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Sample records for lysk chap endopeptidase

  1. A chimeric LysK-lysostaphin fusion enzyme lysing Staphylococcus aureus cells: a study of both kinetics of inactivation and specifics of interaction with anionic polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A staphylolytic fusion protein (K-L) was created, harboring three unique lytic activities comprised of the LysK CHAP endopeptidase, and amidase domains, and the lysostaphin glycyl-glycine endopeptidase domain. To assess the potential of possible therapeutic applications, the kinetic behavior of K-L...

  2. Status of CHAP: composite HTGR analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secker, P.A.; Gilbert, J.S.

    1975-12-01

    Development of an HTGR accident simulation program is in progress for the prediction of the overall HTGR plant transient response to various initiating events. The status of the digital computer program named CHAP (Composite HTGR Analysis Program) as of June 30, 1975, is given. The philosophy, structure, and capabilities of the CHAP code are discussed. Mathematical descriptions are given for those HTGR components that have been modeled. Component model validation and evaluation using auxiliary analysis codes are also discussed

  3. User's manual for the Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, J.S.; Secker, P.A. Jr.; Vigil, J.C.; Wecksung, M.J.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.

    1977-03-01

    CHAP-1 is the first release version of an HTGR overall plant simulation program with both steady-state and transient solution capabilities. It consists of a model-independent systems analysis program and a collection of linked modules, each representing one or more components of the HTGR plant. Detailed instructions on the operation of the code and detailed descriptions of the HTGR model are provided. Information is also provided to allow the user to easily incorporate additional component modules, to modify or replace existing modules, or to incorporate a completely new simulation model into the CHAP systems analysis framework

  4. Biochemical and physical characterisation of urinary nanovesicles following CHAPS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Luca; Saraswat, Mayank; Duriez, Elodie; Byrne, Barry; Ravidà, Alessandra; Domon, Bruno; Holthofer, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Urinary exosomes represent a precious source of potential biomarkers for disease biology. Currently, the methods for vesicle isolation are severely restricted by the tendency of vesicle entrapment, e.g. by the abundant Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) polymers. Treatment by reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT) releases entrapped vesicles, thus increasing the final yield. However, this harsh treatment can cause remodelling of all those proteins which feature extra-vesicular domains stabilized by internal disulfide bridges and have detrimental effects on their biological activity. In order to optimize exosomal yield, we explore two vesicle treatment protocols - dithiothreitol (DTT) and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic (CHAPS) - applied to the differential centrifugation protocol for exosomal vesicle isolation. The results show that CHAPS treatment does not affect vesicle morphology or exosomal marker distribution, thus eliminating most of THP interference. Moreover, the recovery and preservation of catalytic activity of two trans-membrane proteases, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and nephrilysin, was examined and found to be clearly superior after CHAPS treatment compared to DTT. Finally, proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry (MS) revealed that 76.2% of proteins recovered by CHAPS are common to those seen for DTT treatment, which illustrates underlining similarities between the two approaches. In conclusion, we provide a major improvement to currently-utilized urinary vesicle isolation strategies to allow recovery of urinary vesicles without the deleterious interference of abundant urinary proteins, while preserving typical protein folding and, consequently, the precious biological activity of urinary proteins which serve as valuable biomarkers.

  5. Biochemical and physical characterisation of urinary nanovesicles following CHAPS treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Musante

    Full Text Available Urinary exosomes represent a precious source of potential biomarkers for disease biology. Currently, the methods for vesicle isolation are severely restricted by the tendency of vesicle entrapment, e.g. by the abundant Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP polymers. Treatment by reducing agents such as dithiothreitol (DTT releases entrapped vesicles, thus increasing the final yield. However, this harsh treatment can cause remodelling of all those proteins which feature extra-vesicular domains stabilized by internal disulfide bridges and have detrimental effects on their biological activity. In order to optimize exosomal yield, we explore two vesicle treatment protocols - dithiothreitol (DTT and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyldimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonic (CHAPS - applied to the differential centrifugation protocol for exosomal vesicle isolation. The results show that CHAPS treatment does not affect vesicle morphology or exosomal marker distribution, thus eliminating most of THP interference. Moreover, the recovery and preservation of catalytic activity of two trans-membrane proteases, dipeptidyl peptidase IV and nephrilysin, was examined and found to be clearly superior after CHAPS treatment compared to DTT. Finally, proteomic profiling by mass spectrometry (MS revealed that 76.2% of proteins recovered by CHAPS are common to those seen for DTT treatment, which illustrates underlining similarities between the two approaches. In conclusion, we provide a major improvement to currently-utilized urinary vesicle isolation strategies to allow recovery of urinary vesicles without the deleterious interference of abundant urinary proteins, while preserving typical protein folding and, consequently, the precious biological activity of urinary proteins which serve as valuable biomarkers.

  6. CHAP: a composite nuclear plant simulation program applied to the 3000 MW(t) HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secker, P.A.; Bailey, P.G.; Gilbert, J.S.; Willcutt, G.J.E. Jr.; Vigil, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    The Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP) is a general systems analysis program which has been developed at LASL. The program is being used for simulating large HTGR nuclear power plant operation and accident transients. The general features and analytical methods of the CHAP program are discussed. Features of the large HTGR model and results of model transients are also presented

  7. Induced-fit Mechanism for Prolyl Endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min; Chen, Changqing; Davies, David R.; Chiu, Thang K. (NIH); (LSU); (Chinese Aca. Sci.)

    2010-11-15

    Prolyl peptidases cleave proteins at proline residues and are of importance for cancer, neurological function, and type II diabetes. Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) cleaves neuropeptides and is a drug target for neuropsychiatric diseases such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Previous structural analyses showing little differences between native and substrate-bound structures have suggested a lock-and-key catalytic mechanism. We now directly demonstrate from seven structures of Aeromonus punctata PEP that the mechanism is instead induced fit: the native enzyme exists in a conformationally flexible opened state with a large interdomain opening between the {beta}-propeller and {alpha}/{beta}-hydrolase domains; addition of substrate to preformed native crystals induces a large scale conformational change into a closed state with induced-fit adjustments of the active site, and inhibition of this conformational change prevents substrate binding. Absolute sequence conservation among 28 orthologs of residues at the active site and critical residues at the interdomain interface indicates that this mechanism is conserved in all PEPs. This finding has immediate implications for the use of conformationally targeted drug design to improve specificity of inhibition against this family of proline-specific serine proteases.

  8. Study of the nanoporous CHAP photoluminiscence for developing the precise methods of early caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshchapov, D.; Seredin, P.; Minakov, D.; Domashevskaya, E.

    2018-02-01

    This paper deals with the luminescence characteristics of an analogue of the mineral component of dental enamel of the nanocrystalline B-type carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) with 3D defects (i.e. nanopores of ∼2-5 nm) on the nanocrystalline surface. The laser-induced luminescence of the synthesized CHAP samples was in the range of ∼515 nm (∼2.4 eV) and is due to CO3 groups replacing the PO4 group. It was found that the intensity of the luminescence of the CHAP is caused by structurally incorporated CO3 groups in the HAP structure. Furthermore, the intensity of the luminescence also decreases as the number of the above intracentre defects (CO3) in the apatite structure declines. These results are potentially promising for developing the foundations for precise methods for the early detection of caries in human solid dental tissue.

  9. Multiple forms of endopeptidase activity from jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M J; Storey, R D

    1990-01-01

    The cotyledons of 27 day post-germination jojoba seedlings (Simmondsia chinensis) contained five distinct endopeptidase activities separable by DEAE Bio-Gel and CM-cellulose ion exchange chromatography. The endopeptidases were purified 108- to 266-fold and their individuality was confirmed by activity-specific assays in native acrylamide gels along with differences in their Mr and catalytic properties. The five endopeptidases, which showed activity on model substrates and protein, were named EP Ia, EP Ib, EP II, EP III and EP IV. EP Ia was a serine proteinase with a pH optimum of ca 8 and Mr of 58,000. EP Ib, II and III were discrete cysteine proteinases showing pH optima of ca 6.8, 6.0 and 5.4 and Mr of 41,000, 47,000 and 35,000 respectively. EP IV was an aspartic acid proteinase with a ca pH optimum of 3.5 and Mr of 33,000.

  10. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, CE; Vermeer, AWP; Norde, W

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propansulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  11. Adsorption of immunoglobulin G on core-shell latex particles precoated with chaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, C.E.; Vermeer, A.W.P.; Norde, W.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the adsorption behavior of a monoclonal antibody (immunoglobulin G, IgG) on latex particles, possessing reactive chloromethyl groups, precoated with 3-([3-cholamidopropyl]dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (Chaps). The amount and reactivity of the surface

  12. CHAP-2 heat-transfer analysis of the Fort St. Vrain reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotas, J.F.; Stroh, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Composite High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Analysis Program (CHAP) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in gas-cooled reactor plants. The CHAP-2 reactor-core model uses the finite-element method to initialize a two-dimensional temperature map of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) core and its top and bottom reflectors. The code generates a finite-element mesh, initializes noding and boundary conditions, and solves the nonlinear Laplace heat equation using temperature-dependent thermal conductivities, variable coolant-channel-convection heat-transfer coefficients, and specified internal fuel and moderator heat-generation rates. This paper discusses this method and analyzes an FSV reactor-core accident that simulates a control-rod withdrawal at full power

  13. Developmental assessment of the Fort St. Vrain version of the Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroh, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP) consists of a model-independent systems analysis mainframe named LASAN and model-dependent linked code modules, each representing a component, subsystem, or phenomenon of an HTGR plant. The Fort St. Vrain (FSV) version (CHAP-2) includes 21 coded modules that model the neutron kinetics and thermal response of the core; the thermal-hydraulics of the reactor primary coolant system, secondary steam supply system, and balance-of-plant; the actions of the control system and plant protection system; the response of the reactor building; and the relative hazard resulting from fuel particle failure. FSV steady-state and transient plant data are being used to partially verify the component modeling and dynamic smulation techniques used to predict plant response to postulated accident sequences

  14. Non-chapped, vertically well aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes fabricated by electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loan Nguyen, Thu; Dieu Thuy Ung, Thi; Liem Nguyen, Quang

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication of non-chapped, vertically well aligned titanium dioxide nanotubes (TONTs) by using electrochemical etching method and further heat treatment. Very highly ordered metallic titanium nanotubes (TNTs) were formed by directly anodizing titanium foil at room temperature in an electrolyte composed of ammonium fluoride (NH4F), ethylene glycol (EG), and water. The morphology of as-formed TNTs is greatly dependent on the applied voltage, NH4F content and etching time. Particularly, we have found two interesting points related to the formation of TNTs: (i) the smooth surface without chaps of the largely etched area was dependent on the crystalline orientation of the titanium foil; and (ii) by increasing the anodizing potential from 15 V to 20 V, the internal diameter of TNT was increased from about 50 nm to 60 nm and the tube density decreased from 403 tubes μm-2 down to 339 tubes μm-2, respectively. For the anodizing duration from 1 h to 5 h, the internal diameter of each TNT was increased from ˜30 nm to 60 nm and the tube density decreased from 496 tubes μm-2 down to 403 tubes μm-2. After annealing at 400 °C in open air for 1 h, the TNTs were transformed into TONTs in anatase structure; further annealing at 600 °C showed the structural transformation from anatase to rutile as determined by Raman scattering spectroscopy.

  15. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Echinodorus macrophyllus (chapéu-de-couro extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S. Vidal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus macrophyllus, commonly known as chapéu-de-couro, is a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat inflammation and rheumatic diseases. In this work, we used short-term bacterial assays based on the induction of SOS functions to examine the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of an aqueous extract of E. macrophyllus leaves. Whole extract and an ethyl acetate fraction showed similar genotoxicity and caused an ~70-fold increase in lysogenic induction. The extract also gave a positive result in the SOS chromotest with an increase of 12-fold in β-Galactosidase enzymatic units. There was a strong trend towards base substitutions and frameshifts at purine sites in the mutations induced by the extract in Escherichia coli (CC103 and CC104 strains and Salmonella typhimurium test strains (22-fold increase in histidine revertants in TA98 strain. Since reactive oxygen species may be implicated in aging process and in degenerative diseases, we used antioxidant compounds as catalase, thiourea and dipyridyl in the lysogenic induction test. All this compounds were able to reduce the induction factor observed in the treatment with chapéu-de-couro, thus suggesting that the genotoxicity and mutagenicity were attributable to the production of reactive oxygen species that targeted DNA purines.

  16. Developmental assessment of the Fort St. Vrain version of the composite HTGR analysis program (CHAP-2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroh, K.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Composite HTGR Analysis Program (CHAP) consists of a model-independent systems analysis mainframe named LASAN and model-dependent linked code modules, each representing a component, subsystem, or phenomenon of an HTGR plant. The Fort St. Vrain version (CHAP-2) includes 21 coded modules that model the neutron kinetics and thermal response of the core; the thermal-hydraulics of the reactor primary coolant system, secondary steam supply system, and balance-of-plant; the actions of the control system and plant protection system; the response of the reactor building; and the relative hazard resulting from fuel particle failure. FSV steady-state and transient plant data are being used to partially verify the component modeling and dynamic simulation techniques used to predict plant response to postulated accident sequences. Results of these preliminary validation efforts are presented showing good agreement between code output and plant data for the portions of the code that have been tested. Plans for further development and assessment as well as application of the validated code are discussed. (author)

  17. Stable isotope (C, O) and monovalent cation fractionation upon synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyl apatite (CHAP) via calcite transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Michael E.; Schmiedinger, Iris; Wacker, Ulrike; Conrad, Anika C.; Grathoff, Georg; Schmidt, Burkhard; Bahlo, Rainer; Gehlken, Peer-L.; Fiebig, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate-bearing hydroxyl-apatite (CHAP) is of fundamental and applied interest to the (bio)geochemical, paleontological, medical and material science communities, since it forms the basic mineral phase in human and animal teeth and bones. In addition, it is found in non-biogenic phosphate deposits. The stable isotope and foreign element composition of biogenic CHAP is widely used to estimate the formation conditions. This requires careful experimental calibration under well-defined boundary conditions. Within the DFG project EXCALIBOR, synthesis of carbonate-bearing hydroxyapatite was conducted via the transformation of synthetic calcite powder in aqueous solution as a function of time, pH, and temperature using batch-type experiments. The aqueous solution was analyzed for the carbon isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbonate (gas irmMS), the oxygen isotope composition of water (LCRDS), and the cationic composition. The solid was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, micro Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, elemental analysis (EA, ICP-OES) and gas irmMS. Temperature was found to significantly impact the transformation rate of calcite to CHAP. Upon complete transformation, CHAP was found to contain up to 5% dwt carbonate, depending on the solution composition (e.g., pH), both incorporated on the A and B type position of the crystal lattice. The oxygen isotope fractionation between water and CHAP decreased with increasing temperature with a tentative slope shallower than those reported in the literature for apatite, calcite or aragonite. In addition, the presence of dissolved NH4+, K+ or Na+ in aqueous solution led to partial incorporation into the CHAP lattice. How these distortions of the crystal lattice may impact stable isotope discrimination is subject of future investigations.

  18. Presence and expression of hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad Peter

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogenases catalyze the simplest of all chemical reactions: the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen or vice versa. Cyanobacteria can express an uptake, a bidirectional or both NiFe-hydrogenases. Maturation of those depends on accessory proteins encoded by hyp-genes. The last maturation step involves the cleavage of a ca. 30 amino acid long peptide from the large subunit by a C-terminal endopeptidase. Until know, nothing is known about the maturation of cyanobacterial NiFe-hydrogenases. The availability of three complete cyanobacterial genome sequences from strains with either only the uptake (Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133/PCC 73102, only the bidirectional (Synechocystis PCC 6803 or both NiFe-hydrogenases (Anabaena PCC 7120 prompted us to mine these genomes for hydrogenase maturation related genes. In this communication we focus on the presence and the expression of the NiFe-hydrogenases and the corresponding C-terminal endopeptidases, in the three strains mentioned above. Results We identified genes encoding putative cyanobacterial hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases in all analyzed cyanobacterial genomes. The genes are not part of any known hydrogenase related gene cluster. The derived amino acid sequences show only low similarity (28–41% to the well-analyzed hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidase HybD from Escherichia coli, the crystal structure of which is known. However, computational secondary and tertiary structure modeling revealed the presence of conserved structural patterns around the highly conserved active site. Gene expression analysis shows that the endopeptidase encoding genes are expressed under both nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing conditions. Conclusion Anabaena PCC 7120 possesses two NiFe-hydrogenases and two hydrogenase specific C-terminal endopeptidases but only one set of hyp-genes. Thus, in contrast to the Hyp-proteins, the C-terminal endopeptidases are the only known

  19. Aerosol Chemical Composition and its Effects on Cloud-Aerosol Interactions during the 2007 CHAPS Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Alexander, L.; Newburn, M.; Jayne, J.; Hubbe, J.; Springston, S.; Senum, G.; Andrews, B.; Ogren, J.; Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Berg, L.; Berkowitz, C.

    2007-12-01

    Chemical composition of submicron aerosol particles was determined using an Aerodyne Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) outfitted on the DOE G-1 aircraft during the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) conducted in Oklahoma City area in June 2007. The primary objective of CHAPS was to investigate the effects of urban emissions on cloud aerosol interactions as a function of processing of the emissions. Aerosol composition was typically determined at three different altitudes: below, in, and above cloud, in both upwind and downwind regions of the urban area. Aerosols were sampled from an isokinetic inlet with an upper size cut-off of ~1.5 micrometer. During cloud passages, the AMS also sampled particles that were dried from cloud droplets collected using a counter-flow virtual impactor (CVI) sampler. The aerosol mass concentrations were typically below 10 microgram per cubic meter, and were dominated by organics and sulfate. Ammonium was often less than required for complete neutralization of sulfate. Aerosol nitrate levels were very low. We noted that nitrate levels were significantly enhanced in cloud droplets compared to aerosols, most likely resulting from dissolution of gaseous nitric acid. Organic to sulfate ratios appeared to be lower in cloud droplets than in aerosols, suggesting cloud condensation nuclei properties of aerosol particles might be affected by loading and nature of the organic components in aerosols. In-cloud formation of sulfate was considered unimportant because of the very low SO2 concentration in the region. A detailed examination of the sources of the aerosol organic components (based on hydrocarbons determined using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer) and their effects on cloud formation as a function of atmospheric processing (based on the degree of oxidation of the organic components) will be presented.

  20. Use of a crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mouse model with the NIAAA-model of chronic-binge ethanol intake to study liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kyle J; Nazari, Shayan S; Jacobs, W Carl; Grahame, Nicholas J; McKillop, Iain H

    2017-11-01

    This study sought to compare mice bred to preferentially consume high amounts of alcohol (crossed-high alcohol preferring, cHAP) to c57BL/6 (C57) mice using a chronic-binge ethanol ingestion model to induce alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Male C57 and cHAP mice were randomized to a Lieber-DeCarli control (LDC) diet, Lieber-DeCarli 5% (v/v) ethanol (LDE) diet or free-choice between 10% (v/v) ethanol in drinking water (EtOH-DW) and DW. After 4 weeks mice were gavaged with either 9 g/kg maltose-dextrin (LDC+MD) or 5 g/kg EtOH (LDE+Binge, EtOH-DW+Binge). Nine hours later tissue and serum were collected and analyzed. cHAP mice on EtOH-DW consumed significantly more ethanol than cHAP or C57 mice maintained on LDE. However, cHAP and C57 mice on the LDE+Binge regiment had greater hepatosteatosis and overall degree of liver injury compared to EtOH-DW+Binge. Changes in pro-inflammatory gene expression was more pronounced in cHAP mice than C57 mice. Analysis of liver enzymes revealed a robust induction of CYP2E1 in C57 and cHAP mice maintained on EtOH-DW+Binge or LDE+Binge. However, while C57 mice exhibited higher basal hepatic glutathione than cHAP mice, these mice appeared more susceptible to oxidative stress following LDE+Binge than cHAP counterparts. Despite cHAP mice consuming more total ethanol prior to gavage when maintained on EtOH-DW, LDE followed by gavage created a more severe model of ALD in both C57 and cHAP mice. These data suggest factors other than total amount of alcohol consumed affect degree of ALD development in the chronic-binge model in cHAP mice. cHAP mice voluntarily consume high amounts of ethanol and exhibited hepatic injury when subject to chronic-binge ethanol feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli diet. However, hepatic injury was reduced in cHAP mice in a chronic-binge model following voluntary high ethanol consumption in drinking water. © The Author 2017. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennex, D.; Hemmings, B.A.; Hofsteenge, J.; Stone, S.R. (Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-02-26

    Prolyl endopeptidase is a cytoplasmic serine protease. The enzyme was purified from porcine kidney, and oligonucleotides based on peptide sequences from this protein were used to isolate a cDNA clone from a porcine brain library. This clone contained the complete coding sequence of prolyl endopeptidase and encoded a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 80751 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of prolyl endopeptidase showed no sequence homology with other known serine proteases. ({sup 3}H)Diisopropyl fluorophosphate was used to identify the active-site serine of prolyl endopeptidase. One labeled peptide was isolated and sequenced. The sequence surrounding the active-site serine was Asn-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Gly-Gly. This sequence is different from the active-site sequences of other known serine proteases. This difference and the lack of overall homology with the known families of serine proteases suggest that prolyl endopeptidase represents a new type of serine protease.

  2. Inhibition of [gamma]-endorphin generating endopeptidase activity of rat brain by peptides: Structure activity relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebouille, J.L.M.; Visser, W.H.; Hendriks, R.W.; Nispen, J.W. van; Greven, H.M.; Burbach, J.P.H.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma-Endorphin generating endopeptidase (gammaEGE) activity is an enzyme activity which converts beta-endorphin into gamma-endorphin and beta-endorphin-(18–31). The inhibitory potency on gammaEGE activity of neuropeptides and analogues or fragments of neuropeptides was tested. Dynorphin-(1–13)

  3. Chromosomal Location by Use of Trisomics and New Alleles of an Endopeptidase in Zea Mays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel; Scandalios, John G.

    1974-01-01

    An association was found earlier between the Ep1 gene locus coding for an endopeptidase and the endosperm color gene Y1 on chromosome 6 of Zea mays. By employing primary trisomics we have unequivocally placed the Ep1 gene on chromosome 6, closely linked to the Y1 locus. Additionally we describe new...

  4. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira

    2015-01-01

    of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering...

  5. Concurrent neutral endopeptidase and ACE inhibition in experimental heart failure: renal and hormonal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K

    1993-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors have been shown to strengthen the effects of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It has been well documented that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act beneficially in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the present study, renal...

  6. Essential oil from two populations of Echinodorus grandiflorus (Cham. & Schltdl. Micheli (Chapéu de couro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S. Pimenta

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis by Gas Chromatography and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry of the essential oils obtained from leaves of Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu de couro" from two different populations (Big Leaves and Small Leaves, collected monthly between September 1998 and December 1999 revealed 17 components. Phytol was the major constituent for both populations. The main sesquiterpene representatives are (E-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene and (E-nerolidol.Análise por cromatografia com fase gasosa e cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas de óleos essenciais obtidos de folhas de Echinodorus grandiflorus ("Chapéu-de-couro" em duas diferentes populações (folhas grandes e folhas pequenas, coletadas mensalmente entre setembro de 1998 e dezembro de 1999, revelou 17 componentes. Fitol foi o constituinte majoritário em ambas populações. Os principais representantes sesquiterpênicos foram (E-cariofileno, alfa-humuleno e (E-nerolidol.

  7. Colocalization of neurotensin receptors and of the neurotensin-degrading enzyme endopeptidase 24-16 in primary cultures of neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabry, J.; Checler, F.; Vincent, J.P.; Mazella, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper compares the localization of neurotensin receptors and of endopeptidase 24-16, a peptidase likely involved in the inactivation of neurotensin in primary cultures of neurons. Neurotensin binding sites were radiolabeled with 125 I-Tyr3-neurotensin, whereas endopeptidase 24-16 was stained by immunohistochemical techniques using a monospecific polyclonal antibody. Endopeptidase 24-16 is present in 80-85% of the nondifferentiated neurons. The proportion of immunoreactive neurons decreased during maturation to reach 35-40% after 4-8 d of culture. By contrast, neurotensin receptors were not detectable in nondifferentiated cells and appear during maturation. Specific 125 I-Tyr3-neurotensin labeling is maximal after 4 d of culture and is located on about 10% of differentiated neurons. Double-labeling experiments show that about 90% of cortical, hypothalamic, and mesencephalic neurons bearing the neurotensin receptor also contained endopeptidase 24-16, supporting the hypothesis that one of the functions of endopeptidase 24-16 is the physiological inactivation of neurotensin. However, the presence of endopeptidase 24-16 on numerous neurons that do not contain neurotensin receptors also suggests that the enzyme could be involved in the degradation and/or maturation of other neuropeptides

  8. Digital Inversion and Initial Analysis of Nephelometer Data from the CHAPS Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, A. M.; Shaw, W. J.; Berg, L. K.; Berkowitz, C. M.; Ogren, J. A.; Andrews, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS) was carried out downwind of Oklahoma City during June 2007 with the objective of investigating the evolution of freshly nucleated particles from an urban plume as a consequence of initial activation in clouds. As part of this campaign, the G-1 research aircraft operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) sampled particle properties below, within, and above the layer of fair-weather cumulus that frequently capped the daytime atmospheric boundary layer. These measurements were executed just downwind of Oklahoma City both within and outside urban plume. As part of its instrument complement, the G-1 carried a pair of three-wavelength nephelometers to measure optical scattering by the atmospheric aerosol. One nephelometer sampled from an isokinetic inlet to measure non- activated particles. The other nephelometer sampled activated particles from air that passed through a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI). We have determined that the effective time constants for the nephelometer signals are 2 s and 8 s for the isokinetic and CVI air streams, respectively. These time constants pose a challenge for comparing scattering with other cloud properties, such as liquid water, reported by instruments with much faster response, since scattering peaks from the nephelometer often occur after the trailing cloud edge in sampled time series. For isolated clouds, this is not too difficult to manage. However, in a field of cumulus, the nephelometer signal may not return to background values before the next cloud is encountered. This greatly complicates the interpretation of the data. In this presentation, we describe our determination of the time constants for the nephelometers on the G-1, and we use these time constants to invert the sampled time series. This reduces the effective time constants of the instruments at the cost of amplifying noise in the signals. We then use the inverted time series to infer optical

  9. Bifidobacterium breve C50 secretes lipoprotein with CHAP domain recognized in aggregated form by TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuotto, Angelo; Djorie, Serge; Colavizza, Michel; Romond, Pierre-Charles; Romond, Marie-Bénédicte

    2014-12-01

    Extracellular components secreted by Bifidobacterium breve C50 can induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of dendritic cells via a TLR2 pathway. In this study, the components were isolated from the supernatant by gel filtration chromatography. Antibodies raised against the major compounds with molecular weight above 600 kDa (Bb C50BC) also recognized compounds of lower molecular weight (200–600 kDa). TLR2 and TLR6 bound to the components already recognized by the antibodies. Trypsin digestion of Bb C50BC released three major peptides whose sequences displayed close similarities to a putative secreted protein with a CHAP amidase domain from B. breve. The 1300-bp genomic region corresponding to the hypothetical protein was amplified by PCR. The deduced polypeptide started with an N-terminal signal sequence of 45 amino acids, containing the lipobox motif (LAAC) with the cysteine in position 25, and 2 positively charged residues within the first 14 residues of the signal sequence. Lipid detection in Bb C50BC by GC/MS further supported the implication of a lipoprotein. Sugars were also detected in Bb C50BC. Close similarity with the glucan-binding protein B from Bifidobacterium animalis of two released peptides from Bb C50BC protein suggested that glucose moieties, possibly in glucan form, could be bound to the lipoprotein. Finally, heating at 100 °C for 5 min led to the breakdown of Bb C50BC in compounds of molecular weight below 67 kDa, which suggested that Bb C50BC was an aggregate. One might assume that a basic unit was formed by the lipoprotein bound putatively to glucan. Besides the other sugars and hexosamines recognized by galectin 1 were localized at the surface of the Bb C50BC aggregate. In conclusion, the extracellular components secreted by B. breve C50 were constituted of a lipoprotein putatively associated with glucose moieties and acting in an aggregating form as an agonist of TLR2/TLR6.

  10. Early, Real-Time Medical Diagnosis of Botulism by Endopeptidase-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Osnat; Feldberg, Liron; Gura, Sigalit; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Guri, Alex; Zimhony, Oren; Shapiro, Eli; Beth-Din, Adi; Stein, Dana; Ozeri, Eyal; Barnea, Ada; Turgeman, Amram; Ben David, Alon; Schwartz, Arieh; Elhanany, Eytan; Diamant, Eran; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Zichel, Ran

    2015-12-15

    Botulinum toxin was detected in patient serum using Endopeptidase-mass-spectrometry assay, although all conventional tests provided negative results. Antitoxin was administered, resulting in patient improvement. Implementing this highly sensitive and rapid assay will improve preparedness for foodborne botulism and deliberate exposure. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M. [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Midtgaard, Søren Roi [University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Gysel, Kira [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J. [University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C (Denmark); Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.blaise@cpbs.cnrs.fr [Aarhus University, Gustav Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  12. Internal and overall motions of the translation factor eIF4E: Cap binding and insertion in a CHAPS detergent micelle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, Abigail Manson; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Wagner, Gerhard

    1998-01-01

    The mRNA cap-binding protein eIF4E is the limiting factor in the eIF4F translation initiation complex, which mediates the binding of the 40S ribosome to the mRNA. 15 N relaxation studies have been used to characterize the backbone dynamics of deuterated eIF4E in a CHAPS micelle for the apoprotein, the m 7 GDP-bound form, and the dinucleotide (m 7 GpppA)-bound form, as well as for CHAPS-free eIF4E. Large differences in overall correlation time between the CHAPS-free form (11.8 ns) and samples containing different concentrations of CHAPS (15.9-19.4 ns) indicate that eIF4E is embedded in a large micelle in the presence of CHAPS, with a total molecular weight in the range of 40-60 kDa. CHAPS seems to restrict the mobility of the a2-b3 and a4-b5 loops which are thought to be embedded in the micelle. No significant changes in overall mobility were seen between the m 7 GDP-bound form, the m 7 GpppA-bound form, and the apoprotein. Amide hydrogen exchange data indicate the presence of slowly exchanging amides in two surface-exposed helices (a2 and a4), as well as the a4-b5 loop, indicating protection by the CHAPS micelle. The micelle covers the convex side of the protein away from the cap-binding site

  13. IrAE - An asparaginyl endopeptidase (legumain) in the gut of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Dvořák, J.; Sajid, M.; Franta, Zdeněk; Schneider, E. L.; Craik, C. S.; Vancová, Marie; Burešová, Veronika; Bogyo, M.; Sexton, K. B.; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 7 (2007), s. 713-724 ISSN 0020-7519 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0865; GA AV ČR IAA6022307; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GD524/03/H133 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) FRVŠ 3646/2005; NIH(US) AI35707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : asparaginyl endopeptidase * tick gut, * blood digestion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.392, year: 2007

  14. Characterization of the glutamate-specific endopeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis expressed in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Wang, Haiying; Ma, Yi; Luo, Xiaochun; Zhang, Weimin; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

    2013-10-10

    Glutamate-specific endopeptidase from Bacillus licheniformis (GSE-BL) is widely used in peptide recovery and synthesis because of its unique substrate specificity. However, the mechanism underlying its specificity is still not thoroughly understood. In this study, the roles of the prosegment and key amino acids involved in the proteolytic activity of GSE-BL were investigated. Loss of the GSE-BL prosegment severely restricted enzymatic activity toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA. A homologous model of GSE-BL revealed that it contains the catalytic triad "His47, Asp96 and Ser 167", which was further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. In vitro mutagenesis further indicated that Val2, Arg89 and His190 are essential for enzymatic activity toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA. Moreover, the catalytic efficiency of Phe57Ala GSE-BL toward Z-Phe-Leu-Glu-pNA was 50% higher than that of the native mature GSE-BL. This is the first study to fully elucidate the key amino acids for proteolytic activity of GSE-BL. Mature GSE-BL could be obtained through self-cleavage alone when Lys at -1 position was replaced by Glu, providing a new strategy for the preparation of mature GSE-BL. This study yielded some valuable insights into the substrate specificity of glutamate-specific endopeptidase, establishing a foundation for broadening the applications of GSE-BL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. CLONING AND SEQUENCING OF THE GENE FOR A LACTOCOCCAL ENDOPEPTIDASE, AN ENZYME WITH SEQUENCE SIMILARITY TO MAMMALIAN ENKEPHALINASE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierau, Igor; Tan, Paris S.T.; Haandrikman, Alfred J.; Kok, Jan; Leenhouts, Kees J.; Konings, Wil N.; Venema, Gerard

    The gene specifying an endopeptidase of Lactococcus lactis, named pepO, was cloned from a genomic library of L. lactis subsp. cremoris P8-247 in lambdaEMBL3 and was subsequently sequenced. pepO is probably the last gene of an operon encoding the binding-protein-dependent oligopeptide transport

  16. Crystal structure of a catalytically active, non-toxic endopeptidase derivative of Clostridium botulinum toxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyer, Geoffrey; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; James, Peter L; Marks, Philip M H; Chaddock, John A; Acharya, K Ravi

    2009-03-27

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) modulate cholinergic nerve terminals to result in neurotransmitter blockade. BoNTs consists of catalytic (LC), translocation (Hn) and cell-binding domains (Hc). The binding function of the Hc domain is essential for BoNTs to bind the neuronal cell membrane, therefore, removal of the Hc domain results in a product that retains the endopeptidase activity of the LC but is non-toxic. Thus, a molecule consisting of LC and Hn domains of BoNTs, termed LHn, is a suitable molecule for engineering novel therapeutics. The structure of LHA at 2.6 A reported here provides an understanding of the structural implications and challenges of engineering therapeutic molecules that combine functional properties of LHn of BoNTs with specific ligand partners to target different cell types.

