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  1. Management of Pediatric Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prevention and treatment, a multidisciplinary approach involving the collaboration of ... Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by a number of metabolic ..... methemoglobinemia or hemolytic anemia in patients with a deficiency of the ...

  2. Tumor lysis syndrome in the emergency department: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ñamendys-Silva SA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Silvio A Ñamendys-Silva,1,2 Juan M Arredondo-Armenta,1 Erika P Plata-Menchaca,2 Humberto Guevara-García,1 Francisco J García-Guillén,1 Eduardo Rivero-Sigarroa,2 Angel Herrera-Gómez,1 1Department of Critical Care Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, 2Department of Critical Care Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is the most common oncologic emergency. It is caused by rapid tumor cell destruction and the resulting nucleic acid degradation during or days after initiation of cytotoxic therapy. Also, a spontaneous form exists. The metabolic abnormalities associated with this syndrome include hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia, and acute kidney injury. These abnormalities can lead to life-threatening complications, such as heart rhythm abnormalities and neurologic manifestations. The emergency management of overt TLS involves proper fluid resuscitation with crystalloids in order to improve the intravascular volume and the urinary output and to increase the renal excretion of potassium, phosphorus, and uric acid. With this therapeutic strategy, prevention of calcium phosphate and uric acid crystal deposition within renal tubules is achieved. Other measures in the management of overt TLS are prescription of hypouricemic agents, renal replacement therapy, and correction of electrolyte imbalances. Hyperkalemia should be treated quickly and aggressively as its presence is the most hazardous acute complication that can cause sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias. Treatment of hypocalcemia is reserved for patients with electrocardiographic changes or symptoms of neuromuscular irritability. In patients who are refractory to medical management of electrolyte abnormalities or with severe cardiac and neurologic manifestations, early dialysis is recommended.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, emergency department, emergency

  3. Tumor lysis without syndrome in adenocarcinoma of the lung: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Amit; Marak, Creticus; Alappan, Narendra Kumar; Alterman, Daniel; Shim, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome TLS is commonly seen during the treatment of rapidly proliferating. However TLS is rarely reported in Non-small cell Lung Cancer. This may because of low proliferative rate and chemo-resistant nature of NSCLC. We are reporting a case of tumor lysis without concomitant syndrome in a patient with adenocarcinoma of Lung.

  4. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in hepatocellular carcinoma presenting with hypocalcemic tetany: An unusual case and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Roshan; Batta, Akash; Suryadevera, Varun; Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder Singh

    2017-06-01

    Tumour lysis syndrome is an oncological emergency which is usually seen following chemotherapy for rapidly proliferating haematological malignancies. Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome is rare in solid tumour and even rarer with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tumour lysis syndrome in the setting of HCC is usually reported as a consequence of therapeutic interventions like sorafenib administration or trans-arterial chemoembolization. We report about a case of a young lady with chronic hepatitis B related HCC who developed spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome and presented with hypocalcemic tetany. We also compare this case with the previously reported cases of spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome in hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Secondary Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Early Stage Colorectal Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saad Usmani; Joel Appel; Zainab Shahid; Husain Saleh

    2008-01-01

    @@ Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) is a well-described oncological emergency that is usually associated with hematological malignan-cies complicated by treatment. It is typically related to a high tumor burden, rapidly growing and chemosensitive malignancies.

  6. Tumor lysis syndrome following trastuzumab and pertuzumab for metastatic breast cancer: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumor lysis syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal complication of oncologic treatments, especially in solid tumors. To the best of our knowledge, tumor lysis syndrome has never been reported after trastuzumab and pertuzumab combination therapy. Knowledge of risk factors and active prevention proceedings is of utmost importance to avoid fatal outcomes. Case presentation We present the case of a chemo-naive 58-year-old Belgian woman developing hypovolemic shock and multiple organ ...

  7. Tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with metastatic colon cancer after treatment with oxaliplatin and 5-Fu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Han Tseng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome in solid tumors is a rare occurrence, with a poor prognosis. We present the case of a patient of recurrent colon cancer who received chemotherapy with FOLFOX regimen (lencovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin with subsequent tumor lysis. We present a recurrent rectal cancer patient suffered from tumor lysis syndrome after salvage FOLFOX regimen. After treat with CVVH with improved conscious status. In this case report, we had review the tumor lysis in solid tumor.

