in the northern part of Baja, Mexico. The rupture extended about 120 km from near the northern tip of the Gulf of California to the US - Mexican border south of the Elsinore fault zone. Most of the aftershocks occurred within days of the main event. On 14 June 2010 a M 5.7 late aftershock occurred 8 km southeast of Ocotillo, CA and is the largest aftershock in the sequence. The right-lateral event occurred in a cluster of aftershocks and was followed by its own aftershock sequence. UAVSAR data were collected for a swath covering the aftershock on 13 April, 2010 just after the El Mayor - Cucapah earthquake and before the earthquake on 21 October 2009. The line was reflown 1 July 2010 after the M 5.7 14 June 2010 aftershock. Data have been continued to be collected semi yearly to yearly since then. Repeat Pass Interferomety (RPI) products spanning the aftershock show the growth of a lineament that with an azimuth of 121.5° or a strike of -58.5°. The interferograms suggest that a stepover develops following the earthquake. The epicenter of the M 5.7 aftershock is proximal to the linear discontinuity in the postseismic interferogram and the mechanism of the event is consistent with slip on this stepover. Inversions for slip on the northeast linear structure that steps west of the mainshock rupture yield a moment magnitude ranging from 5.5 - 5.8, which is consistent with the magnitude of the aftershock. Slip occurs at a depth of 2-10 km on a steeply dipping fault.

  1. Natural Hazard Public Policy Implications of the May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, China (United States)

    Cydzik, K.; Hamilton, D.; Stenner, H. D.; Cattarossi, A.; Shrestha, P. L.


    The May 12, 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake in Sichuan Province, China killed almost 90,000 people and affected a population of over 45.5 million throughout western China. Shaking caused the destruction of five million buildings, many of them homes and schools, and damaged 21 million other structures, inflicting devastating impacts to communities. Landslides, a secondary effect of the shaking, caused much of the devastation. Debris flows buried schools and homes, rock falls crushed cars, and rockslides, landslides, and rock avalanches blocked streams and rivers creating massive, unstable landslide dams, which formed “quake lakes” upstream of the blockages. Impassable roads made emergency access slow and extremely difficult. Collapses of buildings and structures large and small took the lives of many. Damage to infrastructure impaired communication, cut off water supplies and electricity, and put authorities on high alert as the integrity of large engineered dams were reviewed. During our field reconnaissance three months after the disaster, evidence of the extent of the tragedy was undeniably apparent. Observing the damage throughout Sichuan reminded us that earthquakes in the United States and throughout the world routinely cause widespread damage and destruction to lives, property, and infrastructure. The focus of this poster is to present observations and findings based on our field reconnaissance regarding the scale of earthquake destruction with respect to slope failures, landslide dams, damage to infrastructure (e.g., schools, engineered dams, buildings, roads, rail lines, and water resources facilities), human habitation within the region, and the mitigation and response effort to this catastrophe. This is presented in the context of the policy measures that could be developed to reduce risks of similar catastrophes. The rapid response of the Chinese government and the mobilization of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army to help the communities affected

  2. Crystallography of in-situ transformations of the M 7C3 carbide in the cast Fe-Cr-Ni alloy (United States)

    Kraposhin, V. S.; Kondrat'ev, S. Yu.; Talis, A. L.; Anastasiadi, G. P.


    In the process of holding of the cast heat-resistant Fe-Cr-Ni (0.45C-25Cr-35Ni) alloy at 1150°C, the eutectic chromium carbide present in its structure undergoes a gradual transition M 7C3 → M 23C6. The gradual formation of domains of the M 23C6 carbide inside the particles of the M 7C3 carbide makes it possible to assume that the observed phase transition is the well-known carbide transformation of the in situ type. The mechanism of the in situ transformation of the crystal structure of the carbide from M 7C3 into M 23C6 with a change in the number of nearest metal neighbors of carbon atoms is explained within the previously developed combinatory model of polymorphic transitions in the metals.

  3. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence - along and across strike rupture segmentation (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Motagh, M.; Oncken, O.; Chong Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S. E.; Vilotte, J.


    In November 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the coastal town of Tocopilla in the southern part of a presumed seismic gap extending some 500 km along the northern Chile subduction zone. This major segment last broke in a magnitude ≧8.5 earthquake in 1877. Assuming a complete lock of the interface, it has accumulated more than 8 m of slip deficit. The contiguous segments to the north and south broke in M≧8 earthquakes in 2001 and 1995. Teams from Chile (Universidad Católica del Norte and Universidad de Chile), France (IPGP) and Germany (GFZ) started in 2006 to install semi-permanent multi-parameter observatories within the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) Initiative to monitor deformation at a variety of spatial and temporal scales in the final stage of the seismic cycle. At the time of the Tocopilla earthquake, 12 sites were equipped with seismic broadband and strong-motion sensors recording both the mainshock and its aftershock series. The earthquake rupture extended for about 160 km from the centre of the Mejillones peninsula (MP) to about 20 km north of the town of Tocopilla. Slip was confined to the depth range 30-55 km and concentrated in two patches in the north and south with a maximum of about 2.6 m. Hence the earthquake released only a fraction of the slip deficit and broke only the down-dip part of the plate interface, with the up-dip limit of the rupture approximately following the coastline. This poses the important question why rupture did not extend offshore, where the interface is presumably locked based on models of long-term interseismic deformation. We relocated more than 1000 aftershocks occurring in the week following the mainshock using hand-picked arrival times, cross-correlation based differential travel times and the double-difference algorithm. Despite the sparseness of the network, the aftershocks sharply define the plate interface. Seismicity in the first 24h is congruent to the slip distribution with the area

  4. Testing for adaptive evolution of the female reproductive protein ZPC in mammals, birds and fishes reveals problems with the M7-M8 likelihood ratio test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlin Sofia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive evolution appears to be a common feature of reproductive proteins across a very wide range of organisms. A promising way of addressing the evolutionary forces responsible for this general phenomenon is to test for adaptive evolution in the same gene but among groups of species, which differ in their reproductive biology. One can then test evolutionary hypotheses by asking whether the variation in adaptive evolution is consistent with the variation in reproductive biology. We have attempted to apply this approach to the study of a female reproductive protein, zona pellucida C (ZPC, which has been previously shown by the use of likelihood ratio tests (LRTs to be under positive selection in mammals. Results We tested for evidence of adaptive evolution of ZPC in 15 mammalian species, in 11 avian species and in six fish species using three different LRTs (M1a-M2a, M7-M8, and M8a-M8. The only significant findings of adaptive evolution came from the M7-M8 test in mammals and fishes. Since LRTs of adaptive evolution may yield false positives in some situations, we examined the properties of the LRTs by several different simulation methods. When we simulated data to test the robustness of the LRTs, we found that the pattern of evolution in ZPC generates an excess of false positives for the M7-M8 LRT but not for the M1a-M2a or M8a-M8 LRTs. This bias is strong enough to have generated the significant M7-M8 results for mammals and fishes. Conclusion We conclude that there is no strong evidence for adaptive evolution of ZPC in any of the vertebrate groups we studied, and that the M7-M8 LRT can be biased towards false inference of adaptive evolution by certain patterns of non-adaptive evolution.

  5. Structural insights into parasite eIF4E binding specificity for m7G and m2,2,7G mRNA caps. (United States)

    Liu, Weizhi; Zhao, Rui; McFarland, Craig; Kieft, Jeffrey; Niedzwiecka, Anna; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jones, David N M; Davis, Richard E


    The eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E recognizes the mRNA cap, a key step in translation initiation. Here we have characterized eIF4E from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Schistosome mRNAs have either the typical monomethylguanosine (m(7)G) or a trimethylguanosine (m(2,2,7)G) cap derived from spliced leader trans-splicing. Quantitative fluorescence titration analyses demonstrated that schistosome eIF4E has similar binding specificity for both caps. We present the first crystal structure of an eIF4E with similar binding specificity for m(7)G and m(2,2,7)G caps. The eIF4E.m(7)GpppG structure demonstrates that the schistosome protein binds monomethyl cap in a manner similar to that of single specificity eIF4Es and exhibits a structure similar to other known eIF4Es. The structure suggests an alternate orientation of a conserved, key Glu-90 in the cap-binding pocket that may contribute to dual binding specificity and a position for mRNA bound to eIF4E consistent with biochemical data. Comparison of NMR chemical shift perturbations in schistosome eIF4E on binding m(7)GpppG and m(2,2,7)GpppG identified key differences between the two complexes. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrated significant thermodynamics differences for the binding process with the two caps (m(7)G versus m(2,2,7)G). Overall the NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry data suggest the importance of intrinsic conformational flexibility in the schistosome eIF4E that enables binding to m(2,2,7)G cap.

  6. Mutation in WDR4 impairs tRNA m(7)G46 methylation and causes a distinct form of microcephalic primordial dwarfism. (United States)

    Shaheen, Ranad; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Guy, Michael P; Alomar, Rana; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Afifi, Hanan H; Ismail, Samira I; Emam, Bayoumi A; Phizicky, Eric M; Alkuraya, Fowzan S


    Primordial dwarfism is a state of extreme prenatal and postnatal growth deficiency, and is characterized by marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Two presumably unrelated consanguineous families presented with an apparently novel form of primordial dwarfism in which severe growth deficiency is accompanied by distinct facial dysmorphism, brain malformation (microcephaly, agenesis of corpus callosum, and simplified gyration), and severe encephalopathy with seizures. Combined autozygome/exome analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in WDR4 as the likely causal variant. WDR4 is the human ortholog of the yeast Trm82, an essential component of the Trm8/Trm82 holoenzyme that effects a highly conserved and specific (m(7)G46) methylation of tRNA. The human mutation and the corresponding yeast mutation result in a significant reduction of m(7)G46 methylation of specific tRNA species, which provides a potential mechanism for primordial dwarfism associated with this lesion, since reduced m(7)G46 modification causes a growth deficiency phenotype in yeast. Our study expands the number of biological pathways underlying primordial dwarfism and adds to a growing list of human diseases linked to abnormal tRNA modification.

  7. Efficient gene targeting in ligase IV-deficient Monascus ruber M7 by perturbing the non-homologous end joining pathway. (United States)

    He, Yi; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng


    Inactivating the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway is a well established method to increase gene replacement frequency (GRF) in filamentous fungi because NHEJ is predominant for the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), while gene targeting is based on homologous recombination (HR). DNA ligase IV, a component of the NHEJ system, is strictly required for the NHEJ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa. To enhance the GRF in Monascus ruber M7, we deleted the Mrlig4 gene encoding a homolog of N. crassa DNA ligase IV. The obtained mutant (MrΔlig4) showed no apparent defects in vegetative growth, colony phenotype, microscopic morphology, spore yield, and production of Monascus pigments and citrinin compared with the wild-type strain (M. ruber M7). Gene targeting of ku70 and triA genes revealed that GRF in the MrΔlig4 strain increased four-fold compared with that in the wild-type strain, reached 68 % and 85 %, respectively. Thus, the MrΔlig4 strain is a promising host for efficient genetic manipulation. In addition, the MrΔlig4 strain is more sensitive than M. ruber M7 to a DNA-damaging agent, methyl methanesulfonate.

  8. Sequence-structure-function relationships of a tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase studied by homology modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. (United States)

    Purta, Elzbieta; van Vliet, Françoise; Tricot, Catherine; De Bie, Lara G; Feder, Marcin; Skowronek, Krzysztof; Droogmans, Louis; Bujnicki, Janusz M


    The Escherichia coli TrmB protein and its Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog Trm8p catalyze the S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent formation of 7-methylguanosine at position 46 (m7G46) in tRNA. To learn more about the sequence-structure-function relationships of these enzymes we carried out a thorough bioinformatics analysis of the tRNA:m7G methyltransferase (MTase) family to predict sequence regions and individual amino acid residues that may be important for the interactions between the MTase and the tRNA substrate, in particular the target guanosine 46. We used site-directed mutagenesis to construct a series of alanine substitutions and tested the activity of the mutants to elucidate the catalytic and tRNA-recognition mechanism of TrmB. The functional analysis of the mutants, together with the homology model of the TrmB structure and the results of the phylogenetic analysis, revealed the crucial residues for the formation of the substrate-binding site and the catalytic center in tRNA:m7G MTases.

  9. Desorption Kinetics of H2O from Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 Silica Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L.; Balooch, M.; LeMay, J.D.


    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was performed at temperatures up to 850K on Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 silica particles. Physisorbed water molecules on both types of silica had activation energies in the range of 9-14.5 kcal/mol. However, the activation energies of desorption for chemisorbed water varied from {approx} 19 kcal/mol to > 59 kcal/mol for Cab-O-Sil-M-7D, and {approx} 23-37 kcal/mol for Hi-Sil-233. Our results suggest that physisorbed water can be effectively pumped away at room temperature (or preferably at 320 K) in a matter of hours. Chemisorbed water with high activation energies of desorption (>30 kcal/mol) will not escape the silica surfaces in 100 years even at 320 K, while a significant amount of the chemisorbed water with medium activation energies (19-26 kcal/mol) will leave the silica surfaces in that time span. Most of the chemisorbed water with activation energies < 30 kcal/mol can be pumped away in a matter of days in a good vacuum environment at 500 K. We had previously measured about 0.1-0.4 wt. % of water in M9787 polysiloxane formulations containing {approx} 21% Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and {approx} 4% Hi-Sil-233. Comparing present results with these formulations, we conclude that absorbed H{sub 2}O and Si-OH bonds on the silica surfaces are the major contributors to water outgassing from M97 series silicones.

  10. Development and validation of a liquid medium (M7H9C) for routine culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to replace modified Bactec 12B medium. (United States)

    Whittington, Richard J; Whittington, Ann-Michele; Waldron, Anna; Begg, Douglas J; de Silva, Kumi; Purdie, Auriol C; Plain, Karren M


    Liquid culture of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from clinical samples, such as feces, is the most sensitive antemortem test for the diagnosis of Johne's disease in ruminants. In Australia, New Zealand, the United States, and some other countries, the Bactec 460 system with modified Bactec 12B medium (Becton, Dickinson) has been the most commonly used liquid culture system, but it was discontinued in 2012. In this study, a new liquid culture medium, M7H9C, was developed. It consists of a Middlebrook 7H9 medium base with added Casitone, albumin, dextrose, catalase, egg yolk, mycobactin J, and a cocktail of antibiotics. We found that polyoxyethylene stearate (POES) was not essential for the cultivation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in either the Bactec 12B or the M7H9C medium. The limit of detection determined using pure cultures of the C and S strains of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was 7 bacilli per 50 μl inoculum in the two media. The new medium was validated using 784 fecal and tissue samples from sheep and cattle, >25% of which contained viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Discrepant results for the clinical samples between the two media were mostly associated with samples that contained <10 viable bacilli per gram, but these results were relatively uncommon, and the performances of the two media were not significantly different. M7H9C medium was less than half the cost of the Bactec 12B medium and did not require regular examination during incubation, but a confirmatory IS900 PCR test had to be performed on every culture after the predetermined incubation period.

  11. Anomalous decrease in relatively large shocks and increase in the p and b values preceding the April 16, 2016, M7.3 earthquake in Kumamoto, Japan (United States)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Yoshida, A.


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes in Kyushu, Japan, started with a magnitude ( M) 6.5 quake on April 14 on the Hinagu fault zone (FZ), followed by active seismicity including an M6.4 quake. Eventually, an M7.3 quake occurred on April 16 on the Futagawa FZ. We investigated if any sign indicative of the M7.3 quake could be found in the space-time changes in seismicity after the M6.5 quake. As a quality control, we determined in advance the threshold magnitude, above which all earthquakes are completely recorded. We then showed that the occurrence rate of relatively large ( M ≥ 3) earthquakes significantly decreased 1 day before the M7.3 quake. Significance of this decrease was evaluated by one standard deviation of sampled changes in the rate of occurrence. We next confirmed that seismicity with M ≥ 3 was well modeled by the Omori-Utsu law with p 1.5 ± 0.3, which indicates that the temporal decay of seismicity was significantly faster than a typical decay with p = 1. The larger p value was obtained when we used data of the longer time period in the analysis. This significance was confirmed by a bootstrapping approach. Our detailed analysis shows that the large p value was caused by the rapid decay of the seismicity in the northern area around the Futagawa FZ. Application of the slope (the b value) of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution to the spatiotemporal change in the seismicity revealed that the b value in the northern area increased significantly, the increase being Δ b = 0.3-0.5. Significance was verified by a statistical test of Δ b and a test using bootstrapping errors. Based on our findings, combined with the results obtained by a stress inversion analysis performed by the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience, we suggested that stress near the Futagawa FZ had reduced just prior to the occurrence of the M7.3 quake. We proposed, with some other observations, that a reduction in stress might have been

  12. Post-seismic velocity changes along the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake rupture zone revealed by S coda of repeating events (United States)

    Li, Le; Niu, Fenglin; Chen, Qi-Fu; Su, Jinrong; He, Jiabin


    We investigated post-seismic velocity changes within the fault zone of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake using coda wave data of repeating small earthquakes. We employed template matching and grid search methods to identify well-defined repeating earthquakes in order to minimize artefacts induced by variations in source location. We identified a total of 12 isolated patches in the fault zone that ruptured more than twice in a 1 yr period after the M7.9 earthquake. We applied the coda wave interferometry technique to the waveform data of the 34 identified repeating earthquakes to estimate velocity changes between the first and subsequent events in each cluster. We found that major post-seismic velocity changes occurred in the southwestern part of the rupture area, where the main rupture was initiated and characterized by thrust motion, while the Beichuan area in the northeastern part of the rupture zone appears to experience very little post-seismic velocity changes.

  13. Strong-motion observations of the M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence and development of the N-shake strong-motion network (United States)

    Dixit, Amod; Ringler, Adam; Sumy, Danielle F.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Gibbons, Steven; Luetgert, James H.; Galetzka, John; Shrestha, Surya; Rajaure, Sudhir; McNamara, Daniel E.


    We present and describe strong-motion data observations from the 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake sequence collected using existing and new Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) and U.S. Geological Survey NetQuakes sensors located in the Kathmandu Valley. A comparison of QCN data with waveforms recorded by a conventional strong-motion (NetQuakes) instrument validates the QCN data. We present preliminary analysis of spectral accelerations, and peak ground acceleration and velocity for earthquakes up to M 7.3 from the QCN stations, as well as preliminary analysis of the mainshock recording from the NetQuakes station. We show that mainshock peak accelerations were lower than expected and conclude the Kathmandu Valley experienced a pervasively nonlinear response during the mainshock. Phase picks from the QCN and NetQuakes data are also used to improve aftershock locations. This study confirms the utility of QCN instruments to contribute to ground-motion investigations and aftershock response in regions where conventional instrumentation and open-access seismic data are limited. Initial pilot installations of QCN instruments in 2014 are now being expanded to create the Nepal–Shaking Hazard Assessment for Kathmandu and its Environment (N-SHAKE) network.

  14. mrflbA, encoding a putative FlbA, is involved in aerial hyphal development and secondary metabolite production in Monascus ruber M-7. (United States)

    Yang, Yishan; Li, Li; Li, Xin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng


    FlbA (fluffy low brlA expression), a regulator of the G protein signalling (RGS) pathway, has been implicated in the control of hyphal development, sporulation, mycotoxin/pigment production in many kinds of filamentous fungi and yeasts. In the current study, a FlbA-like protein gene mrflbA (Monascus ruber flbA) was isolated, sequenced, and disrupted in order to investigate the RGS function in M. ruber. The results revealed that the derived protein of the mrflbA gene consisted of 734 amino acids and had the conserved RGS domain at the C-terminus and two DEP (dishevelled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domains at the N-terminus similar to the structure of RGS proteins in other filamentous fungi. Deletion of the mrflbA gene resulted in the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with fluffy aerial hyphae that autolyzed as the colony grew on potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28°C. Additionally, mrflbA deletion could repress conidial germination and pigment/citrinin production in M. ruber M-7. Real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the transcription level of the G protein α subunit (Gα) was remarkably increased in the mrflbA deletion strain. These results suggest that mrflbA is involved in the modulation of aerial hyphal development and secondary metabolism, as well as, negative regulation of Gα subunit expression in M. ruber M-7.

  15. Hydrological changes due to the M7.0 earthquake at Iwaki, Fukushima induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, Japan (United States)

    Sato, T.; Kazahaya, K.; Yasuhara, M.; Itoh, J.; Takahashi, H. A.; Morikawa, N.; Takahashi, M.; Inamura, A.; Handa, H.; Matsumoto, N.


    After a month of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (Mw9.0) in Japan, two normal faults located 300 km southwest of the epicenter moved with several earthquakes (Max Mw7.0, 11 April 2011). Significant hydrological anomalies occurred around the faults after the movements. We have surveyed spatial distribution of the hydrological anomalies within 10 km of the faults, and analyzed chemical composition of some hot spring waters including the spouting waters which began to discharge just after the M7.0 earthquake. Increases of groundwater level were observed on the lower block of the normal faults. Especially water level of a hot spring well increased about 10 m in the Iwaki Yumoto area, located 3 km away from the faults. The GPS observation by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) showed that contraction of 16 cm between the two GPS stations 9.6 km away and uplift of 6 cm occurred simultaneously in the Iwaki Yumoto area. The observation results for the crustal deformation indicated that the increases of groundwater level were caused by contraction strain change due to the fault movement. On the other hand, decreases of groundwater level were observed on the upper block of the faults, which was thought to be caused by dilatation strain change due to the fault movement. In the Iwaki Yumoto area, a large amount of hot water with higher temperature (58 degree-C) has flowed out from the old coal mine after the M7.0 earthquake. The flow rate was up to about 10,000 m3/day on May, 2011. The chemical composition of this hot water has gradually changed to that of 1000m-deep-groundwater from boreholes drilled to basement rocks in this area. The analytical result indicates that the outflow occurred by discharging of the hot groundwater stored in the fractures of the basement rocks to the roadway of the old coal mine by contraction strain changes of the basement rocks due to the M7.0 earthquake.

  16. The C-terminal region of thermophilic tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase (TrmB) stabilizes the dimer structure and enhances fidelity of methylation. (United States)

    Tomikawa, Chie; Ochi, Anna; Hori, Hiroyuki


    Transfer RNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase catalyzes methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to N(7) atom of the semi-conserved G46 base in tRNA. Aquifex aeolicus is a hyper thermophilic eubacterium that grows at close to 95 degrees C. A. aeolicus tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase [TrmB] has an elongated C-terminal region as compared with mesophilic counterparts. In this study, the authors focused on the functions of this C-terminal region. Analytic gel filtration chromatography and amino acid sequencing reveled that the start point (Glu202) of the C-terminal region is often cleaved by proteases during purification steps and the C-terminal region tightly binds to another subunit even in the presence of 6M urea. Because the C-terminal region contains abundant basic amino acid residues, the authors assumed that some of these residues might be involved in tRNA binding. To address this idea, the authors prepared eight alanine substitution mutant proteins. However, measurements of initial velocities of these mutant proteins suggested that the basic amino acid residues in the C-terminal region are not involved in tRNA binding. The authors investigated effects of the deletion of the C-terminal region. Deletion mutant protein of the C-terminal region (the core protein) was precipitated by incubation at 85 degrees C, while the wild type protein was soluble at that temperature, demonstrating that the C-terminal region contributes to the protein stability at high temperatures. The core protein had a methyl-transfer activity to yeast tRNA(Phe) transcript. Furthermore, the core protein slowly methylated tRNA transcripts, which did not contain G46 base. Moreover, the modified base was identified as m(7)G by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. Thus, the deletion of the C-terminal region causes nonspecific methylation of N(7) atom of guanine base(s) in tRNA transcripts.

  17. Possible relationship between changes in IMF, M7+ earthquakes and VEI index, during the transition between the solar minimum cycle 23 and the rise of solar cycle 24 (United States)

    Casati, Michele; Straser, Valentino


    Numerous scientific papers seem to suggest a possible influence of solar activity on geological dynamics (hypothesis triggers earthquakes or volcanic activity) on Earth. In the following study, all earthquakes around the globe with a magnitude greater than or equal to 7, from January 2010 to November 2012, were taken into account which corresponds to the appearance of the first sunspot of Solar Cycle SC24. The data was then compared with the graph that shows the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). This second track is the result of a moving average equal to 27 (solar rotation of Bartel) starting from the daily values of the field, detected by the magnetometer on board the probe Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). The analysis reveals a first major change in February 2010, when the IMF changes from 4.5 nT to about 5.8 nT . A second identical significant change is found in February 2011, when the IMF, went from 4.5 nT to about 5.8 nT. In March 2012, we have, the other way around, a third important change in the IMF, with later's dynamics registering a variation from 5.6 nT to about 6.8 nT. We find that the three most important seismic events of the last three years (M8.8 in Chile 27/02/2010; M9 in Japan on 11/03/2011, and M8.6 on 11/04/2012 in Sumatra) occurred at the same time or slightly after the peaks (Bmax) of increase in the magnetic field of the heliosphere "facing the Earth" were reached. The analysis also suggests further connections between earthquakes with M> 7 and when the peak (maximum value the IMF) were reached, recorded in other changes in the field in these three years. Like, for example, the earthquake of M7.5 in India of 12/06/2010, when the IMF increased from 4.5 nT to 5.2 nT, or the earthquake in Sumatra 25/10/2010, when the IMF went from 4.4 nT to 5.1 nT. The variation of the IMF, recorded in May 2011, from 4.7 nT to 5.9 nT, relates, for example, not only with the M7.6 earthquake in Kermadec (07/06/2011), but also with

  18. From GHz to mHz: A Multiwavelength Study of the Acoustically Active 14 August 2004 M7.4 Solar Flare

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Oliveros, J C; Besliu-Ionescu, D; Donea, A -C; Cally, P S; Lindsey, C


    We carried out an electromagnetic acoustic analysis of the solar flare of 14 August 2004 in active region AR10656 from the radio to the hard X-ray spectrum. The flare was a GOES soft X-ray class M7.4 and produced a detectable sun quake, confirming earlier inferences that relatively low-energy flares may be able to generate sun quakes. We introduce the hypothesis that the seismicity of the active region is closely related to the heights of coronal magnetic loops that conduct high-energy particles from the flare. In the case of relatively short magnetic loops, chromospheric evaporation populates the loop interior with ionized gas relatively rapidly, expediting the scattering of remaining trapped high-energy electrons into the magnetic loss cone and their rapid precipitation into the chromosphere. This increases both the intensity and suddenness of the chromospheric heating, satisfying the basic conditions for an acoustic emission that penetrates into the solar interior.

  19. Investigation of ionospheric TEC precursors related to the M7.8 Nepal and M8.3 Chile earthquakes in 2015 based on spectral and statistical analysis (United States)

    ikonomouE, Christina; Haralambous, Haris; Muslim, Buldan


    Ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations prior to 2 large earthquakes in Nepal (M = 7.8) and Chile (M = 8.3) in 2015 were analyzed using measurements from global navigation satellite system network with the aim to detect possible ionospheric anomalies associated to these seismic events and describe their main features, by applying statistical and spectral analysis. It was shown that abnormal TEC variations appeared few days up to few hours before the events lasting up to 8 h, whereas intensified TEC wave-like oscillations with periods 20 and 2-5 min were also identified that could be linked to the impending earthquakes. An unusual modification of the equatorial ionospheric anomaly 5 days before the main shock was also detected. Spectral analysis on TEC satellite measurements proved an effective method for the discrimination between seismically induced ionospheric waves and those of different origin such as the solar terminator transition and geomagnetic storms

  20. New type of outer membrane vesicle produced by the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella vesiculosa M7T: implications for DNA content. (United States)

    Pérez-Cruz, Carla; Carrión, Ornella; Delgado, Lidia; Martinez, Gemma; López-Iglesias, Carmen; Mercade, Elena


    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) from Gram-negative bacteria are known to be involved in lateral DNA transfer, but the presence of DNA in these vesicles has remained difficult to explain. An ultrastructural study of the Antarctic psychrotolerant bacterium Shewanella vesiculosa M7(T) has revealed that this Gram-negative bacterium naturally releases conventional one-bilayer OMVs through a process in which the outer membrane is exfoliated and only the periplasm is entrapped, together with a more complex type of OMV, previously undescribed, which on formation drag along inner membrane and cytoplasmic content and can therefore also entrap DNA. These vesicles, with a double-bilayer structure and containing electron-dense material, were visualized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) after high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution (HPF-FS), and their DNA content was fluorometrically quantified as 1.8 ± 0.24 ng DNA/μg OMV protein. The new double-bilayer OMVs were estimated by cryo-TEM to represent 0.1% of total vesicles. The presence of DNA inside the vesicles was confirmed by gold DNA immunolabeling with a specific monoclonal IgM against double-stranded DNA. In addition, a proteomic study of purified membrane vesicles confirmed the presence of plasma membrane and cytoplasmic proteins in OMVs from this strain. Our data demonstrate the existence of a previously unobserved type of double-bilayer OMV in the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella vesiculosa M7(T) that can incorporate DNA, for which we propose the name outer-inner membrane vesicle (O-IMV).

  1. Classification of M~7 earthquakes in Tokyo Metropolitan area since 1885 - The 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu and 1922 Uraga channel earthquakes (United States)

    Ishibe, T.; Satake, K.; Shimazaki, K.; Murotani, S.; Nishiyama, A.


    S-P times, focal mechanism solutions from initial motion, and seismic intensity distribution show that the 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake (M 7.0) and the 1922 Uraga channel earthquake (M 6.8) both occurred within the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area. The Tokyo Metropolitan area is situated in a tectonically complex region; The Philippine Sea plate (PHS) subducts from south, while the Pacific plate (PAC) subducts from east below PHS. As a result, various types of earthquakes occur in this region. They are classified into: shallow crustal earthquakes, intraplate (slab) earthquakes within PHS, within PAC, and interplate earthquakes between continental plate and PHS, and between PHS and PAC. The probability of the large earthquakes with magnitude (M)~7 is high; Earthquake Research Committee calculated the probability of occurrence during the next 30 years as 70 %, based on the fact that five M~7 earthquakes (the 1894 Meiji Tokyo, 1895 and 1921 Ibaraki-ken Nambu, 1922 Uraga Channel, and 1987 Chiba-ken Toho-oki earthquakes) occurred since 1885. However, types of these earthquakes except for the 1987 earthquake are not well known due to low quality of data. It is important to classify these earthquakes into above-described intraplate or interplate earthquakes. The Ibaraki-ken Nambu earthquake occurred on 8 December, 1921 and caused damage such as fissures on road, tumble of gravestones especially in the northwestern Chiba and southwestern Ibaraki prefectures. The focal depth was estimated to be around 55 km using S-P times of old seismograms or JMA reports, suggesting that this earthquake was probably a slab earthquake within PHS. Seismic intensity distribution supports this result; seismic intensity anomalies characterizing the PAC slab earthquakes are not recognized. Furthermore, initial motion focal mechanisms using HASH algorithm (Hardebeck and Shearer, 2002) are strike-slip types, even if the uncertainty of hypocenter locations

  2. Real-Time Science on Social Media: The Example of Twitter in the Minutes, Hours, Days after the 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake (United States)

    Lomax, A.; Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.


    Scientific information on disasters such as earthquakes typically comes firstly from official organizations, news reports and interviews with experts, and later from scientific presentations and peer-reviewed articles. With the advent of the Internet and social media, this information is available in real-time from automated systems and within a dynamic, collaborative interaction between scientific experts, responders and the public. After the 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake, Twitter Tweets from earth scientists* included information, analysis, commentary and discussion on earthquake parameters (location, size, mechanism, rupture extent, high-frequency radiation, …), earthquake effects (distribution of felt shaking and damage, triggered seismicity, landslides, …), earthquake rumors (e.g. the imminence of a larger event) and other earthquake information and observations (aftershock forecasts, statistics and maps, source and regional tectonics, seismograms, GPS, InSAR, photos/videos, …).In the future (while taking into account security, false or erroneous information and identity verification), collaborative, real-time science on social media after a disaster will give earlier and better scientific understanding and dissemination of public information, and enable improved emergency response and disaster management.* A sample of scientific Tweets after the 2015 Nepal earthquake: In the first minutes: "mb5.9 Mwp7.4 earthquake Nepal 2015.04.25-06:11:25UTC", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 8 min ago", "Epicenter between Pokhara and Kathmandu", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 18 min ago. Effects derived from witnesses' reports". In the first hour: "shallow thrust faulting to North under Himalayas", "a very large and shallow event ... Mw7.6-7.7", "aftershocks extend east and south of Kathmandu, so likely ruptured beneath city", "Valley-blocking landslides must be a very real worry". In the first day: "M7.8 earthquake in Nepal 2hr ago: destructive in Kathmandu Valley and

  3. Strong ground motion synthesis for a M=7.2 earthquake in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece using Empirical Green`s functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L.; Stavrakakis, G.N.; Ioannidou, E.; Wu, F.T.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.


    We synthesize strong ground motion at three sites from a M=7.2 earthquake along the MW-trending Gulf of Cornith seismic zone. We model rupture along an 80 segment of the zone. The entire length of the fault, if activated at one time, can lead to an event comparable to that of the 1995 Kobe earthquake. With the improved digital data now routinely available, it becomes possible to use recordings of small earthquakes as empirical Green`s functions to synthesize potential ground motion for future large earthquakes. We developed a suite of 100 rupture scenarios for the earthquake and computed the commensurate strong ground motion time histories. We synthesized strong ground motion with physics-based solutions of earthquake rupture and applied physical bounds on rupture parameters. The synthesized ground motions obtained are source and site specific. By having a suite of rupture scenarios of hazardous earthquakes for a fixed magnitude and identifying the hazard to a site from the statistical distribution of engineering parameters, we have introduced a probabilistic component to the deterministic hazard calculation. The time histories suggested for engineering design are the ones that most closely match either the average or one standard deviation absolute accelerations response values.

  4. Earthquake Performance of Structures in the Philippines: A Post-event Assessment of the M7.2 October 2013 Bohol Earthquake (United States)

    Naguit, M.; Cummins, P. R.; Bautista, B.; Edwards, M.; Ryu, H.; Jakab, M.


    A M7.2 inland earthquake occurred in Bohol, Philippines on the 15th of October 2013, associated with rupture along a newly-discovered thrust fault called the North Bohol Fault. While secondary hazards including lateral spreading, landslides, sinkholes, liquefaction, coastal uplift and subsidence have been observed, the impact was dominated by strong ground shaking that killed about 230 people and damaged over 70,000 buildings. Because of the extensive damage and the wide spread of intensities inferred to have shaken the island, the Bohol earthquake presents an important opportunity to improve knowledge of building fragility for the Philippines and similar countries. To this end we undertook a statistical building survey of over 18,000 damaged and undamaged structures located in urban and rural settings and at various inferred ground motion intensity levels. Building typology developed by structural engineers in the Philippines has been considered in classifying the structures based on structural materials and era of construction. The vast majority of the buildings are residential houses with wall types made of wooden materials, concrete hollow blocks or confined masonry. Tailored to assess the vulnerability of structures to earthquake loadings, this post-event analysis aims to validate and constrain the building fragility curves for seismic risk assessment. This can lead to more robust impact forecasts and higher priorities on seismic regulations and construction practices, applicable not only in Bohol but in other areas in the Philippines as well.

  5. Microwave imaging of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z; Huang, G; Nakajima, H; Song, H; Melnikov, V; Liu, W; Li, G; Chandrashekhar, K; Jiao, F


    Corona structures and processes during the pre-impulsive stage of solar eruption are crucial to understanding the physics leading to the subsequent explosive energy release. Here we present the first microwave imaging study of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare, with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph (NoRH) at 17 GHz. The flux rope is also observed by the SDO/AIA in its hot passbands of 94 and 131 \\AA\\. In the microwave data, it is revealed as an overall arcade-like structure consisting of several intensity enhancements bridged by generally weak emissions, with brightness temperatures ($T_B$) varying from ~10,000~K to ~20,000 K. Locations of microwave intensity enhancements along the structure remain relatively fixed at certain specific parts of the flux rope, indicating that the distribution of emitting electrons is affected by the large scale magnetic configuration of the twisted flux rope. Wavelet analysis shows a pronounced 2-min period of the microwave $T_...

  6. The first since 1960: A large event in the Valdivia segment of the Chilean Subduction Zone, the 2016 M7.6 Melinka earthquake (United States)

    Melgar, Diego; Riquelme, Sebastian; Xu, Xiaohua; Baez, Juan Carlos; Geng, Jianghui; Moreno, Marcos


    We present results for joint kinematic inversion of high-rate GPS, strong motion and InSAR data for the 2016 M7.6 Melinka earthquake. We show that the source is a compact 35 s long rupture with 5.0 ± 0.15 m of peak slip. We find the Melinka earthquake occurs inside the slip region for the 1960 M9.5 Valdivia earthquake and within the highly locked portion of the megathrust inferred from inter-seismic velocity analysis. We show that there is very modest post-seismic deformation at a nearby GPS site QLLN and argue that this indicates the Melinka earthquake ruptures within the intermediate portion of the megathrust and is an isolated asperity surrounded by locked velocity weakening material. Further we find that the peak slip observed during this earthquake is larger than what has been accumulated in the intervening 57 years since the 1960 rupture and conclude that, at least in the area of the Melinka earthquake, this is indicates that the 1960 Valdivia event might not have used all the slip deficit available on the megathrust.

  7. A correlation between damage and intensity on old masonry churches in Colima, Mexico by the 2003 M7.5 earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Preciado


    Full Text Available Strong damage was observed in Colima Mexico on most of the cultural patrimony (mainly churches after the 2003 M7.5 earthquake. In order to find a correlation between the observed damage on the historical buildings and the earthquake intensity, the vulnerability is assessed by qualitative methods, including the vulnerability class method (VCM and the vulnerability index method (VIM. The latter method is modified and adapted in this research to assess the seismic vulnerability of historical buildings such as churches and cathedrals located in areas from high to very high seismicity. The results are intended to serve as preliminary indicators of expected damage levels that allow the local authorities to take measures oriented to disaster prevention. The assessment using both methodologies is developed on 15 historical masonry churches, most of them from XIX century. With the results, a correlation between damage and intensity taking into account a Macroseismic Scale is developed and the qualitative methodologies to assess the seismic vulnerability of historical constructions are compared each other.

  8. Cloning, expression and characterization of a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from Monascus ruber M7. (United States)

    Guo, Hailun; Zhang, Yan; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Wanping; Chen, Fusheng; Li, Mu


    Cold active esterases are a class of important biocatalysts that exhibit high activity at low temperatures. In this study, a search for putative cold-active esterase encoding genes from Monascus ruber M7 was performed. A cold-active esterase, named Lip10, was isolated, cloned, purified, and characterized. Amino acid sequence analysis reveals that Lip10 contained a conserved sequence motif Gly(173)-Xaa-Ser(175)-Xaa-Gly(177) that is also present in the majority of esterases and lipases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Lip10 was a novel microbial esterase. The lip10 gene was cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), resulting in the expression of an active and soluble protein that constituted 40 % of the total cell protein content. Lip10 maintained almost 50 % of its maximal activity at 4-10 °C, with optimal activity at 40 °C. Furthermore, Lip10 retained 184-216 % of its original activity, after incubation in 50 % (v/v) hydrophobic organic solvents for 24 h. The enzyme also exhibited high activity under alkaline conditions and good tolerance to metal ions in the reaction mixture. These results indicate that Lip10 may have potential uses in chemical synthesis and food processing industrial applications as an esterase.

  9. Hetero subunit interaction and RNA recognition of yeast tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase synthesized in a wheat germ cell-free translation system. (United States)

    Muneyoshi, Yuki; Matsumoto, Keisuke; Tomikawa, Chie; Toyooka, Takashi; Ochi, Anna; Masaoka, Takashi; Endo, Yaeta; Hori, Hiroyuki


    Yeast tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase contains two protein subunits (Trm8 and Trm82). The enzyme catalyzes a methyl-transfer from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N(7) atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA. We deviced synthesis of active Trm8-Trm82 heterodimer in a wheat germ cell-free translation system. When Trm8 or Trm82 mRNA were used for a synthesis, Trm8 or Trm82 protein could be synthesized. Upon mixing the synthesized Trm8 and Trm82 proteins, no active Trm8-Trm82 heterodimer was produced. Active Trm8-Trm82 heterodimer was only synthesized under conditions, in which both Trm8 and Trm82 mRNAs were co-translated. To address the RNA recognition mechanism of the Trm8-Trm82 complex, we investigated methyl acceptance activities of eight truncated yeast tRNA(Phe) transcripts. In this meeting, we demonstrate that yeast Trm8-Trm82 has stricter recognition requirements for the tRNA molecule as compared to the bacterial enzyme, TrmB.

  10. The core domain of Aquifex aeolicus tRNA (m7G46) methyltransferase has the methyl-transfer activity to tRNA. (United States)

    Tomikawa, Chie; Hori, Hiroyuki


    Transfer RNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase [TrmB] catalyses the transfer of methyl groups from S-adenosyl-L-methionine to the N(7)-atom of guanine at position 46 in tRNA. TrmB proteins from thermophilic bacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus have a long C-terminal region as compared to those from mesophilic bacteria. Further, N-terminal region observed in TrmB proteins from mesophiles is missing in A. aeolicus TrmB. Therefore, we considered that this distinct C-terminal region in A. aeolicus TrmB might compensate the N-terminal region in mesophile TrmB and function as a part of tRNA binding site. To confirm this idea, we deleted the C-terminal region by introduction of the stop codon at position 202. To our surprise, methyl-transfer assay using yeast tRNA(Phe) transcript clearly showed that the resultant mutant protein (Glu202Stop) had an enzymatic activity. Thus, the core domain of the A. aeolicus TrmB has a methyl-transfer activity.

  11. N7-Methylguanine at position 46 (m7G46) in tRNA from Thermus thermophilus is required for cell viability at high temperatures through a tRNA modification network. (United States)

    Tomikawa, Chie; Yokogawa, Takashi; Kanai, Tamotsu; Hori, Hiroyuki


    N(7)-methylguanine at position 46 (m(7)G46) in tRNA is produced by tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase (TrmB). To clarify the role of this modification, we made a trmB gene disruptant (DeltatrmB) of Thermus thermophilus, an extreme thermophilic eubacterium. The absence of TrmB activity in cell extract from the DeltatrmB strain and the lack of the m(7)G46 modification in tRNA(Phe) were confirmed by enzyme assay, nucleoside analysis and RNA sequencing. When the DeltatrmB strain was cultured at high temperatures, several modified nucleotides in tRNA were hypo-modified in addition to the lack of the m(7)G46 modification. Assays with tRNA modification enzymes revealed hypo-modifications of Gm18 and m(1)G37, suggesting that the m(7)G46 positively affects their formations. Although the lack of the m(7)G46 modification and the hypo-modifications do not affect the Phe charging activity of tRNA(Phe), they cause a decrease in melting temperature of class I tRNA and degradation of tRNA(Phe) and tRNA(Ile). (35)S-Met incorporation into proteins revealed that protein synthesis in DeltatrmB cells is depressed above 70 degrees C. At 80 degrees C, the DeltatrmB strain exhibits a severe growth defect. Thus, the m(7)G46 modification is required for cell viability at high temperatures via a tRNA modification network, in which the m(7)G46 modification supports introduction of other modifications.

  12. The 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla northern Chile earthquake sequence: Implications for along-strike and downdip rupture segmentation and megathrust frictional behavior (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, G.; Rosenau, M.; Wang, R.; Oncken, O.; Barrientos, S.; Salazar, P.; Vilotte, J.-P.


    In 2007 a M7.7 earthquake occurred near the town of Tocopilla within the northern Chile seismic gap. Main shock slip, derived from coseismic surface deformation, was confined to the depth range between 30 and 55 km. We relocated ˜1100 events during six months before and one week after the main shock. Aftershock seismicity is first congruent to the main shock slip and then it spreads offshore west and northwest of Mejillones Peninsula (MP). Waveform modeling for 38 aftershocks reveals source mechanisms that are in the majority similar to the main shock. However, a few events appear to occur in the upper plate, some with extensional mechanisms. Juxtaposing the Tocopilla aftershocks with those following the neighboring 1995 Antofagasta earthquake produces a striking symmetry across an EW axis in the center of MP. Events seem to skirt around MP, probably due to a shallower Moho there. We suggest that the seismogenic coupling zone in northern Chile changes its frictional behavior in the downdip direction from unstable to mostly conditionally stable. For both earthquake sequences, aftershocks agglomerate in the conditionally stable region, whereas maximum inter-seismic slip deficit and co-seismic slip occurs in the unstable region. The boundary between the unstable and conditionally stable zones parallels the coastline. We identify a similar segmentation for other earthquakes in Chile and Peru, where the offshore segments break in great M > 8 earthquakes, and the onshore segments in smaller M < 8 earthquakes. Using critical taper analysis, we demonstrate a causal relationship between varying slip behavior on the interface and forearc wedge anatomy that can be attributed to spatial variations in the rate-dependency of friction.

  13. Comparison of the Structurally Controlled Landslides Numerical Model Results to the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake Co-seismic Landslides (United States)

    Macario Galang, Jan Albert; Narod Eco, Rodrigo; Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo


    The M 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is the most destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines since 2012. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". Its name, taken after the barangay (village) where the fault is best exposed and was first seen. The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 billion USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparedness against this type of landslide therefore, relies heavily on the identification of fracture-related unstable slopes. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations or discontinuity sets were mapped in the field with the aid of a 2012 IFSAR Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with 5-meter pixel resolution and landslide inventory of 456 landslides. Out the total number of landslides identified from post-earthquake high-resolution imagery, 366 or 80% intersect the structural-controlled hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The method can be further improved with the use of Lidar DTMs, which has better accuracy than the IFSAR DTM. A nationwide effort under DOST-Project NOAH (DREAM-LIDAR) is underway, to map the Philippine archipelago using Lidar.

  14. Coseismic surface displacements from optical and SAR image offset tracking, fault modeling and geomorphological analysis of the Sept. 24th, 2013 M7.7 Balochistan earthquake (United States)

    Harrington, Jonathan; Wang, Teng; Feng, Guangcai; Akoglu, Ahmet; Jónsson, Sigurjón; Motagh, Mahdi


    The M 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan province of Pakistan on September 24th, 2013 took place along a subsidiary fault in the transition area between the Makran accretionary prism and the Chaman transform fault. This tectonics of the Indian and Arabian plate collisions with Eurasia produce primarily oblique left-lateral strike slip in this region. In this work, measurements of displacement and mapping of the rupture trace are achieved through image correlation of Landsat 8 images and SAR offset tracking of TerraSAR-X data. Horizontal displacements from both methods and derived vertical displacements are used to constrain a fault rupture model for the earthquake. Preliminary results show a surprisingly uniform slip distribution with maximum displacement near the surface. The total fault rupture length is ~210 km, with up to 9 m of left-lateral strike-slip and 3 m of reverse faulting. Additionally, mapping of the rupture trace is made use of for geomorphological observations relating to slip rates and identification of transpressional and transtensional features. Our results indicate a mostly smooth rupture trace, with the presence of two restraining steps, a releasing bend and a 3 km long sliver where the surface rupture jumped from the foot of the range-front into the alluvial fans at their base. A small block at one of the restraining steps shows intermediate displacement in both data sets. At the southern end of the rupture we observe that displacement from the earthquake cuts across a fold-and-thrust belt of the Makran accretionary prism. Preliminary results show a minimum of 12 km of repeated section of the accretionary wedge, and within the southern repeated section we find an offset of 600 m between two parallel ridges across the rupture trace. We relate these observations to conceptual models of fault segmentation and growth.

  15. Transient stresses al Parkfield, California, produced by the M 7.4 Landers earthquake of June 28, 1992: implications for the time-dependence of fault friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Fletcher


    Full Text Available he M 7.4 Landers earthquake triggered widespread seismicity in the Western U.S. Because the transient dynamic stresses induced at regional distances by the Landers surface waves are much larger than the expected static stresses, the magnitude and the characteristics of the dynamic stresses may bear upon the earthquake triggering mechanism. The Landers earthquake was recorded on the UPSAR array, a group of 14 triaxial accelerometers located within a 1-square-km region 10 km southwest of the town of Parkfield, California, 412 km northwest of the Landers epicenter. We used a standard geodetic inversion procedure to determine the surface strain and stress tensors as functions of time from the observed dynamic displacements. Peak dynamic strains and stresses at the Earth's surface are about 7 microstrain and 0.035 MPa, respectively, and they have a flat amplitude spectrum between 2 s and 15 s period. These stresses agree well with stresses predicted from a simple rule of thumb based upon the ground velocity spectrum observed at a single station. Peak stresses ranged from about 0.035 MPa at the surface to about 0.12 MPa between 2 and 14 km depth, with the sharp increase of stress away from the surface resulting from the rapid increase of rigidity with depth and from the influence of surface wave mode shapes. Comparison of Landers-induced static and dynamic stresses at the hypocenter of the Big Bear aftershock provides a clear example that faults are stronger on time scales of tens of seconds than on time scales of hours or longer.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Zhao; Chen, Yao; Song, Hongqiang; Chandrashekhar, Kalugodu; Jiao, Fangran [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, and Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Huang, Guangli [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Nanjing, 210008 (China); Nakajima, Hiroshi [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, 462-2 Nobeyama, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Melnikov, Victor [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg 196140 (Russian Federation); Liu, Wei [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Li, Gang, E-mail: [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)


    Corona structures and processes during the pre-impulsive stage of solar eruption are crucial to understanding the physics leading to the subsequent explosive energy release. Here we present the first microwave imaging study of a hot flux rope structure during the pre-impulsive stage of an eruptive M7.7 solar flare, with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. The flux rope is also observed by the SDO/AIA in its hot passbands of 94 and 131 Å. In the microwave data, it is revealed as an overall arcade-like structure consisting of several intensity enhancements bridged by generally weak emissions, with brightness temperatures (T{sub B}) varying from ∼10,000 K to ∼20,000 K. Locations of microwave intensity enhancements along the structure remain relatively fixed at certain specific parts of the flux rope, indicating that the distribution of emitting electrons is affected by the large-scale magnetic configuration of the twisted flux rope. Wavelet analysis shows a pronounced 2 minute period of the microwave T{sub B} variation during the pre-impulsive stage of interest. The period agrees well with that reported for AIA sunward-contracting loops and upward ejective plasmoids (suggested to be reconnection outflows). This suggests that both periodicities are controlled by the same reconnection process that takes place intermittently at a 2 minute timescale. We infer that at least a part of the emission is excited by non-thermal energetic electrons via the gyro-synchrotron mechanism. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave imaging in exploring the flux rope magnetic geometry and relevant reconnection process during the onset of solar eruption.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a organogênese de macieira (Malus sp, após a obtenção de calo por meio de explantes de folhas do porta-enxerto M.7 multiplicado in vitro. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultura de Tecidos da Embrapa Clima Temperado, utilizando folhas com a superfície abaxial e adaxial em contato com o meio, com ou sem escarificação; associados às citocininas Benzilaminopurina (BAP e Forchlorfenuron (CPPU na concentração de 5mM. Utilizou-se o meio básico MS acrescido de sacarose (30 g.L-1 , mio-inositol (100 mg.L-1 e ágar (6 g.L-1, além do regulador de crescimento Ácido Naftalenoácetico (ANA 0,5mM. Os tratamentos permaneceram por três semanas no escuro sob temperatura ambiente, o que propiciou 100% de formação de calos, sendo em seguida submetidos a fotoperíodo de 16 horas com intensidade luminosa de 20 mE.m-2.s-1 e temperatura de 25 ± 2ºC. Os explantes escarificados proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo do que a utilização de explantes intatos. Explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionaram maior intensidade de calo, independentemente de o meio conter BAP ou CPPU. O uso da escarificação, associado ao CPPU, promoveu uma maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar. A superior regeneração de calos foi alcançada em condição de superfície abaxial do disco foliar associado ao CPPU. Portanto, o uso de explantes escarificados com a superfície abaxial em contato com o meio proporcionou aumento da intensidade de calo. O uso do explante escarificado em meio contendo CPPU proporcionou maior intensidade de calo, independentemente da superfície do disco foliar em contato com o meio.

  18. Updated Rupture Model for the M7.8 October 28, 2012, Haida Gwaii Earthquake as Constrained by GPS-Observed Displacements (United States)

    Nykolaishen, L.; Dragert, H.; Wang, K.; James, T. S.; de Lange Boom, B.; Schmidt, M.; Sinnott, D.


    The M7.8 low-angle thrust earthquake off the west coast of southern Haida Gwaii on October 28, 2012, provided Canadian scientists the opportunity to study a local large thrust earthquake and has provided important information towards an improved understanding of geohazards in coastal British Columbia. Most large events along the Pacific-North America boundary in this region have involved strike-slip motion, such as the 1949 M8.1 earthquake on the Queen Charlotte Fault. In contrast along the southern portion of Haida Gwaii, the young (~8 Ma) Pacific plate crust also underthrusts North America and has been viewed as a small-scale analogy of the Cascadia Subduction Zone. Initial seismic-based rupture models for this event were improved through inclusion of GPS observed coseismic displacements, which are as large as 115 cm of horizontal motion (SSW) and 30 cm of subsidence. Additional campaign-style GPS surveys have since been repeated by the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) at seven vertical reference benchmarks throughout Haida Gwaii, significantly improving the coverage of coseismic displacement observations in the region. These added offsets were typically calculated by differencing a single occupation before and after the earthquake and preliminary displacement estimates are consistent with previous GPS observations from the Geological Survey of Canada. Addition of the CHS coseismic offset estimates may allow direct inversion of the GPS data to derive a purely GPS-based rupture model. To date, cumulative postseismic displacements at six sites indicate up to 6 cm of motion, varying in azimuth between SSW and SE. Preliminary postseismic timeseries curve fitting to date has utilized a double exponential function characteristic of mantle relaxation. The current postseismic trends also suggest afterslip on the deeper plate interface beneath central Haida Gwaii along with possible induced aseismic slip on a deeper segment of the Queen Charlotte Fault located offshore

  19. The Effects of 3-D Velocity Structure on a Finite Fault Inversion of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta Earthquake (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.


