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Sample records for lysk chap endopeptidase

  1. Phage lysin LysK can be truncated to its CHAP domain and retain lytic activity against live antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, Marianne; O'Flynn, Gary; Garry, Jennifer; Cooney, Jakki; Coffey, Aidan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    A truncated derivative of the phage endolysin LysK containing only the CHAP (cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase) domain exhibited lytic activity against live clinical staphylococcal isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first known report of a truncated phage lysin which retains high lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells.

  2. Physicochemical characterization of Staphylococcus aureus-lysing LysK enzyme in complexes with polycationic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcus aureus causes many serious visceral, skin, and respiratory diseases. About 90% of clinical strains are multi-drug resistant, but the use of bacteriophage lytic enzymes offers a viable alternative to antibiotic therapy. LysK, the phage K endolysin can lyse S. aureus when purified and ...

  3. A chimeric LysK-lysostaphin fusion enzyme lysing Staphylococcus aureus cells: a study of both kinetics of inactivation and specifics of interaction with anionic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A staphylolytic fusion protein (K-L) was created, harboring three unique lytic activities comprised of the LysK CHAP endopeptidase, and amidase domains, and the lysostaphin glycyl-glycine endopeptidase domain. To assess the potential of possible therapeutic applications, the kinetic behavior of K-L...

  4. Micellization and adsorption characteristics of CHAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of CHAPS on hydrophobic latex particles was studied at 22 and 36 degrees C by determining the adsorbed amount and the enthalpy of adsorption. The adsorption process was compared to the micellization of the surfactant. Therefore, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the heat of

  5. Micellization and adsorption characteristics of CHAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of CHAPS on hydrophobic latex particles was studied at 22 and 36 degrees C by determining the adsorbed amount and the enthalpy of adsorption. The adsorption process was compared to the micellization of the surfactant. Therefore, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the heat of

  6. Micellization and adsorption characteristics of CHAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Norde, W.

    2000-01-01

    The adsorption of CHAPS on hydrophobic latex particles was studied at 22 and 36 C by determining the adsorbed amount and the enthalpy of adsorption. The adsorption process was compared to the micellization of the surfactant. Therefore, the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and the heat of micelli

  7. An Improved Scheme of CHAP%一种改进的 CHAP 方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵铭伟; 于晓晨; 徐喜荣; 江荣安

    2014-01-01

    电子计算机的普及和互联网技术日新月异的发展使得计算机网络已经渗透到社会生活的各个方面。但网络的全球化、开放化的特点使得网络环境充满着复杂性和不确定性,各种网络攻击与假冒手段等不安全因素充斥着整个网络。因此,如何保证网上业务开展的安全性是当前面临的主要问题,计算机网络安全已经成为当今世界各国共同关注的焦点。身份认证技术是构筑现代网络信息系统安全基石的不可或缺的组成部分,是信息安全的基础。目前,常用的身份认证方法有:基于证书的数字签名认证方式和口令方式。基于证书的数字签名认证的安全性较高,但需要一个完善的证书系统作为基础。而基于口令的身份认证技术作为最早出现的身份认证技术之一,以其简洁性和实用性得到了广泛的应用和发展,成为了网络安全中重要的分支。但是传统的静态口令身份认证技术存在着明显的安全漏洞,动态口令身份认证技术就是针对静态口令身份认证技术的安全隐患而提出的。动态口令是随机变化的一种口令,在口令中加入不确定因子作为动态因子,以提高登录过程中的安全性。文章在深入分析了传统的 CHAP 动态口令身份认证方案及其一系列衍生方案的优点与不足的基础上,结合安全的散列函数和异或运算,同时引入了保护认证信息的干扰因子,设计并实现了一种改进的 CHAP 一次性口令双向身份认证协议。本方案分为用户注册、登录认证和密码修改三个阶段。只需要通信双方的三次信息握手就实现了客户端与服务器端的双向身份认证。与其它几种典型的 CHAP 改进方案相比,本方案不但实现了通信双方的双向身份认证,而且具有通信量小、灵活性高、安全性强、成本低等特点。通过对整个方案的安全性测

  8. Heterologous expression and characterization of recombinant Lactococcus lactis neutral endopeptidase (Neprilysin)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lian, W; Wu, D; Konings, W.N; Mierau, I; Hersh, L.B

    1996-01-01

    A neutral endopeptidase (NEP) from Lactococcus lactis has recently been cloned and shown to contain high sequence homology with the human neutral endopeptidase, endopeptidase 24.11 (I. Mierau et al., J. Bacteriol. 175, 2087-2096, 1993). The gene for the neutral endopeptidase from L. lactis was clone

  9. The role of CHAP in muscle development, heart disease and actin signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldik, Willemijn Lisette van

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated a novel Z-disc protein, cytoskeletal heart-enriched actin-associated protein (CHAP). Two isoforms of CHAP exist, encoded by one gene. The longer isoform CHAPa is predominately expressed in adult tissues, whereas CHAPb is expressed during cardiac and skeletal developmen

  10. Induced-fit Mechanism for Prolyl Endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min; Chen, Changqing; Davies, David R.; Chiu, Thang K. (NIH); (LSU); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-11-15

    Prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type II diabetes. Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. We now directly demonstrate from seven structures of Aeromonus punctata PEP that the mechanism is instead induced fit: the native enzyme exists in a conformationally flexible opened state with a large interdomain opening between the {beta}-propeller and {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domains; addition of substrate to preformed native crystals induces a large scale conformational change into a closed state with induced-fit adjustments of the active site, and inhibition of this conformational change prevents substrate binding. Absolute sequence conservation among 28 orthologs of residues at the active site and critical residues at the interdomain interface indicates that this mechanism is conserved in all PEPs. This finding has immediate implications for the use of conformationally targeted drug design to improve specificity of inhibition against this family of proline-specific serine proteases.

  11. Verification of surfactant CHAPS effect using AFM for making biomemory device consisting of recombinant azurin monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taek [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Ahmed El-Said, Waleed [Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Junhong [College of Bionanotechnology, Kyungwon University, Bokjung-dong, Sujung-gu, Seongnam 461-701 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Byung-Keun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong-Woo, E-mail: jwchoi@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Interdisciplinary Program of Integrated Biotechnology, Sogang University, 1 Shinsu-dong, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, a protein-based biomemory device was developed using a surface modified recombinant azurin layer and its surface characteristics were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. The cysteine-modified azurin used for this purpose was a metalloprotein that had redox properties. To immobilize the metalloprotein on the Au substrates, the cysteine-modified azurin layer was self-assembled on the Au surface through a covalent bond between the thiol group on the cysteine and the Au surface. In our previous work, we showed that this protein layer was formed as cohesive clusters on Au surface through physical adsorption. To reduce the formation of these cohesion clusters, a zwitterionic surfactant, (3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate) (CHAPS) was introduced to modify the surface properties. Using this approach, we found that CHAPS significantly reduced the amount of cysteine-modified azurin aggregates that nonspecifically adsorbed to the Au substrate. Atomic force microscopy was used to analyze the modified-surface. Based on this analysis, the size of the recombinant azurin clusters when CHAPS was used were about 15-25 nm whereas aggregates of 150-200 nm were observed in the absence of CHAPS. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was performed to confirm the retention of azurin molecules self-assembled on the Au surface. Electrochemical results using cyclic voltammetry indicated that recombinant azurin was successfully immobilized onto the Au surface with CHAPS and its redox property remained intact. Chronoamperometry was then used to demonstrate the memory characteristics of this azurin-based fabricated memory device. The combined results of this study show that CHAPS can significantly reduce the size of protein aggregates that become immobilized on the surface without a loss of the electrochemical properties of the protein.

  12. Cloning and expression of mouse legumain, a lysosomal endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J M; Dando, P M; Stevens, R A; Fortunato, M; Barrett, A J

    1998-01-01

    Legumain, a recently discovered mammalian cysteine endopeptidase, was found in all mouse tissues examined, but was particularly abundant in kidney and placenta. The distribution in subcellular fractions of mouse and rat kidney showed a lysosomal localization, and activity was detectable only after the organelles were disrupted. Nevertheless, ratios of legumain activity to that of cathepsin B differed considerably between mouse tissues. cDNA encoding mouse legumain was cloned and sequenced, the deduced amino acid sequence proving to be 83% identical to that of the human protein [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098]. Recombinant mouse legumain was expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells by use of a vector containing a cytomegalovirus promoter. The recombinant enzyme was partially purified and found to be an asparagine-specific endopeptidase closely similar to naturally occurring pig kidney legumain. PMID:9742219

  13. Changes in Endopeptidase Activity during Photosynthetic Declination in Rice Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGZhi-rui; ZHANGRong-xian

    2004-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, Wuyujing 3 and 97-7, were used to study the changes in contents of soluble protein, free amino acids and endopeptidase activity, during photosynthetic declination. The content of soluble protein in flag leaf of cv.Wuyujing 3 was higher than that of cv. 97-7, but decreased rapidly in Wuyujing 3. Free amino acids in flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of Wuyujing 3 started to increase 10 days before the turning point of photosynthetic declination (TPPD), while it occurred just 1-2 days before TPPD in the flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of 97-7. During reversible phase of photosynthetic declination,endopeptidase activity remained at a low level and increased slightly only in the later part of this phase. Then it rose up rapidly at irreversible decline phase and reached a vety high level. For Wuyujing 3, the change in endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf was parallel to that in flag leaf. However, for 97-7, the rapid increase of endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf started later than that of flag leaf. The results implied that the rate of protein breakdown and conversion to transportable nitrogen in leaves of 97-7 was slower than that in leaves of Wuyujing 3 during photosynthetic declination and it led to relativeh" lower seed setting rate and fully filling grains rate in 97-7. This may be one of the important reasons why 97-7 could not bring the high yicld potentiality into play and the findings may be taken into consideration while breeding for high potential varieties in future.

  14. Changes in Endopeptidase Activity during Photosynthetic Declination in Rice Leaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Zhi-rui; ZHANG Rong-xian

    2004-01-01

    Two japonica rice varieties, Wuyujing 3 and 97-7, were used to study the changes in contents of soluble protein, free amino acids and endopeptidase activity during photosynthetic declination. The content of soluble protein in flag leaf of cv.Wuyujing 3 was higher than that of cv. 97-7, but decreased rapidly in Wuyujing 3. Free amino acids in flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of Wuyujing 3 started to increase 10 days before the turning point of photosynthetic declination (TPPD), while it occurred just 1-2 days before TPPD in the flag leaf and the thirteenth leaf of 97-7. During reversible phase of photosynthetic declination,endopeptidase activity remained at a low level and increased slightly only in the later part of this phase. Then it rose up rapidly at irreversible decline phase and reached a very high level. For Wuyujing 3, the change in endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf was parallel to that in flag leaf. However, for 97-7, the rapid increase of endopeptidase activity in the thirteenth leaf started later than that of flag leaf. The results implied that the rate of protein breakdown and conversion to transportable nitrogen in leaves of 97-7 was slower than that in leaves of Wuyujing 3 during photosynthetic declination and it led to relatively lower seed setting rate and fully filling grains rate in 97-7. This may be one of the important reasons why 97-7 could not bring the high yield potentiality into play and the findings may be taken into consideration while breeding for high potential varieties in future.

  15. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  16. Diffusion Kinetics of Carbonate Hydroxyapatite (CHAP) for Adsorbing F- Dissolved in Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhiliang; ZHANG Lianmeng; LIU Yu; WANG Qilin; HE Qianjun; CHEN Wei

    2006-01-01

    A systematic research was performed about diffusion kinetics of adsorbing F- dissolved in water for carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAP) from the natural hydroxyapatite which was modified by adulterating with CO32-. The result shows that the speed of F- adsorption is controlled by membrane diffusion when F- concentration is relatively low, which is expressed by the kinetic equation of diffusion Q=0.0005(Ci-C)(t-ti)+0.3967, or by vacancy diffusion when F- concentration is relatively high, which is expressed by the kinetic equation of diffusion In[C(o, t)]=8.4718-0.5048Int. Based on the feature of CHAP for adsorbing F- dissolved in water and its special channel of the structure of CO32-- modified hydroxyapatite, models of vacancy diffusion and membrane diffusion were established.

  17. Randomised Trial Comparing Two Combination Chemotherapy Regimens (HEXA-CAF VS CHAP-5) In Advanced Ovarian Carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijt, J.P.; Vriesendorp, R.; Burg, M.E.L. van der; Lindert, A.C.M. van; Lent, M.; Oosterom, A.T. van; Kooyman, C.D.; Hamerlynck, J. V. T. H.; Houwelingen, J.C. van; Pinedo, H.M.; Bokkel Huinink, W.W. ten

    1984-01-01

    186 patients with advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma were treated with either a combination of hexamethylmelamine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil (Hexa-CAF) or cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternating with doxorubicin and a 5-day course of cisplatin (CHAP-5). Treatm

  18. Cytoskeletal heart-enriched actin-associated protein (CHAP) is expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells in chick and mouse during embryonic and adult stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eldik, Willemijn; Beqqali, Abdelaziz; Monshouwer-Kloots, Jantine; Mummery, Christine; Passier, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We recently identified a new Z-disc protein, CHAP (Cytoskeletal Heart-enriched Actin-associated Protein), which is expressed in striated muscle and plays an important role during embryonic muscle development in mouse and zebrafish. Here, we confirm and further extend these findings by (i) the identification and characterization of the CHAP orthologue in chick and (ii) providing a detailed analysis of CHAP expression in mouse during embryonic and adult stages. Chick CHAP contains a PDZ domain and a nuclear localization signal, resembling the human and mouse CHAPa. CHAP is expressed in the developing heart and somites, as well as muscle precursors of the limb buds in mouse and chick embryos. CHAP expression in heart and skeletal muscle is maintained in adult mice, both in slow and fast muscle fibers. Moreover, besides expression in striated muscle, we demonstrate that CHAP is expressed in smooth muscle cells of aorta, carotid and coronary arteries in adult mice, but not during embryonic development.

  19. Identification and possible roles of three types of endopeptidase from germinated wheat seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoh, K; Kato, H; Minamikawa, T

    1999-10-01

    Little or no endopeptidase activity was detected in extracts of dry mature wheat seeds, but when they were allowed to imbibe water in darkness, the activity expressed per seedling increased notably after d 1, reached a maximum on d 3 and then decreased. Two major endopeptidases, named WEP-1 and WEP-2, were present in the 50-70% saturated ammonium sulfate fraction of d-3 seedlings, and could be separated by hydrophobic column chromatography. WEP-1 was further purified and identified as a 31-kDa polypeptide that was immunoreactive to antiserum raised against REP-1, a major rice cysteine endopeptidase. Experiments with proteinase inhibitors revealed that WEP-1 and WEP-2 are cysteine and serine endopeptidases, respectively. The two enzymes differed in substrate specificity, pH dependence, and the ability to digest major wheat seed proteins. Determination of its amino-terminal amino acid sequence indicated the similarity of WEP-1 to other cereal cysteine endopeptidases which are involved in the digestion of seed storage proteins. The expression of WEP-1 in de-embryonated seeds was induced in the presence of gibberellic acid and its effect was eliminated by abscisic acid. In addition to WEP-1 and WEP-2, a legumain-like asparaginyl endopeptidase was identified in the extract of seedlings on hydrophobic chromatography. The asparaginyl endopeptidase may function in the early step of mobilization of wheat storage proteins in germinated seeds.

  20. Pig kidney legumain: an asparaginyl endopeptidase with restricted specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dando, P M; Fortunato, M; Smith, L; Knight, C G; McKendrick, J E; Barrett, A J

    1999-01-01

    Legumain was recently discovered as a lysosomal endopeptidase in mammals [Chen, Dando, Rawlings, Brown, Young, Stevens, Hewitt, Watts and Barrett (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 8090-8098], having been known previously only from plants and invertebrates. It has been shown to play a key role in processing of the C fragment of tetanus toxin for presentation by the MHC class-II system [Manoury, Hewitt, Morrice, Dando, Barrett and Watts (1998) Nature (London) 396, 695-699]. We examine here the specificity of the enzyme from pig kidney by use of protein, oligopeptide and synthetic arylamide substrates, all determinations being made at pH 5.8. In proteins, only about one in ten of the asparaginyl bonds were hydrolysed, and these were mostly predicted to be located at turns on the protein surface. Bonds that were not cleaved in tetanus toxin were cleaved when presented in oligopeptides, sometimes faster than an equivalent oligopeptide based on a bond that was cleaved in the protein. Legumain cleaved the bait region of rat alpha1-macroglobulin and was 'trapped' by the macroglobulin, as most other endopeptidases are, but did not interact with human alpha2-macroglobulin, which contains no asparagine residue in its bait region. Glycosylation of asparagine totally prevented hydrolysis by legumain. Specificity for arylamide substrates was evaluated with reference to benzyloxycarbonyl-Ala-Ala-Asn-aminomethylcoumarin, and the preference for the P3-position amino acid was Ala>Tyr(tertiary butyl)>Val>Pro>Phe=Tyr>Leu=Gly. There was no hydrolysis of substrate analogues containing mono- or di-N-methylasparagines, l-2-amino-3-ureidopropionic acid or citrulline in the P1 position. We conclude that mammalian legumain appears to be totally restricted to the hydrolysis of asparaginyl bonds in substrates of all kinds. There seem to be no strong preferences for particular amino acids in other subsites, and yet there are still unidentified factors that prevent hydrolysis of many asparaginyl bonds

  1. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in β-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain. Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapéu-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines.

  2. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-01-01

    .... Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen...

  3. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, W; Koshiba, T; Minamikawa, T

    1986-03-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts.

  4. Separation and Characterization of Two Endopeptidases from Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Minamikawa, Takao

    1986-01-01

    Two major endopeptidases were present in cotyledons of germinating Vigna mungo seeds, as detected by the zymogram after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They were not detectable in cotyledons of dry seeds, but their intensities on the zymogram increased during germination. During incubation of detached cotyledons, however, the activities showed only a slight increase for 5 days. These two endopeptidases could be separated by Sephacryl S-200 column chromatography. One of them was found to be a serine-endopeptidase as judged by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride and diisopropyl fluorophosphate inhibition. The other was a sulfhydryl-endopeptidase because of its dependency on 2-mercaptoethanol and inhibition by leupeptin, chymostatin, and antipain. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicatd that the two endopeptidases digested the Vigna mungo seed globulin subunits at different rates. The serine enzyme digested the 56 kilodalton subunit at first, but the sulfhydryl enzyme digested the 54 kilodalton peptide more efficiently than the 56 kilodalton peptide. The pattern of digestion of globulin by the combination of the serine- and sulfhydryl-endopeptidases was similar to that using crude enzyme extracts. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664675

  5. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  6. Homologous inhibitors from potato tubers of serine endopeptidases and metallocarboxypeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, C M; Venkatakrishnan, R; Ryan, C A

    1976-06-01

    A potent polypeptide inhibitor of chymotrypsin has been purified from Russett Burbank potatoes. The inhibitor has no effect on bovine carboxypeptidases A or B but exhibits homology with a carboxypeptidase inhibitor that is also present in potato tubers. The chymotrypsin inhibitor has a molecular weight of approximately 5400 as estimated by gel filtration, amino acid analysis, and titration with chymotrypsin. The polypeptide chain consists of 49 amino acid residues, of which six are half-cystine, forming three disulfide bonds. Its size is similar to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor, which contains 39 amino acid residues and also has three disulfide bridges. In immunological double diffusion assays, the chymotrypsin inhibitor and the carboxypeptidase inhibitor do not crossreact; however, automatic Edman degradation of reduced and alkylated derivatives of the chymotrypsin inhibitor, yielding a partial sequence of 18 amino acid residues at the NH2-terminus, reveals a similarity in sequence to that of the carboxypeptidase inhibitor. Thus, inhibitors directed toward two distinct classes of proteases, the serine endopeptidases and the metallocarboxypeptidases, appear to have evolved from a common ancestor.

  7. The CHAPS, SIFTER, and TAPS-R as Predictors of (C)AP Skills and (C)APD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Wayne J.; Jackson, Alison; Pender, Alice; Rose, Carla; Wilson, Jacqueline; Heine, Chyrisse; Khan, Asad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the relationships between 3 tests used to screen for (central) auditory processing disorder ([C]APD)--the Children's Auditory Performance Scale (CHAPS; W. J. Smoski, M. A. Brunt, & J. C. Tannahill, 1998), the Screening Instrument for Targeting Educational Risk (SIFTER; K. Anderson, 1989), and the…

  8. Impact of purification conditions and history on A2A adenosine receptor activity: The role of CHAPS and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Andrea N; McNeely, Patrick M; Katsaras, John; Robinson, Anne Skaja

    2016-08-01

    The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles. To this end, the receptor was purified using DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or the short hydrocarbon chain lipid 1,2-dihexanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DHPC, di-6:0PC). After solubilization in DDM, DDM/CHAPS, or DHPC micelles, although A2AR was found to retain its native-like fold, its binding ability was significantly compromised compared to DDM or DDM/CHAPS with CHS. It therefore appears that although cholesterol is not needed for A2AR to retain a native-like, α-helical conformation, it may be a critical component for high affinity ligand binding. Further, this result suggests that the conformational differences between the active and inactive protein may be so subtle that commonly used spectroscopic methods are unable to differentiate between the two forms, highlighting the need for activity measurements. The studies presented in this paper also underline the importance of the protein's purification history; i.e., detergents that interact with the protein during purification affect the ligand binding properties of the receptor in an irreversible manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102, only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803 or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120 prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41% to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known

  10. Aerosol and Trace Gas Processing by Clouds During the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.; Alexander, L.; Lee, Y.; Ogren, J.; Andrews, B.

    2008-12-01

    Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and pact scavenging. The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) aimed at characterizing freshly emitted aerosols above, within and below fields of cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus) in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. The experiment took place in June 2007. Evolution of aerosol and cloud properties downwind of the Oklahoma City is of particular interest in this project. These observations of a mid-size and mid-latitude city can be used in the development and evaluation of regional-scale and global climate model cumulus parameterizations that describes the transport and transformations of these aerosols by fair-weather cumulus. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was one of the main platforms used in CHAPS. It carried a suite of instruments to measure properties of interstitial aerosols behind an isokinetic inlet and a set of duplicate instruments to determine properties of activated particles behind a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of interstitial particles out of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point temperature were measured. This presentation will focus on results related to the transformation and transport of aerosols and trace gases observed in fair-weather cumulus and compare these results with concurrent observations made outside these clouds. Our interest will focus on the differences in particle size and composition under varying conditions. The role of

  11. Cloud Condensation Nuclei in Cumulus Humilis - Selected Case Study During the CHAPS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X.; Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Alexander, M. L.; Lee, Y.; Laskin, A.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, B.

    2009-12-01

    The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) provided a unique opportunity to study aerosol and cloud processing. Clouds play an active role in the processing and cycling of atmospheric constituents. Gases and particles can partition to cloud droplets by absorption and condensation as well as activation and pact scavenging. The Department of Energy (DOE) G-1 aircraft was used as one of the main platforms in CHAPS. Flight tracks were designed and implemented to characterize freshly emitted aerosols on cloud top and cloud base as well as with cloud, i.e., cumulus humilis (or fair-weather cumulus), in the vicinity of Oklahoma City. Measurements of interstitial aerosols and residuals of activated condensation cloud nuclei were conducted simultaneously. The interstitial aerosols were determined downstream of an isokinetic inlet; and the activated particles downstream of a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI). The sampling line to the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer was switched between the isokinetic inlet and the CVI to allow characterization of interstitial particles out of clouds in contrast to particles activated in clouds. Trace gases including ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and a series of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also measured as were key meteorological state parameters including liquid water content, cloud drop size, and dew point temperature were measured. This work will focus on studying CCN properties in cumulus humilis. Several approaches will be taken. The first is single particle analysis of particles collected by the Time-Resolved Aerosol Sampler (TRAC) by SEM/TEM coupled with EDX. We will specifically look into differences in particle properties such as chemical composition and morphology between activated and interstitial ones. The second analysis will link in situ measurements with the snap shots observations by TRAC. For instance, by looking into the characteristic m/z obtained by AMS vs. CO or isoprene, one can gain

  12. In silico mining and characterization of bifidobacterial lipoprotein with CHAP domain secreted in an aggregated form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, Angelo; Romond, Pierre-Charles; Djorie, Serge; Alric, Monique; Romond, Marie-Bénédicte

    2016-01-01

    Bifidobacterium breve C50 secretes a lipoprotein associated with glucose, acting in an aggregating form (>600kDa) as an agonist of TLR2/6. Similar lipoproteins were sought for in bifidobacteria. In silico, the closest homology was shown with a Bifidobacterium longum protein containing CHAP and lipobox domains. Two strains secreted aggregates whose peptides sequences aligned with the mined protein. C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids detected in the aggregates further supported a lipoprotein structure. Glucose and mannose detected by gas chromatography were likely ligands of the lipoprotein. The binding of aggregates to galectin-1 indicated that hexosamines and galactose surrounded them. However, unlike B. breve C50, aggregate secreted by B. longum CBi0703 was unable to bind TLR2/6 likely because of a more hydrophobic structure. In gnotobiotic mice, the intake of B. longum aggregate induced, in splenic dendritic cells, the expression of genes involved in antigen presentation. A positive correlation between the number of dendritic cells and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells was observed in mice receiving these aggregates. In conclusion, B. longum secretes a lipoprotein forming aggregates which may influence dendritic and CD4(+)CD25(+) cell interactions independently of the TLR2/6 pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Activation of asparaginyl endopeptidase leads to Tau hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basurto-Islas, Gustavo; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Tung, Yunn Chyn; Liu, Fei; Iqbal, Khalid

    2013-06-14

    Neurofibrillary pathology of abnormally hyperphosphorylated Tau is a key lesion of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and its density in the brain directly correlates with dementia. The phosphorylation of Tau is regulated by protein phosphatase 2A, which in turn is regulated by inhibitor 2, I2(PP2A). In acidic conditions such as generated by brain ischemia and hypoxia, especially in association with hyperglycemia as in diabetes, I2(PP2A) is cleaved by asparaginyl endopeptidase at Asn-175 into the N-terminal fragment (I2NTF) and the C-terminal fragment (I2CTF). Both I2NTF and I2CTF are known to bind to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and inhibit its activity. Here we show that the level of activated asparaginyl endopeptidase is significantly increased, and this enzyme and I2(PP2A) translocate, respectively, from neuronal lysosomes and nucleus to the cytoplasm where they interact and are associated with hyperphosphorylated Tau in Alzheimer disease brain. Asparaginyl endopeptidase from Alzheimer disease brain could cleave GST-I2(PP2A), except when I2(PP2A) was mutated at the cleavage site Asn-175 to Gln. Finally, an induction of acidosis by treatment with kainic acid or pH 6.0 medium activated asparaginyl endopeptidase and consequently produced the cleavage of I2(PP2A), inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A, and hyperphosphorylation of Tau, and the knockdown of asparaginyl endopeptidase with siRNA abolished this pathway in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings suggest the involvement of brain acidosis in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, and asparaginyl endopeptidase-I2(PP2A)-protein phosphatase 2A-Tau hyperphosphorylation pathway as a therapeutic target.