  17. AmpH, a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Leiza, Silvia M; de Pedro, Miguel A; Ayala, Juan A

    2011-12-01

    In Escherichia coli, low-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (LMM PBPs) are important for correct cell morphogenesis. These enzymes display DD-carboxypeptidase and/or dd-endopeptidase activities associated with maturation and remodeling of peptidoglycan (PG). AmpH has been classified as an AmpH-type class C LMM PBP, a group closely related to AmpC β-lactamases. AmpH has been associated with PG recycling, although its enzymatic activity remained uncharacterized until now. Construction and purification of His-tagged AmpH from E. coli permitted a detailed study of its enzymatic properties. The N-terminal export signal of AmpH is processed, but the protein remains membrane associated. The PBP nature of AmpH was demonstrated by its ability to bind the β-lactams Bocillin FL (a fluorescent penicillin) and cefmetazole. In vitro assays with AmpH and specific muropeptides demonstrated that AmpH is a bifunctional DD-endopeptidase and DD-carboxypeptidase. Indeed, the enzyme cleaved the cross-linked dimers tetrapentapeptide (D45) and tetratetrapeptide (D44) with efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m)) of 1,200 M(-1) s(-1) and 670 M(-1) s(-1), respectively, and removed the terminal D-alanine from muropeptides with a C-terminal D-Ala-D-Ala dipeptide. Both DD-peptidase activities were inhibited by 40 μM cefmetazole. AmpH also displayed a weak β-lactamase activity for nitrocefin of 1.4 × 10(-3) nmol/μg protein/min, 1/1,000 the rate obtained for AmpC under the same conditions. AmpH was also active on purified sacculi, exhibiting the bifunctional character that was seen with pure muropeptides. The wide substrate spectrum of the DD-peptidase activities associated with AmpH supports a role for this protein in PG remodeling or recycling.

  18. The CHAP-EMS health promotion program: a qualitative study on participants' views of the role of paramedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Madison; Denton, Margaret; Agarwal, Gina

    2016-08-24

    Expanded roles for paramedics, commonly termed community paramedicine, are becoming increasingly common. Paramedics working in community paramedicine roles represent a distinct departure away from the traditional emergency paradigm of paramedic services. Despite this, little research has addressed how community paramedics are perceived by their clients. This study took an interpretivist qualitative approach to examine participants' perceptions of paramedics providing a community paramedicine program, named the Community Health Assessment Program through Emergency Medical Services (CHAP-EMS). Both participant observation and semi-structured interviews conducted with program participants were used to gain insight into the on-the-ground experiences of the program. Thematic analysis was employed to analyze all data. Three themes emerged: i) Caring and trusting relationships; ii) paramedics as health advocates; iii) the added value of EMS skills. Paramedics were perceived by residents as having dual identities: first in a novel role as health advocates and secondly in a traditional role as emergency experts despite lacking contextual features associated with emergency response. From this exploratory, qualitative study we present an emerging framework in which to conceptualize paramedic roles in community paramedicine settings. Future research should address the saliency of these roles in different contexts and how these roles relate to paramedic practice.

  19. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Bui, Nhat Khai [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A. [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vollmer, Waldemar [Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH (United Kingdom); Coulthurst, Sarah J., E-mail: s.j.coulthurst@dundee.ac.uk; Hunter, William N., E-mail: s.j.coulthurst@dundee.ac.uk [University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  20. Structural basis for type VI secreted peptidoglycan dl-endopeptidase function, specificity and neutralization in Serratia marcescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srikannathasan, Velupillai; English, Grant; Bui, Nhat Khai; Trunk, Katharina; O’Rourke, Patrick E. F.; Rao, Vincenzo A.; Vollmer, Waldemar; Coulthurst, Sarah J.; Hunter, William N.

    2013-01-01

    Crystal structures of type VI secretion system-associated immunity proteins, a peptidoglycan endopeptidase and a complex of the endopeptidase and its cognate immunity protein are reported together with assays of endopeptidase activity and functional assessment. Some Gram-negative bacteria target their competitors by exploiting the type VI secretion system to extrude toxic effector proteins. To prevent self-harm, these bacteria also produce highly specific immunity proteins that neutralize these antagonistic effectors. Here, the peptidoglycan endopeptidase specificity of two type VI secretion-system-associated effectors from Serratia marcescens is characterized. These small secreted proteins, Ssp1 and Ssp2, cleave between γ-d-glutamic acid and l-meso-diaminopimelic acid with different specificities. Ssp2 degrades the acceptor part of cross-linked tetratetrapeptides. Ssp1 displays greater promiscuity and cleaves monomeric tripeptides, tetrapeptides and pentapeptides and dimeric tetratetra and tetrapenta muropeptides on both the acceptor and donor strands. Functional assays confirm the identity of a catalytic cysteine in these endopeptidases and crystal structures provide information on the structure–activity relationships of Ssp1 and, by comparison, of related effectors. Functional assays also reveal that neutralization of these effectors by their cognate immunity proteins, which are called resistance-associated proteins (Raps), contributes an essential role to cell fitness. The structures of two immunity proteins, Rap1a and Rap2a, responsible for the neutralization of Ssp1 and Ssp2-like endopeptidases, respectively, revealed two distinct folds, with that of Rap1a not having previously been observed. The structure of the Ssp1–Rap1a complex revealed a tightly bound heteromeric assembly with two effector molecules flanking a Rap1a dimer. A highly effective steric block of the Ssp1 active site forms the basis of effector neutralization. Comparisons with Ssp2–Rap2

  1. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-...

  2. Cloning and expression analysis of genes encoding lytic endopeptidases L1 and L5 from Lysobacter sp. strain XL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapteva, Y S; Zolova, O E; Shlyapnikov, M G; Tsfasman, I M; Muranova, T A; Stepnaya, O A; Kulaev, I S; Granovsky, I E

    2012-10-01

    Lytic enzymes are the group of hydrolases that break down structural polymers of the cell walls of various microorganisms. In this work, we determined the nucleotide sequences of the Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 alpA and alpB genes, which code for, respectively, secreted lytic endopeptidases L1 (AlpA) and L5 (AlpB). In silico analysis of their amino acid sequences showed these endopeptidases to be homologous proteins synthesized as precursors similar in structural organization: the mature enzyme sequence is preceded by an N-terminal signal peptide and a pro region. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB were assigned to the S1E family [clan PA(S)] of serine peptidases. Expression of the alpA and alpB open reading frames (ORFs) in Escherichia coli confirmed that they code for functionally active lytic enzymes. Each ORF was predicted to have the Shine-Dalgarno sequence located at a canonical distance from the start codon and a potential Rho-independent transcription terminator immediately after the stop codon. The alpA and alpB mRNAs were experimentally found to be monocistronic; transcription start points were determined for both mRNAs. The synthesis of the alpA and alpB mRNAs was shown to occur predominantly in the late logarithmic growth phase. The amount of alpA mRNA in cells of Lysobacter sp. strain XL1 was much higher, which correlates with greater production of endopeptidase L1 than of L5.

  3. NMR and photo-CIDNP studies of human proinsulin and prohormone processing intermediates with application to endopeptidase recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, M.A.; Frank, B.H.; Heiney, R.; Pekar, A.; Khait, I.; Neuringer, L.J.; Shoelson, S.E.

    1990-01-01

    The proinsulin-insulin system provides a general model for the proteolytic processing of polypeptide hormones. Two proinsulin-specific endopeptidases have been defined, a type I activity that cleaves the B-chain/C-peptide junction (Arg 31 -Arg 32 ) and a type II activity that cleaves the C-peptide/A-chain junction (Lys 64 -Arg 65 ). These endopeptidases are specific for their respective dibasic target sites; not all such dibasic sites are cleaved, however, and studies of mutant proinsulins have demonstrated that additional sequence or structural features are involved in determining substrate specificity. To define structural elements required for endopeptidase recognition, the authors have undertaken comparative 1 H NMR and photochemical dynamic nuclear polarization (photo-CIDNP) studies of human proinsulin, insulin, and split proinsulin analogues as models or prohormone processing intermediates. The overall conformation of proinsulin is observed to be similar to that of insulin, and the connecting peptide is largely unstructured. In the 1 H NMR spectrum of proinsulin significant variation is observed in the line widths of insulin-specific amide resonances, reflecting exchange among conformational substrates; similar exchange is observed in insulin and is not damped by the connecting peptide. The aromatic 1 H NMR resonances of proinsulin are assigned by analogy to the spectrum of insulin, and assignments are verified by chemical modification. These results suggest that a stable local structure is formed at the CA junction, which influences insulin-specific packing interactions. They propose that this structure (designated the CA knuckle) provides a recognition element for type II proinsulin endopeptidase

  4. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Anthony J; Knudsen, Giselle M; Beekman, Chapman; Perry, Jenna A; Johnson, Alexander D; DeRisi, Joseph L; Craik, Charles S; Bennett, Richard J

    2015-06-16

    Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian host. P. destructans is not amenable to genetic manipulation, and therefore understanding the proteins involved in infection requires alternative approaches. Here, we identify hydrolytic enzymes secreted by P. destructans, and use a novel and unbiased substrate profiling technique to define active peptidases. These experiments revealed that endopeptidases are the major proteolytic activities secreted by P. destructans, and that collagen, the major structural protein in mammals, is actively degraded by the secretome. A serine endopeptidase, hereby-named Destructin-1, was subsequently identified, and a recombinant form overexpressed and purified. Biochemical analysis of Destructin-1 showed that it mediated collagen degradation, and a potent inhibitor of peptidase activity was identified. Treatment of P. destructans-conditioned media with this antagonist blocked collagen degradation and facilitated the detection of additional secreted proteolytic activities, including aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases. These results provide molecular insights into the secretome of P. destructans, and identify serine endopeptidases that have the clear potential to facilitate tissue invasion and pathogenesis in the mammalian host.

  5. Radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory, and antimicrobial potential of a cultured Himalayan lichen Cetrelia olivetorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savale, Swapnil Anil; Pol, Chaitrali Satish; Khare, Roshni; Verma, Neeraj; Gaikwad, Subhash; Mandal, Bapi; Behera, Bhaskar C

    2016-01-01

    Lichens are source of natural bioactive compounds which are traditionally used to cure a variety of ailments. The objective of this study is to assess free radical scavenging, prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory (PEPI), and antimicrobial potential of a high altitude lichen species Cetrelia olivetorum (Nyl.) W. L. Culb. & C. F. Culb (Parmeliaceae). Lichen C. olivetorum has been cultured in vitro, and optimized culture conditions were implemented in bioreactor to obtain high quantity of biomass for the study of radical scavenging, PEPI, and antimicrobial activities. Radical scavenging activity of methanol extract of Cetrelia olivetorum (MECO) was tested at 100 µg/mL, PEPI activity at 25 and 50 µg/mL, and antimicrobial activity at 5, 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL conc. All the biological activities of natural thallus extract and its derived culture extract were evaluated spectrophotometrically. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 3% glucose and 100 ppb indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) supported biomass growth at flask level and yielded 5.095 g biomass in bioreactor. MECO of both the cultured and the natural lichen exhibited half inhibiting concentration (IC50) for radical scavenging activities in the range of 50-60 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard antioxidants was found to be in the range of 12-29 µg/mL. The IC50 value of lichen extract for PEPI activity was 144-288 µg/mL, whereas the IC50 value of standard prolyl endopeptidase inhibitor, Z-pro-prolinal, was 57.73 µg/mL. As far as the antimicrobial activity of MECO is concerned, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of lichen extracts against tested microorganisms was obtained in the range of 50-104 µg/mL and found to be more effective than commercially available standard erythromycin. Murashige and Skoog medium containing IBA was found to be suitable for maximum biomass production of C. olivetorum under bioreactor conditions. The cultured lichen biomass extract also showed

  6. Prolyl Endopeptidase (PREP) is Associated With Male Reproductive Functions and Gamete Physiology in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Raffaele; Kim, Jung Dae; Pariante, Paolo; Minucci, Sergio; Diano, Sabrina

    2016-03-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PREP) is a serine protease which has been implicated in many biological processes, such as the maturation and degradation of peptide hormones and neuropeptides, learning and memory, cell proliferation and differentiation, and glucose metabolism. A small number of reports have also suggested PREP participation in both male and female reproduction-associated processes. In the present work, we examined PREP distribution in male germ cells and studied the effects of its knockdown (Prep(gt/gt)) on testis and sperm in adult mice. The protein is expressed and localized in elongating spermatids and luminal spermatozoa of wild type (wt) mice, as well as Sertoli, Leydig, and peritubular cells. PREP is also expressed in the head and midpiece of epididymal spermatozoa, whereas the remaining tail region shows a weaker signal. Furthermore, testis weight, histology of seminiferous tubules, and epididymal sperm parameters were assessed in wt and Prep(gt/gt) mice: wild type testes have larger average tubule and lumen diameter; in addition, lumenal composition of seminiferous tubules is dissimilar between wt and Prep(gt/gt), as the percentage of spermiated tubules is much higher in wt. Finally, total sperm count, sperm motility, and normal morphology are also higher in wt than in Prep(gt/gt). These results show for the first time that the expression of PREP could be necessary for a correct reproductive function, and suggest that the enzyme may play a role in mouse spermatogenesis and sperm physiology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A comprehensive review of the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of the neutral endopeptidase inhibitor racecadotril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion eEberlin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Racecadotril, via its active metabolite thiorphan, is an inhibitor of the enzyme neutral endopeptidase (NEP, EC 3.4.24.11, thereby increasing exposure to NEP including enkephalins and atrial natriuretic peptide. Upon oral administration racecadotril is rapidly and effectively converted into the active metabolite thiorphan, which does not cross the blood-brain-barrier. Racecadotril has mainly been tested in animal models and patients of three therapeutic areas. As an analgesic the effects of racecadotril across animal models were inconsistent. In cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension or congestive heart failure results from animal studies were promising, probably related to increased exposure to atrial natriuretic peptide, but clinical results have not shown substantial therapeutic benefit over existing treatment options in cardiovascular disease. In contrast, racecadotril was consistently effective in animal models and patients with various forms of acute diarrhea by inhibiting pathologic (but not basal secretion from the gut without changing gastro-intestinal transit time or motility. This included studies in both adults and children. In direct comparative studies with loperamide in adults and children, racecadotril was at least as effective but exhibited fewer adverse events in most studies, particularly less rebound constipation. Several guidelines recommend the use of racecadotril as addition to oral rehydration treatment in children with acute diarrhea.

  8. Lack of genetic association of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huehne, Kathrin; Schaal, Ute; Leis, Stefan; Uebe, Steffen; Gosso, M Florencia; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M J M; Maihöfner, Christian; Birklein, Frank; Rautenstrauss, Bernd; Winterpacht, Andreas

    2010-03-12

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a condition that is characterized by severe pain and exaggerated neurogenic inflammation, which may develop after injury or surgery. Neurogenic inflammation is mediated by neuropeptides, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) that are released from nociceptors. Genetic factors may play a role in CRPS as was suggested by the occurrence of familial cases and several genetic association studies investigating mainly the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system. Here we investigated the role of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), a key enzyme in neuropeptide catabolism. NEP dysfunction resulting in reduced inactivation of neuropeptides may be a possible pathomechanism in CRPS. To this end, we tested a GT-repeat polymorphism in the NEP promoter region as well as 18 tag-SNPs in six linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks in the NEP gene region in 320 CRPS patients and 376 controls. No significant genetic association was observed. Thus, we conclude that the NEP gene does not seem to be a major risk factor for CRPS. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation of prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory peptides from a sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Hsieh, You-Liang; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) has been associated with neurodegenerative disorders, and the PEP inhibitors can restore the memory loss caused by amnesic compounds. In this study, we investigated the PEP inhibitory activity of the enzymatic hydrolysates from various food protein sources, and isolated and identified the PEP inhibitory peptides. The hydrolysate obtained from sodium caseinate using bromelain (SC/BML) displayed the highest inhibitory activity of 86.8% at 5 mg mL(-1) in the present study, and its IC50 value against PEP was 0.77 mg mL(-1). The F-5 fraction by RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography) from SC/BML showed the highest PEP inhibition rate of 88.4%, and 9 peptide sequences were identified. The synthetic peptides (1245.63-1787.94 Da) showed dose-dependent inhibition effects on PEP as competitive inhibitors with IC50 values between 29.8 and 650.5 μM. The results suggest that the peptides derived from sodium caseinate have the potential to be PEP inhibitors.

  10. Rab9-dependent retrograde transport and endosomal sorting of the endopeptidase furin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, Pei Zhi Cheryl; Gasnereau, Isabelle; Lieu, Zi Zhao; Gleeson, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The endopeptidase furin and the trans-Golgi network protein TGN38 are membrane proteins that recycle between the TGN and plasma membrane. TGN38 is transported by a retromer-dependent pathway from early endosomes to the TGN, whereas the intracellular transport of furin is poorly defined. Here we have identified the itinerary and transport requirements of furin. Using internalisation assays, we show that furin transits the early and late endosomes en route to the TGN. The GTPase Rab9 and the TGN golgin GCC185, components of the late endosome-to-TGN pathway, were required for efficient TGN retrieval of furin. By contrast, TGN38 trafficking was independent of Rab9 and GCC185. To identify the sorting signals for the early endosome-to-TGN pathway, the trafficking of furin–TGN38 chimeras was investigated. The diversion of furin from the Rab9-dependent late-endosome-to-TGN pathway to the retromer-dependent early-endosome-to-TGN pathway required both the transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of TGN38. We present evidence to suggest that the length of the transmembrane domain is a contributing factor in endosomal sorting. Overall, these data show that furin uses the Rab9-dependent pathway from late endosomes and that retrograde transport directly from early endosomes is dependent on both the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. PMID:21693586

  11. Enzymatic and Structural Characterization of the Major Endopeptidase in the Venus Flytrap Digestion Fluid*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risør, Michael W.; Thomsen, Line R.; Sanggaard, Kristian W.; Nielsen, Tania A.; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Lukassen, Marie V.; Rossen, Litten; Garcia-Ferrer, Irene; Guevara, Tibisay; Scavenius, Carsten; Meinjohanns, Ernst; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier; Enghild, Jan J.

    2016-01-01

    Carnivorous plants primarily use aspartic proteases during digestion of captured prey. In contrast, the major endopeptidases in the digestive fluid of the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) are cysteine proteases (dionain-1 to -4). Here, we present the crystal structure of mature dionain-1 in covalent complex with inhibitor E-64 at 1.5 Å resolution. The enzyme exhibits an overall protein fold reminiscent of other plant cysteine proteases. The inactive glycosylated pro-form undergoes autoprocessing and self-activation, optimally at the physiologically relevant pH value of 3.6, at which the protective effect of the pro-domain is lost. The mature enzyme was able to efficiently degrade a Drosophila fly protein extract at pH 4 showing high activity against the abundant Lys- and Arg-rich protein, myosin. The substrate specificity of dionain-1 was largely similar to that of papain with a preference for hydrophobic and aliphatic residues in subsite S2 and for positively charged residues in S1. A tentative structure of the pro-domain was obtained by homology modeling and suggested that a pro-peptide Lys residue intrudes into the S2 pocket, which is more spacious than in papain. This study provides the first analysis of a cysteine protease from the digestive fluid of a carnivorous plant and confirms the close relationship between carnivorous action and plant defense mechanisms. PMID:26627834

  12. Adenovirus type 2 endopeptidase: an unusual phosphoprotein enzyme matured by autocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, P.K.; Flint, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    A 19-kDa protein, present in low copy number in purified adenovirus type 2, has been characterized. Several criteria were used to establish that this protein is neither a degradation product of the known structural proteins of the virion nor a minor, unusually modified, form of protein VII. This 19-kDa protein, unlike other virion proteins, possesses alkali-resistant phosphoamino acids. Analysis by partial proteolysis indicated that it is related to a 23-kDa phosphoprotein present in H2ts-1 virions assembled in infected cells maintained at 39/sup 0/C. Affinity labeling with (/sup 3/H)diisopropyl fluorophosphate showed that the 19-kDa protein contains the active site for a serine protease. The authors, therefore, conclude that the 19-kDa protein is the active form of the adenovirus-encoded endopeptidase, defined by the H2ts-1 mutation, and is synthesized as a 23-kDa precursor that appears to mature by autocatalysis.

  13. Efficient production and purification of functional bacteriorhodopsin with a wheat-germ cell-free system and a combination of Fos-choline and CHAPS detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genji, Takahisa; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2010-10-01

    Cell-free translation is one potential approach to the production of functional transmembrane proteins. We have now examined various detergents as supplements to a wheat-germ cell-free system in order to optimize the production and subsequent purification of a functional model transmembrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin. We found that Fos-choline and CHAPS detergents counteracted each other's inhibitory effects on cell-free translation activity and thereby allowed the efficient production and subsequent purification of functional bacteriorhodopsin in high yield. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Rational redesign of neutral endopeptidase binding to merlin and moesin proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Masha Y; Iida, Katsuyuki; Zheng, Rong; Horiguchi, Akio; Shen, Ruoqian; Nanus, David M

    2009-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a 90- to 110-kDa cell-surface peptidase that is normally expressed by numerous tissues but whose expression is lost or reduced in a variety of malignancies. The anti-tumorigenic function of NEP is mediated not only by its catalytic activity but also through direct protein–protein interactions of its cytosolic region with several binding partners, including Lyn kinase, PTEN, and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins. We have previously shown that mutation of the K19K20K21 basic cluster in NEPs' cytosolic region to residues QNI disrupts binding to the ERM proteins. Here we show that the ERM-related protein merlin (NF2) does not bind NEP or its cytosolic region. Using experimental data, threading, and sequence analysis, we predicted the involvement of moesin residues E159Q160 in binding to the NEP cytosolic domain. Mutation of these residues to NL (to mimic the corresponding N159L160 residues in the nonbinder merlin) disrupted moesin binding to NEP. Mutation of residues N159L160Y161K162M163 in merlin to the corresponding moesin residues resulted in NEP binding to merlin. This engineered NEP peptide–merlin interaction was diminished by the QNI mutation in NEP, supporting the role of the NEP basic cluster in binding. We thus identified the region of interaction between NEP and moesin, and engineered merlin into a NEP-binding protein. These data form the basis for further exploration of the details of NEP-ERM binding and function. PMID:19388049

  15. Suppression of asparaginyl endopeptidase attenuates breast cancer-induced bone pain through inhibition of neurotrophin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Peng; Ding, Yuanyuan; Han, Zhenkai; Mu, Ying; Hong, Tao; Zhu, Yongqiang; Li, Hongxi

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cancer-induced bone pain is a common clinical problem in breast cancer patients with bone metastasis. However, the mechanisms driving cancer-induced bone pain are poorly known. Recent studies show that a novel protease, asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) plays crucial roles in breast cancer metastasis and progression. We aim to determine the functions and targeted suppress of AEP in a mouse model of breast cancer-induced bone pain. Methods Breast cancer cells with AEP knocked-down or overexpression were constructed and implanted into the intramedullary space of the femur to induce pain-like behavior in mice. AEP-specific inhibitors or purified AEP proteins were further used in animal model. The histological characters of femur and pain ethological changes were measured. The expressions of AEP and neurotrophin receptors (p75NTR and TrkA) in dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord were examined. Results Femur radiographs and histological analysis revealed that cells with AEP knocked-down reduced bone destruction and pain behaviors. However, cells with AEP overexpression elevated bone damage and pain behaviors. Further, Western blot results found that the expressions of p75NTR and TrkA in dorsal root ganglions and spinal cords were reduced in mice inoculated with AEP knocked-down cells. Targeted suppression of AEP with specific small compounds significantly reduced the bone pain while purified recombinant AEP proteins increased bone pain. Conclusions AEP aggravate the development of breast cancer bone metastasis and bone pain by increasing the expression of neurotrophin receptors. AEP might be an effective target for treatment of breast cancerinduced bone pain.

  16. A neuroprotective brain-penetrating endopeptidase fusion protein ameliorates Alzheimer disease pathology and restores neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brian; Verma, Inder; Desplats, Paula; Morvinski, Dinorah; Rockenstein, Ed; Adame, Anthony; Masliah, Eliezer

    2014-06-20

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by widespread neurodegeneration throughout the association cortex and limbic system, deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the neuropil and around the blood vessels, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. The endopeptidase neprilysin has been successfully used to reduce the accumulation of Aβ following intracranial viral vector delivery or ex vivo manipulated intracranial delivery. These therapies have relied on direct injections into the brain, whereas a clinically desirable therapy would involve i.v. infusion of a recombinant enzyme. We previously characterized a recombinant neprilysin that contained a 38-amino acid brain-targeting domain. Recombinant cell lines have been generated expressing this brain-targeted enzyme (ASN12). In this report, we characterize the ASN12 recombinant protein for pharmacology in a mouse as well as efficacy in two APPtg mouse models of AD. The recombinant ASN12 transited to the brain with a t½ of 24 h and accumulated to 1.7% of injected dose at 24 h following i.v. delivery. We examined pharmacodynamics in the tg2576 APPtg mouse with the prion promoter APP695 SWE mutation and in the Line41 mThy1 APP751 mutation mouse. Treatment of either APPtg mouse resulted in reduced Aβ, increased neuronal synapses, and improved learning and memory. In addition, the Line41 APPtg mice showed increased levels of C-terminal neuropeptide Y fragments and increased neurogenesis. These results suggest that the recombinant brain-targeted neprilysin, ASN12, may be an effective treatment for AD and warrant further investigation in clinical trials. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Rapid degradation of D- and L-succinimide-containing peptides by a post-proline endopeptidase from human erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momand, J.; Clarke, S.

    1987-12-01

    The authors have been interested in the metabolic fate of proteins containing aspartyl succinimide (Asu) residues. These residues can be derived from the spontaneous rearrangement of Asp and Asn residues and from the spontaneous demethylation of enzymatically methylated L-isoAsp and D-Asp residues. Incubation of the synthetic hexapeptide N-Ac-Val-Tyr-Pro-Asu-Gly-Ala with the cytosolic fraction of human erythrocytes resulted in rapid cleavage of the prolyl-aspartyl succinimide bond producing the tripeptide N-Ac-Val-Try-Pro. The rate of this reaction is equal for both L- and D-Asu-containing peptides and is 10-fold greater that the rate of cleavage of a corresponding peptide containing a normal Pro-Asp linkage. When the aspartyl succinimide ring was replaced with an isoaspartyl residue, the cleavage rate was about 5 times that of the normal Pro-Asp peptide. The tripeptide-producing activity copurified on DEAE-cellulose chromatography with an activity that cleaves N-carbobenzoxy-Gly-Pro-4-methylcoumarin-7-amide, a post-proline endopeptidase substrate. These two activities were both inhibited by an antiserum to rat brain post-proline endopeptidase, and it appears that they are catalyzed by the same enzyme. This enzyme has a molecular weight of approximately 80,000 and is covalently labeled and inhibited by (/sup 3/H) diisopropyl fluorophosphate. The facile cleavage of the succinimide- and isoaspartyl-containing peptides by this post-proline endopeptidase suggests that it may play a role in the metabolism of peptides containing altered aspartyl residues.

  18. Effects of age, season, gender and urban-rural status on time-activity: CanadianHuman Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J; Stieb, David M; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-02-19

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010-2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  19. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

  20. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyn J. Matz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2 was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011 provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%, most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8% or in a vehicle (5.3%. Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents.

  1. New Vary-Chap Profile of the Topside Ionosphere Electron Density Distribution for use with the IRI Model and the GIRO Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nsumei, Patrick; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Huang, Xueqin; Bilitza, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    A new Vary-Chap function is introduced for the empirical modeling of the electron density N(h) profile in the topside ionosphere that uses a shape function S(h) in the generalized Chapman function. The Vary-Chap profile extends the bottomside profile that is specified by the IRI model or measured by the Global Ionospheric Radio Observatory (GIRO) to the altitude of the ISIS-2 satellite. Some 80,000 topside profiles, measured by the topside sounder on the ISIS-2 satellite were analyzed, and the shape function S(h) was calculated for each profile. A parameterized function S*(h), composed of two sub-functions S1(h) and S2(h), is fitted to the measured S(h) profile using three free parameters. At altitudes just above the F2 layer peak height hmF2, the shape function S1 controls S(h), and at greater altitudes S2 controls S(h). The height of the intersection of S1 and S2 is defined as the transition height h(sub T) indicating the transition from an O(+) to an H(+)-dominated profile shape. The observed transition heights range from approx.500 km to 800 km.

  2. Chimeric Ply187 endolysin kills Staphylococcus aureus more effectively than the parental enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptidoglycan hydrolases are an effective new source of antimicrobials. A chimeric fusion protein of the Ply187 endopeptidase domain and LysK SH3b cell wall binding domain is a potent agent against Staphylococcus aureus in three functional assays....

  3. Characterization of a gut-associated asparaginyl endopeptidase of Clonorchis sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ju, Jung Won; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Pak, Jhang Ho; Kim, Tong-Soo; Hong, Yeonchul; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-06-01

    Asparaginyl endopeptidases (AEP: EC 3.4.22.34) are a family of cysteine proteases classified into the MEROPS clan CD, family C13. In this study, we characterized the biochemical and antigenic properties of an AEP of Clonorchis sinensis (CsAEP). The recombinant CsAEP showed hydrolytic activity at pH values ranging from acidic to neutral with optimum activity at pH 6.0. While the recombinant CsAEP was stable at neutral pHs, it was unstable at acidic pHs and resulted in loss of enzymatic activity. The recombinant enzyme was effectively inhibited by iodoacetic acid and N-ethylmaleimide, but not by E-64. The partially purified native CsAEP showed biochemical properties similar to the recombinant enzyme. Native CsAEP is likely to be cleaved into an N-terminal mature enzyme and a C-terminal fragment via autocatalytic activation at acidic pHs. Polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant CsAEP recognized three forms of CsAEP, proenzyme, the N-terminal mature enzyme and the C-terminal fragment, in the worm extract (WE) of C. sinensis. However, only the C-terminal fragment was mainly found in the excretory and secretory (ES) products of the parasite. Strong CsAEP activity was found in the WE, but only a trace level of CsAEP activity was detected in the ES products of the parasite. CsAEP was expressed in various developmental stages of C. sinensis, from metacercariae to adults, and was found to be localized in the intestine of the parasite as well as in intestinal contents. Sera from rats experimentally infected with C. sinensis reacted with CsAEP beginning 4 weeks after infection. These results suggest that CsAEP is a gut-associated enzyme synthesized in the intestine of C. sinensis and subsequently secreted into the intestinal lumen of the parasite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Discovery, cloning and characterisation of proline specific prolyl endopeptidase, a gluten degrading thermo-stable enzyme from Sphaerobacter thermophiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shetty, Radhakrishna; Vestergaard, Mike; Jessen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    processes occur at elevated temperature. We present in this paper, the discovery, cloning and characterisation of a novel recombinant thermostable gluten degrading enzyme, a proline specific prolyl endoprotease (PEP) from Sphaerobacter thermophiles. The molecular mass of the prolyl endopeptidase......Gluten free products have emerged during the last decades, as a result of a growing public concern and technological advancements allowing gluten reduction in food products. One approach is to use gluten degrading enzymes, typically at low or ambient temperatures, whereas many food production...... was estimated to be 77 kDa by using SDS-PAGE. Enzyme activity assays with a synthetic dipeptide Z-Gly-Pro-p-nitroanilide as the substrate revealed that the enzyme had optimal activity at pH 6.6 and was most active from pH 5.0-8.0. The optimum temperature was 63 °C and residual activity after one hour incubation...

  5. Peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus WalKR-dependent cell viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia Delaune

    Full Text Available The WalKR two-component system is essential for viability of Staphylococcus aureus, a major pathogen. We have shown that WalKR acts as the master controller of peptidoglycan metabolism, yet none of the identified regulon genes explain its requirement for cell viability. Transmission electron micrographs revealed cell wall thickening and aberrant division septa in the absence of WalKR, suggesting its requirement may be linked to its role in coordinating cell wall metabolism and cell division. We therefore tested whether uncoupling autolysin gene expression from WalKR-dependent regulation could compensate for its essential nature. Uncoupled expression of genes encoding lytic transglycosylases or amidases did not restore growth to a WalKR-depleted strain. We identified only two WalKR-regulon genes whose expression restored cell viability in the absence of WalKR: lytM and ssaA. Neither of these two genes are essential under our conditions and a ΔlytM ΔssaA mutant does not present any growth defect. LytM is a glycyl-glycyl endopeptidase, hydrolyzing the pentaglycine interpeptide crossbridge, and SsaA belongs to the CHAP amidase family, members of which such as LysK and LytA have been shown to have D-alanyl-glycyl endopeptidase activity, cleaving between the crossbridge and the stem peptide. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that peptidoglycan crosslinking relaxation through crossbridge hydrolysis plays a crucial role in the essential requirement of the WalKR system for cell viability.

  6. A Chimeric LysK-Lysostaphin Fusion Enzyme Lysing Staphylococcus aureus Cells: a Study of Both Kinetics of Inactivation and Specifics of Interaction with Anionic Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Lyubov Y; Donovan, David M; Ishnazarova, Nadiya T; Foster-Frey, Juli A; Becker, Stephen C; Pugachev, Vladimir G; Balabushevich, Nadezda G; Dmitrieva, Natalia F; Klyachko, Natalia L

    2016-10-01

    A staphylolytic fusion protein (chimeric enzyme K-L) was created, harboring three unique lytic activities composed of the LysK CHAP endopeptidase, and amidase domains, and the lysostaphin glycyl-glycine endopeptidase domain. To assess the potential of possible therapeutic applications, the kinetic behavior of chimeric enzyme K-L was investigated. As a protein antimicrobial, with potential antigenic properties, the biophysical effect of including chimeric enzyme K-L in anionic polymer matrices that might help reduce the immunogenicity of the enzyme was tested. Chimeric enzyme K-L reveals a high lytic activity under the following optimal ( opt ) conditions: pH opt 6.0-10.0, t opt 20-30 °C, NaCl opt 400-800 mM. At the working temperature of 37 °C, chimeric enzyme K-L is inactivated by a monomolecular mechanism and possesses a high half-inactivation time of 12.7 ± 3.0 h. At storage temperatures of 22 and 4 °C, a complex mechanism (combination of monomolecular and bimolecular mechanisms) is involved in the chimeric enzyme K-L inactivation. The optimal storage conditions under which the enzyme retains 100 % activity after 140 days of incubation (4 °C, the enzyme concentration of 0.8 mg/mL, pH 6.0 or 7.5) were established. Chimeric enzyme K-L is included in complexes with block-copolymers of poly-L-glutamic acid and polyethylene glycol, while the enzyme activity and stability are retained, thus suggesting methods to improve the application of this fusion as an effective antimicrobial agent.