    Several excellent studies on finite fault source of the 1989 M 7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake have been completed using different data sets and approaches (Beroza, 1991; Hartzell et al., 1991; Steidl et al., 1991; Wald, et al., 1991). Most of these studies find low slip in the hypocentral region and a bimodal distribution of slip with respect to the hypocenter. The seismic moment ranges from 2.3x1019 to 3.5x1019 N-m, spanning approximately the same range determined teleseismically at longer periods. In addition to the similarities, the differences in these models were also indicated by Beroza (1995). The location of the high-slip areas and, specially, the rake differs among these models. The lateral variations in velocity structure may be one important effect causing the differences among the source models. To address this problem, we determine a finite fault source model for the Loma Prieta earthquake through the inversion of ground motion using 3D Green's functions. We used the 3D crustal model recently developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (Brocher et al., 1997) and a 3D viscoelastic finite-difference method (Liu and Archuleta, 1999) to compute the Green's functions. The data from 16 three-component stations and Green's functions are band-passed between 0.05-1.0 Hz. A global inversion algorithm (Liu and Archuleta, 2001) is employed to solve for the two components of fault slip, rise time, rupture time and the shape of source function for each subfault. In the inversion process we limit the time window to the direct P and S waves to mitigate the influence of the uncertainties in the 3D-velocity structure on later arrivals. We also perform another inversion using 1-D synthetic Green's functions. To insure that the inversion results are comparable, both inversions will use exactly same procedure, data, source parameterization and constraint conditions. By quantitatively comparing spatial distributions of source parameters and the fit between the data and the

  20. Ionospheric anomalies related to the (M = 7.3), August 27, 2012, Puerto earthquake, (M = 6.8), August 30, 2012 Jan Mayen Island earthquake, and (M = 7.6), August 31, 2012, Philippines earthquake: two-dimensional principal component analysis. (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Woei


    Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to examine the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data during the time period from 00:00 on August 21 to 12: 45 on August 31 (UT), which are 10 days before the M = 7.6 Philippines earthquake at 12:47:34 on August 31, 2012 (UT) with the depth at 34.9 km. From the results by using 2DPCA, a TEC precursor of Philippines earthquake is found during the time period from 4:25 to 4:40 on August 28, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 15 minutes. Another earthquake-related TEC anomaly is detectable for the time period from 04:35 to 04:40 on August 27, 2012 (UT) with the duration time of at least 5 minutes during the Puerto earthquake at 04: 37:20 on August 27, 2012 (UT) (M(w) = 7.3) with the depth at 20.3 km. The precursor of the Puerto earthquake is not detectable. TEC anomaly is not to be found related to the Jan Mayen Island earthquake (M w = 6.8) at 13:43:24 on August 30, 2012 (UT). These earthquake-related TEC anomalies are detectable by using 2DPCA rather than PCA. They are localized nearby the epicenters of the Philippines and Puerto earthquakes.

  1. The Advanced Rapid Imaging and Analysis (ARIA) Project's Response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake: Rapid Measurements and Models for Science and Situational Awareness (United States)

    Owen, S. E.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S. H.; Yue, H.; Polet, J.; Riel, B. V.; Liang, C.; Huang, M. H.; Webb, F.; Simons, M.; Moore, A. W.; Agram, P. S.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hua, H.; Liu, Z.; Milillo, P.; Sacco, G. F.; Rosen, P. A.; Manipon, G.


    On April 25, 2015, the M7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal and the city of Kathmandu. The quake caused a significant humanitarian crisis and killed more than 8,000 due to widespread building damage and triggered landslides throughout the region. This was the strongest earthquake to occur in the region since the 1934 Nepal-Bihar magnitude 8.0 quake caused more than 10,000 fatalities. In the days following the earthquake, the JPL/Caltech ARIA project produced coseismic GPS and SAR displacements, fault slip models, and damage assessments from SAR coherence change that were helpful in both understanding the event and in the response efforts. The ARIA project produced InSAR observations from two new SAR missions - JAXA's ALOS-2 and ESA's Sentinel 1a. The GPS coseismic displacements showed ~1.8 meters of southward motion and ~1.3 meters of uplift in Kathmandu. InSAR images of the displacement field and fault models show that the rupture extended 135 km southeast of the epicenter. The SAR imagery also confirmed that the fault slip did not extend to the surface, though localized offsets formed due to liquefaction. The GPS and SAR analysis has continued to image the large M7.3 aftershock and postseismic deformation. The damage assessments from coherence change were used by several organizations guiding the response effort, including the NGA, the World Bank, and OFDA/USAID. We will present imaging, modeling, and damage assessment results from the recent April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake in Nepal, and its largest aftershock, a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015. We also discuss how these data were used for understanding the event, guiding the response, and for educational outreach.

  2. A short note on ground-motion recordings from the M 7.9 Wenchuan, China, earthquake and ground-motion prediction equations in the Central and Eastern United States (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, M.


    The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M 7.9) occurred along the western edge of the eastern China SCR and was well recorded by modern strong-motion instruments: 93 strong-motion stations within 1.4 to 300 km rupture distance recorded the main event. Preliminary comparisons show some similarities between ground-motion attenuation in the Wenchuan region and the central and eastern United States, suggesting that ground motions from the Wenchuan earthquake could be used as a database providing constraints for developing GMPEs for large earthquakes in the central and eastern United States.

  3. A Short Term Seismic Hazard Assessment in Christchurch, New Zealand, After the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield Earthquake: An Application of a Smoothing Kernel and Rate-and-State Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Han Chan


    Full Text Available The Mw 6.3, 21 February 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand, earthquake is regarded as an aftershock of the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake. However, it caused severe damage in the downtown Christchurch. Such a circumstance points out the importance of an aftershock sequence in seismic hazard evaluation and suggests the re-evaluation of a seismic hazard immediately after a large earthquake occurrence. For this purpose, we propose a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA, which takes the disturbance of a short-term seismicity rate into account and can be easily applied in comparison with the classical PSHA. In our approach, the treatment of the background seismicity rate is the same as in the zoneless approach, which considers a bandwidth function as a smoothing Kernel in neighboring region of earthquakes. The rate-and-state friction model imparted by the Coulomb stress change of large earthquakes is used to calculate the fault-interaction-based disturbance in seismicity rate for PSHA. We apply this approach to evaluate the seismic hazard in Christchurch after the occurrence of the M 7.1, 4 September 2010 Darfield earthquake. Results show an increase of seismic hazards due to the stress increase in the region around the rupture plane, which extended to Christchurch. This provides a suitable basis for the application of a time-dependent PSHA using updating earthquake information.

  4. Depth-dependence of post-seismic velocity changes in and near source area of the 2013 M7.0 Lushan earthquake revealed by S coda of repeating events (United States)

    Li, Le


    I investigated postseismic velocity changes within focal area of the 2013 M7.0 Lushan earthquake using coda-wave data of repeating small earthquakes. I employed template matching and grid search methods to identify well-defined repeating earthquakes in order to minimize artifacts induced by variations in source location. I identified a total of 3 isolated patches in a two-month period after the M7.0 mainshock. I applied the coda wave interferometry technique to the waveform data of the identified repeating earthquakes to estimate velocity changes between the first and subsequent events in each cluster. Up to 0.1-0.2% velocity increase is observed from the S coda of repeating events occurred at regions surrounding the large coseismic slip area at seismogenic depths. My observations suggest that a large percent of velocity changes may occur at surface near the stations or shallow, however, healing along the propagation paths in the deep ( 5-20 km) is likely have contributed to the amount of velocity changes observed after the Lushan earthquake.

  5. Behavior of the monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO{sub 2}){sub 4}(WO{sub 3}){sub 2m} (m = 7 and 8) in the course of electrochemical lithium insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-de la Cruz, A. [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Longoria Rodriguez, F.E.; Gonzalez, Lucy T. [Departamento de Quimica, Unidad de Cursos Basicos, Nucleo Monagas, UDO, Av Universidad Los Guaritos, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela); Torres-Martinez, Leticia M. [Facultad de Ingenieria Civil, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av Universidad s/n, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico)


    The electrochemical lithium insertion process has been studied in the family of monophosphate tungsten bronzes (PO{sub 2}){sub 4}(WO{sub 3}){sub 2m}, where m = 7 and 8. Structural changes in the pristine oxides were followed as lithium insertion proceeded. Through potentiostatic intermittent technique the different processes which take place in the cathode during the discharge of the cell were analyzed. The nature of the bronzes Li{sub x}(PO{sub 2}){sub 4}(WO{sub 3}){sub 2m} formed was determined by in situ X-ray diffraction experiments. These results have allowed establishing a correlation with the reversible/irreversible processes detected during the electrochemical lithium insertion. (author)

  6. Nematode m7GpppG and m3(2,2,7)GpppG decapping: activities in Ascaris embryos and characterization of C. elegans scavenger DcpS. (United States)

    Cohen, Leah S; Mikhli, Claudette; Friedman, Cassandra; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E


    A spliced leader contributes the mature 5'ends of many mRNAs in trans-splicing organisms. Trans-spliced metazoan mRNAs acquire an m3(2,2,7)GpppN cap from the added spliced leader exon. The presence of these caps, along with the typical m7GpppN cap on non-trans-spliced mRNAs, requires that cellular mRNA cap-binding proteins and mRNA metabolism deal with different cap structures. We have developed and used an in vitro system to examine mRNA degradation and decapping activities in nematode embryo extracts. The predominant pathway of mRNA decay is a 3' to 5' pathway with exoribonuclease degradation of the RNA followed by hydrolysis of resulting mRNA cap by a scavenger (DcpS-like) decapping activity. Direct decapping of mRNA by a Dcp1/Dcp2-like activity does occur, but is approximately 15-fold less active than the 3' to 5' pathway. The DcpS-like activity in nematode embryo extracts hydrolyzes both m7GpppG and m3(2,2,7)GpppG dinucleoside triphosphates. The Dcp1/Dcp2-like activity in extracts also hydrolyzes these two cap structures at the 5' ends of RNAs. Interestingly, recombinant nematode DcpS differs from its human ortholog in its substrate length requirement and in its capacity to hydrolyze m3(2,2,7)GpppG. Copyright 2004 RNA Society

  7. 3D Displacements in the 7 December, 2015 M7.2 Murghob, Tajikistan Earthquake, from Optical Imagery, Stereo Topography, and InSAR, and Constraints on the 1911 Sarez Event (United States)

    Elliott, A. J.; Parsons, B.; Elliott, J. R.; Hollingsworth, J.


    Overtopping of the Usoi landslide dam, formed in 1911 during a poorly understood major earthquake in the Pamirs, represents one of the greatest natural hazards in Central Asia. On 7 Dec, 2015 a M7.2 earthquake struck the site, however it apparently differed in source location and landslide productivity from the 1911 M7.2 event. We measure the displacement field of the 2015 earthquake using the full gamut of space-based imaging techniques, revealing left-lateral offset along 60 km of the SSW-striking Karakul-Sarez fault (KSF), and numerous coseismic landslides. Sentinel-1 interferograms reveal up to 1.5 m of left-lateral surface displacement along 40 km of the KSF, with an additional 10-15 km of buried, blind rupture at both ends. This matches the extent of the dislocation we determine from pixel-tracking of pre- and post-event Landsat-8 scenes. Both of these far-field deformation maps indicate that the rupture ended northward around a 3-km step in the fault trace, and southward beneath Sarez Lake. Direct comparison of pre- and post-event SPOT6/7 images shows discontinuous new scarps and small stream offsets along 30 km of the KSF from the shore of Sarez Lake northward, corroborating this surface rupture extent. We difference pre- and post-event topography derived from the tristereo SPOT images, and thus identify throughgoing strike-slip rupture as the differential lateral advection of steep ridges. Our detailed height-change maps also reveal numerous landslides that may be attributed to the earthquake. In particular, massive slope failures around the shore of Sarez Lake indicate that overtopping of the Usoi dam by a landslide-induced seiche remains one of the principal secondary seismic hazards in the region. Our remote sensing of the 2015 rupture shows that it occupies the least recently ruptured reach of the KSF. To the north fresh scarps and a clear moletrack evident in pre-event imagery represent the prior event, the extent of which does not overlap the 2015

  8. A Search for Coronal Emission at the Bottom of the Main-Sequence: Stars and Brown Dwarf Candidates with Spectral Types Later than M7 and the Rotation-Activity Relation (United States)

    Stringfellow, Guy


    This program intended to test whether the lowest mass stars at the bottom end of the main sequence and the lower mass brown dwarfs have coronae. If they have coronae, what are the coronal characteristics and what drives them? In the classical dynamo picture, the closed magnetic loop structure is generated near the boundary of the convective envelope and the radiative core. Stars with mass below 0.30 Msun however are fully convective, and the nature of the dynamo responsible for the generation of the coronae in this regime is poorly understood. Previous results from the ROSAT mission (e.g., Fleming et al. 1993, 1995; Schmitt et al. 1995) had confirmed three very important characteristics of M-star coronae: (1) a very high percentage of all M dwarfs have coronae (of order 85% in the local 7 pc sample), (2) those M dwarfs showing high chromospheric activity, such as having the Balmer series in emission or large/numerous optical flaring, indeed exhibit the highest coronal activity, and (3) that the maximum saturation boundary in X-ray luminosity, which amounts to 0.0001-0.001 for Lx/Lbol for the dMe stars, extends down to the current detection limit, through spectral types M7. It was likely that the incompleteness noted for result (1) above was simply a detection limit problem; for more distant sources, the X-ray fainter dM stars will drop below detection thresholds before the more X-ray luminous dMe stars. The latest stars for which direct detection of the corona had been successful were of spectral type dM7 (e.g., VB8, LHS 3003). This program proposed to obtain ROSAT HRI observations for a large number of the coolest known (at that time) stars at the bottom of the main-sequence, which had spectral types of M9 or later. Three stars were approved for observations with ROSAT-HRI totaling 180 ksec. The goal was to obtain X-ray detections or low upper limits for the three approved stars.

  9. Bringing science from the top of the world to the rest of the world: using video to describe earthquake research in Nepal following the devastating 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake (United States)

    Karplus, M. S.; Barajas, A.; Garibay, L.


    In response to the April 25, 2015 M7.8 earthquake on the Main Himalayan Thrust in Nepal, NSF Geosciences funded a rapid seismological response project entitled NAMASTE (Nepal Array Measuring Aftershock Seismicity Trailing Earthquake). This project included the deployment, maintenance, and demobilization of a network of 45 temporary seismic stations from June 2015 to May 2016. During the demobilization of the seismic network, video footage was recorded to tell the story of the NAMASTE team's seismic research in Nepal using short movies. In this presentation, we will describe these movies and discuss our strategies for effectively communicating this research to both the academic and general public with the goals of promoting earthquake hazards and international awareness and inspiring enthusiasm about learning and participating in science research. For example, an initial screening of these videos took place for an Introduction to Geology class at the University of Texas at El Paso to obtain feedback from approximately 100 first-year students with only a basic geology background. The feedback was then used to inform final cuts of the video suitable for a range of audiences, as well as to help guide future videography of field work. The footage is also being cut into a short, three-minute video to be featured on the website of The University of Texas at El Paso, home to several of the NAMASTE team researchers.

  10. Interpretation of earthquake-induced landslides triggered by the 12 May 2008, M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the Beichuan area, Sichuan Province, China using satellite imagery and Google Earth (United States)

    Sato, H.P.; Harp, E.L.


    The 12 May 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake in the People's Republic of China represented a unique opportunity for the international community to use commonly available GIS (Geographic Information System) tools, like Google Earth (GE), to rapidly evaluate and assess landslide hazards triggered by the destructive earthquake and its aftershocks. In order to map earthquake-triggered landslides, we provide details on the applicability and limitations of publicly available 3-day-post- and pre-earthquake imagery provided by GE from the FORMOSAT-2 (formerly ROCSAT-2; Republic of China Satellite 2). We interpreted landslides on the 8-m-resolution FORMOSAT-2 image by GE; as a result, 257 large landslides were mapped with the highest concentration along the Beichuan fault. An estimated density of 0.3 landslides/km2 represents a minimum bound on density given the resolution of available imagery; higher resolution data would have identified more landslides. This is a preliminary study, and further study is needed to understand the landslide characteristics in detail. Although it is best to obtain landslide locations and measurements from satellite imagery having high resolution, it was found that GE is an effective and rapid reconnaissance tool. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  11. B4 2 After, 3D Deformation Field From Matching Pre- To Post-Event Aerial LiDAR Point Clouds, The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah M7.2 Earthquake Case (United States)

    Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Nissen, E.; Limon-Tirado, J. F.; Arrowsmith, R.; Krishnan, A.; Saripalli, S.; Oskin, M. E.; Glennie, C. L.; Arregui, S. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O. J.


    Aerial LiDAR surveys reconstruct with amazing fidelity the sinuosity of terrain relief. In this research we explore the 3D deformation field at the surface after a big earthquake (M7.2) by comparing pre- to post-event aerial LiDAR point clouds. The April 4 2010 earthquake produced a NW-SE surface rupture ~110km long with right-lateral normal slip up to 3m in magnitude over a very favorable target: scarcely vegetated and unaltered desert mountain range, sierras El Mayor and Cucapah, in northern Baja California, close to the US-México border. It is a plate boundary region between the Pacific and North American plates. The pre-event LiDAR with lower point density (0.013-0.033 pts m-2) required filtering and post-processing before comparing with the denser (9-18 pts m-2) more accurate post event dataset. The 3D surface displacement field was determined using an adaptation of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm, implemented in the open source Point Cloud Library (PCL). The LiDAR datasets are first split into a grid of windows, and for each one, ICP iteratively converges on the rigid body transformation (comprising translations and rotations) that best aligns the pre- to post-event points. Perturbing the pre- and post-event point clouds independently with a synthetic right lateral inverse displacements of known magnitude along a proposed fault, ICP recovered the synthetically introduced translations. Windows with dimensions of 100-200m gave the best results for datasets with these densities. The simplified surface rupture photo interpreted and mapped in the field, delineates very well the vertical displacements patterns unveiled by ICP. The method revealed block rotations, some with clockwise and others counter clockwise direction along the simplified surface rupture. As ground truth, displacements from ICP have similar values as those measured in the field along the main rupture by Fletcher and collaborators. The vertical component was better estimated than the

  12. A New Ensemble-Based Method for Assessing Uncertainties and Parameter Tradeoffs in Complex Models of Postseismic Deformation: Application to the 2010 M=7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake (United States)

    Rollins, C.; Barbot, S.; Avouac, J. P.


    The 2010 M=7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurred in the Salton Trough, a region of thinned lithosphere and high heat flow, and the postseismic deformation following this earthquake presents a unique opportunity to study the rheology of extensional environments and the mechanics of ductile flow within and beneath the lithosphere. Previous work [Rollins et al, in prep.] revealed that GPS timeseries of surface displacement following the earthquake were well fit to a coupled model simulating stress-driven afterslip on the deep extension of the coseismic rupture, Newtonian viscoelastic relaxation in a low-viscosity zone in the lower crust of the Salton Trough aligned with areas of high heat flow, and Newtonian viscoelastic relaxation in a three-dimensional asthenosphere with geometry matching that of the regional lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary inferred from receiver functions. Extending the success of this model to a robust interpretation of the mechanics of deformation at depth requires a better understanding of uncertainties and trade-offs between parameters (depth of the brittle-ductile transition, viscosities of the lower crust and asthenosphere, geometry of viscosity anomalies in the Salton Trough, frictional parameters of the possible downdip extensions of the coseismic rupture, and correlations among these parameters). We will show results from recent work that uses a newly developed method to efficiently explore this model space in a Bayesian sense. The method employs the Neighborhood Algorithm of Sambridge [1999], which makes use of Voronoi cells to optimize the search in the model space, samples regions that contains models of acceptable data fit, and extracts robust information from the ensemble of models obtained. The method is particularly well suited to identify a class of models that fit geodetic data approximately equally well, allowing us to present and discuss a range of possible deformation mechanisms. This method can be applied to any study of

  13. Precise Relocation of the Northern Extent of the Aftershock Sequence Following the 4 April 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake Kayla A. Kroll (UCR) and Elizabeth S. Cochran (UCR) (United States)

    Kroll, K.; Cochran, E. S.


    Following the 4 April 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake, teams from UC Riverside, UC Santa Barbara, and San Diego State University installed an array of 8 temporary seismometers in the Yuha Desert area north of the Mexican border. This temporary array complemented the existing network stations and continuously recorded data from the aftershock sequence from 6 April through 14 June 2010. SCSN and the temporary aftershock array data will be used to study several aspects of fault structure and behavior, including precise relocation of the aftershock sequence. While the mainshock sequence ruptured multiple fault strands west of the Cerro Prieto fault, and south of the Sierra Cucapah Range, the aftershocks are densely clustered in three areas. The largest cluster is located to the northwest of the mainshock, in an area with no previously mapped faults. By relocating aftershocks, we hope to illuminate the network of faults that extend from the Laguna Salada fault in Mexico to its northern extension towards the Elsinore and San Jacinto faults. Right-lateral displacements up to 2 cm were identified on several right- and left-lateral fault segments by the USGS/CGS geologists in the area south of Hwy 98, and into the Pinto Wash (Treiman et al., personal communication, 2010). We relocate aftershocks within a 20 km by 14 km region containing 1 network and 8 temporary stations. Within this region over 4,000 aftershocks are in the SCEDC catalog from 6 April to 14 June 2010, during the time the temporary network was installed. The P and S wave arrival times for both the network and temporary stations were manually picked for each of these events. We compute the double difference hypocenter locations using the picked phase arrivals and waveform cross-correlations in the hypocenter relocation program, hypoDD (Waldhauser & Ellsworth 2000). In the event relocation, we used the velocity profile for the Imperial Valley from the SCEC Unified Velocity Model (Version 4). Future work

  14. Preliminary Analysis of Mobile Observation Records for the Aftershocks in the Yushu M7.1 Earthquake%玉树7.1级地震强震动流动观测记录初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秀丰; 张璇; 姚凯; 张晓芳; 蒲举


    2010年4月14日青海省玉树藏族自治州玉树县发生 M7.1地震。震后在地震现场架设了7台强震动流动观测仪,记录了大量强震动记录。本文收集整理了该次流动观测所获得的强震动记录,对典型记录进行了初步处理,并对记录特点和相关问题进行了分析与讨论。%The Yushu M7.1 earthquake occurred on April 14,2010 in Yushu,the Tibetan autono-mous prefecture of the Qinghai province (E 96.7°,N 33.1°).After the earthquake,we set up seven strong motion mobile observation instruments around the epicenter.As of October 15, 2010,we had captured 71 seismic events and a total of 213 acceleration records,with the maximum magnitude of M4.6.In these records,there were 10 records whose peak ground acceleration was greater than 30 gal,and the maximum peak ground acceleration was 122 gal.The waveform of re-cords was clear and complete,which makes up for the lack of fixed stations and local records near the earthquake zone.It not only offered the quantitative evidence for analysis of the earthquake damage,but also provided important data for the study of the relationship among the peak ground motion,holding time,the spectrum,and macro-seismic intensity.In this paper,we collected and preliminarily processed these records and obtained the speed schedule,Fourier spectrum,and the power spectrum,then analyzed and discussed the recording features and related issues.The results showed that (1)the maximum peak ground acceleration in this mobile observation was 122 gal, and the holding time of vibration was about 5 seconds,with a frequency of 7.2 Hz.This record came from a M3.6 aftershock,and it indicated that a small earthquake may also obtain high peak acceleration.This would appear to be the opposite phenomenon of a high vibration peak with low seismic intensity.In fact,there were many major projects located in the area which had small seismicity background.With the increasing coverage of observation stations

  15. Coseismic Deformations Associated with the M=7.2, April 04, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake, Observed from Leveling Survey, Geotechnical Instruments and Water Level Changes in the Mexicali Valley (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Robles, B.; Vázquez, R.; Sarychikhina, O.; Suárez-Vidal, F.; Ramirez, J.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Diaz de Cossio, G.


    A first order, second class leveling survey in the Mexicali Valley had been just finished in February 2010, for a project carried out by CICESE (Center for Scientific Research and Higher Education of Ensenada), IMTA (Mexican Institute of Water Technology) and CONAGUA (National Water Comission). Immediately after the M=7.2 earthquake the survey was repeated along 240 km of the profiles in the area of the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin. The leveling started at the LN00 GPS monument in La Puerta. Overall, an uplift of about 30 cm towards the NE, along the 38 km line, in direction SW-NE is observed with larger gradient to the South of the area. Three subsidence bowls differ from this general pattern. One, south from Ejido Saltillo, with the relative subsidence of 19 cm (considering the displacement at LN00 as zero subsidence), probably reflects subsidence of the Saltillo-Guerrero graben; the second, with a subsidence of 23 cm, is situated south from Ejido Nuevo Leon and can be related to the subsidence triggered by the earthquake in the production area of Cerro Prieto IV. For the third one, with relative depth of 36 cm, situated close to Zacamoto, the southeastern limit cannot be determined, so only a comparison with other methods can explain the origin of this anomaly. All the subsidence bowls are associated with liquefaction observed in the area, with more liquefaction observed close to Zacamoto. Since 1996, CICESE has been operating a network of geotechnical instruments (REDECVAM) for continuous recording of deformation related to tectonic (seismic and interseismic) phenomena, as well as anthropogenic deformation caused by the deep fluid extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field. The instruments are installed along the faults which limit the Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin at a distance from 8 to 15 km from the epicenter. Coseismic step-like groundwater level changes ranging from 0.4 to 5.0 meters were recorded at 4 wells in the Cerro Prieto Pull apart

  16. The highly polymorphic CYP6M7 cytochrome P450 gene partners with the directionally selected CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b genes to expand the pyrethroid resistance front in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus in Africa. (United States)

    Riveron, Jacob M; Ibrahim, Sulaiman S; Chanda, Emmanuel; Mzilahowa, Themba; Cuamba, Nelson; Irving, Helen; Barnes, Kayla G; Ndula, Miranda; Wondji, Charles S


    Pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus is rapidly expanding across Southern Africa. It remains unknown whether this resistance has a unique origin with the same molecular basis or is multifactorial. Knowledge of the origin, mechanisms and evolution of resistance are crucial to designing successful resistance management strategies. Here, we established the resistance profile of a Zambian An. funestus population at the northern range of the resistance front. Similar to other Southern African populations, Zambian An. funestus mosquitoes are resistant to pyrethroids and carbamate, but in contrast to populations in Mozambique and Malawi, these insects are also DDT resistant. Genome-wide microarray-based transcriptional profiling and qRT-PCR revealed that the cytochrome P450 gene CYP6M7 is responsible for extending pyrethroid resistance northwards. Indeed, CYP6M7 is more over-expressed in Zambia [fold-change (FC) 37.7; 13.2 for qRT-PCR] than CYP6P9a (FC15.6; 8.9 for qRT-PCR) and CYP6P9b (FC11.9; 6.5 for qRT-PCR), whereas CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b are more highly over-expressed in Malawi and Mozambique. Transgenic expression of CYP6M7 in Drosophila melanogaster coupled with in vitro assays using recombinant enzymes and assessments of kinetic properties demonstrated that CYP6M7 is as efficient as CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b in conferring pyrethroid resistance. Polymorphism patterns demonstrate that these genes are under contrasting selection forces: the exceptionally diverse CYP6M7 likely evolves neutrally, whereas CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b are directionally selected. The higher variability of CYP6P9a and CYP6P9b observed in Zambia supports their lesser role in resistance in this country. Pyrethroid resistance in Southern Africa probably has multiple origins under different evolutionary forces, which may necessitate the design of different resistance management strategies.

  17. Optimization of culture medium for rhamnolipid producing bacterial strain M7-6 under simulated oil reservoirs conditions%鼠李糖脂产生菌M76在模拟油藏条件下的培养基优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超; 赵峰; 郑甜甜; 史荣久; 韩斯琴; 崔庆峰; 张颖


    基于已筛选出的鼠李糖脂产生菌M76,在模拟油藏条件(温度、pH、矿化度及缺氧)下,对该菌株的激活剂配方进行了碳源、氮源、碳氮比( C/N)、无机盐等因素的优化,并考察了该菌株在模拟油藏条件下的最佳接种量;利用厌氧发酵罐对菌株M76进行了扩大培养,评价菌M76的原位代谢活性及与其他微生物类群的竞争作用。结果表明:以甘油为碳源、硝酸盐为氮源、C/N为14.4∶1时,最利于菌株M76在模拟油藏条件下生产鼠李糖脂,最小接种量为1%(体积分数)。在厌氧发酵罐中,菌株M76可以将培养体系的表面张力降至38.4 mN/m;并且体系中烃降解菌和产酸菌数量有所增加,而硫酸盐还原菌数逐渐减少。%Based on a rhamnolipid producing bacterial strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa M7⁃6, medium (carbon source,nitrogen source,C/N ratio,and mineral factors) was optimized for efficiently producing rhamnolipid under simulated oil reservoir conditions( temperature,pH and absence of oxygen) . Using the optimized medium,effect of different inoculums amount on anaerobic production of rhamnolipid by M7⁃6 was studied. Strain M7⁃6 was cultured in a 6⁃L anaerobic fermentor using oilfield production water to prepare medium,to evaluate the rhamnolipid production by M7⁃6 under simulated conditions and study the competitive activity of M7⁃6 with other native microorganisms. M7⁃6 could efficiently produce rhamnolipid under simulated conditions with glycerol as carbon source and nitrate as nitrogen source.The optimum C/N ratio is 14. 4∶1,and the least inoculums amount is 1%(V/V).Strain M7⁃6 can reduce surface tension of culture system to 38. 4 mN/m in the anaerobic fermenter.Moreover,the numbers of oil degrading bacteria and acid producing bacteria were increased, and the number of sulfate reducing bacteria was decreased.

  18. A molecular modelling approach to understand the effect of co-evolutionary mutations (V344M, I354L) identified in the PB2 subunit of influenza A 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus on m7GTP ligand binding. (United States)

    Bhoye, Dipali; Behera, Abhisek Kumar; Cherian, Sarah S


    The cap binding domain of the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) subunit of influenza polymerases plays a critical role in mediating the 'cap-snatching' mechanism by binding the 5' cap of host pre-mRNAs during viral mRNA transcription. Monitoring variations in the PB2 protein is thus vital for evaluating the pathogenic potential of the virus. Based on selection pressure analysis of PB2 gene sequences of the pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) viruses of the period 2009-2014, we identified a site, 344V/M, in the vicinity of the cap binding pocket showing evidence of adaptive evolution and another co-evolving residue, 354I/L, in close vicinity. Modelling of the three-dimensional structure of the pH1N1 PB2 cap binding domain, docking of the pre-mRNA cap analogue m7GTP and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the docked complexes performed for four PB2 variants observed showed that the complex possessing V344M with I354L possessed better ligand binding affinity due to additional hydrogen bond contacts between m7GTP and the key residues His432 and Arg355 that was attributed to a displacement of the 424 loop and a flip of the side chain of Arg355, respectively. The co-evolutionary mutations identified (V344M, I354L) were found to be established in the PB2 gene of the pH1N1 viral population over the period 2010-2014. The study demonstrates the molecular basis for the enhanced m7GTP ligand binding affinity with the 344M-354L synergistic combination in PB2. Furthermore, the insight gained into understanding the molecular mechanism of cap binding in pH1N1 viruses may be useful for designing novel drugs targeting the PB2 cap binding domain.

  19. Analyzing the emergency mode of the Earthquake Emergency Response Administration during the 2013 M7 . 0 Lushan Earthquake%四川省地震应急指挥中心在芦山7.0级地震中应急模式分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 范开红; 郭红梅; 唐姝娅; 陈维锋


    According to the present technique condition,a systematic,scientific and regular scheme and response mode is very important for the earthquake emergency response administration to increase the relieving speed,the communication ability and the news service level for earthquake disaster information. In this paper we analyze the experiences got from the 2013 M7 . 0 Lushan Earthquake and bring about the emergency mode of the Earthquake E-mergency Response Administration,which includes four periods that is the preparation before an earthquake,the e-mergency response after an earthquake,dealing with matters after an earthquake and the restoring & re-building.%在现有技术储备条件上,科学、规范的流程和应急服务模式是地震应急指挥中心提高响应速度、提升震灾情信息和应急通信保障服务能力投资小、见效快的方式之一。本文对“4·20”芦山7.0级强烈地震实战经验进行分析总结,提出围绕震前准备期、震时应急期、应急处置期和恢复重建期四个阶段的地震应急指挥中心应急模式。

  20. 76 FR 1996 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Fairchild Aircraft... (United States)


    ... SA227-TT airplanes, all serial numbers, that are certificated in any category. Subject (d) Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code 5610, Flight Compartment..., Attn: Information Collection Clearance Officer, AES-200. AD 2011-02-04 Airplane Model Number/Serial...

  1. Localized damage caused by topographic amplification during the 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Altidor, J.R.; Anglade, D.; Given, D.; Janvier, M.G.; Maharrey, J.Z.; Meremonte, M.; Mildor, B.S.-L.; Prepetit, C.; Yong, A.


    Local geological conditions, including both near-surface sedimentary layers and topographic features, are known to significantly influence ground motions caused by earthquakes. Microzonation maps use local geological conditions to characterize seismic hazard, but commonly incorporate the effect of only sedimentary layers. Microzonation does not take into account local topography, because significant topographic amplification is assumed to be rare. Here we show that, although the extent of structural damage in the 2010 Haiti earthquake was primarily due to poor construction, topographic amplification contributed significantly to damage in the district of Petionville, south of central Port-au-Prince. A large number of substantial, relatively well-built structures situated along a foothill ridge in this district sustained serious damage or collapse. Using recordings of aftershocks, we calculate the ground motion response at two seismic stations along the topographic ridge and at two stations in the adjacent valley. Ground motions on the ridge are amplified relative to both sites in the valley and a hard-rock reference site, and thus cannot be explained by sediment-induced amplification. Instead, the amplitude and predominant frequencies of ground motion indicate the amplification of seismic waves by a narrow, steep ridge. We suggest that microzonation maps can potentially be significantly improved by incorporation of topographic effects. ?? 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  2. Seismic quiescence precursors to two M7 earthquakes on Sakhalin Island, measured by two methods (United States)

    Wyss, Max; Sobolev, Gennady; Clippard, James D.


    Two large earthquakes occurred during the last decade on Sakhalin Island, the M w 7.6 Neftegorskoe earthquake of 27 May 1995 and the M w 6.8 Uglegorskoe earthquake of 4 August 2000, in the north and south of the island, respectively. Only about five seismograph stations record earthquakes along the 1000 km, mostly strike-slip plate boundary that transects the island from north to south. In spite of that, it was possible to investigate seismicity patterns of the last two to three decades quantitatively. We found that in, and surrounding, their source volumes, both of these main shocks were preceded by periods of pronounced seismic quiescence, which lasted 2.5 ± 0.5 years. The distances to which the production of earthquakes was reduced reached several hundred kilometers. The probability that these periods of anomalously low seismicity occurred by chance is estimated to be about 1% to 2%. These conclusions were reached independently by the application of two methods, which are based on different approaches. The RTL-algorithm measures the level of seismic activity in moving time windows by counting the number of earthquakes, weighted by their size, and inversely weighted by their distance, in time and space from the point of observation. The Z-mapping approach measures the difference of the seismicity rate, within moving time windows, to the background rate by the standard deviate Z. This generates an array of comparisons that cover all of the available time and space, and that can be searched for all anomalous departures from the normal seismicity rate. The RTL-analysis was based on the original catalog with K-classes measuring the earthquake sizes; the Z-mapping was based on the catalog with Ktransformed into magnitudes. The RTL-analysis started with data from 1980, the Z-mapping technique used the data from 1974 on. In both methods, cylindrical volumes, centered at the respective epicenters, were sampled. The Z-mapping technique additionally investigated the seismicity in about 1000 volumes centered at the nodes of a randomly placed regular grid with node spacing of 20 km. The fact that the two methods yield almost identical results strongly suggests that the observed precursory quiescence anomalies are robust and real. If the seismicity on Sakhalin Island is monitored at a completeness-level an order of magnitude below the present one, then it may be possible to detect future episodes of quiescence in real time.

  3. Biological and Histological Studies of Purified Product from Streptomyces janthinus M7 Metabolites


    Tawfik Zahira S.; El Shikh Hussein H.; Haroun Bakry M.; Yassin Mohamed M.; El Sonbty Sawsan M.; Aman Gaber Zaki; Mahmoud Abd Alwahab M.


    Fifteen clinical samples were taken out from patients suffering cancer, these patients being under the treatment with radio- and/or chemotherapy. The samples were used for the isolation of bacterial cells surrounding tumor; the samples were collected from Center of Cancer Therapy, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt. The clinical bacterial isolates were purified and identified according to Bergey's manual of determinative bacteriology ninth edition (1994). The bacterial isolates were found to ...

  4. Remote triggering of seismicity at Japanese volcanoes following the 2016 M7.3 Kumamoto earthquake (United States)

    Enescu, Bogdan; Shimojo, Kengo; Opris, Anca; Yagi, Yuji


    The MJMA7.3 Kumamoto earthquake occurred on April 16, 2016, in the western part of Kyushu, at a depth of 12 km, on an active strike-slip fault. Here, we report on a relatively widespread activation of small remote earthquakes, which occurred as far as Hokkaido, detected by analyzing the continuous waveform data recorded at seismic stations all over Japan. Such relatively widespread remote seismicity activation, following a large inland earthquake, has not been reported before for Japan. Our analysis demonstrates that the remote events were triggered dynamically, by the passage of the surface waves from the Kumamoto earthquake. Most of the remotely triggered events in the Tohoku and Hokkaido regions, as well as close to Izu Peninsula, occur at or close to volcanoes, which suggests that the excitation of crustal fluids, by the passage of Rayleigh waves, played an important triggering role. Nevertheless, remote activation in other regions, like Noto Peninsula, occurred away from volcanoes. The relatively large-amplitude Love waves, enhanced by a source directivity effect during the Kumamoto earthquake, may have triggered seismicity on local active faults. The dynamic stresses in the areas where remote activation has been observed range from several kPa to tens of kPa, the thresholds being lower than in previous dynamic triggering cases for Japan; this might relate to a change in the crustal conditions following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, in particular at volcanoes in NE Japan.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Different styles of postseismic deformation after the 2013 M7.7 Balochistan earthquake in Pakistan and the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake in Mexico (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Yague-Martinez, N.; Motagh, M.; Gonzalez-Ortega, J. A.; Huang, M. H.; Burgmann, R.; Freed, A. M.; Samsonov, S. V.


    We study postseismic deformation after the Mw 7.7 earthquake in the Balochistan region of western Pakistan on 24 September 2013 and the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake in Baja California of northern Mexico on 4 April 2010. Pakistan InSAR measurements from the German TerraSAR-X (TSX) and Canadian RADARSAT-2 (RS2) satellites include TSX narrow stripmap beams on a descending track, RS2 wide strip modes, and TSX wide-swath ScanSAR images on an ascending track, specially acquired with interferometric alignment of ScanSAR bursts. For the EMC earthquake, InSAR includes Envisat, ALOS, and RS2 satellites and NASA/JPL UAVSAR airborne InSAR, with piece-wise time coverage. Plate Boundary Observatory acquires continuous GPS data and others collect campaign GPS. Interferograms show significant afterslip on both main ruptures in the first weeks and months, not masked by the atmospheric effects. Balochistan shallow afterslip reaches at least 10 cm in 2-4 months in the same area as the largest coseismic slip, but less near the aftershock activity. Rapid afterslip was observed primarily at the ends of the EMC mainshock rupture where the strike changes, with magnitudes up to 30 cm. Large variations of tropospheric water vapor complicate measurement of small long-wavelength deformation so we do time series analysis. We expect viscoelastic relaxation after these two strike-slip earthquakes to differ due to completely opposite tectonic settings: EMC earthquake in the Salton Trough rift and fast-moving strike-slip system, where crust and lithosphere are thin and hot with very shallow asthenosphere, and Balochistan earthquake in the shortening Makran accretional prism with much slower strike-slip deformation rates and cold and thick lithosphere of the subducting Arabian plate directly beneath it, so asthenosphere is much deeper. Studies have found rapid and large viscoelastic relaxation for the EMC quake, but we don't expect measurable relaxation in the Balochistan area in the first year, based on preliminary modeling. These very different lithospheric configurations have strong implications for transfer of stress and future earthquake risk.

  6. Prospective earthquake forecasts at the Himalayan Front after the 25 April 2015 M 7.8 Gorkha Mainshock (United States)

    Segou, Margaret; Parsons, Thomas E.


    When a major earthquake strikes, the resulting devastation can be compounded or even exceeded by the subsequent cascade of triggered seismicity. As the Nepalese recover from the 25 April 2015 shock, knowledge of what comes next is essential. We calculate the redistribution of crustal stresses and implied earthquake probabilities for different periods, from daily to 30 years into the future. An initial forecast was completed before an M 7.3 earthquake struck on 12 May 2015 that enables a preliminary assessment; postforecast seismicity has so far occurred within a zone of fivefold probability gain. Evaluation of the forecast performance, using two months of seismic data, reveals that stress‐based approaches present improved skill in higher‐magnitude triggered seismicity. Our results suggest that considering the total stress field, rather than only the coseismic one, improves the spatial performance of the model based on the estimation of a wide range of potential triggered faults following a mainshock.

  7. GPS Time Series Analysis of Southern California Associated with the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor/Cucapah Earthquake (United States)

    Granat, Robert; Donnellan, Andrea


    The Magnitude 7.2 El-Mayor/Cucapah earthquake the occurred in Mexico on April 4, 2012 was well instrumented with continuous GPS stations in California. Large Offsets were observed at the GPS stations as a result of deformation from the earthquake providing information about the co-seismic fault slip as well as fault slip from large aftershocks. Information can also be obtained from the position time series at each station.

  8. Des-bordes del conurbano: m7red y una arquitectura sociológica de la Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syd Krochmalny


    Full Text Available Este artículo expone algunas formas de pensar lo urbano a través del estudio de trabajos transdisciplinarios cuyo objeto de investigación es la Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo. Se examinan las trayectorias intelectuales de un grupo de arquitectos que producen proyectos híbridos -sociología, arquitectura, arte y urbanismo- deconstruyendo la noción de “espacio social”. Este concepto teórico metodológico analiza los procesos sociales inscriptos en un espacio determinado o la trama significativa de la ciudad. Es una crítica que estructura la investigación a partir de un grupo de variables controlables analíticamente. Este régimen de conocimiento compartimenta la realidad en diferentes atributos de los cuales el social es el explicativo. En lugar de concebir a la sociedad como el contexto “en el que” todo está enmarcado, estos proyectos consideran “lo social” como uno de los muchos elementos de conexión de las asociaciones heterogéneas. Por lo tanto, la Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo está compuesta por un mapa de actores, situaciones, tópicos, recursos en el que se rastrea las trazas que iluminan las conexiones. En ese sentido, la cuenca no es un territorio continuo, es un ensamblaje de redes heterogéneas donde los lugares de conexión son construidos, no están dados, son inestables.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: New SpeX Observations of M7-L6 Dwarfs (Bardalez+, 2014) (United States)

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, D. C.; Burgasser, A. J.; Gelino, C. R.; Looper, D. L.; Nicholls, C. P.; Schmidt, S. J.; Cruz, K.; West, A. A.; Gizis, J. E.; Metchev, S.


    The SpeX Prism Library is composed of low-resolution (λ/Δλ=75-120) spectra acquired with the SpeX 0.8-2.5 um spectrograph, mounted on the 3.0 m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), located in Mauna Kea, HI (Rayner et al. 2003PASP..115..362R). All spectra were obtained using the prism-dispersed SpeX mode, which continuously samples wavelengths between 0.75 and 2.5 um at a dispersion of 20-30 Å/pixel. The library includes close to 2000 sources, both previously published data (e.g., Burgasser et al. 2010, J/ApJ/710/1142; Chiu et al. 2006, J/AJ/131/2722; Cruz et al. 2003, J/AJ/126/2421) and 530 new spectra acquired between 2000 November and 2013 December. (2 data files).

  10. Tropospheric aerosol size distributions simulated by three online global aerosol models using the M7 microphysics module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang


    Full Text Available Tropospheric aerosol size distributions are simulated by three online global models which employ exactly the same aerosol microphysics module, but differ in many aspects such as model meteorology, natural aerosol emission, sulfur chemistry, and deposition processes. The main purpose of this study is to identify the influence of these differences on the aerosol simulation. Number concentrations of different aerosol size ranges are compared among the three models and against observations. Overall all three models are able to capture the basic features of the observed spatial distribution. The magnitude of number concentration is consistent among the three models in all size ranges, although quantitative differences are also clearly detectable. For the soluble and insoluble coarse and accumulation modes, inter-model discrepancies result primarily from the different parameterization schemes for sea salt and dust emission, and are also linked to the different strengths of the convective transport in the meteorological models. As for the nucleation mode and the soluble Aitken mode, the spread of model results appear largest in the tropics and in the middle and upper troposphere. Diagnostics and sensitivity experiments suggest that this large spread is directly related to the sulfur cycle in the models, which is strongly affected by the choice of sulfur chemistry scheme, its coupling with the convective transport and wet deposition calculation, and the related meteorological fields such as cloud cover, cloud water content, and precipitation. Aerosol size distributions simulated by the three models are compared against observations in the boundary layer. The characteristic shape and magnitude of the distribution functions are reasonably reproduced in typical conditions of clean, polluted and transition areas.

  11. GPS Time Series Analysis of Southern California Associated with the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor/Cucapah Earthquake (United States)

    Granat, Robert; Donnellan, Andrea


    The Magnitude 7.2 El-Mayor/Cucapah earthquake the occurred in Mexico on April 4, 2012 was well instrumented with continuous GPS stations in California. Large Offsets were observed at the GPS stations as a result of deformation from the earthquake providing information about the co-seismic fault slip as well as fault slip from large aftershocks. Information can also be obtained from the position time series at each station.

  12. Ionospheric disturbances triggered by the 25 April, 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal: Constraints from GPS TEC measurements (United States)

    Catherine, J. K.; Uma Maheshwari, D.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Roy, P. N. S.; Khan, P. K.; Puviarasan, N.


    The ionosphere response to the April 11, 2015 (Mw 7.8) Gorkha earthquake, occurring in the Himalayan arc, is analysed using GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) measurements, from GPS sites in Nepal and India, situated both close to and far from the epicentre. In the near field, the Coseismic Ionospheric disturbance (CID) following the earthquake rupture propagation arrive east of the epicentre, within 5-7 min with a propagation velocity of 980 m/s, equal to the speed of the shock acoustic waves at the ionospheric heights, and on to the west with a reduced speed of 650 m/s, within 8-11 min, after the earthquake occurrence. The phenomenon of CID splitting into two modes, east and west of the epicentre is observed. In the far-field region, up to epicentral distances of 2200 km, Rayleigh wave induced ionospheric disturbance are recorded with a propagation speed of 2.6 km/s. Higher TEC amplitude of 0.2-1.5 TECU is observed east of the epicentre compared to the west with 0.1-0.3 TECU. The characteristics of this dip-slip earthquake are well projected in the TEC waveforms. The ambient magnetic field in the mid-latitudes prohibited the propagation of ionospheric disturbance in the northward direction. In the present study the observed primary CID is essentially in congruence with the rupture propagation of the earthquake in E-SE direction.

  13. Tropospheric aerosol size distributions simulated by three online global aerosol models using the M7 microphysics module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Zhang


    Full Text Available Tropospheric aerosol size distributions are simulated by three online global models that employ exactly the same modal approach but differ in many aspects such as model meteorology, natural aerosol emissions, sulfur chemistry, and the parameterization of deposition processes. The main purpose of this study is to identify where the largest inter-model discrepancies occur and what the main reasons are.

    The number concentrations of different aerosol size ranges are compared among the three models and against observations. Overall all the three models can capture the basic features of the observed aerosol number spatial distributions. The magnitude of the number concentration of each mode is consistent among the three models. Quantitative differences are also clearly detectable. For the soluble and insoluble coarse mode and accumulation mode, inter-model discrepancies mainly result from differences in the sea salt and dust emissions, as well as the different strengths of the convective transport in the meteorological models. For the nucleation mode and the soluble Aitken mode, the spread of the model results is largest in the tropics and in the middle and upper troposphere. Diagnostics and sensitivity experiments suggest that this large spread is closely related to the sulfur cycle in the models, which is strongly affected by the choice of sulfur chemistry scheme, its coupling with the convective transport and wet deposition calculation, and the related meteorological fields such as cloud cover, cloud water content, and precipitation.

    The aerosol size distributions simulated by the three models are compared to observations in the boundary layer. The characteristic shape and magnitude of the distribution functions are reasonably reproduced in typical conditions (i.e., clean, polluted and transition areas. Biases in the mode parameters over the remote oceans and the China adjacent seas are probably caused by the fixed mode variance in the mathematical formulations used in the modal approach in the three models, as well as some of the prescribed size distribution parameters of the natural and anthropogenic emissions.

  14. Thermal, atmospheric and ionospheric anomalies around the time of the Colima M7.8 earthquake of 21 January 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pulinets


    Full Text Available The paper examines the possible relationship of anomalous variations of different atmospheric and ionospheric parameters observed around the time of a strong earthquake (Mw 7.8 which occurred in Mexico (state of Colima on 21 January 2003. These variations are interpreted within the framework of the developed model of the Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling. The main attention is focused on the processes in the near ground layer of the atmosphere involving the ionization of air by radon, the water molecules' attachment to the formed ions, and the corresponding changes in the latent heat. Model considerations are supported by experimental measurements showing the local diminution of air humidity one week prior to the earthquake, accompanied by the anomalous thermal infrared (TIR signals and surface latent heat flux (SLHF and anomalous variations of the total electron content (TEC registered over the epicenter of the impending earthquake three days prior to the main earthquake event. Statistical processing of the data of the GPS receivers network, together with various other atmospheric parameters demonstrate the possibility of an early warning of an impending strong earthquake.

  15. From Source to Damage: A Case study of the M7.2 October 2013 Bohol Earthquake (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Naguit, M.; Ghasemi, H.; Bautista, B.; Miyake, H.; Kobayashi, T.


    The island of Bohol, in central Visayas, Philippines, endured a devastating earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in the morning of October 15, 2013. This inland earthquake occurred as a result of movement along a previously unknown thrust fault now called the North Bohol Fault. Surface rupture, coastal uplift and analysis of SAR data all indicate surface deformation spread over a rupture area extending along the 60 km length of the island of Bohol. In contrast, the NEIC finite fault solution, shows slip concentrated in a tight asperity offshore and to the SW of the island. About 230 people were killed by the earthquake and over 70,000 buildings damaged. Because of the extensive damage and the wide spread of intensities inferred to have shaken the island, the Bohol earthquake presents an important opportunity to improve knowledge of building fragility for the Philippines and similar countries. However, this requires: (1) a detailed source model for accurate estimation of earthquake ground motion, and (2) a reliable statistical description of building damage. To this end we developed an improved source model through joint inversion of seismic and SAR data, as well as empirical Green's functions. We also undertook a statistical building survey of damaged as well as undamaged buildings, collecting data for over 18,000 structures in rural and urban districts spread throughout the island. These data have been correlated with the intensities derived from different finite source models. We show how this allows us to place observational constraints on building fragility functions, thereby improving earthquake risk and impact forecasts for future earthquakes.

  16. Seismotectonics of southern Haiti: A new faulting model for the 12 January 2010 M7.0 earthquake (United States)

    Saint Fleur, Newdeskarl; Feuillet, Nathalie; Grandin, Raphaël.; Jacques, Eric; Weil-Accardo, Jennifer; Klinger, Yann


    The prevailing consensus is that the 2010 Mw7.0 Haiti earthquake left the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden strike-slip fault (EPGF) unruptured but broke unmapped blind north dipping thrusts. Using high-resolution topography, aerial images, bathymetry, and geology, we identified previously unrecognized south dipping NW-SE striking active thrusts in southern Haiti. One of them, Lamentin thrust, cuts across the crowded city of Carrefour, extends offshore into Port-au-Prince Bay, and connects at depth with the EPGF. We propose that both faults broke in 2010. The rupture likely initiated on the thrust and propagated further along the EPGF due to unclamping. This scenario is consistent with geodetic, seismological, and field data. The 2010 earthquake increased the stress toward failure on the unruptured segments of the EPGF and on neighboring thrusts, significantly increasing the seismic hazard in the Port-au-Prince urban area. The numerous active thrusts recognized in that area must be considered for future evaluation of the seismic hazard.

  17. 78 FR 22269 - International Conference on Harmonisation; Draft Guidance on M7 Assessment and Control of DNA... (United States)


    ...). The draft guidance emphasizes considerations of both safety and quality risk management in... Division of Dockets Management (HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630 Fishers Lane, Rm. 1061... Associations; the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare; the Japanese Pharmaceutical...

  18. Tsunami runup and tide-gauge observations from the 14 November 2016 M7.8 Kaikōura earthquake, New Zealand (United States)

    Power, William; Clark, Kate; King, Darren N.; Borrero, Jose; Howarth, Jamie; Lane, Emily M.; Goring, Derek; Goff, James; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Williams, James; Reid, Catherine; Whittaker, Colin; Mueller, Christof; Williams, Shaun; Hughes, Matthew W.; Hoyle, Jo; Bind, Jochen; Strong, Delia; Litchfield, Nicola; Benson, Adrian


    The 2016 M w 7.8 Kaikōura earthquake was one of the largest earthquakes in New Zealand's historical record, and it generated the most significant local source tsunami to affect New Zealand since 1947. There are many unusual features of this earthquake from a tsunami perspective: the epicentre was well inland of the coast, multiple faults were involved in the rupture, and the greatest tsunami damage to residential property was far from the source. In this paper, we summarise the tectonic setting and the historical and geological evidence for past tsunamis on this coast, then present tsunami tide gauge and runup field observations of the tsunami that followed the Kaikōura earthquake. For the size of the tsunami, as inferred from the measured heights, the impact of this event was relatively modest, and we discuss the reasons for this which include: the state of the tide at the time of the earthquake, the degree of co-seismic uplift, and the nature of the coastal environment in the tsunami source region.

  19. A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M 7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake (United States)

    Hough, S.E.; Martin, S.; Bilham, R.; Atkinson, G.M.


    We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment-induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

  20. Hyperdiploidy in Childhood AML Associated with Low Age and AML-M7. A NOPHO-AML Study and Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Abrahamson, Jonas; Heldrup, Jesper

    Introduction: High hyperdiploidy (51–67 chromosomes) is one of the most common cytogenetic abnormality patterns in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the clinical and cytogenetic features are well characterized. High hyperdiploidy in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia...... abnormalities among the pediatric hyperdiploid AML patients is relatively unknown. Current knowledge in this field is based on small adult series or case reports. In this descriptive study we describe the clinical - and cytogenetic features in childhood hyperdiploid AML with a modal chromosome number at 50...