  14. cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennex, D.; Hemmings, B.A.; Hofsteenge, J.; Stone, S.R. (Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-02-26

    Prolyl endopeptidase is a cytoplasmic serine protease. The enzyme was purified from porcine kidney, and oligonucleotides based on peptide sequences from this protein were used to isolate a cDNA clone from a porcine brain library. This clone contained the complete coding sequence of prolyl endopeptidase and encoded a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 80751 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of prolyl endopeptidase showed no sequence homology with other known serine proteases. ({sup 3}H)Diisopropyl fluorophosphate was used to identify the active-site serine of prolyl endopeptidase. One labeled peptide was isolated and sequenced. The sequence surrounding the active-site serine was Asn-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Gly-Gly. This sequence is different from the active-site sequences of other known serine proteases. This difference and the lack of overall homology with the known families of serine proteases suggest that prolyl endopeptidase represents a new type of serine protease.

  15. Essential oil from two populations of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl. Micheli (Chapéu de couro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Pimenta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry of the essential oils obtained from leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu de couro" from two different populations (Big Leaves and Small Leaves, collected monthly between September 1998 and December 1999 revealed 17 components. Phytol was the major constituent for both populations. The main sesquiterpene representatives are (E-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene and (E-nerolidol.Análise por cromatografia com fase gasosa e cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas de óleos essenciais obtidos de folhas de Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu-de-couro" em duas diferentes populações (folhas grandes e folhas pequenas, coletadas mensalmente entre setembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999, revelou 17 componentes. Fitol foi o constituinte majoritário em ambas populações. Os principais representantes sesquiterpênicos foram (E-cariofileno, alfa-humuleno e (E-nerolidol.

  16. Behavior of the amphiphile CHAPS alone and in combination with the biopolymer inulin in water and isopropanol-water media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Soumen; Nagadome, Shigemi; Sugihara, Ghosuke; Moulik, Satya P

    2011-08-02

    Self-aggregation of the zwitterionic surfactant 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) in water and isopropanol-water media, and interaction of the amphiphile with the biopolymer inulin in these media were investigated. The micellar properties of the zwitterionic surfactant and its associated interfacial and bulk properties along with the related energetic, and aggregation number were determined. The different stages of interaction of the CHAPS-inulin combines were identified and assessed. The complexes were formed and aggregated in solution at different stages of their molecular compositions. The aggregated sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering study and the morphology in the solvent removed states were examined using scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope techniques. The results witnessed formation of ensembles of varied and striking patterns.

  17. CELL DETACHMENT BY PROLYL-SPECIFIC ENDOPEPTIDASE FROM WOLFIPORIA COCOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Cierpka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As requirements for Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP production differ from other production processes (e.g., therapeutic protein production, cell detachment is often a crucial step for the process success. In most cases, cell detachment is done enzymatically. Although many peptidases are established in cell culture in R&D, e.g., Trypsin as gold standard, many of them seem to be unsuitable in ATMP production processes. Therefore, the present study investigated a novel endopeptidase used in food biotechnology for its applicability in ATMP processes where cell detachment is needed. The Prolyl-specific Peptidase (PsP is of non-mammalian origin and considered as safe for humans. PsP was purified from the supernatant of the fungus Wolfiporia cocos. The isolation and purification resulted in an enzyme solution with 0.19 U mg-1 prolyl-specific activity. By in silico analysis it was confirmed that attachment-promoting proteins can be cleaved by PsP in a similar amount than with Trypsin. Further the proteolytic activity was determined for PsP and Trypsin by using the same enzymatic assay. Detachment with both enzymes was compared for cells used in typical therapeutic production processes namely a mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-TERT as a model for a cell therapeutic, Vero and MA104 cells used for viral therapeutic or vaccine production. The cell detachment experiments were performed with comparable enzyme activities (1.6 U mL-1. hMSC-TERT detachment was faster with PsP than with Trypsin. For Vero cells the detachment with PsP was not only faster but also more efficient. For MA104 cells the detachment rate with PsP was similar to Trypsin. For all cell types, detachment with PsP showed less influence on cell growth and metabolism compared to standard Trypsin.Thus, three cell types used in ATMP, viral therapeutics or vaccine production can be detached efficiently and gently with PsP. Therefore, PsP shows

  18. Solubilisation effect of Nonidet P-40, triton X-100 and CHAPS in the detection of MHC-like glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeta, M O; Fernandez, N; Festenstein, H

    1988-08-09

    We have analysed the differential solubilisation effect of three detergents on cell-membrane histocompatibility glycoproteins. Two nonionic detergents (Nonidet P-40 and Triton X-100) which are extensively used in the extraction of MHC proteins and a zwitterionic detergent (CHAPS) which is sulphobetaine derivative of cholic acid were used. An AKR (H-2k) derived spontaneous leukaemic cell line--424--was used as the experimental model. In this tumour cell line a class I-like antigen is expressed but not directly detected by cell-binding radioimmunoassay or immunoprecipitation from NP-40 or Triton X-100 solubilised glycoproteins. However, 46 kDa and 12 kDa bands consistent with the classical H-2 class I pattern were seen by SDS-PAGE after immunoprecipitation with the 34.5.8 anti-H-2Dd MoAb using CHAPS solubilised 424 glycoproteins. The H-2Dd-reactive molecule appears to be associated with at least one of the syngeneic class I specificities (H-2Kk, H-2Dk) and not accessible to react with the specific anti H-2Dd MoAb. The detergents NP-40 and Triton X-100 appear to be less efficient than CHAPS in breaking protein-protein interactions. This property of CHAPS permitted the adequate solubilisation of the novel antigen and its direct detection. The results of this study suggest that the alternative use of a non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent may contribute to the detection and characterisation of MHC-related, membrane-bound proteins of tumours and normal cells.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of heteroarylalanine diacids as potent and selective neutral endopeptidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossop, Melanie S; Bazin, Richard J; Dack, Kevin N; Fox, David N A; MacDonald, Graeme A; Mills, Mark; Owen, Dafydd R; Phillips, Chris; Reeves, Keith A; Ringer, Tracy J; Strang, Ross S; Watson, Christine A L

    2011-06-01

    Heteroarylalanine derivatives 4 were designed as potential inhibitors of neutral endopeptidase (NEP EC 3.4.24.11). Selectivity over other zinc metalloproteinases was explored through occupation of the S2' subsite within NEP. Structural optimisation led to the identification of 5-phenyl oxazole 4f, a potent and selective NEP inhibitor. A crystal structure of the inhibitor bound complex is reported.

  20. Chromosomal Location by Use of Trisomics and New Alleles of an Endopeptidase in Zea Mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Scandalios, John G.

    1974-01-01

    An association was found earlier between the Ep1 gene locus coding for an endopeptidase and the endosperm color gene Y1 on chromosome 6 of Zea mays. By employing primary trisomics we have unequivocally placed the Ep1 gene on chromosome 6, closely linked to the Y1 locus. Additionally we describe new...

  1. Concurrent neutral endopeptidase and ACE inhibition in experimental heart failure: renal and hormonal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K

    1993-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors have been shown to strengthen the effects of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It has been well documented that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act beneficially in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the present study, renal...

  2. Inhibition of [gamma]-endorphin generating endopeptidase activity of rat brain by peptides: Structure activity relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, J.L.M.; Visser, W.H.; Hendriks, R.W.; Nispen, J.W. van; Greven, H.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-Endorphin generating endopeptidase (gammaEGE) activity is an enzyme activity which converts beta-endorphin into gamma-endorphin and beta-endorphin-(18–31). The inhibitory potency on gammaEGE activity of neuropeptides and analogues or fragments of neuropeptides was tested. Dynorphin-(1–13) (IC5

  3. Iron, oxidative stress, and virulence: roles of iron-sensitive transcription factor Sre1 and the redox sensor ChAp1 in the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; MohdZainudin, Nur A I; Scher, Keren; Condon, Bradford J; Horwitz, Benjamin A; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2013-12-01

    The gene SRE1, encoding the GATA transcription factor siderophore biosynthesis repressor (Sre1), was identified in the genome of the maize pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and deleted. Mutants were altered in sensitivity to iron, oxidative stress, and virulence to the host. To gain insight into mechanisms of this combined regulation, genetic interactions among SRE1 (the nonribosomal peptide synthetase encoding gene NPS6, which is responsible for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis) and ChAP1 (encoding a transcription factor regulating redox homeostasis) were studied. To identify members of the Sre1 regulon, expression of candidate iron and oxidative stress-related genes was assessed in wild-type (WT) and sre1 mutants using quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. In sre1 mutants, NPS6 and NPS2 genes, responsible for siderophore biosynthesis, were derepressed under iron replete conditions, whereas the high-affinity reductive iron uptake pathway associated gene, FTR1, was not, in contrast to outcomes with other well-studied fungal models. C. heterostrophus L-ornithine-N(5)- monooxygenase (SIDA2), ATP-binding cassette (ABC6), catalase (CAT1), and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) genes were also derepressed under iron-replete conditions in sre1 mutants. Chap1nps6 double mutants were more sensitive to oxidative stress than either Chap1 or nps6 single mutants, while Chap1sre1 double mutants showed a modest increase in resistance compared with single Chap1 mutants but were much more sensitive than sre1 mutants. These findings suggest that the NPS6 siderophore indirectly contributes to redox homeostasis via iron sequestration, while Sre1 misregulation may render cells more sensitive to oxidative stress. The double-mutant phenotypes are consistent with a model in which iron sequestration by NPS6 defends the pathogen against oxidative stress. C. heterostrophus sre1, nps6, Chap1, Chap1nps6, and Chap1sre1 mutants are all reduced in virulence toward the

  4. Endopeptidase Isoenzyme Characteristics in Cucumis sativus Leaves During Dark-induced Senescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Zhang; Fei Wang; Lie-Feng Zhang; Qi Rui; Lang-Lai Xu

    2007-01-01

    The changes and characteristics of endopeptidase (EP) isoenzymes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves during dark-induced senescence were investigated by activity staining after gradient-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (G-PAGE) containing co-polymerized gelatin as substrate. The results showed that both the chlorophyll and the protein contents of leaves were decreased, and the protein degradation was correlated with the increase of proteolytic activity during the course of leaf senescence. Meanwhile, nine cucumber endopeptidases isoenzymes (CEP) with 140, 120, 106, 94, 76, 55, 46, 39 and 35 kDa molecular weights were detected. Four of these, CEP2, 3, 4 and CEP9 appeared all the time, but the changes of the activity were different during incubation. Another four CEPs (CEP5, 6, 7 and CEP8) whose activities increased with dark-induced time were only detected in senescent leaves.Furthermore, the biochemical properties of these nine CEP were also characterized. All the CEPs had high activities from 35 ℃ to 45 ℃, and the optimum temperature was found to be 40 ℃. However, the activities of CEPs were not detected below 25 ℃ or over 60 ℃. The activity bands appeared at a wide range of pH from 5.0 to 9.0, but the optimum pH was found at 7.0. No CEPs were detected at pH 4 or pH 10. By inhibition analysis we concluded that CEP2,3, 4 and CEP9 were serine endopeptidases and CEP6 was a kind of cysteine protease. It is suggested that serine endopeptidases might play a major role in cucumber leaf senescence, and for the first time, six senescencerelated endopeptidases (CEP1, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) were found in cucumber leaves.

  5. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, W; Minamikawa, T

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 +/- 1 degrees C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme.

  6. Synthesis and Posttranslational Activation of Sulfhydryl-Endopeptidase in Cotyledons of Germinating Vigna mungo Seeds 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Wataru; Minamikawa, Takao

    1989-01-01

    A sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was purified as a 33 kilodalton (kD) mass polypeptide from cotyledons of Vigna mungo seedlings. Immunoblot analysis with antiserum made against the purified enzyme showed that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase was synthesized only in the cotyledons during germination and that the amount of the enzyme increased until 4 days after imbibition and decreased thereafter. Next, an RNA fraction was prepared from cotyledons of 3 day old seedlings and translated in a wheat germ system. The synthesis of a 45 kD polypeptide was shown by the analysis of its translation products by immunoprecipitation with the antiserum to the endopeptidase and gel electrophoresis. When the RNA fraction was translated in the presence of canine microsomal membranes, a smaller polypeptide, having a 43 kD molecular mass, was detected as the translation product. When membrane-bound polysomes, but not free polysomes, prepared from cotyledons were used for translation in the wheat germ system, both the 43 and 45 kD polypeptides were synthesized. By incubation of a crude enzyme extract from cotyledons at 5 ± 1°C at neutral pH, the 43 kD polypeptide was sequentially cleaved to the 33 kD polypeptide via 39 and 36 kD intermediate polypeptides. The endopeptidase was activated simultaneously with the processing. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that the 33 kD polypeptide was the fully activated form of the enzyme, whereas little or no activity was detected in other forms. From the present results, we postulate that the sulfhydryl-endopeptidase is first synthesized as the 45 kD precursor with a 2 kD signal peptide being cleaved, and that the 43 kD polypeptide is further cleaved to give the 33kD mature enzyme. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:16666526

  7. The MitCHAP-60 disease is due to entropic destabilization of the human mitochondrial Hsp60 oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Avital; Nadler, Michal; Nisemblat, Shahar; Horovitz, Amnon; Mandel, Hanna; Azem, Abdussalam

    2009-10-01

    The 60-kDa heat shock protein (mHsp60) is a vital cellular complex that mediates the folding of many of the mitochondrial proteins. Its function is executed in cooperation with the co-chaperonin, mHsp10, and requires ATP. Recently, the discovery of a new mHsp60-associated neurodegenerative disorder, MitCHAP-60 disease, has been reported. The disease is caused by a point mutation at position 3 (D3G) of the mature mitochondrial Hsp60 protein, which renders it unable to complement the deletion of the homologous bacterial protein in Escherichia coli (Magen, D., Georgopoulos, C., Bross, P., Ang, D., Segev, Y., Goldsher, D., Nemirovski, A., Shahar, E., Ravid, S., Luder, A., Heno, B., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Skorecki, K., and Mandel, H. (2008) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 30-42). The molecular basis of the MitCHAP-60 disease is still unknown. In this study, we present an in vitro structural and functional analysis of the purified wild-type human mHsp60 and the MitCHAP-60 mutant. We show that the D3G mutation leads to destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer and causes its disassembly at low protein concentrations. We also show that the mutant protein has impaired protein folding and ATPase activities. An additional mutant that lacks the first three amino acids (N-del), including Asp-3, is similarly impaired in refolding activity. Surprisingly, however, this mutant exhibits profound stabilization of its oligomeric structure. These results suggest that the D3G mutation leads to entropic destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer, which severely impairs its chaperone function, thereby causing the disease.

  8. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition: could it have a role in the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Javier

    2010-05-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is the inability to attain or maintain an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement. The potentiation of vascular responses leading to increased blood flow in clitoris and vagina has represented the main focus in the pharmacological treatment of FSAD, including the evaluation of the type 5 phosphodiesterase (PDE5) inhibitors. However, due to a lack of clear efficacy, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for FSAD to date. In the present issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology, Wayman et al. show that the administration by intravenous or intravaginal routes of a novel neutral endopeptidase inhibitor, UK-414,445, results in enhanced genital blood flow responses to pelvic nerve stimulation in female rabbits, without significantly affecting blood pressure. Neutral endopeptidase inhibition, by preserving vasoactive peptides such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, raises the possibility of a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of FSAD.

  9. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M. [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Midtgaard, Søren Roi [University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gysel, Kira [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J. [University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.blaise@cpbs.cnrs.fr [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  10. Glycyl endopeptidase from papaya latex: partial purification and use for production of fish gelatin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnjanapratum, Supatra; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-12-15

    An aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) in combination with ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation was applied to fractionate glycyl endopeptidase from the papaya latex of Red Lady and Khack Dum cultivars. ATPS containing polyethylene glycol (PEG 2000 and 6000) and salts ((NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4) at different concentrations were used. Glycyl endopeptidase with high purification fold (PF) and yield was found in the salt-rich bottom phase of ATPS with 10%PEG 6000-10% (NH4)2SO4. When ATPS fraction from Red Lady cultivar was further precipitated with 40-60% saturation of (NH4)2SO4, PF of 2.1-fold with 80.23% yield was obtained. Almost all offensive odorous compounds, particularly benzyl isothiocyanate, were removed from partially purified glycyl endopeptidase (PPGE). The fish gelatin hydrolysates prepared using PPGE showed higher ABTS radical scavenging activity and less odour, compared with those of crude extract (CE). Thus antioxidative gelatin hydrolysate with negligible undesirable odour could be prepared with the aid of PPGE.

  11. Computer-aided lead optimization: improved small-molecule inhibitor of the zinc endopeptidase of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    Full Text Available Optimization of a serotype-selective, small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA endopeptidase is a formidable challenge because the enzyme-substrate interface is unusually large and the endopeptidase itself is a large, zinc-binding protein with a complex fold that is difficult to simulate computationally. We conducted multiple molecular dynamics simulations of the endopeptidase in complex with a previously described inhibitor (K(i (app of 7+/-2.4 microM using the cationic dummy atom approach. Based on our computational results, we hypothesized that introducing a hydroxyl group to the inhibitor could improve its potency. Synthesis and testing of the hydroxyl-containing analog as a BoNTA endopeptidase inhibitor showed a twofold improvement in inhibitory potency (K(i (app of 3.8+/-0.8 microM with a relatively small increase in molecular weight (16 Da. The results offer an improved template for further optimization of BoNTA endopeptidase inhibitors and demonstrate the effectiveness of the cationic dummy atom approach in the design and optimization of zinc protease inhibitors.

  12. Irreversible photolabeling of active site of neutral endopeptidase-24. 11 enkephalinase by azidothiorphan and (/sup 14/C)-azidothiorphan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaumont, A.; Hernandez, J.F.; Chaillet, P.; Crine, P.; Roques, B.P.

    1987-11-01

    Azidothiorphan and its (/sup 14/C)-labeled analogue have been developed as photoaffinity ligands for the active site of the neutral endopeptidase 24.11. In in vitro assays azidothiorphan inhibits the endopeptidase activity with a Ki of 0.75 nM. After ultraviolet irradiation the inhibitor binds irreversibly to the enzyme, and many factors suggest that the photolabeling occurs at the active site. The binding is accompanied by a loss of enzymatic activity, and the inclusion of the competitive inhibitor thiorphan protects the endopeptidase from this inactivation. In addition the binding of another competitive inhibitor (/sup 3/H)N-((R,S)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxopropyl)-glycine to the active site of endopeptidase-24.11 is inhibited after irradiation with azidothiorphan. Experiments with (/sup 14/C)-azidothiorphan have shown that very little nonspecific binding of inhibitor to enzyme occurs and the the labeled probe remains bound under denaturing conditions. Azidothiorphan has also been found to produce a long-lasting naloxone-reversible analgesia after intracerebroventricular administration. The results show that azidothiorphan should prove useful both for structural studies and for investigations on the synthesis and turnover of the neutral endopeptidase-24.11.

  13. The role of neutral endopeptidase in dogs with evolving congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulies, K B; Barclay, P L; Burnett, J C

    1995-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that neurohumoral mechanisms including decreased renal responses to increases in atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) play a central role in the progression from asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction to advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) with sodium retention, vasoconstriction, and reduced exercise tolerance. Recognizing that neutral endopeptidase 24.11 degrades ANF and may be enhanced in CHF, we hypothesized that chronic neutral endopeptidase inhibition (NEP-I) would potentiate renal responses to exogenous ANF and alter the temporal evolution of sodium retention in evolving CHF by potentiation of increased endogenous ANF. We studied 13 conscious dogs with evolving CHF produced by rapid ventricular pacing at 250 beats per minute. Six of these dogs received NEP-I with candoxatril, 10 mg/kg PO BID, throughout evolving CHF. Responses to exogenous ANF, 10 micrograms/kg IV bolus, were assessed at baseline and after 6 days of CHF. Daily metabolic studies during evolving CHF with chronic NEP-I showed increased sodium excretion and renal cGMP generation consistent with enhanced renal activity of endogenous ANF compared with untreated controls. In addition, renal natriuretic and cGMP responses to exogenous ANF were intact in CHF with chronic NEP-I in contrast to markedly attenuated renal responses to exogenous ANF in untreated CHF. Despite enhanced ANF responsiveness and improved sodium balance in evolving CHF, a moderate degree of sodium retention was observed during chronic NEP-I in evolving CHF. Enzymatic degradation by neutral endopeptidase limits local renal responses to increases in endogenous and exogenous ANF in CHF independent of changes in systemic hemodynamics or augmented plasma concentrations of ANF. The moderate sodium retention observed during evolving CHF despite chronic NEP-I probably reflects the antinatriuretic effects of hemodynamic and humoral factors independent of ANF activity.

  14. 温潜化瘀法治愈手足皲裂性湿疹1例%Treating 1 case of chapped eczema by Wenqian Huayu therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建堂

    2015-01-01

    The author treated 1 case of chapped eczema by Wenqian Huayu therapy. His therapy was different from traditional therapies. Concrete content was introduced as follow.%笔者用温潜化瘀法治愈手足皲裂性湿疹1例,与传统方法不同,现报告如下。

  15. Blocking the interaction between S100A9 and RAGE V domain using CHAPS molecule: A novel route to drug development against cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chi; Khan, Imran; Tsai, Kun-Lin; Li, Hongchun; Yang, Lee-Wei; Chou, Ruey-Hwang; Yu, Chin

    2016-11-01

    Human S100A9 (Calgranulin B) is a Ca(2+)-binding protein, from the S100 family, that often presents as a homodimer in myeloid cells. It becomes an important mediator during inflammation once calcium binds to its EF-hand motifs. Human RAGE protein (receptor for advanced glycation end products) is one of the target-proteins. RAGE binds to a hydrophobic surface on S100A9. Interactions between these proteins trigger signal transduction cascades, promoting cell growth, proliferation, and tumorigenesis. Here, we present the solution structure of mutant S100A9 (C3S) homodimer, determined by multi-dimensional NMR experiments. We further characterize the solution interactions between mS100A9 and the RAGE V domain via NMR spectroscopy. CHAPS is a zwitterionic and non-denaturing molecule widely used for protein solubilizing and stabilization. We found out that CHAPS and RAGE V domain would interact with mS100A9 by using (1)H-(15)N HSQC NMR titrations. Therefore, using the HADDOCK program, we superimpose two binary complex models mS100A9-RAGE V domain and mS100A9-CHAPS and demonstrate that CHAPS molecules could play a crucial role in blocking the interaction between mS100A9 and the RAGE V domain. WST-1 assay results also support the conclusion that CHAPS inhibits the bioactivity of mS100A9. This report will help to inform new drug development against cell proliferation.

  16. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira

    2015-01-01

    LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multi......LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement...... of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering...... solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers...