  8. Preventing acute renal failure is crucial during acute tumor lysis syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmon Michael

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumour Lysis syndrome (TLS is characterized by the massive destruction of tumoral cells and the release in the extracellular space of their content. While TLS may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms and cause hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypocalcemia. Moreover, TLS may lead to an acute renal failure (ARF. In addition to the hospital mortality induced by the acute renal failure itself, development of an ARF may preclude optimal cancer treatment. Therefore, prevention of the acute renal failure during acute tumor lysis syndrome is mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms leading to acute tumor lysis syndrome, clinical and biological consequences of this syndrome and to provide up-to-date guidelines to ensure prevention and prompt management of this syndrome.

  9. Severe acute tumor lysis syndrome in patients with germ-cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Alvarenga Feres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Germ-cell tumors are a high-proliferative type of cancer that may evolve to significant bulky disease. Tumor lysis syndrome is rarely reported in this setting. The reports of three patients with germ-cell tumors who developed severe acute tumor lysis syndrome following the start of their anticancer therapy are presented. All patients developed renal dysfunction and multiorgan failure. Patients with extensive germ-cell tumors should be kept on close clinical and laboratory monitoring. Physicians should be aware of this uncommon but severe complication and consider early admission to the intensive care unit for the institution of measures to prevent acute renal failure.

  10. Cauda Equina Syndrome Following an Epidural Lysis Procedure: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Turan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidural lysis is known to be one of the therapy methods used following an unsuccessful low back surgery. Despite its proven effectiveness, several complications associated with epidural lysis procedure have been reported. The most common complications are dural perforation, breaking of the catheter and infections. Cauda equina syndrome is a rare complication seen after epidural lysis. A 51-year-old female complaining of lower back pain for six years underwent an epidural lysis procedure at the lumbar 3-4-5 level. Following the procedure, the patient was not able to walk due to weakness starting in both lower extremities, besides, she had fecal and urinary incontinence. After being diagnosed with cauda equina syndrome, a rehabilitation program was administered. After three months, the patient was ambulant with a bilateral dynamic carbon fiber ankle foot orthoses and a walker. It should be kept in mind that serious complications such as cauda equina syndrome, which may considerably affect the patients’ quality of life in a negative way, might develop after an epidural lysis procedure.

  11. Tumor lysis syndrome following endoscopic radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation of colorectal liver metastases.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barry, B D

    2012-02-03

    Radiofrequency interstitial thermal ablation (RITA) provides a palliative option for patients suffering from metastatic liver disease. This procedure can be performed using a laparoscopic approach with laparoscopic ultrasound used to position the RITA probe. We describe a case of laparoscopic RITA performed for colorectal liver metastasis that was complicated by tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) following treatment. We consider RITA to be a safe procedure, as supported by the literature, but where intracorporal tumor lysis is the treatment goal we believe that the systemic release of tumor products can overwhelm the excretory capacity; therefore, TLS is an inevitable consequence in some patients.

  12. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome in the Setting of B-Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Opyrchal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS presenting in absence of chemotherapy is a rare occurrence. One of the true oncological emergencies, it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. TLS is a phenomena usually associated with tumor cell death after treatment. The etiology of the spontaneous TLS is not well understood, which complicates the diagnosis. TLS is well known to oncologists but physicians outside of this specialty have little or no experience with this condition. Early recognition and treatment are the keys to limiting the sequela of the condition. Spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome is rare but presents added risks to the patient because of the potential for delayed diagnosis and no benefit of pretreatment. Diagnosis may be further delayed because this may be the first symptom of underlying malignancy. Therefore, it is imperative that all clinicians are familiar with the syndrome to assure timely recognition.

  13. Prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome, and the efficacy and role of rasburicase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alakel N

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nael Alakel,1 Jan Moritz Middeke,1 Johannes Schetelig,1,2 Martin Bornhäuser1 1Department of Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus at the Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden, 2German Bone Marrow Donor Center DKMS, Tübigen, Germany Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in oncologic and hematologic patients with large tumor burden, either due to cytotoxic therapy or, less commonly, spontaneously because of massive tumor cell lysis. TLS is clinically characterized by acute renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. While limited options are available for treating TLS, identifying patients at high risk for developing TLS and prevention in high-risk patients remain an important aspect in the treatment of cancer patients. In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, rapidly and effectively reduces hyperuricemia, which subsequently significantly decreases the risk of acute renal failure and other clinical manifestations of TLS. For this review, a comprehensive literature search using the term “tumor lysis syndrome” and/or “rasburicase” was performed considering articles listed in MEDLINE. Incidence, prevention, and therapy of TLS with a special focus on the role of rasburicase are discussed. We evaluated 120 relevant articles including 35 case reports, 32 clinical trials, and 14 meta-analyses. Keywords: rasburicase, tumor lysis syndrome, hyperuricemia, acute kidney injury