  1. The postseismic response to the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake: Constraints from InSAR 2003-2005 (United States)

    Biggs, J.; Burgmann, R.; Freymueller, J.T.; Lu, Zhiming; Parsons, B.; Ryder, I.; Schmalzle, G.; Wright, Tim


    InSAR is particularly sensitive to vertical displacements, which can be important in distinguishing between mechanisms responsible for the postseismic response to large earthquakes (afterslip, viscoelastic relaxation). We produce maps of the surface displacements resulting from the postseismic response to the 2002 Denali Fault earthquake, using data from the Canadian Radarsat-1 satellite from the periods summer 2003, summer 2004 and summer 2005. A peak-to-trough signal of amplitude 4 cm in the satellite line of sight was observed between summer 2003 and summer 2004. By the period between summer 2004 and summer 2005, the displacement rate had dropped below the threshold required for observation with InSAR over a single year. The InSAR observations show that the principal postseismic relaxation process acted at a depth of ???50 km, equivalent to the top of the mantle. However, the observations are still incapable of distinguishing between distributed (viscoelastic relaxation) and localized (afterslip) deformation. The imposed coseismic stresses are highest in the lower crust and, assuming a Maxwell rheology, a viscosity ratio of at least 5 between lower crust and upper mantle is required to explain the contrast in behaviour. The lowest misfits are produced by mixed models of viscoelastic relaxation in the mantle and shallow afterslip in the upper crust. Profiles perpendicular to the fault show significant asymmetry, which is consistent with differences in rheological structure across the fault. ?? 2008 The Author Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  2. Effectiveness of iPad apps on visual-motor skills among children with special needs between 4y0m-7y11m. (United States)

    Coutinho, Franzina; Bosisio, Marie-Elaine; Brown, Emma; Rishikof, Stephanie; Skaf, Elise; Zhang, Xiaoting; Perlman, Cynthia; Kelly, Shannon; Freedin, Erin; Dahan-Oliel, Noemi


    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess the effectiveness of interventions using iPad applications compared to traditional occupational therapy on visual-motor integration (VMI) in school-aged children with poor VMI skills. Twenty children aged 4y0m to 7y11m with poor VMI skills were randomly assigned to the experimental group (interventions using iPad apps targeting VMI skills) or control group (traditional occupational therapy intervention sessions targeting VMI skills). The intervention phase consisted of two 40-min sessions per week, over a period of 10 weeks. Participants were required to attend a minimum of 8 and a maximum of 12 sessions. The subjects were tested using the Beery-VMI and the visual-motor subscale of the M-FUN, at baseline and follow-up. Results from a 2-way mixed design ANOVA yielded significant results for the main effect of time for the M-FUN total raw score, as well as in the subscales Amazing Mazes, Hidden Forks, Go Fishing and VM Behavior. However, gains did not differ between intervention types over time. No significant results were found for the Beery-VMI. This study supports the need for further research into the use of iPads for the development of VMI skills in the pediatric population. Implications for Rehabilitation This is the first study to look at the use of iPads with school-aged children with poor visual-motor skills. There is limited literature related to the use of iPads in pediatric occupational therapy, while they are increasingly being used in practice. When compared to the traditional occupational therapy interventions, participants in the iPad intervention appeared to be more interested, engaged and motivated to participate in the therapy sessions. Using iPad apps as an adjunct to therapy in intervention could be effective in improving VMI skills over time.

  3. A media-based assessment of damage and ground motions from the January 26th, 2001 M7.6 Bhuj, India earthquake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan E Hough; Stacey Martin; Roger Bilham; Gail M Atkinson


    We compiled available news and internet accounts of damage and other effects from the 26th January, 2001, Bhuj earthquake, and interpreted them to obtain modified Mercalli intensities at over 200 locations throughout the Indian subcontinent. These values are used to map the intensity distribution using a simple mathematical interpolation method. The maps reveal several interesting features. Within the Kachchh region, the most heavily damaged villages are concentrated towards the western edge of the inferred fault, consistent with western directivity. Significant sediment- induced amplification is also suggested at a number of locations around the Gulf of Kachchh to the south of the epicenter. Away from the Kachchh region intensities were clearly amplified significantly in areas that are along rivers, within deltas, or on coastal alluvium such as mud flats and salt pans. In addition we use fault rupture parameters inferred from teleseismic data to predict shaking intensity at distances of 0-1000 km. We then convert the predicted hard rock ground motion parameters to MMI using a relationship (derived from internet-based intensity surveys) that assigns MMI based on the average effects in a region. The predicted MMIs are typically lower by 1-2 units than those estimated from news accounts. This discrepancy is generally consistent with the expected effect of sediment response, but it could also reflect other factors such as a tendency for media accounts to focus on the most dramatic damage, rather than the average effects. Our modeling results also suggest, however, that the Bhuj earthquake generated more high-frequency shaking than is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude in California, and may therefore have been especially damaging.

  4. The M7.2 2010 El-Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake: How much of the Complexity Can We Explain With Our Models? (United States)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Funning, G.; Oglesby, D. D.; Fletcher, J. M.; Ryan, K. J.


    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake is one of the most complex multi-segment events ever documented in the Pacific-North America plate boundary zone, rupturing at least seven distinct segments, some of which were previously unknown. An important question for both earthquake physics and seismic hazard analysis of other complex fault systems is whether this earthquake's complex rupture and slip pattern can be reproduced and explained with dynamic rupture models. In particular, what details of the fault geometry and of the pre-event fault stress distribution are required to allow such a rupture, with multiple stepovers and changes in dip and strike, to take place? We perform 3D Finite Element (FE) modeling of this event using realistic fault geometry and topography, and explore the effects of geometry, frictional properties, and stress assumptions on the ability to reproduce observed features of this earthquake. These models are part of a larger project that combines a 3D geodetic model of the El Mayor-Cucapah event with dynamic rupture models that are designed to match this inverted slip distribution. By combining observations with dynamic modeling in an iterative fashion, we are able to produce physically-reasonable models that match primary observations of this event.

  5. Hyperdiploidy in Childhood AML Associated with Low Age and AML-M7. A NOPHO-AML Study and Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Abrahamson, Jonas; Heldrup, Jesper

    a literature study searching for hyperdiploid childhood AML (50+) cases using the Mitelman, PubMed, and Scopus databases. The 105 patients from the literature study were compared to the hyperdiploid NOPHO-AML patients. The total cohort of 134 hyperdiploid cases were used to characterize hyperdiploid AML...

  6. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake. (United States)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.


    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow paths, located structurally-controlled unstable zones can be used to mark unsafe areas for settlement. The method can be further improved with the use of Lidar DTMs, which has better spatial resolution than the IFSAR DTM. A nationwide effort under DOST-Project NOAH (DREAM-LIDAR) is underway, to map the Philippine archipelago using Lidar.

  7. Seismic quiescence and increase of the b value preceding the April 16, 2016 M7.3 earthquake in Kumamoto, Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Nanjo, K Z


    The 2016 Kumamoto earthquakes consist of a series of seismic activity in central Kumamoto, Japan, which started at the occurrence of an M6.5 quake on April 14, 2016. As a whole, the seismicity after the M6.5 quake is well modeled by the Omori-Utsu law that describes decay of aftershock activity. However, the p value was notably larger than its typical value (p = 1). Further, the p value, when analyzed using data set of longer time period, becomes larger. It is shown that this result is supported by the fact that the number of larger shocks (M >= 3) decreased rapidly in later time periods. Moreover, careful analysis on the spatiotemporal distribution of the b value shows a remarkable increase of the value, especially in the northern part of the aftershock area, which is consistent with the spatial pattern in the decrease of larger shocks. Based on these findings, combined with the results about the stress inversion analysis performed by NIED, we suggest that stress near the Futagawa fault zone had reduced just...

  8. On- and off-fault coseismic surface deformation associated with the September 2013 M7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake measured from mapping and automated pixel correlation (United States)

    Gold, R. D.; Reitman, N. G.; Briggs, R. W.; Barnhart, W. D.; Hayes, G. P.


    The 24 September 2013 Mw7.7 Balochistan, Pakistan earthquake ruptured a ~200 km-long stretch of the Hoshab fault in southern Pakistan. We remotely measured the coseismic surface deformation field using high-resolution (0.5 m) pre- and post-event satellite imagery. We measured ~300 near-field (0-10 m from fault) laterally offset piercing points (streams, terrace risers, roads, etc.) and find peak left-lateral offsets of ~12-15 m. We characterized the far-field (0-10 km from fault) displacement field using manual (~250 measurements) and automated image cross-correlation methods (e.g., pixel tracking) and find peak displacement values of ~16 m, which commonly exceed the on-fault displacement magnitudes. Our preliminary observations suggest the following: (1) coseismic surface displacement typically increases with distance away from the surface trace of the fault (e.g., highest displacement values in the far field), (2) for certain locations along the fault rupture, as little as 50% of the coseismic displacement field occurred in the near-field; and (3) the magnitudes of individual displacements are inversely correlated to the width of the surface rupture zone (e.g., largest displacements where the fault zone is narrowest). This analysis highlights the importance of identifying field study sites spanning fault sections with narrow deformation zones in order to capture the entire deformation field. For regions of distributed deformation, these results would predict that geologic slip rate studies underestimate a fault's complete slip rate.

  9. The Seed Biotinylated Protein of Soybean (Glycine max): A Boiling-Resistant New Allergen (Gly m 7) with the Capacity To Induce IgE-Mediated Allergic Responses. (United States)

    Riascos, John J; Weissinger, Sandra M; Weissinger, Arthur K; Kulis, Michael; Burks, A Wesley; Pons, Laurent


    Soybean is a common allergenic food; thus, a comprehensive characterization of all the proteins that cause allergy is crucial to the development of effective diagnostic and immunotherapeutic strategies. A cDNA library was constructed from seven stages of developing soybean seeds to investigate candidate allergens. We searched the library for cDNAs encoding a seed-specific biotinylated protein (SBP) based on its allergenicity in boiled lentils. A full-length cDNA clone was retrieved and expressed as a 75.6-kDa His-tagged recombinant protein (rSBP) in Escherichia coli. Western immunoblotting of boiled bacterial extracts demonstrated specific IgE binding to rSBP, which was further purified by metal affinity and anion exchange chromatographies. Of the 23 allergic sera screened by ELISA, 12 contained IgEs specific to the purified rSBP. Circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed a predominantly unordered structure consistent with SBP's heat stability. The natural homologues (nSBP) were the main proteins isolated from soybean and peanut embryos after streptavidin affinity purification, yet they remained low-abundance proteins in the seed as confirmed by LC-MS/MS. Using capture ELISAs, the soybean and peanut nSBPs were bound by IgEs in 78 and 87% of the allergic sera tested. The soybean nSBP was purified to homogeneity and treatments with different denaturing agents before immunoblotting highlighted the diversity of its IgE epitopes. In vitro activation of basophils was assessed by flow cytometry in a cohort of peanut-allergic children sensitized to soybean. Stronger and more frequent (38%) activations were induced by nSBP-soy compared to the major soybean allergen, Gly m 5. SBPs may represent a novel class of biologically active legume allergens with the structural resilience to withstand many food-manufacturing processes.

  10. Comparison between low-cost and traditional MEMS accelerometers: a case study from the M7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, aftershock deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Chung


    Full Text Available Recent advances in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS sensing and distributed computing techniques have enabled the development of low-cost, rapidly deployed dense seismic networks. The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN uses triaxial MEMS accelerometers installed in homes and businesses to record moderate to large earthquakes. Real-time accelerations are monitored and information is transferred to a central server using open-source, distributed computing software installed on participating computers. Following the September 3, 2010, Mw 7.1 Darfield, New Zealand, earthquake, 192 QCN stations were installed in a dense array in the city of Christchurch and the surrounding region to record the on-going aftershock sequence. Here, we compare the ground motions recorded by QCN accelerometers with GeoNet strong-motion instruments to verify whether low-cost MEMS accelerometers can provide reliable ground-motion information in network-scale deployments. We find that observed PGA and PGV amplitudes and RMS scatter are comparable between the GeoNet and QCN observations. Closely spaced stations provide similar acceleration, velocity, and displacement time series and computed response spectra are also highly correlated, with correlation coefficients above 0.94.

  11. Rapid damage mapping for the 2015 M7.8 Gorkha earthquake using synthetic aperture radar data from COSMO-SkyMed and ALOS-2 satellites (United States)

    Yun, Sang-Ho; Hudnut, Kenneth W.; Owen, Susan; Webb, Frank; Simons, Mark; Sacco, Patrizia; Gurrola, Eric; Manipon, Gerald; Liang, Cunren; Fielding, Eric; Milillo, Pietro; Hua, Hook; Coletta, Alessandro


    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake caused more than 8000 fatalities and widespread building damage in central Nepal. The Italian Space Agency’s COSMO–SkyMed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite acquired data over Kathmandu area four days after the earthquake and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency’s Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 SAR satellite for larger area nine days after the mainshock. We used these radar observations and rapidly produced damage proxy maps (DPMs) derived from temporal changes in Interferometric SAR coherence. Our DPMs were qualitatively validated through comparison with independent damage analyses by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and the United Nations Institute for Training and Research’s United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme, and based on our own visual inspection of DigitalGlobe’s WorldView optical pre- versus postevent imagery. Our maps were quickly released to responding agencies and the public, and used for damage assessment, determining inspection/imaging priorities, and reconnaissance fieldwork.

  12. Lessons from M 7.2 Seismic Event and How to Preserve Awareness Forty Years Later: The Case of the Vrancea, Romania, March 4, 1977 Earthquake (United States)

    Craifaleanu, Iolanda-Gabriela; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin


    Almost four decades after the MG-R = 7.2 (Mw =7.4) catastrophic earthquake of March 4, 1977 hit Romania, the population fears a new strong earthquake; however, awareness on preparedness and mitigation measures is rather low. As the last Mw > 6 has occurred in 1990, there is an increasing percentage of young population that has not yet witnessed a strong earthquake, and which has a rather fuzzy representation of urban and geological earthquake effects. After each strong seismic event in the past, due to its specific attributions, the National Institute for Building Research, INCERC, collected a considerable amount of information about the earthquake effects on built environment and lifelines, geological effects etc. To this, information from various documentary sources about damage caused by historic earthquakes was added by the institute's specialists. Stored today in the archives of the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development, “URBAN-INCERC”, INCERC Bucharest Branch, this information is invaluable today for evaluating the present and future seismic risk of the country. Nonetheless, it could represent an essential educational resource for university students and young professionals in the field of civil engineering, seismology, geology, economy, sociology, history etc. and for raising population awareness on seismic risk mitigation measures. The paper presents new approaches for the dissemination and re-valuation of the March 4, 1977 earthquake data, from the perspective of present scientific knowledge.

  13. Differential contribution of the m7G-cap to the 5' end-dependent translation initiation of mammalian mRNAs. (United States)

    Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Terenin, Ilya M; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Merrick, William C; Shatsky, Ivan N


    Many mammalian mRNAs possess long 5' UTRs with numerous stem-loop structures. For some of them, the presence of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) was suggested to explain their significant activity, especially when cap-dependent translation is compromised. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the translation initiation efficiencies of some cellular 5' UTRs reported to have IRES-activity with those lacking IRES-elements in RNA-transfected cells and cell-free systems. Unlike viral IRESes, the tested 5' UTRs with so-called 'cellular IRESes' demonstrate only background activities when placed in the intercistronic position of dicistronic RNAs. In contrast, they are very active in the monocistronic context and the cap is indispensable for their activities. Surprisingly, in cultured cells or cytoplasmic extracts both the level of stimulation with the cap and the overall translation activity do not correlate with the cumulative energy of the secondary structure of the tested 5' UTRs. The cap positive effect is still observed under profound inhibition of translation with eIF4E-BP1 but its magnitude varies for individual 5' UTRs irrespective of the cumulative energy of their secondary structures. Thus, it is not mandatory to invoke the IRES hypothesis, at least for some mRNAs, to explain their preferential translation when eIF4E is partially inactivated.

  14. Differential contribution of the m7G-cap to the 5′ end-dependent translation initiation of mammalian mRNAs (United States)

    Andreev, Dmitri E.; Dmitriev, Sergey E.; Terenin, Ilya M.; Prassolov, Vladimir S.; Merrick, William C.; Shatsky, Ivan N.


    Many mammalian mRNAs possess long 5′ UTRs with numerous stem-loop structures. For some of them, the presence of Internal Ribosome Entry Sites (IRESes) was suggested to explain their significant activity, especially when cap-dependent translation is compromised. To test this hypothesis, we have compared the translation initiation efficiencies of some cellular 5′ UTRs reported to have IRES-activity with those lacking IRES-elements in RNA-transfected cells and cell-free systems. Unlike viral IRESes, the tested 5′ UTRs with so-called ‘cellular IRESes’ demonstrate only background activities when placed in the intercistronic position of dicistronic RNAs. In contrast, they are very active in the monocistronic context and the cap is indispensable for their activities. Surprisingly, in cultured cells or cytoplasmic extracts both the level of stimulation with the cap and the overall translation activity do not correlate with the cumulative energy of the secondary structure of the tested 5′ UTRs. The cap positive effect is still observed under profound inhibition of translation with eIF4E-BP1 but its magnitude varies for individual 5′ UTRs irrespective of the cumulative energy of their secondary structures. Thus, it is not mandatory to invoke the IRES hypothesis, at least for some mRNAs, to explain their preferential translation when eIF4E is partially inactivated. PMID:19696074

  15. Twilight of the Slogans: A Heuristic Investigation of Linguistic Memes Using Mixed Methods (United States)

    Duffy, Curt Paul


    Slogans, or linguistic memes, are short, memorable phrases that are present in commercial, political, and everyday discourse. Slogans propagate similarly to other memes, or cultural units, through an evolutionary mechanism first proposed by Dawkins (1976). Heuristic inquiry, as presented by Moustakas (1990), provided a template from which to…

  16. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby


    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Falling out of Romantic Love (United States)

    Sailor, Joanni L.


    Romantic love is considered a necessary ingredient in marriage. In this study, the experience of falling out of romantic love with one's spouse was examined. Eight individuals who had fallen out of romantic love with their spouse were interviewed. By using Moustakas' Transcendental Phenomenological method, several themes emerged which provided a…

  18. Twilight of the Slogans: A Heuristic Investigation of Linguistic Memes Using Mixed Methods (United States)

    Duffy, Curt Paul


    Slogans, or linguistic memes, are short, memorable phrases that are present in commercial, political, and everyday discourse. Slogans propagate similarly to other memes, or cultural units, through an evolutionary mechanism first proposed by Dawkins (1976). Heuristic inquiry, as presented by Moustakas (1990), provided a template from which to…

  19. The Lived Experiences of Single Hispanic Mothers Raising Gang-Affiliated Male Youth Released from Texas Juvenile Justice Department State Facilities: A Phenomenological Study (United States)

    Rodriguez-Almendarez, Ruby


    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study (Moustakas, 1994) was to describe the experiences that single Hispanic mothers of gang-affiliated male juveniles face during their sons' reentry process after being released from a Texas Juvenile Justice Department state facility. Methods: After an extensive review of…

  20. La amenaza sísmica de la Sabana de Bogotá frente a un sismo de magnitud M > 7.0, cuyo origen esté en el Piedemonte Llanero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chicangana


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se muestra cómo un gran sismo originado en el Sistema de Fallas de la Falla Frontal de la Cordillera Oriental ( SFFFCO puede causar grandes daños y pérdidas de vidas, tanto en el área metropolitana de Bogotá, D. C., como en el resto de la Sabana de Bogotá. El grado de la amenaza sísmica de la ciudad ante un sismo cercano, originado en el Piedemonte Llanero, cuya distancia es inferior a 250 km y con una magnitud > 7.0, es muy alto, si se tiene presente que sus suelos, de origen lagunar, se ubican hacia el occidente y el noroccidente, zonas en las que, durante las dos últimas décadas, se ha ido extendiendo el área metropolitana.

  1. Structure of the bifunctional methyltransferase YcbY (RlmKL) that adds the m7G2069 and m2G2445 modifications in Escherichia coli 23S rRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai-Tuo; Desmolaize, Benoit; Nan, Jie;


    to be fusions from two separate proteins found in Gram-positives. The crystal structures described here show that both the N- and C-terminal halves of E. coli YcbY have a methyltransferase active site and their folding patterns respectively resemble the Streptococcus mutans proteins Smu472 and Smu776. Mass...

  2. Strike-slip Fault Structure in the Salton Trough and Deformation During and After the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake from Geodetic and Seismic Data (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sun, J.; Gonzalez-Ortega, A.; González-Escobar, M.; Freed, A. M.; Burgmann, R.; Samsonov, S. V.; Gonzalez-Garcia, J.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa, A.


    The Pacific-North America plate boundary character changes southward from the strike-slip and transpressional configuration along most of California to oblique rifting in the Gulf of California, with a transitional zone of transtension beneath the Salton Trough in southernmost California and northern Mexico. The Salton Trough is characterized by extremely high heat flow and thin lithosphere with a thick fill of sedimentary material delivered by the Colorado River during the past 5-6 million years. Because of the rapid sedimentation, most of the faults in Salton Trough are buried and reveal themselves when they slip either seismically or aseismically. They can also be located by refraction and reflection of seismic waves. The 4 April 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) in Baja California and Sonora, Mexico is probably the largest earthquake in the Salton Trough for at least 120 years, and had primarily right-lateral strike-slip motion. The earthquake ruptured a complex set of faults that lie to the west of the main plate boundary fault, the Cerro Prieto Fault, and shows that the strike-slip fault system in the southern Salton Trough has multiple sub-parallel active faults, similar to southern California. The Cerro Prieto Fault is still likely absorbing the majority of strain in the plate boundary. We study the coseismic and postseismic deformation of the 2010 earthquake with interferometric analysis of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images (InSAR) and pixel tracking by subpixel correlation of SAR and optical images. We combine sampled InSAR and subpixel correlation results with GPS (Global Positioning System) offsets at PBO (Plate Boundary Observatory) stations to estimate the likely subsurface geometry of the major faults that slipped during the earthquake and to derive a static coseismic slip model. We constrained the surface locations of the fault segments to mapped locations in the Sierra Cucapah to the northwest of the epicenter. SAR along-track offsets, especially on ALOS images, show that there is a large amount of right-lateral slip (1-3 m) on a previously unmapped system of faults extending about 60 km to the southeast of the epicenter beneath the Colorado River Delta named the Indiviso Fault system. The finite fault slip modeling shows a bilateral rupture with coseismic fault slip shallower than 10 km on the faults to the NW (dipping NE) and SE (dipping SW) of the epicenter. The southeastern end of the coseismic ruptures has complex fault geometry, including both east- and west-dipping faults revealed by recently reprocessed seismic reflection profiles. This new coseismic fault geometry will be the basis for a new finite element model of the crust and mantle for modeling of the coseismic slip with realistic 3D elastic structure and the viscoelastic postseismic relaxation. Postseismic InSAR, including new Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) data, and GPS show rapid shallow afterslip on faults at the north and south ends of the main coseismic rupture and down-dip from the area of largest coseismic slip. Longer wavelength postseismic relaxation will be best measured by GPS.

  3. La amenaza sísmica de la Sabana de Bogotá frente a un sismo de magnitud M > 7.0, cuyo origen esté en el Piedemonte Llanero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Chicangana


    Full Text Available This work reveals how a major earthquake originating in the Eastern Frontal Fault System (Sistema de Fallas de la Falla Frontal de la Cordillera Oriental – SFFFCO can cause great damage and loss of life in both the metropolitan area of Bogota D.C. and the remainder of the Savanna of Bogota. The degree of seismic hazard for the city in the case of a near-field earthquake with a magnitude > 7.0 originating in the Llanos Foothills, less than 250 km away, is extremely high given that soils of lagoon origin are located to the west and northwest of the city, regions where the metropolitan area has extended during the past two decades.

  4. Present-day loading rate of faults in southern California and northern Baja California, Mexico, and post-seismic deformation following the M7.2 April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake from GPS Geodesy (United States)

    Spinler, J. C.; Bennett, R. A.


    We use 142 GPS velocity estimates from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map 4 and 59 GPS velocity estimates from additional sites to model the crustal velocity field of southern California, USA, and northern Baja California, Mexico, prior to the 2010 April 4 Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake. The EMC earthquake is the largest event to occur along the southern San Andreas fault system in nearly two decades. In the year following the EMC earthquake, the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) constructed eight new continuous GPS sites in northern Baja California, Mexico. We used our velocity model, which represents the period before the EMC earthquake, to assess postseismic velocity changes at the new PBO sites. Time series from the new PBO sites, which were constructed 4-18 months following the earthquake do not exhibit obvious exponential or logarithmic decay, showing instead fairly secular trends through the period of our analysis (2010.8-2012.5). The weighted RMS misfit to secular rates, accounting for periodic site motions is typically around 1.7 mm/yr, indicating high positioning precision and fairly linear site motion. Results of our research include new fault slip rate estimates for the greater San Andreas fault system, including model faults representing the Cerro Prieto (39.0±0.1 mm/yr), Imperial (35.7±0.1 mm/yr), and southernmost San Andreas (24.7±0.1 mm/yr), generally consistent with previous geodetic studies within the region. Velocity changes at the new PBO sites associated with the EMC earthquake are in the range 1.7±0.3 to 9.2±2.6 mm/yr. The maximum rate difference is found in Mexicali Valley, close to the rupture. Rate changes decay systematically with distance from the EMC epicenter and velocity orientations exhibit a butterfly pattern as expected from a strike slip earthquake. Sites to the south and southwest of the Baja California shear zone are moving more rapidly to the northwest relative to their motions prior to the earthquake. Sites to the west of the Laguna Salada fault zone are moving more westerly. Sites to the east of the EMC rupture move more southerly than prior to the EMC earthquake. Continued monitoring of these velocity changes will allow us to differentiate between lower crustal and upper mantle relaxation processes.

  5. Using Transcendental Phenomenology to Explore the “Ripple Effect” in a Leadership Mentoring Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Moerer-Urdahl


    Full Text Available Several approaches exist for organizing and analyzing data in a phenomenological qualitative study. Transcendental phenomenology, based on principles identified by Husserl (1931 and translated into a qualitative method by Moustakas (1994, holds promise as a viable procedure for phenomenological research. However, to best understand the approach to transcendental phenomenology, the procedures need to be illustrated by a qualitative study that employs this approach. This article first discusses the procedures for organizing and analyzing data according to Moustakas (1994. Then it illustrates each step in the data analysis procedure of transcendental phenomenology using a study of reinvestment or the “ripple effect” for nine individuals who have participated in a youth leadership mentoring program from the 1970s to the present. Transcendental phenomenology works well for this study as this methodology provides logical, systematic, and coherent design elements that lead to an essential description of the experience.

  6. Using Transcendental Phenomenology to Explore the “Ripple Effect” in a Leadership Mentoring Program


    Tammy Moerer-Urdahl; Creswell, John W.


    Several approaches exist for organizing and analyzing data in a phenomenological qualitative study. Transcendental phenomenology, based on principles identified by Husserl (1931) and translated into a qualitative method by Moustakas (1994), holds promise as a viable procedure for phenomenological research. However, to best understand the approach to transcendental phenomenology, the procedures need to be illustrated by a qualitative study that employs this approach. This article first discuss...

  7. Using Transcendental Phenomenology to Explore the “Ripple Effect” in a Leadership Mentoring Program


    Tammy Moerer-Urdahl; Creswell, John W.


    Several approaches exist for organizing and analyzing data in a phenomenological qualitative study. Transcendental phenomenology, based on principles identified by Husserl (1931) and translated into a qualitative method by Moustakas (1994), holds promise as a viable procedure for phenomenological research. However, to best understand the approach to transcendental phenomenology, the procedures need to be illustrated by a qualitative study that employs this approach. This article first discuss...

  8. Outsourcing within aerospace manufacturing enterprises: A phenomenological study and outsourcing leadership model (United States)

    Sampson, Enrique, Jr.

    Many aerospace workers believe transferring work projects abroad has an erosive effect on the U.S. aerospace industry (Pritchard, 2002). This qualitative phenomenological study examines factors for outsourcing decisions and the perceived effects of outsourcing on U.S. aerospace workers. The research sample consists of aerospace industry leaders and nonleaders from the East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast of the United States. Moustakas' modified van Kaam methods of analysis (1994) and Decision Explorer analysis software were applied to the interview transcripts. Resultant data identified five core themes: communication, best value, opportunities, cost, and offset consideration. The themes provided the framework for a model designed to assist leaders in making effective decisions and communicating the benefits of those decisions when considering outsourcing of work projects.

  9. NGC1266 as a Local Candidate for Rapid Cessation of Star Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Alatalo, Katherine; Graves, Genevieve; Griffin, Kristen Shapiro; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M; Davis, Timothy A; Crocker, Alison F; Young, Lisa M; Chang, Philip; Scott, Nicholas; Cales, Sabrina L; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie


    We present new Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) integral-field spectroscopy and Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations of molecular outflow host galaxy NGC 1266 that indicate NGC 1266 has experienced a rapid cessation of star formation. Both the SAURON maps of stellar population age and the Swift UVOT observations demonstrate the presence of young ($< 1$ Gyr) stellar populations within the central 1 kpc, while existing Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) CO(1--0) maps indicate that the sites of current star formation are constrained to the inner few hundred parsecs of the galaxy only. The optical spectrum of NGC 1266 from Moustakas & Kennicutt (2006) reveal a characteristic post-starburst (K+A) stellar population and Davis et al. (2012) confirm that ionized gas emission in the system originate from a shock. Galaxies with K+A spectra and shock-like ionized gas line ratios may comprise an important, overlooked segment of the ...

  10. An engineering journey: A transcendental phenomenological study of African-American female engineers' persistence (United States)

    Somerville-Midgette, Kristy Nicole

    This transcendental phenomenological research study examined the perspectives and lived experiences of African-American female engineers related to the factors that led to their persistence to enter, persist through, and remain in the field. The study was guided by four research questions: (a) How do K-12 experiences shape African-American female engineers' decisions to enter the STEM field? (b) What persistence factors motivated African-American female engineers to enter the engineering profession? (c) What are the factors that shape African-American female engineers' persistence to progress through postsecondary engineering programs? (d) How do professional experiences shape African-American female engineers' persistence in the field? Cognitive interviewing techniques were used to validate data collection instruments. Interviews, focus groups, and timelines were used to collect data aimed at capturing the essence of the phenomenon of African-American engineers' persistence. The data was analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) phenomenological data analysis methods. The findings indicated that early academic experiences and achievement shaped participants' decision to enter the engineering field. Environmental factors, intrinsic motivation, support systems motivated participants to persist through postsecondary programs and to enter the engineering field. Further research is needed to examine the early academic experiences that encourage African-American females to enter engineering. In addition, research is needed to examine the barriers that lead to attrition of African-American females in engineering.

  11. A phenomenological study on the impacts of embedding disciplinary literacy during science instruction on elementary teachers' metacognition of instructional techniques (United States)

    Weiss, Kelley

    The educational community has been increasing its focus on literacy for several years. The modern definition of literacy requires students to be an informed and integrated thinker, synthesizing new information beyond the mere ability to read and write (Guzzetti & Bang, 2011). This qualitative phenomenological study focused on how teachers of science view literacy and how that view changes when they implement the concept of disciplinary literacy into science instruction. This phenomenological study examined how teachers became more metacognitive of their instructional methods after implementation of the Question-Answer Relationship strategy (QAR) and direct vocabulary instruction into their science instruction. Teachers utilized schema theory and social cognitive theory to integrate the two strategies into their science lessons throughout the study. This phenomenological study collected data during a six-week implementation period through interviews, observations, teacher journals and collection of artifacts from 12 teachers who taught students in grades one through five and three literacy specialists in a rural central Maine school. These data sources were analyzed using Moustakas' (1994) seven steps to discover themes that were identified from the data. Findings from this study, as viewed through the pragmatic lens, suggested that teachers benefit from systematic reflection of their teaching to develop literacy rich content area lessons that address all of the students' learning needs.

  12. On the effective oxygen yield in the disks of spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zasov, A; Abramova, O


    The factors influencing chemical evolution of galaxies are poorly understood. Both gas inflow and gas outflow reduce a gas-phase abundance of heavy elements (metallicity) whereas the ongoing star formation continuously increases it. To exclude the stellar nucleosynthesis from consideration, we analyze for the sample of 14 spiral galaxies the radial distribution of the effective yield of oxygen $y_{eff}$, which would be identical to the true stellar yield (per stellar generation) $y_o$ if the evolution followed the closed box model. As the initial data for gas-phase abundance we used the O/H radial profiles from Moustakas, Kennicutt, Tremonti et al. (2010), based on two different calibrations (Pilyugin & Thuan 2005 (PT2005) and Kobulnicky & Kewley 2004 (KK2004) methods). In most of galaxies with the PT2005 calibration, which we consider as a preferred one, the yield $y_{eff}$ in the main disk ($R \\ge 0.2~R_{25}$, where $R_{25}$ is the optical radius) increases with radius, remaining lower than the empi...

  13. The lived experience of high school instructors teaching concurrent enrollment courses (United States)

    Exby, Heather Dickinson

    This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of high school instructors teaching concurrent enrollment courses. The phenomenon was examined using the Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen approach for phenomenological research as outlined by Moustakas through data collected in personal interviews with 10 high school instructors who taught concurrent enrollment college courses in their high schools. Instructional Quality, Passion, Commitment to Students, and Pride emerged as the four structural themes that framed the meaning of the phenomenon. Balance within a Liminal Space emerged as the essence of the phenomenon. Approved high school instructors approached their college concurrent enrollment responsibilities with honor and pride in teaching at the college level, as well as with duty to provide rigorous academic instruction that supported student development and transition and met the college instructional expectations. The phenomenon of teaching of college courses in a high school environment required teachers to balance the demands of their high school environment and instructional philosophies of secondary education with the curricular demands and differing instructional philosophies of higher education. This resulted in concurrent enrollment's unique instructional position in a liminal or threshold space between secondary and postsecondary education sectors. The liminal space of concurrent enrollment, although laden with ambiguity and tension, provided teachers with unique opportunities to facilitate the teaching of college academic curriculum integrated with time-built relationships with students and commitment to student learning to create positive, enhanced academic experiences for students. The "productive tension" of the liminal space can serve as a unique and optimal laboratory for addressing some of the pervasive problems with successful matriculation to college and strengthen the college transition process for greater student success.

  14. NGC 1266 As a local candidate for rapid cessation of star formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Graves, Genevieve; Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Hearst Field Annex, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Deustua, Susana [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Griffin, Kristen Shapiro [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Duc, Pierre-Alain; Bournaud, Frédéric [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, Cedex (France); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); McDermid, Richard M. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 296, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Davis, Timothy A. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Street 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Crocker, Alison F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Scott, Nicholas [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); and others


    We present new Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae (SAURON) integral-field spectroscopy and Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) observations of molecular outflow host galaxy NGC 1266 that indicate NGC 1266 has experienced a rapid cessation of star formation. Both the SAURON maps of stellar population age and the Swift UVOT observations demonstrate the presence of young (<1 Gyr) stellar populations within the central 1 kpc, while existing Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy CO(1-0) maps indicate that the sites of current star formation are constrained to only the inner few hundred parsecs of the galaxy. The optical spectrum of NGC 1266 from Moustakas and Kennicutt reveal a characteristic poststarburst (K+A) stellar population, and Davis et al. confirm that ionized gas emission in the system originate from a shock. Galaxies with K+A spectra and shock-like ionized gas line ratios may comprise an important, overlooked segment of the poststarburst population, containing exactly those objects in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is actively expelling the star-forming material. While AGN activity is not the likely driver of the poststarburst event that occurred 500 Myr ago, the faint spiral structure seen in the Hubble Space Telescope Wide-field Camera 3 Y-, J- and H-band imaging seems to point to the possibility of gravitational torques being the culprit. If the molecular gas were driven into the center at the same time as the larger scale galaxy disk underwent quenching, the AGN might be able to sustain the presence of molecular gas for ≳ 1 Gyr by cyclically injecting turbulent energy into the dense molecular gas via a radio jet, inhibiting star formation.

  15. Lariat capping as a tool to manipulate the 5' end of individual yeast mRNA species in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nicolai; Pietschmann, Max; Schmid, Manfred


    -capped mRNA with a templated poly(A) tail translates poorly, underlining the critical importance of the m(7)G cap in translation. Finally, the lariat-capped RNA exhibits a threefold longer half-life compared to its m(7)G-capped counterpart, consistent with a key role for the m(7)G cap in mRNA turnover. Our...

  16. AcEST: BP915822 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r_hit_id Q6Y9M7 Definition tr|Q6Y9M7|Q6Y9M7_9FILI Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain (Fragment) OS=Anogramma...9 6e-78 >tr|Q6Y9M7|Q6Y9M7_9FILI Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain (Fragment) OS=Anogramma leptop...FILI Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain (Fragment) OS=Anogramma guatemalensis GN=rbcL PE=3 SV=1 L

  17. Molecular cytogenetics for acute megakaryocytic leukemia diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Matveeva


    Full Text Available Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML M7 – a rare disease characterized by poor treatment response, except for t(1;22 variant in infants. Cytogenetic abnormalities in AML M7 are highly heterogeneous. We collected samples from children with AML M7 to analyze the disease cytogenetic profile. During September 2009 to March 2012 20 AML M7 patients was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Complex and heterogeneous chromosomal abnormalities were revealed. It was found that no recurring abnormalities and cytogenetic markers unique to each patients. Also, the 19p13 amplification described previously only in myeloid cell lines was detected.

  18. Molecular cytogenetics for acute megakaryocytic leukemia diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Matveeva


    Full Text Available Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AML M7 – a rare disease characterized by poor treatment response, except for t(1;22 variant in infants. Cytogenetic abnormalities in AML M7 are highly heterogeneous. We collected samples from children with AML M7 to analyze the disease cytogenetic profile. During September 2009 to March 2012 20 AML M7 patients was studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization. Complex and heterogeneous chromosomal abnormalities were revealed. It was found that no recurring abnormalities and cytogenetic markers unique to each patients. Also, the 19p13 amplification described previously only in myeloid cell lines was detected.

  19. Influence of pH and media composition on suspension stability of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and immobilization of Daphnia magna under guideline testing conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B.; Baun, Anders


    in dissolution caused higher toxicity than in M7 medium. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) ENPs had a point of zero charge in the range of pH 7-8. At pH 7 in VS EPA, agglomerates with smaller hydrodynamic diameters (similar to 200 nm) were present compared to the high ionic strength M7 medium where hydrodynamic diameters...

  20. 76 FR 17471 - Air Tour Management Plan for Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI; Public Meeting/Notice of... (United States)


    ... Federal Aviation Administration Air Tour Management Plan for Haleakala National Park, Maui, HI; Public..., Kahului, HI 96732. Wednesday, April 13, 2011, 5 p.m.-7 p.m. Kula Community Center, 3690 Lower Kula Road, Kula, HI 96790. Thursday, April 14, 2011, 5 p.m.-7 p.m. Helene Community Center (Hana), 150 Keawa...

  1. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-1184 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-1184 ref|YP_003247073.1| polysaccharide biosynthesis protein [Methanocaldococcus vulcan...ius M7] gb|ACX72591.1| polysaccharide biosynthesis protein [Methanocaldococcus vulcanius M7] YP_003247073.1 0.079 22% ...

  3. AcEST: BP914988 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctase OS=Delftia acido... 37 0.081 sp|Q9M7D0|TPSD9_ABIGR Terpinolene synthase, chloroplastic OS=Abi... 31 4....LERLQELRDS 210 >sp|Q9M7D0|TPSD9_ABIGR Terpinolene synthase, chloroplastic OS=Abies grandis GN=ag9 PE=1 SV=1

  4. AcEST: BP911452 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RATH Protein EXECUTER 1, chloroplastic OS=Arabi... 41 0.002 sp|Q9M7D0|TPSD9_ABIGR Terpinolene synthase, chlo...IDDD---WDWDRWKKHFDQVDDQD 127 >sp|Q9M7D0|TPSD9_ABIGR Terpinolene synthase, chlorop

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MLUC-01-1036 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MLUC-01-1036 ref|XP_002650255.1| tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase subunit 1 [Enterocytozoon... bieneusi H348] gb|EED43793.1| tRNA (m(7)G46) methyltransferase subunit 1 [Enterocytozoon bieneusi H348] XP_002650255.1 5.5 41% ...

  6. Video data files to accompany USGS OFR 2015-1142--Assessment of existing and potential landslide hazards resulting from the April 25, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — On April 25, 2015, a large ( M7.8) earthquake shook much of central Nepal and was followed by a series of M>6 aftershocks, including a M7.3 event on May 12, 2015....

  7. Two-headed tetraphosphate cap analogs are inhibitors of the Dcp1/2 RNA decapping complex. (United States)

    Ziemniak, Marcin; Mugridge, Jeffrey S; Kowalska, Joanna; Rhoads, Robert E; Gross, John D; Jemielity, Jacek


    Dcp1/2 is the major eukaryotic RNA decapping complex, comprised of the enzyme Dcp2 and activator Dcp1, which removes the 5' m(7)G cap from mRNA, committing the transcript to degradation. Dcp1/2 activity is crucial for RNA quality control and turnover, and deregulation of these processes may lead to disease development. The molecular details of Dcp1/2 catalysis remain elusive, in part because both cap substrate (m(7)GpppN) and m(7)GDP product are bound by Dcp1/2 with weak (mM) affinity. In order to find inhibitors to use in elucidating the catalytic mechanism of Dcp2, we screened a small library of synthetic m(7)G nucleotides (cap analogs) bearing modifications in the oligophosphate chain. One of the most potent cap analogs, m(7)GpSpppSm(7)G, inhibited Dcp1/2 20 times more efficiently than m(7)GpppN or m(7)GDP. NMR experiments revealed that the compound interacts with specific surfaces of both regulatory and catalytic domains of Dcp2 with submillimolar affinities. Kinetics analysis revealed that m(7)GpSpppSm(7)G is a mixed inhibitor that competes for the Dcp2 active site with micromolar affinity. m(7)GpSpppSm(7)G-capped RNA undergoes rapid decapping, suggesting that the compound may act as a tightly bound cap mimic. Our identification of the first small molecule inhibitor of Dcp2 should be instrumental in future studies aimed at understanding the structural basis of RNA decapping and may provide insight toward the development of novel therapeutically relevant decapping inhibitors.

  8. Design and Facile Synthesis of New Dinucleotide Cap Analog Containing Both 2' and 3'-OH Modification on M⁷Guanosine Moiety. (United States)

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Bugarin, Alejandro; Shanmugasundaram, Muthian


    The first example of the synthesis of new dinucleotide cap analog containing 2('),3(')-diacetyl group on m(7)guanosine moiety is described. The desired modified cap analog, m(7,2)(')(,3)(')(-diacetyl)G[5(')]ppp[5(')]G has been obtained by the coupling reaction of triethylamine salt of m(7,2)(')(,3)(')(-diacetyl)GDP with ImGMP in presence of ZnCl2 as a catalyst in 62% yield with high purity. The structure of new cap analog has been confirmed by (1)H and (31)P NMR and mass data.

  9. Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    High explosives science and technology (M-7) is currently working on the third round of formulation and testing of Remediated nitrate salt (RNS) surrogates. This report summarizes the calorimetry results from the 15% sWheat mixtures. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogate formulation and testing standard procedure", released February 16, 2016. Results from the first and second rounds of formulation and testing were documented in memoranda M7-16-6042 and M7-16-6053.

  10. Kinetics of C. elegans DcpS cap hydrolysis studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wierzchowski, J; Pietrzak, M; Stepinski, J; Jemielity, J; Kalek, M; Bojarska, E; Jankowska-Anyszka, M; Davis, R E; Darzynkiewicz, E


    DcpS (scavenger decapping enzyme) from nematode C. elegans readily hydrolyzes both monomethyl- and trimethylguanosine cap analogues. The reaction was followed fluorimetrically. The marked increase of fluorescence intensity after the cleavage of pyrophosphate bond in dinucleotides was used to determine K(m) and V(max)values. Kinetic parameters were similar for both classes of substrates and only slightly dependent on pH. The hydrolysis was strongly inhibited by methylene cap analogues (m(7)Gp(CH(2))ppG and m(7)Gpp(CH(2))pG) and less potently by ARCA (m(7,3' O)GpppG).

  11. How Do Galaxies Grow? (United States)


    to the most massive galaxies belonging to clusters. "Most surprising is that in three of the four groups, the brightest galaxy also has a bright companion galaxy. These galaxy pairs are merging systems," says Tran. The brightest galaxy in each group can be ordered in a time sequence that shows how luminous galaxies continue to grow by merging until recently, that is, in the last 5 billion years. It appears that due to the most recent episode of this 'galactic cannibalism', the brightest galaxies became at least 50% more massive. This discovery provides unique and powerful validation of hierarchical formation as manifested in both galaxy and cluster assembly. "The stars in these galaxies are already old and so we must conclude that the recent merging did not produce a new generation of stars," concludes Tran. "Most of the stars in these galaxies were born at least 7 billion years ago." The team is composed of Kim-Vy H. Tran (Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Zürich, Switzerland), John Moustakas (New York University, USA), Anthony H. Gonzalez and Stefan J. Kautsch (University of Florida, Gainesville, USA), and Lei Bai and Dennis Zaritsky (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, USA). The results presented here are published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters: "The Late Stellar Assembly Of Massive Cluster Galaxies Via Major Merging", by Tran et al.

  12. Multiplicity factor and diffraction geometry factor for single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and measurement of phase content in cubic GaN/GaAs(001) epilayers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU; Bo


    [1] Yang, H., Zheng, L.X., Li, J.B. et al., Cubic-phase GaN light-emitting diode, Appl. Phys. Lett., 1999, 74(17): 2498.[2] Trampert, A., Brandt, O., Yang, H. et al., Direct observation of the initial nucleation and epitaxial growth of metastable cubic GaN on GaAs(001), Appl. Phys. Lett., 1997, 70(5): 583.[3] Balakrishnan, K., Feuillet, G., Ohta, K. et al., Structural analysis of cubic GaN through X-ray pole figure generation, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., 1997, 36(10, part 1): 6221.[4] Basu, S.N., Lei, T., Moustakas, T.D., Microstructures of GaN films deposited on (001) and (111) Si substrates using electron cyclotron resonance assisted-molecular beam epitaxy, J. Mater. Res., 1994, 9(9): 2370.[5] Powell, R.C., Lee, N.E., Kim, Y.W. et al., Heteroepitaxial wurtzite and zinc-blende structure GaN grown by reactive-ion molecular-beam epitaxy: growth kinetics, microstructure, and properties, J. Appl. Phys., 1993, 73(1): 189.[6] Camassel, J., Vicente, P., Planes, N. et al., Experimental investigation of cubic to hexagonal ratio for GaN layers deposited on 3C-SiC/Si, Phys. Stat. Sol. (b), 1999, 216: 253.[7] Sun, X.L., Yang, H., Zheng, L.X., Stability investigation of cubic GaN films grown by MOCVD on GaAs(100), Appl. Phys. Lett., 1999, 74(19 ): 2827.[8] Moret, M., Ruttenach-clur, S., Moreaud, N. et al., MOCVD growth of cubic gallium nitride: effect of V/III ratio, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a), 1999, 176: 493.[9] Qin, Z.X., Nagano, H., Sugure, Y. et al., High-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of cubic GaN grown on (001)GaAs by RF-radical source molecular beam epitaxy, J. Crys. Growth, 1998, 189/190: 425.[10] Qin Zhixin, Kobayashi, M., Yoshikawa, A., X-ray diffraction reciprocal space and pole figure characterization of cubic GaN epitaxial layers grown on (001)GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, J. Mater. Sci., 1999,109: 199.[11] Trampert, A., Brandt, O., Ploog, K. H., Phase transformations and phase stability in epitaxial

  13. Chemical synthesis of dinucleotide cap analogs. (United States)

    Kore, Anilkumar R; Shanmugasundaram, Muthian


    This unit describes a reliable, efficient and general method for the synthesis of standard cap analog (mCAP), m(7)G[5']ppp[5']G, and anti-reverse cap analog (ARCA), m(7,3')(O)G[5']ppp[5']G. The synthesis of required intermediate m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP has been achieved through regioselective methylation of the corresponding diphosphate using dimethyl sulfate under aqueous conditions. Then, the coupling reaction of m(7)GDP or m(2)(7,3'O)GDP with ImGMP using ZnCl(2)/DMF system affords the corresponding cap analog in good yields. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. 2011 Christchurch, New Zealand Images (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Island, New Zealand earthquake occurred as part of the aftershock sequence of the M 7.0 September 3, 2010 Darfield, NZ earthquake. It involved...

  15. Protein: FEA3 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NSITIVE 5-like protein 6 Abscisic acid responsive elements-binding factor 3, Dc3 promoter-binding factor 5, bZIP transcription factor 37 3702 Arabidopsis thaliana 829547 Q9M7Q3 ...

  16. Landslide Probability in the San Francisco Bay Region. The Haywired Earthquake Scenario (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential of widespread slope failures, in terms of landslide probability, triggered by a M7.0 scenario earthquake on the Hayward Fault in the...

  17. Strong motions and engineering structure performances in recent major earthquakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojun Li


    @@ In recent years, a series of major earthquakes occurred, which resulted in considerable engineering damage and collapse, triggered heavy geological hazards, and caused extremely high casualties and huge property and economic loss. The earthquakes include the 1994 Northridge earthquake (M6.8), the 1995 Kobe earthquake (M6.8), the 1999 Izmit earthquake (M7.6), the 1999 Jiji (Chi-Chi) earthquake (M7.6), the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake (M7.6), the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (M8.0) and the 2010 Haiti earthquake (M7.0). Some villages, towns and even cities were devastated in the earthquakes, especially in the 2005 northern Pakistan earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake and the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  18. Landslide Displacement in the San Francisco Bay Region. The HayWired Earthquake Scenario (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map shows the potential of widespread slope failures, in terms of Newmark displacement (measured in centimeters), triggered by a M7.0 scenario earthquake on the...

  19. 77 FR 76597 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance (United States)


    ... that these components be considered to have the same standard life expectancy as determined by the M7... replacing average 64,000 miles a year per car, which delineates a similar wear and life expectancy to...

  20. Affinity of dinucleotide cap analogues for human decapping scavenger (hDcpS). (United States)

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew M; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Davis, Richard E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Eukaryotic cells utilize scavenger decapping enzymes to degrade cap structure following 3'-5' mRNA decay. Human DcpS recently has been described as a highly specific hydrolase (a member of the HIT family) that catalyses the cleavage of m(7)GpppG and short capped oligoribonucleotides. We have demonstrated here that cap-1 (m(7)GpppGm) is a preferred substrate among several investigated dinucleotide cap analogues m(7)Gp(n)N (n = 3-5, N is a purine or pyrimidine base) and m(7)GMP is always one of the reaction product. Cap analogues containing pyrimidine base instead of guanine or diphosphate chain are resistant to hydrolysis catalyzed by human scavenger. Contrary to the other enzymes of HIT family, hDcpS activity is not stimulated by Mg(2+).

  1. Numerical Simulation of Reaction-Diffusion during Carburization of HK40 Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meili ZHU; Qiang XU; Junshan ZHANG


    Two types of carbides M23C6 and M7C3 precipitate orderly as carbon concentration in a high Cr-Ni austenitic steel increases during carburization process. The mathematical model that describes diffusion of carbon and the precipitation of M23C6 and M7C3 has been studied. A criterion to judge when the transformation of M23C6 to M7C3 is over and M7C3 precipitates directly has been given in simulated calculation. By applying the model, the carburization of HK40 steel has been calculated by means of finite difference computation techniques. The pack carburization tests for the HK40 steel have been carried out at 1273 K. The comparison between the experimental and the calculated results show acceptable agreement.

  2. AcEST: BP915192 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nthesis protein pu... 32 1.3 sp|Q555V7|VID27_DICDI VID27-like protein OS=Dictyostelium discoi... 31 3.9 sp|Q6M7C6|DNAE2_CORGL Error... Sbjct: 873 QSETSILTSTGSFLITWNFRKIKQNILDVYQI 904 >sp|Q6M7C6|DNAE2_CORGL Error-prone DNA polymerase OS=Coryne

  3. Synthesis of Leishmania cap-4 intermediates, cap-2 and cap-3. (United States)

    Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Stepinski, Janusz; Kierzek, Ryszard; Jemielity, Jacek; Zuberek, Joanna; Yoffe, Yael; Shapira, Michal; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Synthesis of Leishmania mRNA 5'-cap analogs, m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAm (cap-2), and m(7)Gpppm(2)(6)AmpAmpCm (cap-3) is reported. Binding affinities of those cap analogs for LeishIF4E proteins were determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Cap-3 showed similar affinity to LeishIF4Es compared to the mature trypanosomatids cap structure (cap-4).

  4. An analysis of meiotic stage of nondisjunction and clinical characteristics in 27 children with Down syndrome and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugar, A. [New York General Hospital, Ontario (Canada); Soukup, S. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    The observation that children with Down syndrome experience a significantly increased risk for leukemia was made in the 1950`s. Recent research has revealed that two specific forms of leukemia, acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (specifically the subtype M7) and transient leukemia (TL) are preferentially associated with trisomy 21. The specific association of these leukemias with trisomy 21 has suggested to others that there may be a gene on chromosome 21 which predisposes to TL and M7 leukemia. If a recessive gene for susceptibility existed, then trisomies arising as a duplication of one parental centromere through a mitotic or meiosis II error would be expected to have a higher frequency of TL and M7 leukemia. The purpose of this study was (i) To test the models which propose that disomic homozygosity is preponderant in cases of TL and M7 leukemia in a Down syndrome population (ii) To further characterize the clinical characteristics of leukemia in the Down syndrome population. We utilized a combination of cytogenetic and DNA polymorphism analyses to determine stage of non-disjunction and parental orgin of the extra chromosome in 18 children with Down syndrome and leukemia. The DNA analyses are reported elsewhere. Among 27 cases of Down Syndrome leukemics, meiosis II or mitotic errors were seen in 4 out of 5 informative TL and M7 cases and in only 1 out of 5 cases of other leukemias. Clinical analysis revealed that the frequency of M7 leukemia is significantly higher in DS-leukemics compared to non-Down syndrome-leukemics. A case of Down syndrome TL with subsequent development of M7 leukemia was anecdotal evidence that TL and M7 leukemia may be of common clonal origin. The fact that fewer than 100% of TL and M7 leukemia cases demonstrated meiosis II or mitotic errors indicates that disomic homozygosity is not necessary for the development of these leukemias, however it may be an important factor which predisposes to TL and M7 leukemia in Down syndrome.

  5. Identification of gemin5 as a novel 7-methylguanosine cap-binding protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelton S Bradrick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A unique attribute of RNA molecules synthesized by RNA polymerase II is the presence of a 7-methylguanosine (m(7G cap structure added co-transcriptionally to the 5' end. Through its association with trans-acting effector proteins, the m(7G cap participates in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including localization, translation and decay. However, at present relatively few eukaryotic proteins have been identified as factors capable of direct association with m(7G. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Employing an unbiased proteomic approach, we identified gemin5, a component of the survival of motor neuron (SMN complex, as a factor capable of direct and specific interaction with the m(7G cap. Gemin5 was readily purified by cap-affinity chromatography in contrast to other SMN complex proteins. Investigating the underlying basis for this observation, we found that purified gemin5 associates with m(7G-linked sepharose in the absence of detectable eIF4E, and specifically crosslinks to radiolabeled cap structure after UV irradiation. Deletion analysis revealed that an intact set of WD repeat domains located in the N-terminal half of gemin5 are required for cap-binding. Moreover, using structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified two proximal aromatic residues located within the WD repeat region that significantly impact m(7G association. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study rigorously identifies gemin5 as a novel cap-binding protein and describes an unprecedented role for WD repeat domains in m(7G recognition. The findings presented here will facilitate understanding of gemin5's role in the metabolism of non-coding snRNAs and perhaps other RNA pol II transcripts.