  17. Major acid endopeptidases of the blood-feeding monogenean Eudiplozoon nipponicum (Heteronchoinea: Diplozoidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedličková, Lucie; Dvořáková, Hana; Kašný, Martin; Ilgová, Jana; Potěšil, David; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Mikeš, Libor

    2016-04-01

    In parasitic flatworms, acid endopeptidases are involved in crucial processes, including digestion, invasion, interactions with the host immune system, etc. In haematophagous monogeneans, however, no solid information has been available about the occurrence of these enzymes. Here we aimed to identify major cysteine and aspartic endopeptidase activities in Eudiplozoon nipponicum, an invasive haematophagous parasite of common carp. Employing biochemical, proteomic and molecular tools, we found that cysteine peptidase activities prevailed in soluble protein extracts and excretory/secretory products (ESP) of E. nipponicum; the major part was cathepsin L-like in nature supplemented with cathepsin B-like activity. Significant activity of the aspartic cathepsin D also occurred in soluble protein extracts. The degradation of haemoglobin in the presence of ESP and worm protein extracts was completely inhibited by a combination of cysteine and aspartic peptidase inhibitors, and diminished by particular cathepsin L, B and D inhibitors. Mass spectrometry revealed several tryptic peptides in ESP matching to two translated sequences of cathepsin L genes, which were amplified from cDNA of E. nipponicum and bioinformatically annotated. The dominance of cysteine peptidases of cathepsin L type in E. nipponicum resembles the situation in, e.g. fasciolid trematodes.

  18. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B; Sørensen, Kasper K; Jensen, Knud J; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-03-01

    LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  19. Alterations of prolyl endopeptidase activity in the plasma of children with autistic spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avarseji Hassan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolyl Endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, a cytosolic endopeptidase, hydrolyses peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of proline residue in proteins with a relatively small molecular weight. It has been shown that altered PEP activity is associated with various psychological diseases such as schizophrenia, mania and depression. Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD are neuropsychiatric and behavioural syndromes affecting social behaviours and communication development. They are classified as developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis that PEP activity is also associated with ASDs. Methods Fluorometric assay was used to measure PEP activity in EDTA plasma in children with ASD (n = 18 aged 4–12 years (mean ± SD: 7.9 ± 2.5. These results were then compared to PEP activity in a control group of non-ASD children (n = 15 aged 2–10 years (mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.2. Results An alteration in PEP activity was found in the children with ASD compared to the control group. There was much greater variation of PEP activity in the group of ASD children when compared to the controls (SD= 39.9 and SD 9.6, respectively. This variation was significant (p Conclusion Our preliminary finding suggests a role for PEP enzyme in the pathophysiology of autism but further research should be conducted to establish its role in the aetiology of psychiatric and neurological disorders, including autism and related spectrum disorders.

  20. Cell sorting enriches Escherichia coli mutants that rely on peptidoglycan endopeptidases to suppress highly aberrant morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubacher, Mary E; Melquist, Amy L; Chandramohan, Lakshmi; Young, Kevin D

    2013-02-01

    Bacterial morphology imparts physiological advantages to cells in different environments and, judging by the fidelity with which shape is passed to daughter cells, is a tightly regulated characteristic. Surprisingly, only in the past 10 to 15 years has significant headway been made in identifying the mechanisms by which cells create and maintain particular shapes. One reason for this is that the relevant discoveries have relied heavily on the arduous, somewhat subjective process of manual microscopy. Here, we show that flow cytometry, coupled with the sorting capability of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), can detect, quantify, and enrich bacteria with morphological alterations. The light scattering properties of several highly aberrant morphological mutants of Escherichia coli were characterized by flow cytometry. Cells from a region that overlapped the distribution of normal rod-shaped cells were collected by FACS and reincubated. After 4 to 15 iterations of this enrichment process, suppressor mutants were isolated that returned almost all the population to a near-normal shape. Suppressors were successfully isolated from strains lacking three or four penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) but not from a mutant lacking a total of seven PBPs. The peptidoglycan endopeptidase, AmpH, was identified as being important for the suppression process, as was a related endopeptidase, MepA. The results validate the use of cell sorting as a means for studying bacterial morphology and identify at least one new class of enzymes required for the suppression of cell shape defects.

  1. Peptidase Activities of Tripeptidyl Peptidase Ⅰ(TPP Ⅰ): Exopeptidase and Endopeptidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The defect of TPP Ⅰ causes a disease, late infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis(LINCL, CLN2). To investigate the bio-activity of tripeptidyl peptidase Ⅰ(TPP Ⅰ) from rat kidneys, the effects of digestion of angiotensin Ⅱ(Ang Ⅱ) and a synthetic endo-type substrate(Gly1-Lys-Pro-Iie-Pro5-Phe-Phe-Arg-Leu-Lys10) via TPP Ⅰ were analyzed by HPLC and TOF-MS. The data suggest that the degradation rate of Ang Ⅱ can reach 18.2% by the rat TPP Ⅰ and DRV(Asp-Arg-Val) can be released from N-termini of Ang Ⅱ within 16 h. In addition, the synthetic endo-type substrate is cleaved at the same position between Phe6 and Phe7. Accordingly, TPP Ⅰ shows two kinds of peptidase activities. One is a tripeptidyl peptidase activity and the other is a pepstatin insensitive carboxyl endopeptidase activity. Tripeptidyl peptidase activity and pepstatin insensitive carboxyl endopeptidase activity seem to be dual phases of one enzyme, TPP Ⅰ.

  2. Purification of balansain I, an endopeptidase from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, M F; López, L M; Canals, F; Avilés, F X; Natalucci, C L; Caffini, N O

    2000-09-01

    A new plant endopeptidase was obtained from unripe fruits of Bromelia balansae Mez (Bromeliaceae). Crude extracts were partially purified by ethanol fractionation. This preparation (redissolved ethanol precipitate, REP) showed maximum activity at pH 8.8-9.2, was very stable even at high ionic strength values (no appreciable decrease in proteolytic activity could be detected after 24 h in 1 M sodium chloride solution at 37 degrees C), and exhibited high thermal stability (inactivation required heating for 60 min at 75 degrees C). Anion exchange chromatography allowed the isolation of a fraction purified to mass spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and IEF homogeneity, named balansain I, with pI = 5.45 and molecular mass = 23192 (mass spectrometry). The purification factor is low (2.9-fold), but the yield is high (48.3%), a common occurrence in plant organs with high proteolytic activity, where proteases represent the bulk of protein content of crude extracts. Balansain I exhibits a similar but narrower pH profile than that obtained for REP, with a maximum pH value approximately 9.0 and was inhibited by E-64 and other cysteine peptidases inhibitors but not affected by inhibitors of the other catalytic types of peptidases. The alanine and glutamine derivatives of N-alpha-carbobenzoxy-L-amino acid p-nitrophenyl esters was strongly preferred by the enzyme. The N-terminal sequence of balansain I showed a very high homology (85-90%) with other known Bromeliaceae endopeptidases.

  3. The Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Mycophenolic Acid–Induced Neutral Endopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Oglio, Maria Pia; Rossini, Michele; Divella, Chiara; Pontrelli, Paola; Verrienti, Raffaella; Rutigliano, Monica; Ditonno, Pasquale; Stifanelli, Patrizia; Ancona, Nicola; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Grandaliano, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) appears to have anti-fibrotic effects, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this are unknown. We prospectively studied 35 stable kidney transplant recipients maintained on cyclosporine and azathioprine. We converted 20 patients from azathioprine to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) and continued the remaining 15 patients on azathioprine. Exploratory mRNA expression profiling, performed on five randomly selected EC-MPS patients, revealed significant upregulation of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), which is an enzyme that degrades angiotensin II. We confirmed these microarray data by measuring levels of NEP expression in all subjects; in addition, we found that NEP gene expression correlated inversely with proteinuria. In an additional 33 patients, glomerular and tubular NEP protein levels from renal graft biopsies were significantly higher among the 13 patients receiving cyclosporine + EC-MPS than among the 12 patients receiving cyclosporine + azathioprine or 8 patients receiving cyclosporine alone. Glomerular NEP expression inversely correlated with glomerulosclerosis and proteinuria, and tubular NEP expression inversely correlated with interstitial fibrosis. Incubation of human proximal tubular cells with MPA increased NEP gene expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, MPA reduced angiotensin II–induced expression of the profibrotic factor plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and a specific NEP inhibitor completely reversed this effect. Taken together, our data suggest that MPA directly induces expression of neutral endopeptidase, which may reduce proteinuria and slow the progression of renal damage in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:20864690

  4. A cysteine endopeptidase ("dionain") is involved in the digestive fluid of Dionaea muscipula (Venus's fly-trap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenji; Suzuki, Takehiro; Nishii, Wataru; Kubota, Keiko; Shibata, Chiaki; Isobe, Toshiaki; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    The carnivorous plant Dionaea muscipula (Venus's flytrap) secretes proteinases into the digestive fluid to digest prey proteins. In this study, we obtained evidence that the digestive fluid contains a cysteine endopeptidase, presumably belonging to the papain family, through inhibitor studies and partial amino acid sequencing of the major SDS-PAGE band protein. The name "dionain" is proposed for the enzyme.

  5. Design of cell-permeable, fluorescent activity-based probes for the lysosomal cysteine protease asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP)/legumain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sexton, Kelly B.; Witte, Martin D.; Blum, Galia; Bogyo, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP), also known as legumain, is a cysteine protease that has been ascribed roles in antigen presentation yet its exact role in human biology remains poorly understood. We report here, the use of a positional scanning combinatorial library of peptide AOMKs containing a P1

  6. The CHAP-EMS health promotion program: a qualitative study on participants' views of the role of paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Madison; Denton, Margaret; Agarwal, Gina

    2016-08-24

    Expanded roles for paramedics, commonly termed community paramedicine, are becoming increasingly common. Paramedics working in community paramedicine roles represent a distinct departure away from the traditional emergency paradigm of paramedic services. Despite this, little research has addressed how community paramedics are perceived by their clients. This study took an interpretivist qualitative approach to examine participants' perceptions of paramedics providing a community paramedicine program, named the Community Health Assessment Program through Emergency Medical Services (CHAP-EMS). Both participant observation and semi-structured interviews conducted with program participants were used to gain insight into the on-the-ground experiences of the program. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze all data. Three themes emerged: i) Caring and trusting relationships; ii) paramedics as health advocates; iii) the added value of EMS skills. Paramedics were perceived by residents as having dual identities: first in a novel role as health advocates and secondly in a traditional role as emergency experts despite lacking contextual features associated with emergency response. From this exploratory, qualitative study we present an emerging framework in which to conceptualize paramedic roles in community paramedicine settings. Future research should address the saliency of these roles in different contexts and how these roles relate to paramedic practice.

  7. Kinetics of Hydrolyzing Isolated Soy Protein by an Endopeptidase and its Conceptual Application in Process Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A response study and the effects of different parameters (pH, temperature and enzyme dose on kinetics of isolated soy protein hydrolysis by a trypsin-like endopeptidase (TL1 were conducted. Degree of hydrolysis (%DH data varied at different times under different hydrolysis conditions. Fitting the kinetics data to Michaelis-Menten kinetics model did not result in reasonable kinetic parameters, which implied that Michaelis-Menten kinetics was invalid for such a hydrolysis process. A kinetics model proposed by (Gonzalez-Tello, Camacho, Jurado, Paez, & Guadix, 1994 was found to fit the kinetics curve well and resulted in acceptable model parameters. A simple simulation example was performed to demonstrate the concept of how the kinetics equation could be applied in process engineering.

  8. AmpH, a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Leiza, Silvia M; de Pedro, Miguel A; Ayala, Juan A

    2011-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display DD-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of 1,200 M(-1) s(-1) and 670 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, and removed the terminal D-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. Both DD-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10(-3) nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the DD-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling.

  9. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bui, Nhat Khai [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vollmer, Waldemar [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Coulthurst, Sarah J., E-mail: s.j.coulthurst@dundee.ac.uk; Hunter, William N., E-mail: s.j.coulthurst@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  10. Molecular cloning and characterization of Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1 (VmPE-1), an asparaginyl endopeptidase possibly involved in post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase (SH-EP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, T; Minamikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidase is a cysteine endopeptidase that has strict substrate specificity toward the carboxy side of asparagine residues. Vigna mungo processing enzyme 1, termed VmPE-1, occurs in the cotyledons of germinated seeds of V. mungo, and is possibly involved in the post-translational processing of a vacuolar cysteine endopeptidase, designated SH-EP, which degrades seed storage protein. VmPE-1 also showed a substrate specificity to asparagine residues, and its enzymatic activity was inhibited by NEM but not E-64. In addition, purified VmPE-1 had a potential to process the recombinant SH-EP precursor to its intermediate in vitro. cDNA clones for VmPE-1 and its homologue, named VmPE-1A, were identified and sequenced, and their expressions in the cotyledons of V. mungo seedlings and other organs were investigated. VmPE-1 mRNA and SH-EP mRNA were expressed in germinated seeds at the same stage of germination although the enzymatic activity of VmPE-1 rose prior to that of SH-EP. The level of VmPE-1A mRNA continued increasing as germination proceeded. In roots, stems and leaves of fully grown plants, and in hypocotyls, VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A were little expressed. We discuss possible functions of VmPE-1 and VmPE-1A in the cotyledons of germinated seeds.

  11. Purification and characterization of four new cysteine endopeptidases from fruits of Bromelia pinguin L. grown in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payrol, Juan Abreu; Obregón, Walter D; Trejo, Sebastián A; Caffini, Néstor O

    2008-02-01

    Bromelia pinguin L. is a plant broadly distributed in Central America and Caribbean islands. The fruits have been used in traditional medicine as anthelmintic, probably owed to the presence of a mixture of cysteine endopeptidases, initially termed pinguinain. This work deals with the purification and characterization of the four main components of that mixture, two of them showing acid pI and the other two alkaline pI. Molecular masses (SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF), N-terminal sequence and the reactivity and kinetic parameters versus synthetic substrates (p-nitrophenyl-N-alpha-CBZ-amino acid esters, PFLNA, Z-Arg-Arg-p-NA, and Z-Phe-Arg-p-NA) of the studied peptidases are given, as well as the N-terminal sequences of the enzymes and the homology degree with other plant endopeptidases.

  12. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Michael W; Thomsen, Line R; Sanggaard, Kristian W; Nielsen, Tania A; Thøgersen, Ida B; Lukassen, Marie V; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; Enghild, Jan J

    2016-01-29

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Michael W.; Thomsen, Line R.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Nielsen, Tania A.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Lukassen, Marie V.; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. PMID:26627834

  14. Funastrain c II: a cysteine endopeptidase purified from the latex of Funastrum clausum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcelle, Susana R; Trejo, Sebastián A; Canals, Francesc; Avilés, Francesc X; Priolo, Nora S

    2004-04-01

    A cysteine endopeptidase, named funastrain c II, was isolated and characterized from the latex of Funastrum clausum (Asclepiadaceae). The molecular mass (mass spectrometry) of the protease was 23.636 kDa. The analysis of funastrain c II by SDS-PAGE revealed a single polypeptide chain. The enzyme showed a remarkable stability of its caseinolytic activity after incubation at temperatures as high as 70 degrees C. Inhibition and activation assays indicated the cysteinic nature of the funastrain c II catalytic site. The optimum pH of funastrain c II enzymatic activity varied according to the substrate used (9.0-10.0 for casein and 6.2-6.8 for PFLNA). Kinetic parameters were determined for N-alpha-CBZ-Ala p-nitrophenyl ester (Km = 0.0243 mM, kcat = 1.5 s(-1)) and L-pyroglutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA; KM = 0.1011 mM, kcat = 0.9 s(-1)). The N-terminal sequence of funastrain c II showed considerable similarity to other proteases isolated from latex of different Asclepiadaceae species as well as to other cysteine proteinases belonging to the papain family.

  15. PepO, a CovRS-controlled endopeptidase, disrupts Streptococcus pyogenes quorum sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Reid V; Chang, Jennifer C; Federle, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes) is a human-restricted pathogen with a capacity to both colonize asymptomatically and cause illnesses ranging from pharyngitis to necrotizing fasciitis. An understanding of how and when GAS switches between genetic programs governing these different lifestyles has remained an enduring mystery and likely requires carefully tuned environmental sensors to activate and silence genetic schemes when appropriate. Herein, we describe the relationship between the Control of Virulence (CovRS, CsrRS) two-component system and the Rgg2/3 quorum-sensing pathway. We demonstrate that responses of CovRS to the stress signals Mg(2+) and a fragment of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 result in modulated activity of pheromone signaling of the Rgg2/3 pathway through a means of proteolysis of SHP peptide pheromones. This degradation is mediated by the cytoplasmic endopeptidase PepO, which is the first identified enzymatic silencer of an RRNPP-type quorum-sensing pathway. These results suggest that under conditions in which the virulence potential of GAS is elevated (i.e. enhanced virulence gene expression), cellular responses mediated by the Rgg2/3 pathway are abrogated and allow individuals to escape from group behavior. These results also indicate that Rgg2/3 signaling is instead functional during non-virulent GAS lifestyles.

  16. Internally quenched fluorescent peptide libraries with randomized sequences designed to detect endopeptidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lilian C G; Silva, Vinícius O; Okamoto, Debora N; Kondo, Marcia Y; Santos, Saara M B; Hirata, Isaura Y; Vallim, Marcelo A; Pascon, Renata C; Gouvea, Iuri E; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz

    2012-02-01

    Identification of synthetic peptide substrates for novel peptidases is an essential step for their study. With this purpose we synthesized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) peptide libraries Abz (or MCA)-GXXXXXQ-EDDnp and Abz (or MCA)-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp, where X consists of an equimolar mixture of all amino acids, the Z position is fixed with one of the proteinogenic amino acids (cysteine was excluded), Abz (ortho-aminobenzoic acid) or MCA ([7-amino-4-methyl]coumarin) is the fluorescence donor and Q-EDDnp (glutamine-[N-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-ethylenediamine]) is the fluorescence acceptor. The peptide libraries MCA-GXXX↓XXQ-EDDnp and MCA-GXXZ↓XXQ-EDDnp were cleaved as indicated (↓) by trypsin, chymotrypsin, cathepsin L, pepsin A, and Eqolisin as confirmed by Edman degradation of the products derived from the digestion of these libraries. The best hydrolyzed Abz-GXXZXXQ-EDDnp sublibraries by these proteases, including Dengue 2 virus NS2B-NS3 protease, contained amino acids at the Z position that are reported to be well accepted by their S(1) subsite. The pH profiles of the hydrolytic activities of these canonical proteases on the libraries were similar to those reported for typical substrates. The FRET peptide libraries provide an efficient and simple approach for detecting nanomolar concentrations of endopeptidases and are useful for initial specificity characterization as performed for two proteases secreted by a Bacillus subtilis.

  17. The Roles of Streptozotocin Neurotoxicity and Neutral Endopeptidase in Murine Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Davidson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP, a protease that degrades vaso- and neuroactive peptides, improves vascular and neural function in diabetic animal models. In this study we explored the role of NEP in neuropathy related to either insulin-deficient diabetes or diet-induced obesity using NEP deficient (−/− mice. Initial studies showed that streptozotocin, in the absence of subsequent hyperglycemia, did not induce nerve conduction slowing or paw thermal hypoalgesia. Glucose disposal was impaired in both C57Bl/6 and NEP −/− mice fed a high fat diet. Thermal hypoalgesia and nerve conduction slowing were present in both streptozotocin-diabetic and high fat fed C57Bl/6 mice but not in NEP −/− mice exposed to either streptozotocin-induced diabetes or a high fat diet. These studies suggest that streptozotocin does not induce neurotoxicity in mice and that NEP plays a role in regulating nerve function in insulin-deficient diabetes and diet-induced obesity.

  18. The Roles of Streptozotocin Neurotoxicity and Neutral Endopeptidase in Murine Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric; Coppey, Lawrence; Lu, Bao; Arballo, Victor; Calcutt, Nigel A.; Gerard, Craig; Yorek, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrated that inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a protease that degrades vaso- and neuroactive peptides, improves vascular and neural function in diabetic animal models. In this study we explored the role of NEP in neuropathy related to either insulin-deficient diabetes or diet-induced obesity using NEP deficient (−/−) mice. Initial studies showed that streptozotocin, in the absence of subsequent hyperglycemia, did not induce nerve conduction slowing or paw thermal hypoalgesia. Glucose disposal was impaired in both C57Bl/6 and NEP −/− mice fed a high fat diet. Thermal hypoalgesia and nerve conduction slowing were present in both streptozotocin-diabetic and high fat fed C57Bl/6 mice but not in NEP −/− mice exposed to either streptozotocin-induced diabetes or a high fat diet. These studies suggest that streptozotocin does not induce neurotoxicity in mice and that NEP plays a role in regulating nerve function in insulin-deficient diabetes and diet-induced obesity. PMID:20148083

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Engagement Mediates Prolyl Endopeptidase Release from Airway Epithelia via Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szul, Tomasz; Bratcher, Preston E; Fraser, Kyle B; Kong, Michele; Tirouvanziam, Rabindra; Ingersoll, Sarah; Sztul, Elizabeth; Rangarajan, Sunil; Blalock, J Edwin; Xu, Xin; Gaggar, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are important regulators of pulmonary remodeling and airway inflammation. Recently, we have characterized the enzyme prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a serine peptidase, as a critical protease in the generation of the neutrophil chemoattractant tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro (PGP) from collagen. However, PE has been characterized as a cytosolic enzyme, and the mechanism mediating PE release extracellularly remains unknown. We examined the role of exosomes derived from airway epithelia as a mechanism for PE release and the potential extracellular signals that regulate the release of these exosomes. We demonstrate a specific regulatory pathway of exosome release from airway epithelia and identify PE as novel exosome cargo. LPS stimulation of airway epithelial cells induces release of PE-containing exosomes, which is significantly attenuated by small interfering RNA depletion of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These differences were recapitulated upon intratracheal LPS administration in mice competent versus deficient for TLR4 signaling. Finally, sputum samples from subjects with cystic fibrosis colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa demonstrate elevated exosome content and increased PE levels. This TLR4-based mechanism highlights the first report of nonstochastic release of exosomes in the lung and couples TLR4 activation with matrikine generation. The increased quantity of these proteolytic exosomes in the airways of subjects with chronic lung disease highlights a new mechanism of injury and inflammation in the pathogenesis of pulmonary disorders.

  20. Resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil The results of the nutrition survey carried out in the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and Barra do Chapéu (S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryland Miguel

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentados os resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado na região do Vale do Ribeira, nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil, em amostra constituída por 154 famílias, totalizando 939 indivíduos. O método utilizado para o levantamento foi o de pesagem "um dia sete dias". A análise dos dados evidenciou que em Apiaí as adequações médias de proteína, ferro e niacina foram as únicas que ultrapassaram os 100% dos valores recomendados, enquanto que, na cidade de Barra do Chapéu este fato ocorreu em relação à ferro, niacina e vitamina B1. Com referência à cidade de Ribeira, apenas niacina atingiu uma adequação de 100%, sendo que os demais nutrientes apresentaram resultados inferiores.There were presented the results of the nutrition survey carried out in the Region of Vale do Ribeira covering the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and the Village of Barra do Chapéu (Apiaí (S. Paulo, Brazil. The sample was made up of 154 families, corresponding to 939 persons. Data was gathered through the "one day-seven days" method. Analysing the data it was noticed that the recommended values where reached in Apiaí only for protein, niacin and iron, in Barra do Chapéu, for iron, niacin, and thiamin and in Ribeira, only for niacin.

  1. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

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    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  2. Schistosome asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) is not essential for cathepsin B1 activation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautz-Peterson, Greice; Skelly, Patrick J

    2008-05-01

    Schistosomes are parasitic platyhelminths that constitute an important public health problem. Adult parasites live in the vasculature of their vertebrate hosts where they consume blood. Ingested blood proteins are degraded by a proteolytic cascade. One of the best characterized schistosome proteases is cathepsin B1 (SmCB1 or Sm31). This protein is synthesized as a large 38 kDa precursor form which is proteolytically cleaved to yield a mature, active 31 kDa enzyme. A second schistosome protease--the asparaginyl endopeptidase SmAE (also known as Sm32, or schistosome legumain), has been proposed to proteolytically convert the 38 kDa precursor SmCB1 into its mature form. Recombinant activated SmAE has been shown to trans-process SmCB1 into the mature, catalytic form in vitro. In the present study, our aim was to test the hypothesis that in vivo SmAE likewise processes SmCB1 into its active form. To do this, expression of the SmAE gene was suppressed in adult Schistosoma mansoni using RNA interference (RNAi). The results of these experiments show that, even in the absence of detectable SmAE protein, SmCB1 is fully processed and active and support the assertion that SmAE is not essential to activate SmCB1 in vivo. The data indicate that our original hypothesis is incorrect and that SmAE is not pivotal in the in vivo conversion of cathepsin B1 into its mature, active form.