  7. Potent New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Endopeptidase Developed by Synthesis-Based Computer-Aided Molecular Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    simulations; (4) synthesis and evaluation of the molecules from Step 2 or 3 (e.g., synthesizing and testing AHP). From synthetic chemistry point of view...2000) Synthesis of 6H-indolo [2,3-b][1,6]naphthyridines and related compounds as the 5-Aza analogues of ellipticine alkaloids . J Org Chem 65: 7977–7983...Potent New Small-Molecule Inhibitor of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A Endopeptidase Developed by Synthesis -Based Computer-Aided Molecular Design

  8. Production and characterization of two major Aspergillus oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases able to efficiently digest proline-rich peptides of gliadin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Philippe J; Salamin, Karine; Grouzmann, Eric; Monod, Michel

    2015-12-01

    Prolyl endopeptidases are key enzymes in the digestion of proline-rich proteins. Fungal extracts rich in prolyl endopeptidases produced by a species such as Aspergillus oryzae used in food fermentation would be of particular interest for the development of an oral enzyme therapy product in patients affected by intolerance to gluten. Two major A. oryzae secreted prolyl endopeptidases of the MEROPS S28 peptidase family, AoS28A and AoS28B, were identified when this fungus was grown at acidic pH in a medium containing soy meal protein or wheat gliadin as the sole source of nitrogen. AoS28B was produced by 12 reference A. oryzae strains used in food fermentation. AoS28A was secreted by six of these 12 strains. This protease is the orthologue of the previously characterized Aspergillus fumigatus (AfuS28) and Aspergillus niger (AN-PEP) prolyl endopeptidases which are encoded by genes with a similar intron-exon structure. Large amounts of secreted AoS28A and AoS28B were obtained by gene overexpression in A. oryzae. AoS28A and AoS28B are endoproteases able to cleave N-terminally blocked proline substrates. Both enzymes very efficiently digested the proline-rich 33-mer of gliadin, the most representative immunotoxic peptide deriving from gliadin, with some differences in terms of specificity and optimal pH. Digestion of the gliadin peptide in short peptides with both enzymes was found to occur from its N terminus.

  9. Qualidade e autenticidade de folhas de chapéu-de-couro (Echinodorus grandiflorus oriundas de fornecedores de São Paulo Quality and authenticity of leaves of "chapéu-de-couro" (Echinodorus grandiflorus from suppliers in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.E. Dias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Echinodorus grandiflorus e Echinodorus macrophyllus, conhecidas como chapéu-de-couro, são empregadas de forma indistinta como anti-inflamatório. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar análises físico-químicas de três amostras (A, B e C de folhas de chapéu-de-couro (E. grandiflorus provenientes de fornecedores de São Paulo buscando avaliar a qualidade e autenticidade destas amostras considerando a Farmacopéia Brasileira, 5ª edição, como referência. Verificou-se que as amostras estavam de acordo com as especificações farmacopeicas em relação às características organolépticas, material estranho, umidade, cinzas totais, cinzas sulfatadas (exceto amostras A e B e teores de derivados de ácido o-hidroxicinâmico (exceto amostra A. Na descrição macro e microscópica foram identificadas estruturas características de E. grandiflorus. Após análise dos perfis cromatográficos por cromatografia em camada delgada de sílica (CCDS constatou-se a presença de ácido caféico, isoorientina e swertiajaponina, conforme a monografia da espécie. A amostra C foi a única droga vegetal aprovada segundo os critérios da Farmacopeia Brasileira, evidenciando-se a necessidade da realização do controle de qualidade de matérias-primas vegetais para garantir a obtenção de fitoterápicos seguros e eficazes.Echinodorus grandiflorus and Echinodorus macrophyllus, known as "chapéu-de-couro", have been differently used as anti-inflammatory agents. The aim of the present study was to carry out physicochemical analyses of three leaf samples (A, B and C from "chapéu-de-couro" (E. grandiflorus obtained from suppliers in São Paulo to assess the quality and the authenticity of these samples according to the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia (BP 5th edition. All samples were in agreement with the specifications of the Pharmacopoeia considering their organoleptic characteristics, foreign material, humidity, total ash and sulfated ash (except for samples A and B

  10. Gene Expression of Lytic Endopeptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsfasman, Irina M; Lapteva, Yulia S; Krasovskaya, Ludmila A; Kudryakova, Irina V; Vasilyeva, Natalia V; Granovsky, Igor E; Stepnaya, Olga A

    2015-01-01

    Development of an efficient expression system for (especially secreted) bacterial lytic enzymes is a complicated task due to the specificity of their action. The substrate for such enzymes is peptidoglycan, the main structural component of bacterial cell walls. For this reason, expression of recombinant lytic proteins is often accompanied with lysis of the producing bacterium. This paper presents data on the construction of an inducible system for expression of the lytic peptidases AlpA and AlpB from Lysobacter sp. XL1 in Pseudomonas fluorescens Q2-87, which provides for the successful secretion of these proteins into the culture liquid. In this system, the endopeptidase gene under control of the T7lac promoter was integrated into the bacterial chromosome, as well as the Escherichia coli lactose operon repressor protein gene. The T7 pol gene under lac promoter control, which encodes the phage T7 RNA polymerase, is maintained in Pseudomonas cells on the plasmids. Media and cultivation conditions for the recombinant strains were selected to enable the production of AlpA and AlpB by a simple purification protocol. Production of recombinant lytic enzymes should contribute to the development of new-generation antimicrobial drugs whose application will not be accompanied by selection of resistant microorganisms. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Effects of UPR and ERAD pathway on the prolyl endopeptidase production in Pichia pastoris by controlling of nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Jiang, Ting; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) is very useful in various industries, while the high cost of enzyme production remains a major obstacle for its industrial applications. Pichia pastoris has been used for the PEP production; however, the fermentation process has not be investigated and little is known about the impact of excessive PEP production on the host cell physiology. Here, we optimized the nitrogen source to improve the PEP expression level and further evaluated the cellular response including UPR and ERAD. During methanol induction phase the PEP activity (1583 U/L) was increased by 1.48-fold under the optimized nitrogen concentration of NH 4 + (300 mmol/L) and casamino acids [1.0% (w/v)] in a 3-L bioreactor. Evaluated by RT-PCR the UPR and ERAD pathways were confirmed to be activated. Furthermore, a strong decrease of ERAD-related gene transcription was observed with the addition of nitrogen source, which contributed to a higher PEP expression level.

  12. Chap 8 soumahoro.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seriane.camara

    Albert Einstein. Le discours classique qui consiste à enjoliver les cultures africaines et dans la moindre mesure celle du peuple Toura ne saurait prospérer longuement. S'il est vrai que la culture africaine regorge d'un potentiel (Éla 1998) incroyable, il est aussi vrai que certains aspects en constituent une faiblesse.

  13. Neutral endopeptidase up-regulation in isolated human umbilical artery: involvement in desensitization of bradykinin-induced vasoconstrictor effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelorosso, Facundo Germán; Halperin, Ana Verónica; Palma, Alejandro Martín; Nowak, Wanda; Errasti, Andrea Emilse; Rothlin, Rodolfo Pedro

    2007-02-01

    Previous reports show that bradykinin B(2) receptors mediate contractile responses induced by bradykinin (BK) in human umbilical artery (HUA). However, although it has been reported that BK-induced responses can desensitize in several inflammatory models, the effects of prolonged in vitro incubation on BK-induced vasoconstriction in HUA have not been studied. In isolated HUA rings, BK-induced responses after a 5-h in vitro incubation showed a marked desensitization compared with responses at 2 h. Inhibition of either angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP), both BK-inactivating enzymes, failed to modify responses to BK at 2 h. After 5 h, ACE inhibition produced only a slight potentiation of BK-induced responses. In contrast, BK-induced vasoconstriction at 5 h was markedly potentiated by NEP inhibition. Moreover, NEP activity, measured by hydrolysis of its synthetic substrate (Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-p-nitroanilide), showed a 2.4-fold increase in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated tissues, which was completely reversed by cycloheximide (CHX) treatment. Furthermore, CHX significantly potentiated BK-induced responses, suggesting that NEP-mediated kininase activity increase at 5 h depends on de novo protein synthesis. In addition, under NEP inhibition, CHX treatment failed to produce an additional potentiation of BK-induced vasoconstriction. Still, NEP up-regulation was confirmed by Western blot, showing a 2.1-fold increase in immunoreactive NEP in 5-h incubated versus 2-h incubated HUA. In summary, the present study provides strong pharmacological evidence that NEP is up-regulated and plays a key role in desensitization of BK-induced vasoconstriction after prolonged in vitro incubation in HUA. Our results provide new insights into the possible mechanisms involved in BK-induced response desensitization during sustained inflammatory conditions.

  14. The mecillinam resistome reveals a role for peptidoglycan endopeptidases in stimulating cell wall synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghee Chuan Lai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG. Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs, preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli. Low-throughput selections for mecillinam resistance have historically been useful in defining mechanisms involved in cell wall biogenesis and the killing activity of beta-lactam antibiotics. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-Seq as a high-throughput method to identify nearly all mecillinam resistance loci in the E. coli genome, providing a comprehensive resource for uncovering new mechanisms underlying PG assembly and drug resistance. Induction of the stringent response or the Rcs envelope stress response has been previously implicated in mecillinam resistance. We therefore also performed the Tn-Seq analysis in mutants defective for these responses in addition to wild-type cells. Thus, the utility of the dataset was greatly enhanced by determining the stress response dependence of each resistance locus in the resistome. Reasoning that stress response-independent resistance loci are those most likely to identify direct modulators of cell wall biogenesis, we focused our downstream analysis on this subset of the resistome. Characterization of one of these alleles led to the surprising discovery that the overproduction of endopeptidase enzymes that cleave crosslinks in the cell wall promotes mecillinam resistance by stimulating PG synthesis by a subset of PBPs. Our analysis of this activation mechanism suggests that, contrary to the prevailing view in the field, PG synthases and PG cleaving enzymes need not function in multi

  15. The mecillinam resistome reveals a role for peptidoglycan endopeptidases in stimulating cell wall synthesis in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ghee Chuan; Cho, Hongbaek; Bernhardt, Thomas G

    2017-07-01

    Bacterial cells are typically surrounded by an net-like macromolecule called the cell wall constructed from the heteropolymer peptidoglycan (PG). Biogenesis of this matrix is the target of penicillin and related beta-lactams. These drugs inhibit the transpeptidase activity of PG synthases called penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), preventing the crosslinking of nascent wall material into the existing network. The beta-lactam mecillinam specifically targets the PBP2 enzyme in the cell elongation machinery of Escherichia coli. Low-throughput selections for mecillinam resistance have historically been useful in defining mechanisms involved in cell wall biogenesis and the killing activity of beta-lactam antibiotics. Here, we used transposon-sequencing (Tn-Seq) as a high-throughput method to identify nearly all mecillinam resistance loci in the E. coli genome, providing a comprehensive resource for uncovering new mechanisms underlying PG assembly and drug resistance. Induction of the stringent response or the Rcs envelope stress response has been previously implicated in mecillinam resistance. We therefore also performed the Tn-Seq analysis in mutants defective for these responses in addition to wild-type cells. Thus, the utility of the dataset was greatly enhanced by determining the stress response dependence of each resistance locus in the resistome. Reasoning that stress response-independent resistance loci are those most likely to identify direct modulators of cell wall biogenesis, we focused our downstream analysis on this subset of the resistome. Characterization of one of these alleles led to the surprising discovery that the overproduction of endopeptidase enzymes that cleave crosslinks in the cell wall promotes mecillinam resistance by stimulating PG synthesis by a subset of PBPs. Our analysis of this activation mechanism suggests that, contrary to the prevailing view in the field, PG synthases and PG cleaving enzymes need not function in multi-enzyme complexes

  16. Effects of a liquefied petroleum gas stove intervention on pollutant exposure and adult cardiopulmonary outcomes (CHAP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandiño-Del-Rio, Magdalena; Goodman, Dina; Kephart, Josiah L; Miele, Catherine H; Williams, Kendra N; Moazzami, Mitra; Fung, Elizabeth C; Koehler, Kirsten; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Lee, Kathryn A; Nangia, Saachi; Harvey, Steven A; Steenland, Kyle; Gonzales, Gustavo F; Checkley, William

    2017-11-03

    LPG stoves. If this trial indicates that LPG stoves are a feasible and effective way to reduce household air pollution and improve health, it will provide important information to support widespread adoption of LPG fuel as a strategy to reduce the global burden of disease. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02994680 , Cardiopulmonary Outcomes and Household Air Pollution (CHAP) Trial. Registered on 28 November 2016.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase 1 of Arabidopsis (AtCEP1 is involved in pathogen defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eHöwing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Programmed cell death (PCD is a genetically determined process in all multicellular organisms. Plant PCD is effected by a unique group of papain-type cysteine endopeptidases (CysEP with a C-terminal KDEL endoplasmic reticulum (ER retention signal (KDEL CysEP. KDEL CysEPs can be stored as pro-enzymes in ER-derived endomembrane compartments and are released as mature CysEPs in the final stages of organelle disintegration. KDEL CysEPs accept a wide variety of amino acids at the active site, including the glycosylated hydroxyprolines of the extensins that form the basic scaffold of the cell wall. In Arabidopsis, three KDEL CysEPs (AtCEP1, AtCEP2, and AtCEP3 are expressed. Cell- and tissue-specific activities of these three genes suggest that KDEL CysEPs participate in the abscission of flower organs and in the collapse of tissues in the final stage of PCD as well as in developmental tissue remodelling.We observed that AtCEP1 is expressed in response to biotic stress stimuli in the leaf. atcep1 knockout mutants showed enhanced susceptibility to powdery mildew caused by the biotrophic ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum. A translational fusion protein of AtCEP1 with a three-fold hemaglutinin-tag and the green fluorescent protein under control of the endogenous AtCEP1 promoter (PCEP1::pre-pro-3xHA-EGFP-AtCEP1-KDEL rescued the pathogenesis phenotype demonstrating the function of AtCEP1 in restriction of powdery mildew. The spatiotemporal AtCEP1-reporter expression during fungal infection together with microscopic inspection of the interaction phenotype suggested a function of AtCEP1 in controlling late stages of compatible interaction including late epidermal cell death. Additionally, expression of stress response genes appeared to be deregulated in the interaction of atcep1 mutants and E. cruciferarum. Possible functions of AtCEP1 in restricting parasitic success of the obligate biotrophic powdery mildew fungus are discussed.

  18. Treatment of both native and deamidated gluten peptides with an endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger prevents stimulation of gut-derived gluten-reactive T cells from either children or adults with celiac disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Karina Søndergård; Nielsen, Anne Staal

    2014-01-01

    the proliferative response by a gluten-specific CD4+ T cell clone and seven gluten-reactive T cell lines to protease-digested gluten peptides. A proline-specific endo-peptidase from Aspergillus niger (AnP2), was particularly efficient at diminishing proliferation after stimulation with cleaved antigen, and could...

  19. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pHpHpH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  20. Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulski, Krzysztof; Courtin, Pascal; Meyrand, Mickael; Claes, Ingmar J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Vanderleyden, Jos; Hols, Pascal; Guillot, Alain; Chapot-Chartier, Marie-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Peptidoglycan (PG) is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs) which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75) was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1) major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23.

  1. Analysis of the peptidoglycan hydrolase complement of Lactobacillus casei and characterization of the major γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Regulski

    Full Text Available Peptidoglycan (PG is the major component of Gram positive bacteria cell wall and is essential for bacterial integrity and shape. Bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases (PGHs which are able to cleave bonds in their own PG and play major roles in PG remodelling required for bacterial growth and division. Our aim was to identify the main PGHs in Lactobacillus casei BL23, a lactic acid bacterium with probiotic properties.The PGH complement was first identified in silico by amino acid sequence similarity searches of the BL23 genome sequence. Thirteen PGHs were detected with different predicted hydrolytic specificities. Transcription of the genes was confirmed by RT-PCR. A proteomic analysis combining the use of SDS-PAGE and LC-MS/MS revealed the main seven PGHs synthesized during growth of L. casei BL23. Among these PGHs, LCABL_02770 (renamed Lc-p75 was identified as the major one. This protein is the homolog of p75 (Msp1 major secreted protein of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, which was shown to promote survival and growth of intestinal epithelial cells. We identified its hydrolytic specificity on PG and showed that it is a γ-D-glutamyl-L-lysyl-endopeptidase. It has a marked specificity towards PG tetrapeptide chains versus tripeptide chains and for oligomers rather than monomers. Immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that Lc-p75 localizes at cell septa in agreement with its role in daughter cell separation. It is also secreted under an active form as detected in zymogram. Comparison of the muropeptide profiles of wild type and Lc-p75-negative mutant revealed a decrease of the amount of disaccharide-dipeptide in the mutant PG in agreement with Lc-p75 activity. As a conclusion, Lc-p75 is the major L. casei BL23 PGH with endopeptidase specificity and a key role in daughter cell separation. Further studies will aim at investigating the role of Lc-p75 in the anti-inflammatory potential of L. casei BL23.

  2. Neutral endopeptidase-resistant C-type natriuretic peptide variant represents a new therapeutic approach for treatment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-related dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Daniel J; Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Bullens, Sherry; Lorget, Florence; Bell, Sean M; Peng, Jeff; Castillo, Sianna; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; O'Neill, Charles A; Krejci, Pavel; Wilcox, William R; Rimoin, David L; Bunting, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase, that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B. The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants (BMN 111) resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. Ex vivo effects of an Oenothera paradoxa extract on the reactive oxygen species generation and neutral endopeptidase activity in neutrophils from patients after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anna K; Kapłon-Cieślicka, Agnieszka; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Opolski, Grzegorz; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2012-04-01

    Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is considered to play an important part in the aetiology of coronary heart disease. Apart from ROS, neutrophils are a source of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) that inactivates protective natriuretic peptides. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro ROS generation and inhibition of NEP activity in neutrophils obtained from healthy volunteers and from patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by an aqueous extract of Oenothera paradoxa. Neutrophils isolated from AMI patients showed two-fold higher ROS generation compared with cells from healthy donors, especially in the lucigenin-enhanced luminescence model, which suggests intensive O₂⁻ generation. The addition of O. paradoxa extract at concentrations of 0.2, 2 and 20 µg/mL resulted in a significant reduction in ROS generation. The extracellular NEP activity was higher in patients after AMI compared with healthy individuals (15.0 ± 0.9 versus 10.3 ± 0.5 nmol AMC/10(6) cells/60 min; p = 0.001). The addition of O. paradoxa extract at concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 µg/mL resulted in a significant reduction in NEP activity in both groups. O. paradoxa extract appears to be an interesting candidate for supplementation in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Multifunctional amaranth cystatin inhibits endogenous and digestive insect cysteine endopeptidases: A potential tool to prevent proteolysis and for the control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Silvia; Galván-Ramírez, Juan Pablo; Guerrero-Rangel, Armando; Cedro-Tanda, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the amaranth cystatin was characterized. This cystatin is believed to provide protection from abiotic stress because its transcription is induced in response to heat, drought, and salinity. It has also been shown that recombinant amaranth cystatin inhibits bromelain, ficin, and cysteine endopeptidases from fungal sources and also inhibits the growth of phytopathogenic fungi. In the present study, evidence is presented regarding the potential function of amaranth cystatin as a regulator of endogenous proteinases and insect digestive proteinases. During amaranth germination and seedling growth, different proteolytic profiles were observed at different pH levels in gelatin-containing SDS-PAGE. Most of the proteolytic enzymes detected at pH 4.5 were mainly inhibited by trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucyl amido(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) and the purified recombinant amaranth cystatin. Furthermore, the recombinant amaranth cystatin was active against insect proteinases. In particular, the E-64-sensitive proteolytic digestive enzymes from Callosobruchus maculatus, Zabrotes subfasciatus, and Acanthoscelides obtectus were inhibited by the amaranth cystatin. Taken together, these results suggest multiple roles for cystatin in amaranth, specifically during germination and seedling growth and in the protection of A. hypochondriacus against insect predation. Amaranth cystatin represents a promising tool for diverse applications in the control of insect pest and for preventing undesirable proteolytic activity. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Specific fluorogenic substrates for neprilysin (neutral endopeptidase, EC 3.4.24.11 which are highly resistant to serine- and metalloproteases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.S. Medeiros

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Two intramolecularly quenched fluorogenic peptides containing o-aminobenzoyl (Abz and ethylenediamine 2,4-dinitrophenyl (EDDnp groups at amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acid residues, Abz-DArg-Arg-Leu-EDDnp (Abz-DRRL-EDDnp and Abz-DArg-Arg-Phe-EDDnp (Abz-DRRF-EDDnp, were selectively hydrolyzed by neutral endopeptidase (NEP, enkephalinase, neprilysin, EC 3.4.24.11 at the Arg-Leu and Arg-Phe bonds, respectively. The kinetic parameters for the NEP-catalyzed hydrolysis of Abz-DRRL-EDDnp and Abz-DRRF-EDDnp were Km = 2.8 µM, kcat = 5.3 min-1, kcat/Km = 2 min-1 µM-1 and Km = 5.0 µM, kcat = 7.0 min-1, kcat/Km = 1.4 min-1 µM-1, respectively. The high specificity of these substrates was demonstrated by their resistance to hydrolysis by metalloproteases [thermolysin (EC 3.4.24.2, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; EC 3.4.24.15], serineproteases [trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4, a-chymotrypsin (EC 3.4.21.1] and proteases present in tissue homogenates from kidney, lung, brain and testis. The blocked amino- and carboxyl-terminal amino acids protected these substrates against the action of aminopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and ACE. Furthermore, DR amino acids ensured total protection of Abz-DRRL-EDDnp and Abz-DRRF-EDDnp against the action of thermolysin and trypsin. Leu-EDDnp and Phe-EDDnp were resistant to hydrolysis by a-chymotrypsin. The high specifity of these substrates suggests their use for specific NEP assays in crude enzyme preparations

  6. A Systematic Approach to the Comparison of Cost Efficiency of Endopeptidases for the Hydrolysis of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Egede-Nissen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolytic and cost efficiencies of five endopeptidases (Alcalase 2.4L, Corolase 7089, Neutrase 0.8L, Promod 671L and Protex 7L to hydrolyze Atlantic salmon by-products were compared at standardized activity levels based on a casein assay. The substrate was characterized prior to the hydrolytic experiments (pH=6.5, t=50 °C to obtain substrate-specifi c constants for nitrogen to protein mass (in g ratio, i.e. conversion factor fN=5.23 and total amount of peptide bonds htot=9.3 mmol per g of protein. At low enzyme activity to substrate ratio, all enzymes were equally effi cient in hydrolyzing the substrate. At highest enzyme activity to substrate ratio, Protex 7L, Alcalase 2.4L and Promod 671L gave higher degree of hydrolysis (DH=14.2–14.6 % than Corolase 7089 (13.2 % and Neutrase 0.8L (11.6 % after 120 min of hydrolysis. No differences were observed in protein recovery (yield of solubilized protein relative to DH. Determination of DH was followed by the pH-STAT and o-phthaldialdehyde methods. Based on pH-STAT data, response surface regression models were established based on the combined eff ects of hydrolysis time and enzyme activity to substrate ratio on DH and protein recovery. The modelling approach was combined with enzyme cost to identify the most cost-efficient enzyme (Protex 7L.

  7. Potent new small-molecule inhibitor of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A endopeptidase developed by synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Ping Pang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNTA causes a life-threatening neuroparalytic disease known as botulism. Current treatment for post exposure of BoNTA uses antibodies that are effective in neutralizing the extracellular toxin to prevent further intoxication but generally cannot rescue already intoxicated neurons. Effective small-molecule inhibitors of BoNTA endopeptidase (BoNTAe are desirable because such inhibitors potentially can neutralize the intracellular BoNTA and offer complementary treatment for botulism. Previously we reported a serotype-selective, small-molecule BoNTAe inhibitor with a K(i (app value of 3.8+/-0.8 microM. This inhibitor was developed by lead identification using virtual screening followed by computer-aided optimization of a lead with an IC(50 value of 100 microM. However, it was difficult to further improve the lead from micromolar to even high nanomolar potency due to the unusually large enzyme-substrate interface of BoNTAe. The enzyme-substrate interface area of 4,840 A(2 for BoNTAe is about four times larger than the typical protein-protein interface area of 750-1,500 A(2. Inhibitors must carry several functional groups to block the unusually large interface of BoNTAe, and syntheses of such inhibitors are therefore time-consuming and expensive. Herein we report the development of a serotype-selective, small-molecule, and competitive inhibitor of BoNTAe with a K(i value of 760+/-170 nM using synthesis-based computer-aided molecular design (SBCAMD. This new approach accounts the practicality and efficiency of inhibitor synthesis in addition to binding affinity and selectivity. We also report a three-dimensional model of BoNTAe in complex with the new inhibitor and the dynamics of the complex predicted by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss further structural optimization to achieve better in vivo efficacy in neutralizing BoNTA than those of our early micromolar leads. This work provides new insight

  8. Role of endothelin-converting enzyme, chymase and neutral endopeptidase in the processing of big ET-1, ET-1(1-21) and ET-1(1-31) in the trachea of allergic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Campo, Benjamin A; Goldie, Roy G; Jeng, Arco Y; Henry, Peter J

    2002-08-01

    The present study examined the roles of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE), neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and mast cell chymase as processors of the endothelin (ET) analogues ET-1(1-21), ET-1(1-31) and big ET-1 in the trachea of allergic mice. Male CBA/CaH mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (10 microg) delivered intraperitoneal on days 1 and 14, and exposed to aerosolized ovalbumin on days 14, 25, 26 and 27 (OVA mice). Mice were killed and the trachea excised for histological analysis and contraction studies on day 28. Tracheae from OVA mice had 40% more mast cells than vehicle-sensitized mice (sham mice). Ovalbumin (10 microg/ml) induced transient contractions (15+/-3% of the C(max)) in tracheae from OVA mice. The ECE inhibitor CGS35066 (10 microM) inhibited contractions induced by big ET-1 (4.8-fold rightward shift of dose-response curve; Peffect on contractions induced by any of the ET analogues used. The NEP inhibitor CGS24592 (10 microM) inhibited contractions induced by ET-1(1-31) (6.2-fold rightward shift; Pbig ET-1. These data suggest that big ET-1 is processed predominantly by a CGS35066-sensitive ECE within allergic airways rather than by mast cell-derived proteases such as chymase. If endogenous ET-1(1-31) is formed within allergic airways, it is likely to undergo further conversion by NEP to more active products.

  9. A Novel Chimeric Endolysin with Antibacterial Activity against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Kashani, Hamed; Fahimi, Hossein; Dasteh Goli, Yasaman; Moniri, Rezvan

    2017-01-01

    Cysteine/histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) and amidase are known as catalytic domains of the bacteriophage-derived endolysin LysK and were previously reported to show lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the current study, the in silico design and analysis of chimeric CHAP-amidase model was applied to enhance the stability and solubility of protein, which was achieved through improving the properties of primary, secondary and tertiary structures. The coding gene sequence of the chimeric CHAP-amidase was synthesized and subcloned into the pET-22(+) expression vector, and the recombinant protein was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) strain. Subsequent affinity-based purification yielded ~12 mg soluble protein per liter of E. coli culture. Statistical analysis indicated that concentrations of ≥1 μg/mL of the purified protein have significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus MRSA 252 cells. The engineered chimeric CHAP-amidase exhibited 3.2 log reduction of MRSA 252 cell counts at the concentration of 10 μg/mL. A synergistic interaction between CHAP-amidase and vancomycin was detected by using checkerboard assay and calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index. This synergistic effect was shown by 8-fold reduction in the minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin. The chimeric CHAP-amidase displayed strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis , and enterococcus . However, it did not indicate any significant antibacterial activity against E. coli and Lactococcus lactis . Taken together, these findings suggest that our chimeric CHAP-amidase might represent potential to be used for the development of efficient antibacterial therapies targeting MRSA and certain Gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Rationale and methods of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness of a Community Health Assessment Programme with Emergency Medical Services (CHAP-EMS) implemented on residents aged 55 years and older in subsidised seniors' housing buildings in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Gina; McDonough, Beatrice; Angeles, Ricardo; Pirrie, Melissa; Marzanek, Francine; McLeod, Brent; Dolovich, Lisa

    2015-06-11

    Chronic diseases and falls substantially contribute to morbidity/mortality among seniors, causing this population to frequently seek emergency medical care. Research suggests the paramedic role can be successfully expanded to include community-based health promotion and prevention. This study implements a community paramedicine programme targeting seniors in subsidised housing, a high-risk population and frequent users of emergency medical services (EMS). The aims are to reduce EMS calls, improve health outcomes and healthcare utilisation. This is a pragmatic clustered randomised control trial in four communities across Ontario, Canada. Within each, four to eight seniors' apartment buildings will be paired and within each pair one building will be randomly assigned to receive the Community Health Assessment Programme through EMS (CHAP-EMS) intervention, while the other building receives no intervention. During the 1-year intervention, paramedics will run weekly sessions in a common area of the building, assessing risk factors for cardiovascular disease, diabetes and falls; providing health education and referrals to community programmes; and communicating results to the participant's primary physician. The primary outcomes are rate of emergency calls per 100 residents, change in blood pressure and change in Canadian Diabetes Risk (CANRISK) score, as collected by the local EMS and study databases. The secondary outcomes are change in health behaviours, measured using a preintervention and postintervention survey and healthcare utilisation, available through administrative databases. Analysis will mainly consist of descriptive statistics and generalised estimating equations, including subgroup cluster analysis. This study is approved by the Hamilton Integrated Research Ethics Board and will follow the Tri-Council Policy Statement. Findings will be disseminated through reports to local stakeholders, publication in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations

  11. Anti-Angiogenic Action of Neutral Endopeptidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    EDTA, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride , 1 g/ml each of aprotinin, leupeptin, pepstatin, 2 mM sodium orthovanadate) following 2-h pretreatment with...constructs failed to signal through FGF-R (Fig. 4C) and coinci- dentally failed to bind to cultured vascular endothelial cells (Fig. 4D), implying that...nonspecific cyto- toxicity (data not shown). Therefore, we used lentivirus vector at MOI 50 for further studies. Cells were amplified and stored at 801C

  12. The Compact Hyperspectral Aberration-corrected Platform (CHAP), an instrument for microspacecraft., Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-situ analysis of solar system bodies plays a crucial role in understanding the evolution of our planet, setting the stage for life's origins. As has been...

  13. The Compact Hyperspectral Aberration-Corrected Platform (CHAP), an Instrument for Microspacecraft., Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-situ analysis of solar system bodies plays a crucial role in understanding the evolution of our planet, setting the stage for life's origins. As has been...

  14. New centre of gravity in wind mill industry; ChapDrive: Nytt tyngdepunkt i vindmoelleindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Oil in pipes might still be of great importance when Norway is getting emission free energy from the North Sea. The innovators in CharDrive use hydraulics to make the huge ocean mills less top heavy and easier to operate. (AG)

  15. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  16. "These young chaps think they are just men, too": redistributing masculinity in Kgatleng bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, D N

    2001-07-01

    In the 19th century the BaKgatla polity was a chiefdom with a redistributional economy based on mixed agriculture. Sorghum beer was symbolic not only of the patrilineal core of their descent system and of the ideologies of reciprocity and redistribution, but also of masculinity and patriarchal control. With the establishment of a market economy, an industrial brewery and individual access to income, both beer and the act of drinking have been symbolically reconstructed. The ideology of redistribution was well suited to the support of the BaKgatla gerontocracy via alcohol production and consumption. The limits on production and consumption of beer inherent in the agricultural cycle and the control of young men's access by elders made alcohol an effective symbol of managerial competence from the limited context of household authority to that of the chiefdom as a whole. Today, young men's greater control of cash income has given them access to beer beyond the control of elders. As a result, the contrasting ideology of market exchange and competitive distribution of beer has contributed to the degradation of the power of seniors. After reviewing the historical background, this paper explores those changes. It argues that while the observed infrastructural changes have had a predictable impact on drinking behaviors and the symbolic structure of "seniority/masculinity", constructions of the "masculine community" in BaKgatla bars demonstrate continuity in key areas of mens' identities. If as anthropologists we see obvious discontinuities in behavior and ideology, the BaKgatla build selective bridges to "tradition" which seemingly ground the experience of change in relatively seamless continuity.

  17. Turismo comunitario en favelas: Un estudio del Favela Inn Hostel, Chapéu Mangueira - Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues da Silva, Diego; Corbari, Sandra Dalila; Cioce Sampaio, Carlos Alberto; Jurema Grimm, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Resulta necesario pensar un nuevo modelo de desarrollo que resalte las cuestiones económicas, pero también los aspectos sociales y la integración hombre-naturaleza. El turismo de base comunitaria se configura como una alternativa de trabajo e ingreso y como promotor del desarrollo sustentable. Mayormente es implementado junto a las comunidades tradicionales, híbridas y autóctonas en zonas costeras y rurales. En este contexto surge la pregunta de investigación: ¿Si el turismo de base comunitar...