  6. Kinetic analyses of phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated eIFiso4E binding to mRNA cap analogues. (United States)

    Khan, Mateen A; Goss, Dixie J


    Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factors was previously shown to interact with m(7)G cap and play an important role in the regulation of translation initiation of protein synthesis. To gain further insight into the phosphorylation process of plant protein synthesis, the kinetics of phosphorylated wheat eIFiso4E binding to m(7)G cap analogues were examined. Phosphorylation of wheat eIFiso4E showed similar kinetic effects to human eIF4E binding to m(7)-G cap. Phosphorylation of eIFiso4E decreased the kinetic rate (2-fold) and increased the dissociation rate (2-fold) as compared to non-phosphorylated eIFiso4E binding to both mono- and di-nucleotide analogues at 22°C. Phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated eIFiso4E-m(7)G cap binding rates were found to be independent of concentration, suggesting conformational changes were rate limiting. Rate constant for phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated eIFiso4E binding to m(7)-G cap increased with temperature. Phosphorylation of eIFiso4E decreased (2-fold) the activation energy for both m(7)-G cap analogues binding as compared to non-phosphorylated eIFiso4E. The reduced energy barrier for the formation of eIFiso4E-m(7)-G cap complex suggests a more stable platform for further initiation complex formation and possible means of adapting variety of environmental conditions. Furthermore, the formation of phosphorylated eIFiso4E-cap complex may contribute to modulation of the initiation of protein synthesis in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strong Aftershock Study Based on Coulomb Stress Triggering—A Case Study on the 2016 Ecuador Mw 7.8 Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Wu


    Full Text Available The 2016 Ecuador M 7.8 earthquake ruptured the subduction zone boundary between the Nazca plate and the South America plate. This M 7.8 earthquake may have promoted failure in the surrounding crust, where six M ≥ 6 aftershocks occurred following this mainshock. These crustal ruptures were triggered by the high coulomb stress changes produced by the M 7.8 mainshock. Here, we investigate whether the six M ≥ 6 aftershocks are consistent with the positive coulomb stress region due to the mainshock. To explore the correlation between the mainshock and the aftershocks, we adopt a recently published high-quality finite fault model and focal mechanisms to study the coulomb stress triggers during the M 7.8 earthquake sequence. We compute the coulomb failure stress changes (ΔCFS on both of the focal mechanism nodal planes. We compare the ΔCFS imparted by the M 7.8 mainshock on the subsequent aftershocks with the epicenter location of each aftershock. In addition, the shear stress, normal stress, and coulomb stress changes in the focal sources of each aftershock are also computed. Coulomb stress changes in the focal source for the six M ≥ 6 aftershocks are in the range of −2.17–7.564 bar. Only one computational result for the M 6.9 aftershock is negative; other results are positive. We found that the vast majority of the six M ≥ 6 aftershocks occurred in positive coulomb stress areas triggered by the M 7.8 mainshock. Our results suggest that the coulomb stress changes contributed to the development of the Ecuador M 7.8 earthquake sequence.

  8. In vitro metabolism of canagliflozin in human liver, kidney, intestine microsomes, and recombinant uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) and the effect of genetic variability of UGT enzymes on the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in humans. (United States)

    Francke, Stephan; Mamidi, Rao N V S; Solanki, Bhavna; Scheers, Ellen; Jadwin, Andrew; Favis, Reyna; Devineni, Damayanthi


    O-glucuronidation is the major metabolic elimination pathway for canagliflozin. The objective was to identify enzymes and tissues involved in the formation of 2 major glucuronidated metabolites (M7 and M5) of canagliflozin and subsequently to assess the impact of genetic variations in these uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) on in vivo pharmacokinetics in humans. In vitro incubations with recombinant UGTs revealed involvement of UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 in the formation of M7 and M5, respectively. Although M7 and M5 were formed in liver microsomes, only M7 was formed in kidney microsomes. Participants from 7 phase 1 studies were pooled for pharmacogenomic analyses. A total of 134 participants (mean age, 41 years; men, 63%; white, 84%) were included in the analysis. In UGT1A9*3 carriers, exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 11%; AUCτ,ss , 45%) increased relative to the wild type. An increase in exposure of plasma canagliflozin (Cmax,ss , 21%; AUCt,ss , 18%) was observed in participants with UGT2B4*2 genotype compared with UGT2B4*2 noncarriers. Metabolites further delineate the role of both enzymes. The pharmacokinetic findings in participants carrying the UGT1A9*3 and UGT2B4*2 allele implicate that UGT1A9 and UGT2B4 are involved in the metabolism of canagliflozin to M7 and M5, respectively. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Geometry and supersymmetry of heterotic warped flux AdS backgrounds (United States)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.


    We classify the geometries of the most general warped, flux AdS backgrounds of heterotic supergravity up to two loop order in sigma model perturbation theory. We show under some mild assumptions that there are no AdS n backgrounds with n ≠ 3. Moreover the warp factor of AdS3 backgrounds is constant, the geometry is a product AdS 3 × M 7 and such solutions preserve, 2, 4, 6 and 8 supersymmetries. The geometry of M 7 has been specified in all cases. For 2 supersymmetries, it has been found that M 7 admits a suitably restricted G 2 structure. For 4 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(3) structure and can be described locally as a circle fibration over a 6-dimensional KT manifold. For 6 and 8 supersymmetries, M 7 has an SU(2) structure and can be described locally as a S 3 fibration over a 4-dimensional manifold which either has an anti-self dual Weyl tensor or a hyper-Kähler structure, respectively. We also demonstrate a new Lichnerowicz type theorem in the presence of α' corrections.

  10. Application of maltodextrin and gum Arabic in microencapsulation of saffron petal's anthocyanins and evaluating their storage stability and color. (United States)

    Mahdavee Khazaei, K; Jafari, S M; Ghorbani, M; Hemmati Kakhki, A


    In this work, anthocyanin stability and color of encapsulated freeze-dried saffron petal's extract with various matrices consisting gum Arabic (AG) and maltodextrin (M7 and M20) were studied. Total anthocyanins of powders and color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) were measured immediately after production and during storage up to 10 weeks by pH differential method and computer vision, respectively. Different compounds of wall materials did not show any significant differences in terms of stabilizing anthocyanins (Panthocyanin content of the powders was observed after storage. The efficiency order of wall materials considering total color differences (TCD) was AG>M20>M7. By evaluating 3D surface and Cox trace plots it was revealed that wall formulas which had the lowest amount of AG and highest amounts of M20 and M7 showed the lowest total color differences after storage (Panthocyanins of saffron petal's extract.

  11. Deletion of pigR gene in Monascus ruber leads to loss of pigment production. (United States)

    Xie, Nana; Liu, Qingpei; Chen, Fusheng


    Pigments produced by Monascus are traditional food colorants and are widely used as dietary supplements. Since genes involving in pigment biosynthesis have not been reported, we describe the identification of a putative pigment-regulatory gene (pigR) obtained by molecular analysis of an albino strain of Monascus ruber M7. In the pigR-deleted strain (ΔpigR), neither the pigments nor pigR expression were detected by HPLC or reverse-transcription PCR, respectively, whereas the introduction of the pigR, together with a constitutive trpC promoter into ΔpigR, caused it to produce 5.4 U of red pigments/g dry mycelia, about 12-fold higher than Monascus ruber M7 (0.46 U/g dry mycelia). Thus pigR up-regulates pigment production in Monascus ruber M7.

  12. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity following vaccination with synthetic Candida cell wall mannan derived heptamannoside-protein conjugate: immunomodulatory properties of heptamannoside-BSA conjugate. (United States)

    Paulovičová, Lucia; Paulovičová, Ema; Karelin, Alexander A; Tsvetkov, Yury E; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bystrický, Slavomír


    Chemically defined glycoprotein conjugate composed of synthetically prepared mannan-derived heptamannoside with terminal β-1,2-linked mannose residue attached to the α-1,3-linked mannose residues and BSA as carrier protein (M7-BSA conjugate) was analysed for the capacity to induce protective humoral immunity and appropriate alteration cellular immunity. To identify protective antigenic structure of Candida cell wall mannan M7-BSA conjugate was used for BALB/c mice immunization. The obtained results were compared with placebo group and with heat-inactivated C. albicans whole cells immunization. The administration route of M7-BSA conjugate secondary booster injection significantly affected the intensity of humoral immune response and the specificity of produced antibodies. All prepared sera were able to elevate candidacidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in cooperation with complement. Moreover, polyclonal sera obtained after secondary subcutaneous (s.c.) booster injection of M7-BSA conjugate were able to induce candidacidal activity of PMN also in complement independent manner. M7-BSA conjugate immunization induced increases of phagocytic activity and respiratory burst of granulocytes, caused a raise of the proportion of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and increased the CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocyte ratio. We observed also an increasing proportion of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells compared to immunization with heat inactivated whole C. albicans cells, which in turn promoted an increase of the CD8(+)CD25(+) cell proportion. Immunization with M7-BSA conjugate induced Th1, Th2 and Th17 immune responses as indicated by the elevation of relevant cytokines levels. These data provide some insights on the immunomodulatory properties of oligomannosides and contribute to the development of synthetic oligosaccharide vaccines against fungal diseases.

  13. First structural evidence of sequestration of mRNA cap structures by type 1 ribosome inactivating protein from Momordica balsamina. (United States)

    Kushwaha, Gajraj Singh; Yamini, Shavait; Kumar, Mukesh; Sinha, Mau; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P


    This is the first structural evidence of recognition of mRNA cap structures by a ribosome inactivating protein. It is well known that a unique cap structure is formed at the 5' end of mRNA for carrying out various processes including mRNA maturation, translation initiation, and RNA turnover. The binding studies and crystal structure determinations of type 1 ribosome inactivating protein (RIP-1) from Momordica balsamina (MbRIP-1) were carried out with mRNA cap structures including (i) N7-methyl guanine (m7G), (ii) N7-methyl guanosine diphosphate (m7GDP), and (iii) N7-methyl guanosine triphosphate (m7GTP). These compounds showed affinities to MbRIP-1 at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes of MbRIP-1 with m7G, m7GDP, and m7GTP at 2.65, 1.77, and 1.75 Å resolutions revealed that all the three compounds bound to MbRIP-1 in the substrate binding site at the positions which are slightly shifted towards Glu85 as compared to those of rRNA substrates. In this position, Glu85 forms several hydrogen bonds with guanine moiety while N-7 methyl group forms van der Waals contacts. However, the guanine rings are poorly stacked in these complexes. Thus, the mode of binding by MbRIP-1 to mRNA cap structures is different which results in the inhibition of depurination. Since some viruses are known to exploit the capping property of the host, this action of MbRIP-1 may have implications for the antiviral activity of this protein in vivo. The understanding of the mode of binding of MbRIP-1 to cap structures may also assist in the design of anti-viral agents. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Quartic Box-Spline Reconstruction on the BCC Lattice. (United States)

    Kim, Minho


    This paper presents an alternative box-spline filter for the body-centered cubic (BCC) lattice, the seven-direction quartic box-spline M7 that has the same approximation order as the eight-direction quintic box-spline M8 but a lower polynomial degree, smaller support, and is computationally more efficient. When applied to reconstruction with quasi-interpolation prefilters, M7 shows less aliasing, which is verified quantitatively by integral filter metrics and frequency error kernels. To visualize and analyze distributional aliasing characteristics, each spectrum is evaluated on the planes and lines with various orientations.

  15. Results from Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    High Explosives and Technology (M-7) completed the second round of formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on March 17, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required under test plan PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-16-6042, "Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing."

  16. Screening and Preliminary Identification of High-Yield Strains of Bacterial Cellulose%细菌纤维素高产菌株的筛选和初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周胜虎; 薛齐佳; 刘传凤; 黄颖; 李丽芬; 黎欣; 赵静


    通过静置富集和分离纯化等步骤从自然腐烂的水果中分离得到6株产细菌纤维素的菌株.从腐烂的芒果中筛选得到1株可产细菌纤维素的混合菌,混合菌产量为湿重617.3 g/L、干重23.9 g/L.经过分离纯化确定该混合菌中只有1株产细菌纤维素菌株M7,在传代培养过程中M7菌株细菌纤维素产量最高且稳定.对M7菌株进行形态特征、生理生化特征和16S rRNA分子序列分析,初步确定M7菌株为葡糖醋杆菌,16S rDNA分子序列已提交至GenBank,序列号为JX303335.%6 bacterial cellulose-production strains were isolated from a variety of different types of the natural decay fruits with the step of static enrichment culture,isolation and purification.From mango,one strain of mixed bacteria which can produce the bacterial cellulose was isolated,the yield of mixed bacteria was wet weight 617.3 g/L and dry weight 23.9 g/L,and only M7 strain can produce bacterial cellulose in this mixed bacteria.M7 strain had the highest and stable yield of bacterial cellulose in the course of subculturing.M7 strain was initially identified as the gluconacetobacter by analyzing the morphological characteristics,physiological and biochemical characteristics of M7 and determining its 16 S rRNA molecular sequence.The 16 S rRNA molecular sequence was already submitted to the GenBank,and the number of sequence is JX303335.

  17. Land Use Control Implementation Plan (United States)

    Starr, Andrew Scott


    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of Building M7-505 of institutional controls that have been implemented at the site. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with Building M7-505, institutional land use controls (LUCs) are necessary to prohibit the use of groundwater from the site. LUCs are also necessary to prevent access to soil under electrical equipment in the northwest portion of the site. Controls necessary to prevent human exposure will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  18. 75 FR 19942 - Western Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings (United States)


    ... rank MET proposals 6. Discussion and wrap-up Wednesday, May 5, 2010, 9 a.m. - 5 p.m. 7. Review CDPP... proposals 9. Discussion and wrap-up ] 10. Advisor Discussion and Recommendations 11. Other business The... Sustainable Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-S...

  19. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operation (NEEMO) 12: Collaborative Accelerated Medical Technology Development (United States)


    rates on PMAC raised: To provide smoother motion and a more tightly- controlled servo system, the servo loop closure rates of the servo motion...controller cards for the M7 robot arms (called PMACs ) were raised to 2 kHz. These PMAC cards provide high-speed low-level servo loop closure, while the

  20. Summary of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    High Explosives Science and Technology (M-7) completed all required formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on April 27, 2016 as specified in PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required in that test plan. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. The work was carried out in three rounds, with the full matrix of samples formulated and tested in each round. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-J6-6042, " Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Results from the second round of formulation and testing were documented in M7-16-6053 , "Results from the Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Initial results from the third round were documented in M7-16-6057, "Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Formulation and Testing."

  1. Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure Investigation of Carbon Stabilized Expanded Austenite and Carbides in Stainless Steel AISI 316

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jette; Christiansen, Thomas; Ståhl, Kenny;


    Low temperature carburized AISI 316 stainless steel - carbon expanded austenite - was investigated with EXAFS and synchrotron diffraction together with synthesized carbides of the type M3C2, M7C3 and M23C6. It was found that the chemical environment of carbon expanded austenite is not associated ...

  2. Oral health status, treatment needs, and obstacles to dental care among noninstitutionalized children with severe mental disabilities in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, A.; van Houtem, C.M.H.H.; van der Schoof, M.; Resida, G.; Broers, D.


    The objective of this study was to assess the oral health status, treatment needs, and barriers to dental care of noninstitutionalized children in The Netherlands who have severe disabilities. The oral health status of 61 children (38% female; 4-12 years of age; M = 7.7, SD = 2.2), randomly selected

  3. Kolm traktorit, mis teevad kõiki töid / Ain Alvela

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alvela, Ain, 1967-


    Järgmine aasta toob Eesti põllumeeste käsutusse vähemalt kolm uut sarnases võimsusklassis traktorit: Valtra N-seeria, Kubota M7-seeria, Claas Arion 400-seeria. Kõiki neid iseloomustav ühine nimetaja on universaalsus

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15650-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 0.14 2 ( DL085433 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications. 48 0.16 3 ( AX416871 ) Sequence 3862 from P...-3146M7 map 8,... 38 0.66 2 ( DL083306 ) Listeria innocua, genome and applications. 48 0.67 2 ( AX414744 ) S

  5. Characterizing the Kathmandu Valley sediment response through strong motion recordings of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake sequence (United States)

    Rajaure, S.; Asimaki, Domniki; Thompson, Eric; Hough, Susan E.; Martin, Stacey; Ampuero, J.P.; Dhital, M.R.; Inbal, A; Takai, N; Shigefuji, M.; Bijukchhen, S; Ichiyanagi, M; Sasatani, T; Paudel, L


    We analyze strong motion records and high-rate GPS measurements of the M 7.8 Gorkha mainshock, M 7.3 Dolakha, and two moderate aftershock events recorded at four stations on the Kathmandu basin sediments, and one on rock-outcrop. Recordings on soil from all four events show systematic amplification relative to the rock site at multiple frequencies in the 0.1–2.5 Hz frequency range, and de-amplification of higher frequencies ( >2.5–10 Hz). The soil-to-rock amplification ratios for the M 7.8 and M 7.3 events have lower amplitude and frequency peaks relative to the ratios of the two moderate events, effects that could be suggestive of nonlinear site response. Further, comparisons to ground motion prediction equations show that 1) both soil and rock mainshock recordings were severely depleted of high frequencies, and 2) the depletion at high frequencies is not present in the aftershocks. These observations indicate that the high frequency deamplification is additionally related to characteristics of the source that are not captured by simplified ground motion prediction equations, and allude to seismic hazard analysis models being revised – possibly by treating isolated high frequency radiation sources separately from long period components to capture large magnitude near-source events such as the 2015 Gorkha mainshock.

  6. 78 FR 59075 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ...-109 on Reliable Hardened Containment Vents (Open)--The Committee will hear presentations by and hold...-13-109 on reliable hardened containment vents. 6:00 p.m.-7:00 p.m.: Preparation of ACRS Reports (Open... Testing of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Pressurized Water Reactors'' and Regulatory Guide...

  7. 78 FR 35098 - Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... (United States)


    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Activity... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-NEW (Hand or Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any.... Title: Hand and Finger Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960M-7. OMB Control Number:...

  8. Performance of Reinforced Polymer Ablators Exposed to a Solid Rocket Motor Exhaust (United States)


    developed and manufactured by FMI. a. constituents:9 n 1) - percent phenolic resin 2) - percent chopped carbon fibers 3) - percent epoxy impregnated into...fibers 4) - percent chopped carbon fibers 1 5) - percent chopped ceramic fibers m 7 NAVSWC TR 91-645 a b. specific gravity (g/cc): c. virgin thermal

  9. The European aerosol budget in 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan de Brugh, J.M.J.; Schaap, M.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.J.; Kahnert, M.; Sofiev, M.A.; Huijnen, V.; Krol, M.C.


    This paper presents the aerosol budget over Europe in 2006 calculated with the global transport model TM5 coupled to the size-resolved aerosol module M7. Comparison with ground observations indicates that the model reproduces the observed concentrations quite well with an expected slight underestima

  10. Microstructure of laser-clad SiC-(Ni alloy) composite coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.


    The laser cladding technique was used to produce Ni alloy coatings with different SiC particle (SiCp) contents on steel 1045. The complete dissolution of SiCp took place during laser melting and led to a microstructural evolution of the coatings associated with the SiCp content. M7X3 or M23X6-type c

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSI841 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone cSTS6M7 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 44 4e-16 5 BQ047062 |BQ047062.1 EST596180 P. infestans-challenge...1 EST497426 P. infestans-challenged leaf Solanum tuberosum cDNA clone BPLI2C14 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 4

  12. Electrodialytic treatment of sewage sludge ash for the recovery of phosphorous and separation of heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbers, Benjamin; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland;


    in separation from the ash suspension to the anode compartment. Although 96% of the recovered P was mobilized, only 55% was separated from the ash suspension. Less mobilization (m), but better separation (s), from the ash and ash suspension was observed for heavy metals, 78% (m) 69% (s) for Cd; 24% (m) 7% (s...

  13. Libraries in Manitoba: MedlinePlus (United States)

    ... this page: Libraries in Manitoba To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Winnipeg Grace Hospital Library 300 Booth Drive Winnipeg, MB R3J 3M7 CANADA ...

  14. The Mnemonic Value of Orthography for Vocabulary Learning (United States)

    Rosenthal, Julie; Ehri, Linnea C.


    In 2 experiments, the authors examined whether spellings improve students' memory for pronunciations and meanings of new vocabulary words. Lower socioeconomic status minority 2nd graders (M = 7 years 7 months; n = 20) and 5th graders (M = 10 years 11 months; n = 32) were taught 2 sets of unfamiliar nouns and their meanings over several learning…

  15. Point locations for earthquakes M2.5 and greater in a two-year aftershock sequence resulting from the HayWired scenario earthquake mainshock (4/18/2018) in the San Francisco Bay area, California (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the spatial locations of all modeled aftershocks magnitude 2.5 and greater resulting from the HayWired M7.0 mainshock occurring on April 18,...

  16. 26 CFR 1.263A-9 - The avoided cost method. (United States)


    ... provision described in § 1.163-8T(m)(7)(ii); (ii) Debt, such as accounts payable and other accrued items..., debt specified in paragraph (a)(4)(ii) of this section (e.g., accounts payable) may be included in... accounts payable traced to unit A $100,000 Noninterest-bearing accounts payable that are not traced to...

  17. Proceedings of The 1980 Army Numerical Analysis and Computers Conference (17th) Held at Moffett Field, California on 20-21 February 1980. (United States)


    required on the order ,m7Wuter time on the IBM 370/168. 170 A E - -.. - ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This project was proposed and guided by Prof. Peter Henrici of... Henrici , P., Fast Fourier Methods in Computational Complex Analysis, SIAM Review 21 (1979), pp. 481-527. [9) Powell, M. J., A Fortran Subroutine for

  18. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    *Allen, B. Molesworth: Malayan Fruits. An introduction to the cultivated species (with Thai and Tamil names). 1967, 245 pp., 73 fig., 10 photo., 1 tab. 8°. Donald Moore Press Ltd. Singapore. M$ 7.50. A popular guide in a handy well illustrated and wellprinted cheap hook of the most common edible fru

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSD608 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available T09822 |T09822.1 0405m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falciparum genomic ...clone 0405m, DNA sequence. 50 4e-07 2 T09823 |T09823.1 0405m7 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falcipar

  20. Dicty_cDB: AFO458 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available . 44 1.3 1 T09643 |T09643.1 0215m7 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falciparum genomic clone 0215m, DNA... sequence. 38 1.5 2 AA550553 |AA550553.1 1716m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falciparum genomic clo

  1. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander


    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  2. 76 FR 31839 - Safety Zones; Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Sault Sainte Marie... (United States)


    .... No public meeting was requested, and none was held. Background and Purpose This rule will add 33 CFR... p.m. (7) Festivals of Fireworks Celebration Fireworks; St. Ignace, MI: (i) Location. All U.S... enforced July 2 from 9 p.m. until 11 p.m. (9) Jordan Valley Freedom Festival Fireworks; East Jordan, MI: (i...

  3. AcEST: DK961045 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 31 7.2 sp|Q5M7E3|NSUN4_XENLA Putative methyltransferase NSUN4 OS=Xenopu... 30 9.4 sp|P54269|CAUP_DROME Homeobox protein caupolic...N Sbjct: 73 LVNNFSHKETVLNNLSALKAKDFISEAQSVISLLQTQNN 111 >sp|P54269|CAUP_DROME Homeobox protein caupolic


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucar, Hülya; Nielsen, Rudi Pankratz; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen;

    A solvolysis process to depolymerize the resin in glass fiber reinforced composites and recover the glass fibers has been investigated using microwave induced irradiation. The depolymerization was carried out in HNO3 with concentrations in the range of 1M-7M and in KOH with concentrations ranging...

  5. 77 FR 18268 - Proposal Review Panel for Engineering Education and Centers; Notice of Meeting (United States)


    ... Proposal Review Panel for Engineering Education and Centers; Notice of Meeting In accordance with the... the following meeting: Name: Proposal Review Panel for Engineering Education and Centers ( 173). Date... 3:30 p.m.--7:30 p.m. Closed--ERC Education Program Thursday, March 29, 2012 8 a.m.-9 a.m....

  6. Department of Chemistry, (Judo State University, Ado~Ei:_iti, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catalase (I-QC-11.1 1.1.6; H30, oxidoreduetase) is one of the most intensively studied of all rnarmnalian .... with SDS. The critical rnicelle concentration (CMC) of SDS for catalase is about 10 mM [7]. .... Academic Press: New York; 1953. Buyer ...

  7. Application of Optical Flow Sensors for Dead Reckoning, Heading Reference, Obstacle Detection, and Obstacle Avoidance (United States)


    OPTICAL FLOW SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE by Tarek M. Nejah September 2015... SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nejah, Tarek M. 7...avoidance using only one optical mouse sensor was presented in this thesis. Odometry, position tracking, and obstacle avoidance are important issues in

  8. On perturbative instability of Pope-Warner solutions on Sasaki-Einstein manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Pilch, Krzysztof


    Given a Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M_7, there is the N=2 supersymmetric AdS_4 x M_7 Freund-Rubin solution of eleven-dimensional supergravity and the corresponding non-supersymmetric solutions: the perturbatively stable skew-whiffed solution, the perturbatively unstable Englert solution, and the Pope-Warner solution, which is known to be perturbatively unstable when M_7 is the seven-sphere or, more generally, a tri-Sasakian manifold. We show that similar perturbative instability of the Pope-Warner solution will arise for any Sasaki-Einstein manifold, M_7, admitting a basic, primitive, transverse (1,1)-eigenform of the Hodge-de Rham Laplacian with the eigenvalue in the range between 2(9-4\\sqrt 3) and 2(9+4\\sqrt 3). Existence of such (1,1)-forms on all homogeneous Sasaki-Einstein manifolds can be shown explicitly using the Kahler quotient construction or the standard harmonic expansion. The latter shows that the instability arises from the coupling between the Pope-Warner background and Kaluza-Klein scalar modes ...

  9. Children's Gender- and Ethnicity-Based Reasoning about Foods (United States)

    Lam, Virginia; Leman, Patrick


    This article reports two studies that investigated the ways in which children use gender and ethnicity for making judgments about food choice. In Study 1, White and Asian 5- to 10-year-olds (M = 7.37) were asked to rate how much they and others would like novel non-stereotyped foods. White children inferred that girls and White others would like…

  10. Cascadia's Staggering Losses (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Vogt, B.


    Recent worldwide earthquakes have resulted in staggering losses. The Northridge, California; Kobe, Japan; Loma Prieta, California; Izmit, Turkey; Chi-Chi, Taiwan; and Bhuj, India earthquakes, which range from magnitudes 6.7 to 7.7, have all occurred near populated areas. These earthquakes have resulted in estimated losses between \\3 and \\300 billion, with tens to tens of thousands of fatalities. Subduction zones are capable of producing the largest earthquakes. The 1939 M7.8 Chilean, the 1960 M9.5 Chilean, the 1964 M9.2 Alaskan, the 1970 M7.8 Peruvian, the 1985 M7.9 Mexico City and the 2001 M7.7 Bhuj earthquakes are damaging subduction zone quakes. The Cascadia fault zone poses a tremendous hazard in the Pacific Northwest due to the ground shaking and tsunami inundation hazards combined with the population. To address the Cascadia subduction zone threat, the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries conducted a preliminary statewide loss study. The 1998 Oregon study incorporated a M8.5 quake, the influence of near surface soil effects and default building, social and economic data available in FEMA's HAZUS97 software. Direct financial losses are projected at over \\$12 billion. Casualties are estimated at about 13,000. Over 5,000 of the casualties are estimated to result in fatalities from hazards relating to tsunamis and unreinforced masonry buildings.

  11. The Development and Analysis of Intrusion Detection Algorithms (United States)


    rD 25.78C.7F³u7D .7.7?U2BpgqlH78C6b65VB258C=R0�^rD 6b2547. :<.>öQ < S.7?A^0923D .R69VB258C=R096c09:S03? U650 �09H7?ÂD E;F<:G03H7ITplqlH7?z0923D...HXDQ29M7? U650 03:`VB: 2929?UVU0Oo:ɚUKÃ8;6y03H7DQ0V[HXD 29D VU09?B296]8C.b09H7?Y=XD 6565^P:ឍM IhDifWu?rM7: 47u7EC?UMep7b8;@ ?B.¹09HXDQ0YDc=XD...47ECM7.�rø0�a7.7M>D 4765?B29.7D Ih?l8;.Â03H7?lM7? U650 �aXE;? KɠG0YVB:ɜ 0YaX.7MJDbIhDQ03V[HÂ03:�09H7?lM7?U650k4769?U29.XDQIh?`8C.¹09H7?l8C.R8;0

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHR719 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Washington Navel Orange Scale-Infested Rind cDNA Library UCRCS11 Citrus sinensis cDNA clone CS_WEd0004D15, m...7, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE. 40 0.40 3 DN619654 |DN619654.1 UCRCS11_04D15_r Parent

  13. Microstructure of laser-clad SiC-(Ni alloy) composite coating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pei, Y.T.; Ouyang, J.H.; Lei, T.C.; Zhou, Y.


    The laser cladding technique was used to produce Ni alloy coatings with different SiC particle (SiCp) contents on steel 1045. The complete dissolution of SiCp took place during laser melting and led to a microstructural evolution of the coatings associated with the SiCp content. M7X3 or M23X6-type c

  14. Canadian Diving Symposium (4th) Held at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, Toronto, Ontario, 24-25 October, 1979. (United States)


    decompression sickness, using squirrel monkeys (27) as animal subjects. The monkeys with inner ear "hits" show severe flbro- osseous labyrtnthltis in their semi...400 University Avenue Toronto, Ontario M7A IT7 British Columbia Mr. S. Duffy (604) 273-3878 Accident Prevention Officer Workers’ Compensation Board

  15. Memory Abilities in Children with Mathematical Difficulties: Comorbid Language Difficulties Matter (United States)

    Reimann, Giselle; Gut, Janine; Frischknecht, Marie-Claire; Grob, Alexander


    The present study investigated cognitive abilities in children with difficulties in mathematics only (n = 48, M = 8 years and 5 months), combined mathematical and language difficulty (n = 27, M = 8 years and 1 month) and controls (n = 783, M = 7 years and 11 months). Cognitive abilities were measured with seven subtests, tapping visual perception,…

  16. Identification of the HIT-45 protein from Trypanosoma brucei as an FHIT protein/dinucleoside triphosphatase: substrate specificity studies on the recombinant and endogenous proteins. (United States)

    Banerjee, Hiren; Palenchar, Jennifer B; Lukaszewicz, Maciej; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Guranowski, Andrzej; Ng, Stephanie; Wah, David A; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Bellofatto, Vivian


    A new member of the FHIT protein family, designated HIT-45, has been identified in the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. Recombinant HIT-45 proteins were purified from trypanosomal and bacterial protein expression systems and analyzed for substrate specificity using various dinucleoside polyphosphates, including those that contain the 5'-mRNA cap, i.e., m(7)GMP. This enzyme exhibited typical dinucleoside triphosphatase activity (EC, having its highest specificity for diadenosine triphosphate (ApppA). However, the trypanosome enzyme contains a unique amino-terminal extension, and hydrolysis of cap dinucleotides with monomethylated guanosine or dimethylated guanosine always yielded m(7)GMP (or m(2,7)GMP) as one of the reaction products. Interestingly, m(7)Gpppm(3)(N6, N6, 2'O)A was preferred among the methylated substrates. This hypermethylated dinucleotide is unique to trypanosomes and may be an intermediate in the decay of cap 4, i.e., m(7)Gpppm(3)(N6, N6, 2'O)Apm(2'O)Apm(2'O)Cpm(2)(N3, 2'O)U, that occurs in these organisms.

  17. Gender Differences in Perceived Gratifications Obtained through Electronic Mail (United States)

    Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.


    Electronic mail provides users with unique positive psychological consequences that differentiate it from other media. These consequences or gratifications have been mentioned separately across the electronic mail literature, yet there is no specific measure for these gratifications. The study found that females (M = 7.7; SD = 1.8) achieve higher…

  18. Inactivation of the global regulator LaeA in Monascus ruber results in a species-dependent response in sporulation and secondary metabolism. (United States)

    Liu, Qingpei; Cai, Li; Shao, Yanchun; Zhou, Youxiang; Li, Mu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng


    The nuclear regulator LaeA has been proven to globally govern fungal development and secondary metabolism, but its function may be species-dependent, even though its amino acid sequences are well conserved in numerous fungi. Herein we identified the LaeA in Monascus ruber M7 (MrLaeA), and verified its role to mediate growth, sporulation and secondary metabolism. Results showed that the radial growth rate of the selected MrlaeA knock-out mutant (MrΔlaeA-22) was significantly faster than that of the parental strain M. ruber M7, and growth was accompanied by the formation of an abnormal colony phenotype with more abundant aerial hyphae. Interestingly, conidia production of the MrΔlaeA-22 strain was about thrice that of M. ruber M7, but ascospores were not observed in the MrΔlaeA-22 strain. Additionally, compared to M. ruber M7, MrΔlaeA-22 exhibited drastically reduced production of multiple secondary metabolites, especially those of the six well-known Monascus pigments and citrinin. Simultaneously, the selected MrlaeA complementation strain (MrΔlaeA::laeA-45) nearly recovered the capacity for sporulation and secondary metabolism observed in the parental strain. These results demonstrate that MrLaeA regulates not only secondary metabolism, but also asexual and sexual differentiation in M. ruber, but some of its regulation appears to differ from other fungi.

  19. Determination of nonligand amino acids critical to [4Fe-4S]2+/+ assembly in ferredoxin maquettes. (United States)

    Mulholland, S E; Gibney, B R; Rabanal, F; Dutton, P L


    The prototype ferredoxin maquette, FdM, is a 16-amino acid peptide which efficiently incorporates a single [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster with spectroscopic and electrochemical properties that are typical of natural bacterial ferredoxins. Using this synthetic protein scaffold, we have investigated the role of the nonliganding amino acids in the assembly of the iron-sulfur cluster. In a stepwise fashion, we truncated FdM to a seven-amino acid peptide, FdM-7, which incorporates a cluster spectroscopically identical to FdM but in lower yield, 29% relative to FdM. FdM-7 consists solely of the. CIACGAC. consensus ferredoxin core motif observed in natural protein sequences. Initially, all of the nonliganding amino acids were substituted for either glycine, FdM-7-PolyGly (.CGGCGGC.), or alanine, FdM-7-PolyAla (.CAACAAC.), on the basis of analysis of natural ferredoxin sequences. Both FdM-7-PolyGly and FdM-7-PolyAla incorporated little [4Fe-4S]2+/+ cluster, 6 and 7%, respectively. A systematic study of the incorporation of a single isoleucine into each of the four nonliganding positions indicated that placement either in the second or in the sixth core motif positions,.CIGCGGC. or.CGGCGIC., restored the iron-sulfur cluster binding capacity of the peptides to the level of FdM-7. Incorporation of an isoleucine into the fifth position,.CGGCIGC., which in natural ferredoxins is predominantly occupied by a glycine, resulted in a loss of [4Fe-4S] affinity. The substitution of leucine, tryptophan, and arginine into the second core motif position illustrated the stabilization of the [4Fe-4S] cluster by bulky hydrophobic amino acids. Furthermore, the incorporation of a single isoleucine into the second core motif position in a 16-amino acid ferredoxin maquette resulted in a 5-fold increase in the level of [4Fe-4S] cluster binding relative to that of the glycine variant. The protein design rules derived from this study are fully consistent with those derived from natural ferredoxin sequence

  20. Synthesis of anti-reverse cap analogs (ARCAs) and their applications in mRNA translation and stability. (United States)

    Grudzien-Nogalska, Ewa; Stepinski, Janusz; Jemielity, Jacek; Zuberek, Joanna; Stolarski, Ryszard; Rhoads, Robert E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Synthetic capped RNA transcripts produced by in vitro transcription in the presence of m(7)Gp(3)G have found a wide application in studying such processes as mRNA translation, pre-mRNA splicing, mRNA turnover, and intracellular transport of mRNA and snRNA. However, because of the presence of a 3'-OH on both m(7)Guo and Guo moieties of the cap structure, one-third to one-half of the mRNAs contain a cap incorporated in the reverse orientation. The reverse cap structures bind poorly to eIF4E, the cap binding protein, and reduce overall translational efficiency. We therefore replaced the conventional m(7)Gp(3)G cap by "anti-reverse" cap analogs (ARCAs) in which the 3'-OH of m(7)Guo moiety was substituted by 3'-deoxy or 3'-O-methyl groups, leading to m(7)3'dGp(3)G or m(2)(7,3'-O) Gp(3)G, respectively. The class of ARCAs was extended to analogs possessing an O-methyl group or deoxy group at C2' of m(7)Guo. We have also developed a series of ARCAs containing tetra- and pentaphosphates. mRNAs capped with various ARCAs were translated 1.1- to 2.6-fold more efficiently than their counterparts capped with m(7)Gp(3)G in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In a separate series, a methylene group was introduced between the alpha- and beta-, or beta- and gamma-phosphate moieties, leading to m(2)(7,3'-O)Gpp(CH2)pG and m(2)(7,3'-O)Gp(CH2)ppG. These analogs are resistant to cleavage by the decapping enzymes Dcp1/Dcp2 and DcpS, respectively. mRNA transcripts capped with m(2)(7,3'-O)Gpp(CH2)pG were more stable when introduced into cultured mammalian cells. In this chapter, we describe the synthesis of representative ARCAs and their biophysical and biochemical characterization, with emphasis on practical applications in mRNA translation.

  1. Statistical Monitoring of the Seismic Activities before and after the Kumamoto Earthquakes (United States)

    Ogata, Y.; Kumazawa, T.; Tsuruoka, H.


    It is expected that the probability gain of a large earthquake in an aftershock region or its vicinity can be elevated by the presence of the relative quiescence in seismicity sequence (Ogata 2001). We first analyzed the seismicity in the Kumamoto region since 2010 before the occurrence of the M6.5 first foreshock. Although the ETAS model well fits the seismicity in the most subregions of the Kumamoto District, anomalous swarm activities are observed in the subregions to the north of the bending part of the focal faults on which the foreshocks of M6.5, M6.4 and the main shock M7.3 successively occurred. These anomalous swarm activities are characterized by the nonstationary ETAS model. We then applied the ETAS model to the aftershock sequence of M6.5 event or of a few other major earthquakes which precedes the Kumamoto main shock, and revealed that there was relative quiescence. It is also seen that M6.5 aftershocks migrated deeper and closer to the M7.3 hypocenter. We further applied the ETAS model and non-stationary ETAS model (Kumazawa and Ogata 2013) and also model of the b-value change estimate, to the sequence throughout the M6.5 foreshock sequence and M7.3 aftershocks. Moreover, we examined regionally different aftershock activities between the main and off fault zones. In particular, the aftershock productivity parameter K0(t) is high during the foreshocks, and decreased after the M7.3 main shock, whereas the background seismicity rate μ(t) stays constant through the entire period. The b-values show stepwise increasing changes at major events of the M6.5, M6.4, and M7.3.

  2. Screening and Molecular Identification of Metarhizium Strains against Holotrichia oblita%对华北大黑鳃金龟幼虫高毒力绿僵菌菌株的筛选及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于浩海; 郭巍; 李瑞军; 陆秀君; 赵丹


    Metarhizium is a highly toxic pathogenic fungus against a variety of pests. A strain M7-9 showing high virulence to Holotrichia oblita 1st instar larvae was screened from four Metarhizium strains. Mortality rate and cadaver rate by the fungus were both 96.67%, LT50 and LC50 were 2.82 d and 1.29×106 spores/mL, respectively. ITS sequence analysis showed that the strain M7-9 is M. anisopliae.%绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae是一类对多种害虫具有高活性的病原真菌。本研究以华北大黑鳃金龟Holotrichia oblita 1龄幼虫为对象,从4株绿僵菌中筛选出1株毒力较高的菌株,命名为M7-9。采用浸渍法对华北大黑鳃金龟1龄幼虫进行毒力测定,结果表明,绿僵菌M7-9的致死率为96.67%,僵虫率为96.67%,致死中时为2.82 d;致死中浓度为1.29×106孢子/mL;绿僵菌M7-9 ITS序列分子鉴定表明该株绿僵菌为金龟子绿僵菌。

  3. A high resolution 3D velocity model beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan area by MeSO-net (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Honda, R.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.


    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes devastating mega-thrust earthquakes, such as the 1703 Genroku earthquake (M8.0) and the 1923 Kanto earthquake (M7.9). An M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this area at present has high potential to produce devastating serious loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates that an M7+ earthquake will cause 23,000 fatalities and 95 trillion yen (about 1 trillion US$) economic loss. We have launched the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters in collaboration with scientists, engineers, and social-scientists in nationwide institutions since 2012. We analyze data from the dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net), which has 296 seismic stations with spacing of 5 km (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) and estimated the velocity structure and the upper boundary of PSP (Nakagawa et al., 2010). The 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake (M9.0) has activated seismicity also in Kanto region, providing better coverage of ray paths for tomographic analysis. We obtain much higher resolution velocity models from whole dataset observed by MeSO-net between 2008 and 2015. A detailed image of tomograms shows that PSP contacts Pacific plate at a depth of 50 km beneath northern Tokyo bay. A variation of velocity along the oceanic crust suggests dehydration reaction to produce seismicity in a slab, which may related to the M7+ earthquake. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by the Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters of MEXT, Japan and the Earthquake Research Institute cooperative research program.

  4. Optical Imaging of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Activity in Vivo Using a Proteolytic Nanobeacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Scherer


    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs are extracellular proteolytic enzymes involved in tumor progression. We present the in vivo detection and quantitation of MMP7 activity using a specific near-infrared polymer-based proteolytic beacon, PB-M7NIR. PB-M7NIR is a pegylated polyamidoamine PAMAM-Generation 4 dendrimer core covalently coupled to a Cy5.5-labeled peptide representing a selective substrate that monitors MMP7 activity (sensor and AF750 as an internal reference to monitor relative substrate concentration (reference. In vivo imaging of tumors expressing MMP7 had a median sensor to reference ratio 2.2-fold higher than a that of a bilateral control tumor. Ex vivo imaging of intestines of multiple intestinal neoplasia (APCMin mice injected systemically with PB-M7NIR revealed a sixfold increase in the sensor to reference ratio in the adenomas of APCMin mice compared with control intestinal tissue or adenomas from MMP7-null Min mice. PB-M7NIR detected tumor sizes as small as 0.01 cm2, and the sensor to reference ratio was independent of tumor size. Histologic sectioning of xenograft tumors localized the proteolytic signal to the extracellular matrix; MMP7-overexpressing tumors displayed an approximately 300-fold enhancement in the sensor to reference ratio compared with nonexpressing tumor cells. In APCMin adenomas, the proteolytic signal colocalized with the endogenously expressed MMP7 protein, with sensor to reference ratios approximately sixfold greater than that of normal intestinal epithelium. PB-M7NIR provides a useful reagent for the in vivo and ex vivo quantitation and localization of MMP-selective proteolytic activity.

  5. Influence of pH and media composition on suspension stability of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles and immobilization of Daphnia magna under guideline testing conditions. (United States)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna B; Baun, Anders


    In aquatic toxicity testing of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) the process of agglomeration is very important as it may alter bioavailability and toxicity. In the present study, we aimed to identify test conditions that are favorable for maintaining stable ENP suspensions. We evaluated the influence of key environmental parameters: pH (2-12) and ionic strength using M7, Soft EPA (S EPA) medium, and Very Soft EPA (VS EPA) medium; and observed the influence of these parameters on zeta potential, zeta average, and acute immobilization of Daphnia magna for three different ENPs. Despite being sterically stabilized, test suspensions of silver (Ag) ENPs formed large agglomerates in both VS EPA and M7 media; and toxicity was found to be higher in VS EPA medium due to increased dissolution. Low-agglomerate suspensions for zinc oxide (ZnO) could be obtained at pH 7 in VS EPA medium, but the increase in dissolution caused higher toxicity than in M7 medium. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) ENPs had a point of zero charge in the range of pH 7-8. At pH 7 in VS EPA, agglomerates with smaller hydrodynamic diameters (~200nm) were present compared to the high ionic strength M7 medium where hydrodynamic diameters reached micrometer range. The stable suspensions of TiO2 ENPs caused immobilization of D. magna, 48-h EC50 value of 13.7mgL(-1) (95% CI, 2.4mg-79.1mgL(-1)); whereas no toxicity was seen in the unstable, highly agglomerated M7 medium suspensions, 48-h EC50 >100mgL(-1). The current study provides a preliminary approach for methodology in testing and assessing stability and toxicity of ENPs in aquatic toxicity tests of regulatory relevance.

  6. Microstructure and wear resistance of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy hardfacing metals with different La2O3 additives (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Tian, Jianjun; Hao, Feifei; Dan, Ting; Ren, Xuejun; Yang, Yulin; Yang, Qingxiang


    Hardfacing (harden-surface-welding) metal of the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy with different La2O3 additives was developed. The microstructure of the hardfacing metal was observed by optical microscopy. The phase structure was determined by X-ray diffraction. The hardness and wear resistance of the hardfacing metal were measured by hardness tester and dry sand rubber wheel abrasive tester, respectively. The worn surface morphology was observed by field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The solidification curve of the hardfacing metal and the relationship between the content of each phase and the temperature were calculated by thermodynamics software Thermo-Calc and Jmatpro, respectively. The results indicate that, with the increase of the La2O3 additives, the dimension of the primary M7C3 carbide in the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy hardfacing metal decreases gradually. When the La2O3 additive is 0.78 wt.%, it reaches minimum, which is 11.37 μm. The amount of M7C3 carbide (including the primary carbide and the eutectic carbide) decreases firstly then increases. The hardness of the hardfacing metal increases smally, while the wear resistance of it increases firstly then decreases and reaches the most excellent when the La2O3 additive is 0.78 wt.%. The formation temperature of M7C3 carbide is higher than that of austenite in the hypereutectic Fe-Cr-C alloy hardfacing metal. Austenite precipitated in the liquid phase can improve the precipitation rate of M7C3 carbide in a certain extent. As the temperature of the molten pool drops from 870 °C to 840 °C, γ-Fe transforms into α-Fe completely, so a large number of C atoms precipitate, which promotes the growth of the M7C3 carbide in short period.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Verifica-se, a nível mundial, uma forte tendência para o plantio da macieira em alta densidade de cultivo. Neste sistema de plantio, são utilizados porta-enxertos de pequeno porte, conhecidos como anões. O mais utilizado é o M-9, em virtude do forte controle sobre o porte da copa, da precocidade de produção, da alta produtividade e da boa qualidade dos frutos que induz à copa. No Sul do Brasil, por questões de tradição internacional, facilidade de obtenção e do menor custo de investimento no plantio, até recentemente, têm sido plantados porta-enxertos de vigor médio, como o MM-106, o M-7 e o MM-111, para plantios de média densidade. O primeiro é atualmente pouco usado devido à alta suscetibilidade à podridão-do-colo (Phytophthora cactorum. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho do anão M-9, do semi-anão M-7 e do semivigoroso MM-111 no controle do vigor da copa, na precocidade de produção, na produtividade e no tamanho dos frutos da cv. de macieira Fuji. O experimento foi conduzido em blocos ao acaso, com 4 repetições de 3 plantas por parcela. Como copa, foi utilizada a cv. Fuji, polinizada pela cv. Gala. O experimento foi implantado em 1996, em Fraiburgo-SC, principal pólo produtor de maçãs do País. O espaçamento de cultivo foi de 2,0 m por 5,0 m. O experimento foi conduzido por 4 anos, avaliando-se a precocidade (n0 de gemas de flor/cm² de área transversal do caule, produção (kg/planta, produtividade (t/ha, peso médio dos frutos (g e distribuição dos frutos por categoria de tamanho (%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o M-9 foi o mais precoce, produzindo, no terceiro ano, 1,94 vez mais gemas de flor que o M-7 e 2,70 vezes mais que o MM-111. Em termos de produção, no terceiro ano, o M-9 produziu 2,53 vezes mais que o M-7 e 2,70 vezes mais que o MM-111. No quarto ano, o M-9 produziu 1,28 vez mais que o M-7 e 1,26 vez mais que o MM-111. O peso médio dos frutos foi de 159,2 g, 135,5 g e 131

  8. Cyto-morphological features of extramedullary acute megakaryoblastic leukemia on fine needle aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid cytology: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Chitragar


    Full Text Available Extramedullary deposits may be the presenting feature of acute myeloid leukemia. An early and accurate diagnosis on cytology will aid in correct patient management. This is especially true for patients with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AML M7, where bone marrow aspiration may yield only a dry tap. While cytomorphological features of myeloid sarcoma of other types are well recognized due to its rarity, there are only two case reports discussing the morphological details of megakaryoblastic differentiation on aspiration cytology. We present the case of a 25-year-old patient with extramedullary involvement of lymph node and cerebrospinal fluid by AML M7, describing in detail, the morphological features on aspiration as well as exfoliative cytology.

  9. Results of the latest transient well pressure tests at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril G, A.; Vargas G, C.


    The equipment used in the interference and two-rate flow tests carried out at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field during 1980 are described. The results of two interference tests are presented, one between wells M-110 and M-104, and the other between wells M-7 and Q-757. The data was interpreted using type curve matching analysis. Results of two-rate flow tests carried out in wells M-102 and M-7 are also discussed. A technique for making two-rate flow tests is proposed. This approach, which attempts to avoid the uncertainty of present flow-rate measurements, makes use of devices for direct measurements of separated water and steam. Conclusions based on the above interpretations and recommendations for future tests are presented.

  10. AcEST: BP911468 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 44 5e-04 sp|Q9Z1X1|ESYT1_RAT Extended ...synaptotagmin-1 OS=Rattus norvegicu... 33 0.96 sp|Q5RAG2|ESYT1_PONAB Extended syn...aptotagmin-1 OS=Pongo abelii G... 32 2.8 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Mus musculus G...... 32 2.8 sp|Q9BSJ8|ESYT1_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Homo sapiens G... 32 3.7 sp|A4FUB7|GIN1_BOVIN Gyps...ctor 2... 30 8.1 >sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi

  11. AcEST: DK963438 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Definition sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropicalis Align length 72 Score (bit) ...nts: (bits) Value sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 51 3e-06 sp|Q5RAG2|ESYT1_PONAB Extended... synaptotagmin-1 OS=Pongo abelii G... 48 4e-05 sp|Q9BSJ8|ESYT1_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-1 OS=Homo sapiens G... 48 4e-05 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-1 O...S=Mus musculus G... 45 2e-04 sp|Q9Z1X1|ESYT1_RAT Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Rattus norvegicu... 44 5e-04 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Exten

  12. AcEST: BP918450 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umis s... 179 5e-44 tr|Q8H6N3|Q8H6N3_SOLLC Alkaline alpha-galactosidase seed imbibit... 179 6e-44 tr|B5UAS6|...ea may... 171 2e-41 tr|Q9SCM1|Q9SCM1_ARATH Imbibition protein homolog OS=Arabidopsis... 170 3e-41 tr|Q94A08|...Q94A08_ARATH Putative imbibition protein homolog OS=Ar... 170 3e-41 tr|Q43408|Q43408_BRAOL Putative imbibi...1 tr|Q9M4M7|Q9M4M7_PERAE Putative seed imbibition protein OS=Perse... 168 1e-40 tr|Q40077|Q40077_HORVD Seed imbibi...aline alpha-galactosidase (Putative uncharacterized protein) (Putative alkaline alpha-galactosidase seed imbibi

  13. Are megaquakes clustered?

    CERN Document Server

    Daub, Eric G; Guyer, Robert A; Johnson, Paul A


    We study statistical properties of the number of large earthquakes over the past century. We analyze the cumulative distribution of the number of earthquakes with magnitude larger than threshold M in time interval T, and quantify the statistical significance of these results by simulating a large number of synthetic random catalogs. We find that in general, the earthquake record cannot be distinguished from a process that is random in time. This conclusion holds whether aftershocks are removed or not, except at magnitudes below M = 7.3. At long time intervals (T = 2-5 years), we find that statistically significant clustering is present in the catalog for lower magnitude thresholds (M = 7-7.2). However, this clustering is due to a large number of earthquakes on record in the early part of the 20th century, when magnitudes are less certain.

  14. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake (United States)

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.


    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  15. The DEAD-box helicase DDX3 substitutes for the cap-binding protein eIF4E to promote compartmentalized translation initiation of the HIV-1 genomic RNA. (United States)

    Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Rubilar, Paulina S; Ohlmann, Théophile


    Here, we show a novel molecular mechanism promoted by the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX3 for translation of the HIV-1 genomic RNA. This occurs through the adenosine triphosphate-dependent formation of a translation initiation complex that is assembled at the 5' m(7)GTP cap of the HIV-1 mRNA. This is due to the property of DDX3 to substitute for the initiation factor eIF4E in the binding of the HIV-1 m(7)GTP 5' cap structure where it nucleates the formation of a core DDX3/PABP/eIF4G trimeric complex on the HIV-1 genomic RNA. By using RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to indirect immunofluorescence, we further show that this viral ribonucleoprotein complex is addressed to compartmentalized cytoplasmic foci where the translation initiation complex is assembled.

  16. Precipitation behavior of carbides in high-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Shi, Chang-min [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy; Li, Ji-hui [Yang Jiang Shi Ba Zi Group Co., Ltd, Guangdong (China)


    A fundamental study on the precipitation behavior of carbides was carried out. Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the precipitation and transformation behaviors of carbides. Carbide precipitation was of a specific order. Primary carbides (M7C3) tended to be generated from liquid steel when the solid fraction reached 84 mol.%. Secondary carbides (M7C3) precipitated from austenite and can hardly transformed into M23C6 carbides with decreasing temperature in air. Primary carbides hardly changed once they were generated, whereas secondary carbides were sensitive to heat treatment and thermal deformation. Carbide precipitation had a certain effect on steel-matrix phase transitions. The segregation ability of carbon in liquid steel was 4.6 times greater that of chromium. A new method for controlling primary carbides is proposed.

  17. Evidence for vacuum birefringence from the first optical polarimetry measurement of the isolated neutron star RX\\, J1856.5$-$3754

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; Caniulef, D Gonzalez; Taverna, R; Turolla, R; Zane, S; Wu, K


    The "Magnificent Seven" (M7) are a group of radio-quiet Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) discovered in the soft X-rays through their purely thermal surface emission. Owing to the large inferred magnetic fields ($B\\approx 10^{13}$ G), radiation from these sources is expected to be substantially polarised, independently on the mechanism actually responsible for the thermal emission. A large observed polarisation degree is, however, expected only if quantum-electrodynamics (QED) polarisation effects are present in the magnetised vacuum around the star. The detection of a strongly linearly polarised signal would therefore provide the first observational evidence of QED effects in the strong-field regime. While polarisation measurements in the soft X-rays are not feasible yet, optical polarisation measurements are within reach also for quite faint targets, like the M7 which have optical counterparts with magnitudes $\\approx 26$--$28$. Here, we report on the measurement of optical linear polarisation for the prototype...

  18. Effects of Light Intensity and Color on the Biomass, Extracellular Red Pigment, and Citrinin Production of Monascus ruber. (United States)

    Wang, Liling; Dai, Yang; Chen, Wanping; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng


    Light is a crucial environmental signal for fungi. In this work, the effects of different light intensities and colors on biomass, Monascus pigments (MPs) and citrinin production of Monascus ruber M7 were investigated. We have demonstrated that low intensity of blue light (500 lx) decreased Monascus biomass, increased MPs accumulation via upregulation of MpigA, MpigB, and MpigJ genes expression, but had no significant influence on citrinin production. High intensity of blue light (1500 lx) decreased citrinin accumulation but had no significant influence on biomass and MPs production after 14 days cultivation. Low intensity of green light (500 lx) stimulated citrinin production via upregulation of pksCT, mrl1, mrl2, and ctnA genes expression. One putative red light photoreceptor and two putative green light photoreceptors were identified in M. ruber M7. These observations will not only guide the practical production of Monascus but also contribute to our understanding light effects on Monascus.