  3. Cooperative binding of LysM domains determines the carbohydrate affinity of a bacterial endopeptidase protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jaslyn E M M; Alsarraf, Husam M A B; Kaspersen, Jørn Døvling; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2014-02-01

    Cellulose, chitin and peptidoglycan are major long-chain carbohydrates in living organisms, and constitute a substantial fraction of the biomass. Characterization of the biochemical basis of dynamic changes and degradation of these β,1-4-linked carbohydrates is therefore important for both functional studies of biological polymers and biotechnology. Here, we investigated the functional role of multiplicity of the carbohydrate-binding lysin motif (LysM) domain that is found in proteins involved in bacterial peptidoglycan synthesis and remodelling. The Bacillus subtilis peptidoglycan-hydrolysing NlpC/P60 D,L-endopeptidase, cell wall-lytic enzyme associated with cell separation, possesses four LysM domains. The contribution of each LysM domain was determined by direct carbohydrate-binding studies in aqueous solution with microscale thermophoresis. We found that bacterial LysM domains have affinity for N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNac) polymers in the lower-micromolar range. Moreover, we demonstrated that a single LysM domain is able to bind carbohydrate ligands, and that LysM domains act additively to increase the binding affinity. Our study reveals that affinity for GlcNAc polymers correlates with the chain length of the carbohydrate, and suggests that binding of long carbohydrates is mediated by LysM domain cooperativity. We also show that bacterial LysM domains, in contrast to plant LysM domains, do not discriminate between GlcNAc polymers, and recognize both peptidoglycan fragments and chitin polymers with similar affinity. Finally, an Ala replacement study suggested that the carbohydrate-binding site in LysM-containing proteins is conserved across phyla. © 2013 FEBS.

  4. A neuroprotective brain-penetrating endopeptidase fusion protein ameliorates Alzheimer disease pathology and restores neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brian; Verma, Inder; Desplats, Paula; Morvinski, Dinorah; Rockenstein, Ed; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-06-20

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by widespread neurodegeneration throughout the association cortex and limbic system, deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the neuropil and around the blood vessels, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The endopeptidase neprilysin has been successfully used to reduce the accumulation of Aβ following intracranial viral vector delivery or ex vivo manipulated intracranial delivery. These therapies have relied on direct injections into the brain, whereas a clinically desirable therapy would involve i.v. infusion of a recombinant enzyme. We previously characterized a recombinant neprilysin that contained a 38-amino acid brain-targeting domain. Recombinant cell lines have been generated expressing this brain-targeted enzyme (ASN12). In this report, we characterize the ASN12 recombinant protein for pharmacology in a mouse as well as efficacy in two APPtg mouse models of AD. The recombinant ASN12 transited to the brain with a t½ of 24 h and accumulated to 1.7% of injected dose at 24 h following i.v. delivery. We examined pharmacodynamics in the tg2576 APPtg mouse with the prion promoter APP695 SWE mutation and in the Line41 mThy1 APP751 mutation mouse. Treatment of either APPtg mouse resulted in reduced Aβ, increased neuronal synapses, and improved learning and memory. In addition, the Line41 APPtg mice showed increased levels of C-terminal neuropeptide Y fragments and increased neurogenesis. These results suggest that the recombinant brain-targeted neprilysin, ASN12, may be an effective treatment for AD and warrant further investigation in clinical trials.

  5. Renal Actions of Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibition in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure

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    Amr M. Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: We aim to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic inhibition of Neutral EndoPeptidase (NEP, by ONO-9902, on plasma and renal NEP gene expression, hemodynamic and renal parameters in rats with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF following left Coronary Artery Ligation (CAL. Approach: Forty eight male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g were divided into sham and CAL groups. Myocardial infarction was induced by left CAL. All rats were further subdivided into untreated and orally treated with ONO-9902 (300 mg kg-1 day-1 from the 1st to 6th weeks after the operation. At the 1st and 6th weeks after the operation, gene expression of plasma and renal NEP, plasma ANP, cGMP and aldosterone concentrations, urine volume, Na and ANP excretion, creatinine clearance and renal cGMP generation were measured. Results: CAL leads to sodium and water retention, increased renal NEP gene expression, plasma ANP and aldosterone and decreased renal cGMP generation and plasma NEP gene expression. Acute treatment of CAL rats by ONO-9902, at the 1st week after the operation, inhibited plasma and renal NEP gene expression with increased plasma ANP, which caused diuresis, natriuresis and increased renal cGMP generation. Moreover, chronic treatment of those rats by ONO-9902 decreased plasma and renal NEP gene expression, plasma aldosterone, increased plasma ANP but non significantly, and caused diuresis, natriuresis with increased renal cGMP generation. GFR was not significantly changed before or after treatment. Conclusion: Chronic treatment with NEP inhibitor decreases Na and water retention in rats with CHF by enhancing ANP action and suppressing aldosterone secretion. So, ONO-9902 may offer a new therapeutic approach in patients with CHF.

  6. In silico methods to identify meat-derived prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafarga, Tomas; O'Connor, Paula; Hayes, Maria

    2015-05-15

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 450 million people suffer from mental or neurological disorders and five of the ten leading causes of disability and premature death worldwide are psychiatric conditions. Social, biological and neurological sciences provided extensive understanding into the role of risk and protective factors in the development of mental disorders and poor mental health. Altered activity of a number of enzymes, such as prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26), has been linked to the prevention and treatment of a number of mental disorders, including anxiety, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The inhibition of PEP has potential for use in the prevention and in the treatment of mental disorders. The objective of this work was to identify PEP-inhibitory peptides from meat proteins using in silico methods. In this paper, five proteins commonly found in meat by-products were evaluated as a substrate for use in the generation of PEP inhibitory peptides. These include serum albumin, collagen and myosin. These proteins were cleaved in silico using BIOPEP and ExPASy PeptideCutter and the generated peptides were compared to known PEP-inhibiting peptides in the database of BIOPEP. A number of novel PEP inhibitory peptide sequences were identified in this study, including PPL, APPH, IPP and PPG with corresponding IC50 values of 2.86, 3.95, 4.02 and 2.70 mM, respectively. This work demonstrates the usefulness of in silico analysis for predicting the release of PEP-inhibiting peptides from meat proteins.

  7. Identification of glutamic acid 646 as a zinc-coordinating residue in endopeptidase-24.11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moual, H; Devault, A; Roques, B P; Crine, P; Boileau, G

    1991-08-25

    Neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.424.11, NEP) is a membrane-bound zinc-metallopeptidase. The substrate specificity and catalytic activity of NEP resemble those of thermolysin, a bacterial zinc-metalloprotease. Comparison of the primary structure of both enzymes suggests that several amino acids present in the active site of thermolysin are also found in NEP. Using site-directed mutagenesis of the cDNA encoding the NEP sequence, we have already shown that His residues 583 and 587 are two of the three zinc ligands. In order to identify the third zinc ligand, we have substituted Val or Asp for Glu616 or Glu646. Val616 NEP showed the same kinetic parameters as the non-mutated NEP. In contrast, the mutant Val646 NEP was almost completely devoid of catalytic activity and unable to bind the tritiated inhibitor [3H]N-[2(R,S)-3-hydroxyaminocarbonyl-2-benzyl-1-oxypropyl]gl ycine, the binding of which is dependent on the presence of the zinc ion. Replacing Glu for Asp at position 646 conserved the negative charge, and the mutant enzyme exhibited the same Km value as the non-mutated enzyme, but kCat was decreased to less than 3% of the value of the non-mutated enzyme. When compared to the non-mutated enzyme Asp646 NEP showed a higher susceptibility to chelating agents, but bound the tritiated inhibitor with the same affinity. Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that Glu646 of NEP is the third zinc-coordinating residue and is equivalent to Glu166 in thermolysin.

  8. Rapid degradation of D- and L-succinimide-containing peptides by a post-proline endopeptidase from human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momand, J.; Clarke, S.

    1987-12-01

    The authors have been interested in the metabolic fate of proteins containing aspartyl succinimide (Asu) residues. These residues can be derived from the spontaneous rearrangement of Asp and Asn residues and from the spontaneous demethylation of enzymatically methylated L-isoAsp and D-Asp residues. Incubation of the synthetic hexapeptide N-Ac-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asu-Gly-Ala with the cytosolic fraction of human erythrocytes resulted in rapid cleavage of the prolyl-aspartyl succinimide bond producing the tripeptide N-Ac-Val-Try-Pro. The rate of this reaction is equal for both L- and D-Asu-containing peptides and is 10-fold greater that the rate of cleavage of a corresponding peptide containing a normal Pro-Asp linkage. When the aspartyl succinimide ring was replaced with an isoaspartyl residue, the cleavage rate was about 5 times that of the normal Pro-Asp peptide. The tripeptide-producing activity copurified on DEAE-cellulose chromatography with an activity that cleaves N-carbobenzoxy-Gly-Pro-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide, a post-proline endopeptidase substrate. These two activities were both inhibited by an antiserum to rat brain post-proline endopeptidase, and it appears that they are catalyzed by the same enzyme. This enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 and is covalently labeled and inhibited by (/sup 3/H) diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The facile cleavage of the succinimide- and isoaspartyl-containing peptides by this post-proline endopeptidase suggests that it may play a role in the metabolism of peptides containing altered aspartyl residues.

  9. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan DL-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O'Rourke, Patrick E F; Rao, Vincenzo A; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J; Hunter, William N

    2013-12-01

    Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-D-glutamic acid and L-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure-activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1-Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2-Rap2a orthologues suggest that the specificity of these immunity proteins for neutralizing effectors is fold-dependent and that in cases where the fold is conserved sequence differences contribute to the specificity of effector-immunity protein interactions.

  10. Identification of the type 2 proinsulin processing endopeptidase as PC2, a member of the eukaryote subtilisin family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D L; Bailyes, E M; Nielsen, E; Guest, P C; Rutherford, N G; Arden, S D; Hutton, J C

    1992-07-25

    Enzymological studies have implicated two Ca(2+)-dependent endopeptidases in the conversion of proinsulin to insulin; a type 1 activity which cleaves on the C-terminal side of Arg31-Arg32 and a type 2 activity which cleaves C-terminally to Lys64-Arg65 in the proinsulin sequence. The possibility that these enzymes are related to the recently discovered family of mammalian subtilisin-like gene products (furin, PC2, and PC3) and the yeast propheromone-converting enzyme (KEX-2), was investigated. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers flanking the putative catalytic domain within this gene family were used in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify related sequences from rat insulinoma cDNA. One major product of 700 base pairs was obtained which was greater than 99% identical to the corresponding rat PC2 sequence. This cDNA was subcloned into the bacterial expression vector pGEX-3X to generate a recombinant protein for antibody production. Western blot analysis showed the immunoreactivity was prominent in neuroendocrine tissues as a 65-kDa protein. It was concentrated in secretory granule-enriched fractions of insulinoma tissue, where it was present as a readily solubilized monomeric protein. Deglycosylation studies using endoglycosidase H and N-glycanase showed that the 65-kDa protein was comprised of approximately 9% carbohydrate, consistent with the presence of three consensus sequences for N-linked glycosylation in rat PC2. The immunoreactivity co-eluted with the type 2 proinsulin endopeptidase on gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography and the antisera specifically immunoprecipitated type 2 activity from insulin granule extracts. N-terminal sequence analysis of the immunoreactive protein gave two sequences which corresponded to residues 109-112 and 112-119 of rat PC2. This indicated that posttranslational processing of PC2 itself occurs C-terminally to basic amino acids to produce the mature enzyme. It is concluded that PC2 is the type 2 endopeptidase involved

  11. Obtaining Soluble Folded Proteins from Inclusion Bodies Using Sarkosyl, Triton X-100, and CHAPS: Application to LB and M9 Minimal Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massiah, Michael A; Wright, Katharine M; Du, Haijuan

    2016-04-01

    This unit describes a straightforward and efficient method of using sarkosyl to solubilize and recover difficult recombinant proteins, such as GST- and His6 -tagged fusion proteins, that are overexpressed in E. coli. This protocol is especially useful for rescuing recombinant proteins overexpressed in M9 minimal medium. Sarkosyl added to lysis buffers helps with both protein solubility and cell lysis. Higher percentage sarkosyl (up to 10%) can extract >95% of soluble protein from inclusion bodies. In the case of sarkosyl-solubilized GST-fusion proteins, batch-mode affinity purification requires addition of a specific ratio of Triton X-100 and CHAPS, while sarkosyl-solubilized His6 -tagged fusion proteins can be directly purified on Ni(2+) resin columns. Proteins purified by this method could be widely used in biological assays, structure analysis and mass spectrum assay.

  12. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system.

  13. Discovery, cloning and characterisation of proline specific prolyl endopeptidase, a gluten degrading thermo-stable enzyme from Sphaerobacter thermophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Vestergaard, Mike; Jessen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Gluten free products have emerged during the last decades, as a result of a growing public concern and technological advancements allowing gluten reduction in food products. One approach is to use gluten degrading enzymes, typically at low or ambient temperatures, whereas many food production...... processes occur at elevated temperature. We present in this paper, the discovery, cloning and characterisation of a novel recombinant thermostable gluten degrading enzyme, a proline specific prolyl endoprotease (PEP) from Sphaerobacter thermophiles. The molecular mass of the prolyl endopeptidase...... at 63 °C was higher than 75 %. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by Co2+ and inhibited by Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+ followed by Zn2+, Na+, Mn2+, Al3+, and Cu2+. The Km and kcat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The ability to degrade immunogenic gluten peptides...

  14. Substrate phosphorylation affects degradation and interaction to endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M F M; Cunha, F M; Berti, D A; Heimann, A S; Klitzke, C F; Rioli, V; Oliveira, V; Ferro, E S

    2006-01-13

    Recent findings from our laboratory suggest that intracellular peptides containing putative post-translational modification sites (i.e., phosphorylation) could regulate specific protein interactions. Here, we extend our previous observations showing that peptide phosphorylation changes the kinetic parameters of structurally related endopeptidase EP24.15 (EC 3.4.24.15), neurolysin (EC 3.4.24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (EC 3.4.15.1). Phosphorylation of peptides that are degraded by these enzymes leads to reduced degradation, whereas phosphorylation of peptides that interacted as competitive inhibitors of these enzymes alters only the K(i)'s. These data suggest that substrate phosphorylation could be one of the mechanisms whereby some intracellular peptides would escape degradation and could be regulating protein interactions within cells.

  15. Qualidade e autenticidade de folhas de chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus grandiflorus oriundas de fornecedores de São Paulo Quality and authenticity of leaves of "chapéu-de-couro" (Echinodorus grandiflorus from suppliers in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.E. Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus grandiflorus e Echinodorus macrophyllus, conhecidas como chapéu-de-couro, são empregadas de forma indistinta como anti-inflamatório. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar análises físico-químicas de três amostras (A, B e C de folhas de chapéu-de-couro (E. grandiflorus provenientes de fornecedores de São Paulo buscando avaliar a qualidade e autenticidade destas amostras considerando a Farmacopéia Brasileira, 5ª edição, como referência. Verificou-se que as amostras estavam de acordo com as especificações farmacopeicas em relação às características organolépticas, material estranho, umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas sulfatadas (exceto amostras A e B e teores de derivados de ácido o-hidroxicinâmico (exceto amostra A. Na descrição macro e microscópica foram identificadas estruturas características de E. grandiflorus. Após análise dos perfis cromatográficos por cromatografia em camada delgada de sílica (CCDS constatou-se a presença de ácido caféico, isoorientina e swertiajaponina, conforme a monografia da espécie. A amostra C foi a única droga vegetal aprovada segundo os critérios da Farmacopeia Brasileira, evidenciando-se a necessidade da realização do controle de qualidade de matérias-primas vegetais para garantir a obtenção de fitoterápicos seguros e eficazes.Echinodorus grandiflorus and Echinodorus macrophyllus, known as "chapéu-de-couro", have been differently used as anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of the present study was to carry out physicochemical analyses of three leaf samples (A, B and C from "chapéu-de-couro" (E. grandiflorus obtained from suppliers in São Paulo to assess the quality and the authenticity of these samples according to the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (BP 5th edition. All samples were in agreement with the specifications of the Pharmacopoeia considering their organoleptic characteristics, foreign material, humidity, total ash and sulfated ash (except for samples A and B

  16. Histidine and Aspartic Acid Residues Important for Immunoglobulin G Endopeptidase Activity of the Group A Streptococcus Opsonophagocytosis-Inhibiting Mac Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Benfang; Liu, Mengyao; Meyers, Elishia G.; Manning, Heather M.; Nagiec, Michael J.; Musser, James M.

    2003-01-01

    The secreted Mac protein made by serotype M1 group A Streptococcus (GAS) (designated Mac5005) inhibits opsonophagocytosis and killing of GAS by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. This protein also has cysteine endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG). Site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify histidine and aspartic acid residues important for Mac IgG endopeptidase activity. Replacement of His262 with Ala abolished Mac5005 IgG endopeptidase activity. Asp284Ala and Asp286Ala mutant proteins had compromised enzymatic activity, whereas 21 other Asp-to-Ala mutant proteins cleaved human IgG at the apparent wild-type level. The results suggest that His262 is an active-site residue and that Asp284 and Asp286 are important for the enzymatic activity or structure of Mac protein. These Mac mutants provide new information about structure-activity relationships in this protein and will assist study of the mechanism of inhibition of opsonophagocytosis and killing of GAS by Mac. PMID:12704162

  17. Functional expression and characterization of Schistosoma mansoni cathepsin B and its trans-activation by an endogenous asparaginyl endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Mohammed; McKerrow, James H; Hansell, Elizabeth; Mathieu, Mary A; Lucas, Kimberley D; Hsieh, Ivy; Greenbaum, Doron; Bogyo, Matthew; Salter, Jason P; Lim, Kee C; Franklin, Christopher; Kim, Jea-Hyoun; Caffrey, Conor R

    2003-09-01

    Peptidases are essential for the establishment and survival of the medically important parasite, Schistosoma mansoni. This helminth expresses a number of gut-associated peptidases that degrade host blood proteins, including hemoglobin, as a means of nutrition. Using irreversible affinity probes, we demonstrate that S. mansoni cathepsin B-like endopeptidase 1 (SmCB1) is the most abundant papain family cysteine peptidase in both the parasite gut and somatic extracts. SmCB1 zymogen (SmCB1pm) was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris (4-11mgl(-1)). Monospecific and immunoselected antibodies raised against SmCB1pm localized the enzyme exclusively to the gut lumen and surrounding gastrodermis of adult worms. Recombinant SmCB1pm was unable to catalyze its activation, even at low pH. However, recombinant S. mansoni asparaginyl endopeptidase (SmAE), another gut-associated cysteine peptidase, processed and activated SmCB1pm in trans. Consistent with the known specificity of AEs, processing occurred on the carboxyl side of an asparagine residue, two residues upstream of the start of the mature SmCB1 sequence. The remaining pro-region dipeptide was removed by rat cathepsin C (dipeptidyl-peptidase I)-an action conceivably performed by an endogenous cathepsin C in vivo. The activated recombinant SmCB1 is biochemically identical to the native enzyme with respect to dipeptidyl substrate kinetics and pH profiles. Also, the serum proteins, hemoglobin, serum albumin, IgG, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were efficiently degraded. Further, a novel application of an assay to measure the peptidyl carboxypeptidase activity of SmCB1 and other cathepsins B was developed using the synthetic substrate benzoyl-glycinyl-histidinyl-leucine (Bz-Gly-His-Leu). This study characterizes the major digestive cysteine peptidase in schistosomes and defines novel trans-processing events required to activate the SmCB1 zymogen in vitro which may facilitate the digestive process in vivo.

  18. In vivo multiplex quantitative analysis of 3 forms of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone in pituitary of prolyl endopeptidase deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perroud Bertrand

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro reactions are useful to identify putative enzyme substrates, but in vivo validation is required to identify actual enzyme substrates that have biological meaning. To investigate in vivo effects of prolyl endopeptidase (PREP, a serine protease, on alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH, we developed a new mass spectrometry based technique to quantitate, in multiplex, the various forms of α-MSH. Methods Using Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM, we analyzed peptide transitions to quantify three different forms of α-MSH. Transitions were first confirmed using standard peptides. Samples were then analyzed by mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, after elution from a reverse phase C18 column by a gradient of acetonitrile. Results We first demonstrate in vitro that PREP digests biological active alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH1–13, by cleaving the terminal amidated valine and releasing a truncated alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH1–12 product – the 12 residues α-MSH form. We then use the technique in vivo to analyze the MRM transitions of the three different forms of α-MSH: the deacetylated α-MSH1–13, the acetylated α-MSH1–13 and the truncated form α-MSH1–12. For this experiment, we used a mouse model (PREP-GT in which the serine protease, prolyl endopeptidase, is deficient due to a genetrap insertion. Here we report that the ratio between acetylated α-MSH1–13 and α-MSH1–12 is significantly increased (P-value = 0.015, N = 6 in the pituitaries of PREP-GT mice when compared to wild type littermates. In addition no significant changes were revealed in the relative level of α-MSH1–13 versus the deacetylated α-MSH1–13. These results combined with the demonstration that PREP digests α-MSH1–13 in vitro, strongly suggest that α-MSH1–13 is an in vivo substrate of PREP. Conclusion The multiplex targeted quantitative peptidomics technique we

  19. Chap 4 Dahou.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    during the war; the published works and political career of Ken Saro-Wiwa, founder of the ... frustrations therefore shifted away from the regions to the centre, away from a specific ... were prior to the war – their sense of group consciousness and the nature of ... changed the demographics of the town. .... This was to change,.

  20. Chap 8 soumahoro.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    strategies to be applied which will be articulated around an accommodation of the ... plus en plus utilisé aussi bien par les acteurs locaux du développement, par .... des structures traditionnelles villageoises comme condition indispensable au ..... d'apprentissage simple et de vulgarisation accessible à la grande majorité de.

  1. Chap 3 Meagher.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    sive social and economic consequences for Nigeria as a whole. Operating below ... particular focus on Igbo informal manufacturing, long-distance trading networks .... us that 'any generalized depiction of the gulf between groups fails to take.

  2. Cloning and characterization of the gene encoding the PepF endopeptidase from the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braz Vânia S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The metallopeptidases have a very important role in bacteria, being involved in several processes that rely on protein turnover, such as nutrition, degradation of signal peptides, protein localization and virulence. We have cloned and characterized the gene of the metalloendopeptidase PepF from the aquatic bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The gene upstream of pepF (orf1 encodes a conserved hypothetical protein found in Mycobacterium and Streptomyces. pepF is co-transcribed with the gene downstream (orf3, which encodes a protein that belongs to the ABC1 protein kinase family, suggesting that these two proteins may share a common function in the cell. The C. crescentus PepF protein possesses the conserved HEXGH motif present in zinc binding domains of PepF homologs. Disruption of the pepF gene by insertion of a vector sequence did not produced any growth defect, but the mutant strain possesses only 30% of the specific activity of endopeptidases present in the wild type strain. Deletions and point mutations in the regulatory region showed that there are two putative promoter regions, and the operon expression is independent of the transcription regulator CtrA. The results indicate that PepF is not essential for either growth or development of this bacterium using peptides as the sole carbon source, suggesting that other peptidases can be sharing this function.

  3. Bacteriocin protein BacL1 of Enterococcus faecalis is a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jun; Hayashi, Ikue; Sugai, Motoyuki; Tomita, Haruyoshi

    2013-12-27

    Enterococcus faecalis strains are commensal bacteria in humans and other animals, and they are also the causative agent of opportunistic infectious diseases. Bacteriocin 41 (Bac41) is produced by certain E. faecalis clinical isolates, and it is active against other E. faecalis strains. Our genetic analyses demonstrated that the extracellular products of the bacL1 and bacA genes, which are encoded in the Bac41 operon, coordinately express the bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis. In this study, we investigated the molecular functions of the BacL1 and BacA proteins. Immunoblotting and N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that BacL1 and BacA are secreted without any processing. The coincidental treatment with the recombinant BacL1 and BacA showed complete bacteriocin activity against E. faecalis, but neither BacL1 nor BacA protein alone showed the bacteriocin activity. Interestingly, BacL1 alone demonstrated substantial degrading activity against the cell wall fraction of E. faecalis in the absence of BacA. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF MS analysis revealed that BacL1 has a peptidoglycan D-isoglutamyl-L-lysine endopeptidase activity via a NlpC/P60 homology domain. These results collectively suggest that BacL1 serves as a peptidoglycan hydrolase and, when BacA is present, results in the lysis of viable E. faecalis cells.

  4. Alterations in plasma prolyl endopeptidase activity in depression, mania, and schizophrenia: effects of antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Goossens, F; Scharpé, S; Calabrese, J; Desnyder, R; Meltzer, H Y

    1995-10-16

    The activity of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP), a serine proteinase, has been found to be significantly lower in the blood of patients with major depression than in normal volunteers. The present study investigates plasma PEP activity in 25 major depressed, 10 manic, and 14 schizophrenic subjects versus 30 normal volunteers. It also examines the effects of antidepressants, valproate, and neuroleptic drugs on plasma PEP activity. PEP activity was significantly lower in major depressed subjects than in normal volunteers and in patients with mania and schizophrenia. In depressed subjects, plasma PEP activity was significantly increased during treatment with antidepressant drugs, such as fluoxetine. Plasma PEP activity was significantly increased in manic and schizophrenic subjects compared with normal volunteers. In manic subjects, short-term treatment with valproate had a significant suppressive effect on PEP activity. No significant effects of neuroleptics on PEP activity could be found in the schizophrenic patients. The results support the hypothesis that lower PEP activity could play a role in the pathophysiology of major depression, while increased PEP activity may be related to psychotic conditions, such as mania and schizophrenia.