  14. [Tumor lysis syndrome in a pregnancy complicated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Goris, M P; Sánchez-Zamora, R; Torres-Aguilar, A A; Briones Garduño, J C

    2016-04-01

    Acute leukemia is rare during pregnancy, affects about 1 in 75,000 pregnancies, of all leukemias diagnosed only 28% are acute lymphoblastic leukemia, this is a risk factor to develop spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome, it's a oncologic complication potentially deadly if the prophylactic treatment its avoided. Cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia associated with pregnancy has been poorly documented in the literature the association of these two entities to pregnancy is the first report published worldwide, so the information is limited.

  15. Prevention and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome, and the efficacy and role of rasburicase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakel, Nael; Middeke, Jan Moritz; Schetelig, Johannes; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially life-threatening condition that occurs in oncologic and hematologic patients with large tumor burden, either due to cytotoxic therapy or, less commonly, spontaneously because of massive tumor cell lysis. TLS is clinically characterized by acute renal failure, hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hypocalcemia. While limited options are available for treating TLS, identifying patients at high risk for developing TLS and prevention in high-risk patients remain an important aspect in the treatment of cancer patients. In general, treatment of TLS consists of intensive hydration, stimulation of diuresis, and, more specifically, in the use of allopurinol and rasburicase. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, rapidly and effectively reduces hyperuricemia, which subsequently significantly decreases the risk of acute renal failure and other clinical manifestations of TLS. For this review, a comprehensive literature search using the term “tumor lysis syndrome” and/or “rasburicase” was performed considering articles listed in MEDLINE. Incidence, prevention, and therapy of TLS with a special focus on the role of rasburicase are discussed. We evaluated 120 relevant articles including 35 case reports, 32 clinical trials, and 14 meta-analyses. PMID:28203093

  16. Tumour Lysis Syndrome and Partial Remission Occurring After Administration of a Test Dose of Obinutuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Jaffer Abdalkhalig Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL is one of the most common haematological malignancies worldwide, with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which showed superiority over rituximab in combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil for the treatment of CLL in the CLL11 trial (NCT01010061 and is becoming part of standard first line treatment for CLL in the elderly based on its potent efficacy and benign safety profile. We report the case of a chemotherapy naive patient who develop tumour lysis syndrome despite appropriate prophylaxis, and had partial remission of her disease after receiving only the initial test dose of obinutuzumab.

  17. Sorafenib induced tumor lysis syndrome in an advanced hepatocellular carcinoma patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu-Shiung Huang; Chang-Hsu Yang

    2009-01-01

    A 55-year-old male patient with hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis was found to have advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. His AFP was initially 9828 mg/L and rapidly dropped to 5597 mg/L in ten days after oral sorafenib treatment. However, he developed acute renal failure, hyperkalemia, and hyperuricemia 30 d after receiving the sorafenib treatment. Tumor lysis syndrome was suspected and intensive hemodialysis was performed. Despite intensive hemodialysis and other supportive therapy, he developed multiple organ failure (liver, renal, and respiratory failure) and metabolic acidosis. The patient expired 13 d after admission.

  18. Treatment and prevention of tumor lysis syndrome in children. Experience of Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pession, Andrea; Barbieri, Eveline

    2005-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) are complications that can arise from treatment of rapidly proliferating and drug-sensitive neoplasms. Clinical trials have shown rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase to be more effective than allopurinol for the prevention and treatment of malignancy-associated hyperuricemia. We investigated the safety and efficacy of rasburicase in the AIEOP centers' experience. We reviewed the data of 26 children with malignancy at risk for TLS, submitted to treatment (group 1) or prophylaxis (group 2) of acute hyperuricemia with rasburicase (0.20 mg/kg intravenously daily) for a median period of 4 days. Rasburicase produced a significant decrease in uric acid concentrations in all the patients. The control of uric acid levels was obtained in both the groups within 24 h of the first dose with a response rate of 100% (group 1) and 93% (group 2). Normalization of creatinine and phosphorus levels was obtained in 5 and 4 days respectively. Tolerance was excellent without toxicity. These data confirm that rasburicase is a safe, highly and rapidly effective agent in the treatment and prevention of malignancy-associated acute hyperuricemia and could be considered the treatment of choice to prevent tumor lysis syndrome in children at high risk for this metabolic complication.