  19. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of a ring (21) in a patient with partial trisomy 21 and megakaryocytic leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, C.G.; Blouin, J.L.; Bull, M.J. [Indiana Univ. School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)]|[Univ. of Geneva Medical School, Geneva (Switzerland)] [and others


    We describe a patient with an asymmetric double ring 21 in mosaic form, 45,XX,-21/46,X,-21,+r(21), who has limited manifestations of Down syndrome and who developed acute myelofibrosis and megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL), FAB M7, a hematologic disorder particularly common in Down syndrome patients. In situ hybridization studies, gene dosage, and DNA polymorphism analysis showed that the ring chromosome carries a duplicated region which extends from D21S406 on the centromeric side and includes marker D21S3 on the telomeric side. FISH studies indicate two sizes of ring 21 in the patient. The origin of the supernumerary chromosome 21 in the proband was paternal; furthermore, the r(21) probably was formed postzygotically. Included in the duplicated segment are the candidate genes for leukemia AML-1, ETS, and ERG. The potential significance of disomic homozygosity of loci on 21q in M7 megakaryocytic leukemia is discussed. 35 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Permanently enhanced dynamic triggering probabilities as evidenced by two M ≥ 7.5 earthquakes (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.


    The 2012 M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake radiated waves that likely dynamically triggered the 2013M7.5 Craig earthquake, setting two precedents. First, the triggered earthquake is the largest dynamically triggered shear failure event documented to date. Second, the events highlight a connection between geologic structure, sedimentary troughs that act as waveguides, and triggering probability. The Haida Gwaii earthquake excited extraordinarily large waves within and beyond the Queen Charlotte Trough, which propagated well into mainland Alaska and likely triggering the Craig earthquake along the way. Previously, focusing and associated dynamic triggering have been attributed to unpredictable source effects. This case suggests that elevated dynamic triggering probabilities may exist along the many structures where sedimentary troughs overlie major faults, such as subduction zones’ accretionary prisms and transform faults’ axial valleys. Although data are sparse, I find no evidence of accelerating seismic activity in the vicinity of the Craig rupture between it and the Haida Gwaii earthquake.

  1. San Andreas fault zone, California: M≥5.5 earthquake history (United States)

    Toppozada, Tousson R.; Branum, D.M.; Reichle, M.S.; Hallstrom, C.L.


    The San Andreas fault zone has been a very significant source of major California earthquakes. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7 or larger in two pairs on two major portions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the central to southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake faulting. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the northern region, where the 1906 faulting overlapped the 1838 earthquake faulting. Also, earthquakes of M 7 occurred in the San Francisco Bay area on the Hayward fault in 1868 and the Santa Cruz Mountains near Loma Prieta in 1989 and on the Imperial fault near the border with Mexico in 1940.

  2. The risk of being depressed is significantly higher in cancer patients than in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartung, T J; Brähler, E; Faller, H


    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common co-morbidity of cancer that has a detrimental effect on quality of life, treatment adherence and potentially survival. We conducted an epidemiological multi-center study including a population-based random comparison sample and estimated the prevalence.......0), thyroid (M = 7.8, SD = 6.3) and brain tumours (M = 7.6, SD = 4.9) showed the highest prevalence, whereas patients with prostate cancer (M = 4.3, SD = 3.8) and malignant melanoma (M = 5.3, SD = 4.3) had the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our results help clinicians identify cancer...... of depressive symptoms by cancer site, thereby identifying cancer patients with the highest prevalence of depression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 4020 adult cancer inpatients and outpatients from five distinct regions across Germany in a proportional stratified random sample based on the nationwide cancer...

  3. Synthesis and biochemical properties of novel mRNA 5' cap analogs resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis. (United States)

    Kalek, Marcin; Jemielity, Jacek; Grudzien, Ewa; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Cohen, Lean S; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Davis, Richard E; Rhoads, Robert E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    A series of new dinucleotide cap analogs with methylene groups replacing oxygens within the pyrophosphate moieties have been synthesized. All the compounds were resistant to the human scavenger decapping hydrolase, DcpS. Binding constants of the modified caps to eIF4E are comparable to those obtained for m7GpppG. This suggests these methylene modifications in the pyrophosphate chain do not significantly affect cap-binding at least for eIF4E. These cap analogs are also good inhibitors of in vitro translation. mRNAs capped with novel analogs were translated similarly to the mRNA capped with the parent m7GpppG.

  4. Agronomic behavior of pseudo cereals genotypes subjected to drought and salinity conditions; Compotamiento agronomico de genotipos de pseudocereales sometidos a condiciones de sequia y salinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz T, E. De la; Garcia A, J.M. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, (Mexico); Gonzalez R, B.; Laguna C, A. [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados en Fitomejoramiento. UAEM, 50200 Toluca (Mexico)]. e-mail:


    With the purpose of evaluating the response to the salinity and drought of 7 genotypes of pseudo cereals that include to the variety of quinua Barandales (M7-0) and to the lines obtained by the radioinduced mutagenesis ININ 110 and ININ 333, two collections of red chia (Opopeo and Huiramangaro) and two collections of 'Huauzontle' of Atlacomulco (H1 and H3), were evaluated under a factorial experimental design two levels of humidity: normal watering and drought and three salinity levels 0, 50 and 100 mMhos. It was found a bigger yield in grams by plant in the drought subjected material (without salinity) and a bigger tolerance to the salinity in the genotypes H3, ININ M7-0, and ININ 110, exhibiting the 'Chia red' bigger susceptibility to the evaluated factors. (Author)

  5. New characteristics of intensity assessment of Sichuan Lushan "4.20" M s7.0 earthquake (United States)

    Sun, Baitao; Yan, Peilei; Chen, Xiangzhao


    The post-earthquake rapid accurate assessment of macro influence of seismic ground motion is of significance for earthquake emergency relief, post-earthquake reconstruction and scientific research. The seismic intensity distribution map released by the Lushan earthquake field team of the China Earthquake Administration (CEA) five days after the strong earthquake ( M7.0) occurred in Lushan County of Sichuan Ya'an City at 8:02 on April 20, 2013 provides a scientific basis for emergency relief, economic loss assessment and post-earthquake reconstruction. In this paper, the means for blind estimation of macroscopic intensity, field estimation of macro intensity, and review of intensity, as well as corresponding problems are discussed in detail, and the intensity distribution characteristics of the Lushan "4.20" M7.0 earthquake and its influential factors are analyzed, providing a reference for future seismic intensity assessments.

  6. Single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of canagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter 2, in healthy participants. (United States)

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Vaccaro, Nicole; Polidori, David; Stieltjes, Hans; Wajs, Ewa


    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of oral canagliflozin and its O-glucuronide metabolites (M7 and M5) after single and multiple doses in healthy adult participants. The pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of canagliflozin were also evaluated. In this open-label, single- (day 1) and multiple-dose (days 4-9), parallel-group, phase 1 study, 27 healthy participants were randomized into three groups (1:1:1) to receive 50, 100, or 300 mg canagliflozin. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics were assessed at pre-pecified timepoints on days 1, 9, and 10. Mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and the maximum observed plasma concentration of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 increased in a dose-dependent manner, across all the 3 doses, following single- and multiple-dose administration. The mean apparent elimination half-lives of canagliflozin, M7, and M5 were independent of the dose. Canagliflozin decreased the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increased the urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in a concentration- and dose-dependent manner. The relationship between drug concentrations and RTG was described by a sigmoidal relationship with RTGmin (minimum value of RTG) of 37.5 ng/mL (95% confidence interval (CI): 34.3, 40.8) and half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 21 ng/mL (95% CI: 18.3, 23.8). No deaths, serious adverse events, hypoglycemic events, or discontinuations due to adverse events were observed. Pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin and its metabolites (M7 and M5) were linear, and no time-dependent changes were observed after single- and multiple-dose administration. Similarly, pharmacodynamic effects of canagliflozin on RTG and UGE were found to be dose- and concentration-dependent. Overall, canagliflozin was well-tolerated in healthy participants.

  7. Bat Azimuthal Echolocation Using Interaural Level Differences: Modeling and Implementation by a VLSI-Based Hardware System (United States)


    system ( Tsividis , 1997). Vdd Vτ Vw spkIn isyn v i M1 M4 M5 M2 M3 M6 M8 M7 C vc Iτ Figure 7.2: The basic synapse circuit. The pin “spkIn” receives the...Comput. Neurosci. 20(2):137–152. Tsividis Y (1997) Externally linear, time-invariant systems and their application to companding signal processors

  8. Cap Snatching in Yeast L-BC Double-stranded RNA Totivirus* (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Esteban, Rosa


    Yeast L-A double-stranded RNA virus furnishes its transcript with a 5′ cap structure by a novel cap-snatching mechanism in which m7Gp from a host mRNA cap structure is transferred to the 5′-diphosphate terminus of the viral transcript. His-154 of the coat protein Gag forms an m7Gp adduct, and the H154R mutation abolishes both m7Gp adduct formation and cap snatching. Here we show that L-BC, another totivirus closely related to L-A, also synthesizes 5′-diphosphorylated transcripts and transfers m7Gp from mRNA to the 5′ termini of the transcripts. L-BC Gag also covalently binds to the cap structure and the mutation H156R, which corresponds to H154R of L-A Gag, abolishes cap adduct formation. Cap snatching of the L-BC virus is very similar to that of L-A; N7 methylation of the mRNA cap is essential for cap donor activity, and only 5′-diphosphorylated RNA is used as cap acceptor. L-BC cap snatching is also activated by viral transcription. Furthermore, both viruses require Mg2+ and Mn2+ for cap snatching. These cations are not only required for transcription activation but also directly involved in the cap transfer process. These findings support our previous proposal that the cap-snatching mechanism of the L-A virus is shared by fungal totiviruses closely related to L-A. Interestingly, L-A and L-BC viruses accept either viral transcript as cap acceptor in vitro. Because L-A and L-BC viruses cohabit in many yeast strains, it raises the possibility that their cohabitation in the same host may be beneficial for their mutual cap acquisition. PMID:23824187

  9. Metabolism and excretion of canagliflozin in mice, rats, dogs, and humans. (United States)

    Mamidi, Rao N V S; Cuyckens, Filip; Chen, Jie; Scheers, Ellen; Kalamaridis, Dennis; Lin, Ronghui; Silva, Jose; Sha, Sue; Evans, David C; Kelley, Michael F; Devineni, Damayanthi; Johnson, Mark D; Lim, Heng Keang


    Canagliflozin is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It blocks the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubule by inhibiting the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2. This article describes the in vivo biotransformation and disposition of canagliflozin after a single oral dose of [(14)C]canagliflozin to intact and bile duct-cannulated (BDC) mice and rats and to intact dogs and humans. Fecal excretion was the primary route of elimination of drug-derived radioactivity in both animals and humans. In BDC mice and rats, most radioactivity was excreted in bile. The extent of radioactivity excreted in urine as a percentage of the administered [(14)C]canagliflozin dose was 1.2%-7.6% in animals and approximately 33% in humans. The primary pathways contributing to the metabolic clearance of canagliflozin were oxidation in animals and direct glucuronidation of canagliflozin in humans. Unchanged canagliflozin was the major component in systemic circulation in all species. In human plasma, two pharmacologically inactive O-glucuronide conjugates of canagliflozin, M5 and M7, represented 19% and 14% of total drug-related exposure and were considered major human metabolites. Plasma concentrations of M5 and M7 in mice and rats from repeated dose safety studies were lower than those in humans given canagliflozin at the maximum recommended dose of 300 mg. However, biliary metabolite profiling in rodents indicated that mouse and rat livers had significant exposure to M5 and M7. Pharmacologic inactivity and high water solubility of M5 and M7 support glucuronidation of canagliflozin as a safe detoxification pathway.

  10. Adaptive Hessian-based Non-stationary Gaussian Process Response Surface Method for Probability Density Approximation with Application to Bayesian Solution of Large-scale Inverse Problems (United States)


    applications, Spinger -Verlag, 1989. Fig. 7.11. Two dimensional marginal chains for parameters m5,m6,m7,m8. The Gaussian process predictor is obtained after ten...43 (2005), pp. 1306–1315. [48] Radford M. Neal, Bayesian learning for neural networks, Spinger -Verlag, 1996. [49] Ngoc Cuong Nguyen, An uncertainty...J. Santner, Brian J. Williams, and William I. Notz, The Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments, Spinger -Verlag, 2003. [60] Alexandra M. Schmidt

  11. An Investigation of the Validity of Applying MIL-STD-285 to EMP shielding Effectiveness. (United States)


    CONTROLLING OFFICE N AME AND ADDRESS Director 1.ý/415 ApM7 Defense Nuclear Agency 13. NUMBFR OF PAGES’.- Nqr-jWashington, D.C. 20305 52 ~J)J-Y. 14...accordingly. Another 80 dB of shielding r’ffectiveness was added I by the use of interno . shield enclosures, thus reducing the interior fields by an addition

  12. Cytogenetic characterization of Caesalpinia spinosafrom Tarma and Palca (Junín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto López


    Full Text Available Somatic chromosomes of Caesalpinia spinosa (Feuillée ex Molina Kuntze, “Tara”, wild populations of Huinco and Palca (Junín regions were studied. The specie were diploid (2n=24. Chromosomes were small. The karyotypes showed the same chromosome number, they found differences in morphological parameters of the same, with the karyotype formula for the town of Huinco: 6m + 6 sm and the town of Palca: 5m + 7 sm.

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSF343 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ol=24 Row=L, DNA sequence. 44 1e-06 3 T09672 |T09672.1 0251m7 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium genomic clone 0251m, DNA sequence. 50 1e-06 2 AA550389 |AA550389.1 1537m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSF305 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ow=L, DNA sequence. 44 1e-06 3 T09672 |T09672.1 0251m7 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman Reddy Plasmodium falciparum geno...mic clone 0251m, DNA sequence. 50 1e-06 2 AA550389 |AA550389.1 1537m3 gmbPfHB3.1, G. Roman




    The Vanadis 6 PM Cr-V ledeburitic steel was austenitized at temperatures from the range 1000 – 1200 oC and nitrogen gas quenched. Structural changes were investigated by light microscopy and SEM. Obtained result fixed that the M7C3-carbides underwent a complete dissolution in the austenite while MC-phase remained almost completely unaffected. The saturation of the austenite by chromium and partly vanadium induced formation of increased portion of non-martensitic structural components after qu...

  16. Trends Information%动态信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    天津市音响行业协会成立;万利达专业音响亮相成都视听博览会;亚洲文化部长论坛选用SONY会议系统;Yorkville Adrenalin演艺工程系列音箱;雅马哈YAMAHA M7CL数字调音台;Meyer Sound发布新产品——600-HP

  17. Results of the 2003-2004 GEP-ISFG collaborative study on mitochondrial DNA: focus on the mtDNA profile of a mixed semen-saliva stain. (United States)

    Crespillo, Manuel; Paredes, Miguel R; Prieto, Lourdes; Montesino, Marta; Salas, Antonio; Albarran, Cristina; Alvarez-Iglesias, V; Amorin, Antonio; Berniell-Lee, Gemma; Brehm, Antonio; Carril, Juan C; Corach, Daniel; Cuevas, Nerea; Di Lonardo, Ana M; Doutremepuich, Christian; Espinheira, Rosa M; Espinoza, Marta; Gómez, Felix; González, Alberto; Hernández, Alexis; Hidalgo, M; Jimenez, Magda; Leite, Fabio P N; López, Ana M; López-Soto, Manuel; Lorente, Jose A; Pagano, Shintia; Palacio, Ana M; Pestano, José J; Pinheiro, Maria F; Raimondi, Eduardo; Ramón, M M; Tovar, Florangel; Vidal-Rioja, Lidia; Vide, Maria C; Whittle, Martín R; Yunis, Juan J; Garcia-Hirschfel, Julia


    We report here a review of the seventh mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) exercise undertaken by the Spanish and Portuguese working group (GEP) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) corresponding to the period 2003-2004. Five reference bloodstains from five donors (M1-M5), a mixed stain of saliva and semen (M6), and a hair sample (M7) were submitted to each participating laboratory for nuclear DNA (nDNA; autosomal STR and Y-STR) and mtDNA analysis. Laboratories were asked to investigate the contributors of samples M6 and M7 among the reference donors (M1-M5). A total of 34 laboratories reported total or partial mtDNA sequence data from both, the reference bloodstains (M1-M5) and the hair sample (M7) concluding a match between mtDNA profiles of M5 and M7. Autosomal STR and Y-STR profiling was the preferred strategy to investigate the contributors of the semen/saliva mixture (M6). Nuclear DNA profiles were consistent with a mixture of saliva from the donor (female) of M4 and semen from donor M5, being the semen (XY) profile the dominant component of the mixture. Strikingly, and in contradiction to the nuclear DNA analysis, mtDNA sequencing results yield a more simple result: only the saliva contribution (M4) was detected, either after preferential lysis or after complete DNA digestion. Some labs provided with several explanations for this finding and carried out additional experiments to explain this apparent contradictory result. The results pointed to the existence of different relative amounts of nuclear and mtDNAs in saliva and semen. We conclude that this circumstance could strongly influence the interpretation of the mtDNA evidence in unbalanced mixtures and in consequence lead to false exclusions. During the GEP-ISFG annual conference a validation study was planned to progress in the interpretation of mtDNA from different mixtures.

  18. AFDB-7 Los Alamos Mooring Overhaul Holy Loch, Scotland, (United States)


    55/ 30 CSelf Colored or G-401 S-401 Hot Dip Galvanized CHAIN UtmseLoad Is QUENCHED five times the Safe & TEMPERED Working Load 2-19 Fgr2-CCrosby (S...40000 7 20’ 00 772000 09000 𔄂 90000 125000 60 3% 92 21 12-%. 79v. 2y. 11300 47M0 665000, 6850MQ 959000 95800 1 359M) 7 3 7S 22 73% 82Y, 2%, 100 0000

  19. The effect of water on the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) reduction potential of heme. (United States)

    Edholm, O; Nordlander, P; Chen, W; Ohlsson, P I; Smith, M L; Paul, J


    Hemeproteins can act as catalysts, oxygen carriers or electron conductors. The ferric/ferrous reduction potential E(m7) of iron in the center of the prosthetic group ranges from negative values for peroxidases to an extreme positive value for cytochrome a(3) with Hb and Mb in the middle [1]. Proteins exercise their influence on E(m7) in several ways: via substituents at the periphery of the chelate structure, via the proximal ligand, and via interaction with the surrounding medium, amino acid side chains, or polar solvents. Work on recombined proteins and 2,4-substituted free hemes documented that the first two effects are additive [2]. For the third effect, models of the dielectric media on a molecular level have been successfully applied [3-5]. E(m7) has also been empirically correlated to the degree of heme exposure to water [6-8]. The apoprotein/porphyrin and water/porphyrin interfaces are complementary since water molecules fill any empty space in the crevice and surround any pertinent part of heme outside the protein boundary. The present work links to this idea by a combination of statistical mechanics simulations and quantum mechanical calculations comparing heme in water with heme in an apolar environment. Our results show that polarization of the porphyrin pi-electron cloud by the field from water dipoles influences E(m7). The dominant effect of this and other determinates of iron electron availability is perturbations of delocalized electron density in the porphyrin chelate, reproduced by a model where the prosthetic group is treated as a disc of uniform electron density. The present work is also of interest since the interfacial energy constitutes the main barrier for heme-protein separation [9-11]. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  20. Gordon Research Conference on Liquid Crystal Polymers Held in New Lond, New Hampshire on 9-13 July 1984 (United States)


    DeDt. Kyoto 606, JAPAN Lowell, MA 01854 Asrar, Jawed S 106 Blumstein, Rita C 203 Monsanto Company University of Lowell 730 Worcester Street Chemistry...Technology S-412 96 (Qteorg, SWEDEN Dicke, Hans-Rudolf M 7 Bayer AG-Werk Uerdinger Flory, Paul J. C 202 Postfach 166 Stanford University D-4150 Krefeld...11, WEST GER:’IAVN Dept. of Chemistry Stanford, CA 94305 Donald, Athene C 102 Cavendish Laboratory Freitag, Dieter S 205 Madingley Road Bayer AG-Werk

  1. Validation of MCDS by comparison of predicted with experimental velocity distribution functions in rarefied normal shocks (United States)

    Pham-Van-diep, Gerald C.; Erwin, Daniel A.


    Velocity distribution functions in normal shock waves in argon and helium are calculated using Monte Carlo direct simulation. These are compared with experimental results for argon at M = 7.18 and for helium at M = 1.59 and 20. For both argon and helium, the variable-hard-sphere (VHS) model is used for the elastic scattering cross section, with the velocity dependence derived from a viscosity-temperature power-law relationship in the way normally used by Bird (1976).

  2. In Vitro and In Vivo Human Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoids FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22. (United States)

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Pang, Shaokun; Kronstrand, Robert; Huestis, Marilyn A


    In 2014, FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22, two novel synthetic cannabinoids, were detected in herbal blends in Japan, Russia, and Germany and were quickly added to their scheduled drugs list. Unfortunately, no human metabolism data are currently available, making it challenging to confirm their intake. The present study aims to identify appropriate analytical markers by investigating FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22 metabolism in human hepatocytes and confirm the results in authentic urine specimens. For metabolic stability, 1 μM FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22 was incubated with human liver microsomes for up to 1 h; for metabolite profiling, 10 μM was incubated with human hepatocytes for 3 h. Two authentic urine specimens from FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22 positive cases were analyzed after β-glucuronidase hydrolysis. Metabolite identification in hepatocyte samples and urine specimens was accomplished by high-resolution mass spectrometry using information-dependent acquisition. Both FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22 were rapidly metabolized in HLM with half-lives of 12.4 and 11.5 min, respectively. In human hepatocyte samples, we identified seven metabolites for both compounds, generated by ester hydrolysis and further hydroxylation and/or glucuronidation. After ester hydrolysis, FDU-PB-22 and FUB-PB-22 yielded the same metabolite M7, fluorobenzylindole-3-carboxylic acid (FBI-COOH). M7 and M6 (hydroxylated FBI-COOH) were the major metabolites. In authentic urine specimens after β-glucuronidase hydrolysis, M6 and M7 also were the predominant metabolites. Based on our study, we recommend M6 (hydroxylated FBI-COOH) and M7 (FBI-COOH) as suitable urinary markers for documenting FDU-PB-22 and/or FUB-PB-22 intake.

  3. Beyond-root calcium fertilization of apple trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Słowik


    Full Text Available Investigations were performed in the period 1977-1979 on the apple tree cultivar 'Fantazja', on rootstock A 2, M 7 and MM 106 on the effect of spraying with solution containing calcium on the incidence of bitter pit, breakdown, calcium content in the fruit flesh and other features of the fruits. Threefold spraying with calcium nitrate, calcium chloride or Anti-Stipp significantly limited the appearance of bitter pit and breakdown.

  4. Effect of smoking cessation on airway inflammation of rats with chronic bronchitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qing-yun; HUANG Shao-guang; WAN Huan-ying; WU Hua-cheng; ZHOU Tong; LI Min; DENG Wei-wu


    Background Smoking is the major cause of airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),and smoking cessation is regarded as one of the important strategies for prevention and treatment of the inflammation.The inflammation of the chronic airway may be present and deteriorated even if the COPD patients stop smoking.Whether and how early smoking cessation affects the progress of inflammation is still obscure. This study was conducted to find the appropriate time for smoking cessation to terminate the airway inflammation in rats with smoke-induced chronic bronchitis.Methods A rat model of COPD was established by passively inhaling smoke mixture. Fifty-four young male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 9 groups with different periods of smoke exposure and different time points of cessation. The inflammation markers to be detected included inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), the myeloperoxidose (MPO) activity, the morphologic changes and the expression of ICAM-1 on the airway epithelium.Results When smoking was terminated at early stage, the inflammatory markers and related indexes were different from those of the typical chronic bronchitis group (group M7) (P<0.01). The pathologic score of group SC7 (2 weeks of smoking cessation after occurrence of typical chronic bronchitis ) was not different from that of group M7, and the level of ICAM-1 was still up-regulated (compared to group M7, P>0.05). Meanwhile, most of inflammatory cells in BALF were neutrophils compared to other groups (P<0.01).When smoking was terminated, the MPO activity was significantly lower than that of group M7 (P<0.01).Conclusions Smoking cessation at early stage can effectively inhibit the inflammatory reaction of COPD. Once chronic bronchitis occurs, little could be improved by smoking cessation.

  5. Relations over Time among Children's Shyness, Emotionality, and Internalizing Problems (United States)

    Eggum, Natalie D.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Reiser, Mark; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos; Sallquist, Julie; Michalik, Nicole M.; Liew, Jeffrey


    Data regarding children's shyness and emotionality were collected at three time points, two years apart (T1: N = 214, M = 6.12 years; T2: N = 185, M = 7.67 years; T3: N = 185, M = 9.70 years), and internalizing data were collected at T1 and T3. Relations among parent-rated shyness, emotionality [parent- and teacher-rated anger, sadness, and…

  6. Investigation of hazards associated with plastic bonded starter mix manufacturing processes (United States)


    An investigation to determine the hazards potential evaluation of plastic bonded starter mix (PBSM) production processes and the application to the M18 and M7A3 grenades is reported. The investigation indicated: (1) the materials with the greatest hazards characteristics, (2) process operating stations most likely to initiate hazardous conditions, (3) the test program required to examine ignition characteristics and process hazards, and (4) the method of handling the accumulated information from testing and safety analyses.

  7. Human migration through bottlenecks from Southeast Asia into East Asia during Last Glacial Maximum revealed by Y chromosomes. (United States)

    Cai, Xiaoyun; Qin, Zhendong; Wen, Bo; Xu, Shuhua; Wang, Yi; Lu, Yan; Wei, Lanhai; Wang, Chuanchao; Li, Shilin; Huang, Xingqiu; Jin, Li; Li, Hui


    Molecular anthropological studies of the populations in and around East Asia have resulted in the discovery that most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. However, very few Southeast Asian populations had been investigated, and therefore, little was known about the purported migrations from Southeast Asia into East Asia and their roles in shaping the genetic structure of East Asian populations. Here, we present the Y-chromosome data from 1,652 individuals belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer (MK) and Hmong-Mien (HM) speaking populations that are distributed primarily across Southeast Asia and extend into East Asia. Haplogroup O3a3b-M7, which appears mainly in MK and HM, indicates a strong tie between the two groups. The short tandem repeat network of O3a3b-M7 displayed a hierarchical expansion structure (annual ring shape), with MK haplotypes being located at the original point, and the HM and the Tibeto-Burman haplotypes distributed further away from core of the network. Moreover, the East Asian dominant haplogroup O3a3c1-M117 shows a network structure similar to that of O3a3b-M7. These patterns indicate an early unidirectional diffusion from Southeast Asia into East Asia, which might have resulted from the genetic drift of East Asian ancestors carrying these two haplogroups through many small bottle-necks formed by the complicated landscape between Southeast Asia and East Asia. The ages of O3a3b-M7 and O3a3c1-M117 were estimated to be approximately 19 thousand years, followed by the emergence of the ancestors of HM lineages out of MK and the unidirectional northward migrations into East Asia.

  8. Karlodinium veneficum in India: Effect of fixatives on morphology and allelopathy in relation to Skeletonema costatum

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, R.K.; Chitari, R.R.; Anil, A.C.

    different water bodies. This species often gets overlooked due to its small size (< 20 μm) 7 . Artifacts due to fixation could be another reason, since previous studies showed that arti- facts induced by fixation are a potentially significant factor.... The results obtained indicate that till seven days, all the fixatives provided similar results. However, observations on days 15 and 30 indicated that the species in buffered formalin and glutaraldehyde had artifacts, such as no clear demar- cation...

  9. Merging Applicability Domains for in Silico Assessment of Chemical Mutagenicity (United States)


    Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for...Human Use (ICH). M7 (2013): Assessment and Control of DNA Reactive (Mutagenic) Impurities in Pharmaceuticals to Limit Potential Carcinogenic Risk...of potentially mutagenic impurities . Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 2013, 67, 39−52. (9) Netzeva, T. I.; Worth, A.; Aldenberg, T.; Benigni, R.; Cronin, M

  10. AcEST: DK953516 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 77 3e-44 sp|Q64LH2|PROF2_AMBAR Profilin-2 OS=Ambrosia artemisiifolia GN=A... 177 5e-44 sp|Q41344|PROF1_SOLLC...B0M7_MALDO Profilin OS=Malus domestica GN=mal d 4.02... 178 2e-43 tr|Q2KN24|Q2KN24_AMBAR Profilin OS=Ambrosia artemis

  11. Ultracold Fermions in the P-Orbital Band of an Optical Lattice (United States)


    cooling and trapping of lithium atoms. Nd:YVO 4 etalon1 OC LD 808nm LD 808nm etalon2 PZT1 PZT2 OI M1 M2 M3 M4 PBS LBO ICPZT3 M7 M5 671nm M6 EOM HWP HWP...Haddad from the Colorado School of Mines which focussed on relativistic phe- nomena that can be studied with ultracold atoms in a honeycomb lattice

  12. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2010 eastern margin of the Australia plate (United States)

    Benz, Harley M.; Herman, Matthew; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan


    The eastern margin of the Australia plate is one of the most seismically active areas of the world due to high rates of convergence between the Australia and Pacific plates. In the region of New Zealand, the 3,000 km long Australia-Pacific plate boundary extends from south of Macquarie Island to the southern Kermadec Island chain. It includes an oceanic transform (the Macquarie Ridge), two oppositely verging subduction zones (Puysegur and Hikurangi), and a transpressive continental transform, the Alpine Fault through South Island, New Zealand. Since 1900, there have been 15 M7.5+ earthquakes recorded near New Zealand. Nine of these, and the four largest, occurred along or near the Macquarie Ridge, including the 1989 M8.2 event on the ridge itself, and the 2004 M8.1 event 200 km to the west of the plate boundary, reflecting intraplate deformation. The largest recorded earthquake in New Zealand itself was the 1931 M7.8 Hawke's Bay earthquake, which killed 256 people. The last M7.5+ earthquake along the Alpine Fault was 170 years ago; studies of the faults' strain accumulation suggest that similar events are likely to occur again.

  13. 对华北大黑鳃金龟幼虫高毒力绿僵菌菌株的筛选及分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于浩海; 郭巍; 李瑞军; 陆秀君; 赵丹


    绿僵菌Metarhizium anisopliae是一类对多种害虫具有高活性的病原真菌。本研究以华北大黑鳃金龟Holotrichia oblita 1龄幼虫为对象,从4株绿僵菌中筛选出1株毒力较高的菌株,命名为M7-9。采用浸渍法对华北大黑鳃金龟1龄幼虫进行毒力测定,结果表明,绿僵菌M7-9的致死率为96.67%,僵虫率为96.67%,致死中时为2.82 d;致死中浓度为1.29×106孢子/m L;绿僵菌M7-9 ITS序列分子鉴定表明该株绿僵菌为金龟子绿僵菌。

  14. Seismomagnetic models for earthquakes in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ishikawa


    Full Text Available Seismomagnetic changes accompanied by four damaging earthquakes are explained by the piezomagnetic effect observed in the eastern part of Izu Peninsula, Central Japan. Most of the data were obtained by repeat surveys. Although these data suffered electric railway noise, significant magnetic changes were detected at points close to earthquake faults. Coseismic changes can be well interpreted by piezomagnetic models in the case of the 1978 Near Izu-Oshima (M 7.0 and the 1980 East Off Izu Peninsula (M 6.7 earthquakes. A large total intensity change up to 5 nT was observed at a survey point almost above the epicenter of the 1976 Kawazu (M 5.4 earthquake. This change is not explained by a single fault model; a 2-segment fault is suggested. Remarkable precursory and coseismic changes in the total force intensity were observed at KWZ station along with the 1978 Higashi-Izu (M 4.9 earthquake. KWZ station is located very close to a buried subsidiary fault of the M 7.0 Near Izu-Oshima earthquake, which moved aseismically at the time of the M 7.0 quake. The precursory magnetic change to the M 4.9 quake is ascribed to aseismic faulting of this buried fault, while the coseismic rebound to enlargement of the slipping surface at the time of M 4.9 quake. This implies that we observed the formation process of the earthquake nucleation zone via the magnetic field.

  15. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) binds the mRNA cap, blocking eIF4F assembly on TOP mRNAs. (United States)

    Lahr, Roni M; Fonseca, Bruno D; Ciotti, Gabrielle E; Al-Ashtal, Hiba A; Jia, Jian-Jun; Niklaus, Marius R; Blagden, Sarah P; Alain, Tommy; Berman, Andrea J


    The 5'terminal oligopyrimidine (5'TOP) motif is a cis-regulatory RNA element located immediately downstream of the 7-methylguanosine [m(7)G] cap of TOP mRNAs, which encode ribosomal proteins and translation factors. In eukaryotes, this motif coordinates the synchronous and stoichiometric expression of the protein components of the translation machinery. La-related protein 1 (LARP1) binds TOP mRNAs, regulating their stability and translation. We present crystal structures of the human LARP1 DM15 region in complex with a 5'TOP motif, a cap analog (m(7)GTP), and a capped cytidine (m(7)GpppC), resolved to 2.6, 1.8 and 1.7 Å, respectively. Our binding, competition, and immunoprecipitation data corroborate and elaborate on the mechanism of 5'TOP motif binding by LARP1. We show that LARP1 directly binds the cap and adjacent 5'TOP motif of TOP mRNAs, effectively impeding access of eIF4E to the cap and preventing eIF4F assembly. Thus, LARP1 is a specialized TOP mRNA cap-binding protein that controls ribosome biogenesis.

  16. Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress. (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan


    Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.

  17. Platelet and endothelial adhesion on fluorosurfactant polymers designed for vascular graft modification. (United States)

    Tang, Chad; Kligman, Faina; Larsen, Coby C; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Marchant, Roger E


    A prominent failure mechanism of small diameter expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) vascular grafts is platelet-mediated thrombosis. We have designed a surface modification for ePTFE consisting of a self-assembling fluorosurfactant polymer (FSP) bearing biologically active ligands, including adhesive peptides and polysaccharide moieties. The goal of this biomimetic construct is to improve graft hemocompatibility by promoting rapid surface endothelialization, whereas minimizing platelet adhesion. Here we present a direct comparison of platelet and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion to FSPs containing one of three cell-adhesion peptides: cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Glu (cRGD), cyclic *Cys-Arg-Arg-Glu-Thr-Ala-Trp-Ala-Cys* (cRRE, *denotes disulfide bond cyclization), linear Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro-Ala (RGD), or a polysaccharide moiety: oligomaltose (M-7), later designed to prevent nonspecific protein adhesion. Measurements of soluble peptide-integrin binding indicated that cRRE exhibits very low affinity for the alpha(IIb)beta(3) platelet fibrinogen receptor. Static and dynamic adhesion of washed, activated platelets on FSP-modified surfaces revealed that M-7 and cRRE promote significantly less platelet adhesion compared to RGD and cRGD FSPs, whereas EC adhesion was similar on all peptide FSPs and minimal on M-7 FSP. These results illustrate the potential for ligands presented in a FSP surface modification to selectively adhere ECs with limited platelet attachment.

  18. Iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in different mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romilda Maria de Arruda Germano


    Full Text Available Iron availability in the diet is very important because iron deficiency affects a large population in the world. The matrix where iron is present has an influence in its availability. The presence of β-carotene is a factor that alters the availability of iron. This research aims to estimate the iron availability in the presence of β-carotene in food mixtures: M1 = egg and pumpkin; M2 = spinach and pumpkin; M3 = spinach and cabbage; M4 = egg and cabbage; M5 = spinach and carrot; M6 = egg and carrot; M7 = bean and carrot; M8 = bean and pumpkin and M9 = bean and cabbage. After cooking, the following figures were determined: proximate composition, oxalic acid, phytic acid, tannin, iron, iron availability in vitro and β-carotene. The data were analyzed by Tukey test (5%. There were no significant statistical differences for oxalic acid. Tannin presented greater results in mixtures with spinach (M2 and M5; phytic acid was greater in bean samples (M7, M8 and M9 and with spinach (M2. Mixtures M5 e M7, with carrot, presented more β-carotene than the others. The best result for iron availability appeared in mixture (M6. A positive correlation was verified between protein and iron dialysis, and between lipids and iron dialysis. Dietetic fiber was an inhibitor to iron availability. Mixtures with egg showed greater iron availability

  19. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates (United States)

    Mendonça-Mattos, Patricia Jeanne de Souza; Harada, Maria Lúcia


    Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i) the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii) the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii) the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions. PMID:28044107

  20. Effect of different N7 substitution of dinucleotide cap analogs on the hydrolytic susceptibility towards scavenger decapping enzymes (DcpS). (United States)

    Piecyk, Karolina; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew M; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Ferenc-Mrozek, Aleksandra; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Bojarska, Elzbieta


    Scavenger decapping enzymes (DcpS) are involved in eukaryotic mRNA degradation process. They catalyze the cleavage of residual cap structure m(7)GpppN and/or short capped oligonucleotides resulting from exosom-mediated the 3' to 5' digestion. For the specific cap recognition and efficient degradation by DcpS, the positive charge at N7 position of guanine moiety is required. Here we examine the role the N7 substitution within the cap structure on the interactions with DcpS (human, Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum) comparing the hydrolysis rates of dinucleotide cap analogs (m(7)GpppG, et(7)GpppG, but(7)GpppG, bn(7)GpppG) and the binding affinities of hydrolysis products (m(7)GMP, et(7)GMP, but(7)GMP, bn(7)GMP). Our results show the conformational flexibility of the region within DcpS cap-binding pocket involved in the interaction with N7 substituted guanine, which enables accommodation of substrates with differently sized N7 substituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthesis and properties of mRNA cap analogs containing phosphorothioate moiety in 5',5'-triphosphate chain. (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Wojcik, Jacek; Cohen, Lean S; Davis, Richard E; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek


    Nucleosides and oligonucleotides with an oxygen replaced by sulfur atom are an interesting class of compounds because of their improved stability toward enzymatic cleavage by nucleases. We have synthesized several dinucleotide mRNA cap analogs containing a phosphorothioate moiety in the alpha, beta, or gamma position of 5',5'-triphosphate chain [m7Gp(s)ppG, m7Gpp(s)pG, and m7Gppp(s)G]. These are the first examples of the biologically important 5'mRNA cap analogs containing a phosphorothioate moiety, and these compounds may be useful in a variety of biochemical and biotechnological applications. Incorporation of a sulfur atom in the alpha or gamma position within the dinucleotide cap analog was achieved using PSCl3 in a nucleoside phosphorylation reaction followed by coupling the phosphorothioate of nucleoside with a second nucleotide. Synthesis of cap analogs with the phosphorothioate moiety in beta position was performed using an organic phosphorothioate salt in a coupling reaction with an activated nucleotide. The structures of newly synthesized compounds was confirmed using MS and 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy. We present here the results of preliminary studies on their interaction with translation initiation factor eIF4E and enzymatic hydrolysis with human and nematode DcpS scavengers.

  2. Statistical monitoring of aftershock sequences: a case study of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake (United States)

    Ogata, Yosihiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroshi


    Early forecasting of aftershocks has become realistic and practical because of real-time detection of hypocenters. This study illustrates a statistical procedure for monitoring aftershock sequences to detect anomalies to increase the probability gain of a significantly large aftershock or even an earthquake larger than the main shock. In particular, a significant lowering (relative quiescence) in aftershock activity below the level predicted by the Omori-Utsu formula or the epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is sometimes followed by a large earthquake in a neighboring region. As an example, we detected significant lowering relative to the modeled rate after approximately 1.7 days after the main shock in the aftershock sequence of the Mw7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake of April 25, 2015. The relative quiescence lasted until the May 12, 2015, M7.3 Kodari earthquake that occurred at the eastern end of the primary aftershock zone. Space-time plots including the transformed time can indicate the local places where aftershock activity lowers (the seismicity shadow). Thus, the relative quiescence can be hypothesized to be related to stress shadowing caused by probable slow slips. In addition, the aftershock productivity of the M7.3 Kodari earthquake is approximately twice as large as that of the M7.8 main shock.

  3. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions. (United States)

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W


    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed.

  4. Relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia. (United States)

    Motoi, Midori; Nishimura, Takayuki; Egashira, Yuka; Kishida, Fumi; Watanuki, Shigeki


    We aimed to investigate the relationship between mtDNA polymorphism and physiological responses to hypobaric hypoxia. The study included 28 healthy male students, consisting of 18 students in haplogroup D and 10 in haplogroup M7+G. Measurement sensors were attached to the participants for approximately 30 min in an environment with a temperature of 28 °C. After resting for 15 min, the programmed operation of the hypobaric chamber decreased the atmospheric pressure by 11.9 Torr every minute to simulate an increase in altitude of 150 m until 9.7 Torr (equivalent to 2500 m) and then decreased 9.7 Torr every minute until 465 Torr (equivalent to 4000 m). At each altitude, the pressure was maintained for 15 min and various measurements were taken. Haplogroup D showed higher SpO2 (p < 0.05) and significantly higher SpO2 during the pressure recovery period when compared with haplogroup M7+G. The distal skin temperature was higher in haplogroup D when compared with M7+G. These results suggested that haplogroup D maintained SpO2 at a higher level with higher peripheral blood flow during acute hypobaric exposure.

  5. Evidence for vacuum birefringence from the first optical-polarimetry measurement of the isolated neutron star RX J1856.5-3754 (United States)

    Mignani, R. P.; Testa, V.; González Caniulef, D.; Taverna, R.; Turolla, R.; Zane, S.; Wu, K.


    The `Magnificent Seven' (M7) are a group of radio-quiet isolated neutron stars discovered in the soft X-rays through their purely thermal surface emission. Owing to the large inferred magnetic fields (B ≈ 1013 G), radiation from these sources is expected to be substantially polarized, independently of the mechanism actually responsible for the thermal emission. A large observed polarization degree (PD) is, however, expected only if quantum-electrodynamic (QED) polarization effects are present in the magnetized vacuum around the star. The detection of a strong linearly polarized signal would therefore provide the first observational evidence of QED effects in the strong-field regime. While polarization measurements in the soft X-rays are not feasible yet, optical polarization measurements are within reach also for quite faint targets, like the M7 which have optical counterparts with magnitudes ≈26-28. Here, we report on the measurement of optical linear polarization for the prototype, and brightest member, of the class, RX J1856.5-3754 (V ˜ 25.5), the first ever for one of the M7, obtained with the Very Large Telescope. We measured a PD = 16.43 ± 5.26 per cent and a polarization position angle PA = 145.39° ± 9.44°, computed east of the North Celestial Meridian. The PD that we derive is large enough to support the presence of vacuum birefringence, as predicted by QED.

  6. 不同种源黑木相思抗旱性评估%Drought assessment on different provenances of Acaciamelanoxylon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁剑; 阮少宁; 黄淑燕; 李书平; 郑郁善



  7. Molecular Evolution of the Glycosyltransferase 6 Gene Family in Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Evanovich


    Full Text Available Glycosyltransferase 6 gene family includes ABO, Ggta1, iGb3S, and GBGT1 genes and by three putative genes restricted to mammals, GT6m6, GTm6, and GT6m7, only the latter is found in primates. GT6 genes may encode functional and nonfunctional proteins. Ggta1 and GBGT1 genes, for instance, are pseudogenes in catarrhine primates, while iGb3S gene is only inactive in human, bonobo, and chimpanzee. Even inactivated, these genes tend to be conversed in primates. As some of the GT6 genes are related to the susceptibility or resistance to parasites, we investigated (i the selective pressure on the GT6 paralogs genes in primates; (ii the basis of the conservation of iGb3S in human, chimpanzee, and bonobo; and (iii the functional potential of the GBGT1 and GT6m7 in catarrhines. We observed that the purifying selection is prevalent and these genes have a low diversity, though ABO and Ggta1 genes have some sites under positive selection. GT6m7, a putative gene associated with aggressive periodontitis, may have regulatory function, but experimental studies are needed to assess its function. The evolutionary conservation of iGb3S in humans, chimpanzee, and bonobo seems to be the result of proximity to genes with important biological functions.

  8. Solidification microstructure formation in HK40 and HH40 alloys (United States)

    Ding, Xian-fei; Liu, Dong-fang; Guo, Pei-liang; Zheng, Yun-rong; Feng, Qiang


    The microstructure formation processes in HK40 and HH40 alloys were investigated through JmatPro calculations and quenching performed during directional solidification. The phase transition routes of HK40 and HH40 alloys were determined as L → L + γ → L + γ + M7C3 → γ + M7C3 → γ + M7C3 + M23C6→ γ + M23C6 and L → L + δ → L + δ + γ→ L + δ + γ + M23C6 δ + γ + M23C6, respectively. The solidification mode was determined to be the austenitic mode (A mode) in HK40 alloy and the ferritic-austenitic solidification mode (FA mode) in HH40 alloy. In HK40 alloy, eutectic carbides directly precipitate in a liquid and coarsen during cooling. The primary γ dendrites grow at the 60° angle to each other. On the other hand, in HH40 alloy, residual δ forms because of the incomplete transformation from δ to γ. Cr23C6 carbide is produced in solid delta ferrite δ but not directly in liquid HH40 alloy. Because of carbide formation in the solid phase and no rapid growth of the dendrite in a non-preferential direction, HH40 alloy is more resistant to cast defect formation than HK40 alloy.

  9. Evolution of secondary phases in Cr-V low-alloy steels during aging (United States)

    Janovec, J.; Vyrostková, A.; Svoboda, M.; Kroupa, A.; Grabke, H. J.


    The influence of both bulk vanadium content and aging conditions on the evolution of secondary phases in Cr-V low-alloy steels was studied. Three 0.1C-0.9Cr-V steels with different vanadium contents (0, 0.258, and 0.512 wt pct) were aged for 100 to 5,000 hours at 773, 853, 953, and 993 K. In the investigation, a limited experimental program (transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) was combined with credible thermodynamic predictions (ThermoCalc). Going out from the good agreement between the predicted and experimental results, behavior of the iron-rich M7C3 carbide in time-temperature scale was characterized. The influence of bulk vanadium content was determined on appearance of the M3C carbide in equilibrium, temperature of the M7C3 carbide precipitation, metal compositions of M3C or M7C3 carbides, and vanadium portion in the metallic part of the MX phase.

  10. Characterization of precipitates in X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel during heat treatment (United States)

    Tao, Xingang; Gu, Jianfeng; Han, Lizhan


    The characterization of precipitates in X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1 steel during the heat treatment was carried out for revealing the evolution of the precipitates. In addition to other microstructural parameters (such as dislocation and subgrains), the precipitate also plays an important role for microstructural stability which is a prerequisite for long term creep strength. In this paper, the precipitates during the heat treatment for this steel were characterized using physicochemical phase analyses and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the Fe-rich M3C carbides and Nb-rich MX particles were detected in the samples cooled in furnace from austenitization at 1080 °C for 16 h. However, after water cooling, only Nb-rich MX particles existed. During tempering at 570 °C for 18 h, the formation of Cr-rich M7C3 was detected but was replaced partially by Cr-rich M23C6. Additional Cr-rich M2N nitride was also found. After two successive tempering (570 °C + 690 °C) for 24 h, Cr-rich M7C3 was completely replaced. The microchemical analyses of the extracted residues during heat treatment were also discussed. The results gave rise to an indication that the precipitation of precipitates nearly completed in first tempering and the transformation from Cr-rich M7C3 to Cr-rich M23C6 mainly occurred in the second tempering.

  11. Slip Distribution of Two Recent Large Earthquakes in the Guerrero Segment of the Mexican Subduction Zone, and Their Relation to Previous Earthquakes, Silent Slip Events and Seismic Gaps (United States)

    Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ji, C.; Iglesias, A.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Singh, S. K.


    In 2012 and 2014 mega-thrust earthquakes occurred approximately 300 km apart, in the state of Guerrero, Mexico. The westernmost half of the segment between them has not had a large earthquake in at least 100 years and most of the easternmost half last broke in 1957. However, down dip of both earthquakes, silent slip events have been reported, as well as in the gap between them (Kostoglodov et al 2003, Graham 2014). There are indications that the westernmost half has different frictional properties than the areas surrounds it. However, the two events at the edges of the zone also seem to behave in different manners, indicating a broad range of frictional properties in this area, with changes occurring over short distances. The 2012/03/20, M7.5 earthquake occurred near the Guerrero-Oaxaca border, between the towns of Ometepec (Gro.) and Pinotepa Nacional (Oax.). This earthquake is noteworthy for breaking the same asperities as two previously recorded earthquakes, the M7.2 1937 and M6.9 1982(a) earthquakes, in very large "repeating earthquakes". Furthermore, the density of repeating smaller events is larger in this zone than in other parts of the subduction zone (Dominguez et al, submitted) and this earthquake has had very many aftershocks for its size (UNAM Seis. group, 2013). The 2012 event may have broken two asperities (UNAM Seis. group, 2013). How the two asperities relate to the previous relatively smaller "large events", to the repeating earthquakes, the high number of aftershocks and to the slow slip event is not clear. The 2014/04/18 M 7.2 earthquake broke a patch on the edge of the Guerrero gap, that previously broke in the 1979 M7.4 earthquake as well as the 1943 M 7.4 earthquake. This earthquake, despite being smaller, had a much larger duration, few aftershocks and clearly ruptured two separate patches (UNAM Seis. group 2015). In this work we estimate the slip distributions for the 2012 and 2014 earthquakes, by combining the data used separately in

  12. In vivo translation and stability of trans-spliced mRNAs in nematode embryos. (United States)

    Cheng, Guofeng; Cohen, Leah; Mikhli, Claudette; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E


    Spliced leader trans-splicing adds a short exon, the spliced leader (SL), to pre-mRNAs to generate 5' ends of mRNAs. Addition of the SL in metazoa also adds a new cap to the mRNA, a trimethylguanosine (m(3)(2,2,7)GpppN) (TMG) that replaces the typical eukaryotic monomethylguanosine (m7GpppN)(m7G) cap. Both trans-spliced (m3(2,2,7)GpppN-SL-RNA) and not trans-spliced (m7GpppN-RNA) mRNAs are present in the same cells. Previous studies using cell-free systems to compare the overall translation of trans-spliced versus non-trans-spliced RNAs led to different conclusions. Here, we examine the contribution of m3(2,2,7)GpppG-cap and SL sequence and other RNA elements to in vivo mRNA translation and stability in nematode embryos. Although 70-90% of all nematode mRNAs have a TMG-cap, the TMG cap does not support translation as well as an m7G-cap. However, when the TMG cap and SL are present together, they synergistically interact and translation is enhanced, indicating both trans-spliced elements are necessary to promote efficient translation. The SL by itself does not act as a cap-independent enhancer of translation. The poly(A)-tail synergistically interacts with the mRNA cap enhancing translation and plays a greater role in facilitating translation of TMG-SL mRNAs. In general, recipient mRNA sequences between the SL and AUG and the 3' UTR do not significantly contribute to the translation of trans-spliced mRNAs. Overall, the combination of TMG cap and SL contribute to mRNA translation and stability in a manner typical of a eukaryotic m7G-cap and 5' UTRs, but they do not differentially enhance mRNA translation or stability compared to RNAs without the trans-spliced elements.

  13. Wear Resistance of In-situ Fe-Cr-V-C Hardfacing Alloys Fabricated by Plasma Transferred Arc Weld-surfacing Process%等离子原位合成Fe-Cr-V-C堆焊合金的耐磨性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗琳; 刘政军; 李乐成


    采用等离子堆焊技术制备了不同Cr含量的Fe-Cr-V-C堆焊合金,借助扫描电镜和X射线衍射等分析手段研究了碳化物形貌及合金物相组成.同时研究了Cr含量对合金硬度和耐磨性的影响,并探讨了磨损机理.结果表明:堆焊合金组织由马氏体、铁素体、奥氏体、M7C3及VC组成.合金中随着Cr含量的提高,由于硬质相M7C3和VC的数量及形态变化不大,而具有高硬度的针状马氏体基体组织的减少使得合金的耐磨性先降低,当达到一定值后继续增加Cr含量,M7C3的数量逐渐增多,因而耐磨性随后增大;当Cr含量达到27.2%(质量分数)时,大量高硬度六边形M7C3复合物(约HV1200)结合一定量VC(约HV1600)颗粒构成坚实的耐磨骨架,使得合金具有最佳的耐磨性.%Fe-Cr-V-C hardfacing alloys with different Cr contents were prepared under plasma transferred arc (PTA). The phases constitution, carbide morphology were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of Cr contents on the wear resistance of hardfacing alloys was detected by using Rockwell hardometer and wear testing machine. In addition, the abrasion wear mechanism was discussed. The results show that the microstructure consists of martensite, ferrite and austenite, carbides such as primary M7C3, VC. As the Cr contents increase, the wear resistance first decreases because of the little changes of content and morphology for M7C3 and VC hard phases and the decrease of acicular martensite with high hardness, afterwards, the wear resistance increases when Cr content reaches a particular value as a result of the increase of M7C3 contents. When Cr mass fraction is 27. 2%, a high volume fraction of hexagonal (Fe,Cr,V)rC3 complex carbides and a small amount globular VC particles in the microstructure form a substantial wear resistant structure, which leads to an excellent wear resistance.

  14. A new tomographic image on the Philippine Sea Slab beneath Tokyo - Implication to seismic hazard in the Tokyo metropolitan region - (United States)

    Hirata, N.; Sakai, S.; Nakagawa, S.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Kasahara, K.; Kimura, H.; Honda, R.


    In central Japan, the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) subducts beneath the Tokyo metropolitan region. Devastating M8-class earthquakes occurred on the upper surface of the Philippine Sea plate (SPS), examples of which are the Genroku earthquake of 1703 (magnitude M=8.0) and the Kanto earthquake of 1923 (M=7.9), which had 105,000 fatalities. A M7 or greater (M7+) earthquake in this region at present has high potential to produce devastating loss of life and property with even greater global economic repercussions although it is smaller than the megathrust type M8-class earthquakes. This great earthquake is evaluated to occur with a probability of 70 % in 30 years by the Earthquake Research Committee of Japan. The M7+ earthquakes may occur either on the upper surface or intra slab of PSP. The Central Disaster Management Council of Japan estimates the next great M7+ earthquake will cause 11,000 fatalities and 112 trillion yen (1 trillion US$) economic loss at worst case if it occur beneath northern Tokyo bay with M7.3. However, the estimate is based on a source fault model by conventional studies about the PSP geometry. To evaluate seismic hazard due to the great quake we need to clarify the geometry of PSP and also the Pacific palate (PAP) that subducs beneath PSP. We identify those plates with use of seismic tomography and available deep seismic reflection profiling and borehole data in southern Kanto area. We deployed about 300 seismic stations in the greater Tokyo urban region under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We obtain clear P- and S- wave velocity (Vp and Vs) tomograms which show a clear image of PSP and PAP. A depth to the top of PSP, 20 to 30 kilometer beneath northern part of Tokyo bay, is about 10 km shallower than previous estimates based on the distribution of seismicity (Ishida, 1992). This shallower plate geometry changes estimations of strong ground motion for seismic hazards analysis within the Tokyo

  15. Tsunamigenic Aftershocks From Large Strike-Slip Earthquakes: An Example From the November 16, 2000 Mw=8.0 New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, Earthquake (United States)

    Geist, E.; Parsons, T.; Hirata, K.; Hirata, K.