  5. The mecillinam resistome reveals a role for peptidoglycan endopeptidases in stimulating cell wall synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghee Chuan Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG. Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli. Low-throughput selections for mecillinam resistance have historically been useful in defining mechanisms involved in cell wall biogenesis and the killing activity of beta-lactam antibiotics. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-Seq as a high-throughput method to identify nearly all mecillinam resistance loci in the E. coli genome, providing a comprehensive resource for uncovering new mechanisms underlying PG assembly and drug resistance. Induction of the stringent response or the Rcs envelope stress response has been previously implicated in mecillinam resistance. We therefore also performed the Tn-Seq analysis in mutants defective for these responses in addition to wild-type cells. Thus, the utility of the dataset was greatly enhanced by determining the stress response dependence of each resistance locus in the resistome. Reasoning that stress response-independent resistance loci are those most likely to identify direct modulators of cell wall biogenesis, we focused our downstream analysis on this subset of the resistome. Characterization of one of these alleles led to the surprising discovery that the overproduction of endopeptidase enzymes that cleave crosslinks in the cell wall promotes mecillinam resistance by stimulating PG synthesis by a subset of PBPs. Our analysis of this activation mechanism suggests that, contrary to the prevailing view in the field, PG synthases and PG cleaving enzymes need not function in multi

  6. Serum activities of adenosine deaminase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and prolyl endopeptidase in patients with fibromyalgia: diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulić, Ognjen; Cordero, Mario D; Žanić-Grubišić, Tihana; Somborac-Bačura, Anita; Pučar, Lara Batičić; Detel, Dijana; Varljen, Jadranka; Barišić, Karmela

    2016-10-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic pain syndrome with number of symptoms that present challenge in terms of diagnosis and treatment. Patients with FM show abnormal profile of purines in plasma. In this work, we measured serum activities of enzymes involved in purine metabolism, namely total adenosine deaminase (ADE) and its isoforms (ADE1 and ADE2), ecto-ATPase, and 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT). We also measured activity of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) and prolyl endopeptidase (PEP). Spectrophotometric and fluorometric methods were used for enzyme activity determinations. Enzyme activities were measured in sera of 24 patients with FM that were not undergoing pharmacological treatment during the study. Control group comprised 32 healthy control subjects. Significantly higher activities of total ADE (P = 0.025) and ADE2 (P = 0.011) were observed in FM patients, while no significant differences in ADE1, ecto-ATPase, and 5'-NT activities (P > 0.05) were found when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, increase in the activity of DPPIV (P = 0.015) and lower activity of PEP (P = 0.011) were also found in the FM group. ROC analysis pointed to different diagnostic sensitivities/specificities for individual enzyme activities measured as follows: ADE (50.0/87.5), ADE2 (41.7/90.6), DPPIV (62.5/71.9), and PEP (83.3/62.5). ADE2 and PEP were shown to be independent predictors of FM, while combination of the two gives AUC of 0.786 (95 % confidence interval of 0.656-0.885, P < 0.05). Our results are showing that serum activities of ADE2 and PEP could be useful as biomarkers for FM diagnosis. However, relatively low diagnostic sensitivity of ADE2 and specificity of PEP must be taken into account.

  7. Cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema in mice is associated with prolyl endopeptidase, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelink, Pim J.; Henricks, Paul A. J.; Jackson, Patricia L.; Nijkamp, Frans P.; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D.; Blalock, J. Edwin; Folkerts, Gert

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP), derived from the breakdown of the extracellular matrix, plays an important role in neutrophil recruitment to the lung. PGP formation is a multistep process involving neutrophils, metalloproteinases (MMPs), and prolyl endopeptidase (PE). This cascade of events is now investigated in the development of lung emphysema. A/J mice were whole body exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 wk. After 20 wk or 8 wk after smoking cessation, animals were killed, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue were collected to analyze the neutrophilic airway inflammation, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels. Lung tissue degradation was assessed by measuring the mean linear intercept. Additionally, we investigated the effect of the peptide l-arginine-threonine-arginine (RTR), which binds to PGP sequences, on the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days of smoke exposure. Neutrophilic airway inflammation was induced by cigarette smoke exposure. MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, PE activity, and PGP levels were elevated in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. PE was highly expressed in epithelial and inflammatory cells (macrophages and neutrophils) in lung tissue of cigarette smoke-exposed mice. After smoking cessation, the neutrophil influx, the MMP-8 and MMP-9 levels, the PE activity, and the PGP levels were decreased or reduced to normal levels. Moreover, RTR inhibited the smoke-induced neutrophil influx in the lung after 5 days' smoke exposure. In the present murine model of cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema, it is demonstrated for the first time that all relevant components (neutrophils, MMP-8, MMP-9, PE) involved in PGP formation from collagen are upregulated in the airways. Together with MMPs, PE may play an important role in the formation of PGP and thus in the pathophysiology of lung emphysema. PMID:21112944

  8. Dual neural endopeptidase/endothelin-converting [corrected] enzyme inhibition improves endothelial function in mesenteric resistance arteries of young spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Nelissen, Jelly; Meens, Merlijn J P M T;

    2012-01-01

    through cleavage of big ET1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and neutral endopeptidase (NEP). METHOD: We investigated whether the dual NEP/ECE inhibitor SOL1 improves resistance artery function and structure in 12 weeks old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and whether arterial structural...... responses to decreased (-90%) or increased (+100%) blood flow are impaired in young SHRs. To this end two groups of SHRs received chronic 4-week treatment at two different time points (4-8 and 8-12 weeks) prior to the experiment. We compared in-vitro effects of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition (1 μmol...

  9. Interactions between neutral endopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.11) and the substance P (NK1) receptor expressed in mammalian cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, A.; Lovett, M; Payan, D G; Bunnett, N W

    1994-01-01

    Interactions between neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP) and the substance P receptor (SPR; NK1) were investigated by examining substance P (SP) degradation, SP binding and SP-induced Ca2+ mobilization in epithelial cells transfected with cDNA encoding the rat SPR and rat NEP. Expression of NEP accelerated the degradation of SP by intact epithelial cells and by membrane preparations, and degradation was reduced by the NEP inhibitor thiorphan. In cells expressing SPR alone, specific 125I-SP bind...

  10. Effect of endopeptidase-24.11 inhibitors and C-ANP receptor ligand on responses evoked in arterioles of rat cremaster muscle by atrial natriuretic peptide.

    OpenAIRE

    Peyroux, J.; Beslot, F.; Claperon, N; Fournie-Zaluski, M C; Roques, B P

    1995-01-01

    1. The present study examined the effect of exogenous atrial natriuretric peptide (ANP), alone or in presence of inhibitors of the two major mechanisms for clearing ANP, metabolism by neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (NEP) and internalization by C-ANP receptors, on arteriolar responses using intravital microscopy on the rat cremaster muscle after intravenous or topical administration of the peptide. 2. Topical application of ANP (3 x 10(-10) to 3 x 10(-8) M) produced a gradual increase in arteriol...

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1 is involved in pathogen defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eHöwing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a genetically determined process in all multicellular organisms. Plant PCD is effected by a unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases (CysEP with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (KDEL CysEP. KDEL CysEPs can be stored as pro-enzymes in ER-derived endomembrane compartments and are released as mature CysEPs in the final stages of organelle disintegration. KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated hydroxyprolines of the extensins that form the basic scaffold of the cell wall. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3 are expressed. Cell- and tissue-specific activities of these three genes suggest that KDEL CysEPs participate in the abscission of flower organs and in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD as well as in developmental tissue remodelling.We observed that AtCEP1 is expressed in response to biotic stress stimuli in the leaf. atcep1 knockout mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum. A translational fusion protein of AtCEP1 with a three-fold hemaglutinin-tag and the green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous AtCEP1 promoter (PCEP1::pre-pro-3xHA-EGFP-AtCEP1-KDEL rescued the pathogenesis phenotype demonstrating the function of AtCEP1 in restriction of powdery mildew. The spatiotemporal AtCEP1-reporter expression during fungal infection together with microscopic inspection of the interaction phenotype suggested a function of AtCEP1 in controlling late stages of compatible interaction including late epidermal cell death. Additionally, expression of stress response genes appeared to be deregulated in the interaction of atcep1 mutants and E. cruciferarum. Possible functions of AtCEP1 in restricting parasitic success of the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungus are discussed.

  12. Prognostic significance of the combined expression of neutral endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase IV in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients after surgery resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu JY

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jianyong Zhu,1,* XiaoDong Guo,2,* Baoan Qiu,1 Zhiyan Li,2 Nianxin Xia,1 Yingxiang Yang,1 Peng Liu1 1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Navy General Hospital, PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of China; 2302 Hospital of PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of neutral endopeptidase (NEP and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV proteins, and the clinical significance of the two proteins in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC. Methods: Expression patterns and subcellular localizations of NEP and DPP IV proteins in 186 primary IHCC and 60 noncancerous liver tissue specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry. Results: Both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins in IHCC tissues were significantly higher than those in noncancerous liver tissues (both P<0.001. Of 186 patients with IHCC, 128 (68.82% highly expressed both NEP and DPP IV proteins. In addition, the coexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.009, positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.016 and distant metastasis (P=0.013, and the presence of recurrence (P=0.027. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that IHCC patients with high NEP expression, high DPP IV expression, and combined overexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins all had poorer overall survival and early recurrence after surgery. Furthermore, Cox analysis suggested that NEP expression, DPP IV expression, and combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins were all independent prognostic markers for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with IHCC. Conclusion: Our data suggest, for the first time, that both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may be upregulated in human IHCC tissues and the combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may play important roles in progression and prognosis of patients

  13. Alegoría y sátira social en el género chico: 'Ortografía', de Arniches, Cantó y Chapí

    OpenAIRE

    Rosal Nadales, María; Rosal Nadales, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza la crítica social, a finales del siglo XIX en España, ejercida a través de una obra del Género Chico: Ortografía. Se trata de una revista musical de Carlos Arniches, Gonzalo Cantó y el compositor Ruperto Chapí, estrenada en Madrid en 1888. Música, texto y puesta en escena constituyen el marco de atención en el que recursos retóricos, escénicos y musicales componen una sátira social, a partir del simbolismo asignado a las letras del alfabeto y a lo...

  14. Synthesis of (N-[[sup 11]C]methyl)Y-29794, a competitive inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase. [2-(8-dimethylaminoctylthio)-6-isopropyl-3-pyridyl-2-thienyl ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambous, A.; Mangner, T.J.; Kilbourn, M.R. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Div. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1994-06-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP:[E.C.3.4.21.26]) is a widely distributed serine peptidase that cleaves a variety of oligopeptides in the brain and peripheral tissues. Y-29794 2-(8-dimethylaminooctylthio)-(6-isopropyl-3-pyridyl-2-thienyl ketone) is a potent competitive reversible inhibitor of this enzyme. In order to study the biodistribution of PEP in vivo we have synthesized (N[[sup 11]C]methyl)Y-29794, by [[sup 11]C]alkylation of the N-desmethyl precursor. The radiotracer was purified by silica gel Sep-Pak and was obtained in 10-17% yields (EOB: synthesis times shorter than 45 min) with >98% radiochemical purities and specific activities >550 Ci/mmol (EOS). (Author).

  15. Effects of a Proline Endopeptidase on the Detection and Quantitation of Gluten by Antibody-Based Methods during the Fermentation of a Model Sorghum Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Fiedler, Katherine L; Cho, Chung Y; Cheng, Raymond; Stutts, Whitney L; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-12-09

    The effectiveness of a proline endopeptidase (PEP) in hydrolyzing gluten and its putative immunopathogenic sequences was examined using antibody-based methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Based on the results of the antibody-based methods, fermentation of wheat gluten containing sorghum beer resulted in a reduction in the detectable gluten concentration. The addition of PEP further reduced the gluten concentration. Only one sandwich ELISA was able to detect the apparent low levels of gluten present in the beers. A competitive ELISA using a pepsin-trypsin hydrolysate calibrant was unreliable because the peptide profiles of the beers were inconsistent with that of the hydrolysate calibrant. Analysis by MS indicated that PEP enhanced the loss of a fragment of an immunopathogenic 33-mer peptide in the beer. However, Western blot results indicated partial resistance of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins to the action of PEP, questioning the ability of PEP in digesting all immunopathogenic sequences present in gluten.

  16. Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Regulski

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75 was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1 major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23.

  17. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptor and epoxide inhibitors--potent and selective inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus legumains (asparaginyl endopeptidases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovat, Asli; Muindi, Fanuel; Fagan, Crystal; Brouner, Michelle; Hansell, Elizabeth; Dvorák, Jan; Sojka, Daniel; Kopácek, Petr; McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor R; Powers, James C

    2009-11-26

    Aza-peptide Michael acceptors and epoxides with the general structure of YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-trans-CH horizontal lineCHCOR and YCO-Ala-Ala-AAsn-EP-COR, respectively, are shown to be potent inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from the bloodfluke, Schistosoma mansoni (SmAE), and the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus (IrAE). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) were determined for a set of 41 aza-peptide Michael acceptors and eight aza-peptide epoxides. Both enzymes prefer disubstituted amides to monosubstituted amides in the P1' position, and potency increased as we increased the hydrophobicity of the inhibitor in this position. Extending the inhibitor to P5 resulted in increased potency, especially against IrAE, and both enzymes prefer small over large hydrophobic residues at P2. Aza-peptide Michael acceptor inhibitors are more potent than aza-peptide epoxide inhibitors, and for some of these compounds, second-order inhibiton rate constants are the fastest yet discovered. Given the central functions of these enzymes in both parasites, the data presented here may facilitate the eventual design of selective antiparasitic drugs.

  18. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity.

  19. Cytoplasmic expression of mature glycylglycine endopeptidase lysostaphin with an amino terminal hexa-histidine in a soluble and catalytically active form in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Sharma, Poonam R; Choudhary, Manohar L; Pande, Amit; Khatri, Ghan Shyam

    2006-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a major problem in the world, causing hospital acquired infections and the infections/pathogenesis in community. Lysostaphin is a novel therapeutic molecule to kill the multidrug-resistant S. aureus. Mature lysostaphin is a single polypeptide (approximately 27 kDa) chain metalloprotease glycylglycine endopeptidase, capable of specifically hydrolyzing penta-glycine crosslinks present in the peptidoglycan of the S. aureus cell wall. The mature lysostaphin gene of Staphylococcus simulans has been cloned and overexpressed in the cytoplasm of E. coli with amino terminal hexa-histidine as a fusion partner under the transcriptional control of bacteriophage T7 phi 10 promoter/lac operator and ribosome binding site. The transformed E. coli BL21 (lambdaDE3) cells produced catalytically active soluble (His)6-lysostaphin fusion protein in the cytoplasm representing approximately 20% of the total cellular proteins. The fusion protein was purified to homogeneity using a single chromatographic step of IMAC on Ni-NTA agarose. The present cloning, expression, and purification procedure of recombinant lysostaphin from a non-pathogenic organism E. coli enables preparation of large quantity of r-lysostaphin for structure function studies and evaluation of its clinical potential in therapy and prophylaxis of staphylococcal infections.

  20. Effect of pre-treatment on the generation of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV- and prolyl endopeptidase-inhibitory hydrolysates from bovine lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafarga T.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different pre-treatments, high temperature (100 °C, 5 min and high pressure (600 MPa, 3 min, on the potential of the enzymes papain, collagenase and Alcalase® to generate bioactive hydrolysates containing dipeptidyl peptidase-IV- (DPP-IV; EC 3.4.14.5 and prolyl endopeptidase- (PEP; EC 3.4.21.26 inhibitory peptides from bovine lung. Both pre-treatments resulted in an increase in the degree of hydrolysis over a 24 h period (P < 0.001 and significantly increased the DPP-IV- and PEP-inhibitory activities of the generated hydrolysates (P < 0.001. Generated hydrolysates included an Alcalase hydrolysate of pressure-treated bovine lung, which was the most active, and showed DPP-IV and PEP half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values of 1.43 ± 0.06 and 3.62 ± 0.07 mg/ mL, respectively. The major peptides contained in this hydrolysate were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and results demonstrated that bovine lung is a good substrate for the release of bioactive peptides when proper pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment are applied.

  1. Binding of Streptococcus pneumoniae endopeptidase O (PepO) to complement component C1q modulates the complement attack and promotes host cell adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vaibhav; Sroka, Magdalena; Fulde, Marcus; Bergmann, Simone; Riesbeck, Kristian; Blom, Anna M

    2014-05-30

    The Gram-positive species Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathogen causing severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases associated with high mortality rates and death. We demonstrated recently that pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) is a ubiquitously expressed, multifunctional plasminogen and fibronectin-binding protein facilitating host cell invasion and evasion of innate immunity. In this study, we found that PepO interacts directly with the complement C1q protein, thereby attenuating the classical complement pathway and facilitating pneumococcal complement escape. PepO binds both free C1q and C1 complex in a dose-dependent manner based on ionic interactions. Our results indicate that recombinant PepO specifically inhibits the classical pathway of complement activation in both hemolytic and complement deposition assays. This inhibition is due to direct interaction of PepO with C1q, leading to a strong activation of the classical complement pathway, and results in consumption of complement components. In addition, PepO binds the classical complement pathway inhibitor C4BP, thereby regulating downstream complement activation. Importantly, pneumococcal surface-exposed PepO-C1q interaction mediates bacterial adherence to host epithelial cells. Taken together, PepO facilitates C1q-mediated bacterial adherence, whereas its localized release consumes complement as a result of its activation following binding of C1q, thus representing an additional mechanism of human complement escape by this versatile pathogen.

  2. Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), IL-1β secretion, and asparagine endopeptidase are critical factors for alveolar macrophage phagocytosis and bacterial killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Delphyne; Le Gars, Mathieu; Balloy, Viviane; Barbier, Diane; Maschalidi, Sophia; Tohme, Mira; Chignard, Michel; Ramphal, Reuben; Manoury, Bénédicte; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-31

    A deficit in early clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is crucial in nosocomial pneumonia and in chronic lung infections. Few studies have addressed the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are early pathogen associated molecular pattern receptors, in pathogen uptake and clearance by alveolar macrophages (AMs). Here, we report that TLR5 engagement is crucial for bacterial clearance by AMs in vitro and in vivo because unflagellated P. aeruginosa or different mutants defective in TLR5 activation were resistant to AM phagocytosis and killing. In addition, the clearance of PAK (a wild-type P. aeruginosa strain) by primary AMs was causally associated with increased IL-1β release, which was dramatically reduced with PAK mutants or in WT PAK-infected primary TLR5(-/-) AMs, demonstrating the dependence of IL-1β production on TLR5. We showed that this IL-1β production was important in endosomal pH acidification and in inducing the killing of bacteria by AMs through asparagine endopeptidase (AEP), a key endosomal cysteine protease. In agreement, AMs from IL-1R1(-/-) and AEP(-/-) mice were unable to kill P. aeruginosa. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that TLR5 engagement plays a major role in P. aeruginosa internalization and in triggering IL-1β formation.

  3. Abundance of cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis is regulated by different stimuli from prey through jasmonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Libiaková

    Full Text Available The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl and P(K stimulation on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA but jasmonic acid (JA and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, salicylic acid (SA and abscisic acid (ABA did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed.

  4. Abundance of cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) is regulated by different stimuli from prey through jasmonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libiaková, Michaela; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L'udmila; Pavlovič, Andrej

    2014-01-01

    The trap of the carnivorous plant Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) catches prey by very rapid closure of its modified leaves. After the rapid closure secures the prey, repeated mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs by struggling prey and the generation of action potentials (APs) result in secretion of digestive fluid. Once the prey's movement stops, the secretion is maintained by chemical stimuli released from digested prey. We investigated the effect of mechanical and chemical stimulation (NH4Cl, KH2PO4, further N(Cl) and P(K) stimulation) on enzyme activities in digestive fluid. Activities of β-D-glucosidases and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidases were not detected. Acid phosphatase activity was higher in N(Cl) stimulated traps while proteolytic activity was higher in both chemically induced traps in comparison to mechanical stimulation. This is in accordance with higher abundance of recently described enzyme cysteine endopeptidase dionain in digestive fluid of chemically induced traps. Mechanical stimulation induced high levels of cis-12-oxophytodienoic acid (cis-OPDA) but jasmonic acid (JA) and its isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile) accumulated to higher level after chemical stimulation. The concentration of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA) did not change significantly. The external application of JA bypassed the mechanical and chemical stimulation and induced a high abundance of dionain and proteolytic activity in digestive fluid. These results document the role of jasmonates in regulation of proteolytic activity in response to different stimuli from captured prey. The double trigger mechanism in protein digestion is proposed.

  5. Genetic homogeneity but IgG subclass-dependent clinical variability of alloimmune membranous nephropathy with anti-neutral endopeptidase antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivarelli, Marina; Emma, Francesco; Pellé, Thimothée; Gerken, Christopher; Pedicelli, Stefania; Diomedi-Camassei, Francesca; Klaus, Günter; Waldegger, Siegfried; Ronco, Pierre; Debiec, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Alloimmune antenatal membranous nephropathy (MN) during pregnancy results from antibodies produced by a neutral endopeptidase (NEP)-deficient mother. Here we report two recent cases that provide clues to the severity of renal disease. Mothers of the two children had circulating antibodies against NEP showing the characteristic species-dependent pattern by immunofluorescence on kidney slices. A German mother produced predominantly anti-NEP IgG4 accompanied by a low amount of IgG1. Her child recovered renal function within a few weeks. In sharp contrast, an Italian mother mainly produced complement-fixing anti-NEP IgG1, which also inhibits NEP enzymatic activity, whereas anti-NEP IgG4 has a weak inhibitory potency. Her child was dialyzed for several weeks. A kidney biopsy performed at 12 days of age showed MN, ischemic glomeruli, and arteriolar and tubular lesions. A second biopsy performed at 12 weeks of age showed aggravation with an increased number of collapsed capillary tufts. Both mothers were homozygous for the truncating deletion mutation 466delC and were thus NEP deficient. The 466delC mutation, identified in three previously described families, suggests a founder effect. Because of the potential severity of alloimmune antenatal MN, it is essential to identify families at risk by the detection of anti-NEP antibodies and NEP antigen in urine. On the basis of the five families identified to date, we propose an algorithm for the diagnosis of the disease and the prevention of complications.

  6. Streptococcus pyogenes Endopeptidase O Contributes to Evasion from Complement-mediated Bacteriolysis via Binding to Human Complement Factor C1q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda-Ogawa, Mariko; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Mori, Yasushi; Hamd, Dalia Talat; Ogawa, Taiji; Yamaguchi, Masaya; Nakata, Masanobu; Kawabata, Shigetada

    2017-03-10

    Streptococcus pyogenes secretes various virulence factors for evasion from complement-mediated bacteriolysis. However, full understanding of the molecules possessed by this organism that interact with complement C1q, an initiator of the classical complement pathway, remains elusive. In this study, we identified an endopeptidase of S. pyogenes, PepO, as an interacting molecule, and investigated its effects on complement immunity and pathogenesis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and surface plasmon resonance analysis findings revealed that S. pyogenes recombinant PepO bound to human C1q in a concentration-dependent manner under physiological conditions. Sites of inflammation are known to have decreased pH levels, thus the effects of PepO on bacterial evasion from complement immunity was analyzed in a low pH condition. Notably, under low pH conditions, PepO exhibited a higher affinity for C1q as compared with IgG, and PepO inhibited the binding of IgG to C1q. In addition, pepO deletion rendered S. pyogenes more susceptible to the bacteriocidal activity of human serum. Also, observations of the morphological features of the pepO mutant strain (ΔpepO) showed damaged irregular surfaces as compared with the wild-type strain (WT). WT-infected tissues exhibited greater severity and lower complement activity as compared with those infected by ΔpepO in a mouse skin infection model. Furthermore, WT infection resulted in a larger accumulation of C1q than that with ΔpepO. Our results suggest that interaction of S. pyogenes PepO with C1q interferes with the complement pathway, which enables S. pyogenes to evade complement-mediated bacteriolysis under acidic conditions, such as seen in inflammatory sites. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Potent new small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase developed by synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a K(i (app value of 3.8+/-0.8 microM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC(50 value of 100 microM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 A(2 for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750-1,500 A(2. Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a K(i value of 760+/-170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD. This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight

  8. Treatment of both native and deamidated gluten peptides with an endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger prevents stimulation of gut-derived gluten-reactive T cells from either children or adults with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Karina Søndergård; Nielsen, Anne Staal

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by an inappropriate immunological reaction against gluten driven by gluten-specific CD4+ T cells. We screened 25 proteases and tested 10 for their potential to degrade gluten in vitro. Five proteases were further tested for their ability to prevent...... the proliferative response by a gluten-specific CD4+ T cell clone and seven gluten-reactive T cell lines to protease-digested gluten peptides. A proline-specific endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger (AnP2), was particularly efficient at diminishing proliferation after stimulation with cleaved antigen, and could...... completely block the response against both native and deamidated gluten peptides. We found that AnP2 was efficient down to a 1:64 protease:substrate ratio (w:w). When AnP2 was tested in assays using seven gluten-reactive T cell lines from individual CD patients (three adults and four children), the response...