  19. Complicated Tumor Lysis Syndrome after CVVH Treatment in a Renal Transplantation Patient: One Case Report and Literature Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zengbo Liu; Li Li; Jianhui Yang; Zhishuang Han; Zengyi Ma; Aimei Feng

    2009-01-01

    @@ Introduction Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially lethal emergency caused by lysed tumor cells, and it frequently occurs in tumors of hematologic origin. Up until now, there has been only one known report published overseas about TLS resulting from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD)[1].

  20. [Effect of lysis of acupotomology on plasma vasoactive substance levels in rats with third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chang-Qing; Liu, Nai-Gang; Li, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Hong-Mei; Lu, Jing; Ma, Hui-Fang; Chen, Zhan-Lu; Hu, Bo; Liu, Lin; Zhu, Han-Zhang

    2007-10-01

    To observe the effect of small needle-knife lysis on plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), endothelin (ET), 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) contents in rats with experimental third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome (TLVTPS) so as to explore its underlying mechanism in clinical treatment. Forty SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, model, lysis and EA groups. TLVTPS model was established by embedding a piece of gelatin sponge (0.5 cm x 0.5 cm) to the transverse process of the 3rd lumbar vertebra under anesthesia. EA (2/100 Hz, 1-2 mA) was applied to left "Shenshu" (BL23) -"Yaoyangguan" (GV3) for 20 min, once every other day, 6 times altogether. For animals of lysis group, the lysis was performed by using a small needle-knife in the induration spot or cord-like region near the incision, once a week and twice altogether. Four weeks later after modeling, plasma CGRP, ET, 6-keto-PGF1alpha and TXA2 contents were detected by using radioimmunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared with normal control group, plasma CGRP, ET, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha increased significantly in model group (Pplasma CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha in both EA and lysis groups decreased considerably (Pplasma CGRP, ET and 6-keto-PGF1alpha levels (P>0.05). Both EA and lysis of acupotomology have an adjusting effect on vasoactive substances (CGRP, TXA2 and 6-keto-PGF1alpha) levels in TLVTPS rats, which may contribute to their effects in improving local blood circulation and relieving soft tissue injury in the treatment of third lumbar vertebra transverse process syndrome.

  1. [White blood cell lysis syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in the treatment of renal AL amyloidosis. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatica, Antonio; Bertin, Pablo; Tagle, Rodrigo

    2006-06-01

    The treatment of AL amyloidosis was not successful until the advent of myeloablative chemotherapy consisting of high-dose intravenous melphalan followed by autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. This new treatment has achieved better survival rates and, remarkably, it has obtained complete remission. Among patients with renal involvement, achievement of a complete hematological response was associated with a 50% reduction in proteinuria and stable creatinine clearance in more than 2/3 of patients. Despite of these excellent results, this new therapy is associated with significant toxicity, including the development of acute renal failure due to white blood cell lysis syndrome. We report a 59 year-old female with a nephrotic syndrome due to primary amyloidosis successfully treated autologous stem cell transplantation who developed acute renal failure caused by white blood cell lysis syndrome. The patient required treatment with granulocytic colony stimulating factor and intermittent hemofiltration and was discharged 23 days after melphalan administration with a satisfactory renal function and white blood cell count. After one year of follow up, she maintains a good glomerular filtration rate, a proteinuria of less than, 1 g/day and normal hematological values.

  2. Uric acid and the prediction models of tumor lysis syndrome in AML.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ahsan Ejaz

    Full Text Available We investigated the ability of serum uric acid (SUA to predict laboratory tumor lysis syndrome (LTLS and compared it to common laboratory variables, cytogenetic profiles, tumor markers and prediction models in acute myeloid leukemia patients. In this retrospective study patients were risk-stratified for LTLS based on SUA cut-off values and the discrimination ability was compared to current prediction models. The incidences of LTLS were 17.8%, 21% and 62.5% in the low, intermediate and high-risk groups, respectively. SUA was an independent predictor of LTLS (adjusted OR 1.12, CI95% 1.0-1.3, p = 0.048. The discriminatory ability of SUA, per ROC curves, to predict LTLS was superior to LDH, cytogenetic profile, tumor markers and the combined model but not to WBC (AUCWBC 0.679. However, in comparisons between high-risk SUA and high-risk WBC, SUA had superior discriminatory capability than WBC (AUCSUA 0.664 vs. AUCWBC 0.520; p <0.001. SUA also demonstrated better performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.695, p<0.001. In direct comparison of high-risk groups, SUA again demonstrated superior performance than the prediction models (high-risk SUAAUC 0.668, p = 0.001 in predicting LTLS, approaching that of the combined model (AUC 0.685, p<0.001. In conclusion, SUA alone is comparable and highly predictive for LTLS than other prediction models.