    Two reverse mechanism earthquakes (M > 7) were triggered by the November 16, 2000 Mw=8.0 New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) left-lateral, strike-slip earthquake. The mainshock rupture initiated in the Bismarck Sea and propagated unilaterally to the southeast through the island of New Ireland and into the Solomon Sea. Although the mainshock caused a local seiche in the bay near Rabaul (New Britain) with a maximum runup of 0.9 m, the main tsunami observed on the south coast of New Britain, New Ireland, and Bougainville (maximum runup approximately 2.5-3 m), appears to have been caused by the Mw=7.4 aftershock 2.8 hours following the mainshock. It is unclear whether the second Mw=7.6 aftershock on November 17, 2000 (40 hours after the mainshock) also generated a tsunami. Analysis and modeling of the available tsunami information can constrain the source parameters of the tsunamigenic aftershock(s) and further elucidated the triggering mechanism. Preliminary stress modeling indicates that because the location of the first Mw=7.4 aftershock is located near the rupture termination of the mainshock, stress calculations are especially sensitive to the location of both ruptures and the assumed coefficient of friction. A similar example of a triggered tsunamigenic earthquake occurred following the 1812 Wrightwood (M ~7.5) earthquake in southern California as discussed by Deng and Sykes (1996, GRL, p. 1155-1158). In this case, they show that strike-slip rupture on the San Andreas fault produced coseismic stress changes that triggered the Santa Barbara Channel earthquake (M ~7.1), 13 days later. The mechanism for the Santa Barbara Channel event appears to have been an oblique thrust event. The November 2000 New Ireland earthquake sequence provides an important analog for studying the potential for tsunamigenic aftershocks following large San Andreas earthquakes in southern California.

  16. 不同地域震前次声波异常信号的分析%Analysis of Abnormal Infrasound Signals in Different Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨庆生; 张少伟; 夏雅琴; 陈维升


    利用次声波观测方法,分析了2010-01-2014-06发生在瓦努阿图地区的M≥7.0级以上地震震前次声波异常信号特征,发现其波形类似,呈多组分布,频谱分析结果显示其能量主要集中在0.001~0.005 Hz.同时,对中国发生的2010-04-14玉树M7.1级地震、2013-04-20雅安M7.0级地震、2013-07-22定西M6.6级地震和2014-02-12于田M7.3级地震震前次声波异常信号进行了波形及频谱分析,并与瓦努阿图地震前接收到的次声波异常信号对比发现,不同地域的地震,其震前次声波异常信号特性不同.这有助于研究震前次声波异常信号与震源地理位置及地质条件之间的关系,对次声波方法预测震源有一定的实际意义.

  17. Productivity and Nutrient Quality of Some Sorghum Mutant Lines at Different Cutting Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Puteri


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to explore the appropriate cutting age to produce optimal biomass and good nutrient quality from sorghum mutant lines BMR i.e., PATIR 3.5 M7, PATIR 3.6 M7, and PATIR 3.7 M7, also SAMURAI I (M17. A completely randomized in Split Plot design with 2 factors and 3 replicates was used. The first factor was the type of sorghum (SAMURAI I M17, PATIR 3.5, PATIR 3.6, PATIR 3.7 as the main plot and the second factor was the cutting age (85, 95, 105 as a subplot. Parameters observed were the production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, ash, crude fat, crude fiber, crude protein, NFE, TDN, percentage of DMD, OMD and N-NH3. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test. The results showed that there were highly significant interactions (P<0.01 between cutting age and type of sorghum in production of stems, leaves, grains, total biomass production, value of TDN, DMD, OMD, and N-NH3. Increasing cutting age significantly increased the percentage of ash content, crude protein and crude fat. The sorghum type significantly affected crude fat content nonBMR sorghum variety of SAMURAI I (M17 and achieved optimal biomass production and nutrient content at cutting age of 85 d similar to BMR sorghum mutant lines PATIR 3.6 and PATIR 3.5, whereas BMR sorghum mutant lines of PATIR 3.7 achieved optimum production at the age of 95 d of cutting. All types of sorghum varieties was not recommended to be harvested at 105 d. Biomass production increased with the increasing of cutting age, but the nutrient content decreased.

  18. Recurrence of seismic migrations along the central California segment of the San Andreas fault system (United States)

    Wood, M.D.; Allen, S.S.


    VERIFICATIONS of tectonic concepts1 concerning seafloor spreading are emerging in a manner that has direct bearing on earthquake prediction. Although the gross pattern of worldwide seismicity contributed to the formulation of the plate tectonic hypothesis, it is the space-time characteristics of this seismicity that may contribute more toward understanding the kinematics and dynamics of the driving mechanism long speculated to originate in the mantle. If the lithosphere is composed of plates that move essentially as rigid bodies, then there should be seismic edge effects associated with this movement. It is these interplate effects, especially seismic migration patterns, that we discuss here. The unidirectional propagation at constant velocity (80 km yr-1 east to west) for earthquakes (M???7.2) on the Antblian fault for the period 1939 to 1956 (ref. 2) is one of the earliest observations of such a phenomenon. Similar studies3,4 of the Alaska Aleutian seismic zone and certain regions of the west coast of South America suggest unidirectional and recurring migrations of earthquakes (M???7.7) occur in these areas. Between these two regions along the great transform faults of the west coast of North America, there is some evidence 5 for unidirectional, constant velocity and recurrent migration of great earthquakes. The small population of earthquakes (M>7.2) in Savage's investigation5 indicates a large spatial gap along the San Andreas system in central California from 1830 to 1970. Previous work on the seismicity of this gap in central California indicates that the recurrence curves remain relatively constant, independent of large earthquakes, for periods up to a century6. Recurrence intervals for earthquakes along the San Andreas Fault have been calculated empirically by Wallace7 on the basis of geological evidence, surface measurements and assumptions restricted to the surficial seismic layer. Here we examine the evidence for recurrence of seismic migrations along

  19. 药品中遗传毒性杂质的评估和控制%Evaluation and Control of Genotoxic Impurities in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧敏; 林建群; 冯康彪; 杜有功; 王红; 孙渊


    目的 综述药品遗传毒性杂质控制相关指南和法规,为制药企业执行国际标准和准则提供一些建议和思路.方法 通过查找数据库如Pubmed、Medline及欧洲药品管理局(European Medicines Agency,EMA)、美国食品药品监督管理局(USFood and Drug Administratio,U.S.FDA)、人用药品注册技术要求国际协调会议(ICH)等网站,比较各指南法规关于遗传毒性控制限度和控制措施的异同点,为遗传毒性杂质的控制提供一个可行性步骤.结果 通过比较发现,EMA、U.S.FDA和即将出版的ICH M7指南在关键原则的应用方面如毒理学关注阈值(threshold of toxicological concern,TTC)、风险评估步骤、杂质5分类法等基本相同,但现行EMA和U.S.FDA法规存在分歧,不利于其有效执行,而ICH M7将为遗传毒性杂质的控制提供一个可行框架.结论 目前还缺乏完善有效的遗传毒性控制指南,ICH M7将解决U.S.FDA和EMA指南间分歧,更好地指导制药企业遗传毒性杂质的控制.

  20. Dynamic conformations of nucleophosmin (NPM1 at a key monomer-monomer interface affect oligomer stability and interactions with granzyme B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei D Duan-Porter

    Full Text Available Nucleophosmin (NPM1 is an abundant, nucleolar tumor antigen with important roles in cell proliferation and putative contributions to oncogenesis. Wild-type NPM1 forms pentameric oligomers through interactions at the amino-terminal core domain. A truncated form of NPM1 found in some hepatocellular carcinoma tissue formed an unusually stable oligomer and showed increased susceptibility to cleavage by granzyme B. Initiation of translation at the seventh methionine generated a protein (M7-NPM that shared all these properties. We used deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS to perform a detailed structural analysis of wild-type NPM1 and M7-NPM, and found dynamic conformational shifts or local "unfolding" at a specific monomer-monomer interface which included the β-hairpin "latch." We tested the importance of interactions at the β-hairpin "latch" by replacing a conserved tyrosine in the middle of the β-hairpin loop with glutamic acid, generating Y67E-NPM. Y67E-NPM did not form stable oligomers and further, prevented wild-type NPM1 oligomerization in a dominant-negative fashion, supporting the critical role of the β-hairpin "latch" in monomer-monomer interactions. Also, we show preferential cleavage by granzyme B at one of two available aspartates (either D161 or D122 in M7-NPM and Y67E-NPM, whereas wild-type NPM1 was cleaved at both sites. Thus, we observed a correlation between the propensity to form oligomers and granzyme B cleavage site selection in nucleophosmin proteins, suggesting that a small change at an important monomer-monomer interface can affect conformational shifts and impact protein-protein interactions.

  1. 3D Dynamic Rupture Simulations Across Interacting Faults: the Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti Earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.; Aagaard, B.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during an earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a fault segment sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g.i, 2002 M7.9Denali and 2010 M7.1 Darfield earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial segment and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of moderate magnitude. This is the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigatethe rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacenent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a Finite Element Model to simulate the nucleation and propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence. The best-fit simulation is in remarkable agreement with several finite fault inversions and predicts ground displacement in very good agreement with geodetic and geological observations. The two slip patches inferred from finite-fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure. Although our simulation results replicate well the ground deformation consistent with the geodetic surface observation but convolving the ground motion with the soil amplification from the microzonation study will correctly account for the heterogeneity of the PGA throughout the rupture area.

  2. Three-dimensional dynamic rupture simulations across interacting faults: The Mw7.0, 2010, Haiti earthquake (United States)

    Douilly, R.; Aochi, H.; Calais, E.; Freed, A. M.


    The mechanisms controlling rupture propagation between fault segments during a large earthquake are key to the hazard posed by fault systems. Rupture initiation on a smaller fault sometimes transfers to a larger fault, resulting in a significant event (e.g., 2002 M7.9 Denali USA and 2010 M7.1 Darfield New Zealand earthquakes). In other cases rupture is constrained to the initial fault and does not transfer to nearby faults, resulting in events of more moderate magnitude. This was the case of the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2010 M7.0 Haiti earthquakes which initiated on reverse faults abutting against a major strike-slip plate boundary fault but did not propagate onto it. Here we investigate the rupture dynamics of the Haiti earthquake, seeking to understand why rupture propagated across two segments of the Léogâne fault but did not propagate to the adjacent Enriquillo Plantain Garden Fault, the major 200 km long plate boundary fault cutting through southern Haiti. We use a finite element model to simulate propagation of rupture on the Léogâne fault, varying friction and background stress to determine the parameter set that best explains the observed earthquake sequence, in particular, the ground displacement. The two slip patches inferred from finite fault inversions are explained by the successive rupture of two fault segments oriented favorably with respect to the rupture propagation, while the geometry of the Enriquillo fault did not allow shear stress to reach failure.

  3. In vitro metabolism of the anti-androgenic fungicide vinclozolin by rat liver microsomes. (United States)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Angeles-Soto, Esperanza; de Lourdes López-González, Ma; Harrison, Randy A; Hughes, Michael F


    Vinclozolin (V) is a fungicide used in agricultural settings. V administered to rats is hydrolyzed to 2-[[(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-carbamoyl]oxy]-2-methyl-3-butenoic acid (M1) and 3',5'-dichloro-2-hydroxy-2-methylbut-3-enanilide (M2). V, M1 and M2 have antiandrogenic properties by interacting with the androgen receptor. Data on V, M1 and M2 biotransformation are limited. Our objective was to characterize V metabolism by rat liver microsomes. V was incubated with non-treated adult male Long-Evans rat liver microsomes and NADPH. Several metabolites were detected following the extraction of incubate with acetonitrile and analysis by HPLC/DAD/MSD. One metabolite was identified as [3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-(1,2-dihydroxyethyl)-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione] (M4), which was gradually converted to 3',5'-dichloro-2,3,4-trihydroxy-2-methylbutylanilide (M5). Both co-eluted in the same HPLC peak. Another metabolite ([M7]) was detected by UV but was unstable for mass spectral analysis. The K(M app) for co-eluted M4/M5 and [M7] was 53.7 and 135.4 μM, the V(max app) was 0.812 and 0.669 nmoles/min/mg protein, and CL(int) was 15.1 and 4.9 ml/min/g protein, respectively. Pilocarpine, orphenadrine and proadifen and anti-rat cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A, 2B and 3A antibodies inhibited M4/M5 and [M7] formation. These results indicate that V is efficiently metabolized by CYP. Determination of the metabolites of V will provide further insight into the relationship between toxicity and tissue dose of V and its metabolites.

  4. A novel functional site in the PB2 subunit of influenza A virus essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Dai; Shoji, Masaki; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Hirota, Takenori; Nagae, Monami; Yanagisawa, Shin; Nakano, Masahiro; Ohmi, Naho; Noda, Takeshi; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Kuzuhara, Takashi


    The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, are essential for viral transcription and replication. The PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap (7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m(7)GTP)) and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to "snatch" the cap from host pre-mRNAs. However, the structure of PB2 is not fully understood, and the functional sites remain unknown. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is involved in interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m(7)GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m(7)GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of the valine and arginine residues or of all 3 residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced the binding ability of PB2 to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Structural and Biochemical Analyses on the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase of Influenza Virus for Development of Novel Anti-influenza Agents. (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Dai


     The PA, PB1, and PB2 subunits, components of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus, and the nucleoprotein (NP) interact with the genomic RNA of influenza viruses and form ribonucleoproteins. Especially, the PB2 subunit binds to the host RNA cap [7-methylguanosine triphosphate (m(7)GTP)] and supports the endonuclease activity of PA to "snatch" the cap from host pre-mRNAs. In this study, we describe a novel Val/Arg/Gly (VRG) site in the PB2 cap-binding domain, which is necessary for interaction with acetyl-CoA found in eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases (HATs). In vitro experiments revealed that the recombinant PB2 cap-binding domain that includes the VRG site interacts with acetyl-CoA; moreover, it was found that this interaction could be blocked by CoA and various HAT inhibitors. Interestingly, m(7)GTP also inhibited this interaction, suggesting that the same active pocket is capable of interacting with acetyl-CoA and m(7)GTP. To elucidate the importance of the VRG site on PB2 function and viral replication, we constructed a PB2 recombinant protein and recombinant viruses including several patterns of amino acid mutations in the VRG site. Substitutions of 2 or 3 amino acid residues of the VRG site to alanine significantly reduced PB2's binding ability to acetyl-CoA and its RNA polymerase activity. Recombinant viruses containing the same mutations could not be replicated in cultured cells. These results indicate that the PB2 VRG sequence is a functional site that is essential for acetyl-CoA interaction, RNA polymerase activity, and viral replication. I will also discuss some novel functions of NP in this review.

  6. Seismic triggering of landslides, Part A: Field evidence from the Northern Tien Shan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-B. Havenith


    Full Text Available Landslides triggered by strong earthquakes often caused most of the global damage and most of all casualties related to the events, such as shown by the M = 7.7 Peru earthquake in 1970, by the M = 7.6 El Salvador earthquake in 2001 or by the M = 7.4 Khait (Tajikistan earthquake in 1949. The obvious impact of a landslide on the population is directly related to its movement. Yet, prediction of future failure potential and hence future risk to population is necessary in order to avoid further catastrophes and involves the analyses of the origin of seismic instability. The seismic landslide potential is mainly determined by the interaction between the regional seismic hazard and local geological conditions. At a local scale, seismic factors interfering with geological conditions can produce site-specific ground motions. The influence of such Site Effects on instability is the principal topic of this paper, which is divided into two parts, A and B. The present Part A is concerned with the correlation of field data with observed instability phenomena. Field data were obtained on mainly three landslide sites in the Northern Tien Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia. Geophysical prospecting, earthquake recordings, geological observation, trenching and geotechnical tests were the main investigation tools. The collected information gives an insight in the geological background of the slope failure and allows us to roughly infer failure mechanisms from field evidence. A detailed analysis of the susceptibility of a mechanism to specific geological conditions will be shown in Part B.

  7. Non-Volcanic Tremor Near Parkfield, CA Systematically Excited by Teleseismic Waves (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Vidale, J. E.; Rubinstein, J. L.; Gomberg, J.


    Non-volcanic tremor triggered by teleseismic waves was discovered recently along the subduction zones in Japan and Cascadia, and along the transform plate boundary in CA. Here we summarize non-volcanic tremor along the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, CA triggered by the surface waves of regional and teleseismic events. We analyze 10 M ≥ 8.0 earthquakes since 2001, the M6.7 Nenana Mountain and M7.9 Denali, Alaska earthquakes in 2002 and the 2005 M7.2 Mendocino, California earthquake. We identify triggered tremor as bursts of high-frequency (~ 3-15 Hz), non-impulsive seismic energy that is coherent among many stations, and has a significant component in phase with the passing of the surface waves. We qualitatively judge the clarity of tremor observations and find the strongest, most coherent examples for the M7.9 Denali, M8.3 Hokkaido, M9.1 Sumatra, and M8.1 Kuril Islands earthquakes. The M6.7 Nenana Mountain earthquake did not trigger visible tremor, and the evidence for triggered tremor for the remaining 8 events is equivocal. The identification of tremor does not correlate strongly with peak ground velocity, but may correlate with cumulative energy density for long- period (≥ 30 s) surface waves. The observations suggest that longer-period waves may be a more effective trigger, most likely due to a better penetration to depth where tremors occur. Our observation, in concert with those of Gomberg et al., Vidale et al., and Rubinstein et al. [this meeting], suggests that non-volcanic tremor triggered by teleseismic waves is much more widespread than previously thought, and the effective stress, or the frictional coefficient is very low at depth along the SAF near Parkfield.

  8. Precursory scale increase and long-term seismogenesis in California and Northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rhoades


    Full Text Available A sudden increase in the scale of seismicity has occurred as a long-term precursor to twelve major earthquakes in California and Northern Mexico. These include all earthquakes along the San Andreas system during 1960-2000 with magnitude M ?6.4. The full list is as follows: Colorado Delta, 1966, M 6.3; Borrego Mt., 1968, M 6.5; San Fernando, 1971, M 6.6; Brawley, 1979, M 6.4; Mexicali, 1980, M 6.1; Coalinga, 1983, M 6.7; Superstition Hills, 1987, M 6.6; Loma Prieta, 1989, M 7.0; Joshua Tree, 1992, M 6.1; Landers, 1992, M 7.3; Northridge, 1994, M 6.6; Hector Mine, 1999, M 7.1. Such a Precursory Scale Increase ( was inferred from the modelling of long-term seismogenesis as a three-stage faulting process against a background of self-organised criticality. The location, onset-time and level of ? are predictive of the location, time and magnitude of the future earthquake. Precursory swarms, which occur widely in subduction regions, are a special form of ? ; the more general form is here shownto occur frequently in a region of continental transform. Other seismicity precursors, including quiescence and foreshocks, contribute to or modulate the increased seismicity that characterises ? . The area occupied by ? is small compared with those occupied by the seismicity precursors known as AMR, M8 and LURR. Further work is needed to formulate as a testable hypothesis, and to carry out the appropriate forecasting tests.

  9. Spatiotemporal variations of interplate slip rates in northeast Japan inverted from recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes (United States)

    Nomura, Shunichi; Ogata, Yosihiko; Uchida, Naoki; Matsu'ura, Mitsuhiro


    Repeating earthquakes, the sequence of stress accumulation and release at isolated small asperities on a plate interface, can be regarded as a renewal process in statistics. From such a point of view, we modelled a sequence of repeating earthquakes and developed an objective Bayesian method to estimate the space-time distribution of interplate slip rates from the recurrence intervals of repeating earthquakes. The space-time distribution of slip rates is represented by the superposition of tri-cubic B-splines. The knots of B-splines in time are unequally allocated for representing co-seismic abrupt and post-seismic rapid changes in slip rates. In addition, to avoid overfitting, smoothness constraints are imposed and their optimal weights are determined by Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion. We applied this method to the complete data set of repeating earthquakes in northeast Japan for about 18 yr before the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, and revealed spatiotemporal variations of interplate slip rates off the Hokkaido-Tohoku region, where the 1994 Sanriku-oki (M7.6), 2003 Tokachi-oki (M8.0), 2004 Kushiro-oki (M7.1), and 2008 Ibaraki-oki (M7.0) earthquakes occurred. First, we confirmed the reciprocal correlation between the spatial distribution of average slip rates for a seismically calm period (1996-2000) and that of average slip-deficit rates, which has been estimated from GPS array data. Then, we examined the temporal variations of slip rates associated with the large interplate earthquakes in detail.

  10. Permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity controlled by earthquakes (United States)

    Brodsky, E. E.; Fulton, P. M.; Xue, L.


    Earthquakes can increase permeability in fractured rocks. In the farfield, such permeability increases are attributed to seismic waves and can last for months after the initial earthquake. Laboratory studies suggest that unclogging of fractures by the transient flow driven by seismic waves is a viable mechanism. These dynamic permeability increases may contribute to permeability enhancement in the seismic clouds accompanying hydraulic fracking. Permeability enhancement by seismic waves could potentially be engineered and the experiments suggest the process will be most effective at a preferred frequency. We have recently observed similar processes inside active fault zones after major earthquakes. A borehole observatory in the fault that generated the M9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake reveals a sequence of temperature pulses during the secondary aftershock sequence of an M7.3 aftershock. The pulses are attributed to fluid advection by a flow through a zone of transiently increased permeability. Directly after the M7.3 earthquake, the newly damaged fault zone is highly susceptible to further permeability enhancement, but ultimately heals within a month and becomes no longer as sensitive. The observation suggests that the newly damaged fault zone is more prone to fluid pulsing than would be expected based on the long-term permeability structure. Even longer term healing is seen inside the fault zone of the 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. The competition between damage and healing (or clogging and unclogging) results in dynamically controlled permeability, storage and hydraulic diffusivity. Recent measurements of in situ fault zone architecture at the 1-10 meter scale suggest that active fault zones often have hydraulic diffusivities near 10-2 m2/s. This uniformity is true even within the damage zone of the San Andreas fault where permeability and storage increases balance each other to achieve this value of diffusivity over a 400 m wide region. We speculate that fault zones

  11. Cap analog substrates reveal three clades of cap guanine-N2 methyltransferases with distinct methyl acceptor specificities. (United States)

    Benarroch, Delphine; Jankowska-Anyszka, Marzena; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Shuman, Stewart


    The Tgs proteins are structurally homologous AdoMet-dependent eukaryal enzymes that methylate the N2 atom of 7-methyl guanosine nucleotides. They have an imputed role in the synthesis of the 2,2,7-trimethylguanosine (TMG) RNA cap. Here we exploit a collection of cap-like substrates to probe the repertoire of three exemplary Tgs enzymes, from mammalian, protozoan, and viral sources, respectively. We find that human Tgs (hTgs1) is a bona fide TMG synthase adept at two separable transmethylation steps: (1) conversion of m(7)G to m(2,7)G, and (2) conversion of m(2,7)G to m(2,2,7)G. hTgs1 is unable to methylate G or m(2)G, signifying that both steps require an m(7)G cap. hTgs1 utilizes a broad range of m(7)G nucleotides, including mono-, di-, tri-, and tetraphosphate derivatives as well as cap dinucleotides with triphosphate or tetraphosphate bridges. In contrast, Giardia lamblia Tgs (GlaTgs2) exemplifies a different clade of guanine-N2 methyltransferase that synthesizes only a dimethylguanosine (DMG) cap structure and cannot per se convert DMG to TMG under any conditions tested. Methylation of benzyl(7)G and ethyl(7)G nucleotides by hTgs1 and GlaTgs2 underscored the importance of guanine N7 alkylation in providing a key pi-cation interaction in the methyl acceptor site. Mimivirus Tgs (MimiTgs) shares with the Giardia homolog the ability to catalyze only a single round of methyl addition at guanine-N2, but is distinguished by its capacity for guanine-N2 methylation in the absence of prior N7 methylation. The relaxed cap specificity of MimiTgs is revealed at alkaline pH. Our findings highlight both stark and subtle differences in acceptor specificity and reaction outcomes among Tgs family members.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of mRNA cap analogs containing phosphorothioate substitutions that bind tightly to eIF4E and are resistant to the decapping pyrophosphatase DcpS. (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Grudzien-Nogalska, Ewa; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Rhoads, Robert E; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Davis, Richard E; Jemielity, Jacek


    Analogs of the mRNA cap are widely employed to study processes involved in mRNA metabolism as well as being useful in biotechnology and medicinal applications. Here we describe synthesis of six dinucleotide cap analogs bearing a single phosphorothioate modification at either the alpha, beta, or gamma position of the 5',5'-triphosphate chain. Three of them were also modified with methyl groups at the 2'-O position of 7-methylguanosine to produce anti-reverse cap analogs (ARCAs). Due to the presence of stereogenic P centers in the phosphorothioate moieties, each analog was obtained as a mixture of two diastereomers, D1 and D2. The mixtures were resolved by RP HPLC, providing 12 different compounds. Fluorescence quenching experiments were employed to determine the association constant (K(AS)) for complexes of the new analogs with eIF4E. We found that phosphorothioate modifications generally stabilized the complex between eIF4E and the cap analog. The most strongly bound phosphorothioate analog (the D1 isomer of the beta-substituted analog m(7)Gpp(S)pG) was characterized by a K(AS) that was more than fourfold higher than that of its unmodified counterpart (m(7)GpppG). All analogs modified in the gamma position were resistant to hydrolysis by the scavenger decapping pyrophosphatase DcpS from both human and Caenorhabditis elegans sources. The absolute configurations of the diastereomers D1 and D2 of analogs modified at the alpha position (i.e., m(7)Gppp(S)G and m(2) (7,2'-O )Gppp(S)G) were established as S(P) and R(P) , respectively, using enzymatic digestion and correlation with the S(P) and R(P) diastereomers of guanosine 5'-O-(1-thiodiphosphate) (GDPalphaS). The analogs resistant to DcpS act as potent inhibitors of in vitro protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocyte lysates.

  13. International Aftershock Forecasting: Lessons from the Gorkha Earthquake (United States)

    Michael, A. J.; Blanpied, M. L.; Brady, S. R.; van der Elst, N.; Hardebeck, J.; Mayberry, G. C.; Page, M. T.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Wein, A. M.


    Following the M7.8 Gorhka, Nepal, earthquake of April 25, 2015 the USGS issued a series of aftershock forecasts. The initial impetus for these forecasts was a request from the USAID Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance to support their Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) which coordinated US Government disaster response, including search and rescue, with the Government of Nepal. Because of the possible utility of the forecasts to people in the region and other response teams, the USGS released these forecasts publicly through the USGS Earthquake Program web site. The initial forecast used the Reasenberg and Jones (Science, 1989) model with generic parameters developed for active deep continental regions based on the Garcia et al. (BSSA, 2012) tectonic regionalization. These were then updated to reflect a lower productivity and higher decay rate based on the observed aftershocks, although relying on teleseismic observations, with a high magnitude-of-completeness, limited the amount of data. After the 12 May M7.3 aftershock, the forecasts used an Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model to better characterize the multiple sources of earthquake clustering. This model provided better estimates of aftershock uncertainty. These forecast messages were crafted based on lessons learned from the Christchurch earthquake along with input from the U.S. Embassy staff in Kathmandu. Challenges included how to balance simple messaging with forecasts over a variety of time periods (week, month, and year), whether to characterize probabilities with words such as those suggested by the IPCC (IPCC, 2010), how to word the messages in a way that would translate accurately into Nepali and not alarm the public, and how to present the probabilities of unlikely but possible large and potentially damaging aftershocks, such as the M7.3 event, which had an estimated probability of only 1-in-200 for the week in which it occurred.

  14. Performance of standard media in toxicological assessments with Daphnia magna: chelators and ionic composition versus metal toxicity. (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Castro, Bruno B; Pereira, Joana Luísa; Gonçalves, Fernando


    Fully artificial test media can increase reproducibility and standardization in ecotoxicological assessments, but there is still a lack of convergence among ecotoxicology laboratories in aquatic test media with respect to ionic composition, chelators, and organic supplements. We compared the performance of Daphnia magna in three widely-used reconstituted media. The tested media differed in composition: (a) ADaM, an artificial medium based in a synthetic sea salt, with no a priori known chelating properties; (b) ASTM hard water supplemented with algal extract, a semi-artificial medium with unknown chelating properties; and (c) M7, a complex artificial medium containing EDTA as a chelator. All three media were suitable for rearing D. magna (although performance in M7 was suboptimal) and acute EC(50) values for reference substances (3,4-DCA, K(2)Cr(2)O(7)) were similar between media. In acute exposures to Cu and Cd, daphniids were least sensitive when reared in M7, as expected due to metal chelation by EDTA. Daphnia sensitivity to Cd was low in ADaM. Thus, these two media were suboptimal for assessing the toxicity of some metals to D. magna in acute tests. We suggest that both the ionic composition of the medium and the presence of chelators should be taken into account when metal toxicity is concerned. Chronic toxicity profiles for Cu suggested a mild chelating effect of the algal extract in ASTM medium. Still, ASTM hard water persists as one of the most suitable media for acute toxicity assessments of metals and metal-contaminated samples.

  15. Atrogin-1 and MuRF1 regulate cardiac MyBP-C levels via different mechanisms. (United States)

    Mearini, Giulia; Gedicke, Christina; Schlossarek, Saskia; Witt, Christian C; Krämer, Elisabeth; Cao, Peirang; Gomes, Marcelo D; Lecker, Stewart H; Labeit, Siegfried; Willis, Monte S; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Carrier, Lucie


    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) is frequently caused by cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C) gene mutations, which should result in C-terminal truncated mutants. However, truncated mutants were not detected in myocardial tissue of FHC patients and were rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) after gene transfer in cardiac myocytes. Since the diversity and specificity of UPS regulation lie in E3 ubiquitin ligases, we investigated whether the muscle-specific E3 ligases atrogin-1 or muscle ring finger protein-1 (MuRF1) mediate degradation of truncated cMyBP-C. Human wild-type (WT) and truncated (M7t, resulting from a human mutation) cMyBP-C species were co-immunoprecipitated with atrogin-1 after adenoviral overexpression in cardiac myocytes, and WT-cMyBP-C was identified as an interaction partner of MuRF1 by yeast two-hybrid screens. Overexpression of atrogin-1 in cardiac myocytes decreased the protein level of M7t-cMyBP-C by 80% and left WT-cMyBP-C level unaffected. This was rescued by proteasome inhibition. In contrast, overexpression of MuRF1 in cardiac myocytes not only reduced the protein level of WT- and M7t-cMyBP-C by >60%, but also the level of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) by >40%, which were not rescued by proteasome inhibition. Both exogenous cMyBP-C and endogenous MHC mRNA levels were markedly reduced by MuRF1 overexpression. Similar to cardiac myocytes, MuRF1-overexpressing (TG) mice exhibited 40% lower levels of MHC mRNAs and proteins. Protein levels of cMyBP-C were 29% higher in MuRF1 knockout and 34% lower in TG than in WT, without a corresponding change in mRNA levels. These data suggest that atrogin-1 specifically targets truncated M7t-cMyBP-C, but not WT-cMyBP-C, for proteasomal degradation and that MuRF1 indirectly reduces cMyBP-C levels by regulating the transcription of MHC.

  16. Two Species Previously Confused Under the Concept of Sabethes Tarsopus in Central America (Diptera: Culicidae) (United States)


    u ., data . Ss hnqone rte s . oireorte for Information OP• etonatnd ft"ar l2t% 11¢1 fil 111111111111 1 1 Id udget P&OelwOtk Reduction 1 oje t illO 70...HONDURAS. Yoro: Camp Big ridge system (Holdridge and Budowski 1956). Bear. approx. 800 m. 7 Mar 86, R. Johnson. dominant plants consist of drought-resistant...Nijera, A. 1966. Mosquitos tropicales 1951. Descriptions of two new species of de Mexico. Rev. Invest. Salud Publica Wveom’ia and the male of

  17. Lifshitz Transition and Metamagnetism: Thermoelectric Studies of CeRu$_2$Si$_2$


    Boukahil, Mounir; Pourret, Alexandre; Knebel, Georg; Aoki, Dai; Onuki, Yoshichika; Flouquet, Jacques


    We report field and temperature dependent measurements of the thermoelectric power (TEP) across the pseudo-metamagnetic transition (MMT) in CeRu$_2$Si$_2$. We applied the thermoelectric gradient parallel and perpendicular to the field along the c axis of the tetragonal crystal which is the easy magnetization axis. At the MMT at H$_m$=7.8 T, a strong anomaly in the TEP is observed for both configurations with opposite signs. The anomaly at Hm becomes a cascade of anomalies at very low temperat...

  18. Crustal construction along arc-backarc transition zone in the Japan Sea and implications for seismogenic processes (United States)

    Kodaira, S.; No, T.; Sato, T.; Sato, H.


    The Japan Sea, which is a backarc basin between Japanese island arc and the Asian continent, has a unique setting in terms of a formation process as well as a seismogenic process. The opening of the Japan Sea was initiated by crustal rifting and the separation of Japan Island Arcs from the Asian continent in the early Oligocene (~ 32 Ma), with subsequent ocean floor spreading in the late Oligocene (~ 28 Ma). Then, the opening stopped, between 10 and 3.5 Ma, and at 3.5 Ma, the crustal shortening occurred under a strong compressional stress regime in the eastern margin of the Japan Sea. Several seismic surveys had been conducted in this region since the last more than two decades, however, a conclusive discussion concerning a crustal construction in the arc-backarc transition zone had not been made, due to lack of resolution of structural models and sparse distribution of profiles. Moreover, magnitude-7 class earthquakes repeatedly occurred along this margin, such as, the 1964 Niigata earthquake (M7.5), 1983 Nihonkai-Chubu earthquake (M7.7), 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8), and those events are recognized to have compressional fault mechanisms by reflecting a present-day stress regime. However, structural factor controlling the distribution and mechanism of those compressional events has not been well studied. In order to understand a crustal formation process in this margin and its relation to the seismogenic process at the present, we have been carrying our series of active-source seismic survey to cover the eastern margin of the central to northern Japan Sea. Results from those surveys successfully mapped a distribution of the arc crust, the oceanic crust and the amorously thick oceanic crust in the transition zone. From a comparison the rupture zones of the magnitude-7 class earthquake with the detailed crustal structure, we conclude that the large compressional events, more than M>7.5, occurred in a seismogenic zone fault which used to be formed a

  19. Dengue Virus Utilizes a Novel Strategy for Translation Initiation When Cap-Dependent Translation Is Inhibited


    Edgil, Dianna; Polacek, Charlotta; Harris, Eva


    Viruses have developed numerous mechanisms to usurp the host cell translation apparatus. Dengue virus (DEN) and other flaviviruses, such as West Nile and yellow fever viruses, contain a 5′ m7GpppN-capped positive-sense RNA genome with a nonpolyadenylated 3′ untranslated region (UTR) that has been presumed to undergo translation in a cap-dependent manner. However, the means by which the DEN genome is translated effectively in the presence of capped, polyadenylated cellular mRNAs is unknown. Th...

  20. ELF/VLF/LF Radio Propagation and Systems Aspects (La Propagation des Ondes Radio ELF/VLF/LF et les Aspects Systemes) (United States)


    Umime 11uld sb’ngft R11111M fgM 7-1 INVESTIGATIONS OF EQUATORIAL IONOSPHERE NIGHTTIME MODE CONVERSION AT VLF* Verne Hildebrand IWG Corporation, 1940 Fifth...uniform, Symposium), supposing that has an length equal to Ŗa" and it is MIT, Cambridge oriented on the zz direction (fig.8). USA, Julio 1991 Let us...about 10 to 14 years. My from the floor, would someone like to start off? own experience as a systems engineer is that Verne Hildebrand the systems have

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of dinucleotide mRNA cap analog containing propargyl moiety. (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Muthian; Charles, Irudaya; Kore, Anilkumar R


    The first example of the synthesis of new dinucleotide cap analog containing propargyl group such as m(7,3'-O-propargyl)G[5']ppp[5']G is reported. The effect of propargyl cap analog with standard cap was evaluated with respect to their capping efficiency, in vitro T7 RNA polymerase transcription efficiency, and translation activity using cultured HeLa cells. It is noteworthy that propargyl cap analog outperforms standard cap by 3.1 fold in terms of translational properties. The propargyl cap analog forms a more stable complex with translation initiation factor eIF4E based on the molecular modeling studies.

  2. A Combinatorial Geometry Computer Description of the M578 Light Recovery Vehicle (United States)


    41.5647 RIGHT 51.9534 0.0000 23.BIO1 0.0000 34.2901 0.0000 FIST TABLE 4-1. M*7« LIGHT "> ECOV £«>Y VEHICLE SOLID TABLE (CONTINUED) a* o...5 -A06 w« 7 -877 -878 -879 HEAD LOWER 872 872 -8T -876 -8P8 0 0 0 0 0 NECK TABLE A-2. M578 LI GHT » ECOV ftRY 7CH TCLE REGTT IN TABLE

  3. Concept Paper for the Development of a DoD Ada (Trademark) Software Engineering Education and Training Plan. (United States)


    ET AL. NOV 34 UNCLASSIFIED IDA-M-7 IDA/HQ-84-28940 MDA903-84-C-8@3i F/G 9/2 I ommomm pa ,. 7 -7 7, -~ 7: 7 .2 oA 1. j5 2. a LIM ~ I .~ .2 d ’ 1111...planning 3.3 WEN: SCHEDUJNS ADA EDUCAION AND) TRAINING Teaching Ada culture will be a long term activity. Unless we are willing to accept programing in...Training NAS Pensacola, FL 32508 Others Dr. Pauline Jordan * •General Electric P.O. Box 8555/M1128 Philadelphia, PA 19101 Mr. Grady Boocn Rational

  4. Liquefaction and other ground failures in Imperial County, California, from the April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (United States)

    McCrink, Timothy P.; Pridmore, Cynthia L.; Tinsley, John C.; Sickler, Robert R.; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.


    The Colorado River Delta region of southern Imperial Valley, California, and Mexicali Valley, Baja California, is a tectonically dynamic area characterized by numerous active faults and frequent large seismic events. Significant earthquakes that have been accompanied by surface fault rupture and/or soil liquefaction occurred in this region in 1892 (M7.1), 1915 (M6.3; M7.1), 1930 (M5.7), 1940 (M6.9), 1950 (M5.4), 1957 (M5.2), 1968 (6.5), 1979 (6.4), 1980 (M6.1), 1981 (M5.8), and 1987 (M6.2; M6.8). Following this trend, the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010, ruptured approximately 120 kilometers along several known faults in Baja California. Liquefaction caused by the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake was widespread throughout the southern Imperial Valley but concentrated in the southwest corner of the valley, southwest of the city centers of Calexico and El Centro where ground motions were highest. Although there are few strong motion recordings in the very western part of the area, the recordings that do exist indicate that ground motions were on the order of 0.3 to 0.6g where the majority of liquefaction occurrences were found. More distant liquefaction occurrences, at Fites Road southwest of Brawley and along Rosita Canal northwest of Holtville were triggered where ground motions were about 0.2 g. Damage to roads was associated mainly with liquefaction of sandy river deposits beneath bridge approach fills, and in some cases liquefaction within the fills. Liquefaction damage to canal and drain levees was not always accompanied by vented sand, but the nature of the damage leads the authors to infer that liquefaction was involved in the majority of observed cases. Liquefaction-related damage to several public facilities - Calexico Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fig Lagoon levee system, and Sunbeam Lake Dam in particular - appears to be extensive. The cost to repair these facilities to prevent future liquefaction damage will likely be prohibitive. As

  5. Modification of Selenoprotein mRNAs by Cap Tri-methylation. (United States)

    Gribling-Burrer, Anne-Sophie; Eriani, Gilbert; Allmang, Christine


    Several selenoprotein mRNAs undergo 5' cap maturation events whereby their classical monomethylated m(7)G cap becomes trimethylated (m3(2,2,7)G) by the trimethylguanosine synthase 1 (Tgs1). Here, we describe immunoprecipitation methods for the detection of endogenous m3(2,2,7)G-capped selenoprotein mRNAs from total cell extracts or after polysome fractionation of cytoplasmic extracts. We have also developed a method for the in vitro cap hypermethylation of selenoprotein mRNA transcripts using purified Tgs1 enzyme.

  6. Reconfiguration Schemes for Fault-Tolerant Processor Arrays (United States)


    Computacion UDEM󈨞, Universidad de Monterrey, Monterrey, Mexico , September 28, 1990. [2] "Systolic Array Design in the Linear Algebra Framework...integers. 8.Applications, 1915 . pp 268-M7. i.NI8S.Y. Kung. VLSI .4rrav Pr’ocessors. EnglewoodClfsN.: N’: set of positive integers. Prenuce-Hall. 1987...ns: number of components of index points in 9. C. Guerra and R. Melhem. Synthesizing non-uniformn systolic 1: see Definition 2.1 M1. designs. Pr’oc

  7. CBRN Decontamination: Multiservice Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Decontamination (United States)


    artillery attacks. a. CW Agents and Delivery Means. Typically classified by their effects on the body, CW agents consist of choking, nerve , blood...chemical agents, especially nerve agents, kill within minutes. a. Chemical. (1) Use the SDK within 1 minute of contamination of the exposed skin...shoulder, and reattaches them to the hook-and-pile fasteners. He loosens the draw cord on Buddy 2’s hood. The M40 voice amplifier (M7) and the M42A2

  8. Mineralogy and Sr–Nd isotopes of SPM and sediment from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries: Influence of weathering and anthropogenic contribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Singh, S.K.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.

    and topography of the drainage basin of the river (Grim, 1968). The parent rocks in the humid, tropical and sub-tropical regions have extensively been lateritized and undergo very large geochemical fractionation during lateritization. Moreover, the clay...Sr ratios are expected from the weathering products of older rocks. Parent rocks (Pre- Cambrian gneisses and schists) in the study area are lateritized (Fig. 1B). High 87Sr/86Sr ratios (M7: 0.7470; Z7: 0.7686; Table 2) than those of parent rocks (0...

  9. Ferrobasalts from the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Mukhopadhyay, R.; Popko, D.C.

    to such stress regimes occurred primarily in three phases:"rst, during the period of initiation of the India-Eurasia collision at &58 Ma, followed by the second stage of plate collision at 51 Ma (Mukhopadhyay et al. 1997), and third during intraplate deformation... to #500 !150 to #400 5. Stress Regime Compression Tension 6. Collision phase Feeble stage of Phase I Inter-Collision phase Flexuring of surrounding sea #oor (m) 7. RMS Flexuring 194 90 8. Flexuring amplitude 67 78 9. Wavelength of folds 5754 6454 ! Source...

  10. FASEB Science Research Conference on Ion Channel Regulation (United States)


    Localized ion channel signaling 7:00 p.m. - 9:45 p.m. Chair: Ricardo Dolmetsch (Novartis) 7:00 p.m. - 7:30 p.m. Regulation of trafficking of...terminal Sam Young (MPFI)-- GSK Neuroscience Discovery Awardee 8:45 p.m. - 9:15 p.m. HCN1 channel trafficking to dendrites and axons Steven Siegelbaum...Terry Snutch (UBC) 10:00 a.m. - 10:15 a.m. Sex differences in GIRK signaling in layer 5/6 pyramidal neurons of the mouse prefrontal cortex

  11. The influence of natural organic matter and aging on suspension stability in guideline toxicity testing of silver, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles with Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cupi, Denisa; Hartmann, Nanna Isabella Bloch; Baun, Anders


    The present study investigated changes in suspension stability and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) by addition of Suwannee River natural organic matter and aging of stock and test suspensions prior to testing. Acute toxicity tests of silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), and titanium...... dioxide (TiO2) ENPs with Daphnia magna were carried out following Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guidelines. Daphnia magna was found to be very sensitive to Ag ENPs (48-h 50% effective concentration 33μgL-1), and aging of the test suspensions in M7 medium (up to 48h) did...

  12. Benchmark low-mass objects in Moving Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burningham B.


    Full Text Available In order to compile a sample of ultracool dwarfs that will serve as benchmarks for testing theoretical formation and evolutionary models, we selected low-mass cool (>M7 objects that are potentially members of five known young Moving Groups in the solar neighbourhood. We have studied the kinematics of the sample, finding that 49 targets belong to the young disk area, from which 36 are kinematic member of one of the five moving groups under study. Some of the identified low-mass members have been spectroscopically characterised (Teff, log g and confirmed as young members through a detailed study of age indicators.

  13. Morroniside cinnamic acid conjugate as an anti-inflammatory agent. (United States)

    Takeda, Yoshinori; Tanigawa, Naomi; Sunghwa, Fortunatus; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Hagiwara, Makoto; Matsushita, Kenji; Koketsu, Mamoru


    A morroniside cinnamic acid conjugate was prepared and evaluated on E-selectin mediated cell-cell adhesion as an important role in inflammatory processes. 7-O-Cinnamoylmorroniside exhibited excellent anti-inflammatory activity (IC(50)=49.3 microM) by inhibiting the expression of E-selectin; further, it was more active than another cinnamic-acid-conjugated iridoid glycoside (harpagoside; IC(50)=88.2 microM), 7-O-methylmorroniside, and morroniside itself. As a result, 7-O-cinnamoylmorroniside was observed to be a potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha-induced E-selectin expression.

  14. Interaction Effects of Cracks, Flaws and Damage in Ceramic (United States)


    Crack Opening Displacement (COD) gage from M7s 6: 1000 lb. Load Cell from Sensotech 7: 2-channel DC amplifier from Ectron 8. Microsoft’s Virtual Basic...the Galil card language has been completed. Microsoft’s Virtual Basic is being used to create a driver program which is more visual and convenient. A...eealy, d MYZZ is Weaker than the grain for nt Aula fractur Fig.19 gi the diand ca. eson g OWal *nodal force curve for the cuse of LP - =EP and E?- a

  15. Technical Review and Analysis of Center for Night Vision and Electro-Optics Life Cycle Cost Analysis Model (CNVEO LCCAM), (United States)


    this a valid input, spell it correctly. MAREF, APTFUC, MEPRO, MEREF, These variables were omitted from the CAIDES source coding. PEMA NUMPY Is spelled...Production Cost A-4 W WI: ECW WW WV.L .. . :iw~5’ v -uu’. ni.m7. : . * - ws. - i.-. u .-v PCOST = [SP(I)*NMS(IS)*AUCY(I,IS)*COMP(I)] +[ (SAL4* NUMPY (I) )+SCC...cost of each module for each year. SAL4 = Yearly salary of a contractor. NUMPY (I) = Number of man-years of PEMA recurring engineering by year. COMP(I

  16. A Computer Code for Fully-Coupled Rocket Nozzle Flows (FULLNOZ) (United States)


    loIt1 Soo A.PCJ)SNPIJZJIIP() Mae’ l% CJA)04AJ5).b’(N)CHEM 2S4 IPIl )m(U)Wii ~CHIN opli DI, 091 J411,4106 cut" m7 c9 C MOUCTICII Wti 1% NLUiSN.CN CN m5... IPIL 0)53MO’ I%) t ’.0) PI)TIIIJI 16d) 3 SLbhI)IIIN1 PPI4sIII10-1 JAPtl)’l 1 4405.7l)%,) f8*080) .1AtIAU.d%)vALPMAH4 *ILPHAP A 3 AO .83)1 *FIAP .008

  17. Constraints on the Equation-of-State of neutron stars from nearby neutron star observations


    Neuhäuser, R.; Hambaryan, V. V.; Hohle, M. M.; Eisenbeiss, T.


    We try to constrain the Equation-of-State (EoS) of supra-nuclear-density matter in neutron stars (NSs) by observations of nearby NSs. There are seven thermally emitting NSs known from X-ray and optical observations, the so-called Magnificent Seven (M7), which are young (up to few Myrs), nearby (within a few hundred pc), and radio-quiet with blackbody-like X-ray spectra, so that we can observe their surfaces. As bright X-ray sources, we can determine their rotational (pulse) period and their p...

  18. Dicty_cDB: AFI439 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Xenopus laevis retinoblastoma A as... 234 2e-60 (Q9W7I5) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4...) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4-A; AltName:... 234 2e-60 ( Q09028 ) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4...; AltName: F... 234 2e-60 (Q5M7K4) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4...; AltName: F... 234 2e-60 (Q6INH0) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4-B; AltName:...

  19. Dicty_cDB: AFF147 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available laevis retinoblastoma A as... 233 2e-60 (Q9W7I5) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4... Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4-A; AltName:... 233 2e-60 ( Q09028 ) RecName: ...Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4; AltName: F... 233 2e-60 (Q5M7K4) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4...; AltName: F... 233 2e-60 (Q6INH0) RecName: Full=Histone-binding protein RBBP4-B; AltName:... 233 2e-60

  20. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo (United States)

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.


    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  1. Analysis of Factors that have Influenced Outcomes of Battles and Wars: A Data Base of Battles and Engagements. Volume 4. Wars from 1904 through 1940. Part 2. Wars of the 20th Century (United States)


    M.7; M.11; M.13; N.1; N.2; N.6; N.13. 250 _I L"•t•," LP ,••e ’l,+’"’,~"t•rP"+ +, • ••• ••• i•":"•••V••tA’t " "• ••• ORLD WAR I (WESTEN FRO. 1918...Japanese Studies on Manchuria: Air perations. N.p., n.d. BIBLIOGRAPW: .. JSS0--Fl SH WaR. 1939-194a K.1 Juutilainen, Antti, et al. Talvisodan Historia 3

  2. Long-term monitoring of creep rate along the Hayward fault and evidence for a lasting creep response to 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake (United States)

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Galehouse, J.S.; Simpson, R.W.


    We present results from over 30 yr of precise surveys of creep along the Hayward fault. Along most of the fault, spatial variability in long-term creep rates is well determined by these data and can help constrain 3D-models of the depth of the creeping zone. However, creep at the south end of the fault stopped completely for more than 6 years after the M7 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake (LPEQ), perhaps delayed by stress drop imposed by this event. With a decade of detailed data before LPEQ and a decade after it, we report that creep response to that event does indeed indicate the expected deficit in creep.

  3. FAURY配合比方法研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    混凝土工程的配合比设计是混凝土施工的重要指导理论,欧洲标准里常用的配合比方法主要有Bolomey Abrams Faury Vallette和Joisel方法,本文结合海外施工项目阿尔及利亚东西高速公路M7标段混凝土施工,详细介绍FAURY配合比方法的原理和设计流程.

  4. Congenital acute megakaryocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N B Mathur


    Full Text Available Congenital leukemia (CL is an extremely rare disorder in the newborn, significant proportion of which is of myeloid origin, primarily of M4 or M5 morphology. As compared to pediatric leukemia, CL is a more aggressive disease. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M7 or acute megakaryocytic leukemia is a rare type of AML with an incidence of 0.5 per million per year. Median age of presentation is 6 years, and children may present with a broad variety of symptoms including low-grade fever, diarrhea, easy bruising, failure to gain weight and life-threatening conditions.

  5. Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Young Patients With Down Syndrome and Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes (United States)


    Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  6. Submesoscale Dispersion in the Vicinity of the Deepwater Horizon Spill (United States)


    dental oil spill into marine waters in history with some 4.4 million barrels released into the DeSoto Canyon of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GoM) from...surface dispersion in the DeSoto Canyon region remain unclear. The region lies between the mesoscale eddy-driven deep water GoM (7) and the wind- driven...during the period of July 20 to July 31, 2012; during the same season as the Fig. 1. Multiscale flows near the DwH and DeSoto Canyon region. (A

  7. AcEST: BP920253 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sp|Q9M7J4|MFP1_TOBAC MAR-binding filament-like protein 1-1 OS=Ni... 42 0.001 sp|Q9H4E7|DEFI6_HUMAN Differential...ferentially expressed in FDCP 6 OS=Mus ... 45 2e-04 sp|Q96YR5|RAD50_SULTO DNA doubl... OS=Rattus norvegi... 45 2e-04 sp|Q6A078|CE290_MOUSE Centrosomal protein of 290 kDa OS=Mus musc... 45 2e-04 sp|Q8C2K1|DEFI6_MOUSE Dif

  8. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Bone Marrow Transplantation in Treating Children With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome (United States)


    Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. Abrasive Wear Behavior of High Chromium Cast Iron and Hadfield Steel-- A Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Mazar Atabaki; Sajjad Jafari; Hassan Abdollah-pour


    Wear properties of two different crushers used for grinding raw materials of cement industry are compared using pin-on-disk wear test.The wear test was carried out with different loads on a pin.Abrasive wear behavior of two alloys was evaluated by comparing mass loss,wear resistance,microhardness and friction coefficient.The microstructure of the specimens was detected using optical microscope.The results showed that abrasive wear of high chromium cast iron is lower than that of Hadfield steel.Due to the presence of M7C3 carbides on the high chromium cast iron matrix,impact crushers exhibited higher friction coefficient

  10. Renewal Tables: Tables of Functions Arising in Renewal Theory. (United States)


    convolution integrals and hence to the renewal function. Implementation of this algorithm is not straight-forward and hence, in this report , we tabulate...of the extended algorithm to cope with mɘ.5 (see Section 5). The upper limit is arbitrary; we know of no case where a value of m>7 has been reported ...atS330~s3i30O.N 4 4 4% % %!3Or00. 4..tr4. ~ ~ r #, , ^ 44% C 4% 04% fla N 0 0 NaCCC %~~~t %~104%0%...4 %4 .t4 %04%0%Ne4 %4 %4 c

  11. Evidence for Surface Loading as Trigger Mechanism of the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake

    CERN Document Server

    Klose, Christian D


    Two and a half years prior to China's M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008, at least 300 million metric tons of water accumulated with additional seasonal water level changes in the Minjiang River Valley at the eastern margin of the Longmen Shan. This article shows that static surface loading in the valley induced Coulomb failure stresses on the nearby Beichuan thrust fault system at 7 earthquakes. Finally, the daily event rate of the micro-seismicity (M>0.5) correlates well with the static stress perturbations, indicating fault destabilization.

  12. A Precedent-setting Case of Dynamic Triggering (United States)

    Gomberg, J. S.


    On October 28, 2012 the M7.7 Haida Gwaii, British Columbia earthquake broke the southern end of the Queen Charlotte plate-boundary fault system. Less than 3 months later on January 5, 2013 the M7.5 Craig, Alaska earthquake broke the same fault system ~385 km to the northwest. In its public statements about the Craig earthquake, the US Geological Survey noted its likely causal connection with the Haida Gwaii earthquake three months earlier. This inference was based on the improbability of two large earthquakes with recurrence intervals of hundreds of years or more on the same fault system occurring within the same 3-month interval by chance (the Poisson probability is ~.0004% assuming a 100 yr recurrence interval). What physical processes plausibly connect these two events? Although of the correct sign to encourage failure, static stress changes were more than an order of magnitude smaller than triggering thresholds documented elsewhere, and the duration between the events was too small for accrual of significant visco-elastic stress changes. The M7.7 Haida Gwaii earthquake was noteworthy in many aspects, but most remarkable was that the seismic waves it radiated probably dynamically triggered the M7.5 Craig earthquake thereby setting two new important precedents. First, the magnitude of the triggered earthquake exceeds all previously documented cases of dynamic triggering of frictional, shear failure earthquakes. Second, the extraordinarily large amplitude (peak velocities in excess of 1 cm/s) and long duration (several 100 sec) triggering waves likely resulted from trapping of energy within a sedimentary trough, rather than from focusing due to source effects as in most previous examples of clear dynamic triggering. Unlike source characteristics that vary unpredictably from event to event, the permanence of structural features that act as wave-guides suggests enhanced triggering probabilities in this and likely the numerous other settings. In these settings

  13. Characteristics of frictional properties' dependency on afterslip propagation speed (United States)

    Ariyoshi, K.; Matsuzawa, T.; Hasegawa, A.; Hino, R.; Hori, T.