  18. Corps Helicopter Attack Planning System (CHAPS). Positional Handbook. Appendix A. Messages. Appendix B. Statespace Construction Sample Session

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Analysis 11.7.1 The Text Summary A sample of the textual summary is shown in Figure 11.7-I. Mission number, helicopter type, route section, and mode...heading for the previous leg. The third line of the text summary provides total route figures for approximate I fuel consumed, distance and danger...Routing. ...... ............. 11-12 11.6.3 Route Output .. ....... ......... 11-12 11.7 MANUALLY MODIFYING ROUTES .. .......... 11-12 11.7.1 The Text

  19. Aspartic cathepsin D endopeptidase contributes to extracellular digestion in clawed lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Liliana; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Saborowski, Reinhard; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2010-11-01

    Acid digestive proteinases were studied in the gastric fluids of two species of clawed lobster (Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus). An active protein was identified in both species as aspartic proteinase by specific inhibition with pepstatin A. It was confirmed as cathepsin D by mass mapping, N-terminal, and full-length cDNA sequencing. Both lobster species transcribed two cathepsin D mRNAs: cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2. Cathepsin D1 mRNA was detected only in the midgut gland, suggesting its function as a digestive enzyme. Cathepsin D2 mRNA was found in the midgut gland, gonads, and muscle. The deduced amino acid sequence of cathepsin D1 and cathepsin D2 possesses two catalytic DTG active-site motifs, the hallmark of aspartic proteinases. The putatively active cathepsin D1 has a molecular mass of 36.4 kDa and a calculated pI of 4.14 and possesses three potential glycosylation sites. The sequences showed highest similarities with cathepsin D from insects but also with another crustacean cathepsin D. Cathepsin D1 transcripts were quantified during a starvation period using real-time qPCR. In H. americanus, 15 days of starvation did not cause significant changes, but subsequent feeding caused a 2.5-fold increase. In H. gammarus, starvation caused a 40% reduction in cathepsin D1 mRNA, and no effect was observed with subsequent feeding.

  20. Targeting prolyl endopeptidase with valproic acid as a potential modulator of neutrophilic inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Roda, Mojtaba; Sadik, Mariam; Gaggar, Amit; Hardison, Matthew T; Jablonsky, Michael J; Braber, Saskia; Blalock, James Edwin; Redegeld, Frank A; Folkerts, Gert; Jackson, Patricia L

    2014-01-01

    A novel neutrophil chemoattractant derived from collagen, proline-glycine-proline (PGP), has been recently characterized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This peptide is derived via the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's)-8/9 and PE, enzymes produced by

  1. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  2. Characterization of member of DUF1888 protein family, self-cleaving and self-assembling endopeptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Bargassa, Monireh; Hamilton, John E; Cunningham, Mark A; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-06-01

    The crystal structure of SO1698 protein from Shewanella oneidensis was determined by a SAD method and refined to 1.57 Å. The structure is a β sandwich that unexpectedly consists of two polypeptides; the N-terminal fragment includes residues 1-116, and the C-terminal one includes residues 117-125. Electron density also displayed the Lys-98 side chain covalently linked to Asp-116. The putative active site residues involved in self-cleavage were identified; point mutants were produced and characterized structurally and in a biochemical assay. Numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum/classical calculations suggest a mechanism involving activation of a water molecule coordinated by a catalytic aspartic acid.

  3. Characterization of Member of DUF1888 Protein Family, Self-cleaving and Self-assembling Endopeptidase*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Bargassa, Monireh; Hamilton, John E.; Cunningham, Mark A.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of SO1698 protein from Shewanella oneidensis was determined by a SAD method and refined to 1.57 Å. The structure is a β sandwich that unexpectedly consists of two polypeptides; the N-terminal fragment includes residues 1–116, and the C-terminal one includes residues 117–125. Electron density also displayed the Lys-98 side chain covalently linked to Asp-116. The putative active site residues involved in self-cleavage were identified; point mutants were produced and characterized structurally and in a biochemical assay. Numerical simulations utilizing molecular dynamics and hybrid quantum/classical calculations suggest a mechanism involving activation of a water molecule coordinated by a catalytic aspartic acid. PMID:22493430

  4. Morphological aspects of the rat kidney preserved by cold storage. IV. Histoenzymological changes. V. Endopeptidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neagu, S; Bandu, C; Chirculescu, A R; Codorean, E; Cuida, I; Gabrielescu, E

    1984-01-01

    Rat kidneys were preserved by initial washing and cooling perfusion, followed by cold storage at 6 degrees C for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, in two different media: Sacks (hyperosmolar electrolytic solution of intracellular type) and Plasmagel (gelation solution 4%). Evidence was found of DPNH-diaphorase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), leucylaminopeptidase (LAP) and adenosine-triphosphatase (ATPase) (pH 9.4) activities. Histoenzymological determination showed various levels of enzymatic activities in different segments of the nephron, levels relatively well maintained during storage, even at 72 and 96 hours. At the same time, cathepsin B and D and neutral proteinase activities were determined as parameters of maintained cellular enzymatic activity; different aspects were observed with the two preservation media used.

  5. A neutral endopeptidase in the microvillar membrane of pig intestine. Partial purification and properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Vyas, J P; Kenny, A J

    1980-01-01

    An enzyme hydrolysing [125I]iodo-insulin B chain was enriched in preparations of intestinal microvilli. The activity could be solubilized by Triton X-100 and was partially (76-fold) purified. It was very sensitive to inhibition by phosphoramidon and was also inhibited by chelating agents. In its...

  6. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  7. The fusion reactor wall is getting hot. A challenge towards the future for numerical modelling (4). Chap. 4. What is really happening in the wall?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Isao; Konno, Chikara

    2008-01-01

    In fusion plasmas, a lot of fast neutrons with a kinetic energy of 14 MeV are generated through D-T fusion reactions. These neutrons travel deep into the first wall and are absorbed in the blanket through nuclear reactions. In the present chapter, the authors discuss what happens in the blanket with the help of computerized simulation. (T.I.)

  8. Destructin-1 is a collagen-degrading endopeptidase secreted by Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, AJ; Knudsen, GM; Beekman, C; Perry, JA; Johnson, AD; DeRisi, JL; Craik, CS; Bennett, RJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Pseudogymnoascus destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, a disease that has caused the deaths of millions of bats in North America. This psychrophilic fungus proliferates at low temperatures and targets hibernating bats, resulting in their premature arousal from stupor with catastrophic consequences. Despite the impact of white-nose syndrome, little is known about the fungus itself or how it infects its mammalian ho...

  9. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 is important for the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in anesthetized pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebbien, Ramona; Klarskov, Letty; Olesen, Mette

    2004-01-01

    , a selective NEP inhibitor, on plasma levels of endogenous and exogenous glucagon was examined in anesthetized pigs. Candoxatril increased endogenous glucagon concentrations, from 6.3 +/- 2.5 to 20.7 +/- 6.3 pmol/l [COOH-terminal (C)-RIA, P ...-RIA). This study provides evidence that NEP 24.11 is an important mediator of the degradation of both endogenous and exogenous glucagon in vivo....

  10. Heparin modulates the endopeptidase activity of Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease cathepsin L-Like rCPB2.8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner A S Judice

    Full Text Available Cysteine protease B is considered crucial for the survival and infectivity of the Leishmania in its human host. Several microorganism pathogens bind to the heparin-like glycosaminoglycans chains of proteoglycans at host-cell surface to promote their attachment and internalization. Here, we have investigated the influence of heparin upon Leishmania mexicana cysteine protease rCPB2.8 activity.THE DATA ANALYSIS REVEALED THAT THE PRESENCE OF HEPARIN AFFECTS ALL STEPS OF THE ENZYME REACTION: (i it decreases 3.5-fold the k 1 and 4.0-fold the k -1, (ii it affects the acyl-enzyme accumulation with pronounced decrease in k 2 (2.7-fold, and also decrease in k 3 (3.5-fold. The large values of ΔG  =  12 kJ/mol for the association and dissociation steps indicate substantial structural strains linked to the formation/dissociation of the ES complex in the presence of heparin, which underscore a conformational change that prevents the diffusion of substrate in the rCPB2.8 active site. Binding to heparin also significantly decreases the α-helix content of the rCPB2.8 and perturbs the intrinsic fluorescence emission of the enzyme. The data strongly suggest that heparin is altering the ionization of catalytic (Cys(25-S(-/(His(163-Im(+ H ion pair of the rCPB2.8. Moreover, the interaction of heparin with the N-terminal pro-region of rCPB2.8 significantly decreased its inhibitory activity against the mature enzyme.Taken together, depending on their concentration, heparin-like glycosaminoglycans can either stimulate or antagonize the activity of cysteine protease B enzymes during parasite infection, suggesting that this glycoconjugate can anchor parasite cysteine protease at host cell surface.

  11. Dispersão de sementes de Melocactus glaucescens e M. paucispinus (Cactaceae, no Município de Morro do Chapéu, Chapada Diamantina - BA Dispersion of Melocactus glaucescens and M. paucispinus (Cactaceae in the municipality of Morro do Chapéu, Chapada Diamantina - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosineide Braz Santos Fonseca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se identificar os dispersores de duas espécies de Melocactus, verificar o padrão de liberação dos frutos, correlacionando-o com a remoção por frugívoros e variação térmica do cefálio, bem como caracterizar a distribuição espacial. Para tanto, foram realizadas observações focais, testes de germinação, registros da emergência, extrusão e remoção de frutos, da temperatura do cefálio, de interações formigas-diásporos e distribuição espacial. Lagartos (2 espécies e formigas (3 espécies foram os dispersores das espécies estudadas. A dormência das sementes não foi quebrada pela passagem pelo trato digestivo dos lagartos. As maiores taxas de remoção dos frutos pelos lagartos ocorreram nas horas centrais do dia, coincidindo ou sendo posterior aos picos de extrusão. As taxas de emergência e extrusão foram mais intensas pela manhã, o que aumentou as chances de remoção dos frutos no dia da liberação, evitando dissecação e predação. Não houve correlação entre a liberação dos frutos e a variação térmica do cefálio. O desenvolvimento do fruto gera tensão nas fibras do cefálio que promove sua emergência ou expulsão. A expulsão de frutos emergidos pode ser auxiliada pela dilatação das fibras em resposta ao aquecimento, tensão da união das fibras na base e saída de outros frutos. A distribuição espacial dos indivíduos parece ser influenciada pelo comportamento dos dispersores.Objectives: identify the dispersers of two species of Melocactus; verify their patterns of fruit offering and correlate this with removal by frugivores and with temperature variations of the cephalium; and analyze the relationship between the spatial distribution of the Melocactus species and the behavior of their dispersers. Focal observations were made of fruit emergence, extrusion and removal, cephalium temperature, ant-diaspore interactions, and plant spatial distribution. Germination tests were also made. Two lizard and three ant species were dispersers of the two species of Melocactus. Seed dormancy was not broken in the digestive tracts of the lizards. The greatest rates of fruit removal by the lizards occurred during the mid hours of the day, coinciding with or following the extrusion peak. Fruit emergence and extrusion rates were highest in the morning, increasing their chances of being taken on the same day, thus avoiding desiccation and predation. No correlation was observed between fruit liberation and thermal variations of the cephalium. Fruit development generates tension within the fiber mass of the cephalium that provokes fruit emergence/expulsion. The expulsion of the fruits may also be aided by the dilation of the cephalium fibers as they warm, tension generated at the cephalium base where the fibers unite, and by the expulsion of other fruits. The spatial distribution of these cacti is influenced by disperser behavior.

  12. Vinificação em tinto de uvas americanas: efeito das técnicas de pré-secagem das uvas e de chapéu submerso nos perfis químico e sensorial

    OpenAIRE

    Castilhos, Maurício Bonatto Machado de [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    A produção brasileira de vinhos encontra-se em constante especialização e tem como objetivo incrementar a qualidade dessas bebidas a fim de atender e superar as expectativas dos consumidores. Diante desse contexto, algumas entidades governamentais pesquisam o melhoramento genético de uvas almejando produzir matérias-primas com características singulares a fim de elaborar vinhos com qualidade ímpar e de caráter regional. Adicionalmente, cientistas da área pesquisam variações no processo de vin...

  13. Dual neural endopeptidase/endothelin-converting [corrected] enzyme inhibition improves endothelial function in mesenteric resistance arteries of young spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Nelissen, Jelly; Meens, Merlijn J P M T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide with pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory properties and is therefore of interest in the development of endothelial dysfunction, endothelium-dependent flow-related remodeling, and hypertension-related remodeling. ET1 can be formed t...

  14. Abundance of Cysteine Endopeptidase Dionain in Digestive Fluid of Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Ellis) Is Regulated by Different Stimuli from Prey through Jasmonates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Libiaková, M.; Floková, Kristýna; Novák, Ondřej; Slováková, L.; Pavlovič, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2014) E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : PLANT NEPENTHES-ALATA * SECRETORY CYCLE * PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  15. Affinity and specificity of serine endopeptidase-protein inhibitor interactions. Empirical free energy calculations based on X-ray crystallographic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystek, S; Stouch, T; Novotny, J

    1993-12-05

    An empirical function was used to calculate free energy change (delta G) of complex formation between the following inhibitors and enzymes: Kunitz inhibitor (BPTI) with trypsin, trypsinogen and kallikrein; turkey ovomucoid 3rd domain (OMTKY3) with alpha-chymotrypsin and the Streptomyces griseus protease B; the potato chymotrypsin inhibitor with the protease B; and the barely chymotrypsin inhibitor and eglin-c with subtilisin and thermitase. Using X-ray coordinates of the nine complexes, we estimated the contributions that hydrophobic effect, electrostatic interactions and side-chain conformational entropy make towards the stability of the complexes. The calculated delta G values showed good agreement with the experimentally measured ones, the only exception being the kallikrein/BPTI complex whose X-ray structure was solved at an exceptionally low pH. In complexes with different enzymes, the same inhibitor residues contributed identically towards complex formation (delta G(residue) Spearman rank correlation coefficient 0.7 to 1.0). The most productive enzyme-contacting residues in OMTKY3, eglin-c, and the chymotrypsin inhibitors were found in analogous positions on their respective binding loops; thus, our calculations identified a functional (energetic) motif that parallels the well-known structural similarity of the binding loops. The delta G values calculated for BPTI complexed with trypsin (-21.7 kcal) and trypsinogen (-23.4 kcal) were similar and close to the experimental delta G value of the trypsin/BPTI complex (-18.1 kcal), lending support to the suggestion that the 10(7) difference in the observed stabilities (KA) of these two complexes reflects the energetic cost of conformational changes induced in trypsinogen during the pre-equilibrium stages of complex formation. In almost all of the complexes studied, the stabilization free energy contributed by the inhibitors was larger than that donated by the enzymes. In the trypsin-BPTI complex, the calculated delta G contribution of the amino group from the BPTI residue Lys15 (9.7 kcal) was somewhat higher than that arrived at in experiments with semisynthetic inhibitor analogs (7.5 kcal). In OMTKY3, different binding loop residues are known to affect differently the binding (delta delta G) to alpha-chymotrypsin and protease B; a good qualitative agreement was found between the calculated delta G(residue) estimates and the experimental delta delta G data (correlation coefficient 0.7). Large variations were observed in local surface complementarity and related interfacial volume in the two OMTKY3 complexes (by 20 to 60% for some side-chains).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

  16. Supplementation of Reduced Gluten Barley Diet with Oral Prolyl Endopeptidase Effectively Abrogates Enteropathy-Associated Changes in Gluten-Sensitive Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Sestak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an autoimmune disorder that affects approximately three million people in the United States. Furthermore, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS affects an estimated additional 6% of the population, e.g., 20 million in the U.S. The only effective treatment of CD and NCGS requires complete removal of gluten sources from the diet. While required adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD is extremely difficult to accomplish, efforts to develop additional supportive treatments are needed. To facilitate these efforts, we developed a gluten-sensitive (GS rhesus macaque model to study the effects of novel therapies. Recently reported results from phase one of this project suggest that partial improvement—but not remission—of gluten-induced disease can be accomplished by 100-fold reduction of dietary gluten, i.e., 200 ppm—by replacement of conventional dietary sources of gluten with a mutant, reduced gluten (RG barley (lys3a-derived source. The main focus of this (phase two study was to determine if the inflammatory effects of the residual gluten in lys3a mutant barley grain could be further reduced by oral supplementation with a prolylendopeptidase (PE. Results reveal that PE supplementation of RG barley diet induces more complete immunological, histopathological and clinical remission than RG barley diet alone. The combined effects of RG barley diet and PE supplementation resulted in a further decrease of inflammatory mediators IFN-γ and TNF secretion by peripheral lymphocytes, as well as decreased plasma anti-gliadin and anti-intestinal tissue transglutaminase (TG2 antibodies, diminished active caspase production in small intestinal mucosa, and eliminated clinical diarrhea—all comparable with a gluten-free diet induced remission. In summary, the beneficial results of a combined RG barley and PE administration in GS macaques may warrant the investigation of similar synergistic approaches.

  17. β-Endorphin biotransformation in brain: Formation of γ-endorphin by a synaptosomal plasma membrane associated endopeptidase distinct from cathepsin D

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burbach, J.P.H.; Loeber, J.G.; Verhoef, J.; Kloet, E.R. de

    1980-01-01

    cSPM preparations of rat brain contain a peptidase activity which generates γ-endorphin from β-endorphin. Some properties of this enzyme were studied and compared with those of cathepsin D. Maximal accumulation of γ-endorphin upon digestion of β-endorphin with a cSPM preparation was found at neutral

  18. Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 and dipeptidyl peptidase IV are both mediators of the degradation of glucagon-like peptide 1 in the anaesthetised pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plamboeck, A; Holst, Jens Juul; Carr, R D

    2005-01-01

    glucose were unaffected by candoxatril, but glucose tolerance was improved (DeltaAUC(min 27-87) 118+/-5 to 74+/-14 min.mmol.l(-1); glucose elimination rate [k] 6.6+/-0.5 to 8.6+/-0.5%; pvaline pyrrolidide (a DPP-IV inhibitor), changes in C-terminal GLP-1...... pharmacokinetics mirrored those seen when candoxatril alone was administered (t(1/2) 2.7+/-0.3 and 7.7+/-0.8 min; MCR 17.3+/-2.6 and 6.5+/-0.8 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) for valine pyrrolidide without and with candoxatril, respectively). However, intact GLP-1 pharmacokinetics were improved (t(1/2) 2.8+/-0.3 and 7...

  19. Aza-Peptidyl Michael Acceptor and Epoxide Inhibitors—Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Schistosoma mansoni and Ixodes ricinus Legumains (Asparaginyl Endopeptidases)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ovat, A.; Muindi, F.; Fagan, C.; Brouner, M.; Hansell, E.; Dvořák, J.; Sojka, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Powers, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 22 (2009), s. 7192-7210 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0865; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : legumain * IrAE * aza-peptide Michael acceptors Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.802, year: 2009

  20. Aza-peptidyl Michael acceptors. A new class of potent and selective inhibitors of asparaginyl endopeptidases (legumains) from evolutionarily diverse pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Götz, M. G.; James, K. E.; Hansell, E.; Dvořák, J.; Seshaadri, A.; Sojka, Daniel; Kopáček, Petr; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Powers, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2008), s. 2816-2832 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/06/0865 Grant - others:The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases(US) AI053247; National Institute of General Medical Sciences(US) GM54404; National Institute of General Medical Sciences(US) GM61964 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : legumain * IrAE * aza-peptide Michael acceptors Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.898, year: 2008

  1. Lacerations - liquid bandage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2011:chap 28. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  2. Laceration - sutures or staples - at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 28. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  3. Cuts and puncture wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014:chap 34. Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2018:chap ...

  4. Nightmares

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 104. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 55. ...

  5. Serum globulin electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plasma proteins. In: Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH, eds. Medical Biochemistry . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 4. Rajkumar SV. Plasma cell disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ... . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 187.

  6. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and minerals. In: Baynes JW, Dominiczak MH, eds. Medical Biochemistry . 4th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 11. Ginder GD. Microcytic and hypochromic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, ... . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 159.

  7. Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AK, Litchman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... D, Brostoff J, Roth DB, Roitt IM, eds. Immunology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ...

  8. Hydrocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 346. Elder JS. Disorders and anomalies ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 545. Ferri FF. Hydrocele. In: Ferri ...

  9. Daily bowel care program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 136. Koyle MA, Lorenzo AJ. ... eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 144. Lembo AJ. Constipation. In: Feldman ...

  10. Smear of duodenal fluid aspirate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. Dupont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Fritsche TR, Pritt BS. ...

  11. Ankle pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 58. Irwin TA. Tendon injuries ... Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 117. Molloy A, Selvan D. ...

  12. Meperidine hydrochloride overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 147. Lank PM, Kusin S. Ethanol ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 154. Nikolaides JK, Thompson TM. ...

  13. Bacterial gastroenteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. Craig SA. Gastroenteritis. In: Marx ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 94. Mody RK, Griffin PM. ...

  14. Cardiac event monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... From Cell to Bedside . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 64. Maron BJ. Ventricular arrhythmias ... From Cell to Bedside . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. Mathur N, Seutter R, ...

  15. Hemolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Gallagher PG. Red blood ... Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 43. Michel M. Autoimmune and intravascular ...

  16. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 90. Pawlotsky J-M. Chronic ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 149. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. ...

  17. Fecal smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25thed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  18. Arteriogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 102. Goldstein LB. Approach to ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 406. Kern M. Catheterization and ...

  19. Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 41. Ellenson LH, Pirog EC. The ... Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 22. Hobel CJ, Williams J. ...

  20. Nabothian cyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 135. Dolan MS, Hill C, ... FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 18. Hertzberg BS, Middleton WD. Pelvis ...

  1. Culture - colonic tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Hall GS, Woods GL. ...

  2. Foreign object - swallowed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 327. Pfau PR, Hancock SM. Foreign ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 27. Schoem SR, Rosbe KW, ...

  3. Deciding about an IUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Copper T IUD. Association of ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 134. Hormonal IUD. Association of ...

  4. Giardia infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 110. Nash TE, Hill DR. ...

  5. Cedar leaf oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 45. Graeme KA. Toxic plant ingestions. ... eds. Auerbach's Wilderness Medicine . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 65. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  6. Transurethral resection of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Treatment in Prostate Pathology . San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press; 2016:chap 2. Han M, Partin ... eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 106. Kaplan SA. Benign prostatic hyperplasia ...

  7. Hemoglobin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Basic Principles and Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 43. Bunn HF. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 158. Christiani DC. Physical and ...

  8. Shigellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 340. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  9. Drug-induced lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tsokos GC, ed. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54. Habif TP. Connective tissue diseases. ... TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster ...

  10. String test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. Bope ET, Kellerman RD. The ... ET, ed. Conn's Current Therapy 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 3. Haines CF, Sears CL. Infectious ...

  11. Nose fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 33. Christophel JJ. Facial, eye, ... Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 27. Mayersak RJ. Facial trauma. ...

  12. Abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 27. MacGilchrist A, Iredale J, ... eds. Macleod's Clinical Examination . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2013:chap 8. McQuaid KR. Approach to the ...

  13. Deodorant poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 100. Farmer B, Seger DL. ... Textbook of Critical Care . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 153. Meehan TJ. Approach to the ...

  14. Digitalis toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 152. Goldberger AL, Goldberger ZD, ... Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 18. Nelson LS, Ford MD. ...

  15. Vaginal dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Physical Examination . 8th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 18. Gardella C, Eckert LO, ... FA, eds. Comprehensive Gynecology . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 23. Grady D, Barrett-Connor E. ...

  16. Fecal culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 64. DuPont HL. Approach to the ... AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25thed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 283. Haines CF, Sears CL. ...

  17. Galactosemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Rector's The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 45. Broomfield A, Brain C, Grunewald S. ... Neurology in Clinical Practice. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 91. Kishnani PS, Chen Y-T. ...

  18. Magnetic resonance angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2015:chap 17. Litt H, Carpenter JP. Magnetic resonance imaging. In: Cronenwett JL, Johnston KW, eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  19. Double Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenfelt, Anders

    The study of the acoustics of bowed instruments has for several reasons focused on the violin. A substantial amount of knowledge has been accumulated over the last century (see Hutchins 1975, 1976; Hutchins and Benade 1997). The violin is discussed in Chap. 13, while the cello is discussed in Chap. 14. The bow is discussed in Chap. 16.

  20. The T box regulatory element controlling expression of the class I lysyl-tRNA synthetase of Bacillus cereus strain 14579 is functional and can be partially induced by reduced charging of asparaginyl-tRNAAsn

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Foy, Niall

    2010-07-22

    Abstract Background Lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) is unique within the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase family in that both class I (LysRS1) and class II (LysRS2) enzymes exist. LysRS1 enzymes are found in Archaebacteria and some eubacteria while all other organisms have LysRS2 enzymes. All sequenced strains of Bacillus cereus (except AH820) and Bacillus thuringiensis however encode both a class I and a class II LysRS. The lysK gene (encoding LysRS1) of B. cereus strain 14579 has an associated T box element, the first reported instance of potential T box control of LysRS expression. Results A global study of 891 completely sequenced bacterial genomes identified T box elements associated with control of LysRS expression in only four bacterial species: B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Symbiobacterium thermophilum and Clostridium beijerinckii. Here we investigate the T box element found in the regulatory region of the lysK gene in B. cereus strain 14579. We show that this T box element is functional, responding in a canonical manner to an increased level of uncharged tRNALys but, unusually, also responding to an increased level of uncharged tRNAAsn. We also show that B. subtilis strains with T box regulated expression of the endogenous lysS or the heterologous lysK genes are viable. Conclusions The T box element controlling lysK (encoding LysRS1) expression in B. cereus strain 14579 is functional, but unusually responds to depletion of charged tRNALys and tRNAAsn. This may have the advantage of making LysRS1 expression responsive to a wider range of nutritional stresses. The viability of B. subtilis strains with a single LysRS1 or LysRS2, whose expression is controlled by this T box element, makes the rarity of the occurrence of such control of LysRS expression puzzling.

  1. Hepatorenal syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 153. Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and other systemic complications of liver disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  2. Estrogen overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treated. Treatment may include: Activated charcoal (in extreme cases) Blood and urine ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap ...

  3. Clinic Health Awareness Program Subsystem -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Clinic Health Awareness Program Subystem (CHAPS) is a comprehensive system for recording, reporting, and analyzing a patient’s medical information and managing an...

  4. Peripheral neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... peripheral; Neuritis - peripheral; Nerve disease; Polyneuropathy; Chronic pain - peripheral neuropathy ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 107. Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q8BGV9) Cysteine protease APG4D (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog D) (Auto...phagin-4) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4) (AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4D_MOUSE 2e-39 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK069012 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069012 J023002M16 (Q8WYN0) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (hAPG4A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_HUMAN 3e-46 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q811C2) Cysteine protease APG4C (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog C) (Auto...phagin-3) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 3) (AUT-like 3 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4C_MOUSE 4e-37 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q8WYN0) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (hAPG4A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_HUMAN 2e-45 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q8C9S8) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_MOUSE 2e-47 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q8BGV9) Cysteine protease APG4D (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog D) (Auto...phagin-4) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 4) (AUT-like 4 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4D_MOUSE 7e-33 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK069012 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK069012 J023002M16 (Q8C9S8) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_MOUSE 4e-48 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q8C9S8) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (Auto...phagin-2) (Autophagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2) (AUT-like 2 cysteine endopeptidase) APG4A_MOUSE 2e-36 ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-2878 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-2878 ref|YP_680769.1| murein endopeptidase [Roseobacter denitrificans ...OCh 114] gb|ABG30083.1| murein endopeptidase [Roseobacter denitrificans OCh 114] YP_680769.1 1.4 29% ...

  14. Proceedings of workshop on 'boron chemistry and boron neutron capture therapy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Yoshinori

    1993-09-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the 5th Workshop on 'the Boron Chemistry and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy' held on February 22 in 1993. The solubility of the boron carrier play an important role in the BNCT. New water-soluble p-boronophenylalanine derivatives are synthesized and their biological activities are investigated (Chap. 2 and 3). Some chemical problems on the BNCT were discussed, and the complex formation reaction of hydroxylboryl compounds were studied by the paper electrophoresis (Chap. 4). The results of the medical investigation on the BNCT using BSH compounds are shown in Chap. 5. Syntheses of o- and m-boronophenylalanine were done and their optical resolution was tried (Chap. 6). The complex formation reaction of p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) with L-DOPA and the oxidation reaction of the analogs are found in Chap. 7. The pka of BPA were determined by the isotachophoresis (Chap. 8). The chemical nature of dihydroxyboryl compounds were investigated by an infrared spectroscopy and electrophoresis (Chap. 9). New synthetic methods of BPA and p-boronophenylserine using ester of isocyanoacetic acid are described in Chap. 10. The induction of chromosomal aberations by neutron capture reaction are discussed from a point of the biological view. The a of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Spinal and epidural anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015:chap 56. Hernandez A, Sherwood ER. Anesthesiology principles, pain management, and conscious sedation. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical Practice . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 14. ...

  16. 32 CFR 725.11 - Fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... is a party. No fees shall be charged to the requesting agency. Travel and per diem expenses may be.... Travel for active duty members summoned as witnesses is governed by Joint Travel Regulations, Vol. I, Chap. 7, pt. E. and Navy Travel Instructions, Chap. 6, pt. E. 13 Travel for civilian personnel summoned...

  17. Plasma Dynamics of the Arc-Driven Rail Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Authors’ unpublished calculations. 11. A.B. Cambel , Plasma Physics and Magnetofluidmechanics (McGraw-Hill New York, 1963), Chap. 8. ’ 16 k T P = (1 +cO...Energy, and Forces (Wiley, New York, 1960), Chap. 9. 10. Authors’ unpublished calculations. 11. A.B. Cambel , Plasma Physics and Magnetofluidmechanics

  18. 76 FR 63610 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ..., pregnant women, and other potentially susceptible individuals; and Consider possible similar health effects... Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate... Commission to convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate...

  19. 76 FR 13988 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., and other potentially susceptible individuals; and Consider possible similar health effects of... Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate... convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as...

  20. 76 FR 38116 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ..., and other potentially susceptible individuals; and Consider possible similar health effects of... Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate... the Commission to convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and...

  1. 76 FR 72996 - Eleventh Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 223 Airport Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... Remarks by Special Committee Leadership Designated Federal Official (DFO): Mr. Brent Phillips Co-Chair: Mr... SESAR P15.2.7 Profiles Definition for AeroMACS Chap 8--Physical Layer--Updates per WiMAX Forum Chap 5...

  2. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: Kademani D, Tiwana PS, eds. Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 10. ... Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2014:chap ...

  3. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-01-01

    filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives

  4. 75 FR 67692 - Notice of Teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of... teleconference of the Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate...

  5. 75 FR 36639 - Change in Times for Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes and Correction of E-mail Address AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) on phthalates and phthalate substitutes. The Commission appointed this CHAP to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in...

  6. Spin Torques in Systems with Spin Filtering and Spin Orbit Interaction

    KAUST Repository

    Ortiz Pauyac, Christian

    2016-06-19

    In the present thesis we introduce the reader to the field of spintronics and explore new phenomena, such as spin transfer torques, spin filtering, and three types of spin-orbit torques, Rashba, spin Hall, and spin swapping, which have emerged very recently and are promising candidates for a new generation of memory devices in computer technology. A general overview of these phenomena is presented in Chap. 1. In Chap. 2 we study spin transfer torques in tunnel junctions in the presence of spin filtering. In Chap. 3 we discuss the Rashba torque in ferromagnetic films, and in Chap. 4 we study spin Hall effect and spin swapping in ferromagnetic films, exploring the nature of spin-orbit torques based on these mechanisms. Conclusions and perspectives are summarized in Chap. 5.

  7. Nuclear fuels policy. Report of the Atlantic Council's Nuclear Fuels Policy Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Policy Paper recommends the actions deemed necessary to assure that future U.S. and non-Communist countries' nuclear fuels supply will be adequate, considering the following: estimates of modest growth in overall energy demand, electrical energy demand, and nuclear electrical energy demand in the U.S. and abroad, predicated upon the continuing trends involving conservation of energy, increased use of electricity, and moderate economic growth (Chap. I); possibilities for the development and use of all domestic resources providing energy alternatives to imported oil and gas, consonant with current environmental, health, and safety concerns (Chap. II); assessment of the traditional energy sources which provide current alternatives to nuclear energy (Chap. II); evaluation of realistic expectations for additional future energy supplies from prospective technologies: enhanced recovery from traditional sources and development and use of oil shales and synthetic fuels from coal, fusion and solar energy (Chap. II); an accounting of established nuclear technology in use today, in particular the light water reactor, used for generating electricity (Chap. III); an estimate of future nuclear technology, in particular the prospective fast breeder (Chap. IV); current and projected nuclear fuel demand and supply in the U.S. and abroad (Chaps. V and VI); the constraints encountered today in meeting nuclear fuels demand (Chap. VII); and the major unresolved issues and options in nuclear fuels supply and use (Chap. VIII). The principal conclusions and recommendations (Chap. IX) are that the U.S. and other industrialized countries should strive for increased flexibility of primary energy fuel sources, and that a balanced energy strategy therefore depends on the secure supply of energy resources and the ability to substitute one form of fuel for another

  8. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen; Croissant, Jonas G.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Deng, Lin; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Gurinov, Andrei; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes

  9. Vitellin- and hemoglobin-digesting enzymes in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus larvae and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Andréia Bergamo; Seixas, Adriana; Teixeira, Vivian de Oliveira Nunes; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; Termignoni, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to address the involvement of Rhipicephalus microplus larval cysteine endopeptidase (RmLCE) in protein digestion in R. microplus larvae and adult females. In this work, an improved purification protocol for native RmLCE was developed. Partial amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme indicates that it is the same enzyme as Boophilus microplus cathepsin-L1 (BmCL1). When vitellin (Vt) degradation by egg and larval enzymes was analyzed, stage-specific differences for RmLCE activity in comparison to vitellin-degrading cysteine endopeptidase (VTDCE) were observed. RmLCE is also able to degrade host hemoglobin (Hb). In agreement, an acidic cysteine endopeptidase activity was detected in larval gut. It was shown that cysteine and aspartic endopeptidases are involved in Vt and Hb digestion in R. microplus larvae and females. Interestingly, we observed that the aspartic endopeptidase Boophilus yolk cathepsin (BYC) is associated with a cysteine endopeptidase activity, in larvae. Synergic hemoglobin digestion by BYC and RmLCE was observed and indicates the presence of an Hb-degrading enzymatic cascade involving these enzymes. Our results suggest that RmLCE/BmCL1 has a continued role in vitellin and hemoglobin digestion during tick development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Retrograde ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms include: Cloudy urine after orgasm Little or no semen is released during ejaculation ... 2016:chap 141. McMahon CG. Disorders of male orgasm and ejaculation. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin ...