  9. Synthesis of N-[l brace]N-[4-(4-[l brace]N-[[sup 11]C]methylamino[r brace]phenyl)butyryl]-L-prolyl[r brace]pyrrolidine: a potential radiotracer for prolyl endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dort, M.E. van; Kilbourn, M.R.; Mangner, T.J. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). School of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    The synthesis of the 4-[[sup 11]C]methylamino derivative of N-[l brace]N-[4-(4-Aminophenyl)butyryl]-L-proly[r brace]pyrrolidine (SUAM-1221), is described as a potential marker for prolyl endopeptidase for in vivo positron emission tomography studies. Direct methylation of the 4-amino derivative of SUAM-1221 (1) with methyl iodide provided a mixture of the 4-monomethyl (2) and 4-dimethylamino (3) derivatives which were separated by chromatography. Methylation of 1 with [[sup 11]C]methyl iodide provided the 4-[[sup 11]C]methylamino derivative of SUAM-1221, ([[sup 11]C]2), in 18-30% decay corrected radiochemical yield after HPLC purification, with a specific activity > 1700 Ci/mmol and a 40 minute synthesis time from end of bombardment. (author).

  10. Treatment of both native and deamidated gluten peptides with an endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger prevents stimulation of gut-derived gluten-reactive T cells from either children or adults with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Karina S; Staal, Anne; Roggen, Erwin L; Sollid, Ludvig M; Lillevang, Søren T; Barington, Torben; Husby, Steffen

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is characterized by an inappropriate immunological reaction against gluten driven by gluten-specific CD4+ T cells. We screened 25 proteases and tested 10 for their potential to degrade gluten in vitro. Five proteases were further tested for their ability to prevent the proliferative response by a gluten-specific CD4+ T cell clone and seven gluten-reactive T cell lines to protease-digested gluten peptides. A proline-specific endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger (AnP2) was particularly efficient at diminishing proliferation after stimulation with cleaved antigen, and could completely block the response against both native and deamidated gluten peptides. We found that AnP2 was efficient down to a 1:64 protease:substrate ratio (w:w). When AnP2 was tested in assays using seven gluten-reactive T cell lines from individual CD patients (three adults and four children), the response to gluten was diminished in all cases. Our study indicates a therapeutic benefit of AnP2 to CD patients.

  11. A Novel Chimeric Endolysin with Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Haddad Kashani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP and amidase are known as catalytic domains of the bacteriophage-derived endolysin LysK and were previously reported to show lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. In the current study, the in silico design and analysis of chimeric CHAP-amidase model was applied to enhance the stability and solubility of protein, which was achieved through improving the properties of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. The coding gene sequence of the chimeric CHAP-amidase was synthesized and subcloned into the pET-22(+ expression vector, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3 strain. Subsequent affinity-based purification yielded ~12 mg soluble protein per liter of E. coli culture. Statistical analysis indicated that concentrations of ≥1 μg/mL of the purified protein have significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus MRSA252 cells. The engineered chimeric CHAP-amidase exhibited 3.2 log reduction of MRSA252 cell counts at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. A synergistic interaction between CHAP-amidase and vancomycin was detected by using checkerboard assay and calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC index. This synergistic effect was shown by 8-fold reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin. The chimeric CHAP-amidase displayed strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and enterococcus. However, it did not indicate any significant antibacterial activity against E. coli and Lactococcus lactis. Taken together, these findings suggest that our chimeric CHAP-amidase might represent potential to be used for the development of efficient antibacterial therapies targeting MRSA and certain Gram-positive bacteria.

  12. Anti-Angiogenic Action of Neutral Endopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    kidney , intestine, endometrium, adrenal glands, and lung. This enzyme cleaves peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids and inactivates...Kintscher U et al. Leptin induces endothelial cell migration through Akt, which is inhibited by PPARgamma-ligands. Hypertension 2002; 40: 748–754

  13. A Study of Cloud Processing of Organic Aerosols Using Models and CHAPS Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervens, Barbara [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-01-17

    The main theme of our work has been the identification of parameters that mostly affect the formation and modification of aerosol particles and their interaction with water vapor. Our detailed process model studies led to simplifications/parameterizations of these effects that bridge detailed aerosol information from laboratory and field studies and the need for computationally efficient expressions in complex atmospheric models. One focus of our studies has been organic aerosol mass that is formed in the atmosphere by physical and/or chemical processes (secondary organic aerosol, SOA) and represents a large fraction of atmospheric particulate matter. Most current models only describe SOA formation by condensation of low volatility (or semivolatile) gas phase products and neglect processes in the aqueous phase of particles or cloud droplets that differently affect aerosol size and vertical distribution and chemical composition (hygroscopicity). We developed and applied models of aqueous phase SOA formation in cloud droplets and aerosol particles (aqSOA). Placing our model results into the context of laboratory, model and field studies suggests a potentially significant contribution of aqSOA to the global organic mass loading. The second focus of our work has been the analysis of ambient data of particles that might act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) at different locations and emission scenarios. Our model studies showed that the description of particle chemical composition and mixing state can often be greatly simplified, in particular in aged aerosol. While over the past years many CCN studies have been successful performed by using such simplified composition/mixing state assumptions, much more uncertainty exists in aerosol-cloud interactions in cold clouds (ice or mixed-phase). Therefore we extended our parcel model that describes warm cloud formation by ice microphysics and explored microphysical parameters that determine the phase state and lifetime of Arctic mixed-phase clouds.

  14. New centre of gravity in wind mill industry; ChapDrive: Nytt tyngdepunkt i vindmoelleindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Oil in pipes might still be of great importance when Norway is getting emission free energy from the North Sea. The innovators in CharDrive use hydraulics to make the huge ocean mills less top heavy and easier to operate. (AG)

  15. The Compact Hyperspectral Aberration-corrected Platform (CHAP), an instrument for microspacecraft. Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-situ analysis of solar system bodies plays a crucial role in understanding the evolution of our planet, setting the stage for life's origins. As has been...

  16. Human embryonic stem cells as a model for cardiac gene discovery : from chip to chap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beqqali, A.

    2008-01-01

    Here we described the use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model to obtain insights into commitment to the mesoderm and endoderm lineages and the early steps in human cardiac cell differentiation by means of whole-genome temporal expression profiling. Furthermore, we used it as an approach

  17. Corps Helicopter Attack Planning System (CHAPS). Positional Handbook. Appendix C. Database Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    the user. DFIG - LLTR - DG TO X-OFF ON INGRESS 3 Program calculated danger for each generic aircraft type from each transit corridor access point to IFF...REAL 20 -5 NM N/A N/A 230 DFEG REAL 30 -5 DANGER N/A N/A 230 DFIG REAL 30 -5 DANGER N/A N/A 230 DNEG REAL 30 -5 DANGER N/A N/A 230 1 DNIG REAL 30 -5

  18. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  19. Bacteriophage-derived CHAP domain protein, P128, kills Staphylococcus cells by cleaving interpeptide cross-bridge of peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarrajan, Sudarson; Raghupatil, Junjappa; Vipra, Aradhana; Narasimhaswamy, Nagalakshmi; Saravanan, Sanjeev; Appaiah, Chemira; Poonacha, Nethravathi; Desai, Srividya; Nair, Sandhya; Bhatt, Rajagopala Narayana; Roy, Panchali; Chikkamadaiah, Ravisha; Durgaiah, Murali; Sriram, Bharathi; Padmanabhan, Sriram; Sharma, Umender

    2014-10-01

    P128 is an anti-staphylococcal protein consisting of the Staphylococcus aureus phage-K-derived tail-associated muralytic enzyme (TAME) catalytic domain (Lys16) fused with the cell-wall-binding SH3b domain of lysostaphin. In order to understand the mechanism of action and emergence of resistance to P128, we isolated mutants of Staphylococcus spp., including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), resistant to P128. In addition to P128, the mutants also showed resistance to Lys16, the catalytic domain of P128. The mutants showed loss of fitness as shown by reduced rate of growth in vitro. One of the mutants tested was found to show reduced virulence in animal models of S. aureus septicaemia suggesting loss of fitness in vivo as well. Analysis of the antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that the mutants derived from MRSA strains had become sensitive to meticillin and other β-lactams. Interestingly, the mutant cells were resistant to the lytic action of phage K, although the phage was able to adsorb to these cells. Sequencing of the femA gene of three P128-resistant mutants showed either a truncation or deletion in femA, suggesting that improper cross-bridge formation in S. aureus could be causing resistance to P128. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptides as substrates it was found that both P128 and Lys16 were capable of cleaving a pentaglycine sequence, suggesting that P128 might be killing S. aureus by cleaving the pentaglycine cross-bridge of peptidoglycan. Moreover, peptides corresponding to the reported cross-bridge of Staphylococcus haemolyticus (GGSGG, AGSGG), which were not cleaved by lysostaphin, were cleaved efficiently by P128. This was also reflected in high sensitivity of S. haemolyticus to P128. This showed that in spite of sharing a common mechanism of action with lysostaphin, P128 has unique properties, which allow it to act on certain lysostaphin-resistant Staphylococcus strains.

  20. Serotype-Selective, Small-Molecule Inhibitors of the Zinc Endopeptidase of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    this biphasic mixture, 1.5 mL (1.5 mmol) of 1.0 N HCl was added. The phases were separated and the aque - ous phase was washed with 40 mL EtOAc. The...Kessler, K. R.; Benecke, R. Neurotoxicology 1997 , 18, 761. 3. Springen,K.; Raymond, J.; Skipp, C.; Scelfo, J.; Smalley, S. Newsweek 2002, 50. 4. Singh, B. R...Tetrahedron 2001, 57, 9951. 47. Schmidt, J. J.; Bostian, K. A. J. Protein Chem. 1997 , 16, 19. 48. Schmidt, J. J.; Stafford, R. G. Appl. Environ

  1. Targeting prolyl endopeptidase with valproic acid as a potential modulator of neutrophilic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Abdul Roda

    Full Text Available A novel neutrophil chemoattractant derived from collagen, proline-glycine-proline (PGP, has been recently characterized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This peptide is derived via the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's-8/9 and PE, enzymes produced by neutrophils and present in COPD serum and sputum. Valproic acid (VPA is an inhibitor of PE and could possibly have an effect on the severity of chronic inflammation. Here the interaction site of VPA to PE and the resulting effect on the secondary structure of PE is investigated. Also, the potential inhibition of PGP-generation by VPA was examined in vitro and in vivo to improve our understanding of the biological role of VPA. UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, CD and NMR were used to determine kinetic information and structural interactions between VPA and PE. In vitro, PGP generation was significantly inhibited by VPA. In vivo, VPA significantly reduced cigarette-smoke induced neutrophil influx. Investigating the molecular interaction between VPA and PE showed that VPA modified the secondary structure of PE, making substrate binding at the catalytic side of PE impossible. Revealing the molecular interaction VPA to PE may lead to a better understanding of the involvement of PE and PGP in inflammatory conditions. In addition, the model of VPA interaction with PE suggests that PE inhibitors have a great potential to serve as therapeutics in inflammatory disorders.

  2. Targeting prolyl endopeptidase with valproic acid as a potential modulator of neutrophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Roda, Mojtaba; Sadik, Mariam; Gaggar, Amit; Hardison, Matthew T; Jablonsky, Michael J; Braber, Saskia; Blalock, James Edwin; Redegeld, Frank A; Folkerts, Gert; Jackson, Patricia L

    2014-01-01

    A novel neutrophil chemoattractant derived from collagen, proline-glycine-proline (PGP), has been recently characterized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This peptide is derived via the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's)-8/9 and PE, enzymes produced by neutrophil

  3. CD10 (Neutral Endopeptidase) Expression in Myoepithelial Cells of Salivary Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Catarina de Oliveira; Soares, Andresa Borges; Costa, Ana Flávia; de Araujo, Vera Cavalcanti; Furuse, Cristiane; Juliano, Priscila Bianchi; Altemani, Albina

    2010-03-01

    CD10 is a cell surface peptidase expressed in a wide variety of normal and neoplastic tissues, including breast myoepithelial cells. In salivary glands, expression of CD10 has only been used to identify neoplastic myoepithelial cells of pleomorphic adenomas and myoepithelial carcinomas. However, its accuracy in other salivary tumors with myoepithelial component has yet to be analyzed. We examined 72 salivary tumors with myoepithelial differentiation using immunohistochemical technique to detect CD10. In salivary glands, CD10 expression was not detected in myoepithelial cells. Only fibrocytes within the intralobular stroma were CD10 positive. In neoplastic myoepithelial cells, CD10 expression was found in 25.71% of benign and 32.43% of malignant neoplasms. When the different groups of tumors were compared, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas (EMEC) showed a stark contrast with the others (83.3% of cases with CD10 expression). Surprisingly, adenoid cystic carcinomas and basal cell adenomas were negative in 100% of the cases. Myoepitheliomas, pleomorphic adenomas, and myoepithelial carcinomas were positive in 27.7%, 30.0%, and 40% of the cases, respectively. In conclusion, salivary neoplastic myoepithelial cells gain CD10 expression in relation to their normal counterparts. However, the gain of this protein is not a sensitive marker for detecting myoepithelial cells in the majority of the tumors, except for EMEC. The high expression of CD10 by this carcinoma can be a valuable tool to separate EMEC from the tubular variant of adenoid cystic carcinomas in small incisional biopsies, where the precise diagnosis may be impossible.

  4. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held;

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  5. Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP): a subtilisin family endopeptidase with multiple virulence activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Takahisa; Murakami, Yoji; Nitta, Hidetoshi

    2017-09-26

    Aeromonas sobria serine protease (ASP) is secreted from Aeromonas sobria, a pathogen causing gastroenteritis and sepsis. ASP resembles Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kex2, a member of the subtilisin family, and preferentially cleaves peptide bonds at the C-terminal side of paired basic amino acid residues; also accepting unpaired arginine at the P1 site. Unlike Kex2, however, ASP lacks an intramolecular chaperone N-terminal propeptide, instead utilizes the external chaperone ORF2 for proper folding, therefore, ASP and its homologues constitute a new subfamily in the subtilisin family. Through activation of the kallikrein/kinin system, ASP induces vascular leakage, and presumably causes edema and septic shock. ASP accelerates plasma clotting by α-thrombin generation from prothrombin, whereas it impairs plasma clottability by fibrinogen degradation, together bringing about blood coagulation disorder that occurs in disseminated intravascular coagulation, a major complication of sepsis. From complement C5 ASP liberates C5a that induces neutrophil recruitment and superoxide release, and mast cell degranulation, which are associated with pus formation, tissue injury and diarrhea, respectively. Nicked two-chain ASP also secreted from A. sobria is more resistant to inactivation by α2-macroglobulin than single-chain ASP, thereby raising virulence activities. Thus, ASP is a potent virulence factor and may participate in the pathogenesis of A. sobria infection.

  6. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  7. Heparin modulates the endopeptidase activity of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner A S Judice

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease B is considered crucial for the survival and infectivity of the Leishmania in its human host. Several microorganism pathogens bind to the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans chains of proteoglycans at host-cell surface to promote their attachment and internalization. Here, we have investigated the influence of heparin upon Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease rCPB2.8 activity.THE DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THAT THE PRESENCE OF HEPARIN AFFECTS ALL STEPS OF THE ENZYME REACTION: (i it decreases 3.5-fold the k 1 and 4.0-fold the k -1, (ii it affects the acyl-enzyme accumulation with pronounced decrease in k 2 (2.7-fold, and also decrease in k 3 (3.5-fold. The large values of ΔG  =  12 kJ/mol for the association and dissociation steps indicate substantial structural strains linked to the formation/dissociation of the ES complex in the presence of heparin, which underscore a conformational change that prevents the diffusion of substrate in the rCPB2.8 active site. Binding to heparin also significantly decreases the α-helix content of the rCPB2.8 and perturbs the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the enzyme. The data strongly suggest that heparin is altering the ionization of catalytic (Cys(25-S(-/(His(163-Im(+ H ion pair of the rCPB2.8. Moreover, the interaction of heparin with the N-terminal pro-region of rCPB2.8 significantly decreased its inhibitory activity against the mature enzyme.Taken together, depending on their concentration, heparin-like glycosaminoglycans can either stimulate or antagonize the activity of cysteine protease B enzymes during parasite infection, suggesting that this glycoconjugate can anchor parasite cysteine protease at host cell surface.

  8. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 is important for the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in anesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Klarskov, Letty; Olesen, Mette;

    2004-01-01

    , a selective NEP inhibitor, on plasma levels of endogenous and exogenous glucagon was examined in anesthetized pigs. Candoxatril increased endogenous glucagon concentrations, from 6.3 +/- 2.5 to 20.7 +/- 6.3 pmol/l [COOH-terminal (C)-RIA, P

  9. Changes in midgut endopeptidase activity of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are responsible for adaptation to soybean proteinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulillo, L C; Lopes, A R; Cristofoletti, P T; Parra, J R; Terra, W R; Silva-Filho, M C

    2000-06-01

    The development of transgenic maize plants expressing soybean proteinase inhibitors could reduce the economic damage of one of the major maize pests in Brazil, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797). We examined the influence of soybean proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzyme properties and development of S. frugiperda larvae. The inhibition of trypsin and chymotrypsin activities in vitro by soybean proteinase inhibitors suggested that either Kunitz (SBTI) or Bowman-Birk (SBBI) would have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by insect larvae. However, chronic ingestion of semipurified soybean inhibitors did not result in a significant reduction of growth and development of fall armyworm. Therefore, digestive serine proteinase activities (trypsin and chymotrypsin) of fall armyworm larvae were characterized. The results suggest that S. frugiperda was able to physiologically adapt to dietary proteinase inhibitors by altering the complement of proteolytic enzymes in the insect midguts.

  10. Bis-imidazoles as Molecular Probes for Peripheral Sites of the Zinc Endopeptidase of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-02

    favorably with the carboxylate of Glu54 (Fig. 2). The computa- tionally predicted ionic interaction of 2e with Glu54 is supported by our measured pKa...acidic pKa value of 3h impairs the ionic interaction of 3h with Glu54 thus disabling the two-site binding of 3h. Like imidazole alone, 3h and its

  11. Modeling of CO2 Solubility in Aqueous Potassium Lysinate Solutions at Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Y.; Shen, S.

    2017-05-01

    Aqueous potassium lysinate (LysK) has been proposed as an alternative to aqueous alkanolamines for CO2 capture due to fast kinetics and large absorption capacity. However, thermodynamic modeling for aqueous LysK system has not been available yet. In this work, a modified Kent-Eisenberg model with correlated equilibrium constants was developed to interpret the vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at postcombustion capture conditions. The predictions from the developed model are in good agreement with the experimental results with AAD within 19 %.

  12. Low nasal bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap K. Schmitz MR, Rush JK, Milbrandt TA. Pediatric orthopaedics. In: Miller MD, Thompson SR, eds. Miller's Review of Orthopaedics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 3. Slavotinek A. ... . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 108. ...

  13. 76 FR 72996 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Chap 8--Physical Layer--Updates per WiMAX Forum Chap 5--Service Specific CS Chap 6--Media Access Control December 7, 2011 MOPS WG Breakout Session Discussion of Security Sub-layer--Honeywell Review...

  14. 活血化瘀法在治疗手部皲裂角化性湿疹中的应用%The effect of activating blood circulation to remove the stasis in treating keratinizing chapped hand eczema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立新; 杨顶权; 宋佩华; 白彦萍; 尤立平

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察活血化瘀法治疗手部皲裂角化性湿疹的临床疗效.方法 将患者随机分为A、B两组,A组用自拟中药外洗浸泡双手,2次/d,同时于泡手后外用糠酸莫米松乳膏1次/d和尿素霜2~3次/d,B组外用糠酸莫米松乳膏1次/d和尿素霜2~3次/d,分别在治疗第7、14天和第28天观察其疗效,并在第28天治疗后对其临床有效率进行总结.结果 两组患者在治疗前和治疗第7天评分经统计学比较无明显差异(P>0.05),但在治疗第14天和第28天时评分经统计学比较有显著性差异(P<0.01).两组患者治疗后临床有效率经统计学比较有明显差异(Z=-4.555,P<0.01)且未发现有明显不适反应.结论 活血化瘀法能够明显提高对慢性皲裂角化性湿疹的疗效,且不良反应小,值得临床推广使用.

  15. Conséquences de l'augmentation des prélèvements de biomasse ligneuse pour la biodiversité forestière : chap. 7

    OpenAIRE

    Bouget, C.; Gosselin, M.; Gosselin, F.; Bergès, L.

    2009-01-01

    What is the vulnerability of forest biodiversity in the context of the increase of wood biomass harvesting? The main drivers of forestry intensification are the following: increase in cutting and in harvesting, change in harvesting practices (whole-tree and stump harvest ), decrease in forestry cycle duration, development of forest road. The consequent changes in forest habitat would be: decrease in old stands, big and veteran trees, and dead wood?, increase in the cumulative surface of cu...

  16. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P

    2016-06-28

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement-but not remission-of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm-by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea-all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  17. Expression of Neutral Endopeptidase, Endothelin-1, and Nuclear Factor Kappa B in Prostate Cancer: Interrelations and Associations with Prostate-Specific Antigen Recurrence after Radical Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis J. Vlachostergios

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions. There seems to be a clinical model of NEP/NPs and NFκB pathways interconnection, with their constituents following inverse patterns of expression in accordance with their biological roles and molecular interrelations.

  18. Potent New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Endopeptidase Developed by Synthesis-Based Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    an equine product that causes allergic reactions in ,10% of patients [6]. In late 2003, a solution of human antibodies was licensed as ‘‘BabyBIG’’ to...Biol 351: 431–442. 26. Wang Q, Pang Y-P (2007) Accurate reproduction of 161 small-molecule complex crystal structures using the EUDOC program

  19. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Sestak; Hazel Thwin; Jason Dufour; Liu, David X.; Xavier Alvarez; David Laine; Adam Clarke; Anthony Doyle; Aye, Pyone P.; James Blanchard; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments ar...

  20. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  1. Characterisation of the active site of a newly-discovered and potentially significant post-proline cleaving endopeptidase called ZIP using LC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Gillian; Collins, Patrick; O'Connor, Brendan

    2003-01-01

    There are enzymes that specifically recognise the amino acid proline within peptides and proteins that are called post-proline cleaving enzymes. Many of them are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders and psychiatric diseases. ZIP is a newly-discovered one of these peptidases. In this work, it has been purified from bovine serum and subjected to various analytical studies in order to characterise it. A series of reactions between synthesised peptides and ZIP were carried out in order to el...

  2. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV are both mediators of the degradation of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the anaesthetised pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, A; Holst, Jens Juul; Carr, R D;

    2005-01-01

    glucose were unaffected by candoxatril, but glucose tolerance was improved (DeltaAUC(min 27-87) 118+/-5 to 74+/-14 min.mmol.l(-1); glucose elimination rate [k] 6.6+/-0.5 to 8.6+/-0.5%; pvaline pyrrolidide (a DPP-IV inhibitor), changes in C-terminal GLP-1...... pharmacokinetics mirrored those seen when candoxatril alone was administered (t(1/2) 2.7+/-0.3 and 7.7+/-0.8 min; MCR 17.3+/-2.6 and 6.5+/-0.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) for valine pyrrolidide without and with candoxatril, respectively). However, intact GLP-1 pharmacokinetics were improved (t(1/2) 2.8+/-0.3 and 7...

  3. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Karol; Thwin, Hazel; Dufour, Jason; Liu, David X.; Alvarez, Xavier; Laine, David; Clarke, Adam; Doyle, Anthony; Aye, Pyone P.; Blanchard, James; Moehs, Charles P.

    2016-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS) rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG) barley (lys3a)-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two) study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE). Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2) antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches. PMID:27367722

  4. Localization and expression of the Bacillus subtilis DL-endopeptidase LytF are influenced by mutations in LTA synthases and glycolipid anchor synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yuuka; Yazawa, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tatsuhito; Yoshikawa, Ritsuko; Yamane, Hisaya; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2014-12-01

    Bacillus subtilis LytF plays a principal role in cell separation through its localization at the septa and poles on the vegetative cell surface. In this study, we found that a mutation in a major lipoteichoic acid (LTA) synthase gene--ltaS--results in a considerable reduction in the σ(D)-dependent transcription of lytF. The lytF transcription was also reduced in mutants that affected glycolipid anchor biosynthesis. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that both the numbers of cells expressing LytF and the LytF foci in these mutants were decreased. In addition, the transcriptional activity of lytF was almost abolished in the double (ltaS yfnI), triple (ltaS yfnI yqgS), and quadruple (ltaS yfnI yqgS yvgJ) mutants during vegetative growth. Cell separation defects in these mutants were partially restored with artificial expression of LytF. Interestingly, when lytF transcription was induced in the ltaS single or multiple mutants, LytF was localized not only at the septum, but also along the sidewall. The amounts of LytF bound to cell wall in the single (ltaS) and double (ltaS yfnI) mutants gradually increased as compared with that in the WT strain, and those in the triple (ltaS yfnI yqgS) and quadruple mutants were almost similar to that in the double mutant. Moreover, reduction of the lytF transcription and chained cell morphology in the ltaS mutant were completely restored with artificial induction of the yqgS gene. These results strongly suggest that LTA influences the temporal, σ(D)-dependent transcription of lytF and is an additional inhibitory component to the vegetative cell separation enzyme LytF.