  3. Rasburicase represents a new tool for hyperuricemia in tumor lysis syndrome and in gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Cammalleri, Mariano Malaguarnera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a feature of several pathologies and requires an appropriate and often early treatment, owing to the severe consequences that it may cause. A rapid and massive raise of uric acid, during tumor lysis syndrome (TLS, and also a lower and chronic hyperuricemia, as in gout, mainly damage the kidney. To prevent or treat these consequences, a new therapeutic option is represented by rasburicase, a recombinant form of an enzyme, urate oxidase. This enzyme converts hypoxanthine and xanthine into allantoin, a more soluble molecule, easily cleared by kidney. The several types of urate oxidase have followed each other, with progressive reduction of adverse reactions. The most important among them are allergenicity and the development of antibodies which compromise their effectiveness. Nevertheless, a limit of rasburicase's use remains its cost, which obliges to a judicious choice to prevent TLS in high risk patients with cancer and in case of allergy or impossibility to take allopurinol orally both in TLS and in gout. A large body of evidence confirms the efficacy and safety of rasburicase, even in comparison to the standard drugs used in the aforementioned pathologies.

  4. Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome in a DBA/1J mouse: a case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Karen; vanGessel, Yvonne; Asher, Ludmila V; Vogel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) was diagnosed in a 10-month-old female DBA/1J sentinel mouse with leukemic lymphoma. The mouse was unable to maintain balance and died shortly after being observed rolling around in its cage. Disseminated neoplastic disease, including a large cranial mediastinal mass, enlarged lymph nodes and splenomegaly, was present at necropsy. Histopathologic examination revealed widespread massive necrosis of lymphoblastic tumor cells, and widely disseminated microemboli composed of nuclear and cytoplasmic cell debris. Although ATLS is widely recognized as an oncologic emergency in humans, acute lesions of ATLS have not been described. The mechanical obstruction of capillary beds by microemboli originating from disintegrating necrotic tumor cells was the likely cause of clinical signs and death in this mouse. We propose that similar microemboli may contribute to the pathogenesis of the acute renal failure and other clinical signs associated with ATLS in humans. Recognition of spontaneous ATLS in laboratory animals is especially important in studies that assess the efficacy and/or toxicity of anticancer treatments, where early deaths due to ATLS might mistakenly be attributed to a direct test article effect.

  5. Single-dose rasburicase 6 mg in the management of tumor lysis syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Anne M; Lenz, Kristi L; Frei-Lahr, Debra A; Hayslip, John; Hall, Philip D

    2006-06-01

    Rasburicase is currently approved at a dosage of 0.15-0.2 mg/kg once/day for 5 days in pediatric patients with cancer to lower plasma uric acid concentrations and manage tumor lysis syndrome (TLS). Information on rasburicase dosing in adults is limited, with some data on using rasburicase as a single dose instead of multiple daily doses. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of rasburicase for preventing or managing TLS in adults. We collected retrospective data for 11 adults with hematologic malignancies who received a single 6-mg dose of rasburicase. All patients received intravenous hydration with urinary alkalinization and allopurinol; however, due to adverse reactions, two patients received short courses of allopurinol. Only patients at high risk for TLS (e.g., large tumor burden, increasing uric acid concentration) or those with TLS received rasburicase. The single dose of rasburicase 6 mg resulted in a median 0.0773-mg/kg dose (range 0.0232-0.1361 mg/kg). The single 6-mg dose rapidly lowered uric acid concentrations in 10 of the 11 patients. The median uric acid concentration of 11.7 mg/dl (range 7.4-17.4 mg/dl) declined to 2.0 mg/dl (range 0.5-15.4 mg/dl) within a day after rasburicase administration (p=0.022). In these 10 patients, uric acid concentrations remained low despite subsequent chemotherapy, and none required additional rasburicase doses. The only patient who did not respond to the single 6-mg rasburicase dose was a morbidly obese man (259 kg, body mass index 87 kg/m2) who subsequently responded to an additional dose of rasburicase 12 mg. These results warrant further investigation of a single 6-mg dose of rasburicase in adults with TLS or at high-risk for developing TLS.