  11. Jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Saunders; 2016:chap 21. Wheatley MA, Heilpern KL. Jaundice. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  12. Tooth anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whole tooth. This area is known as the "pulp" of the tooth. The jawbone is attached to ... JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  13. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohenca N. Management of traumatic dental injuries. In: Torabinejad M, Walton, RE, Fouad AF, eds. Endodontics: Principles and Practice . 5th ed. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 11. Tinanoff N. Dental trauma. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ...

  14. Asthma - control drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed February 28, 2018. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  15. Over-the-counter pain relievers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Waltham, MA: Elsevier; 2016:236-272. Dinakar P. Principles of pain management. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54.

  16. Asthma - quick-relief drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed February 28, 2018. Durrani SR, Busse WW. Management of asthma in adolescents and adults. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  17. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jr, Silberstein LE, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 141. Thachil J, Toh CH. Current concepts in the management of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Thromb Res . 2012;129 ...

  18. Taking narcotics for back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24480962 . Dinakar P. Principles of pain management. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 54. ...

  19. Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/pubmed/24641269 . Simon BC, Hern HG. Wound management principles. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 52. ...

  20. Strategies for getting through labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stay comfortable. Keep your mind busy. Bring books, photo albums, games, or other things that will ... Flood P, Rolins MD. Anesthesia for obstetrics. In: Miller RD, ed. Miller's ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 77. Mertz MJ, Earl ...

  1. Overcoming breastfeeding problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ...

  2. Breast milk - pumping and storing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ...

  3. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MF, eds. Creasy and Resnik's Maternal-Fetal Medicine: Principles and Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 9. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ...

  4. Losing weight after pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 23. Newton ER. Lactation and breastfeeding. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  5. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 32. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  6. Salads and nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... calories and fat. Try to use a darker lettuce. Light green Iceberg has fiber but not as ... JE, ed. Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 72. ...

  7. Pediatric heart surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... discharge; Heart valve surgery - children - discharge; Heart surgery - pediatric - discharge; Heart transplant - pediatric - discharge ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 434. ...

  8. Robotic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with this type of surgery give it some advantages over standard endoscopic techniques. The surgeon can make ... Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 87. Muller CL, Fried GM. Emerging technology in surgery: Informatics, electronics, robotics. In: ...

  9. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  10. Idiopathic hypersomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 91. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  11. Isolated sleep paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 103. ... Blaivas, DO, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, VA New Jersey Health Care System, Clinical Assistant ...

  12. Problems sleeping during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 156. Ibrahim S, Foldvary-Shaefer N. Sleep disorders in pregnancy: implications, evaluation, and treatment. Neurologic ...

  13. Snoring - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 112. Wakefield TL, Lam DJ, Ishman SL. Sleep apnea and sleep disorders. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  14. CSF oligoclonal banding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 396. Lechner-Scott J, Spencer B, de Malmanche T, et al. The frequency ... reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A. ...

  15. Skin turgor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: Connective tissue disorders such as scleroderma and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome These connective tissue disorders do not have to ... ed. Elsevier Mosby; 2015:chap 8. Ferri FF. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016 . ...

  16. Retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatments for retinitis pigmentosa, including the use of DHA, which is an omega-3 fatty acid. Other ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 630. ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of peptides isolated from the hemoglobin of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengjiao; Wu, Qiaoxing; Song, Shuang; She, Ruiping; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yifei; Zhang, Meikun; Du, Fang; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan

    2016-12-05

    Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays. The results demonstrated that CHAP had potent and rapid antimicrobial activity against 19 bacterial strains, including 9 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. Bacterial biofilm and NaCl permeability assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were further performed to detect the mechanism of its antimicrobial effect. Additionally, CHAP showed low hemolytic activity, embryo toxicity, and high stability in different temperatures and animal plasma. CHAP may have great potential for expanding production and development value in animal medication, the breeding industry and environment protection.

  18. Fuchs dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4, chap 16. Price MO, Price FW. Endothelial keratoplasty. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, ... Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A. ...

  19. Gallstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM ... 65. Review Date 4/19/2017 Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The ...

  20. Acute cholecystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 66. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM ... 65. Review Date 7/10/2017 Updated by: Michael M. Phillips, MD, Clinical Professor of Medicine, The ...

  1. Lordosis - lumbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spine. Much less common causes in children include: Achondroplasia , a disorder of bone growth that causes the ... Carson BS, Rigamonti D, Ahn ES. Achondroplasia and other dwarfisms. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 219. Mistovich RJ, Spiegel ...

  2. Kidney stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 126. Fink HA, Wilt TJ, Eidman KE, et al. Medical ... 23546565 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23546565 . Fink HA, Wilt TJ, Eidman KE, et al. Recurrent ...

  3. Insect bites and stings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... widow spider bite; Brown recluse bite; Flea bite; Honey bee or hornet sting; Lice bites; Mite bite; ... Saunders; 2016:chap 359. Otten EJ. Venomous animal injuries. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, ...

  4. Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  5. Parathyroid hyperplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker R. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  6. Parathyroid adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia, and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  7. Osteitis fibrosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LJ, de Kretser DM, et al, eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 63. Thakker RV. The parathyroid glands, hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  8. Transfusion reaction - hemolytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Names Blood transfusion reaction Images Surface proteins causing rejection References Choate JD, Maitta RW, Tormey CA, Wu ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 177. Hall JE. Blood types; transfusion; tissue and organ transplantation. In: Hall JE, ...

  9. Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... glaucoma Images Eye Slit-lamp exam Visual field test Glaucoma References Anderson DR. The optic nerve in glaucoma. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 48. Giaconi JA, ...

  10. Toddler development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a secure place. Keep toddlers away from the kitchen with a safety gate. Place them in a ... development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics . 7th ed. Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  11. Endocardial cushion defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 426. Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK. Atrioventricular septal defect. In: Kouchoukos NT, Blackstone EH, Hanley FL, Kirklin JK, eds. Kirklin/Barratt- ...

  12. induced apoptosis of neuroblastoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cultured in RPMI-1640 medium, supplemented with 10% fetal bovine ... CHAPS, 10 % sucrose and 25 μM caspase substrates. ... glycol-bis (oxyethylenenitrilo) tetraacetic acid. (EGTA, 5 mM) ..... Invest 2000; 105:1711-1721. 26. Westphal D ...

  13. Uterine sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Livingstone; 2014:chap 88. Crum CP, Laury AR, Hirsch MS, Quick CM, Peters WA. Undifferentiated uterine sarcoma. ... Crum CP, Quick CM, Laury AR, Peters WA, Hirsch MS, eds. Gynecologic and Obstetric Pathology . Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Developmental milestones record - 4 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based on things like size and weight Lacks moral concepts of right and wrong Rebels if too ... 2016:chap 12. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. Normal development. In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  15. Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the person's signs and symptoms, and may include: Anticonvulsant medicines for seizures Eye drops or surgery to ... JW III, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 596.

  16. Diabetes and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD, Thompson SR, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: Principles and Practice . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 21. Read More Type 1 diabetes Type 2 diabetes Patient Instructions ACE ...

  17. Pulmonary valve stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... surgery - discharge Images Heart valves References Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... Saunders; 2016:chap 69. Otto CM, Bownow RO. Valvular heart disease. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow ...

  18. Respiratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    The words "respiratory" and "respiration" refer to the lungs and breathing. ... Boron WF. Organization of the respiratory system. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 26.

  19. Circumcision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have an increased risk of certain conditions, including: Cancer of the penis Certain sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV Infections of ... 2016:chap 40. Review Date 10/18/2017 Updated by: Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Professor ...

  20. Routine sputum culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sputum culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria ... Elsevier; 2018:chap 36. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Culture, routine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory ...

  1. Pulling a patient up in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 12. Review Date 11/15/2017 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  2. Small bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Crohn ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  3. Getting yourself healthy before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 26. Review Date 9/17/2016 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  4. Central venous catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 29. Read More Bone marrow transplant ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  5. Turning patients over in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 12. Review Date 11/15/2017 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. Use of restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 7. The Joint Commission website. The Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals: Human Resources. www.jointcommission.org . Updated January 1, 2015. ...

  7. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 16. Ziegler TR. Malnutrition, nutritional assessment, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  8. Peripherally inserted central catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 29. Review Date 11/20/2017 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  9. Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 29.6. Read More Bone marrow ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  10. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 29. Read More Bone marrow transplant ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  11. Peripherally inserted central catheter - insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 29. Review Date 11/20/2017 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  12. Wet to dry dressing changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 25. Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  13. Large bowel resection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Colostomy ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  14. Total colectomy or proctocolectomy - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Ileostomy ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  15. Capillary sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phlebotomy Handbook . 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson; 2015:chap 11. Vajpayee N, Graham SS, Bem S. Basic ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  16. The day of your surgery - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 26. Review Date 9/17/2016 ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  17. Bathing a patient in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 8. Timby BK. Assisting with basic ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  18. Moving a patient from bed to a wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2017:chap 12. Timby BK. Assisting with basic ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  19. Acid-fast stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 251. Murray PR. The clinician and the microbiology laboratory. In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, ... Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, ...

  20. When your child's treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child. This may mean watching TV, playing games, or sending texts. Encourage your child to stay ... and Oski's Hematology and Oncology of Infancy and Childhood . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  1. Clean catch urine sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 99. Nicolle LE, Norrby SR. Approach to the patient with urinary ...

  2. Paraquat poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... herbicide). In the past, the United States encouraged Mexico to use it to destroy marijuana plants. Later, ... Saunders; 2016:chap 75. Welker K, Thompson TM. Pesticides. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, ...

  3. Immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. ...

  4. Transplant rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Antibodies References Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Transplantation immunology. In: Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 17. ...

  5. Immunodeficiency disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S, eds. Cellular and Molecular Immunology . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ... Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University Medical School, Washington, DC. ...

  6. Hypervitaminosis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much vitamin A, or you have symptoms of excess vitamin A. Prevention How much vitamin A you need ... Saunders; 2015:chap 218. Ross AC, Tan L. Vitamin A deficiencies and excess. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, ...

  7. Chronic granulomatous disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fleisher TA, Shearer WT, et al, eds. Clinical Immunology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap ... Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A.M., ...

  8. Normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocephalus - occult; Hydrocephalus - idiopathic; Hydrocephalus - adult; Hydrocephalus - communicating; Dementia - hydrocephalus; NPH ... Ferri FF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. In: Ferri FF, ed. ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 648. Rosenberg GA. Brain edema and disorders ...

  9. Using plasma waves to create in tokamaks the necessary quasi-stationary conditions for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1993-04-01

    It is studied, on the one hand, how using hybrid waves with frequency near from lower hybrid frequency in fusion plasma. Works about coupling waves in plasma (chap.I), their propagation and response of the plasma to the absorption of the waves (chap.II). This method is the most effective until today. Because of limits, it has been investigated, on the other hand, fast magnetosonic wave to control current density in the centre of the discharge in a reactor or a very hot plasma. Theoretical study (chap.III) and experimental results (chap.IV) are presented. Experiments are in progress or planned in following tokamaks: D3-D (USA), JET (Europe), TORE SUPRA (France), JT-60 (Japan). figs. refs. tabs

  10. 77 FR 51560 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Director, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Great Plains Region, Aberdeen, South Dakota, and was necessary to...: 43 U.S.C. Chap. 3. Josh Alexander, Acting Chief Cadastral Surveyor, Division of Resources. [FR Doc...

  11. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  12. Osteomyelitis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 21. Kaplan SL. Osteomyelitis. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ... Krogstad P. Osteomyelitis. In: Cherry JD, Harrison GJ, Kaplan SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and ...

  13. Mesenteric angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014:chap 153. Thacker JKM. Diagnosis of colon, rectal, and anal disease. In: Yeo CJ, ed. Shackelford's ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  14. Anal itching -- self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 129. Ansari P. Pruritus ani. Clin Colon Rectal Surg . 2016;29(1):38-42. PMID: 26929750 ... Copyright 1997-2018, A.D.A.M., Inc. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing ...

  15. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... speaking, or swallowing Falls due to muscle weakness Prevention ... . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 12. Ferri FF. Hyperthyroidism. In: Ferri FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2016 . ...

  16. New species of Rhaphiptera (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae from the Caatinga biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco E. de L. Nascimento

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Cerambycidae (Lamiinae is described and illustrated from the Brazilian semi-arid of northeastern Brazil. Rhaphiptera delmari sp. nov. is recorded from Morro do Chapéu municipality in the Bahia State.

  17. Doctor of medicine profession (MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... set could be more helpful in some situations. Economics also played an important role, because specialists typically ... Saunders; 2016:chap 1. Kaljee L, Stanton BF. Cultural issues in pediatric care. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton ...

  18. Tularemia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 44. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Tularemia agglutinins - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  19. Spinal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove some bone from the back of the rim of the pelvis. From a bone bank. This ... eds. Benzel's Spine Surgery: Techniques, Complication Avoidance, and Management . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 58. ...

  20. Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Accessed February 2, 2017. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 47. Read More Body mass index Coronary heart disease Gastric bypass surgery Laparoscopic gastric ...

  1. Weight-loss surgery and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the extra body weight. The body mass index (BMI) measures below are used by many doctors ... Saunders; 2015:chap 29. Mechanick JI, Youdim A, Jones DB, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the ...

  2. Body temperature norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal body temperature; Temperature - normal ... Morrison SF. Regulation of body temperature. In: Boron WF, Boulpaep EL, eds. Medical Physiology . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 59. Sajadi MM, Mackowiak ...

  3. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  4. Decorticate posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 59. Heegaard WG, Biros MH. Head injury. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. Assessment of oral safety profile of aqueous extract blend of three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    following treatment with the extract of the spice blend. Histological examinations of ... arthritic pains, in the treatment of hyperglycaemia .... Thin sections of the liver already fixed in 10 % formalin were ..... Elsevier Saunders; 2011; chap 14. 22.

  6. Periventricular leukomalacia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/pubmed/15635108 . Volpe JJ. Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy: neuropathology and pathogenesis. In: Volpe JJ, ed. Neurology of the Newborn . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2008:chap ...

  7. Development of a computerized handbook of architectural plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutamanis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The dissertation investigates an approach to the development of visual / spatial computer representations for architectural purposes through the development of the computerized handbook of architectural plans (chap), a knowledge-based computer system capable of recognizing the metric properties of

  8. Ear barotrauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yawn When flying, DO NOT sleep as the plane prepares to land. Repeat the listed steps to ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 143. O'Reilly RC, Levi L. Anatomy and physiology of the Eustachian ...

  9. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... walking through a dark room, such as a movie theater. These problems are often worse just after ... Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 3, chap 2. Review Date 8/20/2016 Updated by: Franklin W. ...

  10. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  11. Henoch-Schönlein purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, eds. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:562.e1-563.e1. Hahn D, Hodson ... JG, ed. Emergency Medicine . 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 22. Jennette JC, Falk RJ, ...

  12. Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 274. Mbuyi N. Fibromyalgia. In: ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:491-492. Selfridge NJ. Fibromyalgia. In: Rakel ...

  13. Raynaud phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1047-1052. Herrick AL, Muir L. Raynaud's ... eds. Rutherford's Vascular Surgery. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 122. James WD, Elston DM, ...

  14. Radioiodine therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2017. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:644-645. Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James ... Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 96. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, ...

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Firestein's Textbook of Rheumatology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 70. Garneau E. Rheumatoid arthritis. In: ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:1125-1128. June RR, Moreland LW. Rheumatoid ...

  16. Pancreatitis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if your child has these symptoms: Intense, constant abdominal pain Develops other symptoms of acute ... St Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 351. ...

  17. Coronary artery fistula

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 84. Friedman AH, Silverman NH. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries. In: ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  18. Aging changes in the breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003999.htm Aging changes in the breast To use the sharing ... chap 198. Walston JD. Common clinical sequelae of aging. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  19. Energy Division annual progress report for period ending September 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    A summmary of the work in each section of the Energy Division at ORNL is given and can be characterized by two themes: (1) environmental assessment, including social and economic considerations, and (2) fuel conservation and energy conversion efficiency. The first theme encompasses the preparation of environmental statements and assessments for nuclear power plants and other energy facilities (Chap. 2) as well as regional analyses of social, economic, and environmental effects due to energy system development patterns (Chap. 3). The second theme characterizes a broad scope of conservation-related work, including efforts to understand energy demand patterns and to develop technologies and arrangements for reducing these demands (Chap. 4). This theme also encompasses research directed at improving both high- and low-temperature thermodynamic cycles driven by solar, geothermal, or fossil energy sources (Chaps. 5 and 6). A listing of publications and oral presentations complete the report. A separate abstract was prepared for each major section or program. (MCW)

  20. Chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 69. Taber's Medical Dictionary Online. Chromosome. www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/753321/all/chromosome?q=Chromosome&ti=0 . Accessed June 11, 2017.

  1. BOOK REVIEWS BOEKBESPREKINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antisocial behaviour; depressive symptoms, including semi- suicidal ideation, insomnia ... various speech disorders including stuttering. There is a chap- ter devoted to ... the wholeness of the human personality, is not new in con- ception, but it ...

  2. Choledocholithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 155. Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp ... A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. is among ...

  3. Periosteum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anatomy of the musculoskeletal system. In: Standring S, ed. Gray's Anatomy: The Anatomical Basis of Clinical Practice . 41st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 5. Silverstein JA, Moeller ...

  4. Femoral hernia repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar KB, Jeyarajah DR. Abdominal hernias and gastric volvulus. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ...

  5. Make peak flow a habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma - make peak flow a habit; Reactive airway disease - peak flow; Bronchial asthma - peak flow ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  6. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  7. Vaginal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  8. Asherman syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2012:chap 18. Simpson JL, Jauniaux ERM. Early pregnancy loss and stillbirth. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem ...

  9. When your baby is stillborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 45. Simpson JL, Jauniaux ERM. Early pregnancy loss and stillbirth. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem ...

  10. Down syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 81. Driscoll DA, Simpson JL, Holzgreve W, Otano L. Genetic screening and prenatal genetic diagnosis. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem ...

  11. Taking medicines to treat tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis - medicines; DOT; Directly observed therapy; TB - medicines ... Ellner JJ. Tuberculosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 324. ...

  12. Absence seizure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizure - petit mal; Seizure - absence; Petit mal seizure; Epilepsy - absence seizure ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 101. Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM. Seizures (paroxysmal disorders). In: Marcdante KJ, Kliegman RM, eds. Nelson Essentials ...

  13. Fibrocystic breast disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women believe that eating less fat, caffeine, or chocolate helps with their symptoms. There is no evidence ... In: Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conn's Current Therapy 2016 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 17. Hunt ...

  14. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21372195 . Specks U, Merkel PA, Seo P, et al. Efficacy of remission- ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 270. Stone JH, Merkel PA, Spiera R, et al. Rituximab versus cyclophosphamide ...

  15. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ERM. Placental anatomy and physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 1. ...

  16. Sheehan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ERM. Placental anatomy and physiology. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et al, eds. Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 1. ...

  17. effects of learning styles on career preferences of senior secondary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth Egbochuku

    Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. Dutse .... bright chaps for science oriented career, the mediocre opt for career .... preference area and computed into X2 table 4 contains the analysis. ... independent social and future career. 2.

  18. Testicular cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Germ cell tumor; Seminoma testicular cancer; Nonseminoma testicular cancer; Testicular neoplasm ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 86. National Cancer Institute. PDQ testicular cancer treatment. Updated February 17, 2016. www.cancer. ...

  19. Contracture deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 126. Skalsky AJ, McDonald CM. Prevention and management of limb contractures in ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  20. Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 98. McDonald J, Wooderchak-Donahue W, VanSant Webb C, Whitehead ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  1. Subcutaneous emphysema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 84. Eckstein M, Henderson SO. Thoracic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  2. Collapsed lung (pneumothorax)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 143. Eckstein M, Henderson SO. Thoracic trauma. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, ... by: Jacob L. Heller, MD, MHA, Emergency Medicine, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by ...

  3. Tick paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... do not show symptoms right away, and you may forget the incident by the time your child becomes sick with ... and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2018:chap 126. ...

  4. Cocaine withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 50. National Institute on Drug Abuse. What is cocaine? Updated May 2016. www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/cocaine/ ...

  5. Phenindamine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill-Medical; 2015:chap 49. Monte AA, Hoppe ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  6. Mercuric oxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essentials of Toxicology. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill Medical; 2015:chap 23. Theobald JL, Mycyk ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  7. Pheniramine overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill-Medical; 2015:chap 49. Monte AA, Hoppe ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  8. Malignant hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine . 19th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2015:chap 341. Shayne P, Lynch CA. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. Lip moisturizer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education/Medical; 2013:chap 6. Review Date ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Paradichlorobenzene poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2015:chap 105. Review Date 10/16/ ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  11. Doxepin overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill-Medical; 2015:chap 71. Review Date 7/ ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  12. Methylmercury poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill-Medical; 2015:chap 98. Theobald JL, Mycyk ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  13. Copper poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Goldfrank's Toxicologic Emergencies . 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill-Medical; 2015:chap 95. Theobald JL, Mycyk ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  14. Vacation health care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in General Medicine . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2012:chap 286. Swanson SJ, John CC. ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  15. Nail polish poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science of Poisons . 8th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical; 2013:chap 24. Kulig K. General ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  16. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essentials of Toxicology . 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education; 2015:chap 33. White SR. Toxic ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  17. Bowed Strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.; Hanson, Roger J.

    In the next eight chapters, we consider some aspects of the science of bowed string instruments, old and new. In this chapter, we present a brief discussion of bowed strings, a subject that will be developed much more thoroughly in Chap. 16. Chapters 13-15 discuss the violin, the cello, and the double bass. Chapter 17 discusses viols and other historic string instruments, and Chap. 18 discusses the Hutchins-Schelleng violin octet.

  18. Corrosion And Thermal Processing In Cold Gas Dynamic Spray Deposited Austenitic Stainless Steel Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Champagne have demonstrated this use of the cold spray technique in the repair of helicopter mast supports in U.S. Army aircraft, with over 50...Process: Fundamentals and Applications, Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 3. [3] Schiel, J. F., 2014, “The cold gas-dynamic spray... Champagne , V. K., Ed., Woodhead, Boca Raton, FL Chap. 2. [15] Han, W., Meng, X. M., Zhang, J. B., and Zhao, J., 2012, “Elastic modulus of 304 stainless

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and application of nano hydroxyapatite and nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite with granular activated carbon for the removal of Pb{sup 2+} from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, M. Shanika [Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Silva, Rohini M. de, E-mail: rohini@chem.cmb.ac.lk [Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Silva, K.M. Nalin de [Department of Chemistry, University of Colombo, Colombo 03 (Sri Lanka); Sri Lanka Institute of Nanotechnology, Nanotechnology and Science Park, Mahenwatta, Pitipana, Homagama (Sri Lanka)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of neat nano Hydroxyapatite using wet chemical precipitation methods. • This resulted rod like nanocrystals with a diameter around 50–80 nm. • Impregnation of of nano HAp onto the granular activated carbon (GAC) was achieved. • Materials were characterized using FT-IR, PXRD, and SEM. • Adsorption studies were conducted for Pb{sup 2+} ions. • The adsorption data were evaluated according to isotherm models. - Abstract: Synthesis of neat nano hydroxyapatite (HAp) was carried out using wet chemical precipitation methods at low temperature and this resulted rod like HAp nanocrystals with a diameter around 50–80 nm and length of about 250 nm. Impregnation of nano HAp onto the granular activated carbon (GAC) to prepare hydroxyapatite granular activated carbon nanocomposite (C-HAp) was carried out using in situ synthesis of nano HAp in the presence of GAC. The samples of neat nano HAp and C-HAp composite were characterized using Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Detailed adsorption studies of neat nano HAp, C-HAp and neat GAC were conducted for Pb{sup 2+} ions at room temperature at different pH levels. The adsorption data for Pb{sup 2+} ions was evaluated according to both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models for both neat nano HAp and C-HAp separately at ambient temperature, 298 K. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm for neat nano HAp with an adsorption capacity in the range of 138–83 mg g{sup −1}. For C-HAp nanocomposite the adsorption data were well fitted with Freundlich model and the calculated adsorption capacity was in the range of 9–14 mg g{sup −1}. Leaching of Ca{sup 2+} ions by neat nano HAp and C-HAp were also analyzed as a function of pH. It was found that the leaching of Ca{sup 2+} was high in neat HAp than C-HAp. The leaching of Ca{sup 2+} by neat HAp and C-HAp

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and application of nano hydroxyapatite and nanocomposite of hydroxyapatite with granular activated carbon for the removal of Pb2+ from aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernando, M. Shanika; Silva, Rohini M. de; Silva, K.M. Nalin de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthesis of neat nano Hydroxyapatite using wet chemical precipitation methods. • This resulted rod like nanocrystals with a diameter around 50–80 nm. • Impregnation of of nano HAp onto the granular activated carbon (GAC) was achieved. • Materials were characterized using FT-IR, PXRD, and SEM. • Adsorption studies were conducted for Pb 2+ ions. • The adsorption data were evaluated according to isotherm models. - Abstract: Synthesis of neat nano hydroxyapatite (HAp) was carried out using wet chemical precipitation methods at low temperature and this resulted rod like HAp nanocrystals with a diameter around 50–80 nm and length of about 250 nm. Impregnation of nano HAp onto the granular activated carbon (GAC) to prepare hydroxyapatite granular activated carbon nanocomposite (C-HAp) was carried out using in situ synthesis of nano HAp in the presence of GAC. The samples of neat nano HAp and C-HAp composite were characterized using Fourier-Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Detailed adsorption studies of neat nano HAp, C-HAp and neat GAC were conducted for Pb 2+ ions at room temperature at different pH levels. The adsorption data for Pb 2+ ions was evaluated according to both Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models for both neat nano HAp and C-HAp separately at ambient temperature, 298 K. The equilibrium adsorption data were fitted well with Langmuir adsorption isotherm for neat nano HAp with an adsorption capacity in the range of 138–83 mg g −1 . For C-HAp nanocomposite the adsorption data were well fitted with Freundlich model and the calculated adsorption capacity was in the range of 9–14 mg g −1 . Leaching of Ca 2+ ions by neat nano HAp and C-HAp were also analyzed as a function of pH. It was found that the leaching of Ca 2+ was high in neat HAp than C-HAp. The leaching of Ca 2+ by neat HAp and C-HAp during adsorption of Pb 2+ ions were also

  1. Development of superior asphalt recycling agents. Phase 1, Technical feasibility. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullin, J.A.; Davison, R.R.; Glover, C.J.; Chaffin, J.; Liu, M.; Madrid, R.

    1997-07-01

    After an introduction and a literature survey in Chap. 1, Chap. 2 describes the tasks, together with objectives and important results obtained for each task throughout the entire project. Chaps. 3 thru 7 detail work in developing a qualitative and quantitative knowledge of asphalt oxidation, composition dependence of asphalt properties, and guidelines for producing superior asphalt binders through composition control. They also detail the development of a kinetic model for asphalt oxidative aging and present an understanding of the composition dependence of asphalt oxidation as well as other performance-related properties. Chaps. 8 and 9 compare the aging performance of recycled blends produced using commercial recycling agents and industrial supercritical fractions as rejuvenating agents. Oxidative aging of the recycled blends were evaluated along with the performance of the recycled blends in terms of the strategic highway research program performance grading procedure. Chap. 10 summarizes the work completed in the areas of processing schemes development, projection updates, and scale-up and commercialization plans.

  2. Manufacturing of calcium phosphate scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of gypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Batista, H. de.; Batista Cardoso, M.; Sales Vasconcelos, A.; Vinicius Lia Fook, M.; Rodriguez Barbero, M. A.; Garcia Carrodeguas, R.

    2016-08-01

    Carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) have been employed for decades as constituents of scaffolds for bone regeneration because they chemically resemble bone mineral. In this study, the feasibility to manufacture CHAp/β-TCP scaffolds by pseudomorphic transformation of casted blocks of gypsum was investigated. The transformation was carried out by immersing the precursor gypsum block in 1 M (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}/1.33 M NH{sub 4}OH solution with liquid/solid ratio of 10 mL/g and autoclaving at 120 degree centigrade and 203 kPa (2 atm) for 3 h at least. Neither shape nor dimensions significantly changed during transformation. The composition of scaffolds treated for 3 h was 70 wt.% CHAp and 30 wt.% β-TCP, and their compressive and diametral compressive strengths were 6.5 ± 0.7 and 5.3 ±0.7 MPa, respectively. By increasing the time of treatment to 6 h, the composition of the scaffold enriched in β-TCP (60 wt.% CHAp and 40 wt.% β-TCP) but its compressive and diametral compressive strengths were not significantly affected (6.7 ± 0.9 and 5.4 ± 0.6 MPa, respectively). On the basis of the results obtained, it was concluded that this route is a good approach to the manufacturing of biphasic (CHAp/β-TCP) scaffolds from previously shaped pieces of gypsum. (Author)

  3. Culturally-Relevant Online Cancer Education Modules Empower Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners to Disseminate Cancer Information and Reduce Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Katie; Revels, Laura; Cueva, Melany; Lanier, Anne P; Dignan, Mark; Viswanath, K; Fung, Teresa T; Geller, Alan C

    2017-04-12

    To address a desire for timely, medically accurate cancer education in rural Alaska, ten culturally relevant online learning modules were developed with, and for, Alaska's Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps). The project was guided by the framework of Community-Based Participatory Action Research, honored Indigenous Ways of Knowing, and was informed by Empowerment Theory. A total of 428 end-of-module evaluation surveys were completed by 89 unique Alaska CHA/Ps between January and December 2016. CHA/Ps shared that as a result of completing the modules, they were empowered to share cancer information with their patients, families, friends, and communities, as well as engage in cancer risk reduction behaviors such as eating healthier, getting cancer screenings, exercising more, and quitting tobacco. CHA/Ps also reported the modules were informative and respectful of their diverse cultures. These results from end-of-module evaluation surveys suggest that the collaboratively developed, culturally relevant, online cancer education modules have empowered CHA/Ps to reduce cancer risk and disseminate cancer information. "brought me to tears couple of times, and I think it will help in destroying the silence that surrounds cancer".

  4. Computer-based image analysis in radiological diagnostics and image-guided therapy: 3D-Reconstruction, contrast medium dynamics, surface analysis, radiation therapy and multi-modal image fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beier, J.

    2001-01-01

    This book deals with substantial subjects of postprocessing and analysis of radiological image data, a particular emphasis was put on pulmonary themes. For a multitude of purposes the developed methods and procedures can directly be transferred to other non-pulmonary applications. The work presented here is structured in 14 chapters, each describing a selected complex of research. The chapter order reflects the sequence of the processing steps starting from artefact reduction, segmentation, visualization, analysis, therapy planning and image fusion up to multimedia archiving. In particular, this includes virtual endoscopy with three different scene viewers (Chap. 6), visualizations of the lung disease bronchiectasis (Chap. 7), surface structure analysis of pulmonary tumors (Chap. 8), quantification of contrast medium dynamics from temporal 2D and 3D image sequences (Chap. 9) as well as multimodality image fusion of arbitrary tomographical data using several visualization techniques (Chap. 12). Thus, the software systems presented cover the majority of image processing applications necessary in radiology and were entirely developed, implemented and validated in the clinical routine of a university medical school. (orig.) [de

  5. Adsorption of Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution by carbonate hydroxylapatite derived from eggshell waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Li Xiaoming; Yang Qi; Zeng Guangming; Shen Xiangxin; Zhang Ying; Liu Jingjin

    2007-01-01

    Carbonate hydroxylapatite (CHAP) synthesized by using eggshell waste as raw material has been investigated as metal adsorption for Cd(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. The effect of various parameters on adsorption process such as contact time, solution pH, amount of CHAP and initial concentration of metal ions was studied at room temperature to optimize the conditions for maximum adsorption. The results showed that the removal efficiency of Cd(II) and Cu(II) by CHAP could reach 94 and 93.17%, respectively, when the initial Cd(II) concentration 80 mg/L and Cu(II) 60 mg/L and the liquid/solid ratio was 2.5 g/L. The equilibrium sorption data for single metal systems at room temperature could be described by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The highest value of Langmuir maximum uptake, (b), was found for cadmium (111.1 mg/g) and copper (142.86 mg/g). Similar Freundlich empirical constants, K, were obtained for cadmium (2.224) and copper (7.925). Ion exchange and surface adsorption might be involved in the adsorption process of cadmium and copper. Desorption experiments showed that CaCl 2 , NaCl, acetic acid and ultrasonic were not efficient enough to desorb substantial amount of metal ions from the CHAP. The results obtained show that CHAP has a high affinity to cadmium and copper

  6. In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group Approach to the Nuclear Many-Body Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergert, Heiko; Bogner, Scott K.; Lietz, Justin G.; Morris, Titus D.; Novario, Samuel J.; Parzuchowski, Nathan M.; Yuan, Fei

    We present a pedagogical discussion of Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) methods, in particular the In-Medium SRG (IMSRG) approach for solving the nuclear many-body problem. These methods use continuous unitary transformations to evolve the nuclear Hamiltonian to a desired shape. The IMSRG, in particular, is used to decouple the ground state from all excitations and solve the many-body Schrödinger equation. We discuss the IMSRG formalism as well as its numerical implementation, and use the method to study the pairing model and infinite neutron matter. We compare our results with those of Coupled cluster theory (Chap. 8), Configuration-Interaction Monte Carlo (Chap. 9), and the Self-Consistent Green's Function approach discussed in Chap. 11 The chapter concludes with an expanded overview of current research directions, and a look ahead at upcoming developments.