  5. SwissProt search result: AK108469 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108469 002-143-E04 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-15 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK109371 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109371 006-207-E09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-91 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK059528 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059528 001-029-D05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-94 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK243297 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243297 J100053I01 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-67 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK072767 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072767 J023138P12 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-76 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK121500 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121500 J033022A11 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-47 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK100225 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100225 J023047M19 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-13 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK110539 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110539 002-168-B01 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-70 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK061947 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061947 001-042-E05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-51 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK110832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110832 002-172-A05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-44 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK241017 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241017 J065054E09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-42 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK101093 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK101093 J033024N03 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-13 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK098910 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK098910 J013002H09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-91 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK099358 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099358 J033044I21 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-91 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK111210 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111210 002-179-A06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 8e-20 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK098908 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK098908 J013002F17 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-51 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK072235 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072235 J023001J24 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-123 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK099197 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099197 J023120K15 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-74 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK063422 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK063422 001-115-C06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-41 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK070448 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070448 J023048F12 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-44 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK243212 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243212 J100042M20 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-39 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK066748 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK066748 J013074D19 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 5e-56 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK111199 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK111199 002-178-E01 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 8e-19 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK107749 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107749 002-132-H07 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-28 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK243501 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243501 J100074J05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-57 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK105612 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105612 001-200-B06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-123 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK106508 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106508 002-105-G09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 6e-93 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK099308 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099308 J023144C09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-123 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK108816 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108816 002-151-E06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-34 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK107506 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107506 002-129-E06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 7e-75 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK059697 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059697 001-032-C04 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-13 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK071733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071733 J023107H18 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-40 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK110974 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110974 002-174-C02 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-52 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK062382 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK062382 001-102-B10 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-48 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK068459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK068459 J013151C17 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-13 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK104296 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK104296 001-008-H03 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-88 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK109160 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109160 002-155-G07 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-59 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK071907 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071907 J013063O07 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-51 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK108733 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK108733 002-150-D05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-54 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK071948 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071948 J013078J21 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-39 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK119670 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119670 002-149-H07 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-51 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK064820 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064820 J013000E23 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-14 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK067453 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK067453 J013106H06 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 5e-74 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK099269 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099269 J023020I09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 3e-51 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK070060 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK070060 J023041D01 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-61 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK119182 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK119182 001-037-H03 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-94 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK106011 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK106011 001-206-B02 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 9e-94 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK105881 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105881 001-204-D02 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-93 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK071913 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071913 J013065M08 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-91 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK061729 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061729 001-038-B12 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-34 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK061319 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK061319 006-302-E09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 4e-32 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK073373 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK073373 J033027D09 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-90 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK071091 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071091 J023079N05 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-61 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK240650 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK240650 J023084F10 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 2e-26 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK071495 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK071495 J023099K03 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) (...Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-116 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK109136 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK109136 002-155-E03 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 6e-67 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK060534 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060534 001-021-A12 (P12412) Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endopeptidase) ...(Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] CYSEP_VIGMU 1e-88 ...

  2. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 89. Keenan RT, Nowatzky J, Pillinger MH. Etiology and pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In: Firestein ... chap 94. Keenan RT, Nowatzky J, Pillinger MH. Etiology and pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In: Firestein ...

  3. Chemosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 2, chap 35. Rubenstein JB, Tannan A.. Conjunctivitis. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, ... MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 4.6. Rubenstein JB, Tannan A. Allergic conjunctivitis. In: Yanoff M, Duker ...

  4. Taking narcotics for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap 12. Zhou YL. Principles of pain management, In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  5. Laceration - sutures or staples - at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 28. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  6. Hydromorphone overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 33. Zhou YL. Principles of pain management. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ...

  7. Making everyday tasks easier - arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ... IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  8. Stay active and exercise - arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ... Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  9. Adult Still's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AJ, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Weisman MH, eds. Rheumatology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... Dell JR, eds. Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 43. ...

  10. Cryoglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AJ, Smolen JS, Weinblatt ME, Weisman MH, eds. Rheumatology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... Dell JR, eds. Kelley and Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2017:chap ...

  11. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 27. Wolfe ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 6, chap 59. Yanoff ...

  12. Subconjunctival hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 4, chap 7. Crouch ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 4, chap 61. Wright ...

  13. Corneal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3; chap 6. Sharma ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 5; chap 45. Yanoff ...

  14. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 3. Fisher ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 2, chap 108. Thurst ...

  15. Eye burning - itching and discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4;chap0 7. Rubenstein ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4;chap 26. Wright ...

  16. Lacrimal gland tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 40. Karcioglu ZA, Haik ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 46. Yanoff M, Cameron ...

  17. Photophobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 2, chap 16. Godfrey ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 4, chap 40. Sharma ...

  18. Slit-lamp exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1, chap 63. Fellman ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 44. Miller ...

  19. Eye pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 2;chap 16. Goodglick ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 2;chap 14. Wright ...

  20. Hyphema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3; chap 54C. Lam ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology. 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3; chap 31. Tingey ...

  1. Ophthalmoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1, chap 63. Miller ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1, chap 50.

  2. Retina

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1;chap 19. Coleman ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3;chap 3. Yanoff ...

  3. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 48. Giaconi JA, Law ... Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 53. Gross RL. Current ...

  4. Congenital cataract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 74. Junk AK, Morris ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 16th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 41. Read More Cataract - ...

  5. Presbyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 6, chap 14. Donahue ... Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol. 1, chap 44. Read ...

  6. Fuchs dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 16. Shamie N, Phillips ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2013:chap 29. Vanmeter WS, Lee ...

  7. Nearsightedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 ed . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 6, chap 49. Olitsky ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1, chap 42. Zadnik ...

  8. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 ed . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2013:vol 4, chap 5. Bhatt ... EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 ed . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins;2013:vol 4, chap 7. Centers ...

  9. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Foundations of Clinical Ophthalmology . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2013:vol. 3, chap 6. ... Practice of Emergency Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 54-61. Sharma R, ...

  10. Retinal artery occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3;chap 54E. Sanborn ... eds. Duane's Clinical Ophthalmology . 2013 ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3;chap 14. Yanoff ...

  11. Scar revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 21. Lorenz P, Bari AS. Scar prevention, treatment, and revision. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 16. Read More Contracture deformity Keloids Review Date 4/14/2015 Updated ...

  12. Fanconi anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Dror Y, Freedman MH. Inherited forms of bone marrow failure. In: ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 27. Dror Y, Freedman MH. The inherited pancytopenias. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ...

  13. Achondrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factor secretion and action. In: Sperling MA, ed. Pediatric Endocrinology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 10. Horton WA, Hecht JT. Disorders involving ion transporters. ... Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 697.

  14. Preschooler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  15. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 11. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  16. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  17. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  18. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ... 2017:chap 22. Read More Bacterial gastroenteritis Cryptosporidium enteritis Diarrhea - overview Review Date 5/11/2016 Updated ...

  19. Rectal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt ... PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 22. Read More Cryptosporidium enteritis Fecal culture Proctitis Review Date 5/11/2016 ...

  20. Fibrinolysis - primary or secondary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 175. Weitz JI. Hemostasis, Thrombosis, fibrinolysis, and cardiovascular disease. In: Mann DL, ... Saunders; 2015:chap 82. Weitz JI. Overview of hemostasis and thrombosis. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr., ...

  1. Cleidocranial dysostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA. Skeletal dysplasias. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 40. Horton WA, Hecht JT. Disorders involving transcription factors. In: Kliegman RM, ... . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 698. ...

  2. Halo brace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 12. Warner WC. Pediatric cervical spine. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

  3. Frontal bossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA. Skeletal dysplasias. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 40. Kinsman SL, Johnston MV. Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. ... . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 591. ...

  4. Dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 132. Tolkoff-Rubin N. Treatment of irreversible renal failure. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 133. Review Date 12/30/2014 Updated by: Deepak Sudheendra, ...

  5. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 136. Koyle MA, Lorenzo AJ. ... eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 144. Lembo AJ. Constipation. In: Feldman ...

  6. Arteriogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 102. Goldstein LB. Approach to ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 406. Kern M. Catheterization and ...

  7. Laxative overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2006:chap 8. Pfennig CL, Slovis CM. ... Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 125. Schwaab JL, Bravender T, ...

  8. Glaze poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Lee DC. Hydrocarbons. In: ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 158. Mirkin DB. Benzene and ...

  9. Mononucleosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 1. Jenson HB. Epstein-Barr virus. ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2015:chap 254. Johannsen EC, Kaye KM. Epstein- ...

  10. Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Gallagher PG. Red blood ... Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 43. Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular ...

  11. Folliculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 9. Habif TM. Principles of ... TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2009:chap 1. McMichael A, Curtis AR, ...

  12. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 138. O'Handley JG, Tobin ... Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 18. Pfaff JA, Moore GP. Otolaryngology. ...

  13. Culture - colonic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Hall GS, Woods GL. ...

  14. Head lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 294. Elston DM. Arthropods and ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 359 Habif TP. Infestations and ...

  15. Bilateral hydronephrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 534. Frokiaer J, Zeidel ML. ... and Rector's The Kidney . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 37. Hsu THS, Nakada SY. ...

  16. Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. Dupont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Fritsche TR, Pritt BS. ...

  17. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 75. Holland MG. Pulmonary toxicology. ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 9. Jones AL, Dargan PI. ...

  18. Giardia infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 110. Nash TE, Hill DR. ...

  19. Digitalis toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Cole JB, Roberts DJ. ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Goldberger AL, Goldberger ZD, ...

  20. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. ...

  1. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 190. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders of cerebrospinal fluid circulation. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  2. Phenothiazine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 290. Velez LI, Feng S-Y. Anticholinergics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ... chap 150. Wittler MA, Lavonas EJ. Antipsychotics. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. Rosen's Emergency ...

  3. Viral gastroenteritis (stomach flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 265. Bhutta ZA. Acute gastroenteritis in ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. Dupont HL. Acute infectious diarrhea ...

  4. Collateral ligament (CL) injury - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 66. Miller III RH, Azar, ... Beaty: Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 45. Niska JA, Petrigliano FA, ...

  5. Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 65. McKenna WJ, Elliott P. ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 60. McMurray JJV, Pfeffer MA. ...

  6. Methods for Correction of Refractive Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-31

    H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Part I, Chap 7, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1953. [Morse681 P. M. Morse and K. U. Ingard , Theoretical Acoustics...Theoretical Physics, Part I, Chap 7, McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1953. [Morse681 P. M. Morse and K. V. Ingard , Theoretical Acoustics, Chap. 8, McGraw- Hill Book Co

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF SILICA GEL AND PROLYL ENDOPEPTIDASE ON NON-BIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF BEER%硅胶、脯氨酰内肽酶处理对啤酒非生物稳定性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向先长; 周丽娜; 李玉; 路福平

    2008-01-01

    采用SDS-PAGE电泳,对分别经硅胶吸附和脯氨酰内肽酶水解的啤酒后酵液进行蛋白分布研究;通过测定浊度和泡持性研究二者对啤酒非生物稳定性的影响.结果表明经硅胶吸附和脯氨酰内肽酶水解后的蛋白分子量均集中在8ku~14.4ku和35ku~45ku;经处理后的样品浊度明显下降,而泡持性没有显著变化.其中用脯氨酰内肽酶处理时浊度下降更明显.且对啤酒的泡持性影响更小.因此,在啤酒后酵液中添加脯氨酰内肽酶,能够有效的除去啤酒冷混浊蛋白.提高啤酒的非生物稳定性.

  8. Potassium dihydrogen phosphate and potassium tantalate niobate pyroelectric materials and far-infrared detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, H. B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1993-10-01

    This thesis discusses characterization of two ferroelectric materials and the fabrication of bolometers. Potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) are chosen because they can be optimized for operation near 100K. Chap. 2 reviews the physics underlying pyroelectric materials and its subclass of ferroelectric materials. Aspects of pyroelectric detection are discussed in Chap. 3 including measurement circuit, noise sources, and effects of materials properties on pyroelectric response. Chap. 4 discusses materials selection and specific characteristics of KTN and KDP; Chap. 5 describes materials preparation; and Chap. 6 presents detector configuration and a thermal analysis of the pyroelectric detector. Electrical techniques used to characterize the materials and devices and results are discussed in Chap. 7 followed by conclusions on feasibility of KDP and KTN pyroelectric detectors in Chap. 8.

  9. A Multienzyme Network Functions in Intestinal Protein Digestion by a Platyhelminth Parasite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melaine Delcroix; Mohammed Sajid; Conor R. Caffrey; Kee-C. Lim; Jan Dvořák; Ivy Hsieh; Mahmoud Bahgat; Colette Dissous; James H. McKerrow

    2006-01-01

    .... Utilizing a combination of protease class-specific inhibitors and RNA interference, we deconvoluted such a network of major endopeptidases functioning in invertebrate intestinal protein digestion...

  10. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foy, Niall

    2010-07-22

    Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1) and class II (LysRS2) enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820) and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1) of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1) expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  11. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conant Gavin C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1 and class II (LysRS2 enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820 and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1 of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1 expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  12. An Evaluation of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software’s Ability to Model the Chornobyl Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    NUREG -1250, Chap 2:12]................ 11 Figure 4. Schematic Drawing of Fully Withdrawn and Fully Inserted Control Rods [ NUREG -1250, Chap 2:32...Decay Corrected to 6 May 1986 [ NUREG -1250, Chap 6:3] ....................................................................... 18 Figure 6. Midday...true source term is within a factor of 100 [ NUREG -1228, Ch. 1:8]. Source term specification will be discussed further in Chapter III and Appendix A

  13. <原著>コーティング・ハイドロキシアパタイト顆粒の骨形成能に関する実験的研究

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that hydroxyapatite (HAP), which has a high tissue affinity and superior bone conductivity, shows different characteristics depending on the sintering temperature. This study prepared single hydroxyapatite (SHAP) and coated hydroxyapatite (CHAP). The SHAP was sintered at high temperature (1250℃). The structure of CHAP was low temperature (150℃) sintered apatite coated with SHAP. The usefulness of CHAP for bone formation was examined in cylindrical bone defects (diameter : 5mm...

  14. Heart attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2014:chap 51. Read More Arrhythmias Cardiogenic shock Diabetes Hardening of the arteries Heart failure - overview High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Lipoprotein- ...

  15. Ingrown toenail removal – discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onychocryptosis surgery; Onychomycosis; Unguis incarnates surgery; Ingrown toenail removal; Toenail ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 51. Pollock M. Ingrown toenails. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and ...

  16. Molecular functions of chaperonin gene, containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 from Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Vanaraja, Puganeshwaran; Easwvaran, Sarasvathi; Singh, Arun; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Bhassu, Subha

    2012-10-25

    Chaperonin (MrChap) was identified from a constructed transcriptome dataset of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The MrChap peptide contains a long chaperone super family domain between 11 and 525. Three chaperone tailless complex polypeptide (TCP-1) signatures are present in the MrChap peptide sequence at 36-48, 57-73 and 85-93. The gene expressions of MrChap in both healthy M. rosenbergii and those infected with infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) were examined using qRT-PCR. To understand its biological activity, the recombinant MrChap gene was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The results of ATPase assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein exhibited apparent ATPase activity. Chaperone activity assay showed that the recombinant MrChap protein is an active chaperone. These results suggest that MrChap is potentially involved in the immune responses against viral infection in M. rosenbergii. These findings indicate that the recombinant MrChap protein may be used in immunotherapeutic approaches.

  17. Tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epitrochlear bursitis; Lateral epicondylitis; Epicondylitis - lateral; Tendonitis - elbow ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 25. Biundo JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. ...

  18. Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia; Macroglobulinemia - primary; Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma; Monoclonal macroglobulinemia ... 2016:chap 187. Treon SP, Merlini G. Waldenström macroglobulinemia and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ, ...

  19. Multiple mononeuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononeuritis multiplex; Mononeuropathy multiplex; Multifocal neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy - mononeuritis multiplex ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  20. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 88. Read More Autoimmune disorders Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Cirrhosis Glomerulonephritis Hemolytic anemia Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Mesenteric venous thrombosis Type ...

  1. Clinic Health Awareness Program Subsystem -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Clinic Health Awareness Program Subystem (CHAPS) is a comprehensive system for recording, reporting, and analyzing a patient’s medical information and managing an...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TSYR-01-0793 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TSYR-01-0793 ref|ZP_01879965.1| penicillin-insensitive murein endopeptidase [Roseo...varius sp. TM1035] gb|EDM31576.1| penicillin-insensitive murein endopeptidase [Roseovarius sp. TM1035] ZP_01879965.1 5.8 29% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2878 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2878 ref|YP_680769.1| murein endopeptidase [Roseobacter denitrificans ...OCh 114] gb|ABG30083.1| murein endopeptidase [Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114] YP_680769.1 1.4 29% ...

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of SOL1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelissen, J; Lemkens, P; Sann, H;

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacological profile of the novel putative neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor SOL1 was examined.......The pharmacological profile of the novel putative neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and endothelin converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitor SOL1 was examined....

  5. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289220 J100065H20 P12412|CYSEP_VIGMU Vignain precursor (EC 3.4.22.-) (Bean endope...ptidase) (Cysteine proteinase) (Sulfhydryl-endopeptidase) (SH-EP) [Contains: Vignain-1; Vignain-2] - Vigna mungo (Rice bean) (Black gram) 3.00E-64 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q8BGE6) Cysteine protease APG4B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog B) (Autop...hagin-1) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 1) (AUT-like 1 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4B_MOUSE 2e-49 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q96DT6) Cysteine protease APG4C (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog C) (Autop...hagin-3) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 3) (AUT-like 3 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4C_HUMAN 2e-37 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q811C2) Cysteine protease APG4C (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog C) (Autop...hagin-3) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 3) (AUT-like 3 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4C_MOUSE 6e-27 ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OPRI-01-1475 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OPRI-01-1475 ref|ZP_02151543.1| membrane endopeptidase, M50 family protein [Ocean...ibulbus indolifex HEL-45] gb|EDQ05410.1| membrane endopeptidase, M50 family protein [Oceanibulbus indolifex HEL-45] ZP_02151543.1 0.43 28% ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q8WYN0) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (hAPG4A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_HUMAN 4e-36 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q8BGV9) Cysteine protease APG4D (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog D) (Auto...phagin-4) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4) (AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4D_MOUSE 2e-39 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK069012 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069012 J023002M16 (Q8BGE6) Cysteine protease APG4B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog B) (Auto...phagin-1) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 1) (AUT-like 1 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4B_MOUSE 1e-49 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q8BGV9) Cysteine protease APG4D (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog D) (Auto...phagin-4) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4) (AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4D_MOUSE 7e-33 ...

  14. Concussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2014:chap 41. Kerr HA. Closed head injury. Clin Sports Med . 2013;32:273-287. PMID: 23522509 www. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 710. Liebig CW, Congeni JA. Sports-related traumatic brain injury (Concussion). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme ...

  15. Cholesterol-Modified Amino-Pullulan Nanoparticles as a Drug Carrier: Comparative Study of Cholesterol-Modified Carboxyethyl Pullulan and Pullulan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Tao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To search for nano-drug preparations with high efficiency in tumor treatment, we evaluated the drug-loading capacity and cell-uptake toxicity of three kinds of nanoparticles (NPs. Pullulan was grafted with ethylenediamine and hydrophobic groups to form hydrophobic cholesterol-modified amino-pullulan (CHAP conjugates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance were used to identify the CHAP structure and calculate the degree of substitution of the cholesterol group. We compared three types of NPs with close cholesterol hydrophobic properties: CHAP, cholesterol-modified pullulan (CHP, and cholesterol-modified carboxylethylpullulan (CHCP, with the degree of substitution of cholesterol of 2.92%, 3.11%, and 3.46%, respectively. As compared with the two other NPs, CHAP NPs were larger, 263.9 nm, and had a positive surface charge of 7.22 mV by dynamic light-scattering measurement. CHAP NPs showed low drug-loading capacity, 12.3%, and encapsulation efficiency of 70.8%, which depended on NP hydrophobicity and was affected by surface charge. The drug release amounts of all NPs increased in the acid media, with CHAP NPs showing drug-release sensitivity with acid change. Cytotoxicity of HeLa cells was highest with mitoxantrone-loaded CHAP NPs on MTT assay. CHAP NPs may have potential as a high-efficiency drug carrier for tumor treatment.

  16. Forging the Army’s Transformation: The Initial Brigade Combat Team and the Road to Initial Operational Capability, AY 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Operational Environment,” URL http://contracting.tacom.army.mil/majorsys/brigade/formalrfp/BCT O and O/Chap 2 18 APR with Apend ABCD(2).doc, accessed 8...Operational Environment.” URL: <http://contracting.tacom.army.mil/majorsys/ brigade/formalrfp/BCT O and O/Chap 2 18 APR with Apend ABCD(2).doc

  17. Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  18. Immunotherapy: questions to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 77. Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 6. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  19. Selective mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 25. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 35. ...

  20. Skin findings in newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 9. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 596.

  1. Well-child visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 32. ...

  2. Spitting up - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 323. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 305. ...

  3. Rotavirus antigen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 265. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. ...

  4. Colds and the flu - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 258. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 379. ...

  5. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  6. Day care health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 174.

  7. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap. Stettler ... RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  8. Absent pulmonary valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 428. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 430. ...

  9. Developmental milestones record - 3 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  10. Henoch-Schönlein purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St. Geme J, Schor N, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ... Schöenlein purpura. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ... . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  11. Dietary fat and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 46. ... Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 44.

  12. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 10. ... Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  13. Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St. Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 583. ... St. Geme JW, Schor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 586. ...

  14. Polydactyly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 681. ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 674.

  15. Time out

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JS, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  16. Splinter hemorrhages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 442. Wright WF, Mackowiak PA. Fever of unknown origin. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 56. Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Linda J. ...

  17. Crime and Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Deborah; Turner, Robert; Selke, Karl

    Like intergroup violence (Chap. 7) and insurgency (Chap. 8), crime and ­corruption are nearly inevitable companions of an international intervention. Both contribute to the reasons why the intervention occurs, and both may even grow and fester as side-effects of an intervention. Moreover, crime and corruption frequently serve as obstacles to a successful termination of an intervention.

  18. Allosteric transitions of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in lipids, detergent and amphipols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Gohon, Yann; Corringer, Pierre Jean

    2002-01-01

    kinetics was similar in the membrane and in amphipols, demonstrating that the receptor can display unaltered allosteric transitions outside its natural lipid environment. In contrast, allosteric equilibria were strongly shifted towards the desensitized state in CHAPS. Therefore, the effect of CHAPS likely...

  19. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 678. Sawyer JR, Spence DD. Fractures and dislocations in children. In: Azar FM, Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 36. ...

  20. Lordosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 679. Warner WC, Sawyer JR, Kelly DM. Scoliosis and kyphosis. In: Canale ST, Beaty JH, eds. Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap ...

  1. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 6. Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff M, Hatch R, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap ... PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  2. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pollution control, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap. 34A-2, and solid waste disposal, S. D. Comp. Laws Ann. Chap... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface mining permit applications-minimum... MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  3. 76 FR 57024 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  4. 77 FR 2276 - Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Teleconference and Public Meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  5. 76 FR 38116 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  6. 76 FR 75537 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  7. 75 FR 67692 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used...

  8. 77 FR 19005 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  9. 77 FR 34028 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (``CHAP'') on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP on April 14, 2010, to study the effects on children's health of all...

  10. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  11. 75 FR 73048 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... meeting of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  12. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY... (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys...

  13. Analysis of an Inverse Railgun with a Railgun Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    value -of B was found. 5Carnahan, B., Luther, H.A., and Wilkes, J.D., Applied Numerical Methods (Wiley, New York, 1969), Chap. 7. 18 C. Results We...J.D., Applied Numerical Methods (Wiley, New York, 1969), Chap. 7. 6. Powell, J.D., "Thermal-Energy Transfer from Arc to Rails in an Arc-Driven

  14. Should the United States Maintain the Nuclear Triad?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Deterrence Theory and Practice from the Cold War to the Twenty-first Century (Fairfax, VA: National Institute Press, 2008), chap. 3. 19. See Joseph E... Stiglitz , Globalization and its Discontents (New York: W. W. Norton, 2002), chap. 5. 20. Francis Fukuyama, “The End of History?” National Interest, no

  15. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    York: The Penguin Press, 2011), chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 163. 136 Emma Chanlett-Avery, Ian E. Rinehart, North Korea: U.S...America’s Armed Forces in an Age of Austerity, chap. 1, under “Introduction,” Kindle eBook , Loc 134. 149 Ibid, Loc 2267. 150 Ibid, Loc 163. 45

  16. Bridging the pressure gap: In situ atomic-level investigations of model platinum catalyst surfaces under reaction conditions by scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, B.J.