    The propagation speed of postseismic slip seems to vary from place to place. On the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake (M8), the time lag is about 80 minutes for the largest aftershock (M7.4) off Tokachi [Miyazaki and Larson, 2008 GRL] and one year for the M7 earthquakes off Kushiro [Murakami et al., 2006 GRL]. Since the distance from the epicenter of mainshock to the largest aftershock and the M7 aftershocks off Kushiro is about 40 km and 160 km, respectively, these time lags means that propagation speed of the afterslip from the mainshock to the largest aftershock is significantly higher than to the M7 afteshocks off Kushiro. On the Sanriku-Haruka-Oki earthquakes, Matsuzawa et al. [2004 EPS] pointed out that propagation speed of the postseismic slip seems to be an order of 10 km/day for shallower part of the subduction plate boundary while 10 km/month for deeper part. These results indicate that propagation speed of postseismic slip depends on frictional properties and effective normal stress in addition to slip velocity. To know the frictional properties controlling the propagation speed of postseismic slip, some numerical simulations of interplate earthquakes based on a rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF) [Dieterich, 1979 JGR; Ruina, 1983 JGR] have been recently performed. From those previous studies, the propagation speed of postseismic slip becomes lower in case of higher frictional stability, longer characteristic slip distance [Kato and Hirasawa, 1999 PAGEOPH], and higher effective normal stress [Ariyoshi et al., 2007 EPSL]. Since we have not quantitatively understood why such cases make the postseismic slip propagation slower, it is necessary to know analytical relation between the frictional properties and the propagation speed of postseismic slip. In this study, we develop an expression for the propagation speed of postseismic slip as a function of frictional properties including effective normal stress, and discuss its validity quantitatively by

  14. Formation and Detection of Earth Mass Planets around Low Mass Stars


    Montgomery, Ryan; Laughlin, Greg


    We investigate an in-situ formation scenario for Earth-mass terrestrial planets in short-period, potentially habitable orbits around low-mass stars (M_star < 0.3 M_sun). We then investigate the feasibility of detecting these Earth-sized planets. Our simulations of terrestrial planet formation follow the growth of planetary embryos in an annular region around a fiducial M7 primary. Our simulations couple a semi-analytic model to a full N-body integration to follow the growth from ~3x10^21 g to...

  15. Novel dinucleoside 5',5'-triphosphate cap analogues. Synthesis and affinity for murine translation factor eIF4E. (United States)

    Stepinski, Janusz; Zuberek, Joanna; Jemielity, Jacek; Kalek, Marcin; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Chemical synthesis of a series of novel dinucleoside cap analogues, m7GpppN, where N is formycin A, 3'-O-methylguanosine, 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine, and isoguanosine, has been performed using our new methodology. The key reactions of pyrophosphate bonds formation were achieved in anhydrous dimethylformamide solutions employing the catalytic properties of zinc salts. Structures of the new cap analogues were confirmed by 1H NMR and 31p NMR spectra. The binding affinity of the new cap analogues for murine eIF4E(28-217) were determined spectroscopically showing the highest association constant for the analogue that contains formycin A.

  16. Assignment of the absolute configuration of P-chiral 5' mRNA cap analogues containing phosphorothioate moiety. (United States)

    Kowalska, Joanna; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Zuberek, Joanna; Bojarska, Elzbieta; Stepinski, Janusz; Stolarski, Ryszard; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Jemielity, Jacek


    Enzymatic cleavage of the P-chiral diastereoisomers of the 5' mRNA cap analogue bearing phosphorothioate moiety in alfa position of 5',5'-triphosphate bridge (m(7)Gppp(S)G D1 and D2) was performed by human Decapping Scavenger (DcpS) enzyme. Analysis of the degradation products allowed to estimate the absolute configuration at the asymmetric phosphorus atoms in examined compounds via correlation with the R(P) and S(P) diastereoisomers of guanosine 5'-O-(1-thiodiphosphate) (GDPalphaS).

  17. Atmospheric anomalies and anomalies of electricity in the near-surface atmosphere before the Kamchatka earthquake of January 30, 2016, based on the data from the Paratunka Observatory (United States)

    Bychkov, V. V.; Korsunova, L. P.; Smirnov, S. E.; Hegai, V. V.


    The 15-min data of vertical ionosphere sounding and 10-min data from measurements of the vertical component ( Ez) of the near-surface quasistatic atmospheric electrical field and the respective values of electrical conductance of near-surface air at the Paratunka complex geophysical observatory in the period from January 28 to January 30, 2016 have been analyzed to reveal the possible anomalies preceding the M = 7.2 earthquake that occurred on January 30, 2016, at 0325 UT. The distance between the observatory and epicenter was 117 km. These anomalies have been revealed, and the majority of them, in our opinion, may be related to the processes of earthquake preparation.

  18. AcEST: BP918923 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 6DI2 Definition sp|Q76DI2|BGBP_TENMO Beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein OS=Tenebrio molitor Align length 78 Sco...ts: (bits) Value sp|Q76DI2|BGBP_TENMO Beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein OS=Tenebrio... 32 2.0 sp|Q9H4M7|PKHA4_...P5_MACFA Sentrin-specific protease 5 OS=Macaca fasc... 30 7.7 >sp|Q76DI2|BGBP_TENMO Beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein OS=Tenebrio

  19. The D10 Decapping Enzyme of Vaccinia Virus Contributes to Decay of Cellular and Viral mRNAs and to Virulence in Mice



    Posttranscriptional mechanisms are important for regulation of cellular and viral gene expression. The presence of the 5′ cap structure m7G(5′)ppp(5′)Nm is a general feature of mRNAs that provides protection from exoribonuclease digestion and enhances translation. Vaccinia virus and other poxviruses encode enzymes for both cap synthesis and decapping. Decapping is mediated by two related enzymes, D9 and D10, which are synthesized before and after viral DNA replication, respectively. The timin...

  20. Flood Protection, Section 4, Ohio River, Southwest Jefferson County, Kentucky. Local Flood Protection Project. Supplement Number 6. (United States)



  1. Indigenous and acquired modifications in the aminoglycoside binding sites of Pseudomonas aeruginosa rRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Belen; Douthwaite, Stephen Roger; Gonzalez-Zorn, Bruno


    Aminoglycoside antibiotics remain the drugs of choice for treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, particularly for respiratory complications in cystic-fibrosis patients. Previous studies on other bacteria have shown that aminoglycosides have their primary target within the decoding region......RNA molecules were methylated. The modification status of a virulent clinical strain expressing the acquired methyltransferase RmtD was altered in two important respects: RmtD stoichiometrically modified m (7)G1405 conferring high resistance to the aminoglycoside tobramycin and, in doing so, impeded one...

  2. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.


    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  3. Monitoring the NOAA Operational VIIRS RSB and DNB Calibration Stability Using Monthly and Semi-Monthly Deep Convective Clouds Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Wang


    Full Text Available The Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS/Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (SNPP satellite provide sensor data records for the retrievals of many environment data records. It is critical to monitor the VIIRS long-term calibration stability to ensure quality EDR retrieval. This study investigates the radiometric calibration stability of the NOAA operational SNPP VIIRS Reflective Solar Bands (RSB and Day-Night-Band (DNB using Deep Convective Clouds (DCC. Monthly and semi-monthly DCC time series for 10 moderate resolution bands (M-bands, M1–M5 and M7–M11, March 2013–September 2015, DNB (March 2013–September 2015, low gain stage, and three imagery resolution bands (I-bands, I1–I3, January 2014–September 2015 were developed and analyzed for long-term radiometric calibration stability monitoring. Monthly DCC time series show that M5 and M7 are generally stable, with a stability of 0.4%. DNB has also been stable since May 2013, after its relative response function update, with a stability of 0.5%. The stabilities of M1–M4 are 0.6%–0.8%. Large fluctuations in M1–M4 DCC reflectance were observed since early 2014, correlated with F-factor (calibration coefficients trend changes during the same period. The stabilities of M8-M11 are from 1.0% to 3.1%, comparable to the natural DCC variability at the shortwave infrared spectrum. DCC mean band ratio time series show that the calibration stabilities of I1–I3 follow closely with M5, M7, and M10. Relative calibration changes were observed in M1/M4 and M5/M7 DCC mean band ratio time series. The DCC time series are generally consistent with results from the VIIRS validation sites and VIIRS/MODIS (the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer simultaneous nadir overpass time series. Semi-monthly DCC time series for RSB M-bands and DNB were compared with monthly DCC time series. The results indicate that semi-monthly DCC

  4. Reliability - Based Performance Assessment of Damaged Ships (United States)


    HY80 ay(MN/m 2) 552 High Strength Steel ay(MN/m 2) 351 02IS£IU±ISII n^nnn res m7sci’ HSS_ cigsn- us* srrnun piMrmn num. MTH intmiTm egg 4...developed on two types of steel HY80 and HSS. The relevant properties of the steel materials are given in Table 5.6.1-2. The detail of midship section...Table 0-1: Properties of steel materials Parameter Mean COV Distribution Correlation HY80 ay (MN/m2) 552 0.08 Lognormal Independent HSS oy (MN/m2

  5. The Power of Comparative Physiology: Evolution, Integration and Applied (United States)


    C.A.S. Turnbull and M.D. store development in nursing harbor seal Dearing. Univ. of Utah. pups. C.A. Creelman , J.M. Burns and 13 7.13 Photoperiod...Cheryl Anne Creelman ’, Jennifer M Bums’, Jason F Schroer’: ’University of Alaska Trude Eva Reich, Paul Keim, Stan L. Lindstedt: Northern Arizona...7.52 Creelman , C., 7.25 Gardner, M., 7.14 .IHsiyh, S., 46.24 Baker. P., 46.19 Crossley 11, D., 45.5 Garland, Jr., T., 2.3, 26. 1, Huierma, H., 46.24

  6. Preclinical Activity of VX-787, a First-in-Class, Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of the Influenza Virus Polymerase PB2 Subunit



    VX-787 is a novel inhibitor of influenza virus replication that blocks the PB2 cap-snatching activity of the influenza viral polymerase complex. Viral genetics and X-ray crystallography studies provide support for the idea that VX-787 occupies the 7-methyl GTP (m7GTP) cap-binding site of PB2. VX-787 binds the cap-binding domain of the PB2 subunit with a KD (dissociation constant) of 24 nM as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The cell-based EC50 (the concentration of compou...

  7. Algorithm for Determining the Effectiveness of Water Conservation Measures. (United States)


    Turnovsky Bruner Grima Wong Ridge, R. Leone, Ginn 1978 Miami, FL cross-sectional -1.33 dept. stores -0.89 grocery stores -0.14 to -0.30...Division of Building Technology, November 1982. M 7-2 _ ’ 21. Bruner , J.M. An Analysis of Municipal Water Demand in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area...Washington, D.C., June 1966. 89. Linaweaver, F.P. Jr., John C. Geyer, and Jerome B. Wolff. "Summary Report on the Research Project." JAWWA, 59, No

  8. Distribución de materia seca, N, P y K en manzano Golden Delicious afectado por humedad, fertilización y portainjertos


    Rafael A. Parra Quezada; A. Enrique Becerril Román; José J. Martínez Hernández; Rafael Acosta Hernández


    Durante 1997 se estudió el comportamiento de los portainjertos MM.111, MM.106, M.7 y M.26 injertados con `Golden Delicious´, de dos años de edad, establecidos en campo, con los siguientes tratamientos de nutrición y humedad: fertirriego (FR) con 100, 70 y 150 mg L-1 de N, P y K, respectivamente, en cada riego aplicado; acolchado (AC) con plástico negro y 400 mm de precipitación simulando la lluvia de temporal; y el temporal (TM) a suelo desnudo. Se cosecharon plantas completas cada dos meses,...

  9. Effect of Antioxidant Mixtures on Growth and Ochratoxin A Production of Aspergillus Section Nigri Species under Different Water Activity Conditions on Peanut Meal Extract Agar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barberis


    Full Text Available The effect of mixtures of antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA and propyl paraben (PP on lag phase, growth rate and ochratoxin A (OTA production by four Aspergillus section Nigri strains was evaluated on peanut meal extract agar (PMEA under different water activities (aw. The antioxidant mixtures used were: BHA + PP (mM, M1 (0.5 + 0.5, M2 (1.0 + 0.5, M3 (2.5 + 0.5, M4 (0.5 + 1.0, M5 (1.0 + 1.0, M6 (2.5 + 1.0, M7 (5.0 + 2.5 and M8 (10 + 2.5. The mixture M8 completely suppressed mycelial growth for all strains. A significant stimulation in OTA production was observed with mixtures M1 to M5 mainly at the highest aw; whereas M6, M7 and M8 completely inhibited OTA production in all strains assayed; except M6 in A. carbonarius strain (RCP G. These results could enable a future intervention strategy to minimize OTA contamination.

  10. Problems of seismic hazard estimation in regions with few large earthquakes: Examples from eastern Canada (United States)

    Basham, P. W.; Adams, John


    Seismic hazard estimates and seismic zoning maps are based on an assessment of historical and recent seismieity and any correlations with geologic and tectonic features that might define the earthquake potential. Evidence is accumulating that the large earthquakes in eastern Canada ( M ~ 7) may be associated with the rift systems hat surround or break the integrity of the North American craton. The problem for seismic hazard estimation is that the larger historical earthquakes are not uniformly distributed along the Paleozoic St. Lawrence-Ottawa rift system and are too rare on the Mesozoic eastern margin rift to assess the overall seismogenic potential. Multiple source zone models for hazard estimation could include hypotheses of future M = 7 earthquakes at any location along these rift systems, but at a moderate probability (such as that used in the Canadian zoning maps) the resultant hazard will be so diluted that it will not result in adequate design against the near-source effects of such earthquakes. The near-source effects of large, rare earthquakes can, however, be accommodated in conservative codes and standards for critical facilities, if society is willing to pay the price.

  11. Combination Chemotherapy With or Without PSC 833, Peripheral Stem Cell Transplantation, and/or Interleukin-2 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (United States)


    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia and Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  12. CDK1-Cyclin B1 Activates RNMT, Coordinating mRNA Cap Methylation with G1 Phase Transcription. (United States)

    Aregger, Michael; Kaskar, Aneesa; Varshney, Dhaval; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Elena; Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A; Weidlich, Simone; Cowling, Victoria H


    The creation of translation-competent mRNA is dependent on RNA polymerase II transcripts being modified by addition of the 7-methylguanosine (m7G) cap. The factors that mediate splicing, nuclear export, and translation initiation are recruited to the transcript via the cap. The cap structure is formed by several activities and completed by RNMT (RNA guanine-7 methyltransferase), which catalyzes N7 methylation of the cap guanosine. We report that CDK1-cyclin B1 phosphorylates the RNMT regulatory domain on T77 during G2/M phase of the cell cycle. RNMT T77 phosphorylation activates the enzyme both directly and indirectly by inhibiting interaction with KPNA2, an RNMT inhibitor. RNMT T77 phosphorylation results in elevated m7G cap methyltransferase activity at the beginning of G1 phase, coordinating mRNA capping with the burst of transcription that occurs following nuclear envelope reformation. RNMT T77 phosphorylation is required for the production of cohort of proteins, and inhibiting T77 phosphorylation reduces the cell proliferation rate. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Telework On the Perceived Work Environment of Older Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvola René


    Full Text Available Telework has become a natural part of regular work life of employees who use the information communication technology (ICT. Telework has a potential to support postponing retirement for mental workers. The objective of this research was to find out interaction between senior employees′ teleworking and well-being. The main research question was - can telework improve elderly employees′ well-being? Over 100 respondents from different areas in mental work were involved in a quantitative survey. The results of a conducted survey showed that telework is exaggerated to some extent as teleworkers’ well-being (M = 7.79; SD = 1.28 does not diverge from non-teleworkers′ wellbeing (M = 7.75; SD = 1.40. However, telework can be neither underestimated nor taken as interchangeable with traditional work. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to telework as a different way of working with its specialties. Systematic approach to telework enables companies to employ elderly by providing diversity of work forms.

  14. 2MASS J154043.42-510135.7: a new addition to the 5 pc population

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Garrido, A; Bejar, V J S; Ruiz, M T; Gauza, B; Rebolo, R; Osorio, M R Zapatero


    The aim of the project is to find the stars nearest to the Sun and to contribute to the completion of the stellar and substellar census of the solar neighbourhood. We identified a new late-M dwarf within 5 pc, looking for high proper motion sources in the 2MASS-WISE cross-match. We collected astrometric and photometric data available from public large-scale surveys. We complemented this information with low-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy with instrumentation on the ESO NTT to confirm the nature of our candidate. We also present a high-quality medium-resolution VLT/X-shooter spectrum covering the 400 to 2500 nm wavelength range. We classify this new neighbour as an M7.0$\\pm$0.5 dwarf using spectral templates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and spectral indices. Lithium absorption at 670.8 nm is not detected in the X-shooter spectrum, indicating that the M7 dwarf is older than 600 Myr and more massive than 0.06 M$_{\\odot}$. We also derive a trigonometric distance of 4.4 pc, in agreement wit...

  15. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy (United States)


    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  16. Chiro-optic and nonlinear optical studies of bridged triarylamine heterohelicenes; A DFT study (United States)

    Islam, Nasarul; Pandith, Altaf Hussain


    Density Functional Theory at B3PW91/6-311G (d, p) level was employed to analyze the spectral properties and nonlinear optical response of the oxo and thia-bridged triarylamine heterohelicenes. The energy calculations of optimized geometries reveals that the M and P isomeric forms of heterohelicenes of 1, 2, 3 and 4 are enantiomers, while as for 5, 6 and 7 they are atropisomers. The simulated Infrared and Vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the mid-infrared region (1300-1650 cm-1) display peaks, having contribution from out-of-phase stretching of the three fused aromatic rings and contribution from the three Nsbnd C bond stretching. In addition to these peaks M-7 displays peak corresponds to bending of Hsbnd Csbnd H of terminal methoxy group. In this study we have observed the oxo-bridged heterohelicenes displays higher values of hyperpolarizability as compared to thia-bridged heterohelicenes. In case of M-5, M-6 and M-7 the calculation reveals that with increase in electron donating capacity of substituent the hyperpolarizability increase due to decrease in optical band gap. Therefore, the oxo- and thia-bridged heterohelicenes can act as good raw material for nonlinear optical device and their nonlinear optical response can be enhanced by the extension in π-conjugation or addition of electron donating substituents.

  17. Effects of thrombopoietin (c-mpl ligand) on growth of blast cells from patients with transient abnormal myelopoiesis and acute myeloblastic leukemia. (United States)

    Hirai, H; Shimazaki, C; Yamagata, N; Goto, H; Inaba, T; Kikuta, T; Sumikuma, T; Sudo, Y; Ashihara, E; Fujita, N; Hibi, S; Imashuku, S; Ito, E; Nakagawa, M


    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a ligand for c-mpl that promotes both proliferation and differentiation of megakaryocytes in vivo and in vitro. We investigated the expression of c-mpl transcripts and the effects of recombinant human TPO (rhTPO) on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic cell lines or fresh samples obtained from 32 patients with transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) or acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML). Cells were cultured with TPO alone or combined with rh interleukin-3 (IL-3) or stem cell factor (SCF). Expression of c-mpl was verified in 6 of 13 cases tested. All but one of the cases that showed c-mpl expression responded to TPO. Blasts from all cases of TAM or French-American-British (FAB) subtype M7 showed growth responses to TPO with higher sensitivity than cells of other FAB subtypes and these responses were increased by addition of rhIL-3 or rhSCF in some cases. Responses of cells of other FAB subtypes varied. In addition, increased expression of platelet-specific surface antigens on MO7E cells after incubation with rhTPO was observed. These data suggest that TPO may be involved in the abnormal proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic cells, especially of M7 and TAM cells, considered to be of megakaryocytic lineage.

  18. Testing for Changes in Crustal Velocity at the Tocopilla Earthquake, Northern Chile (United States)

    Richter, T.; Asch, G.; Kind, R.


    We use two different techniques to investigate the region between Antofagasta and Arica in northern Chile for crustal velocity changes. Data are taken from the 19 broadband stations of the IPOC project (Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile) operating partly since 2006 by GFZ and Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP). In the neighborhood of the seismic stations an M7.0 earthquake occurred near Tocopilla on 14 November 2007. Other studies have shown that in the course of such earthquakes seismic velocities may be changing (e.g. Brenguier et al. 2008). The first method is testing for phase shifts in receiver functions. To avoid varying travel paths of different events we compare events located in small source regions. Although temporal variations have been found in receiver functions for the Parkfield M6.0 and San Simeon M6.5 earthquakes (Audet 2006) we cannot find any variations exceeding the noise level of our dataset at the time of the M7.0 earthquake near Tocopilla. Therefore the data is analyzed with the help of cross-correlation technique of ambient seismic noise (Bensen et al. 2007). Compared to the first method it has the advantage of regularly available correlation functions (e.g. 1 per day). We report on first results.

  19. Metabolism of dictamnine in liver microsomes from mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human. (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Zhao, Yunli; Zhu, Yingdong; Sun, Jianbo; Yerke, Aaron; Sang, Shengmin; Yu, Zhiguo


    Dictamnine, a furoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. (Rutaceae), is reported to have a wide range of pharmacological activities. In this study, the in vitro metabolic profiles of dictamnine in mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human liver microsomes were investigated and compared. Dictamnine was incubated with liver microsomes in the presence of an NADPH-regenerating system, resulting in the formation of eight metabolites (M1-M8). M1 is an O-desmethyl metabolite. M5 and M6 are formed by a mono-hydroxylation of the benzene ring of dictamnine. M8 was tentatively identified as an N-oxide metabolite. The predominant metabolic pathway of dictamnine occurs through the epoxidation of the 2,3-olefinic to yield a 2,3-epoxide metabolite (M7), followed by the ring of the epoxide opening to give M4. Likewise, cleavage of the furan ring forms M2 and M3. Slight differences were observed in the in vitro metabolic profiles of dictamnine among the five species tested. A chemical inhibition study with a broad and five specific CYP450 inhibitors revealed that most of the dictamnine metabolites in liver microsomes are mediated by CYP450, with CYP3A4 as the predominant enzyme involved in the formation of M7, the major metabolite. These findings provide vital information to better understand the metabolic processes of dictamnine among various species.

  20. Microstructure and Wear Properties of FeCrC, FeW and Feti Modified Iron Based Alloy Coating Deposited by PTA Process on AISI 430 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teker T.


    Full Text Available The plasma transferred arc (PTA process was used for developing wear resistance of AISI 430 steel substrate. Appropriate quantities of FeCrC, FeW and FeTi powders were combined to create conditions that synthesized M7C3 particles into reinforced Fe-based composite surface coating. The phase transformations on new created coated surfaces were comprehensively examined by using a combination of scanning electron microscopy (SEM, microanalysis by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, microhardness and abrasive wear tests. The microstructure studies of the superficial layers of the coating revealed presence of a mixture of the dendritic phase structure of austenite (γ and fine eutectic M7C3 carbides. The results show that; the concentrations of the elements (Cr, W, Ti added as ferroalloys, the size of dendrites formed in the coated surface, the change of hardness of the coated surfaces, the carbide volume rate and thickness of the coating changed by the variation of the processing parameters (ratio of reinforcement particulates and heat input.

  1. Afterslip behavior following the M6.0, 2014 South Napa earthquake with implications for afterslip forecasting on other seismogenic faults (United States)

    Lienkaemper, James J.; DeLong, Stephen B.; Domrose, Carolyn J; Rosa, Carla M.


    The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.The M6.0, 24 Aug. 2014 South Napa, California, earthquake exhibited unusually large slip for a California strike-slip event of its size with a maximum coseismic surface slip of 40-50 cm in the north section of the 15 km-long rupture. Although only minor (Napa afterslip suggests how we might approach the scientific and engineering challenges of afterslip from a much larger M~7 earthquake anticipated on the nearby, urban Hayward Fault. However, we expect its afterslip to last much longer than one year.

  2. Determination of Duloxetine and Its Major Metabolites in Rabbit Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Laha


    Full Text Available A rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method is described for simultaneous determination of duloxetine and its major metabolites, such as 4- hydroxy duloxetine (M7, Glucuronide conjugate of 5-hydroxy-6-methoxy duloxetine (M6 and Glucuronide conjugate of dihydrodiol duloxetine (M12 in rabbit plasma. HPLC analysis was carried out on a µ-Bondapak C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5µm particle size using methanol: phosphate buffer (pH 7.9, 50 mM (7:3 v/v as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. Detection was carried out at 224 nm with an UV detector. The above metabolites present in the rabbit plasma were characterized by retro-synthesis followed by NMR and MS study for structure confirmation and finally injected separately into the HPLC system. All the three retention time matches with the metabolites present in the plasma sample.

  3. The physical nature of thermal anomalies observed before strong earthquakes (United States)

    Pulinets, S. A.; Ouzounov, D.; Karelin, A. V.; Boyarchuk, K. A.; Pokhmelnykh, L. A.

    The paper examines the effect of air ionization on the thermal balance of the boundary layer of atmosphere. In seismically active areas the increased radon emanation from active faults and cracks before earthquakes is the primary source of air ionization. The problem is analyzed both on microscopic and macroscopic levels and in both cases the significant changes of the air relative humidity and air temperature are obtained. This happens due to the water molecules attachment to the newly formed ions (or in other words, condensation) which leads to the excretion of the latent heat. Obtained results permit us to explain the changes of the surface temperature and the surface latent heat flux increase before earthquakes observed by remote sensing satellites, as well as ground based measurements of the air temperature and relative humidity variations before the Colima earthquake (M7.6) of 2003 in Mexico, Hector Mine earthquake (M7.1) of 1999 in USA and Parkfield earthquake (M6) of 2004 in USA. These findings are also supported by the results of active experiments where the installation of artificial ionization of atmosphere is used.

  4. Microstructure And Erosion-Corrosion Behaviour Of As-Cast High Chromium White Irons Containing Molybdenum In Aqueous Sulfuric-Acid Slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imurai S.


    Full Text Available Microstructure and erosion-corrosion behaviour of as-cast high chromium white irons containing molybdenum in aqueous sulfuric-acid slurry was studied. The experimental irons contained 28 wt.%Cr with a Cr:C ratio of about 10 and up to 10 wt.%Mo. The irons with up to 6 wt.%Mo are hypoeutectic, whereas the iron with 10 wt.%Mo becomes eutectic/peritectic. Mo addition promotes formation of M23C6 and M6C, instead of typical M7C3. Erosion-corrosion testing was performed in aqueous sulfuric-acid slurry containing alumina particles. The hypoeutectic Fe-28Cr-2.7C-1Mo with mainly M7C3 and the eutectic/peritectic Fe-28Cr-2.6C-10Mo showed reduced wear rates of about 30% and 7% of that of the reference iron without Mo addition, respectively. The reduction of the carbide-matrix hardness difference, the increase of corrosion resistance of the matrices, and the increase of macro-hardness are determining factors for the improvement of erosion-corrosion resistance of the irons.

  5. Constraints on the Equation-of-State of neutron stars from nearby neutron star observations

    CERN Document Server

    Neuhäuser, R; Hohle, M M; Eisenbeiss, T


    We try to constrain the Equation-of-State (EoS) of supra-nuclear-density matter in neutron stars (NSs) by observations of nearby NSs. There are seven thermally emitting NSs known from X-ray and optical observations, the so-called Magnificent Seven (M7), which are young (up to few Myrs), nearby (within a few hundred pc), and radio-quiet with blackbody-like X-ray spectra, so that we can observe their surfaces. As bright X-ray sources, we can determine their rotational (pulse) period and their period derivative from X-ray timing. From XMM and/or Chandra X-ray spectra, we can determine their temperature. With precise astrometric observations using the Hubble Space Telescope, we can determine their parallax (i.e. distance) and optical flux. From flux, distance, and temperature, one can derive the emitting area - with assumptions about the atmosphere and/or temperature distribution on the surface. This was recently done by us for the two brightest M7 NSs RXJ1856 and RXJ0720. Then, from identifying absorption lines ...

  6. [Spatial correlation of active mounds locative distribution of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations]. (United States)

    Lu, Yong-yue; Li, Ning-dong; Liang, Guang-wen; Zeng, Ling


    By using geostatistic method, this paper studied the spatial distribution patterns of the active mounds of Solenopsis invicta Buren polygyne populations in Wuchuan and Shenzhen, and built up the spherical models of the interval distances and semivariances of the mounds. The semivariograms were described at the two directions of east-west and south-north, which were obviously positively correlated to the interval distances, revealing that the active mounds in locative area were space-dependent. The ranges of the 5 spherical models constructed for 5 sampling plots in Wuchuan were 9.1 m, 7.6 m, 23.5 m, 7.5 m and 14.5 m, respectively, with an average of 12.4 m. The mounds of any two plots in this range were significantly correlated. There was a randomicity in the spatial distribution of active mounds, and the randomicity index (Nugget/Sill) was 0.7034, 0.9247, 0.4398, 1.1196 and 0.4624, respectively. In Shenzhen, the relationships between the interval distances and semivariances were described by 7 spherical models, and the ranges were 14.5 m, 11.2 m, 10.8 m, 17.6 m, 11.3 m, 9.9 m and 12.8 m, respectively, with an average of 12.6 m.

  7. Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying. (United States)

    Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Mahdavi-Khazaei, Katayoun; Hemmati-Kakhki, Abbas


    In this research, encapsulation efficiency of cress seed gum (CSG) as a native hydrocolloid was compared with Arabic gum (AG) and maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent of 20 (M20), and 7 (M7)) for saffron (Crocus sativus) petal's extract by freeze drying method. Combinations of CSG-M20, AG-M20, and M7-M20 with ratios of 50:50 and M20 alone (100%) were used as wall materials. A mixture of 1:5 (based on dry matter) between core (concentrated anthocyanin extract of saffron petal) and wall materials were freeze dried and stability of encapsulated anthocyanins along with color parameters (a*, b*, L*, C, H° and TCD) of final powders were measured during 10 weeks of storage (at 35°C as an accelerated method). Total anthocyanins were determined through pH differential method every week. Four prepared formulations of encapsulated powders didn't show any significant differences (P>0.01) in terms of total anthocyanin content measured immediately after production and after 10 weeks storage. AG-M20 mixture and M20 alone showed the highest and lowest TCD, respectively. The mixture of CSG-M20 in comparison with AG-M20 and M20 had the same protecting effect (P<0.01) but showed a relatively high TCD (9.33).

  8. The Consultancy Activity on In Silico Models for Genotoxic Prediction of Pharmaceutical Impurities. (United States)

    Pavan, Manuela; Kovarich, Simona; Bassan, Arianna; Broccardo, Lorenza; Yang, Chihae; Fioravanzo, Elena


    The toxicological assessment of DNA-reactive/mutagenic or clastogenic impurities plays an important role in the regulatory process for pharmaceuticals; in this context, in silico structure-based approaches are applied as primary tools for the evaluation of the mutagenic potential of the drug impurities. The general recommendations regarding such use of in silico methods are provided in the recent ICH M7 guideline stating that computational (in silico) toxicology assessment should be performed using two (Q)SAR prediction methodologies complementing each other: a statistical-based method and an expert rule-based method.Based on our consultant experience, we describe here a framework for in silico assessment of mutagenic potential of drug impurities. Two main applications of in silico methods are presented: (1) support and optimization of drug synthesis processes by providing early indication of potential genotoxic impurities and (2) regulatory evaluation of genotoxic potential of impurities in compliance with the ICH M7 guideline. Some critical case studies are also discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhari


    Full Text Available A small bay-town in East Java Province, Indonesia is selected as a pilot area for an integrated model of tsunami mitigation. Located at the south coast of Java, Pacitan is facing a seismic gap between two tsunami-earthquake events, which are the 1994 (M 7.2 and the 2006 tsunami (M 7.7. The efforts were started in 2008 by constructing the structural components in stages. Coastal forests development and the installation of land-based ocean radar were completed within 3 years. In line with these efforts, comprehensive risk assessment is now being conducted. Detailed tsunami simulations were carried out in addition to the preparation of vulnerability analysis. We attempted to establish novel risk assessment methods and products. We complete the countermeasures by planning two-year activities of community preparedness to ensure the sustainability of the above mentioned efforts. The key objective is the development of a comprehensive and coherent tsunami mitigation system on local level.

  10. The microstructure of chromium-tungsten steels (United States)

    Klueh, R. L.; Maziasz, P. J.


    Chromium-tungsten steels are being developed to replace the Cr-Mo steels for fusion-reactor applications. Eight experimental steels were produced and examined by optical and electron microscopy. Chromium concentrations of 2.25, 5, 9 and 12 pct were used. Steels with these chromium compositions and with 2 pct W and 0.25 pct V were produced. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium, three other 2.25Cr steels were produced as follows: an alloy with 2 pct W and 0 pct V and alloys with 0 and 1 pct W and 0.25 pct V. A 9Cr steel containing 2 pct W, 0.25 pct V, and 0.07 pct Ta also was studied. For all alloys, carbon was maintained at 0.1 pct. Two pct tungsten was required in the 2.25Cr steels to produce 100 pct bainite (no polygonal ferrite). The 5Cr and 9Cr steels were 100 pct martensite, but the 12Cr steel contained about 25 pct delta-ferrite. Precipitate morphology and precipitate types varied, depending on the chromium content. For the 2.25Cr steels, M3C and M7C3 were the primary precipitates; for the 9Cr and 12Cr steels, M23C6 was the primary precipitate. The 5Cr steel contained M7C3 and M23C6. All of the steels with vanadium also contained MC.

  11. Osmotic Stress Regulates the Strength and Kinetics of Sugar Binding to Maltoporin Channel (United States)

    Gurnev, Philip A; Harries, Daniel; Parsegian, V Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M


    We study the effect of osmotic stress, exerted by salts, on carbohydrate binding to the sugar-specific bacterial channel maltoporin. When the channel is reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers, single events of its occlusion by sugar are seen as transient interruptions in the flow of small ions. We find that, for most salts, changes in the free energy of maltoporin-sugar binding vary linearly with solution osmotic pressure. Such a change in binding with solution osmolarity indicates that for each salt a constant number of salt-excluding water molecules is released upon sugar-maltoporin association at all salt concentrations. We find that larger numbers of water molecules are released upon binding of the cyclic carbohydrate β-cyclodextrin (CD) than upon binding of the corresponding linear homologue maltoheptaose (m7). Remarkably, the extent to which salts affect the binding constant depends sensitively on the type of salt; dehydration in solutions of different anions corresponds to the Hofmeister series. In sodium sulfate solutions, CD and m7 respectively release about 120 and 35 water molecules; in sodium chloride solutions, 35 and 15 waters. No water release is observed with sodium bromide. Finally, by adding adamantane, known to form an inclusion complex with CD, we can infer that CD not only dehydrates but also undergoes a conformational change upon binding to the channel. Our results demonstrate how osmotic stress can improve single-molecule detection of different solutes using protein-based nanopores. PMID:21339598

  12. Osmotic stress regulates the strength and kinetics of sugar binding to the maltoporin channel. (United States)

    Gurnev, Philip A; Harries, Daniel; Parsegian, V Adrian; Bezrukov, Sergey M


    We study the effect of osmotic stress, exerted by salts, on carbohydrate binding to the sugar-specific bacterial channel maltoporin. When the channel is reconstituted into planar lipid bilayers, single events of its occlusion by sugar are seen as transient interruptions in the flow of small ions. We find that, for most salts, changes in the free energy of maltoporin-sugar binding vary linearly with solution osmotic pressure. Such a change in binding with solution osmolarity indicates that for each salt a constant number of salt-excluding water molecules is released upon sugar-maltoporin association at all salt concentrations. We find that larger numbers of water molecules are released upon binding of the cyclic carbohydrate β-cyclodextrin (CD) than upon binding of the corresponding linear homologue maltoheptaose (m7). Remarkably, the extent to which salts affect the binding constants and rates depends sensitively on the type of salt; dehydration in solutions of different anions corresponds to the Hofmeister series. In sodium sulfate solutions, CD and m7 respectively release about 120 and 35 salt-excluding water molecules; in sodium chloride solutions, 35 and 15 waters. No water release is observed with sodium bromide. Finally, by adding adamantane, known to form an inclusion complex with CD, we can infer that CD not only dehydrates but also undergoes a conformational change upon binding to the channel. As a practical outcome, our results also demonstrate how osmotic stress can improve single-molecule detection of different solutes using protein-based nanopores.

  13. Pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of the dual reuptake inhibitor [(14)C]-nefopam in rats. (United States)

    Yu, Jian; Solon, Eric; Shen, Helen; Modi, Nishit B; Mittur, Aravind


    1. This study examined the pharmacokinetics, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of [(14)C] nefopam in rats after a single oral administration. Blood, plasma, and excreta were analyzed for total radioactivity, nefopam, and metabolites. Metabolites were profiled and identified. Radioactivity distribution was determined by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. 2. The pharmacokinetic profiles of total radioactivity and nefopam were similar in male and female rats. Radioactivity partitioned approximately equally between plasma and red blood cells. A majority of the radioactivity was excreted in urine within 24 hours and mass balance was achieved within 7 days. 3. Intact nefopam was a minor component in plasma and excreta. Numerous metabolites were identified in plasma and urine generated by multiple pathways including: hydroxylation/oxidation metabolites (M11, M22a and M22b, M16, M20), some of which were further glucuronidated (M6a to M6c, M7a to M7c, M8a and M8b, M3a to M3d); N-demethylation of nefopam to metabolite M21, which additionally undergoes single or multiple hydroxylations or sulfation (M9, M14, M23), with some of the hydroxylated metabolites further glucuronidated (M2a to M2d). 4. Total radioactivity rapidly distributed with highest concentrations found in the urinary bladder, stomach, liver, kidney medulla, small intestine, uveal tract, and kidney cortex without significant accumulation or persistence. Radioactivity reversibly associated with melanin-containing tissues.

  14. Effects of Alloying Elements on Microstructure and Erosion Resistance of Fe-C-Cr Weld Surfacing Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daqian SUN; Wenquan WANG; Zhaozhi XUAN; Yue XU; Zhenfeng ZHOU


    Effects of alloying elements on microstructure and erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer have been studied. The experimental results show that increasing C and Cr content favors improving the erosion resistance of the layer, and the excessive C and Cr result in decreasing the erosion resistance at 90 deg. erosion. That Mo, Nb or Ti improves the erosion resistance of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer is mainly attributed to increasing the amount of M7C3 and forming fine NbC or TiC in austenite matrix, but the excessive Mo, Nb or Ti is unfavorable. The addition of Mo, Nb and Ti in proper combination possesses stronger effect on improving the erosion resistance and the erosion resistance (εA) of Fe-C-Cr weld surfacing layer with fine NbC, TiC and M7C3 distributing uniformly in austenite matrix obviously increases to 2.81 at 15 deg. erosion and 2.88 at 90 deg. erosion when the layer composition is 3.05C, 20.58Cr, 1.88Mo, 2.00Nb and 1.05Ti (in wt pct).

  15. Seismic Hazard Analysis of Aizawl, India with a Focus on Water System Fragilities (United States)

    Belair, G. M.; Tran, A. J.; Dreger, D. S.; Rodgers, J. E.


    GeoHazards International (GHI) has partnered with the University of California, Berkeley in a joint Civil Engineering and Earth Science summer internship program to investigate geologic hazards. This year the focus was on Aizawl, the capital of India's Mizoram state, situated on a ridge in the Burma Ranges. Nearby sources have the potential for large (M > 7) earthquakes that would be devastating to the approximately 300,000 people living in the city. Earthquake induced landslides also threaten the population as well as the city's lifelines. Fieldwork conducted in June 2015 identified hazards to vital water system components. The focus of this abstract is a review of the seismic hazards that affect Aizawl, with special attention paid to water system locations. To motivate action to reduce risk, GHI created an earthquake scenario describing effects of a M7 right-lateral strike-slip intraplate earthquake occurring 30 km below the city. We extended this analysis by exploring additional mapped faults as well as hypothetical blind reverse faults in terms of PGA, PGV, and PSA. Ground motions with hanging wall and directivity effects were also examined. Several attenuation relationships were used in order to assess the uncertainty in the ground motion parameters. Results were used to determine the likely seismic performance of water system components, and will be applied in future PSHA studies.

  16. Experimental Study and Computer Simulation on Multicomponent Diffusion in Multiphase Dispersions During Solid Carburizing of HP40Nb and KHR45A Alloys (United States)

    Zhao, Yanping; Gong, Jianming; Wang, Xiaowei; Shen, Limin; Li, Qingnan


    To simulate solid carburizing processes of HP40Nb and KHR45A alloys at 1273 K and 1373 K (1000 °C and 1100 °C), Thermo-Calc (Thermo-Calc Software, Inc., Stockholm, Sweden) and DICTRA (Thermo-Calc Software, Inc.) software analyses were performed. A model to treat multicomponent diffusion in multiphase dispersions was applied, where carbides are assumed to be distributed in face-centered cubic matrix and diffusion only occurs in the matrix. The time-dependent carbon flux determined by weight gain measurement was used as boundary condition in diffusion simulations. The calculated carbides are NbC, M23C6, and M7C3 ("M" stands for metal atoms), where M23C6 first precipitates, then M7C3 appears as carbon increases, and NbC covers the largest area of carbon content. The results show that carburization resistance is much better for KHR45A than HP40Nb due to the addition of elements (Si, Cr, Ni, and Nb). Microhardness measurements were also conducted to obtain the carburized case depths, and the results agreed well with the predicted calculations.

  17. 富煤一矿西采区瓦斯抽采技术实践%Mining technology practice of coal mine drainage gas in West Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The gas gushing amount is big in the western mining area of fumei No.1 coal mine, which has a big inlfuence on mining, using the gas drainage technology combined with the penetrating layers pre-draining; bedding drainage; the relieved drainage, the goaf gas drainage, increasing gas drainage quantity, reducing the amount of gas emission. Through the gas pre-pumping, the gas gushing amount in the West District of M7, is reduced from 11.3m3/t to 8m3/t, extraction rate reached 63.34%, which ensure the safety mining.%富煤一矿西采区瓦斯涌出量大,对采掘影响大,采用穿层预抽、顺层预抽、卸压抽采、采空区抽采等多种方式结合的瓦斯抽采技术,增加瓦斯抽采量,减少瓦斯涌出量。通过瓦斯预抽后,西采区M7煤层在采掘前瓦斯含量从11.3m3/t降到8.0m3/t以下,抽采率达63.34%,保证了采掘的安全。

  18. A new approach to curved projective superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Butter, Daniel


    We present a new formulation of curved projective superspace. The 4D N=2 supermanifold M^{4|8} (four bosonic and eight Grassmann coordinates) is extended by an auxiliary SU(2) manifold, which involves introducing a vielbein and related connections on the full M^{7|8} = M^{4|8} x SU(2). Constraints are chosen so that it is always possible to return to the central gauge where the auxiliary SU(2) manifold largely decouples from the curved manifold M^{4|8} describing 4D N=2 conformal supergravity. We introduce the relevant projective superspace action principle in the analytic subspace of M^{7|8} and construct its component reduction in terms of a five-form J living on M^4 x C, with C a contour in SU(2). This approach is inspired by and generalizes the original approach taken in arXiv:0805.4683 and related works, which can be identified with a complexified version of the central gauge of the formulation presented here.

  19. Natural and semi-synthetic clerodanes of Croton cajucara and their cytotoxic effects against ehrlich carcinoma and human K562 leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciel, Maria Aparecida M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Martins, Jenilce R.; Pinto, Angelo C.; Kaiser, Carlos R. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Esteves-Souza, Andressa; Echevarria, Aurea [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    The clerodane-type diterpene, trans-dehydrocrotonin (1) the major component of Croton cajucara has shown striking correlation with its therapeutic use in traditional folk medicine. Phytochemical investigations led to the isolation of the metabolites 1, cajucarinolide (6), isocajucarinolide (7), trans-crotonin (2), trans-cajucarin B (3), cis-cajucarin B (4), trans-cajucarin A (5), N-methyltyrosine, vanillic acid and 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid. 6 and 7 were synthesized in good yield by regiospecific oxidation of 1 using singlet-oxygen. All clerodanes were studied for their cytotoxic effects against human K562 leukemia and Ehrlich carcinoma cells. Ehrlich carcinoma assays with IC{sub 50} = 166 {mu}M (1), 164 {mu}M (2), 65 {mu}M (6) and 10 {mu}M (7) related to cell growth inhibitory effects were dose dependent. Furthermore, moderate cytotoxic activity against K562 leukemia cells was observed with IC{sub 50} = 38 {mu}M (3), 33 {mu}M (5), 36 {mu}M (6) and 43 {mu}M (7). The semi-synthetic 2, 6 and 7 showed similar results when compared to the corresponding natural clerodanes. (author)

  20. Liquefaction Hazard Maps for Three Earthquake Scenarios for the Communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos, Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale, Northern Santa Clara County, California (United States)

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Noce, Thomas E.; Bennett, Michael J.


    Maps showing the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction in the northern Santa Clara Valley were prepared with liquefaction probability curves. The area includes the communities of San Jose, Campbell, Cupertino, Los Altos, Los Gatos Milpitas, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Saratoga, and Sunnyvale. The probability curves were based on complementary cumulative frequency distributions of the liquefaction potential index (LPI) for surficial geologic units in the study area. LPI values were computed with extensive cone penetration test soundings. Maps were developed for three earthquake scenarios, an M7.8 on the San Andreas Fault comparable to the 1906 event, an M6.7 on the Hayward Fault comparable to the 1868 event, and an M6.9 on the Calaveras Fault. Ground motions were estimated with the Boore and Atkinson (2008) attenuation relation. Liquefaction is predicted for all three events in young Holocene levee deposits along the major creeks. Liquefaction probabilities are highest for the M7.8 earthquake, ranging from 0.33 to 0.37 if a 1.5-m deep water table is assumed, and 0.10 to 0.14 if a 5-m deep water table is assumed. Liquefaction probabilities of the other surficial geologic units are less than 0.05. Probabilities for the scenario earthquakes are generally consistent with observations during historical earthquakes.

  1. Weak binding affinity of human 4EHP for mRNA cap analogs. (United States)

    Zuberek, Joanna; Kubacka, Dorota; Jablonowska, Agnieszka; Jemielity, Jacek; Stepinski, Janusz; Sonenberg, Nahum; Darzynkiewicz, Edward


    Ribosome recruitment to the majority of eukaryotic mRNAs is facilitated by the interaction of the cap binding protein, eIF4E, with the mRNA 5' cap structure. eIF4E stimulates translation through its interaction with a scaffolding protein, eIF4G, which helps to recruit the ribosome. Metazoans also contain a homolog of eIF4E, termed 4EHP, which binds the cap structure, but not eIF4G, and thus cannot stimulate translation, but it instead inhibits the translation of only one known, and possibly subset mRNAs. To understand why 4EHP does not inhibit general translation, we studied the binding affinity of 4EHP for cap analogs using two methods: fluorescence titration and stopped-flow measurements. We show that 4EHP binds cap analogs m(7)GpppG and m(7)GTP with 30 and 100 lower affinity than eIF4E. Thus, 4EHP cannot compete with eIF4E for binding to the cap structure of most mRNAs.

  2. Effect of Ti-V-Nb-Mo addition on microstructure of high chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Youping


    Full Text Available The effects of trace additions of multi-alloying elements (Ti, Nb, V, Mo on carbides precipitation and as-cast microstructure of eutectic high chromium cast iron containing 2.85wt.%C and 31.0wt.%Cr were investigated from thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ti and Nb exist in the multi-alloying system in the forms of TiC and NbC. The formation of VC during the solidification is not feasible from the thermodynamic consideration. XRD analysis shows that the V exists in alloy compounds (VCr2C2, VCrFe8. The first precipitated high melting point particles (TiC, NbC can act as the heterogeneous substrate of M7C3 carbides, which results in significant refinement of the M7C3 carbides. After the addition of alloying elements, C atom diffusion is hindered due to the strong affinities of the strong carbide forming elements for carbon, which decreases the growth rate of carbides. The combined roles of the increase of nucleation rate and the decrease of carbides growth rate lead to the finer microstructure.

  3. 苹果优系‘烟富7’不同砧穗组合的生长结果习性%Vegetative growth and fruiting habits of the superior strain ‘Yanfu 7' apple grafted on different rootstocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐月华; 黄永业; 李强; 陈晓丽; 许文梅


    [目的]探讨富士苹果优系‘烟富7’不同砧穗组合的生长结果习性,以期为‘烟富7’的现代栽培以及优质和高效提供参考依据.[方法]2008年田间定植‘烟富7’/八棱海棠、‘烟富7’/M7、‘烟富7’/M9,各年份连续调查不同砧穗组合的生长及结果习性对树高、冠径与干周、开花株率、总枝量与枝类组成、产量以及品质的影响.[结果]‘烟富7’嫁接在不同类型的砧木上,树体的大小(包括树高、冠径、于周)为八棱海棠>M7>M9;枝类组成上,矮化程度的不同,666.7m2枝量、短果枝比例显著增加,营养枝比例显著降低;在早果丰产性上,‘烟富7’与各砧木组合均是第2年形成花芽,第3年形成产量,‘烟富7’/M9第5年进入盛果期,‘烟富7’/八棱海棠与‘烟富7’/M7进入初盛果期;随着矮化程度的增加,产量显著增加,进入丰产期后各砧穗组合差异不显著,‘烟富7’/M9果实品质(除果形指数、果实硬度)显著高于‘烟富7’/八棱海棠.[结论]‘烟富7’嫁接在不同砧木的生长势大小为八棱海棠>M7>M9;666.7 m2枝量及短果枝比例顺序则相反,M9>M7>八棱海棠;早果性和丰产性以M9优于M7及八棱海棠,因此‘烟富7’嫁接M9有利于早实丰产.%[Objective] Dwarf and intensive planting in apples has the advantages of early fruiting,high quality and high efficiency,and is suitable for mechanical management.It has become the main form of apple planting nowadays,and is the development direction of apple industry in our country.The current study characterized the vegetative growth and fruiting habits of the superior strain ‘Yanfu 7' apple grafted on different rootstocks with an aim to provide reference for cultivation of high quality ‘ Yanfu 7' apple with high efficiency.[Methods] The experimentation was carried out with a randomized block design.In 2008,the apple trees grafted on Malus micromalus,M7 and M9 were planted in

  4. Unprecedented stable aqueous semiquinone methide radical formation interferes with adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry of cobalt methyl thymol blue. (United States)

    Niztayev, Alidin N; Hagen, Wilfred R


    A putatively highly sensitive and selective method for the determination of cobalt in aqueous samples by catalytic adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry using methyl thymol blue (MTB) as the ligand has been documented [A. Safavi, E. Shams, Talanta 51 (2000) 1117] and its underlying mechanism has been briefly explored [A. Safavi, E. Shams, Electroanalysis 14 (2002) 708]. In an attempt to adapt the method for application in metalloprotein analysis we obtained erratic results, which were traced down to the redox non-innocence of the free ligand in the potential range prescribed for the metal analysis. On the hanging mercury drop electrode free methyl thymol blue is reversibly one-electron reduced to the semiquinone form with E(m,7.0)=-482mV versus NHE at 22 degrees C, and the radical is subsequently quasi-reversibly one-electron reduced to the quinol form with E(m,7) approximately -0.9V. This observation invalidates the use of MTB in electrochemical analysis of metal ions. This is also the first observation ever of a stable quinone methide radical in aqueous solution.

  5. A search for thermally emitting isolated neutron stars in the 2XMMp catalogue

    CERN Document Server

    Pires, Adriana M; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo


    The relatively large number of nearby radio-quiet and thermally emitting isolated neutron stars (INSs) discovered in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey, dubbed the ``Magnificent Seven'' (M7), suggests that they belong to a formerly neglected major component of the overall INS population. So far, attempts to discover similar INSs beyond the solar vicinity failed to confirm any reliable candidate. The EPIC cameras onboard the XMM-Newton satellite allow to efficiently search for new thermally emitting INSs. We used the 2XMMp catalogue to select sources with no catalogued candidate counterparts and with X-ray spectra similar to those of the M7, but seen at greater distances and thus undergoing higher interstellar absorptions. Identifications in more than 170 astronomical catalogues and visual screening allowed to select fewer than 30 good INS candidates. In order to rule out alternative identifications, we obtained deep ESO-VLT and SOAR optical imaging for the X-ray brightest candidates. We report here on the optical follo...

  6. LLNL-Generated Content for the California Academy of Sciences, Morrison Planetarium Full-Dome Show: Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A J; Petersson, N A; Morency, C E; Simmons, N A; Sjogreen, B


    The California Academy of Sciences (CAS) Morrison Planetarium is producing a 'full-dome' planetarium show on earthquakes and asked LLNL to produce content for the show. Specifically the show features numerical ground motion simulations of the M 7.9 1906 San Francisco and a possible future M 7.05 Hayward fault scenario earthquake. The show also features concepts of plate tectonics and mantle convection using images from LLNL's G3D global seismic tomography. This document describes the data that was provided to the CAS in support of production of the 'Earthquake' show. The CAS is located in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco and hosts over 1.6 million visitors. The Morrison Planetarium, within the CAS, is the largest all digital planetarium in the world. It features a 75-foot diameter spherical section projection screen tilted at a 30-degree angle. Six projectors cover the entire field of view and give a three-dimensional immersive experience. CAS shows strive to use scientifically accurate digital data in their productions. The show, entitled simply 'Earthquake', will debut on 26 May 2012. They are working on graphics and animations based on the same data sets for display on LLNL powerwalls and flat-screens as well as for public release.

  7. Translation of satellite tobacco necrosis virus ribonucleic acid by an in vitro system from wheat germ. (United States)

    Leung, D W; Gilbert, C W; Smith, R E; Sasavage, N L; Clark, J M


    The RNA of satellite tobacco necrosis virus (STNV) is an effective messenger RNA when translated in an in vitro system from wheat germ. This RNA codes for only STNV coat protein, as indicated (1) by coincidence of the tryptic fingerprints of the translation product and of STNV coat protein, (2) by equivalent size of the translation product and STNV coat protein, and (3) by isolation of an initial peptide of the in vitro product containing the amino acid sequence of the N terminus of STNV coat protein. STNV RNA does not contain a 5'-terminal m7G(5')ppp(5')Np---group and translation of STNV RNA by the wheat germ system does not involve prior formation of 5'-terminal m7G(5')ppp(5') nP---groups on STNV RNA. STNV RNA and 125I-labeled STNV RNA form a specific initiation complex when incubated with initiator tRNA, GTP, initiation factors, and wheat germ ribosomes. Treatment of this specific initiation complex with ribonuclease A allows isolation of an 125I-labeled oligonucleotide protected from ribonuclease A by the initiation complex. This specific oligonucleotide contains approximately 38 nucleotides, including nucleotide sequences that coincide with the codons of the N-terminal amino acids of STNV coat proteins.