  7. Concepts: Integrating population survey data from different spatial scales, sampling methods, and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorazio, Robert; Delampady, Mohan; Dey, Soumen; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M.; Karanth, K. Ullas; Nichols, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Conservationists and managers are continually under pressure from the public, the media, and political policy makers to provide “tiger numbers,” not just for protected reserves, but also for large spatial scales, including landscapes, regions, states, nations, and even globally. Estimating the abundance of tigers within relatively small areas (e.g., protected reserves) is becoming increasingly tractable (see Chaps. 9 and 10), but doing so for larger spatial scales still presents a formidable challenge. Those who seek “tiger numbers” are often not satisfied by estimates of tiger occupancy alone, regardless of the reliability of the estimates (see Chaps. 4 and 5). As a result, wherever tiger conservation efforts are underway, either substantially or nominally, scientists and managers are frequently asked to provide putative large-scale tiger numbers based either on a total count or on an extrapolation of some sort (see Chaps. 1 and 2).

  8. Los complejos Chaperonina(MSP63inducen anticuerpos de reacciones cruzadas, bactericidas y opsonofagocítica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Marzoa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Alteration of the native structure of antigens can lead to the loss of protective epitopes. Our previous results showed that separation of the meningococcal outer membrane proteins in native conditions revealed the existence of protein complexes that could be relevant for the development of new vaccine formulations. The aim of this work was to analyse the immunogenic characteristics of a highly conserved 700 kDa chaperonin complex (CxChap detected and purified by using high resolution clear native electrophoresis. Analysis of the anti-CxChap serum by Western-blotting revealed the presence of antibodies against the MSP63 but also against the macrophage infectivity potentiator-like protein (MIP, which is coopurified with the chaperonin complex. Antibodies raised by immunisation with CxChap chaperonin complex show bactericidal and opsonophagocytic activity.

  9. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Karanovic, Ljiljana [Laboratory for Crystallography, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bracko, Ines, E-mail: dragan.uskokovic@itn.sanu.ac.rs [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 {sup 0}C, from HAp to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  10. Dual chromatin recognition by the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation in Neurospora crassa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinji; Bicocca, Vincent T.; Gessaman, Jordan D.; Rountree, Michael R.; Yokoyama, Ayumi; Yu, Eun Y.; Selker, Jeanne M. L.; Selker, Eric U.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, histone deacetylation, and highly repeated sequences are prototypical heterochromatic features, but their interrelationships are not fully understood. Prior work showed that H3K9 methylation directs DNA methylation and histone deacetylation via HP1 in Neurospora crassa and that the histone deacetylase complex HCHC is required for proper DNA methylation. The complex consists of the chromodomain proteins HP1 and chromodomain protein 2 (CDP-2), the histone deacetylase HDA-1, and the AT-hook motif protein CDP-2/HDA-1–associated protein (CHAP). We show that the complex is required for proper chromosome segregation, dissect its function, and characterize interactions among its components. Our analyses revealed the existence of an HP1-based DNA methylation pathway independent of its chromodomain. The pathway partially depends on CHAP but not on the CDP-2 chromodomain. CDP-2 serves as a bridge between the recognition of H3K9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) by HP1 and the histone deacetylase activity of HDA-1. CHAP is also critical for HDA-1 localization to heterochromatin. Specifically, the CHAP zinc finger interacts directly with the HDA-1 argonaute-binding protein 2 (Arb2) domain, and the CHAP AT-hook motifs recognize heterochromatic regions by binding to AT-rich DNA. Our data shed light on the interrelationships among the prototypical heterochromatic features and support a model in which dual recognition by the HP1 chromodomain and the CHAP AT-hooks are required for proper heterochromatin formation. PMID:27681634

  11. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan; Karanovic, Ljiljana; Bracko, Ines

    2011-01-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 0 C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  12. Illustrative Case Study: Life Cycle Assessment of Four Window Alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikołaj; Bjørn, Anders; Bugge, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    This report serves as an example report on how to perform an LCA according to the guidance given in Chap. 37 and how to structure the report according to the reporting template in Chap. 38. The goals of the LCA were (i) to perform a benchmarking of a prototype wood/composite (W/C) window made out...... of glass fibre against three alternative window types currently offered in the market (made of wood (W), wood/aluminium (W/ALU), and PVC) and (ii) to identify environmental hotspots for each window system....

  13. Control System on a Wind Turbine: Evaluation of Control Strategies for a Wind Turbine with Hydraulic Drive Train by Means of Aeroelastic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Frøyd, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of wind turbines are going towards floating offshore structures. To improve the stability of these turbines, the weight of the nacelle should be as low as possible. The company ChapDrive has developed a hydraulic drive train that gives the ability to move the generator to the base of the tower and to replace the traditional gearbox. To test the system, ChapDrive has constructed a prototype turbine which is located at Valsneset.This thesis describes the combined aero-elastic and...

  14. Flow induced by a skewed vortex cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branlard, Emmanuel Simon Pierre

    2017-01-01

    The velocity field induced by a skewed vortex cylinder of longitudinal and tangential vorticity is derived in this chapter by direct integration of the Biot– Savart law. The derivation steps are provided in details. The results of Castles and Durham for the skewed semi-infinite cylinder....... The content of this chapter is based on the publication of the author entitled "Cylindrical vortex wake model: skewed cylinder, application to yawed or tilted rotors" [1]. Results from this chapter are applied: in Chap. 21 to model a wind turbine (or rotor) in yaw, in Chap. 22 to derive a new yaw...

  15. Ultrasound-assisted green economic synthesis of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles using eggshell biowaste and study of mechanical and biological properties for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Vijay H; Hany Hussein, Kamal; Kashale, Anil A; Ghule, Kalyani; Vuherer, Tomaž; Kokol, Vanja; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Ling, Yong-Chien; Vinchurkar, Aruna; Dhakal, Hom N; Ghule, Anil V

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HAp) is the most favorable candidate biomaterial for bone tissue engineering because of its bioactive and osteoconductive properties. Herein, we report for the first time ultrasound-assisted facile and economic approach for the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ) using recycled eggshell biowaste referred as EHAp. The process involves the reaction of eggshell biowaste as a source of calcium and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate as a phosphate source. Ultrasound-mediated chemical synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) is also carried out using similar approach wherein commercially available calcium hydroxide and ammonium dihydrogen orthophosphate were used as calcium and phosphate precursors, respectively and referred as CHAp for better comparison. The prepared materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to determine crystal structure, particle morphology, and the presence of chemical functional groups. The nanocrystalline EHAp and CHAp were observed to have spherical morphology with uniform size distribution. Furthermore, mechanical properties such as Vickers hardness, fracture toughness, and compression tests have been studied of the EHAp and CHAp samples showing promising results. Mechanical properties show the influence of calcination at 600°C EHAp and CHAp material. After calcination, in the case of EHAp material an average hardness, mechanical strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness were found 552 MPa, 46.6 MPa, 2824 MPa, and 3.85 MPa m 1/2 , respectively, while in the case of CHAp 618 MPa, 47.5 MPa, 2071 MPa, and 3.13 MPa m 1/2 . In vitro cell studies revealed that the EHAp and CHAp nanoparticles significantly increased the attachment and proliferation of the hFOB cells. Here, we showed that EHAp and CHAp provide promising biocompatible materials that do not affect the cell

  16. Real-Time Detection of Staphylococcus Aureus Using Whispering Gallery Mode Optical Microdisks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ghali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM microresonators have recently been studied as a means to achieve real-time label-free detection of biological targets such as virus particles, specific DNA sequences, or proteins. Due to their high quality (Q factors, WGM resonators can be highly sensitive. A biosensor also needs to be selective, requiring proper functionalization of its surface with the appropriate ligand that will attach the biomolecule of interest. In this paper, WGM microdisks are used as biosensors for detection of Staphylococcus aureus. The microdisks are functionalized with LysK, a phage protein specific for staphylococci at the genus level. A binding event on the surface shifts the resonance peak of the microdisk resonator towards longer wavelengths. This reactive shift can be used to estimate the surface density of bacteria that bind to the surface of the resonator. The limit of detection of a microdisk with a Q-factor around 104 is on the order of 5 pg/mL, corresponding to 20 cells. No binding of Escherichia coli to the resonators is seen, supporting the specificity of the functionalization scheme.

  17. Recombinant Endolysins as Potential Therapeutics against Antibiotic-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: Current Status of Research and Novel Delivery Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Kashani, Hamed; Schmelcher, Mathias; Sabzalipoor, Hamed; Seyed Hosseini, Elahe; Moniri, Rezvan

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common pathogens of humans and animals, where it frequently colonizes skin and mucosal membranes. It is of major clinical importance as a nosocomial pathogen and causative agent of a wide array of diseases. Multidrug-resistant strains have become increasingly prevalent and represent a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. For this reason, novel strategies to combat multidrug-resistant pathogens are urgently needed. Bacteriophage-derived enzymes, so-called endolysins, and other peptidoglycan hydrolases with the ability to disrupt cell walls represent possible alternatives to conventional antibiotics. These lytic enzymes confer a high degree of host specificity and could potentially replace or be utilized in combination with antibiotics, with the aim to specifically treat infections caused by Gram-positive drug-resistant bacterial pathogens such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus . LysK is one of the best-characterized endolysins with activity against multiple staphylococcal species. Various approaches to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy and applicability of endolysins have been demonstrated. These approaches include the construction of recombinant endolysin derivatives and the development of novel delivery strategies for various applications, such as the production of endolysins in lactic acid bacteria and their conjugation to nanoparticles. These novel strategies are a major focus of this review. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Dual NEP/ECE inhibition improves endothelial function in mesenteric resistance arteries of 32-week-old SHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemkens, Pieter; Spijkers, Leon Ja; Meens, Merlijn J

    2017-01-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor, pro-mitogenic and pro-inflammatory peptide, may promote development of endothelial dysfunction and arterial remodeling. ET-1 can be formed through cleavage of big-ET-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) or neutral endopeptidase (NEP). We investiga...

  19. UniProt search blastx result: AK289220 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK289220 J100065H20 P05994|PAPA4_CARPA Papaya proteinase 4 precursor (EC 3.4.22.25) (Papay...a proteinase IV) (PPIV) (Papaya peptidase B) (Glycyl endopeptidase) - Carica papaya (Papaya) 1.00E-57 ...

  20. Knockdown of Cripto-1 inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ding Wu

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... modes of therapy for PCa, because most cases of early PCa ... efforts, the cancer will inevitably reoccur aggressively, with ... therapeutic intervention of PCa in order to improve patient ... family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases, whose main ..... underlying strategy for anti-carcinoma treatment (Nam and.

  1. Journal of Biosciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 2 ... Review Volume 34 Issue 2 June 2009 pp 313-320 ... Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of zinc (Zn)-dependent endopeptidases that are collectively capable of cleaving virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates and play an important role in ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK110731 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK110731 002-170-E10 (Q6PZ05) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (Auto...phagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2A) (Autophagin-2A) (bAut2A) APG4A_BOVIN 5e-35 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q6PZ05) Cysteine protease APG4A (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog A) (Auto...phagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2A) (Autophagin-2A) (bAut2A) APG4A_BOVIN 6e-46 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK242832 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK242832 J090067L13 (Q6PZ02) Cysteine protease APG4B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Autophagy 4 homolog B) (Auto...phagy-related cysteine endopeptidase 2B) (Autophagin-2B) (cAut2B) APG4B_CHICK 2e-44 ...

  5. Enzymatically Degradable Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Bridged Silsesquioxane Nanoparticles for In-Vitro Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Fatieiev, Yevhen

    2015-06-30

    Non-aggregated dense bridged silsesquioxane (BS) nanoparticles based on nature-inspired oxamide bridges are shown to degrade in simulated biological media upon cleavage with endopeptidase. Fluorescent BS nanoprobes with incorporated fluorescein dyes were applied for in-vitro imaging in cancer cells.

  6. LOCALIZATION OF PEPTIDASES IN LACTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAN, PST; CHAPOTCHARTIER, MP; POS, KM; ROUSSEAU, M; BOQUIEN, CY; GRIPON, JC; KONINGS, WN

    The localization of two aminopeptidases, an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, an endopeptidase, and a tripeptidase in Lactococcus lactis was studied. Polyclonal antibodies raised against each purified peptidase are specific and do not cross-react with other peptidases. Experiments were performed

  7. Circulating fibroblast activation protein activity and antigen levels correlate strongly when measured in liver disease and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.U. de Willige; Keane, F.M. (Fiona M.); Bowen, D.G. (David G.); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); Zhang, H.E. (H. Emma); Maneck, B. (Bharvi); G. McCaughan (Geoff); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); Gorrell, M.D. (Mark D.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground and aim: Circulating fibroblast activation protein (cFAP) is a constitutively active enzyme expressed by activated fibroblasts that has both dipeptidyl peptidase and endopeptidase activities. We aimed to assess the correlation between cFAP activity and antigen levels and to

  8. Development of an integrated system for activity-based profiling of matrix metallo-proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, Jan Robert

    2006-01-01

    Matrix metallo-proteases constitute a family of extracellular zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and other bioactive non-ECM molecules. A plethora of studies have implicated important roles for MMPs in many diseases (including

  9. Jihadist Cells and IED Capabilities in Europe: Assessing the Present and Future Threat to the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Miller, “A Prelimi- nary Typology of Organizational Learning: Synthesizing the Lit- erature,” Journal of Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1996, pp. 485- 505 ...Alison Pargeter, The New Frontiers of Jihad: Radical Islam in Europe, Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylva- nia Press, 2008, chap. 10. 50. It

  10. Prerenal azotemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, et al, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 97. Review Date 10/22/2016 Updated by: Walead Latif, MD, Nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical ...

  11. Renal vein thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Taal MW, Yu ASL, et al, eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 35. Review Date 4/14/2017 Updated by: Walead Latif, MD, Nephrologist and Clinical Associate Professor, Rutgers Medical ...

  12. Applied Physics Division 1998 Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L; Ghezzi, L.; Kent, C.; Bottomei, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the 1998 research activities carried out by the Applied Physics Division of the Innovation Department of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment). The fields addressed and discussed include: optical and electro-optical technologies (chaps. 1 and 2); accelerator technologies (chap. 3); diagnostic systems for science and engineering (chaps. 4 and 5); theory, modelling and computational methods (chaps. 6 and 7). The aim of the Applied Physics Division is to develop technologies and systems that can be directly applied by internal (ENEA) and external users in research (high-resolution spectroscopy, laser-generated soft-x-ray sources), production processes (laser material photoproduction, structural analysis), social, cultural and environmental sciences (laser remote sensing, modelling of ecosystems and population dynamics) and medicine (particle accelerator for radiotherapy). Most of the work in 1998 was performed by the division's laboratories at the Frascati, Casaccia and Bologna Research Centres of ENEA; some was done elsewhere in collaboration with other ENEA units, external laboratories and industries. A good share of the activities was carried out for international projects; in particular, the IV European Union Framework Program

  13. Dealing with quantum weirdness: Holism and related issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elby, A.R.

    1995-12-01

    Various issues are discussed in interpretation of quantum mechanics. All these explorations point toward the same conclusion, that some systems are holistically connected, i.e., some composite systems have properties that cannot, even in principle, be reduced to the properties of its subsystems. This is argued to be the central metaphysical lesson of quantum theory; this will remain pertinent even if quantum mechanics gets replaced by a superior theory. Chap. 2 discusses nonlocality and rules out hidden-variable theories that approximately reproduce the perfect correlations of quantum mechanics, as well as theories that obey locality conditions weaker than those needed to derive Bell's inequality. Chap. 3 shows that SQUID experiments can rule out non-invasive measurability if not macrorealism. Chap. 4 looks at interpretational issues surrounding decoherence, the dissipative interaction between a system and its environment. Decoherence klcan help ''modal'' interpretations pick out the desired ''preferred'' basis. Chap. 5 explores what varieties of causation can and cannot ''explain'' EPR correlations. Instead of relying on ''watered down'' causal explanations, we should instead develop new, holistic explanatory frameworks

  14. Asthma - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 53. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  15. Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 55. Lugogo N, Que LG, Gilstrap DL, Kraft M. Asthma: clinical diagnosis and management. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et ...

  16. Synchronizing leadership style with integral transformational yoga principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 16, Sharda Nandram presents with the principles of Transformational Yoga, a leadership style which she applies to a case study involving a multinational company, Wipro. The idea behind this model is that there are behaviors needed at the physical, vital, mental, and psychic levels in order

  17. Innovation of management in a crisis : The spiritual power of organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blot Chauvigny, de P.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 5, Paul de Blot uses the term Business Spirituality and describes it as the operationalization of the corporate soul, proceeding on three interrelated levels. The main purpose of a company is both the overall quality and the quality of the product or the service. This is a professional

  18. Shipboard Acoustic Current Profiling during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    average profile based on the bottori depth estimated from the ship’s posit ion. in the CODEU region. an efficient computer routine was developed for... forex ~and and( port ward comnport ent s of V. at conistant z ., the depth Iill ships coordi- nlatv (’S(Chap 2). The data cort- from I -mintIe

  19. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  20. Taking the Lead: Russia, the United States, and Nuclear Nonproliferation after Bush

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    2002), especially chap. 5; Henry D. Sokolski, ed., Pakistan’s Nuclear Future: Worries beyond War ( Carl - isle: SSI, January 2008); Henry Sokolski and...Two sides of this issue are argued in Scott D. Sagan and Kenneth N. Waltz, The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: A Debate (New York: W. W. Norton, 995

  1. Training a young Chimpanzee to attend to acoustic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierens de Haan, J.A.

    1949-01-01

    For certain reasons I wished to train a young chimpanzee to choose from two similar boxes the one characterised by the ticking of a metronome inside it. My subject was a young male chimpanzee (Pan leucoprymnus Lesson), approximately three years old, Tommy by name. He was a good-natured chap, quite

  2. 78 FR 79081 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Emergency Preparedness Requirements for Medicare and Medicaid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Conditions for Coverage CHAP Community Health Accreditation Program CMHC Community Mental Health Center COI... Pathology Services (Sec. 485.727) N. Emergency Preparedness Regulations for Community Mental Health Centers... Preparedness for Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs)--Training and Testing (Sec. 485.920(d)) R. Conditions...

  3. Located actions in process algebra with timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We propose a process algebra obtained by adapting the process algebra with continuous relative timing from Baeten and Middelburg [Process Algebra with Timing, Springer, 2002, Chap. 4] to spatially located actions. This process algebra makes it possible to deal with the behaviour of systems with a

  4. A Priori Bounds for Models with Singularities

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2016-09-14

    Here, we discuss two problems—an MFG with a logarithmic nonlinearity and an MFG with congestion effects. Stationary versions of these two problems were considered in Chap. 7 However, the techniques for time-dependent problems are substantially different from the ones used in the stationary case.

  5. A Summary of Selected Data: DSDP Legs 1-19,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    manganese and metallic trace elements. For proper identification they require b) Transitional biogenic siliceous more elaborate geochemical work than is...Concretions, barite, iron-manganese, to Sediment Consolidation, Fred J. phosphite , pyrite, etc.; Paulus, Vol. XI, pt. 3, Chap. 24, p. Coal, asphalt

  6. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M. Nutritional management and enteral intubation. In: Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills: Basic to Advanced Skills . 9th ed. New York, NY: Pearson; 2016:chap 16. Ziegler TR. Malnutrition, nutritional assessment, ...

  7. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  8. Composite Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we extend the previous results of Chap. 2 to the more general case of composite finite sums. We describe what composite finite sums are and how their analysis can be reduced to the analysis of simple finite sums using the chain rule. We apply these techniques, next, on numerical integration and on some identities of Ramanujan.

  9. A Priori Bounds for Models with Singularities

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard A.; Voskanyan, Vardan K.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we discuss two problems—an MFG with a logarithmic nonlinearity and an MFG with congestion effects. Stationary versions of these two problems were considered in Chap. 7 However, the techniques for time-dependent problems are substantially different from the ones used in the stationary case.

  10. Boeke/Books

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management ofCataract in Primary Health Care Services. Pp. vi +43. ... Student readers will especially benefit from some well-written chap- ters, such as those on ... who are engaged in outdoor pursuits in remote places voluntarily, or who are ...

  11. CA-125 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Morgan M, Boyd J, Drapking R, Seiden MV. Cancers arising in the ovary. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan MB, Tepper JE, eds. Abeloff's Clinical Oncology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 89. ... Florida Cancer Specialists & Research Institute, Wellington, FL. Review provided by ...

  12. Bicuspid aortic valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aortic disease. In: Otto CM, Bonow RO, eds. Valvular Heart Disease: A Companion to Braunwald’s Heart Disease . 4th ed. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 13. Carabello BA. Valvular heart disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman’s Cecil ...

  13. Hemophilia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 476. Srivastava A, Brewer AK, Mauser-Bunschoten EP, et al. Treatment Guidelines Working Group on Behalf of The World Federation Of Hemophilia. Haemophilia. 2013;19:e1-47. PMID: 22776238 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ ...

  14. Preventing Chain Saw Injuries After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If you must use a chain saw, follow the instructions to be safe. Wear a hard hat, safety glasses, ear plugs, thick work gloves, chaps, and boots.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 9/24/2008.

  15. Purification of peroxisomal acyl-CoA: dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase from human placenta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ofman, R.; Wanders, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The peroxisomal enzyme acyl-CoA:dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase (DHAPAT) was extracted from human placental membranes using CHAPS as a detergent in the presence of 1 M KCl. Prior to assay dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine was added to the sample as eluted from the various columns in order to

  16. BOOK REVIEWS BOEKBESPREKINGS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    plexes are common in cerebro-allergic individuals; or with the statement hemiplegia, migratory paralysis, fuzzy speech, stut- tering paraplegia, fainting, loss of consciousness. headache, various speech disorders including stuttering. There is a chap- ter devoted to allergic epilepsy. I have never encountered such a case and ...

  17. Grounding Water: Building Conceptual Understanding through Multimodal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kerry L.; Thomas-Hilburn, Holly; Haverland, Arin

    2011-01-01

    The world's population is growing by about 80 million people a year, implying an estimated increased freshwater demand of about 64 billion cubic meters annually (World Water Assessment Programme, 2009, Water in a Changing World: United Nations World Water Development Report 3, Chap. 1, p. 3-21). Groundwater depletion, which reduces the amount of…

  18. SwissProt search result: AK059413 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059413 001-027-D02 (P46219) Thermosome alpha subunit (Thermosome subunit 1) (Chap...eronin alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 55 alpha) (TF55-alpha) (Ring complex alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 56) THSA_SULSH 5e-37 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK107266 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK107266 002-125-H06 (P46219) Thermosome alpha subunit (Thermosome subunit 1) (Chap...eronin alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 55 alpha) (TF55-alpha) (Ring complex alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 56) THSA_SULSH 9e-98 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK105701 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105701 001-201-D07 (P46219) Thermosome alpha subunit (Thermosome subunit 1) (Chap...eronin alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 55 alpha) (TF55-alpha) (Ring complex alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 56) THSA_SULSH 2e-92 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK059663 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059663 001-031-E04 (P46219) Thermosome alpha subunit (Thermosome subunit 1) (Chap...eronin alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 55 alpha) (TF55-alpha) (Ring complex alpha subunit) (Thermophilic factor 56) THSA_SULSH 2e-51 ...

  2. Interaction between Seabed Soil and Offshore Wind Turbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nilas Mandrup

    velocity given by Darcy’s law (Sumer and Fredsøe, 2002, chap. 10). The constitutive equation for the soil considered in the model is the familiar stress-strain relationship for linear poro-elastic soils. The so-called no-slip boundary condition is adopted on the surface of the rocking pile. The numerical...

  3. Eating right during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 6. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  4. Managing your weight gain during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 10. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  5. When you need to gain more weight during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 10. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... update 03/09/2017. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  6. Analysis and evaluation of argumentative discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; van Eemeren, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Renkema’s Introduction to Discourse Studies (2004: Chap. 12) provides a useful introduction to the study of argumentation, this brief account does not provide a full characterization of the field. Among the dominant approaches to argumentative discourse a general distinction can be made

  7. 75 FR 73048 - Notice of Meeting of Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel on Phthalates and Phthalate Substitutes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Consider possible similar health effects of phthalate alternatives used in children's toys and child care... CPSIA requires the Commission to convene a CHAP ``to study the effects on children's health of all... children and: Examine all of the potential health effects (including endocrine disrupting effects) of the...

  8. Testicular torsion repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Procedure is Performed Testicular torsion is an emergency. In most cases, surgery is needed right away to relieve pain ... RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap ...

  9. Notes on Aspects of the Conceptual Architecture of the ‘New Spirit’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This chapter focuses on certain aspects of the conceptual architecture of the New Spirit of Capitalism, namely the use made by Boltanski and Chiapello of the work of Max Weber and Albert Hirschman. Concentrating first upon the distinctive ‘Weberian’ sociological synthesis they elaborate, the chap...

  10. Gum biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hupp JR, Ellis E, Tucker MR, eds. Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby; 2014: ... Wein RO, Weber RS. Malignant neoplasms of the oral cavity. In: Flint PW, ... & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  11. The spiritual features of servant-leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandram, S.S.; Vos, J.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 19, Sharda Nandram and Jan Vos write about the spiritual foundations of Servant-Leadership. According to them, Servant-Leadership can be approached as a means to create a meaningful workplace for all of the stakeholders involved in an organization. It involves authenticity, listening to,

  12. European SEPG 󈨥 Event Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    three children and a teleworking terminal. These, I together with a love for DIY, leave little time for anything else. Profile - Hans Sassenburg Hans...Service Line Leader Nymoellevej 91, DK-2800 Lyngby, Denmark Tel: +45 45 23 33 96 Fax: +45 45 87 44 38 Internet: chap@dk.ibm.com Internet for Year 2000

  13. Cervix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016:chap 44. Ellenson LH, Pirog EC. The female genital tract. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC, eds. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease . 9th ed. Philadelphia, ... of the female pelvis. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Partin AW, ...

  14. UPJ obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... junction obstruction; Obstruction of the ureteropelvic junction Images Kidney anatomy References Elder JS. Obstruction of the urinary tract. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. ... The Kidney . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 38. ...

  15. Applied Physics Division 1998 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecchini, M.; Crescentini, L; Ghezzi, L.; Kent, C.; Bottomei, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy). Applied physics Division

    1999-07-01

    This report outlines the 1998 research activities carried out by the Applied Physics Division of the Innovation Department of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment). The fields addressed and discussed include: optical and electro-optical technologies (chaps. 1 and 2); accelerator technologies (chap. 3); diagnostic systems for science and engineering (chaps. 4 and 5); theory, modelling and computational methods (chaps. 6 and 7). The aim of the Applied Physics Division is to develop technologies and systems that can be directly applied by internal (ENEA) and external users in research (high-resolution spectroscopy, laser-generated soft-x-ray sources), production processes (laser material photoproduction, structural analysis), social, cultural and environmental sciences (laser remote sensing, modelling of ecosystems and population dynamics) and medicine (particle accelerator for radiotherapy). Most of the work in 1998 was performed by the division's laboratories at the Frascati, Casaccia and Bologna Research Centres of ENEA; some was done elsewhere in collaboration with other ENEA units, external laboratories and industries. A good share of the activities was carried out for international projects; in particular, the IV European Union Framework Program.

  16. Parainfluenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SL, Steinbach WJ, Hotez PJ, eds. Feigin and Cherry's Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 178. Review Date 8/21/2016 Updated by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, MHS, Paul F. Harron, Jr. Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, ...

  17. Cytology exam of urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 28. Smith A, Balar AV, Milowsky MI, Chen RC. Bladder cancer. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JE, Doroshow JH, Kastan ...

  18. Method II : The energy-momentum map

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, H.; Hoveijn, I.; Lunter, G.; Vegter, G.

    2003-01-01

    In this chapter we apply the energy–momentum map reduction method to the same class of systems as in Chap. 2, namely two degree-of-freedom systems with optional symmetry, near equilibrium and close to resonance. We calculate the tangent space and nondegeneracy conditions for the 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4

  19. Allosteric transitions of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in lipids, detergent and amphipols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Gohon, Yann; Corringer, Pierre Jean

    2002-01-01

    The binding of a fluorescent agonist to the acetycholine receptor from Torpedo electric organ has been studied by time-resolved spectroscopy in three different environments: in native membrane fragments, in the detergent CHAPS, and after complexation by amphipathic polymers ('amphipols'). Binding...

  20. Report Template

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2018-01-01

    To ensure consistent reporting of life cycle assessment (LCA), we provide a report template. The report includes elements of an LCA study as recommended but the ILCD Handbook. Illustrative case study reported according to this template is presented in Chap. 39 ....

  1. Integral transformational coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, W.A.J.; Nandram, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    In Chap. 12, Keizer and Nandram present the concept of Integral Transformational Coaching based on the concept of Flow and its effects on work performance. Integral Transformational Coaching is a method that prevents and cures unhealthy stress and burnout. They draw on some tried and tested

  2. Selectively bred crossed high-alcohol-preferring mice drink to intoxication and develop functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization during free-choice ethanol access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Crossed high-alcohol-preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines and demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. In this report, we investigated the relationship between free-choice drinking, intoxication, tolerance, and sensitization in cHAP mice. We hypothesized that initially mice would become ataxic after drinking alcohol, but that increased drinking over days would be accompanied by increasing tolerance to the ataxic effects of ethanol (EtOH). Male and female cHAP mice had free-choice access to 10% EtOH and water (E), while Water mice (W) had access to water alone. In experiment 1, the first drinking experience was monitored during the dark portion of the cycle. Once E mice reached an average intake rate of ≥1.5 g/kg/h, they, along with W mice, were tested for footslips on a balance beam, and BECs were assessed. In experiments 2, 3, and 4, after varying durations of free-choice 10% EtOH access (0, 3, 14, or 21 days), mice were challenged with 20% EtOH and tested for number of footslips on a balance beam or locomotor stimulant response. Blood was sampled for BEC determination. We found that cHAP mice rapidly acquire alcohol intakes that lead to ataxia. Over time, cHAP mice developed behavioral tolerance to the ataxic effects of alcohol, paralleled by escalating alcohol consumption. However, locomotor sensitization did not develop following 14 days of free-choice EtOH access. Overall, we observed increases in free-choice drinking with extended alcohol access paralleled by increases in functional tolerance, but not locomotor sensitization. These data support our hypothesis that escalating free-choice drinking over days in cHAP mice is driven by tolerance to alcohol's behavioral effects. These data are the first to demonstrate that escalating free-choice consumption is accompanied by increasing alcohol tolerance. In

  3. Chemical synthesis of bone-like carbonate hydroxyapatite from hen eggshells and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acevedo-Dávila, J. L.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate hydroxyapatite (CHAp was synthesized from domestic hen eggshells by using three alternative wet chemical methods at room temperature. In the first method, the powdered eggshells were reacted directly with H3PO4. In the other two methods, calcium acetate was obtained in a first step by dissolving the eggshells in acetic acid. Then, calcium acetate was reacted with Na3PO4•12H2O and (NH42HPO4 in the second and third methods, respectively. The synthesized CHAp was characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. Fine and poorly crystallized CHAp was obtained under all experimental conditions employed. Among all synthesized materials, the one produced by the first method showed the closest resemblance to bovine bone, which was related to similar carbonate contents in both materials. In general, acicular CHAp crystals with a size ranging from 10 to 100 nm were obtained, which had an aspect ratio of ∼1/4. The morphology of the synthesized CHAp crystals was consistent with their estimated carbonate content.

    Se sintetizó carbonato-hidroxiapatita (CHAp a partir de cascarón de huevo de gallina, usando tres métodos químicos alternativos vía húmeda a temperatura ambiente. En el primer método, el cascarón pulverizado fue hecho reaccionar directamente con H3PO4. En los otros dos métodos, el primer paso fue la obtención de acetato de calcio mediante la disolución del cascarón en ácido acético. Luego, el acetato de calcio fue hecho reaccionar con Na3PO4•12H2O y (NH42HPO4 en el segundo y tercer método, respectivamente. El CHAp sintetizado fue caracterizado por difracción de rayos X (DRX, espectroscopia infrarroja por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB y microscopía electrónica de transmisión (MET. Bajo todas las condiciones experimentales empleadas se obtuvo CHAp

  4. Tobacco use and preferences for wellness programs among health aides and other employees of an Alaska Native Health Corporation in Western Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi A. Patten

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed health behaviors and preferences for wellness programs among employees of a worksite serving Alaska Native-people. Village-based Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps were compared with all other employees on health indicators and program preferences. Using a cross-sectional design, all 1290 employees at the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC in Western Alaska were invited in 2015 to participate in a 30-item online survey. Items assessed health behaviors, perceived stress, resiliency, and preferences for wellness topics and program delivery formats. Respondents (n = 429 were 77% female and 57% Alaska Natives. CHA/Ps (n = 46 were more likely than all other employees (n = 383 to currently use tobacco (59% vs. 36%; p = 0.003. After adjusting for covariates, greater stress levels were associated (p = 0.013 with increased likelihood of tobacco use. Employees reported lower than recommended levels of physical activity; 74% had a Body Mass Index (BMI indicating overweight or obese. Top preferences for wellness topics were for eating healthy (55%, physical activity (50%, weight loss (49%, reducing stress (49%, and better sleep (41%. CHA/Ps reported greater interest in tobacco cessation than did other employees (37% vs. 21%; p = 0.016. Preferred program delivery format among employees was in-person (51%. The findings are important because tailored wellness programs have not been previously evaluated among employees of worksites serving Alaska Native people. Promoting healthy lifestyles among CHAP/s and other YKHC employees could ultimately have downstream effects on the health of Alaska Native patients and communities.