    1994-05-01

    Results of this thesis show that STM measurements can provide information about the surfaces and their adsorbates. Stability of Pt(110) under high pressures of H2, O2, and CO was studied (Chap. 4). In situ UHV and high vacuum experiments were carried out for sulfur on Pt(111) (Chap.5). STM studies of CO/S/Pt(111) in high CO pressures showed that the Pt substrate undergoes a stacking-fault-domain reconstruction involving periodic transitions from fcc to hcp stacking of top-layer atoms (Chap.6). In Chap.7, the stability of propylene on Pt(111) and the decomposition products were studied in situ with the HPSTM. Finally, in Chap.8, results are presented which show how the Pt tip of the HPSTM was used to locally rehydrogenate and oxidize carbonaceous clusters deposited on the Pt(111) surface; the Pt tip acted as a catalyst after activation by short voltage pulses.

  17. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-06-19

    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  18. Computer-based image analysis in radiological diagnostics and image-guided therapy 3D-Reconstruction, contrast medium dynamics, surface analysis, radiation therapy and multi-modal image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, J

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with substantial subjects of postprocessing and analysis of radiological image data, a particular emphasis was put on pulmonary themes. For a multitude of purposes the developed methods and procedures can directly be transferred to other non-pulmonary applications. The work presented here is structured in 14 chapters, each describing a selected complex of research. The chapter order reflects the sequence of the processing steps starting from artefact reduction, segmentation, visualization, analysis, therapy planning and image fusion up to multimedia archiving. In particular, this includes virtual endoscopy with three different scene viewers (Chap. 6), visualizations of the lung disease bronchiectasis (Chap. 7), surface structure analysis of pulmonary tumors (Chap. 8), quantification of contrast medium dynamics from temporal 2D and 3D image sequences (Chap. 9) as well as multimodality image fusion of arbitrary tomographical data using several visualization techniques (Chap. 12). Thus, the softw...

  19. Semen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be performed for the following condition: Klinefelter syndrome Normal Results A few of the common normal ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 141. Read More Infertility Klinefelter syndrome Vasectomy Review Date 3/28/2016 Updated by: ...

  20. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be used to monitor people with hypopituitarism and women on certain fertility treatments. Normal Results ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 24. Read More Hypopituitarism Ovarian cancer Turner syndrome Vagina Review Date 9/ ...

  1. Q fever - early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if untreated. Other complications can include: Bone infection ( osteomyelitis ) Brain infection ( encephalitis ) Liver infection (chronic hepatitis) Lung ... 2015:chap 190. Read More Encephalitis Endocarditis Flu Osteomyelitis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) Q fever Tick bite ...

  2. Bone scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... legs, or spine fractures) Diagnose a bone infection (osteomyelitis) Diagnose or determine the cause of bone pain, ... 2015:chap 43. Read More Broken bone Metabolism Osteomyelitis Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin ...

  3. Hand x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fractures, bone tumors , degenerative bone conditions, and osteomyelitis (inflammation of the bone caused by an infection). ... chap 46. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Osteomyelitis X-ray Review Date 9/8/2014 Updated ...

  4. Exchange transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap 40. Watchko JF. Neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia and kernicterus. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  5. Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at least once every year. Alternative Names Aortic aneurysm - ... syndrome. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 702. ...

  6. Epilepsy - children - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 593. Read More Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Epilepsy - overview Seizures Stereotactic radiosurgery - ...

  7. Hypervitaminosis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infant's skull ( fontanelle ) Changes in alertness or consciousness Decreased appetite Dizziness Double vision (in young children) Drowsiness Hair ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 48. Read More Appetite - decreased Bone pain or tenderness Brain tumor - children Chronic ...

  8. Cushing Syndrome: Other FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kronenberg, H. M., Shlomo, M., Polonsky, K. S., Larsen P. R. (Eds.). Williams textbook of endocrinology (12th ed.). (chap. 15). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. [top] Abraham, M. R., & Smith, C. V. Adrenal disease and pregnancy. Retrieved April ...

  9. Meningitis - pneumococcal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes meningitis. Causes Pneumococcal meningitis is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria (also called pneumococcus, or S pneumoniae ). This type ... Saunders; 2015:chap 89. Wood JB, Peters TR. Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus). In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme ...

  10. Polycythemia vera

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the results of the following tests: ESR Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase Platelet aggregation test ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 67. National Cancer Institute. Chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms treatment (PDQ) – health professional ...

  11. Aging changes in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003999.htm Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 198. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  12. Basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat cancers that are not large or deep Mohs surgery: Removing a layer of skin and looking ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 22. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA sheds light on sunscreens. ...

  13. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/26514720 . Grodner M, Escott-Stump S, Dorner S. Carbohydrates. In: Grodner M, Escott-Stump S, Dorner S, eds. Nutritional Foundations and Clinical Applications . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2016:chap ...

  14. Sweating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pain syndrome Emotional or stressful situations (anxiety) Essential hyperhidrosis Exercise Fever Infection Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Medicines, ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 418. Read More Hyperhidrosis Hyperthyroidism Menopause Sweating - absent Review Date 4/30/ ...

  15. Iontophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Iontophoresis may be used to treat excessive sweating ( hyperhidrosis ) of the hands, underarms, and feet. Risks Side ... 2012:chap 39. Read More Cancer Carcinoid syndrome Hyperhidrosis Hypothyroidism Menopause Pulmonary tuberculosis Review Date 4/14/ ...

  16. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much heavier than normal. This condition is called hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 91. Langtry JAA. Hyperhidrosis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, ...

  17. What causes bone loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone biology. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 29. Maes C, Kronenberg HM. Bone development and remodeling. In: Jameson JL, ...

  18. Erythema multiforme

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver (hepatitis) Permanent skin damage and scarring Skin infection ( cellulitis ) When to Contact a Medical Professional Go to ... 2009:chap 52. Read More Allergic ... Conditions Skin Infections Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  19. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

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  20. Bronchiectasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disability. Possible Complications Complications of bronchiectasis may include: Cor pulmonale Coughing up blood Low oxygen levels (in severe ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Read More Cor pulmonale Cystic fibrosis Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed Pneumonia - ...

  1. Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that may result from polio include: Aspiration pneumonia Cor pulmonale (a form of heart failure found on the ... Saunders; 2015:chap 249. Read More Aspiration pneumonia Cor pulmonale Incidence Intestinal obstruction Kidney stones Lymph system Muscle ...

  2. Primary alveolar hypoventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lung blood vessels. This can lead to cor pulmonale (right-sided heart failure). When to Contact a ... chap 18. Read More Breathing - slowed or stopped Cor pulmonale Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) Review Date 8/21/ ...

  3. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and oxygen therapy Right-sided heart failure or cor pulmonale (heart swelling and heart failure due to chronic ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 44. Read More Cor pulmonale Dilated cardiomyopathy Heart failure - overview Lung disease Patient ...

  4. Pocahontas No. 3 Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. H, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the...

  5. Upper Freeport Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. D, Appendix 8, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Upper...

  6. Pond Creek Coal zone Point Data (Chemistry) in Virginia and West Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. H, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the...

  7. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pancreatic, or prostate cancer Muscle disease such as dermatomyositis , muscular dystrophy , polymyositis Swelling and inflammation of the ... Saunders; 2016:chap 269. Vleugels RA, Callen JP. Dermatomyositis. In: Lebwohl MG, Heymann WR, Berth-Jones J, ...

  8. Coronary artery spasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 71. Giugliano RP, Cannon CP, Braunwald E. Non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of ...

  9. Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 203. Menter A, Korman NJ, Elmets CA, et al. Guidelines of care for the management of psoriasis and ...

  10. Atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coulson I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 17. American Academy of Dermatology. Guidelines of care for the management of atopic dermatitis. ...

  11. Lower Kittanning Coal Bed Point Data (Chemistry) in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Maryland

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset (located by latitude and longitude) is a subset of the geochemical dataset found in Chap. E, Appendix 2, Disc 1, and used in this study of the Lower...

  12. Macrosomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickstein I, Perlman S, Hazon Y, et al. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 19. ...

  13. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 43. Becker SS. Surgical management of polyps in the treatment of nasal airway ...

  14. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  15. Stay away from asthma triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson ...

  16. Make peak flow a habit!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... asthma - peak flow References Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  17. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:236-272. Dinakar P. Principles of pain management. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54. ...

  18. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca N. Management of traumatic dental injuries. In: Torabinejad M, Walton, RE, Fouad AF, eds. Endodontics: Principles and Practice . 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 11. Tinanoff N. Dental trauma. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ...

  19. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  20. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 112. Miller RD. Patient blood management: transfusion therapy. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's Anesthesia . ...

  1. Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, April KT, et al. American College of Rheumatology 2012 recommendations for the use of nonpharmacologic and ... IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  2. Opisthotonos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TA, eds. Merritt's Neurology . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009. Layzer RB, Rowland LP. Muscle ... and stiffness. Merritt's Neurology . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009:chap 145. Patterson MC, Johnson ...

  3. Campylobacter serology test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time the skin is broken) Images Blood test Campylobacter jejuni organism References Allos BM. Campylobacter infections. In: Goldman ... chap 303. Allos BM, Iovine NM, Blaser MJ. Campylobacter jejuni and related species. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, ...

  4. Hamstring strain - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 88. Reider B, Davies GJ, Provencher MT. Muscle strains about the hip and thigh. In: Reider B, Davies GJ, Provencher MT, eds. Orthopaedic Rehabilitation of the Athlete . ...

  5. C1 esterase inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... algorithm for the diagnosis, therapy and management of hereditary angioedema. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol . 2010;6:24. PMID: ... chap 6. Read More Cirrhosis Complement Glomerulonephritis Hepatitis Hereditary angioedema Kidney transplant Lupus nephritis Systemic lupus erythematosus Ulcerative ...

  6. Bicuspid aortic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aortic disease. In: Otto CM, Bonow RO, eds. Valvular Heart Disease: A Companion to Braunwald's Heart Disease . 4th ed. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 13. Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... valvuloplasty - pulmonary Images Heart valves References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 69. Otto CM, Bownow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ...

  8. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  9. Binge eating disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 37. Read More Anorexia Appetite - increased Bulimia Depression - overview Electrolytes Esophagitis Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed Gas - flatulence Hemorrhoids Pharyngitis - sore throat Review Date 2/2/2016 Updated by: Fred K. ...

  10. Multi-infarct dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 104. Read More Delirium Depression - overview Diabetes High blood pressure Peripheral artery disease - legs Stroke Patient Instructions Dementia - what to ask your doctor Review Date 2/27/2016 Updated by: Amit M. ...

  11. Indigestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011:chap 139. Read More Abdominal bloating Belching Depression - overview Fiber Heart attack Nausea and vomiting - adults Stress and your health Patient Instructions Taking antacids Review Date 1/11/2015 Updated by: Todd Eisner, ...

  12. Hereditary fructose intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 9. Read More Autosomal recessive Enzyme ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  13. Alkaptonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 18. Rezvani I, Melvin JJ. Defects ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  14. Maple syrup urine disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 19. Read More Acidosis Amino acids ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  15. Hurler syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Enzyme Review Date ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  16. Galactosemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 7. Broomfield A, Brain C, Grunewald S. ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  17. Morquio syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Autosomal recessive Enzyme ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  18. Krabbe disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 39. Read More Autosomal recessive Blindness ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  19. Sanfilippo syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Autosomal recessive Enzyme ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  20. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Practice of Nutritional Support . New York, NY: Springer; 2015:chap 10. Schattner MA, Grossman EB. Nutritional ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  1. Menkes syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 38. Kaler SG, Packman S. Inherited disorders ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  2. Von Gierke disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 6. Santos BL, Souza CFM, Schuler- ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  3. Hunter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diagnosis and Treatment . 5th ed. New York, NY: Springer; 2012:chap 40. Read More Breathing difficulty Chromosome ... medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- ...

  4. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results may be due to: Stomach (gastric) cancer Gastritis , when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed ... Saunders; 2012:chap 3. Feldman M, Lee EL. Gastritis. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  5. Cervical polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 22. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  6. Adenomyosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, ... ovary. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Ovarian cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Transvaginal ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. In: Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, Katz VL, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 33. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, ...

  9. Asherman syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approach . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 177. Katz VL. Benign gynecologic lesions: vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, oviduct, ovary, ultrasound imaging of pelvic structures. In: Katz VL, Lentz GM, Lobo RA, Gershenson DM, eds. ...

  10. Cellulite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin Muscle cells vs. fat cells Cellulite References Katz BE, Hexsel DM, Hexsel CL. Cellulite. In: Lebwohl ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 38. Rossi AM, Katz BE. A modern approach to the treatment of ...

  11. Aging changes in the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 17. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ...

  12. Understanding medicare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 129. Review Date 12/10/2016 Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Clinical Associate Professor, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, ...

  13. Aging changes in the kidneys and bladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... J, eds. Brocklehurst's Textbook of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 22. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ...

  14. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    A summmary of the work in each section of the Energy Division at ORNL is given and can be characterized by two themes: (1) environmental assessment, including social and economic considerations, and (2) fuel conservation and energy conversion efficiency. The first theme encompasses the preparation of environmental statements and assessments for nuclear power plants and other energy facilities (Chap. 2) as well as regional analyses of social, economic, and environmental effects due to energy system development patterns (Chap. 3). The second theme characterizes a broad scope of conservation-related work, including efforts to understand energy demand patterns and to develop technologies and arrangements for reducing these demands (Chap. 4). This theme also encompasses research directed at improving both high- and low-temperature thermodynamic cycles driven by solar, geothermal, or fossil energy sources (Chaps. 5 and 6). A listing of publications and oral presentations complete the report. A separate abstract was prepared for each major section or program. (MCW)

  15. Biliary atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 356. Suchy FJ. Anatomy, histology, embryology, developmental anomalies, and pediatric disorders of the biliary ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. Annular pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 330. Semrin MG, Russo MA. Anatomy, histology, embryology, and developmental anomalies of the stomach and duodenum. ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Pericardiocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may also be done to treat cardiac tamponade , which is a life-threatening condition. Normal Results ... 2016:chap 77. Read More Aneurysm Cancer Cardiac tamponade Heart failure - overview Pericarditis Review Date 5/5/ ...

  18. Medullary cystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health problems: Anemia Bone weakening and fractures Cardiac tamponade Changes in glucose metabolism Congestive heart failure End- ... Saunders; 2012:chap 45. Read More Anemia Cardiac tamponade Cyst Electrolytes High blood pressure High potassium level ...

  19. Infant of a substance-abusing mother

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rennie JM, ed. Rennie and Roberton's Textbook of Neonatology . 5th ed. New York, NY: Elsevier; 2012:chap ... MSc, IBCLC, Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC. Review ...

  20. Tracheomalacia - congenital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Geme III JW, Schor NF, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 381. Nelson M, Green G, Ohye RG. Pediatric tracheal anomalies. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund ...

  1. T3 test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroiditis (swelling or inflammation of the thyroid gland -- Hashimoto disease is the most common type) Starvation Underactive ... 2016:chap 78. Read More Chronic Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Free T4 test Graves disease Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism ...

  2. Malocclusion of teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clean and decrease risk of tooth decay and periodontal diseases ( gingivitis or periodontitis ). Eliminate strain on the teeth, ... JA, ed. McDonald and Avery's Dentistry for the Child and Adolescent . 10th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2016:chap ...

  3. Laminectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are taking. This includes medicines, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription. During the days ... 2012:chap 53. Read More Diskectomy Foraminotomy Low back pain - acute Low back pain - chronic Neck pain Sciatica ...

  4. Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2009:chap 19. Schmidt MJ, Adams SL. Tendinopathy and bursitis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls ... and Disorders Read more Sports Injuries Read more Tendinitis Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  5. Tenosynovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the tendon sheath References Biundo JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. In: ... Saunders; 2016:chap 263. Schmidt MJ, Adams SL. Tendinopathy and bursitis. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls ...

  6. Muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscle strength and function. Leg braces and a wheelchair can improve mobility and self-care. In some ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 609. ...

  7. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt I. Hospital infection, sterilization and disinfection. In: Goering R, Dockrell H, Zuckerman M, Chiodini PL, Roitt I, eds. Mims' Medical Microbiology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  8. Preventing infections when visiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dockrell H, Zuckerman M, et al. Hospital infection, sterilization and disinfection. In: Goering R, Dockrell H, Zuckerman M, et al., eds. Mims' Medical Microbiology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  9. Diabetes - foot ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero E. Diabetes and long-term complications. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 51. Kim PJ, Steinberg JS. Complications of ...

  10. Diabetes - tests and checkups

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 51. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2016. Diabetes Care. 2016;39:S4-S5. PMID: ...

  11. Diabetes - low blood sugar - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 47. Standards of medical care in diabetes - 2016. Diabetes Care . 2016;39:S52-S59. PMID: ...

  12. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero E. Diabetes and long-term complications. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 51. Lim JI, Rosenblatt BJ, Benson WE. ...

  13. Anaerobic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook I, Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 297. Stedman's Online ...

  14. Bladder outlet obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, Peters CA, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 87. McNicholas TA, Speakman MJ, Kirby RS. Evaluation and nonsurgical management of benign prostatic ...

  15. Uric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical features and treatment of gout. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al., eds. Kelly's Textbook of Rheumatology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 95. ...

  16. Pinworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 286. Fritsche TR, Selvarangan R. Medical Parasitology. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical ...

  17. Culdocentesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the area. You may have a ruptured ectopic pregnancy or ovarian cyst . Normal Results No fluid in ... PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 139. Read More Ectopic pregnancy Ovarian cysts Vagina Review Date 4/5/2016 ...

  18. Gclust Server: 71852 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 71852 HSA_91199538 Cluster Sequences - 870 NP_001355.2 chapsyn-110 ; no annotation ...uences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 870 Representative annotation NP_001355.2 chaps

  19. Health care agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make decisions during a stressful time. Your agent's duty is to see that your wishes are followed. ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. Zorowitz RA. Ethics. In: Ham RJ Jr, Sloane PD, Warshaw GA, ...

  20. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 309. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A, et al. Infectious ...

  1. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Kirsch TD, Sax J. Tube thoracostomy. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts and ... . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 10.

  2. Joint swelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 275. Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK. Joint disorders. In: Raftery AT, Lim E, Ostor AJK, eds. ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Joint Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  3. Nonallergic rhinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V, et al., eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap ... of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. ...

  4. Allergic rhinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... invader References Baroody FM, Naclerio RM. Allergy and immunology of the upper airway. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  5. Venous ulcers -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... when the veins in your legs do not push blood back up to your heart as well ... I, eds. Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  6. Torticollis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the neck. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 11. Graham JM, Sanchez-Lara PA. Congenital muscular torticollis. In: ... on Pediatrics of the American Physical Therapy Association. Pediatr Phys ...

  7. Potter syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 537. Read More Acute kidney failure Amniotic fluid Broad nasal bridge Contracture deformity Epicanthal folds Low-set ears and pinna abnormalities Micrognathia Renal Review Date 7/10/2015 Updated by: Neil K. ...

  8. UPJ obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 40. Read More Abdominal mass Acute kidney failure Fever Hydronephrosis of one kidney Renal Ultrasound pregnancy Urinary tract infection - adults Urine - bloody Review Date 6/29/2015 Updated by: Jennifer Sobol, ...

  9. Renal vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2012:chap 34. Read More Acute kidney failure Arteriogram Blood clots Dehydration Nephrotic syndrome Pulmonary embolus Renal Tumor Review Date 5/19/2015 Updated by: Charles Silberberg, ...

  10. Mediastinitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes of mediastinitis include: A fungal infection called histoplasmosis Radiation Inflammation of the lymph nodes, lungs, liver, ... chap 87. Read More Acute Cancer Chronic Endoscopy Histoplasmosis Nausea and vomiting - adults Pulmonary tuberculosis Sarcoidosis Review ...

  11. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  12. Colles wrist fracture – aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228899 . Prawer A. Radius and ulna fractures. In: Eiff MP, Hatch RL, eds. Fracture Management for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap ...

  13. Fibrous dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 22. Czerniak B. Fibrous dysplasia and related lesions. In: Czerniak B, ed. Bone Tumors. 2nd ... Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  14. Asbestosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Tarlo SM. Occupational lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Industrial bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2010:chap 64. Tarlo SM. Occupational lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  16. Silicosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al., eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 73. Tarlo SM. Occupational lung disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  17. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duodenal parasites test; Giardia - string test ... may be a sign parasite infection such as giardia . ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. Hill DR, Nash TE. Giardia lamblia. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ...

  18. Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2014:chap 66. Cosgrove DO, Eckersley RJ, Harvey CJ, Lim A. Ultrasound. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Northside Radiology Associates, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  19. Breast ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 30. Harvey JA, Mahoney MC, Newell MS, et al. ACR ... Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  20. Epilepsy - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 50. Freeman J, Harvey S. Seizures and epilepsies. In: South M, Ashwal S, Isaacs ... School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  1. Mouth ulcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: Canker sores Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A ... chap 22. Read More Canker sore Cellulitis Gingivostomatitis Leukoplakia Lichen planus Mouth sores Oral cancer Tooth abscess ...

  2. Post surgical pain treatment - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Acute Pain Management. Anesthesiology . 2012;116:248-73. PMID: 22227789 www.ncbi. ... chap 18. Sherwood ER, Williams CG, Prough DS. Anesthesiology principles, pain management, and conscious sedation. In: Townsend ...

  3. Serology for tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Saunders; 2011:chap 44. Penn RL. Francisella tularensis (Tularemia). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. ...

  4. Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... during withdrawal Brain diseases, such as Parkinson disease , Huntington disease Brain tumors or cysts Dementia (including Alzheimer disease ) ... 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 28. Review Date 2/21/2016 Updated by: Timothy Rogge, ...

  5. Basal ganglia dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ganglia dysfunction. They include: Dystonia (muscle tone problems) Huntington disease (disorder in which nerve cells in certain parts ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 20. Review Date 5/30/2016 Updated by: Amit M. ...

  6. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  7. Strabismus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... goes may do well with glasses. Eye muscle exercises may help keep the eyes straight. More severe ... eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 ed . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 1, chap 5. Goldstein HP, ...

  8. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 46. Callahan-Lyon P. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects. Tob Control . 2014;23(Suppl 2):ii36-ii40. ...

  9. Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of natural medicine . 4th ed. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone; 2013:chap 124. Sacks FM, Lichtenstein A, Van Horn L, Harris W, Kris-Etherton P, Winston M. Soy protein, isoflavones, and cardiovascular health: an ...

  10. Hemorrhoid surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and hemorrhoidectomy. In: Delaney CP, ed. Netter's Surgical Anatomy and Approaches . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 26. Review Date 4/5/2015 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason ...

  11. Testicular biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with fluid and dead sperm cells (spermatocele) Orchitis Testicular cancer Your health care provider will explain ... Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 31. Read More Infertility Orchitis Semen analysis Testes Testicular cancer Testicular self-exam ...

  12. Becker muscular dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inactivity (such as bed rest) can make the muscle disease worse. Physical therapy may be helpful to maintain ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 609. Selcen D. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  13. Xerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiber T, Bussmann C. Atopic dermatitis. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 12. Gilchrest BA. Skin disorders. In: ...

  14. Hives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattan CEH. Urticaria and angioedema. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 18. Saini SS. Urticaria and angioedema. In: Adkinson ...

  15. Melasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang MW. Disorders of hyperpigmentation. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds. Dermatology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2012:chap 67. Disturbances of pigmentation. In: ...

  16. Bullous pemphigoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard P, Borradori L. Pemphigoid group. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, eds. Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 30. Scott M, Werth VP. Bullous pemphigoid. In: ...

  17. Deciding about an IUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to 5 years. How long depends on the brand. There are 2 brands available in the United States: Skyla and Mirena. ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Copper T IUD. Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. www.arhp.org/MethodMatch/ ...

  18. Sciatica

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain - sciatica; LBP - sciatica; Lumbar radiculopathy - sciatica Images ... Surgery . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 16. Marques DR, Carroll WE. Neurology. In: Rakel RE, Rakel ...

  19. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause swelling or infection in the: Gallbladder (cholecystitis) Tube that carries bile from the liver to ... Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 55. Read More Acute cholecystitis Bile Cholangitis Choledocholithiasis Chronic cholecystitis Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic ...

  20. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ducts Cancer of the hepatobiliary system Gallbladder infection ( cholecystitis ) Gallstones Infection of the gallbladder, ducts, or liver ... Saunders; 2010:chap 65. Read More Acute Acute cholecystitis Bile Bile duct obstruction Cyst Gallstones Liver cancer - ...