  6. 肿瘤溶解综合征的诊治%Diagnosis and treatment of tumor lysis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯顺乔

    2015-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome(tumor lysis syndrome,TLS) is a common severe early complication of malignant disease in blood system.It also can occur in other malignancies.TLS is due to the large number of tumor cells dissolved in the short term,and release the intracellular metabolites,which cause a group of metabolic disorders syndromes.Its clinical features are hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia,hyperphosphatemia,hypocalcemia,acute renal failure.Positive prevention.Early diagnosis and effective treatment can prevent serious complications.In this paper,we review the relevant literature to explore pathological mechanism,epidemiology, risk factors,clinical diagnosis,prevention and treatment of TLS.%肿瘤溶解综合征(Tumor lysis syndrome,TLS)是血液系统恶性病中较常见的早期严重并发症,也可发生于其他恶性肿瘤。TLS是由于肿瘤细胞短期内大量溶解,释放细胞内代谢产物,引起代谢紊乱的一组综合征,临床特点为高尿酸血症、高血钾、高血磷、低血钙、急性肾功能衰竭。积极预防、早期诊断和有效的治疗可避免严重并发症的发生。本文复习相关文献以探讨TLS发生的病理机制、流行病学特征、高危因素、临床诊断、预防及治疗。

  7. Pitfalls, prevention, and treatment of hyperuricemia during tumor lysis syndrome in the era of rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pession

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Pession, Fraia Melchionda, Claudia CastelliniOncologia Ematologia Pediatrica “Lalla Seràgnoli”, Clinica Pediatrica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Along with hydration and urinary alkalinization, allopurinol has been the standard agent for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with a high tumor burden at risk of tumor lysis syndrome; however, this agent often fails to prevent and treat this complication effectively. Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase has been shown to be effective in reducing uric acid and preventing uric acid accumulation in patients with hematologic malignancies with hyperuricemia or at high risk of developing it. Rasburicase acts at the end of the purine catabolic pathway and, unlike allopurinol, does not induce accumulation of xanthine or hypoxanthine. Its rapid onset of action and the ability to lower pre-existing elevated uric acid levels are the advantages of rasburicase over allopurinol. Rasburicase represents an effective alternative to allopurinol to promptly reduce uric acid levels, improve patient’s electrolyte status, and reverse renal insufficiency. The drug, initially studied in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seems to show comparable benefit in adults with similar lymphoid malignancies or at high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Current and future trials will evaluate alternative doses and different schedules of rasburicase to maintain its efficacy while reducing its cost. The review provides a comprehensive and detailed review of pathogenesis, laboratory, and clinical presentation of TLS together with clinical studies already performed both in pediatric and adult patients.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, urate oxidase, rasburicase, allopurinol, uric acid

  8. Severe Tumor Lysis Syndrome and Acute Pulmonary Edema Requiring Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Following Initiation of Chemotherapy for Metastatic Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ethan; Wolbrink, Traci; Mack, Jennifer; Rowe, R Grant

    2016-05-01

    We present an 8-year-old male with metastatic alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) who developed precipitous cardiopulmonary collapse with severe tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) 48 hr after initiation of chemotherapy. Despite no detectable pulmonary metastases, acute hypoxemic respiratory failure developed, requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Although TLS has been reported in disseminated ARMS, this singular case of life-threatening respiratory deterioration developing after initiation of chemotherapy presented unique therapeutic dilemmas. We review the clinical aspects of this case, including possible mechanisms of respiratory failure, and discuss the role of ECMO utilization in pediatric oncology.

  9. Successful lysis of bilateral renal vein thrombosis following neonatal truncus repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Sudesh; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Alphonso, Nelson; McCaffery, Kevin; Anderson, Ben; Karl, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the most common noncatheter-related thrombosis encountered in infancy, most of which occurs in neonates. The optimal management strategy for neonatal RVT is unclear. Fibrinolytic and heparin therapy may play a role in preventing chronic renal failure in neonates with bilateral RVT. However, the use of fibrinolytics early after any major surgery requires tremendous caution. In this report, we describe the successful use of fibrinolysis in a neonate with bilateral RVT after repair of truncus arteriosus in the early postoperative period.