  5. Tobacco use and preferences for wellness programs among health aides and other employees of an Alaska Native Health Corporation in Western Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A; Bronars, Carrie A; Scott, Matthew; Boyer, Rahnia; Lando, Harry; Clark, Matthew M; Resnicow, Kenneth; Decker, Paul A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Roland, Agnes; Hanza, Marcelo

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed health behaviors and preferences for wellness programs among employees of a worksite serving Alaska Native-people. Village-based Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) were compared with all other employees on health indicators and program preferences. Using a cross-sectional design, all 1290 employees at the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) in Western Alaska were invited in 2015 to participate in a 30-item online survey. Items assessed health behaviors, perceived stress, resiliency, and preferences for wellness topics and program delivery formats. Respondents (n = 429) were 77% female and 57% Alaska Natives. CHA/Ps (n = 46) were more likely than all other employees (n = 383) to currently use tobacco (59% vs. 36%; p = 0.003). After adjusting for covariates, greater stress levels were associated (p = 0.013) with increased likelihood of tobacco use. Employees reported lower than recommended levels of physical activity; 74% had a Body Mass Index (BMI) indicating overweight or obese. Top preferences for wellness topics were for eating healthy (55%), physical activity (50%), weight loss (49%), reducing stress (49%), and better sleep (41%). CHA/Ps reported greater interest in tobacco cessation than did other employees (37% vs. 21%; p = 0.016). Preferred program delivery format among employees was in-person (51%). The findings are important because tailored wellness programs have not been previously evaluated among employees of worksites serving Alaska Native people. Promoting healthy lifestyles among CHAP/s and other YKHC employees could ultimately have downstream effects on the health of Alaska Native patients and communities.

  6. Lytr, a phage-derived amidase is most effective in induced lysis of Lactococcus lactis compared with other lactococcal amidases and glucosaminidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Anton; van Schalkwijk, Saskia; Buist, Girbe; Twigt, Marja; Szeliga, Monika; Meijer, Wilco; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Kok, Jan; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    In the genome of Lactococcus lactis IL1403 five genes encoding peptidoglycan hydrolases are present: four glucosaminidases (acmA, acmB, acmC and acmD) and an endopeptidase (yjgB). Genes for six prophage lysins have also been identified. The genes acmB, acmC, acmD, yjgB and the lysin lytR of prophage

  7. Altered neuronal architecture and plasticity in the visual cortex of adult MMP-3 deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Jeroen; Nys, Julie; Moons, Lieve; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Arckens, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are Zn2+ dependent endopeptidases considered to be essential for normal brain development and neuroplasticity by modulating extracellular matrix proteins, receptors, adhesion molecules, growth factors and cytoskeletal proteins. Specifically MMP-3 has recently been implicated in synaptic plasticity, hippocampus-dependent learning and neuronal development and migration in the cerebellum. However, the function(s) of this enzyme in the neocortex is understudied. T...

  8. Comprehensive profiling and localisation of the matrix metalloproteinases in urothelial carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wallard, M J; Pennington, C J; Veerakumarasivam, A; Burtt, G; Mills, I G; Warren, A; Leung, H Y; Murphy, G; Edwards, D R; Neal, D E; Kelly, J D

    2006-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are endopeptidases which break down the extracellular matrix and regulate cytokine and growth factor activity. Several MMPs have been implicated in the promotion of invasion and metastasis in a broad range of tumours including urothelial carcinoma. In this study, RNA from 132 normal bladder and urothelial carcinoma specimens was profiled for each of the 24 human MMPs, the four endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) and several key growth factors and ...

  9. Multifaceted role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Divya; Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Chaudhuri, Tapas K.; Upadhyay, Ghanshyam

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a large family of calcium-dependent zinc-containing endopeptidases, are involved in the tissue remodeling and degradation of the extracellular matrix. MMPs are widely distributed in the brain and regulate various processes including microglial activation, inflammation, dopaminergic apoptosis, blood-brain barrier disruption, and modulation of ?-synuclein pathology. High expression of MMPs is well documented in various neurological disorders including Parkinson...

  10. Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajhya, Rajeev B; Patel, Rutvik S; Beeton, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent more than 20 zinc-containing endopeptidases that cleave internal peptide bonds, leading to protein degradation. They play a critical role in many physiological cell functions, including tissue remodeling, embryogenesis, and angiogenesis. They are also involved in the pathogenesis of a vast array of diseases, including but not limited to systemic inflammation, various cancers, and cardiovascular, neurological, and autoimmune diseases. Here, we describe gel zymography to detect MMPs in cell and tissue samples and in cell culture supernatants.

  11. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Horká, Helena; Salát, Jiří; Andersen, J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 2 (2010), s. 456-470 ISSN 0950-382X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960702; GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : INVARIANT CHAIN FRAGMENT * EGG-WHITE CYSTATIN * CATHEPSIN-L * CYSTEINE PROTEINASES * SIALOSTATIN-L * ENDOPEPTIDASE Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 4.819, year: 2010

  12. Murein Hydrolase Activity in the Surface Layer of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356▿

    OpenAIRE

    Prado Acosta, Mariano; Palomino, María Mercedes; Allievi, Mariana C.; Rivas, Carmen Sanchez; Ruzal, Sandra M.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new enzymatic functionality for the surface layer (S-layer) of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, namely, an endopeptidase activity against the cell wall of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport, assayed via zymograms and identified by Western blotting. Based on amino acid sequence comparisons, the hydrolase activity was predicted to be located at the C terminus. Subsequent cloning and expression of the C-terminal domain in Bacillus subtilis resulted in the functional verificati...

  13. Beltless Translocation Domain of Botulinum Neurotoxin A Embodies a Minimum Ion-conductive Channel*

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Audrey; Sambashivan, Shilpa; Brunger, Axel T.; Montal, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the paralytic disease botulism, is an endopeptidase composed of a catalytic domain (or light chain (LC)) and a heavy chain (HC) encompassing the translocation domain (TD) and receptor-binding domain. Upon receptor-mediated endocytosis, the LC and TD are proposed to undergo conformational changes in the acidic endocytic environment resulting in the formation of an LC protein-conducting TD channel. The mechanism of channel formation and the conformat...

  14. The role of lysosomal proteolytic enzymes in invasion and dissemination of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassalyk, L.S.; Tsanev, P.E.; Parshikova, S.M.; Demidov, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Preoperative chemo- and radiation therapy was followed by a decrease in lysosomal cathepsins activity in metastatic lymph nodes which, however, did not reach the level established for intact lymph nodes. The pathogenetic role of proteolytic endopeptidases in invasion and sissemination of malignant melanoma is discussed as well as the value of their level measurement for assessing metastatic potential of tumor and prognosis of disease of disease on the basis of tumor site, degree of invasion regional lymph node status

  15. Inulin hydrolysis by inulinase immobilized covalently on magnetic nanoparticles prepared with wheat gluten hydrolysates

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Torabizadeh; Asieh Mahmoudi

    2018-01-01

    Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it ...

  16. Chronic free-choice drinking in crossed high alcohol preferring mice leads to sustained blood ethanol levels and metabolic tolerance without evidence of liver damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David; Buckingham, Amy; Ross, Ruth Ann; Halcomb, Meredith; Grahame, Nicholas

    2013-02-01

    Crossed high alcohol preferring (cHAP) mice were selectively bred from a cross of the HAP1 × HAP2 replicate lines, and we demonstrate blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) during free-choice drinking that are reminiscent of those observed in alcohol-dependent humans. Therefore, this line may provide an unprecedented opportunity to learn about the consequences of excessive voluntary ethanol (EtOH) consumption, including metabolic tolerance and liver pathology. Cytochrome p450 2E1 (CYP2E1) induction plays a prominent role in driving both metabolic tolerance and EtOH-induced liver injury. In this report, we sought to characterize cHAP drinking by assessing whether pharmacologically relevant BEC levels are sustained throughout the active portion of the light-dark cycle. Given that cHAP intakes and BECs are similar to those observed in mice given an EtOH liquid diet, we assessed whether free-choice exposure results in metabolic tolerance, hepatic enzyme induction, and hepatic steatosis. In experiment 1, blood samples were taken across the dark portion of a 12:12 light-dark cycle to examine the pattern of EtOH accumulation in these mice. In experiments 1 and 2, mice were injected with EtOH following 3 to 4 weeks of access to water or 10% EtOH and water, and blood samples were taken to assess metabolic tolerance. In experiment 3, 24 mice had 4 weeks of access to 10% EtOH and water or water alone, followed by necropsy and hepatological assessment. In experiment 1, cHAP mice mean BEC values exceeded 80 mg/dl at all sampling points and approached 200 mg/dl during the middle of the dark cycle. In experiments 1 and 2, EtOH-exposed mice metabolized EtOH faster than EtOH-naïve mice, demonstrating metabolic tolerance (p alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results demonstrate that excessive intake by cHAP mice results in sustained BECs throughout the active period, leading to the development of metabolic tolerance and evidence of CYP2E1 induction

  17. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  18. Portsmouth annual environmental report for 2003, Piketon, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none

    2004-11-30

    The Portsmouth & Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) is located on a 5.8-square-mile site in a rural area of Pike County, Ohio. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities at PORTS include environmental restoration, waste 'management, and long-term'stewardship of nonleased facilities: Production facilities for the separation of uranium isotopes are leased to the United States Enrichment Corporation (USEC), but most activities associated with the uranium enrichment process ceased in 2001. USEC activities are not covered by this document, with the exception of some environmental compliance information provided in Chap. 2 and radiological and non-radiological environmental monitoring program information discussed in Chaps. 4 and 5.

  19. Some Environmental and Economic Aspects of Energy Saving Measures in Houses. An estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the Norwegian dwelling stock, and a life cycle assessment method for energy saving measures in houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myhre, L

    1995-12-01

    Motivated by the need to reduce the total energy consumption and the environmental load from society, this doctoral thesis discusses energy conservation measures on existing houses. Alternative additional thermal insulation measures are assessed using an interdisciplinary life cycle approach. The first task is to develop an interdisciplinary assessment method for building improvement measures, taking account of energy consumption, resource consumption, emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases, and economic costs during the entire life cycle of the building. The second task is to develop an estimation model for the total energy consumption and emissions to air of environmentally harmful gases from the dwelling stock of Norway. Finally, the third task is to assess the total energy saving potential and the total environmental benefits of energy saving measures in houses on a national level, including only life cycle analyses of additional thermal insulation measures on single houses. Chap 2 describes the dwelling stock in Norway. Chaps 3 and 4 present an estimation model for total energy consumption and emissions to air from the dwelling stock, and calculations using the model. Chaps 5 and 6 propose and use a calculation method for the assessment of additional thermal insulation measures, using a ``cradle-to-grave`` approach. Since hydroelectric power is the main energy source in this sector in Norway, estimated payback periods for emissions to air are long. But hydroelectric power saved in this sector may be used to obtain reduction in fossil fuel use in other sectors as discussed in Chap 7. Some of the topics discussed are further elaborated on in appendices. 107 refs., 39 figs, 88 tabs.

  20. Optimising the Use of TRIzol-extracted Proteins in Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization (SELDI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlaky Laszlo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research with clinical specimens is always hampered by the limited availability of relevant samples, necessitating the use of a single sample for multiple assays. TRIzol is a common reagent for RNA extraction, but DNA and protein fractions can also be used for other studies. However, little is known about using TRIzol-extracted proteins in proteomic research, partly because proteins extracted from TRIzol are very resistant to solubilization. Results To facilitate the use of TRIzol-extracted proteins, we first compared the ability of four different common solubilizing reagents to solubilize the TRIzol-extracted proteins from an osteosarcoma cell line, U2-OS. Then we analyzed the solubilized proteins by Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/ Ionization technique (SELDI. The results showed that solubilization of TRIzol-extracted proteins with 9.5 M Urea and 2% CHAPS ([3-[(3-cholamidopropyl-dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate] (UREA-CHAPS was significantly better than the standard 1% SDS in terms of solubilization efficiency and the number of detectable ion peaks. Using three different types of SELDI arrays (CM10, H50, and IMAC-Cu, we demonstrated that peak detection with proteins solubilized by UREA-CHAPS was reproducible (r > 0.9. Further SELDI analysis indicated that the number of ion peaks detected in TRIzol-extracted proteins was comparable to a direct extraction method, suggesting many proteins still remain in the TRIzol protein fraction. Conclusion Our results suggest that UREA-CHAPS performed very well in solubilizing TRIzol-extracted proteins for SELDI applications. Protein fractions left over after TRIzol RNA extraction could be a valuable but neglected source for proteomic or biochemical analysis when additional samples are not available.

  1. Optimising the laboratory response to outbreaks caused by novel viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Druce, Julian Devey

    2017-01-01

    This thesis has 3 related aims that are linked to experiences working in the Virus Identification Laboratory at the Victorian infectious diseases reference laboratory (VIDRL) in Melbourne, Australia. This laboratory provides diagnostic services to major Victorian hospitals and specialised infectious diseases clinics, as well as a reference service to the Victorian Health Department. The aims of the thesis relate to practical issues experienced during the 2009 influenza A H1N1 pandemic (chap...

  2. Patterns of infestation by the trombiculid mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi in four sympatric lizard species (genus Tropidurus) in northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha C.F.D.; Cunha-Barros M.; Menezes V.A.; Fontes A.F.; Vrcibradic D.; Van Sluys M.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the parasitism by the chigger mite Eutrombicula alfreddugesi on four sympatric lizard species of the genus Tropidurus in Morro do Chapéu, Bahia state, Brazil: T. hispidus, T. cocorobensis, T. semitaeniatus and T. erythrocephalus. For each species, we investigated the patterns of infestation and analyzed to which extent they varied among the hosts. We calculated the spatial niche breadth of the chigger mite on the body of each host species and the distribution of mites along the hos...

  3. Mailed Fist, Velvet Glove: Soviet Armed Forces as a Political Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    November 1975). 2. Tai S’l-ig An, The Sino-Soviet Territorial Dispute ( Westminister , 1973), chap. 1; and Mark Mancall, Russia and China: Their Diplomatic...new major foreign in- volvement, reflecting the post-Vietnam mood of the country and especially of its legislators ; to deny any significant political...consider and even pass resolutions and legislation undercutting its policies. No President will relish the alert or deployment of U.S. armed forces or

  4. Dosimetry for commissioning and quality control in the irradiation of onions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biramontri, S.; Thongmitr, W.; Wanitsuksombut, W.

    1989-01-01

    Onions are a highly marketed produce in Thailand, and because of the climate, shelf-life is fairly limited during storage in markets and households. An alternative to systemic chemical treatment (e.g. maleic hydrazide) for sprouting inhibition is the application of absorbed doses of ionizing radiation of about 100 Gy (Matsuyama and Umeda (1983) Preservation of Food by Ionizing Radiation, Vol. III, Chap. 6, p. 159, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, U.S.A.). (author)

  5. Signatures of geochemical changes at methane-seeps as recorded by seep carbonates

    OpenAIRE

    Himmler, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    This thesis compiles three manuscripts: (1) The first manuscript (chapter 2.1) contains petrographic and geochemical data of aragonitic seep carbonates from the Makran accretionary prism. High-resolution rare earth element (REE) analysis yield distinct total REE[aragonite] concentrations and shale-normalised REE[aragonite] patterns. The REE variations are ascribed to different pore fluid compositions and accompanied redox changes during aragonite precipitation. (2) The second manuscript (chap...

  6. ASFMRA Chapter Strategic Planning: Iowa Chapter Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Trede, Larry

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategic planning process used by the Iowa Chapter of the American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers to develop a new vision, mission statement, and chapter objectives. Procedures included the use of a focus group and a quantitative survey. The results indicated a strong need for chapter member continuing education, a chapter member services program, and a strong outreach/public relations program. As a result of the strategic planning process, a new chap...

  7. Projecting the success of plant restoration with population viability analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, T.J.; Bowles, M.L.; McEachern, A.K.; Brigham, C.A.; Schwartz, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Conserving viable populations of plant species requires that they have high probabilities of long-term persistence within natural habitats, such as a chance of extinction in 100 years of less than 5% (Menges 1991, 1998; Brown 1994; Pavlik 1994; Chap. 1, this Vol.). For endangered and threatened species that have been severely reduces in range and whose habitats have been fragmented, important species conservation strategies may include augmenting existing populations or restoring new viable populations (Bowles and Whelan 1994; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Restoration objectives may include increasing population numbers to reduce extinction probability, deterministic manipulations to develop a staged cohort structure, or more complex restoration of a desired genetic structure to allow outcrossing or increase effective population size (DeMauro 1993, 1994; Bowles et al. 1993, 1998; Pavlik 1994; Knapp and Dyer 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). These efforts may require translocation of propagules from existing (in situ) populations, or from ex situ botanic gardens or seed storage facilities (Falk et al. 1996; Guerrant and Pavlik 1998; Chap. 2, this Vol.). Population viability analysis (PVA) can provide a critical foundation for plant restoration, as it models demographic projections used to evaluate the probability of population persistence and links plant life history with restoration strategies. It is unknown how well artificially created populations will meet demographic modeling requirements (e.g., due to artificial cohort transitions) and few, if any, PVAs have been applied to restorations. To guide application of PVA to restored populations and to illustrate potential difficulties, we examine effects of planting different life stages, model initial population sizes needed to achieve population viability, and compare demographic characteristics between natural and restored populations. We develop and compare plant population restoration viability analysis (PRVA) case studies of

  8. Transformer engineering design, technology, and diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Kulkarni, SV

    2012-01-01

    Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition helps you design better transformers, apply advanced numerical field computations more effectively, and tackle operational and maintenance issues. Building on the bestselling Transformer Engineering: Design and Practice, this greatly expanded second edition also emphasizes diagnostic aspects and transformer-system interactions. What's New in This Edition Three new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics An extensively revised chap

  9. Molecular diversity of fungi from marine oxygen-deficient environments (ODEs)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manohar, C.S.; Forster, D.; Kauff, F.; Stoeck, T.

    . Sparrow Jr F K (1936) Biological observations of the marine fungi of woods hole waters. Biol Bull 70: 236-263. States JS & Christensen M (2001) Fungi Associated with Biological Soil Crusts in Desert Grasslands of Utah and Wyoming. Mycologia 93: 432... version: Biology of marine fungi. Ed. by: Raghukumar, C. (Prog. Mol. Subcellular Biol). Springer, vol.53 (Chap 10); 2012; 189-208 Chapter # 10 Molecular diversity of fungi from marine oxygen-deficient environments (ODEs) Cathrine S. Jebaraj 1...

  10. Tobacco use and preferences for wellness programs among health aides and other employees of an Alaska Native Health Corporation in Western Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Christi A. Patten; Carrie A. Bronars; Matthew Scott; Rahnia Boyer; Harry Lando; Matthew M. Clark; Kenneth Resnicow; Paul A. Decker; Tabetha A. Brockman; Agnes Roland; Marcelo Hanza

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed health behaviors and preferences for wellness programs among employees of a worksite serving Alaska Native-people. Village-based Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) were compared with all other employees on health indicators and program preferences. Using a cross-sectional design, all 1290 employees at the Yukon Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) in Western Alaska were invited in 2015 to participate in a 30-item online survey. Items assessed health behaviors, pe...

  11. Diffraction Effects in Directed Radiation Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-03

    cosP acosO )/sin a sinJ], 0 / ’V< a , and Oga cos’ j (a-ct)/Yj, ()< 13 a < Rt/2, and where (r, t) is ident ical to t (I- t ) e:.:cep• that a i1 IepIac ed...Toraldo di Francia , NuoVo Cimento, Suppl. 9, 426 (1952)> 3. W T. Welford, Qptics, (Onfordi University Press, New York, 1981), chap. 3. 4. C.. J. Bouwkarnp

  12. The United States Air Force Academy: A Bibliography: 1968 - 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-09-01

    Hist - Aerospace Historian Aero Med - Aerospace Medicine Air Reservist Airman America Armed Forces Compt - Armed Forces Comptroller Armed Forces J...center for aviary medicine . Airman 15:48, May 1971. 235 Jeans, Kit. Children learn at Academy school--CHAP pro- gram. AF Times 30:26, 29 Apr...Indoctrination 10355 Merit lists 10356 Organization 10330 Wing strength 10354 Marihuana incidents 10912 Marriage of cadet 10326

  13. Federal and State Laws and Safety Considerations Relating to Fireworks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    provisions of this chap- (4) is a fugitive from justice; ter; and (5) is an unlawful user of marihuana (as (3) other than a licensee or permittee defined...1) the applicant (including in the case of ed to marihuana (as defined in Section 4761 a corporation, partnership, or association, of the Internal...materials in ing the commission of any felony which may medicines and medicinal agents in the forms be prosecuted in a court of the United prescribed by the

  14. Promoting Culturally Respectful Cancer Education Through Digital Storytelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Lanier, Anne; Dignan, Mark; Revels, Laura; Schoenberg, Nancy E; Cueva, Katie

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality among Alaska Native people. Over half of Alaska Native people live in rural communities where specially trained community members called Community Health Aides/Practitioners (CHA/Ps) provide health care. In response to CHA/Ps' expressed desire to learn more about cancer, four 5-day cancer education and digital storytelling courses were provided in 2014. Throughout each course, participants explored cancer information, reflected on their personal experiences, and envisioned how they might apply their knowledge within their communities. Each course participant also created a personal and authentic digital story, a methodology increasingly embraced by Indigenous communities as a way to combine storytelling traditions with modern technology to promote both individual and community health. Opportunities to learn of CHA/Ps' experiences with cancer and digital storytelling included a 3-page end-of-course written evaluation, a weekly story-showing log kept for 4 weeks post-course, a group teleconference held 1-2 weeks post-course, and a survey administered 6 months post-course. Participants described digital storytelling as a culturally respectful way to support cancer awareness and education. Participants described the process of creating digital stories as supporting knowledge acquisition, encouraging personal reflection, and sparking a desire to engage in cancer risk reduction activities for themselves and with their families and patients. As a result of creating a personalized digital story, CHA/Ps reported feeling differently about cancer, noting an increase in cancer knowledge and comfort to talk about cancer with clients and family. Indigenous digital stories have potential for broad use as a culturally appropriate health messaging tool.

  15. Dive Angle Sensitivity Analysis for Flight Test Safety and Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    22]. Raymer points out that most flutter modes are driven by improper balancing of control surfaces, but these flutter modes can be excited...description1.html [cited 2 Feb. 2010] [10] Nelson, Robert C., Flight Stability and Automatic Control, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill Higher Education, Boston...Patuxent River Naval Air Station MD, May 1992, Chap. 10 [15] Raymer , Daniel, P., Aircraft Design: A Conceptual Approach, 4th ed., AIAA Education

  16. How to Train a Dragon: How the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) Modernizes to Fight and Win Wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Modern Strategy (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), chap. 5. 8 Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism form the cultural underpinnings of...pursuit of human endeavor, social activity, and individual ambition.” Buddhism forms the last piece of the three part ideology. Introduced by India in...order to experience an abyss of nothingness.”3 The three religious foundations of Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism form the basis of the

  17. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Serranid Subfamily Epinephelinae: Speciation and Biogeography in a Nearshore Marine Fish Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Matthew T,

    2005-01-01

    The processes that shape present day distributions of marine organisms have remained a central topic in evolutionary biology, conservation biology, and ecology. In this thesis, genetic data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes were used to create a phylogenetic hypothesis for the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae as a means of evaluating the current taxonomy of the group and the geography of speciation in marine organisms. The molecular phylogenetic hypothesis presented in Chap...

  18. Application of the CCD Fabry-Perot Annular Summing Technique to Thermospheric O(1)D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, Monica Marie

    1995-01-01

    This work will detail the verification of the advantages of the Fabry-Perot charge coupled device (CCD) annular summing technique, the development of the technique for analysis of daysky spectra, and the implications of the resulting spectra for neutral temperature and wind measurements in the daysky thermosphere. The daysky spectral feature of interest is the bright (1 kilo-Rayleigh) thermospheric (OI) emission at 6300 A which had been observed in the nightsky in order to determine winds and temperatures in the vicinity of the altitude of 250 km. In the daysky, the emission line sits on top of a bright Rayleigh scattered continuum background which significantly complicates the observation. With a triple etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer, the continuum background can be reduced while maintaining high throughput and high resolution. The inclusion of a CCD camera results in significant savings in integration time over the two more standard scanning photomultiplier systems that have made the same wind and temperature measurements in the past. A comparable CCD system can experience an order of magnitude savings in integration time over a PMT system. Laboratory and field tests which address the advantages and limitations of both the Fabry-Perot CCD annular summing technique and the daysky CCD imaging are included in Chap. 2 and Chap. 3. With a sufficiently large throughput associated with the spectrometer and a CCD detector, rapid observations (~4 minute integrations) can be made. Extraction of the line width and line center from the daysky near-continuum background is complicated compared to the nightsky case, but possible. Methods of fitting the line are included in Chap. 4. The daysky O ^1D temperatures are consistent with a lower average emission height than predicted by models. The data and models are discussed in Chap. 5. Although some discrepancies exist between resulting temperatures and models, the observations indicate the potential for other direct measurements

  19. T. E. Lawrence: Theorist and Campaign Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-12

    honors in history, Lawrence’s curiosity lead him to the works of Carl von Clausewitz, Henri Jomini. Karl von Willisen, Rudolf von Caemmerer, Helmut von...113. M. J. Steiner . Inside Pan-Arabia. (Chicago: Herxiricks House, 1947), Chap 7. 114. T. E. Lawrence, "The Evolution of a Revolt," p65. 115. T. E...Unity. New York: Devin-Adair, 1958. Steiner . M. J. Inside Pan-Arabia. Chicago: Hendricks House. 1947. Thomas, Lowell. With Lawrence in Arabia. New York

  20. The development of the time dependence of the nuclear EMP electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, C.

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) electric field calculated with the legacy code CHAP is compared with the field given by an integral solution of Maxwell's equations, also known as the Jefimenko equation, to aid our current understanding on the factors that affect the time dependence of the EMP. For a fair comparison the CHAP current density is used as a source in the Jefimenko equation. At first, the comparison is simplified by neglecting the conduction current and replacing the standard atmosphere with a constant density air slab. The simplicity of the resultant current density aids in determining the factors that affect the rise, peak and tail of the EMP electric field versus time. The three dimensional nature of the radiating source, i.e. sources off the line-of-sight, and the time dependence of the derivative of the current density with respect to time are found to play significant roles in shaping the EMP electric field time dependence. These results are found to hold even when the conduction current and the standard atmosphere are properly accounted for. Comparison of the CHAP electric field with the Jefimenko electric field offers a direct validation of the high-frequency/outgoing wave approximation.

  1. Galois cohomology

    CERN Document Server

    Serre, Jean-Pierre

    1997-01-01

    This volume is an English translation of "Cohomologie Galoisienne" . The original edition (Springer LN5, 1964) was based on the notes, written with the help of Michel Raynaud, of a course I gave at the College de France in 1962-1963. In the present edition there are numerous additions and one suppression: Verdier's text on the duality of profinite groups. The most important addition is the photographic reproduction of R. Steinberg's "Regular elements of semisimple algebraic groups", Publ. Math. LH.E.S., 1965. I am very grateful to him, and to LH.E.S., for having authorized this reproduction. Other additions include: - A proof of the Golod-Shafarevich inequality (Chap. I, App. 2). - The "resume de cours" of my 1991-1992 lectures at the College de France on Galois cohomology of k(T) (Chap. II, App.). - The "resume de cours" of my 1990-1991 lectures at the College de France on Galois cohomology of semisimple groups, and its relation with abelian cohomology, especially in dimension 3 (Chap. III, App. 2). The bibl...

  2. The Yang-Mills vacuum wave functional in Coulomb gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campagnari, Davide R.

    2011-01-01

    Yang-Mills theories are the building blocks of today's Standard Model of elementary particle physics. Besides methods based on a discretization of space-time (lattice gauge theory), also analytic methods are feasible, either in the Lagrangian or in the Hamiltonian formulation of the theory. This thesis focuses on the Hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theories in Coulomb gauge. The thesis is presented in cumulative form. After an introduction into the general formulation of Yang-Mills theories, the Hamilton operator in Coulomb gauge is derived. Chap. 1 deals with the heat-kernel expansion of the Faddeev-Popov determinant. In Chapters 2 and 3, the high-energy behaviour of the theory is investigated. To this purpose, perturbative methods are applied, and the results are compared with the ones stemming from functional methods in Coulomb and Landau gauge. Chap. 4 is devoted to the variational approach. Variational ansatzes going beyond the Gaussian form for the vacuum wave functional are considered and treated using Dyson-Schwinger techniques. Equations for the higher-order variational kernels are derived and their effects are estimated. Chap. 5 presents an application of the previously obtained propagators, namely the evaluation of the topological susceptibility, which is related to the mass of the η meson. Finally, a short overview of the perturbative treatment of dynamical fermion fields is presented.

  3. Differential antigenic protein recovery from Taenia solium cyst tissues using several detergents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Perea, José; Orozco-Ramírez, Rodrigo; Moguel, Bárbara; Sciutto, Edda; Bobes, Raúl J; Laclette, Juan P

    2015-07-01

    Human and porcine cysticercosis is caused by the larval stage of the flatworm Taenia solium (Cestoda). The protein extracts of T. solium cysts are complex mixtures including cyst's and host proteins. Little is known about the influence of using different detergents in the efficiency of solubilization-extraction of these proteins, including relevant antigens. Here, we describe the use of CHAPS, ASB-14 and Triton X-100, alone or in combination in the extraction buffers, as a strategy to notably increase the recovery of proteins that are usually left aside in insoluble fractions of cysts. Using buffer with CHAPS alone, 315 protein spots were detected through 2D-PAGE. A total of 255 and 258 spots were detected using buffers with Triton X-100 or ASB-14, respectively. More protein spots were detected when detergents were combined, i.e., 2% CHAPS, 1% Triton X-100 and 1% ASB-14 allowed detection of up to 368 spots. Our results indicated that insoluble fractions of T. solium cysts were rich in antigens, including several glycoproteins that were sensitive to metaperiodate treatment. Host proteins, a common component in protein extracts of cysts, were present in larger amounts in soluble than insoluble fractions of cysts proteins. Finally, antigens present in the insoluble fraction were more appropriate as a source of antigens for diagnostic procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. XPS and XANES studies of biomimetic composites based on B-type nano-hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goloshchapov, D. L.; Gushchin, M. S.; Kashkarov, V. M.; Seredin, P. V.; Ippolitov, Y. A.; Khmelevsky, N. O.; Aksenenko, A. Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The paper presents an investigation of the local atomic structure of nanocrystalline carbonate-substituted hydroxyapatite (CHAP) contained in biomimetic composites - analogues of intact human tooth tissues. Using the XPS technique, the presence of impurity Mg and F atoms and structurally bound carbon in CHAP, at the concentrations typical of apatite enamel and dentine was determined. The XANES method was used to study the changes occurring in P L2,3 spectra of biocomposites with CHAP, depending on the percentage of the amino acid matrix. The appearance of maxima in the spectra of XANES P L2,3 near 135.7 eV for the samples with the composition of amino acid complex/hydroxyapatite - 5/95, 25/75 and the splitting of a broad peak of 146.9 eV in the spectrum of a biocomposite with a composition of 40/60 indicates at the interaction of molecular complex of amino acids with atomic environment of phosphorus. This fact can be used in the fundamental medicine for synthesizing of new biomaterials in dentistry.

  5. Revamping and Expanding Domestic Electricity Supply. Law draft adopted by the National Assembly; Projet de Loi relatif a la Modernisation et au Developpement du Service Public de l'Electricite adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Assembly [ed.] [Assemblee Nationale, Paris (France)

    1999-03-02

    This document presents the draft of the law regarding the revamping and expanding the domestic electricity supply, adopted by the French National Assembly. The first Title devoted to the definition of the domestic electricity supply contains 5 articles. The second Title deals with the production of electricity in the articles 6 through 12. Title three concerns the transport and electricity distribution issue exposed in articles 13 through 21 and three chapters titled: - Chap. 1, Transport of electricity; - Chap. 2, Distribution of electricity; - Chap.3, Safety and security of the grids. The Title four concerns with the access to domestic electricity grids exposed in the articles 22 to 24. The fifth Title settles in articles 25 to 27 the issue of the dissociation and transparency of accounting. The articles 28 through 41 treat under Title six the problems of Regulation. The Object of Electricity Authority of France is stipulated in the Title seven containing only the article 42. Social issues are stipulated in Title eight containing two articles, the first one being a completion to Chapter III of the Title seven in the Labour Law, titled 'Electricity and Gas Industries'. Finally, the Title nine comprising articles 45 to 52 deals with Diverse and Transient Provisions. The law draft was debated in public session in Paris on 2 March and signed by the President Laurent Fabius.

  6. Selective solubilization of membrane proteins differentially labeled by p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of sucrose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M'Batchi, B.; Pichelin, D.; Delrot, S.

    1987-01-01

    Broadbean (Vicia faba L.) leaf discs have been incubated with the slowly permeant thiol reagent [ 203 Hg]-para-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid (PCMBS) in the presence or in the absence of sucrose, and the release of PCMBS-labeled proteins has been monitored in media containing various concentrations of urea, ethylene glycol-bis-(β-aminoethyl ether)-N, N, N', N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), sodium cholate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, Triton X-100, octylglucoside or (3-[3-cholamidopropyl)-dimethylammonio] 1-propane-sulfonate)(CHAPS). The proteins differentially labeled by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose which, on the basis of previous results, are assumed to included the sucrose carrier, were preferentially solubilized by 1% CHAPS, 1% octylglucoside, or 1% Triton X-100. Other PCMBS-labeled proteins (background proteins) could be partially removed by EGTA, urea, or 0.1% cholate. Sequential treatment by 10 mM EGTA and 1% CHAPS was found to give a fraction highly enriched in the differentially labeled proteins. Analysis of the specific activity of microsomal pellets suggests that the results obtained with leaf discs give a good account of what is occurring at the plasma membrane level. These data, which suggest that the proteins differentially labeled, by PCMBS in the presence of sucrose are intrinsic membrane proteins, can be used to solubilize these proteins from microsomal fractions

  7. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Grenada: A cross-sectional approach used to measure response variation regarding sexual behavior and health depending on the method of data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Muhammad Reza; Husain, Faisal; Armstrong, Elan G; Ferguson, James A

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the association between high-risk sexual behavior in relation to HIV transmission and prevalence among different groups of people in Grenada. In addition, this study intends to increase the involvement and improved services by Grenadian chapter of the Caribbean HIV/AIDS Partnership (GrenCHAP).A cross-sectional study was conducted over a 2-month period in Grenada, West Indies, to measure the responsive nature of different populations to an inquiry about HIV and sexual behavior. The 2 methods used to collect the data were online (via social media) and through an in-person interaction with local NGO GrenCHAP personnel. Survey responses were recorded via SurveyMonkey ending on April 11, 2014.The findings of the study were that there was an increased degree of frankness and demographic diversity in participants who responded online as opposed to in-person.People who responded online were more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior. GrenCHAP has the opportunity to contribute in the collection of invaluable data concerning HIV and other STIs because of its NGO status and anonymity.