  8. Revealing the population of the young ASCC 20 (United States)

    Galindo-Guil, F. J.; Barrado, D.; Bouy, H.


    We present the study of the open cluster ASCC-20. This young stellar association located at 450 pc and A_V = 0.129 mag is ˜ 20 Myr old based on the upper main sequence fitting. We have created a multi-wavelength photometric catalogue of cluster candidate members by using archival data and data-mining techniques. The complete set of photometric bands contains: B_TV_T from Tycho-2, griz from SDSS, JHK_s from 2MASS and W1W2W3W4 from WISE. In addition, we have followed-up 36 of our photometric candidates by using spectroscopic data with CAHA-TWIN. We have derived spectral types and confirmed their membership: 1) 50% of these sources are M dwarfs with the Hα spectral feature in emission; 2) models (Allard et al., 2012) indicate a mass of ˜0.25 M_{⊙} for the faintest object confirmed by spectroscopy, a M7. We have re-observed a subsample of 11 confirmed members of M spectral type and measured features related with their youth (e.g.: Li at 6707.8 Å) and metallicities by using GTC-OSIRIS at mid-resolution. Assuming a distance of 450 pc we report a Lithium Depletion Boundary age above 30 Myr, based on the faintest member of our sample without lithium (a M7). However a new study of the distance with Gaia will release a new insigth in the age of this cluster.

  9. G-Structures and Wrapped NS5-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Gauntlett, J P; Pakis, S; Waldram, D; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Martelli, Dario; Pakis, Stathis; Waldram, Daniel


    We analyse the geometrical structure of supersymmetric solutions of type II supergravity of the form R^{1,9-n} x M_n with non-trivial NS flux and dilaton. Solutions of this type arise naturally as the near-horizon limits of wrapped NS fivebrane geometries. We concentrate on the case n=7, preserving two or four supersymmetries, corresponding to branes wrapped on associative or SLAG three-cycles. Given the existence of Killing spinors, we show that M_7 admits a G_2-structure or an SU(3)-structure, respectively, of specific type. We also prove the converse result. We use the existence of these geometric structures as a new technique to derive some known and new explicit solutions, as well as a simple theorem implying that we have vanishing NS three-form and constant dilaton whenever M_7 is compact with no boundary. The analysis extends simply to other type II examples and also to type I supergravity.

  10. Validation of Atmosphere/Ionosphere Signals Associated with Major Earthquakes by Multi-Instrument Space-Borne and Ground Observations (United States)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulinets, Sergey; Hattori, Katsumi; Parrot, Michel; Liu, J. Y.; Yang, T. F.; Arellano-Baeza, Alonso; Kafatos, M.; Taylor, Patrick


    regions of the atmosphere and the modifications, by dc electric fields, in the ionosphere-atmosphere electric circuit. We retrospectively analyzed temporal and spatial variations of four different physical parameters (gas/radon counting rate, lineaments change, long-wave radiation transitions and ionospheric electron density/plasma variations) characterizing the state of the lithosphere/atmosphere coupling several days before the onset of the earthquakes. Validation processes consist in two phases: A. Case studies for seven recent major earthquakes: Japan (M9.0, 2011), China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and, Chile (M8.8, 2010) and B. A continuous retrospective analysis was preformed over two different regions with high seismicity- Taiwan and Japan for 2003-2009. Satellite, ground surface, and troposphere data were obtained from Terra/ASTER, Aqua/AIRS, POES and ionospheric variations from DEMETER and COSMIC-I data. Radon and GPS/TEC were obtaining from monitoring sites in Taiwan, Japan and Italy and from global ionosphere maps (GIM) respectively. Our analysis of ground and satellite data during the occurrence of 7 global earthquakes has shown the presence of anomalies in the atmosphere. Our results for Tohoku M9.0 earthquake show that on March 7th, 2011 (4 days before the main shock and 1 day before the M7.2 foreshock of March 8, 2011) a rapid increase of emitted infrared radiation was observed by the satellite data and an anomaly was developed near the epicenter. The GPS/TEC data indicate an increase and variation in electron density reaching a maximum value on March 8. From March 3 to 11 a large increase in electron concentration was recorded at all four Japanese ground-based ionosondes, which returned to normal after the main earthquake. Similar approach for analyzing atmospheric and ionospheric parameters has been applied for China (M7.9, 2008), Italy (M6.3, 2009), Samoa (M7, 2009), Haiti (M7.0, 2010) and Chile (M8.8, 2010

  11. Kinetics of high-Level of ß-glucosidase production by a 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant of Humicola lanuginosa in submerged fermentation Cinética de produção de ß-glucosidase por um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose em fermentação submersa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Imran Bokhari


    Full Text Available A 2-deoxyglucose-resistant mutant (M7 of Humicola lanuginosa was obtained by exposing conidia to γ-rays and permitting expression in broth containing 0.6% 2-deoxyglucose (DG and cellobiose (1% before plating on DG esculin-ferric ammonium citrate agar medium from which colonies showing faster and bigger blackening zones were selected. Kinetic parameters for enhanced ß-glucosidase (BGL synthesis by M7 were achieved when corncobs acted as the carbon source. The combination between corncobs and corn steep liquor was the best to support higher values of all product formation kinetic parameters. Effect of temperature on the kinetic and thermodynamic attributes of BGL production equilibrium in the wild organismand M7was studied using batch process at eight different temperatures in shake-flask studies. The best performance was found at 45ºC and 20 g L-1 corncobs in 64 h. Both growth and product formation (17.93 U mL-1 were remarkably high at 45ºC and both were coupled under optimum working conditions. Product yield of BGL from the mutant M7 (1556.5 U g-1 dry corncobs was significantly higher than the values reported on all fungal and bacterial systems. Mutation had thermo-stabilization influence on the organism and mutant required lower activation energy for growth and lower magnitudes of enthalpy and entropy for product formation than those demanded by the wild organism, other mesophilic and thermo-tolerant organisms. In the inactivation phase, the organisms needed lower values of activation energy, enthalpy and entropy for product formation equilibrium, confirming thermophilic nature of metabolic network possessed by the mutant organism.Um mutante de Hemicola lanuginosa resistente a 2-deoxiglucose(M7 foi obtido através de exposição de conídios a raios γ, permitindo a expressão em caldo contendo 0,6% de 2-deoxiglucose (DG e celobiose (1% antes da semeadura em ágar DG esculina citrato de ferro amoniacal, da qual foram selecionadas as col

  12. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Philippine Sea plate and vicinity (United States)

    Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Benz, Harley M.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.


    The complex tectonics surrounding the Philippine Islands are dominated by the interactions of the Pacific, Sunda, and Eurasia plates with the Philippine Sea plate (PSP). The latter is unique because it is almost exclusively surrounded by zones of plate convergence. At its eastern and southeastern edges, the Pacific plate is subducted beneath the PSP at the Izu-Bonin, Mariana, and Yap trenches. Here, the subduction zone exhibits high rates of seismic activity to depths of over 600 km, though no great earthquakes (M>8.0) have been observed, likely because of weak coupling along the plate interface. In the northeast, the PSP subducts beneath Japan and the eastern margin of the Eurasia plate at the Nankai and Ryukyu trenches, extending westward to Taiwan. The Nankai portion of this subduction zone has hosted some of the largest earthquakes along the margins of the PSP, including a pair of Mw8.1 megathrust events in 1944 and 1946. Along its western margin, the convergence of the PSP and the Sunda plate is responsible for a broad and active plate boundary system extending along both sides of the Philippine Islands chain. The region is characterized by opposite-facing subduction systems on the east and west sides of the islands, and the archipelago is cut by a major transform structure: the Philippine Fault. Subduction of the Philippine Sea plate occurs at the eastern margin of the islands along the Philippine Trench and its northern extension, the East Luzon Trough. On the west side of Luzon, the Sunda Plate subducts eastward along a series of trenches, including the Manila Trench in the north, the smaller Negros Trench in the central Philippines, and the Sulu and Cotabato trenches in the south. Twentieth and early twentyfirst century seismic activity along the boundaries of the Philippine Sea plate has produced seven great (M>8.0) earthquakes and 250 large (M>7) events. Among the most destructive events were the 1923 Kanto, the 1948 Fukui, and the 1995 Kobe, Japan

  13. Inland stress accumulation in the Southwest Japan arc due to interseismic coupling along the Nankai trough and slab rollback under the Ryukyu trench (United States)

    Hashima, Akinori; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya


    In the last 20 years, Southwest (SW) Japan has experienced M7 inland earthquakes, such as the 2016 Mw 7.0 Kumamoto earthquake. Korean Peninsula, which is regarded as a stable region, also suffered by the largest earthquake (Mw5.4) ever observed in 2016. The historical earthquake catalog based on paleographical studies implies that M7-class inland earthquakes were activated from 50 years before interplate earthquakes beneath the Nankai Trough, which repeatedly occurred with the interval of 100-200 years. Considering that 70 years has passed since the last interplate ruptures in 1944 and 1946, the recent M7 inland earthquakes appear related with stress accumulation before an interplate earthquake. We attempt to reveal this relation between the inland activity and the interplate earthquakes using a 3-D finite element model (FEM) including the viscoelastic feature in the mantle. Our FEM considers a region of 3700 km x 4600 km x 700 km, incorporating the Pacific and the Philippine sea slabs by interpolating models for the Northeast (NE) and SW Japan arcs, as well as the Ryukyu, Kuril and Izu-Bonin arcs. In particular, the complex geometry of the Philippine Sea slab with the large bend due to the subduciton of the Kyushu-Palau ridge is crucial to creat the stress field in SW Japan. The model region is divided into about 1000,000 tetrahedral elements with dimension ranging from 5-100 km. Using a distribution of interplate coupling on the plate interface from previous studies, we calculated velocity field and stress accumulation rate. Calculated velocity field and stress accumulation pattern well reproduced the observed velocity field and the mechanism of the recent inland earthquakes, respectively, in the middle region of the SW Japan. However, these results cannot explain the velocity and stress fields in the southern part of the Kyushu island, which is affected by the slab rollback occurring in the Ryukyu trench. We calculate the effect of slab rollback by assigning

  14. Structure-based mutational analysis of eIF4E in relation to sbm1 resistance to pea seed-borne mosaic virus in pea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie A Ashby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pea encodes eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E (eIF4E(S, which supports the multiplication of Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV. In common with hosts for other potyviruses, some pea lines contain a recessive allele (sbm1 encoding a mutant eIF4E (eIF4E(R that fails to interact functionally with the PSbMV avirulence protein, VPg, giving genetic resistance to infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study structure-function relationships between pea eIF4E and PSbMV VPg, we obtained an X-ray structure for eIF4E(S bound to m(7GTP. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contained eight independent copies of the protein, providing insights into the structurally conserved and flexible regions of eIF4E. To assess indirectly the importance of key residues in binding to VPg and/or m(7GTP, an extensive range of point mutants in eIF4E was tested for their ability to complement PSbMV multiplication in resistant pea tissues and for complementation of protein translation, and hence growth, in an eIF4E-defective yeast strain conditionally dependent upon ectopic expression of eIF4E. The mutants also dissected individual contributions from polymorphisms present in eIF4E(R and compared the impact of individual residues altered in orthologous resistance alleles from other crop species. The data showed that essential resistance determinants in eIF4E differed for different viruses although the critical region involved (possibly in VPg-binding was conserved and partially overlapped with the m(7GTP-binding region. This overlap resulted in coupled inhibition of virus multiplication and translation in the majority of cases, although the existence of a few mutants that uncoupled the two processes supported the view that the specific role of eIF4E in potyvirus infection may not be restricted to translation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The work describes the most extensive structural analysis of eIF4E in relation to potyvirus resistance. In addition

  15. Aftershocks can Significantly Alter Stress Change Patterns Produced by Their Mainshock (United States)

    Felzer, K. R.; Becker, T. W.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Ekström, G.; Rice, J. R.


    Many studies over the last decade have used the static Coulomb stress change produced by a mainshock to predict the locations of triggered earthquakes. This method has shown some success, but often fails to predict the locations of 20% to 40% of the aftershocks of a given mainshock. We use statistical Monte Carlo modeling to show that this amount of failure is consistent with the perturbation to the stress field provided by the aftershocks themselves. Although most aftershocks are more than a magnitude unit smaller than their mainshocks, the ability of earthquakes of all magnitudes to produce large static stress changes at short range, and the pronounced clustering of aftershock hypocenters, implies that many aftershock hypocenters in a sequence may be primarily stressed by a previous aftershock rather than by the mainshock itself. The exact percentage stressed by previous aftershocks increases with the activity of the aftershock sequence, the magnitude of the mainshock, and the time since the mainshock. Our model predicts that two days after the average California M7 earthquake, for example, over 50% of new aftershocks are primarily in response to stress changes from previous aftershocks. This means that the majority of the new aftershocks are most likely to occur near previous aftershocks, and not necessarily within regions of Coulomb stress increase from the mainshock. The same happens three days after the average M6, and three weeks after the average M5 mainshock. Our statistical modeling uses Omori's Law for aftershock decay, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude frequency relationship, Baath's Law, and the assumptions that earthquakes of all sizes are capable of generating aftershocks and that the timing of each aftershock is essentially determined by a single mainshock. We apply our model to the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, which may be classified as an aftershock of the 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake. Our modeling shows that at the time of the Hector Mine

  16. A Search for L/T Transition Dwarfs with Pan-STARRS1 and WISE. III. Young L Dwarf Discoveries and Proper Motion Catalogs in Taurus and Scorpius–Centaurus (United States)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Zhang, Zhoujian; Kotson, Michael C.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Metcalfe, N.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Waters, C.


    We present the discovery of eight young M7–L2 dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region and the Scorpius–Centaurus OB Association, serendipitously found during a wide-field search for L/T transition dwarfs using Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-infrared) photometry. We identify PSO J060.3200+25.9644 (near-infrared spectral type L1) and PSO J077.1033+24.3809 (L2) as new members of Taurus based on their vl-g gravity classifications, the consistency of their photometry and proper motions with previously known Taurus objects, and the low probability of contamination by field objects. PSO J077.1033+24.3809 is the coolest substellar member of Taurus found to date. Both Taurus objects are among the lowest-mass free-floating objects ever discovered, with estimated masses ≈6 {M}{Jup}, and provide further evidence that isolated planetary-mass objects can form as part of normal star formation processes. PSO J060.3200+25.9644 (a.k.a. DANCe J040116.80+255752.2) was previously identified as a likely member of the Pleiades (age ≈ 125 {Myr}) based on photometry and astrometry, but its vl-g gravity classification and near-infrared photometry imply a much younger age and thus point to Taurus membership. We have also discovered six M7–L1 dwarfs in outlying regions of Scorpius–Centaurus with photometry, proper motions, and low-gravity spectral signatures consistent with membership. These objects have estimated masses ≈15–36 {M}{Jup}. The M7 dwarf, PSO J237.1470‑23.1489, shows excess mid-infrared flux implying the presence of a circumstellar disk. Finally, we present catalogs of Pan-STARRS1 proper motions for low-mass members of Taurus and Upper Scorpius with median precisions of ≈3 mas yr‑1, including 67 objects with no previous proper motion and 359 measurements that improve on literature values.

  17. The Surface Rupture of the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake and its Interaction with the 1892 Laguna Salada Rupture - Complex Fault Interaction in an Oblique Rift System (Invited) (United States)

    Rockwell, T. K.; Fletcher, J. M.; Teran, O.; Mueller, K. J.


    The 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake (Mw 7.2) demonstrates intimate mechanical interactions between two major fault systems that intersect within and along the western margin of the Sierra Cucapah in Baja California, Mexico. Rupture associated with 2010 earthquake produced ~4 m of dextral oblique slip and propagated through an imbricate stack of east-dipping faults. Toward the north, rupture consistently steps left to structurally deeper faults located farther west and in this manner passes through the core of the Sierra Cucapah to its western margin. The western margin of the Sierra Cucapah is defined by the Laguna Salada fault (LSF), which forms part of an active west-directed oblique detachment system recognized as the source of the large (M7+) February 22, 1892 earthquake. In the central Sierra Cucapah, the fault systems are separated by a narrow horst block, and here the 2010 event produced triggered slip on the LSF. These surface breaks follow the exact trace of the 1892 rupture, but their sense of slip (10-30 cm of pure normal displacement) differs radically from the 5 m of oblique dextral-normal slip produced by the 1892 event. Farther north, the narrow horst block is buried beneath strata of the northern Laguna Salada rift basin, and at this location, west-directed scarps of the LSF accommodate a significant component of dextral slip associated with the primary 2010 surface rupture. Thus, the two fault systems combine to accommodate oblique extension in the northern part of the range and likely have linking structures at fairly shallow depth. Newly identified paleo-scarps extend the known 1892 rupture length from 20 km to as much as 42 km, from the Canon Rojo fault to the Yuha Basin; consistent with a Mw 7.2 event and historical reports of MMI VII damage in San Diego. Both fault systems generate large earthquakes (>M7.2), with the west-directed LSF fault accommodating rapid subsidence in the adjacent basin during M7+ events at ~ 2Ka recurrence. Initial

  18. Evaluation of the sectional aerosol microphysics module SALSA implementation in ECHAM5-HAM aerosol-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bergman


    Full Text Available We present the implementation and evaluation of a sectional aerosol microphysics model SALSA within the aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. This aerosol microphysics module has been designed to be flexible and computationally efficient so that it can be implemented in regional or global scale models. The computational efficiency has been achieved by keeping the number of variables needed to describe the size and composition distribution to the minimum. The aerosol size distribution is described using 20 size sections with 10 size sections in size space which cover diameters ranging from 3 nm to 10 μm divided to three subranges each having distinct optimised process and compound selection.

    The ability of the module to describe the global aerosol properties was evaluated by comparison against (1 measured continental and marine size distributions, (2 observed variability of continental modal number concentrations, (3 measured sulphate, organic carbon, black carbon and sea salt mass concentrations, (4 observations of AOD and other aerosol optical properties from satellites and AERONET network, (5 global aerosol budgets and concentrations from previous model studies, and (6 model results using M7 which is the default aerosol microphysics module in ECHAM5-HAM.

    The evaluation shows that the global aerosol properties can be reproduced reasonably well using the coarse resolution of 10 size sections in size space. The simulated global aerosol budgets are within the range of previous studies. Surface concentrations of sea salt, sulphate and carbonaceous species have an annual mean within a factor of five of the observations, while the simulated sea salt concentrations reproduce the observations less accurately and show high variability. Regionally, AOD is in relatively good agreement with the observations (within a factor of two. At mid-latitudes the observed AOD is captured well, while at high-latitudes as well as in some polluted and

  19. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones (United States)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.


    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (6cyclones (hurricane or typhoon) hit the very same area. The most familiar example is Haiti, which was hit during the late summer of 2008 by two hurricanes and two tropical storms (Fay, Gustav, Hanna and Ike) within 25 days. A year an a half after this very wet hurricane season, the 2010 Leogane earthquake occurred in the mountainous Haiti's southern peninsula and caused the death of more than 300,000 people. The other cases are from Taiwan, which is characterized by a high seismicity level and frequent typhoon landfall. The three wettest typhoons in Taiwan's past 50 years were Morakot (in 2009, with 2885 mm or rain), Flossie (1969, 2162 mm) and Herb (1996, 1987 mm)[Lin et al., 2010]. Each of this three very wet storms was followed by one or two main-shock M>6 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the erosion induced by very wet cyclones increased the failure stresses at the

  20. Characteristics of frictional properties' relationship with afterslip propagation speed (United States)

    Ariyoshi, Keisuke; Matsuzawa, Toru; Burgmann, Roland; Hasegawa, Akira; Hino, Ryota; Hori, Takane


    The propagation speed of postseismic slip seems to vary from place to place. For the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake (M8), there was a time lag of about 80 minutes for the largest aftershock (M7.4) at about 40 km distance off Tokachi [Miyazaki and Larson, 2008 GRL] and of one year for the M7 earthquakes off Kushiro about 160 km away [Murakami et al., 2006 GRL]. If these aftershocks were triggered by ΔCFS increase in the passage of afterslip [Uchida et al., 2009 Gondwana Res], these time lags suggest that the propagation speed of the afterslip from the mainshock to the largest aftershock is significantly higher than to the M7 aftershocks off Kushiro. On the Sanriku-Haruka-Oki earthquakes, Matsuzawa et al. [2004 EPS] pointed out that propagation speed of the postseismic slip seems to be on the order of 10 km/day for the shallower part of the subduction plate boundary while it appears to be 10 km/month for the deeper part. These results indicate that the propagation speed of postseismic slip depends on frictional properties and effective normal stress in addition to slip velocity. To better understand the frictional properties controlling the propagation speed of postseismic slip, some numerical simulations of interplate earthquakes based on a rate- and state-dependent friction law (RSF) [Dieterich, 1979 JGR; Ruina, 1983 JGR] have been recently performed. These previous studies suggest the propagation speed of postseismic slip becomes lower in case of higher frictional stability, longer characteristic slip distance [Kato and Hirasawa, 1999 PAGEOPH], and higher effective normal stress [Ariyoshi et al., 2007 EPSL]. Since we do not quantitatively understand why such cases make the postseismic slip propagation slower, it is necessary to find an analytical relation between the frictional properties and the propagation speed of postseismic slip. In this study, we develop an expression for the propagation speed of postseismic slip as a function of frictional properties

  1. Binding specificities and potential roles of isoforms of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in Leishmania. (United States)

    Yoffe, Yael; Zuberek, Joanna; Lerer, Asaf; Lewdorowicz, Magdalena; Stepinski, Janusz; Altmann, Michael; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Shapira, Michal


    The 5' cap structure of trypanosomatid mRNAs, denoted cap 4, is a complex structure that contains unusual modifications on the first four nucleotides. We examined the four eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) homologues found in the Leishmania genome database. These proteins, denoted LeishIF4E-1 to LeishIF4E-4, are located in the cytoplasm. They show only a limited degree of sequence homology with known eIF4E isoforms and among themselves. However, computerized structure prediction suggests that the cap-binding pocket is conserved in each of the homologues, as confirmed by binding assays to m(7)GTP, cap 4, and its intermediates. LeishIF4E-1 and LeishIF4E-4 each bind m(7)GTP and cap 4 comparably well, and only these two proteins could interact with the mammalian eIF4E binding protein 4EBP1, though with different efficiencies. 4EBP1 is a translation repressor that competes with eIF4G for the same residues on eIF4E; thus, LeishIF4E-1 and LeishIF4E-4 are reasonable candidates for serving as translation factors. LeishIF4E-1 is more abundant in amastigotes and also contains a typical 3' untranslated region element that is found in amastigote-specific genes. LeishIF4E-2 bound mainly to cap 4 and comigrated with polysomal fractions on sucrose gradients. Since the consensus eIF4E is usually found in 48S complexes, LeishIF4E-2 could possibly be associated with the stabilization of trypanosomatid polysomes. LeishIF4E-3 bound mainly m(7)GTP, excluding its involvement in the translation of cap 4-protected mRNAs. It comigrates with 80S complexes which are resistant to micrococcal nuclease, but its function is yet unknown. None of the isoforms can functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF4E, indicating that despite their structural conservation, they are considerably diverged.

  2. The TbMTr1 spliced leader RNA cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei acts with substrate specificity. (United States)

    Mittra, Bidyottam; Zamudio, Jesse R; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Stepinski, Janusz; Darzynkiewicz, Edward; Campbell, David A; Sturm, Nancy R


    In metazoa cap 1 (m(7)GpppNmp-RNA) is linked to higher levels of translation; however, the enzyme responsible remains unidentified. We have validated the first eukaryotic encoded cap 1 2'-O-ribose methyltransferase, TbMTr1, a member of a conserved family that modifies the first transcribed nucleotide of spliced leader and U1 small nuclear RNAs in the kinetoplastid protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. In addition to cap 0 (m(7)GpppNp-RNA), mRNA in these parasites has ribose methylations on the first four nucleotides with base methylations on the first and fourth (m(7)Gpppm(6,6)AmpAmpCmpm(3)Ump-SL RNA) conveyed via trans-splicing of a universal spliced leader. The function of this cap 4 is unclear. Spliced leader is the majority RNA polymerase II transcript; the RNA polymerase III-transcribed U1 small nuclear RNA has the same first four nucleotides as spliced leader, but it receives an m(2,2,7)G cap with hypermethylation at position one only (m(2,2,7)Gpppm(6,6)AmpApCpUp-U1 snRNA). Here we examine the biochemical properties of recombinant TbMTr1. Active over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.5, TbMTr1 is sensitive to Mg(2+). Positions Lys(95)-Asp(204)-Lys(259)-Glu(285) constitute the conserved catalytic core. A guanosine cap on RNA independent of its N(7) methylation status is required for substrate recognition, but an m(2,2,7G)-cap is not recognized. TbMTr1 favors the spliced leader 5' sequence, as reflected by a preference for A at position 1 and modulation of activity for substrates with base changes at positions 2 and 3. With similarities to human cap 1 methyltransferase activity, TbMTr1 is an excellent model for higher eukaryotic cap 1 methyltransferases and the consequences of cap 1 modification.

  3. Influence of alloying on phase precipitation of high chromium cast iron%合金化对高铬铸铁相析出的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀兰; 周新军; 谢文玲; 马幼平


    The chromium alloy was prepared from 2.8wt%carbon and 31.0wt%chromium by the additions of trace multi-alloying elements ( Ti, Nb, V, Mo) .The existence forms of Ti , Nb, V in multicomponent system were studied by calculation from the alloy thermodynamic consideration .The effect of additions of alloy elements on carbides precipitation behavior of high chromium cast iron was investigated .The results show that Ti and Nb exist in the multi-alloying system in forms of TiC and NbC during solidification .V element exists mainly in alloy compounds ( VCr2 C2 ,VCrFe8 ) .The first precipitated high melted point particles ( TiC, NbC) during cooling can act as the heterogeneous nuclei of M7C3 carbides, As a result, the increase of nucleation rate results in refined M 7C3 carbides morphology.However,the addition of excess alloy elements weakens the roles of M 7 C3 carbides refinement .%添加多元微量合金元素V、Ti、Nb和Mo到2.8C-31Cr合金中制备多元铬系合金,从合金热力学析出角度,通过计算分析Ti、V、Nb在多元体系中的存在方式,探讨添加的合金元素对高铬铸铁凝固组织中碳化物析出的影响。结果表明,Ti和Nb在高铬铸铁凝固过程中主要形成TiC和NbC,V主要存在于合金化合物VCr2 C2和VCrFe8中。先析出的TiC和NbC能充当碳化物异质形核基底,增加形核率使组织细化。但添加过量的合金元素却削弱了对碳化物的细化作用。

  4. Subduction Zone Geometry and Pre-seismic Tectonic Constraints From the Andaman Micro- plate Region. (United States)

    Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Rajendran, K.; C. P, R.


    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman mega-thrust rupture broke along the narrow fore-arc sliver boundary of the Indo- Burmese collision. Earlier events of 1679 (M~7.5), 1941 (M 7.7), 1881 (M~7.9) and 2002 (Mw 7.3) generated spatially restricted ruptures along this margin. Spatio-temporal analysis of the pre-seismic earthquakes showed dense seismicity in the back-arc region but negligible activity towards the trench. The hypocentral distribution highlights the shallow subduction at the northern segment, which becomes steeper and deeper to the south. The pre-earthquake stress distribution, inferred from the P and T-axes of earthquake faulting mechanisms, represents the compressional fore-arc and extensional back-arc stress regimes. Shallow NNE-SSW under- thrusting and NNW-SSE opening up of the marginal sea basin stresses were observed and this trend changes to NE-SW to N-S at intermediate depths. We collected three epochs of campaign mode GPS data along the arc from May 2002 to September 2004. These observations show nearly pure convergence along the Andaman trench prior to the earthquake. During this period the GPS sites moved westward relative to India at ~5.5 mm/yr, consistent with the earlier results. Along arc GPS velocity vectors suggest that the Andaman trench is part of a purely slip partitioned boundary, with the strike- slip component of the India-Sunda relative plate motion being taken up on the transform fault in the Andaman Sea or on the West Andaman Fault, and the convergent component on the Andaman trench. Although near normal convergence was observed, it sampled only a fraction of a possible full Andaman microplate convergence velocity, because elastic deformation from the locked shallow megathrust caused displacements toward the overriding plate, that is, away from India. Based on the Indian plate velocity and Andaman spreading rates, this component amounts to ~85% of the pre-seismic convergence. These geodetic velocities represent the present day geologic

  5. Geodetic insights on the post-seismic transients from the Andaman Nicobar region: 2005-2013 (United States)

    Earnest, A.; Vijayan, M.; Jade, S.; Krishnan, R.; Sringeri, S. T.


    The 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman mega-thrust rupture broke the whole 1300 km long fore-arc sliver boundary of the Indo- Burmese collision. Earlier events of 1679 (M~7.5), 1941 (M 7.7), 1881 (M~7.9) and 2002 (Mw 7.3) generated spatially restricted ruptures along this margin. GPS based geodetic measurements of post-seismic deformation following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake gives insights on the spatio-temporal evolution of transient tectonic deformation happening at the Suda-Andaman margin. This work encompasses the near-field geodetic data collected from the Andaman-Nicobar Islands and far-field CGPS site data available from SUGAR, UNAVCO and IGS from 2005-2013. Precise geodetic data analysis shows that the GPS benchmarks in the Andaman-Nicobar region moved immediately after 2004 event towards the sea-ward trench in the SW direction, following very much the co-seismic offset directions. This can be possibly because of the continued predominant after-slip occurrence around the 2004 rupture zone due to the velocity-strengthening behavior at the downdip segments of the rupture zone. Lately a progressive reversal of motion direction away from the oceanic trench (and the co-seismic offset direction) of the coastal and inland GPS sites of Andaman-Nicobar Islands are observed. The site displacement transients shows a rotation of the displacement vector moving from south-west to north. Spatio-temporal analysis of the earthquakes show dense shallow seismicity in the back-arc region, normal and thrust faulting activity towards the trench. The hypo-central distribution highlights the shallow subduction at the northern segment, which becomes steeper and deeper to the south. The stress distribution, inferred from the P and T-axes of earthquake faulting mechanisms, represents the compressional fore-arc and extensional back-arc stress regimes. Our analysis results will be discussed in detail by integrating the kinematics and seismo-tectonic evolution of this subducting

  6. Outcomes From AAS Hack Day at the 227th AAS Meeting (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    paper, Ruth is seeking contributions of one-minute audio recordings.RadioFree LST: Radio observers dont care when the Sun is up, but they do care if their astronomical objects of interest are above the horizon. Demitri Muna (Ohio State) and Amanda Kepley (NRAO) created a calculator which uses local sidereal time (LST) to determine when sources rise and set based on the position of the observatory and the coordinates of the target..@demitrimuna @aakepley are creating a LST calculator for radio telescopes. #radiofreelst #hackaas astrobites (@astrobites) January 8, 2016Hidden Killer Detective: The Kepler spacecraft has enabled many discoveries related to exoplanets and stars. But now that K2 is observing in the ecliptic plane, it should also find asteroids. Geert Barentsen (NASA Ames), Tom Barclay (NASA Ames), Meg Schwamb (ASIAA), and Brooke Simmons (UC San Diego) created a new crowd-sourced Zooniverse project so anyone can help search for moving objects that may be asteroids.Expanding Astronomy on Tap: This casual science pub night, started in 2013, is now a regular event in seven cities worldwide. Jeff Silverman (UT Austin) created a Launch Manifesto and guide for bringing Astronomy on Tap to your own city. If youre interested, fill out their survey to get more information.The Arceli Project: Arceli is publishing online astronomy content. A team led by ScienceBetter and Kelle Cruz (CUNY) including Daina Bouquin (Harvard CfA), Aram Zucker-Scharff, Lars Holm Nielsen (CERN), Jonathan Sick (LSST), Chris Erdmann (Harvard CfA), and Meredith Rawls (NMSU) worked on getting each component of Arceli to talk to the others. Eventually, Arceli will accept submissions of informal scholarly contentlike blog postswhich will become archived and citable just like traditional papers.Special Dark: Leonidas Moustakas (JPL/Caltech) and Tonima Ananna (Yale) hosted a special session at this years AAS meeting all about dark matter. During hack day, they began a

  7. Laser engineered net shaping of Co-based superalloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-fang; DAI Yao; TIAN Xin-li


    Laser engineered net shaping(LENS) process was investigated using Co-based superalloy powder with a high power continuous wave CO2 laser. Thin wall part with smooth surface was obtained by LENS of layer-by-layer deposition of the powder materials. This thin wall sample was tested for metallographic examinations, micro-hardness, X-ray diffraction and mechanical property test. Microstructural results show that the layers possess rapid solidification microstructural feature, fine dendritic crystal and M7C3-type carbides (essentially chromium-rich carbide) dispersed in the γ(Co,Cr) phase matrix. Dendrite spacing as well as the solidification mode can be controlled through control process parameters. In addition, this microstructural feature of the as-formed Co-base sample leads to an evident hardening and a superior tensile strength and toughness.

  8. Speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity of 20 pre-school stuttering and non-stuttering children and their mothers. (United States)

    Ryan, B P


    This is the second in a series of reports concerning stuttering pre-school children enrolled in a longitudinal study; the first was Ryan (1992). Conversational samples of 20 stuttering and 20 non-stuttering pre-school children and their mothers were analysed for speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity. Between-group analyses revealed few differences between either the two children or two mother groups. Within-group analyses indicated differences that involved conversational speech acts and linguistic complexity. Most stuttering occurred on statements (M = 32.3% stuttered) and questions (M = 20.9% stuttered). Stuttered and disfluent sentences had higher Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) (Lee, 1974) scores (M = 10.9, 12.9, respectively) than fluent sentences (M = 7.6). Multiple correlation analyses indicated that speaking rate of mothers (0.561) and normal disfluency of children (0.396) were major predictor variables.

  9. El aluvión del 13 de febrero de 1944 en la quebrada del Carrizal, departamento Iglesia, provincia de San Juan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Esper Angillieri


    Full Text Available El 13 de Febrero de 1944, pocas semanas después del sismo (M 7,4 que destruyera la capital sanjuanina, un violento e imprevisto aluvión azotó a una pequeña localidad emplazada al noroeste de la provincia de San Juan en el departamento Iglesia, en el borde noroccidental de Precordillera Occidental. En pocos minutos, la suma de factores climáticos, geológicos y geomorfológicos, se reflejó en la generación de un flujo repentino, cuyo caudal fue estimado por los hidrólogos en 600 m3/s. Como consecuencia treinta y cinco personas perdieron la vida, viviendas y la mayor parte del ganado y sus cultivos, fueron arrasados y sepultados bajo una masa de lodo, rocas y ramas, fenómeno que puso fin a la existencia de la localidad El Carrizal.

  10. Response of the Black Sea methane budget to massive short-term submarine inputs of methane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmale, O.; Haeckel, M.; McGinnis, D. F.


    A steady state box model was developed to estimate the methane input into the Black Sea water column at various water depths. Our model results reveal a total input of methane of 4.7 Tg yr(-1). The model predicts that the input of methane is largest at water depths between 600 and 700 m (7......% of the total input), suggesting that the dissociation of methane gas hydrates at water depths equivalent to their upper stability limit may represent an important source of methane into the water column. In addition we discuss the effects of massive short-term methane inputs (e. g. through eruptions of deep......-water mud volcanoes or submarine landslides at intermediate water depths) on the water column methane distribution and the resulting methane emission to the atmosphere. Our non-steady state simulations predict that these inputs will be effectively buffered by intense microbial methane consumption...

  11. Effects of Different Media on the Growth of Container Seedlings of Ligustrum japonicum ‘Howardii’%不同基质对金森女贞容器苗生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    以珍珠岩、锯屑、稻壳、粗河砂和泥炭土为材料,采用单形重心混料试验设计方法设计7种轻型基质配方,以常规基质为对照,研究这7种基质对金森女贞容器苗的株高、地径、叶片数、总叶绿素含量等生长指标的影响.结果表明:不同基质配方对容器苗的生长有显著影响,M5(50%稻壳+40%泥炭土+5%珍珠岩+5%粗河砂)、M6(50%锯屑+20%泥炭土+20%稻壳+5%珍珠岩+5%粗河砂)、M7(50%稻壳+20%珍珠岩+20%蛭石+10%粗河砂)混合基质容器苗的生长优于常规基质容器苗,而M1(稻壳)、M2(泥炭土)、M3(锯屑)和M4(东北草炭)单一基质容器苗的生长则显著差于对照.不同基质中金森女贞容器苗的生长分析表明,M5、M6、M7混合基质有适宜的容重、总孔隙度、最大持水量,化学性质稳定,有机质含量较高,为金森女贞容器育苗的优良轻型培养基质,对金森女贞的容器苗生产具有重要意义.%Seven kinds of light media were prepared by using pearlier, sawdust, corn shell, rough sands and peat soil as materials with the simplex centroid mixture design. The growth (height, diameter, leaf number, content of chlorophyll) of the container seedlings was investigated to estimate the effects of 7 media on Ligustrum japonicum 'Howardii', with a traditional medium as the control. The results showed that 7 media significantly influenced the growth of the container seedlings. The growth situations of the seedlings in media M5(50% rice hull + 40 % peaty soil + 5% pearlite + 5% natural river sand) ,M6(50% sawdust + 20% peaty soil+ 20% rice hull+ 5% pearlite + 5% natural river sand) and M7(50% rice hull+ 20% pearlite+ 20% vermiculite + 10% natural river sand) were much better than that in the traditional medium. However,the growth situations in media Ml (rice hull) ,M2( peaty soil) ,M3(sawdust) and M4(dong-bei peat -moss) were worse than that in the control. The analyses of the growth of the

  12. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (United States)


    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  13. Clofarabine, Cytarabine, and Filgrastim Followed by Infusion of Non-HLA Matched Ex Vivo Expanded Cord Blood Progenitors in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia (United States)


    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  14. Non Self-conjugate Strings, Singular Strings and Rigged Configurations in the Heisenberg Model

    CERN Document Server

    Deguchi, Tetsuo


    It is observed that there exists a different kind of string solutions in the isotropic Heisenberg spin 1/2 chain starting from $N=12$, where the central rapidity of the odd strings become complex making the strings non self conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N-2)/2 singular highest weight solutions for M=4, M=5, and for N\\geq 2M and at most (N^2-6N+8)/8 singular solutions for M=6 , M=7 and for N\\geq 2M in an even length chain. Correspondence of the non self conjugate string as well as singular string solutions with the Rigged configurations is also discussed.

  15. Non self-conjugate strings, singular strings and rigged configurations in the Heisenberg model (United States)

    Deguchi, Tetsuo; Ranjan Giri, Pulak


    We observe a different type of complex solutions in the isotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain starting from N = 12, where the central rapidity of some of the odd-length strings becomes complex so that not all the strings self-conjugate individually. We show that there are at most (N - 2)/2 singular solutions for M = 4, M = 5 down-spins and at most (N2 - 6N + 8)/8 singular solutions for M = 6, M = 7 down-spins in an even-length chain with N ⩾ 2M. Correspondence of the non self-conjugate string solutions and the singular string solutions to the rigged configurations has also been shown.

  16. Characterization of a specific monoclonal antibody against immunoglobulin light kappa/L1 chain in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Young Kyu; Lee, Jung Seok; Jung, Jae Wook


    abundant in spleen and trunk-kidney than in peripheral blood, indicating a distribution different from that of IgM+ B cells. Our work reveals interesting aspects of B cell distribution and differentiation, and may aid in the production of suitable and effective cell markers for olive flounder.......Immunoglobulins (Ig) are heterodimeric proteins that play critical roles in the adaptive immune system of vertebrates. Because of their plasticity, teleostean Igs are more diverse, and thus do not conform to mammalian classifications. Because of this, mammalian-based Ig cell markers cannot be used...... successfully to study immune responses in fish. There is therefore a need to produce Ig-specific cell markers for fish. Here, we attempted to identify the specific isotype detected by an Ig light chain-specific monoclonal antibody (anti-olive flounder IgL-mAb: M7C3-4) that we had previously produced [11...

  17. Metabolismo de plantas de cana-de-açúcar cultivadas in vitro sob diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio


    Donato Virgínia Maria Tenorio Sabino; Andrade Arnóbio Gonçalves de; Souza Eidy Simões de; França José Geraldo Eugênio de


    Variedades de cana-de-açúcar (RB 732577, RB 83102, RB 75126, CB 45-3, Caiana e Co 997) foram cultivadas in vitro em meio nutritivo básico MS com diferentes concentrações de N (9,83 mM, 7,37 mM, 4,92 mM, 2,46 mM, 0,49 mM e 0,0 mM), com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência no processo de assimilação desse elemento. Após 45 dias de cultivo, foram determinados os ganhos de biomassa e os teores de amônio, aminoácidos e açúcares solúveis. A variedade Co 997 apresentou maior ganho de biomassa e maior ...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ General Seismic Zoning Map of the USSR(GSZ-78),included in the Building Code,in spite of relative improvement in comparison with previous ones(1937,1957,1968),is characterized by significant reduction of seismic hazard.In some regions strong earthquakes exceeding the predicted intensity occurred almost every year.Such cases in Kazakhstan are the earthquakes of Bakanasskoye(1979,M=14,I=6~7)and Zaysanskoye (1990,M=7.0,K=16,I=8).Besides,there are territories that are platforms in tectonic aspect,but which have been undergone activization at neotectonic evolution stage (Mangishlak,Ariskum desert near the Aral sea).Their potential seismic hazards are not estimated in General Seismic Zoning Map(GSZ-78).Mentioned circumstances induce the necessity to compile new seismic zoning map.

  19. AcEST: DK955788 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryza sati... 67 6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 66 1e-10 sp|Q9ZT4...848_DICDI Probable serine/threonine-protein kinase D... 65 3e-10 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmi...p|P41823|SY65_APLCA Synaptotagmin-1 OS=Aplysia californica GN=S... 60 7e-09 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended s...ynaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 60 7e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus lae...v... 60 9e-09 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 60 9e-09 sp|P48231|TCB2_YE

  20. AcEST: DK963011 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -activating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 62 2e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended s...UMAN Multiple C2 and transmembrane domain-conta... 60 8e-09 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 O...ive protein 1 OS=Oryza sati... 58 3e-08 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotag...OS=... 56 1e-07 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 56 2e-07 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE GN=Syt5 PE=... 54 5e-07 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 54 5e-07 >sp|

  1. AcEST: DK955280 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|Q25AG5|ERG3_ORYSI Elicitor-responsive protein 3 OS=Oryza sati... 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended...6e-11 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 67 domain-conta... 59 2e-08 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 59 2e-08 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extend...ed synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 58 3e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended...MOUSE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 52 2e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3

  2. AcEST: DK962226 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 505|SY61_DISOM Synaptotagmin-A OS=Discopyge ommata GN=P65-... 43 5e-07 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synapt...otagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 37 1e-06 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended 1 OS=Homo s... 50 7e-06 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 39 8e-06 sp|Q...naptotagmin-17 OS=Mus musculus GN=Syt17 ... 38 1e-05 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended... synaptotagmin-1 OS=Mus musculus G... 37 2e-05 sp|Q9Z1X1|ESYT1_RAT Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Rattus norv

  3. AcEST: DK959757 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hit_id Q5DTI8 Definition sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus Align length 95 Scor... alignments: (bits) Value sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus m...usculus G... 56 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 55 5e-07 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 2e-06 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended synaptota...gmin-2-A OS=Xenopus laev... 52 3e-06 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 49

  4. AcEST: DK957635 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available us mus... 55 3e-07 sp|Q9Z268|RASL1_MOUSE RasGAP-activating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 55 4e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended...acting protein OS=Mus musculus G... 53 1e-06 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synap...totagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 1e-06 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G......tsn2 PE=... 50 8e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 50 1e-05 sp|Q12466|

  5. AcEST: DK955023 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S=Mus mu... 55 4e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 54 5e-07 sp|O95294|... sp|Q9QZ06|TOLIP_MOUSE Toll-interacting protein OS=Mus musculus G... 53 1e-06 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 1e-06 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended syn...ntersectin-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Itsn2 PE=... 50 7e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo

  6. AcEST: DK953789 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CA Synaptotagmin-1 OS=Aplysia californica GN=S... 53 1e-06 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS...=Xenopus tropic... 53 1e-06 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Hom...o sapiens G... 53 1e-06 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 52 2e-06 sp|Q9NZ...-06 sp|Q9Z0R6|ITSN2_MOUSE Intersectin-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Itsn2 PE=... 50 7e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended...abditis elegans G... 47 6e-05 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=M

  7. AcEST: DK959751 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 86 1e-16 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 72 3e-12 sp|Q6PFQ7|RASL2_MOU...SE Ras GTPase-activating protein 4 OS=Mus mus... 72 4e-12 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...ivating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 65 3e-10 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropi... 1 OS=Homo s... 61 6e-09 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 61 6e-09 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended... synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 60 1e-08 sp|Q5FWL4|EST2A_XENLA Extended

  8. AcEST: DK959900 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available musculus GN=Syt5 PE=... 62 3e-09 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 62 3e-0...activating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 61 5e-09 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended sy...naptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 61 5e-09 sp|Q9Z1X1|ESYT1_RAT Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Rattus norvegicu...... 60 9e-09 sp|Q3U7R1|ESYT1_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-1 OS=Mus musculus G... 60 9e-09 sp|P21707|SYT1_RAT...g-like protein 1 OS=Homo s... 60 1e-08 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagm

  9. AcEST: DK954995 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available vating-like protein 1 OS=Mus mu... 55 4e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic...s norvegicu... 53 1e-06 sp|Q9QZ06|TOLIP_MOUSE Toll-interacting protein OS=Mus musculus G... 53 1e-06 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 1e-06 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended...sp|Q9Z0R6|ITSN2_MOUSE Intersectin-2 OS=Mus musculus GN=Itsn2 PE=... 50 7e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended

  10. AcEST: BP920282 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ansmembrane domain-conta... 59 1e-08 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin...-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 59 1e-08 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 58 3e-0...... 55 2e-07 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 55 3e-07 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended...ase-activating ... 54 3e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xen...romyces cerevisiae GN=... 53 8e-07 sp|Q7ZWU7|EST2B_XENLA Extended synaptotagmin-2-B OS=Xenopus laev... 53 8e

  11. AcEST: BP920842 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ta... 59 6e-09 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-2 OS=Mus musculus G... 59 7e-09 sp|Q9ZT47|PP16A_...CUCMA 16 kDa phloem protein 1 OS=Cucurbita maxim... 57 2e-08 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-2 ... domain-conta... 56 6e-08 sp|Q8L7A4|AGD11_ARATH Probable ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-ac... 55 8e-08 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens G... 55 1e-07 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synap...totagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus G... 54 2e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended synaptota

  12. AcEST: DK955033 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available musculus G... 53 8e-07 sp|P41823|SY65_APLCA Synaptotagmin-1 OS=Aplysia californica GN=S... 53 8e-07 sp|Q5M7N9|ESYT3_XENTR Extended... synaptotagmin-3 OS=Xenopus tropic... 53 8e-07 sp|A0FGR8|ESYT2_HUMAN Extended synapto...tagmin-2 OS=Homo sapiens G... 53 8e-07 sp|Q3TZZ7|ESYT2_MOUSE Extended OS=Mus musculus GN=Itsn2 PE=... 50 5e-06 sp|A0FGR9|ESYT3_HUMAN Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Homo sapiens...tis elegans G... 47 4e-05 sp|Q5DTI8|ESYT3_MOUSE Extended synaptotagmin-3 OS=Mus musculus G... 47 4e-05 sp|P4

  13. Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of the Longitudinal Relations between Pre-reading Skills and Reading (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.


    The present study explored the environmental and genetic etiologies of the longitudinal relations between pre-reading skills and reading and spelling. Twin pairs (n = 489) were assessed before kindergarten (M = 4.9 years), post-1st grade (M = 7.4 years), and post-4th grade (M = 10.4 years). Genetic influences on five pre-reading skills (print knowledge, rapid naming, phonological awareness, vocabulary, and verbal memory) were primarily responsible for relations with word reading and spelling. However, relations with post-4th-grade reading comprehension were due both to genetic and shared environmental influences. Genetic and shared environmental influences that were common among the pre-reading variables covaried with reading and spelling, as did genetic influences unique to verbal memory (only post-4th-grade comprehension), print knowledge, and rapid naming. PMID:25263167

  14. Long-term predictability of regions and dates of strong earthquakes (United States)

    Kubyshen, Alexander; Doda, Leonid; Shopin, Sergey


    parameters and seismic events. Further development of the H-104 method is the plotting of H-104 trajectories in two-dimensional time coordinates. The method provides the dates of future earthquakes for several (3-4) sequential time intervals multiple of 104 days. The H-104 method could be used together with the empirical scheme for short-term earthquake prediction reducing the date uncertainty. Using the H-104 method, it is developed the following long-term forecast of seismic activity. 1. The total number of M6+ earthquakes expected in the time frames: - 10.01-07.02: 14; - 08.02-08.03: 17; - 09.03-06.04: 9. 3. The potential days of M6+ earthquakes expected in the period of 10.01.2016-06.04.2016 are the following: - in January: 17, 18, 23, 24, 26, 28, 31; - in February: 01, 02, 05, 12, 15, 18, 20, 23; - in March: 02, 04, 05, 07 (M7+ is possible), 09, 10, 17 (M7+ is possible), 19, 20 (M7+ is possible), 23 (M7+ is possible), 30; - in April: 02, 06. The work was financially supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract No. 14.577.21.0109, project UID RFMEFI57714X0109)

  15. Reservoir Control Center: Activities and Accomplishments of the Southwestern Division of the Army Corps of Engineers Related to Reservoir Regulation and Water Management. Part 3. Instream Flow Study. Appendix A. (United States)


    153 574 438 Proctor Leon R FWD TX 63 1162.0 1I97.0 59 315 443 Belton Leon R FWD TX 54 594.0 631.0 458 640 449 -: Stl..use H Lmpasas R FWD TX 68 622.0...TIIINGWC T LVAUATbM E T O E SERVOIRG JUNE FLO 6 CORPS OF EN NEE’S US 500000 1. a 20000 LT Z~l7 10000 Cr, 10 BETO REEIV 200E - MMN OOIT12N FGE-FR ?F0 !E2R...rn0i132 I BETO RESRI R ’P10 ,F9CR ib -03 tV ~E1*TCN RE-CTO 0 rERV39C SEPTEMBERE 9LW CORP S OF EN2 ~US 2000 20000 -- -~ -- ,m- -7_ __ 100 01 - - - I~l1

  16. Wide Aperture Multipole Magnets of Separator COMBAS

    CERN Document Server

    Artukh, A G; Gridnev, G F; Gruszecki, M; Koscielniak, F; Semchenkova, O V; Sereda, Yu M; Shchepunov, V A; Szmider, J; Teterev, Yu G; Severgin, Yu P; Rozhdestvensky, B V; Myasnikov, Yu A; Shilkin, N F; Lamzin, E A; Nagaenko, M G; Sytchevsky, S E; Vishnevski, I N


    The high-resolving wide aperture separator COMBAS has been designed and commissioned at the FLNR, JINR. Its magneto-optical structure is based on strong focusing principle. The magnetic fields of analysing magnets M_1, M_2, M_7, M_8, contain quadrupole components of alternating sign that provide necessary beam focusing. Besides, all the magnets M_1-M_8, contain sextupole and octupole field components, which minimizes the 2nd and 3rd order aberrations. All this allowed one to increase their apertures, to effectively form a beam of the required sizes, and to decrease the channel length. This implementation of wide aperture magnets with combined functions is unique for the separation technology. Three-components magnetic measurements of all the magnets were performed. The measured data allow reconstructing the 3D-distributions of the fields in all the magnets. 3D-maps are supposed to be used for particle trajectory simulations throughout the entire separator.

  17. Seismic evidence for a crustal magma reservoir beneath the upper east rift zoneof Kilauea volcano, Hawaii (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Amelung, Falk; Lavallee, Yan; Okubo, Paul G.


    An anomalous body with low Vp (compressional wave velocity), low Vs (shear wave velocity), and high Vp/Vs anomalies is observed at 8–11 km depth beneath the upper east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in Hawaii by simultaneous inversion of seismic velocity structure and earthquake locations. We interpret this body to be a crustal magma reservoir beneath the volcanic pile, similar to those widely recognized beneath mid-ocean ridge volcanoes. Combined seismic velocity and petrophysical models suggest the presence of 10% melt in a cumulate magma mush. This reservoir could have supplied the magma that intruded into the deep section of the east rift zone and caused its rapid expansion following the 1975 M7.2 Kalapana earthquake.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady V. Kulikov


    Full Text Available The paper discusses further ways to improve the geodynamic informativity of the hydrogeodeformation field (HGD field monitoring. New methods for efficient assessment of the stressstrain state of the geological environment and seismic hazard are proposed. There are described the methods of monitoring data processing, distinguishing of HGD cycles, and construction of «forecasting» contours along extremums of these cycles. It is revealed that responses of the HGD field to development of planetaryscale endogenic geodynamic processes of earthquake preparation (with M>7 are simultaneously manifested in all seismically active regions of Russia which are remote from each other. Such responses occur from one to three months prior to such seismic events. The mechanism of this phenomenon can be disputed. The authors support the «planetary pulsation» concept which is up for the most recent debates. As evidenced by the HGD field monitoring data, strong earthquakes are a consequence of this phenomenon.

  19. Composición química de “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Formulación de una mezcla base para productos alimenticios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elizabeth Pagador Flores


    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo formular una mezcla base a partir de cultivos nativos, la cual una vez estandarizada, se constituye en materia prima de alto valor nutricional para su utilización en la elaboración de productos alimenticios como: purés, papillas y productos de panificación, entre otros. Se seleccionaron tres cultivos andinos: un tubérculo, “oca” (Oxalis tuberosa; una raíz, ‘arracacha’ (Arracaccia xanthorriza y una leguminosa, ‘tarwi’ (Lupinus mutabilis. Se realizaron por triplicado análisis bromatológicos, de minerales y vitaminas. Se formularon 8 mezclas bases a diferentes proporciones de cultivos nativos. Se seleccionó la mezcla base identificada como M7 en proporción 1:1:2 (oca:arracacha:tarwi por presentar mayor valor nutricional.

  20. Laser cladding of Ni-based alloy on stainless steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-fang; TIAN Xin-li; TAN Yong-sheng; WU Zhi-yuan


    The coatings on a stainless steel substrate were conducted by laser cladding of Ni-based alloy, using a 5 kW continuous wave CO2 flow transverse laser. SEM, EDX and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the microstructure and constituent phases of the obtained coatings by laser cladding with direct injection of the powder into the melt pool. Solidification planar, cellular and dendrite structures were observed in Ni-based alloy coating. There exists an optimum metallurgical bond between Ni-based laser cladding layer and the base material. The high hardness of the Ni-based alloy coating is attributed to the presence of M7C3-type carbides (essentially chromium-riched carbide) dispersed in the γ(Ni,Fe) phase matrix.