  10. An unusual presentation of tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec, Danica Maria; Rubio, Jose Enrique; Fornoni, Alessia; Lenz, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia in patients with a malignancy. When these laboratory abnormalities develop rapidly, clinical complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure, seizures, or death may occur. TLS is caused by rapid release of intracellular contents by dying tumor cells, a condition that is expected to be common in hematologic malignancies. However, TLS rarely occurs with solid tumors, and here we present the second chemotherapy-induced TLS in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma to be reported in the literature. We also provide information regarding the total cases of TLS in solid tumors reported from 1977 to present day. Our methodology involved identifying key articles from existing reviews of the literature and then using search terms from these citations in MEDLINE to find additional publications. We relied on a literature review published in 2003 by Baeksgaard et al., where they gathered all total 45 cases reported from 1977 to 2003. Then, we looked for new reported cases from 2004 to present day. All reports (case reports, brief reports, letters to editor, correspondence, reviews, journals, and short communications) identified through these searches were reviewed and included.

  11. An Unusual Presentation of Tumor Lysis Syndrome in a Patient with Advanced Gastric Adenocarcinoma: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danica Maria Vodopivec

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, and secondary hypocalcemia in patients with a malignancy. When these laboratory abnormalities develop rapidly, clinical complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, acute renal failure, seizures, or death may occur. TLS is caused by rapid release of intracellular contents by dying tumor cells, a condition that is expected to be common in hematologic malignancies. However, TLS rarely occurs with solid tumors, and here we present the second chemotherapy-induced TLS in a patient with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma to be reported in the literature. We also provide information regarding the total cases of TLS in solid tumors reported from 1977 to present day. Our methodology involved identifying key articles from existing reviews of the literature and then using search terms from these citations in MEDLINE to find additional publications. We relied on a literature review published in 2003 by Baeksgaard et al., where they gathered all total 45 cases reported from 1977 to 2003. Then, we looked for new reported cases from 2004 to present day. All reports (case reports, brief reports, letters to editor, correspondence, reviews, journals, and short communications identified through these searches were reviewed and included.

  12. Hyperphosphatemia during spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome culminate in severe hyphosphatemia at the time of blast crisis of Phneg CML to acute myelomoncytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Ophira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extreme swing of phosphor from severe hyperphosphatemia to severe hypophosphatemia in a patient with blast crisis of myeloid origin was the result of imbalance between massive apoptosis of leukemic cells in the context of spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome and massive production of leukemic cells with only 1% of blast in peripheral blood. The mutated p53 protein suggested acting as oncogene in the presented case and possibly affecting phosphor status.

  13. Síndrome de lise tumoral: uma revisão abrangente da literatura Acute tumor lysis syndrome: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Darmon

    2008-09-01

    égias baseadas no risco dos pacientes são necessários para limitar a alta morbidade e mortalidade desta complicação.Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by the massive destruction of malignant cells and the release in the extra-cellular space of their content. While Tumor lysis syndrome may occur spontaneously before treatment, it usually develops shortly after the initiation of cytotoxic chemotherapy. These metabolites can overwhelm the homeostatic mechanisms with development of hyperuricaemia, hyperkalaemia, hyperphosphataemia, and hypocalcaemia. These biological manifestations may lead to clinical manifestations including, acute kidney injury, seizure, or sudden death that require intensive care. Since clinical tumor lysis syndrome is associated with a poor prognosis both prevention of tumor lysis syndrome and prevention of clinical consequences of tumor lysis syndrome are mandatory. The objective of this review is to describe pathophysiological mechanisms, biological and clinical manifestations of tumor Lysis syndrome, and to provide upto-date guidelines to ensure prevention of tumor lysis syndrome. Review of selected studies on tumor lysis syndrome published at the PubMed database www.pubmed.gov during the last 20 years. Additional references were retrieved from the studies initially selected. Tumor lysis syndrome is a frequent and life-threatening complication of the newly diagnosed malignancies. Preventive measures, including hydration, uricolytic agents, eviction of factors predisposing to acute kidney injury and, in the more severe patients, on prophylactic renal replacement therapy, are required to prevent or limit clinical consequences of Tumor lysis syndrome. However optimal timing and modalities of prevention remains unknown and may be modified by the changing spectrum of patients at risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Development and validation of risk based strategies is required to limit the high morbidity and mortality of this complication.