  8. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in

  9. NRC Monitoring of Salt Waste Disposal at the Savannah River Site - 13147

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, Karen E.; Ridge, A. Christianne; Alexander, George W.; Barr, Cynthia S.; Devaser, Nishka J.; Felsher, Harry D.

    2013-01-01

    As part of monitoring required under Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2005 (NDAA), the NRC staff reviewed an updated DOE performance assessment (PA) for salt waste disposal at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The NRC staff concluded that it has reasonable assurance that waste disposal at the SDF meets the 10 CFR 61 performance objectives for protection of individuals against intrusion (chap.61.42), protection of individuals during operations (chap.61.43), and site stability (chap.61.44). However, based on its evaluation of DOE's results and independent sensitivity analyses conducted with DOE's models, the NRC staff concluded that it did not have reasonable assurance that DOE's disposal activities at the SDF meet the performance objective for protection of the general population from releases of radioactivity (chap.61.41) evaluated at a dose limit of 0.25 mSv/yr (25 mrem/yr) total effective dose equivalent (TEDE). NRC staff also concluded that the potential dose to a member of the public is expected to be limited (i.e., is expected to be similar to or less than the public dose limit in chap.20.1301 of 1 mSv/yr [100 mrem/yr] TEDE) and is expected to occur many years after site closure. The NRC staff used risk insights gained from review of the SDF PA, its experience monitoring DOE disposal actions at the SDF over the last 5 years, as well as independent analysis and modeling to identify factors that are important to assessing whether DOE's disposal actions meet the performance objectives. Many of these factors are similar to factors identified in the NRC staff's 2005 review of salt waste disposal at the SDF. Key areas of interest continue to be waste form and disposal unit degradation, the effectiveness of infiltration and erosion controls, and estimation of the radiological inventory. Based on these factors, NRC is revising its plan for monitoring salt waste disposal at the SDF in coordination with South

  10. Comparative studies of vertebrate endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 genes and proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes RS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Roger S Holmes,1,2 Laura A Cox11Department of Genetics and Southwest National Primate Research Center, Texas Biomedical Research Institute, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Eskitis Institute for Cell and Molecular Therapies and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, AustraliaAbstract: Endothelin-converting enzyme-like 1 (ECEL1 is a member of the M13 family of neutral endopeptidases which play an essential role in the neural regulation of vertebrate respiration. Genetic deficiency of this protein results in respiratory failure soon after birth. Comparative ECEL1 amino acid sequences and structures and ECEL1 gene locations were examined using data from several vertebrate genome projects. Vertebrate ECEL1 sequences shared 66%–99% identity as compared with 30%–63% sequence identities with other M13-like family members, ECE1, ECE2, and NEP (neprilysin or MME. Three N-glycosylation sites were conserved among most vertebrate ECEL1 proteins examined. Sequence alignments, conserved key amino acid residues, and predicted secondary and tertiary structures were also studied, including cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and luminal sequences and active site residues. Vertebrate ECEL1 genes usually contained 18 exons and 17 coding exons on the negative strand. Exons 1 and 2 of the human ECEL1 gene contained 5'-untranslated (5'-UTR regions, a large CpG island (CpG256, and several transcription factor binding sites which may contribute to the high levels of gene expression previously reported in neural tissues. Phylogenetic analyses examined the relationships and potential evolutionary origins of the vertebrate ECEL1 gene with six other vertebrate neutral endopeptidase M13 family genes. These suggested that ECEL1 originated in an ancestral vertebrate genome from a duplication event in an ancestral neutral endopeptidase M13-like gene.Keywords: vertebrates, amino acid sequence, ECEL1, ECE1, ECE2, KELL, NEP, NEPL1, PHEX

  11. Crystal Structure of the LasA Virulence Factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Substrate Specificity and Mechanism of M23 Metallopeptidases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, James; Murphy, Loretta M.; Conners, Rebecca; Sessions, Richard B.; Gamblin, Steven J. (Wales); (Bristol Med Sci); (NIMR)

    2010-09-21

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunist Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections in immunocompromized individuals and is a leading cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. A number of secreted virulence factors, including various proteolytic enzymes, contribute to the establishment and maintenance of Pseudomonas infection. One such is LasA, an M23 metallopeptidase related to autolytic glycylglycine endopeptidases such as Staphylococcus aureus lysostaphin and LytM, and to DD-endopeptidases involved in entry of bacteriophage to host bacteria. LasA is implicated in a range of processes related to Pseudomonas virulence, including stimulating ectodomain shedding of the cell surface heparan sulphate proteoglycan syndecan-1 and elastin degradation in connective tissue. Here we present crystal structures of active LasA as a complex with tartrate and in the uncomplexed form. While the overall fold resembles that of the other M23 family members, the LasA active site is less constricted and utilizes a different set of metal ligands. The active site of uncomplexed LasA contains a five-coordinate zinc ion with trigonal bipyramidal geometry and two metal-bound water molecules. Using these structures as a starting point, we propose a model for substrate binding by LasA that explains its activity against a wider range of substrates than those used by related lytic enzymes, and offer a catalytic mechanism for M23 metallopeptidases consistent with available structural and mutagenesis data. Our results highlight how LasA is a structurally distinct member of this endopeptidase family, consistent with its activity against a wider range of substrates and with its multiple roles in Pseudomonas virulence.

  12. Differential role of molten globule and protein folding in distinguishing unique features of botulinum neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Kukreja, Roshan V; Cai, Shuowei; Singh, Bal R

    2014-06-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are proteins of great interest not only because of their extreme toxicity but also paradoxically for their therapeutic applications. All the known serotypes (A-G) have varying degrees of longevity and potency inside the neuronal cell. Differential chemical modifications such as phosphorylation and ubiquitination have been suggested as possible mechanisms for their longevity, but the molecular basis of the longevity remains unclear. Since the endopeptidase domain (light chain; LC) of toxin apparently survives inside the neuronal cells for months, it is important to examine the structural features of this domain to understand its resistance to intracellular degradation. Published crystal structures (both botulinum neurotoxins and endopeptidase domain) have not provided adequate explanation for the intracellular longevity of the domain. Structural features obtained from spectroscopic analysis of LCA and LCB were similar, and a PRIME (PReImminent Molten Globule Enzyme) conformation appears to be responsible for their optimal enzymatic activity at 37°C. LCE, on the other hand, was although optimally active at 37°C, but its active conformation differed from the PRIME conformation of LCA and LCB. This study establishes and confirms our earlier finding that an optimally active conformation of these proteins in the form of PRIME exists for the most poisonous poison, botulinum neurotoxin. There are substantial variations in the structural and functional characteristics of these active molten globule related structures among the three BoNT endopeptidases examined. These differential conformations of LCs are important in understanding the fundamental structural features of proteins, and their possible connection to intracellular longevity could provide significant clues for devising new countermeasures and effective therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Progress in applying the Three Rs to the potency testing of Botulinum toxin type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughan, Donald

    2006-06-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is being increasingly used for a range of therapeutic purposes and also for cosmetic reasons. For many years, the potency of BTA has been measured by using an LD50 assay in mice. This assay is a cause for concern due to its unpleasant nature and extreme severity, and the requirement for high numbers of mice to be used. Alternatives to this potency assay are presently reviewed with particular reference to the work at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), and to recent work by the UK manufacturer of the substance. An in vivo local paralysis assay with considerably less severity has been developed and is in use at the NIBSC. Alternative, ex vivo functional assays in use include the measurement of BTA-induced paralysis of neurally-stimulated rodent diaphragm or rat intercostal muscle. The latter method has the advantage of allowing more preparations to be derived from one animal. However, these ex vivo methods have not yet been fully validated and accepted by regulatory agencies as potency assays. Endopeptidase assays, although not measuring muscle paralysis directly, may provide a very useful consistency test for batch release and may replace the routine use of the LD50 test for that purpose. These assays measure the cleavage of the SNAP-25 protein (the final stage of BTA action), and have been validated for batch release by the National Control Laboratory (NIBSC), and are in regular use there. ELISA assays, used alongside the endopeptidase assay, also provide useful confirmatory information on the amounts of functional (and non-functional) BTA present. The UK manufacturer is further validating its endopeptidase assay, an ex vivo muscle assay and an ELISA. It is anticipated that their work will lead to a change in the product license, hopefully within the next two years, and will form a critical milestone towards the end of the LD50 potency test.

  14. Kinetics of reactions of the Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase with specific substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adediran, S A; Kumar, Ish; Nagarajan, Rajesh; Sauvage, Eric; Pratt, R F

    2011-01-25

    The Actinomadura R39 DD-peptidase catalyzes the hydrolysis and aminolysis of a number of small peptides and depsipeptides. Details of its substrate specificity and the nature of its in vivo substrate are not, however, well understood. This paper describes the interactions of the R39 enzyme with two peptidoglycan-mimetic substrates 3-(D-cysteinyl)propanoyl-D-alanyl-D-alanine and 3-(D-cysteinyl)propanoyl-D-alanyl-D-thiolactate. A detailed study of the reactions of the former substrate, catalyzed by the enzyme, showed DD-carboxypeptidase, DD-transpeptidase, and DD-endopeptidase activities. These results confirm the specificity of the enzyme for a free D-amino acid at the N-terminus of good substrates and indicated a preference for extended D-amino acid leaving groups. The latter was supported by determination of the structural specificity of amine nucleophiles for the acyl-enzyme generated by reaction of the enzyme with the thiolactate substrate. It was concluded that a specific substrate for this enzyme, and possibly the in vivo substrate, may consist of a partly cross-linked peptidoglycan polymer where a free side chain N-terminal un-cross-linked amino acid serves as the specific acyl group in an endopeptidase reaction. The enzyme is most likely a DD-endopeptidase in vivo. pH-rate profiles for reactions of the enzyme with peptides, the thiolactate named above, and β-lactams indicated the presence of complex proton dissociation pathways with sticky substrates and/or protons. The local structure of the active site may differ significantly for reactions of peptides and β-lactams. Solvent kinetic deuterium isotope effects indicate the presence of classical general acid/base catalysis in both acylation and deacylation; there is no evidence of the low fractionation factor active site hydrogen found previously in class A and C β-lactamases.

  15. Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in vitro peptidase activities: identification and cleavage of kallikrein-kinin system-like substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Kondo, Marcia Y; Oliveira, Lilian C G; Okamoto, Debora N; Paes, Jéssica A; Machado, Mauricio F M; Veronez, Camila L; Motta, Guacyara; Andrade, Sheila S; Juliano, Maria A; Ferreira, Henrique B; Juliano, Luiz; Gouvea, Iuri E

    2013-05-03

    Bacterial proteases are important for metabolic processes and pathogenesis in host organisms. The bacterial swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has 15 putative protease-encoding genes annotated, but none of them have been functionally characterized. To identify and characterize peptidases that could be relevant for infection of swine hosts, we investigated the peptidase activity present in the pathogenic 7448 strain of M. hyopneumoniae. Combinatorial libraries of fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptides, specific inhibitors and pH profiling were used to screen and characterize endopeptidase, aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase activities in cell lysates. One metalloendopeptidase, one serine endopeptidase, and one aminopeptidase were detected. The detected metalloendopeptidase activity, prominent at neutral and basic pH ranges, was due to a thimet oligopeptidase family member (M3 family), likely an oligoendopeptidase F (PepF), which cleaved the peptide Abz-GFSPFRQ-EDDnp at the F-S bond. A chymotrypsin-like serine endopeptidase activity, possibly a subtilisin-like serine protease, was prominent at higher pH levels, and was characterized by its preference for a Phe residue at the P1 position of the substrate. The aminopeptidase P (APP) activity showed a similar profile to that of human membrane-bound APP. Genes coding for these three peptidases were identified and their transcription was confirmed in the 7448 strain. Furthermore, M. hyopneumoniae cell lysate peptidases showed effects on kallikrein-kinin system-like substrates, such as bradykinin-derived substrates and human high molecular weight kininogen. The M. hyopneumoniae peptidase activities, here characterized for the first time, may be important for bacterial survival strategies and thus represent possible targets for drug development against M. hyopneumoniae swine infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Gelatin Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathcart, Jillian

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are endopeptidases responsible for remodeling of the extracellular matrix and have been identified as critical contributors to breast cancer progression. Gelatin zymography is a valuable tool which allows the analysis of MMP expression. In this approach, enzymes are resolved electrophoretically on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel copolymerized with the substrate for the MMP of interest. Post electrophoresis, the enzymes are refolded in order for proteolysis of the incorporated substrate to occur. This assay yields valuable information about MMP isoforms or changes in activation and can be used to analyze the role of MMPs in normal versus pathological conditions.

  17. Structural and computational analysis of peptide recognition mechanism of class-C type penicillin binding protein, alkaline D-peptidase from Bacillus cereus DF4-B

    OpenAIRE

    Nakano, Shogo; Okazaki, Seiji; Ishitsubo, Erika; Kawahara, Nobuhiro; Komeda, Hidenobu; Tokiwa, Hiroaki; Asano, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline D-peptidase from Bacillus cereus DF4-B, called ADP, is a D-stereospecific endopeptidase reacting with oligopeptides containing D-phenylalanine (D-Phe) at N-terminal penultimate residue. ADP has attracted increasing attention because it is useful as a catalyst for synthesis of D-Phe oligopeptides or, with the help of substrate mimetics, L-amino acid peptides and proteins. Structure and functional analysis of ADP is expected to elucidate molecular mechanism of ADP. In this study, the c...

  18. Retardation of senescence by UV-A light in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaf segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuello, J.; Sanchez, M.D.; Sabater, B.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of low intensity (0.9–2.2 W m −2 ) UV-A radiation on barley leaf senescence were investigated. UV-A inhibited chlorophyll loss and caused increases in membrane permeability and chloroplast endopeptidases associated with senescence. The treatment of leaf segments with UV-A changed the type of proteins synthesized by chloroplasts, stimulating the synthesis of some specific polypeptides. It is concluded that the senescence of detached leaves provides an appropriate system for investigating effects of low UV-A intensities which are probably mediated by synthesis of specific proteins. (author)

  19. Prostate Cancer Cell Growth: Stimulatory Role of Neurotensin and Mechanism of Inhibition by Flavonoids as Related to Protein Kinase C

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    cell lines (NCI-N417, NCI-H345, NCI-N592) were found to convert exogenous NT into the fragments NT1 –8 and NT9–13, reflecting the presence of...secrete NT. However, exogenous NT was degraded primarily to NT1 –11, consistent with the presence of neutral endopeptidase 3.4.24.11 in these cells . This...TITLE: Prostate Cancer Cell Growth: Stimulatory Role of Neurotensin and Mechanism of Inhibition by Flavonoids as Related to Protein Kinase C

  20. AcEST: DK952607 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3e-33 tr|A7Y7Y0|A7Y7Y0_SOLLC KDEL-tailed cysteine endopeptidase OS=Sol... 144 6e-33 tr|A1Y2K8|A1Y2K8_9ROSI ...idase OS=Vigna radiata ... 142 2e-32 tr|A1Y2K4|A1Y2K4_9ROSI VXH-A (Fragment) OS=Vasconcellea x heilbo... 142

  1. Cysteine proteases from bloodfeeding arthropod ectoparasites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Calvo, E.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 712, - (2011), s. 177-191 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : TICK HAEMAPHYSALIS-LONGICORNIS * PROLIXUS STAL HEMIPTERA * YELLOW-FEVER MOSQUITO * BLOOD-MEAL DIGESTION * L-LIKE ENZYME * BOOPHILUS-MICROPLUS * RHODNIUS-PROLIXUS * CATHEPSIN-B * ASPARAGINYL ENDOPEPTIDASES/LEGUMAINS * PROTEOLYTIC ACTIVATION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.093, year: 2011

  2. Report of a newly indentified patient with mutations in BMP1 and underlying pathogenetic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valencia, María; Caparrós-Martin, Jose A; Sirerol-Piquer, María Salomé

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta is a genetic condition characterized by bone fragility and recurrent fractures, which in the large majority of patients are caused by defects in the production of type I collagen. Mutations in the gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1, also known as procollagen C......-endopeptidase) have been associated with osteogenesis imperfecta in two sib pairs. In this report, we describe an additional patient with osteogenesis imperfecta with normal bone density and a recurrent, homozygous c.34G>C mutation in BMP1. Western blot analysis of dermal fibroblasts from this patient showed...

  3. Post-secretional activation of Protease IV by quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, Jungmin; Li, Xi-Hui; Kim, Soo-Kyong; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Protease IV (PIV), a key virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a secreted lysyl-endopeptidase whose expression is induced by quorum sensing (QS). We found that PIV expressed in QS mutant has severe reduction of activity in culture supernatant (CS), even though it is overexpressed to high level. PIV purified from the QS mutant (M-PIV) had much lower activity than the PIV purified from wild type (P-PIV). We found that the propeptide cleaved from prepro-PIV was co-purified with M-PIV, bu...

  4. Proteomic analysis of africanized bee venom: a comparison of protein extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Pineda Guerra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Africanised bee is the most common type of bee in Colombia, and therapeutic properties for different diseases have been attributed to its venom, without much scientific support. A literature search of reports on the proteomic analysis of honeybee venom yielded four different methods for extracting proteins from bee venom. The first method consists in resuspending the venom in 7 M Urea, followed by precipitation with acetone and finally resuspending the pellet in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. For the second method, the venom is resuspended in lysis buffer, precipitated with trichloroacetic acid, and then resuspended in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. The third method is similar to the previous one, except that the precipitation step is performed with acetone instead of trichloroacetic acid. Finally, the fourth method is to resuspend the venom in distilled water, precipitate with acetone and resuspend in 7 M Urea and 4 % CHAPS. This work focused on comparing the performance of these four extraction methods, in order to determine the method with the best results in terms of concentration and integrity of the proteins obtained. Of the four methods evaluated, the best results in terms of protein concentration and yield were obtained by resuspending the bee venom in lysis buffer followed by precipitation with acetone (method 3, and by resuspending in distilled water followed by precipitation with acetone (method 4. Of these, the method that maintained protein integrity and yielded the best proteomic profile was that in which the bee venom was resuspended in lysis buffer followed by precipitation with acetone (method 3.

  5. Adsorption of Uranyl Ions at the Nano-hydroxyapatite and Its Modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarek, Ewa; Gładysz-Płaska, Agnieszka; Bolbukh, Yuliia

    2017-12-01

    Nano-hydroxyapatite and its modification, hydroxyapatite with the excess of phosphorus (P-HAP) and hydroxyapatite with the carbon ions built into the structure (C-HAP), were prepared by the wet method. They were studied by means of XRD, accelerated surface area and porosimetry (ASAP), and SEM. The size of crystallites computed using the Scherrer method was nano-hydroxyapatite (HAP) = 20 nm; P-HAP-impossible to determine; C-HAP = 22 nm; nano-HAP/U(VI) = 13.7 nm; P-HAP/U(VI)-impossible to determine, C-HAP/U(VI) = 11 nm. There were determined basic parameters characterizing the double electrical layer at the nano-HAP/electrolyte and P-HAP/electrolyte, C-HAP/electrolyte inter faces: density of the surface charge and zeta potential. The adsorption properties of nano-HAP sorbent in relation to U(VI) ions were studied by the batch technique. The adsorption processes were rapid in the first 60 min and reached the equilibrium within approximately 120 min (for P-HAP) and 300 min (for C-HAP and nano-HAP). The adsorption process fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics. The Freundlich, Langmuir-Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich models of isotherms were examined for their ability to the equilibrium sorption data. The maximum adsorption capabilities (q m ) were 7.75 g/g for P-HAP, 1.77 g/g for C-HAP, and 0.8 g/g for HAP at 293 K.

  6. Physics book: CRYRING'a'ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Aurand, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Andrianov, V.

    2016-01-01

    CRYRING is a heavy ion storage ring, formerly located in Stockholm University. During close to two decades of operation in Sweden, many significant scientific contributions to atomic and molecular physics were achieved using CRYRING. To further leverage its capabilities into the realm of intense beams of highly charged ions, of exotic isotopes, and antiprotons, it has for long been proposed to relocate CRYRING from Sweden to GSI/FAIR, which is the CRYRING'a'ESR project. In Darmstadt, the ring is being modernized and adapted to the GSI/FAIR standards and set up downstream of ESR. In the different chapters we sketch out a broad scientific program in the fields of atomic and nuclear physics and at their intersection. The realization will allow for exciting high-precision spectroscopy studies of atomic systems and their dynamics where special emphasis is given to the effects of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and electron-correlation in the strong field domain (Chap. 2). The intersection of atomic and nuclear physics is addressed where the imprint of nuclear effects on the electronic shell are investigated with spectroscopic methods (Chap. 3), and exploring the nuclear structure, nuclear dynamical processes and quantitative measurements of astrophysically relevant (p, γ)-reaction rates (Chap. 4). These experiments are of prime interest for testing modern theoretical methods on fundamental processes as well as for applications in astrophysics and for modelling plasmas. In the domain of slow collisions in of heavy ions at highest charge-states where atomic processes are prevailed by large perturbations, these studies are expected to refine substantially our understanding of the physics of extreme electromagnetic fields. Also, CRYRINGaESR will offer extracted high-quality ion beams, thus enabling novel research opportunities for external-target experiments with slow highly-charged ions. The experimental boundary conditions and suggested future instrumentation

  7. Characterization of the modular design of the autolysin/adhesin Aaa from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschhausen, Nina; Schlesier, Tim; Peters, Georg; Heilmann, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of serious and life-threatening infections, such as endocarditis, osteomyelitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Its adherence to various host structures is crucial for the establishment of diseases. Adherence may be mediated by a variety of adhesins, among them the autolysin/adhesins Atl and Aaa. Aaa is composed of three N-terminal repeated sequences homologous to a lysin motif (LysM) that can confer cell wall attachment and a C-terminally located cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP) domain having bacteriolytic activity in many proteins. Here, we show by surface plasmon resonance that the LysM domain binds to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin respresenting a novel adhesive function for this domain. Moreover, we demonstrated that the CHAP domain not only mediates the bacteriolytic activity, but also adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin, thus demonstrating for the first time an adhesive function for this domain. Adherence of an S. aureus aaa mutant and the complemented aaa mutant is slightly decreased and increased, respectively, to vitronectin, but not to fibrinogen and fibronectin, which might at least in part result from an increased expression of atl in the aaa mutant. Furthermore, an S. aureus atl mutant that showed enhanced adherence to fibrinogen, fibronectin, and endothelial cells also demonstrated increased aaa expression and production of Aaa. Thus, the redundant functions of Aaa and Atl might at least in part be interchangeable. Lastly, RT-PCR and zymographic analysis revealed that aaa is negatively regulated by the global virulence gene regulators agr and SarA. We identified novel functions for two widely distributed protein domains, LysM and CHAP, i.e. the adherence to the extracellular matrix proteins fibrinogen, fibronectin, and vitronectin. The adhesive properties of Aaa might promote S. aureus colonization of host extracellular matrix and tissue, suggesting a role for

  8. Calcitonin gene-related peptide: neuroendocrine communication between the pancreas, gut, and brain in regulation of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendharkar, Sayali A; Walia, Monika; Drury, Marie; Petrov, Maxim S

    2017-11-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a ubiquitous neuropeptide, plays a diverse and intricate role in chronic low-grade inflammation, including conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and diabetes of the exocrine pancreas. Diabetes of exocrine pancreas is characterised by chronic hyperglycemia and is associated with persistent low-grade inflammation and altered secretion of certain pancreatic and gut hormones. While CGRP may regulate glucose homeostasis and the secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones, its role in chronic hyperglycemia after acute pancreatitis (CHAP) is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between CGRP and CHAP. Fasting blood samples were collected to measure insulin, HbA1c, CGRP, amylin, C-peptide, glucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, gastric inhibitory peptide, glicentin, glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, and oxyntomodulin. Modified Poisson regression analysis and linear regression analyses were conducted. Five statistical models were used to adjust for demographic, metabolic, and pancreatitis-related risk factors. A total of 83 patients were recruited. CGRP was significantly associated with CHAP in all five models (P-trend <0.005). Further, it was significantly associated with oxyntomodulin (P<0.005) and glucagon (P<0.030). Oxyntomodulin and glucagon independently contributed 9.7% and 7%, respectively, to circulating CGRP variance. Other pancreatic and gut hormones were not significantly associated with CGRP. CGRP is involved in regulation of blood glucose in individuals after acute pancreatitis. This may have translational implications in prevention and treatment of diabetes of the exocrine pancreas.

  9. Current state of epidemiological studies in Belarus about Chernobyl sufferers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsko, V.P. [Institute of Radiobiology, Academy Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus)

    1998-03-01

    The present paper is an analysis of the results of epidemiological studies in Belarus about the after-effects of the accident at the Chernobyl atomic power station (ChAPS), based on published data at scientific institutes, organs and institutions of Ministry of Health. In the last years the affected population showed thereby more significant - as compared with republican indices - growth of incidence in the majority of diseases (first of all: digestion, urogenital, nervous, endocrine systems, diseases of ear, throat, nose both among adults and among children). Aggravation of health state continues in the participants of liquidation of the ChAPS accident consequences and the evacuees from the alienation zone which have obtained considerable radiation load to organism (rise of incidence of diseases of endocrine, cardiovascular, nervous system etc.). Considerable growth of thyroid cancer incidence is registered in Belarus children and adolescents, especially in the Gomel and Brest regions. This is conditioned by dose commitments on thyroid gland due to iodine radionuclides in first period after the accident, incorrect iodine prophylaxy, and goitre endemic. The rise of hereditary pathology is registered too. An expressed increase of oncological diseases is observed therewith mainly in the Gomel region, especially in the districts with high level of radiocontamination and, consequently, significant radiation load. First of all, this relates to the growth of incidence of cancer of lungs, mammary gland, bladder. The analysis of epidemiological studies performed in Belarus after the ChAPS catastrophe and comparison of them with data obtained in the pre-Chernobyl period testify to the aggravation of health state of Belarus population. The specialists unambiguously recognize the direct influence of radioactive pollution in the environment on rise of thyroid pathologies, hereditary and congenial diseases, and cancers of different localizations. There is no unique opinion

  10. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. The Quest for Relevant Air Power: Continental European Responses to the Air Power Challenges of the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Experience in Africa (Santa Monica, CA: RAND, 1989), 2. 3. André Martel, “Conduire la défense: les institutions, les forces, les al- liances,” in Histoire ...365; and Claude Carlier, “L’aéronautique et l’espace, 1945–1993,” chap. 10, in Martel, Histoire militaire de la France, Tome 4, 456–59, 462. 5...annexed report], 21. 37. André Martel, “Conclusion: Armées 2000; un système de transition,” in Martel, Histoire militaire de la France, 597–98. 38. Gregory

  12. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-30

    rA( LA - AH) [watt cm 2] f3 ,5_ - . where " . ._.... L is the heat of evaporation of pure A and ~o ---30 3opo WA is the partial molar heat of mixing...steel; average voltage II V, current 2t atEL = rA( LA - ’-A)twatt cm 2 s], 14] 15 A; averae ample size I g. where t is time. In most cases XHA is small...B. Gates, Metrologia 17(3), 103 (1981). 7. R. D. Hudson, Jr., Infrared Engineering, Chap. 2, John Wiley, New York (1969). 8 R. Siegel and J. R

  13. Problems Related to Use of Some Terms in System Reliability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Hanusova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with problems of using dependability terms, defined in actual standard STN IEC 50 (191: International electrotechnical dictionary, chap. 191: Dependability and quality of service (1993, in a technical systems dependability analysis. The goal of the paper is to find a relation between terms introduced in the mentioned standard and used in the technical systems dependability analysis and rules and practices used in a system analysis of the system theory. Description of a part of the system life cycle related to reliability is used as a starting point. The part of a system life cycle is described by the state diagram and reliability relevant therms are assigned.

  14. Isolation, purification and characterization of a novel glucose oxidase from Penicillium sp. CBS 120262 optimally active at neutral pH

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Simpson, C

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available of glucose in diabetics [17]. Enhancement of the properties of GOX is still receiving attention [8], presumably due to the current and extensive applications base of this enzyme. This article describes the production, puriWcation and characterisation of a...Ver was modiWed from the manufacturer’s protocol to contain glycerol (20% v/v), CHAPS (2% w/v) and IPG buVer (0.4%). Samples (200 �l of 1 mg ml¡1 protein) were loaded onto the Immobi- line strips using the rehydration loading protocol [22]. The loaded...

  15. Informe científico de Beca de Estudio: Chila Covachina, Jimena Belén (2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Chila Covachina, Jimena Belén

    2015-01-01

    La alteración ambiental provocada por los cambios en el uso del suelo constituye uno de los componentes más importantes del denominado Cambio Global (Vitousek 1994, Chapín et al. , 1997). Especialmente porque genera retroalimentación positiva hacia otros componentes del cambio global, tales como el efecto invernadero y pérdida de biodiversidad (Lambin et al., 2001). Actualmente se considera que alrededor de un 50 % de la superficie terrestre ha sido modificado por acciones antrópicas direct...

  16. Impurity and Defect Interactions in GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-29

    15) Fig. I. where 6.3.1 Rapid diffusion leading to uniform concen- I tD 4 D- Iration. We study an atomic species that redis- (112 tributes in a...by R. K. Willard- son and A. C. Beer lAcademic. New York. 19751, Vol. 10. Chap. I. excitation will exhibit an average drift velocity Td in the ’C. M...atoms eters. in the ternary alloy A, - ,BD will have potential strength /M.>8eA/9rm*KT, weak scattering. (5) V,(ABD). In general, V5 (ABC) and V1 (. 4BD

  17. The Effects of Internal Waves on Acoustic Normal Modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    thatp HTp HTv + CvS(!!)(..)(25 The hydrodynamic equations appropriate to an ocean are Du p b + p(fxuL) + Vp - = V-A + F (2.6a) Do + pv.u 0(2.6b) pT Ln+ V...Payne, "User’s Manual for NEMESIS and PLMODE," Applied Research Laboratories Technical Memorandum No. 80-6 . (ARL-TM-80-6), Applied Research Laboratories...1, 6th edition, Reference Manual , 1979. 56. 3. Turner, Buoyancy Effects in Fluids (Cambridqe University Press, Cambridge, London, 1972) Chap. 8. 57. W

  18. RSE-M: In-Service Inspection Rules for Mechanical Components of PWR Nuclear Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The RSE-M code defines in-service inspection operations. It applies to pressure equipment used in PWR plants, as well as spare parts for such equipment. The RSE-M code does not apply to equipment made from materials other than metal. It is based on the RCC-M code for requirements relating to the design and fabrication of mechanical components. Use: The inspection rules specified in the RSE-M code describe the standard requirements of best practice within the French nuclear industry, based on its own feedback from operating several nuclear units and partly supplemented with requirements stipulated by French regulations. To date, the 58 units in France's nuclear infrastructure enforce the in-service inspection rules of the RSE-M code. Operation of 30 commissioned units in China's nuclear infrastructure, corresponding to the M310, CPR-1000 and CPR-600 reactors, is based on the RSE-M code (since 2007, use of AFCEN codes has been required by NNSA for Generation II+ reactors). Contents of the 2016 Edition: Volume I - Rules: Section A - General rules, Section B - Specific rules for class 1 components, Section C - Specific rules for class 2 or 3 components, Section D - Specific rules for components not assigned to any particular RSE-M class; Volume II - Appendices 1 to 8: Appendices 1.0 to 1.9: supporting appendices for the general requirements, Appendix 2.1: appendix associated with chap. 2000 Requalifications, Hydraulic Proof Tests and Hydraulic Tests, Appendices 4.1 to 4.4: appendices associated with chap. 4000 Examination techniques, Appendices 5.1 to 5.8 and RPP2: appendices associated with chap. 5000 Mechanical and Materials, Appendices 8.1 to 8.2: appendices associated with chap. 8000 Maintenance Operations; Volume III: Appendix 3.1 - Visit tables: main primary and secondary systems, EPR pre-service inspection program, Class 2 or 3 vessels; Appendix 3.2 - Inspection Plans For Non-Nuclear Pressure Equipment

  19. NLSE: Parameter-Based Inversion Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Aldrin, John C.; Knopp, Jeremy S.

    Chapter 11 introduced us to the notion of an inverse problem and gave us some examples of the value of this idea to the solution of realistic industrial problems. The basic inversion algorithm described in Chap. 11 was based upon the Gauss-Newton theory of nonlinear least-squares estimation and is called NLSE in this book. In this chapter we will develop the mathematical background of this theory more fully, because this algorithm will be the foundation of inverse methods and their applications during the remainder of this book. We hope, thereby, to introduce the reader to the application of sophisticated mathematical concepts to engineering practice without introducing excessive mathematical sophistication.

  20. Loudspeaker Design and Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkivirta, Aki Vihtori

    A loudspeaker comprises transducers converting an electrical driving signal into sound pressure, an enclosure working as a holder for transducers, front baffle and box to contain and eliminate the rear-radiating audio signal, and electronic components. Modeling of transducers as well as enclosures is treated in Chap. 32 of this handbook. The purpose of the present chapter is to shed light on the design choices and options for the electronic circuits conditioning the electrical signal fed into loudspeaker transducers in order to optimize the acoustic performance of the loudspeaker.