  14. Role of serum sodium in assessing hospital mortality in cancer patients with spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome inducing acute uric acid nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, H-H; Chen, Y-C; Tian, Y-C; Chan, Y-L; Kuo, M-C; Tang, C-C; Fang, J-T; Lee, S-Y; Yang, C-W

    2009-05-01

    Spontaneous tumour lysis syndrome (STLS) inducing acute uric acid nephropathy, a rare and neglected disease, presents more insidiously than conventional post-treatment tumour lysis syndrome. Although STLS is a serious and potentially fatal complication in patients with neoplastic disorders, few investigations have addressed the relevance of clinical and laboratory features in assessing prognosis. A retrospective study was conducted, reviewing the records of all patients who developed acute renal failure (ARF) at Chang Gung memorial hospital between 1 July 1999 and 30 June 2003. STLS-induced acute uric acid nephropathy was identified in 12 of 1072 ARF patients (1.1%) during the study period. All patients had advanced stage tumours with large tumour burden, and 66.7% of cases had abdominal organ involvement. All 12 hyperuricemic patients became oliguric despite conservative therapy, and remained hyperuricemic (21.6 +/- 5.2 mg/dl) before dialysis therapy. Diuresis developed in eight patients (66.7%), with associated resolution of hyperuricemia, azotemia and metabolic derangements following dialysis initiation. Overall hospital mortality was 58.3%. Death in most patients was related to hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on admission. The serum sodium was found to have the best Youden index (0.86) and highest overall prediction accuracy (93%). Moreover, serum sodium and serum albumin for individual patients were significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.617, p = 0.032). This investigation confirms a grave prognosis for cancer patients with STLS inducing acute uric acid nephropathy. Hyponatremia and hypoalbuminemia on the first day of admission indicate poor prognosis in such patients.

  15. The challenges of treating paraganglioma patients with {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE PRRT: Catecholamine crises, tumor lysis syndrome and the need for modification of treatment protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makis, William; Mccann, Karey; Mcewan, Alexander J. B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta (China)

    2015-09-15

    A high percentage of paragangliomas express somatostatin receptors that can be utilized for targeted radioisotope therapy. The aim of this study was to describe and discuss the challenges of treating these tumors with {sup 177}Lu-[DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (DOTATATE) radioisotope therapy using established protocols. Three paraganglioma patients were treated with 4–5 cycles of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE and were evaluated for side effects and response to therapy. Two of the three patients developed severe adverse reactions following their first {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatment. One patient developed a catecholamine crisis and tumor lysis syndrome within hours of treatment, requiring intensive care unit (ICU) support, and another developed a catecholamine crisis 3 days after treatment, requiring hospitalization. The treatment protocols at our institution were subsequently modified by increasing the radioisotope infusion time from 15 to 30 min, as recommended in the literature, to 2–4 h and by reducing the administered dose of {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE. Subsequent {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE treatments utilizing the modified protocols were well tolerated, and response to therapy was achieved in all three patients, resulting in significantly improved quality of life. {sup 177}Lu-DOTATATE is an exciting new therapeutic option in the management of paragangliomas; however, current treatment protocols described in the literature may need to be modified by lengthening the infusion time and/or lowering the initial treatment dose to prevent or reduce the severity of adverse reactions.

  16. 临床药师参与1例肿瘤溶解综合征患者治疗的药学监护%Clinical Pharmacists Participating in Pharmaceutical Care for a Patient with Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华锋; 陈璿英; 彭小东; 黎军和

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨临床药师对肿瘤溶解综合征患者的药学监护.方法:结合l例典型病例分析用药情况,分析肿瘤专业临床药师对肿瘤溶解综合征患者的监护点.结果:对化疗导致肿瘤溶解综合征的高危人群,应及时停用或调整化疗药物,临床药师要及早从血钾、尿酸、肾功能、钙磷等方面密切监护,并及时干预.结论:临床药师应利用与医护人员互补的药学专业知识,及时了解肿瘤溶解综合征发生的高危因素,为患者提供个体化的药学监护.%OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical pharmacists participating in pharmaceutical care for a patient with tumor lysis syndrome. METHODS: According to analysis of drug use in a typical case, pharmaceutical care for a patient with tumor lysis syndrome by clinical pharmacist in oncology department was analyzed. RESULTS: For high-risk patients with chemotherapy-induced tumor lysis syndrome, it was necessary for timely drug withdrawl and adjustment of chemotherapy drugs. Clinical pharmacist should closely monitor and intervene timely in terms of hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, kidney function and hyperphosphatemia. CONCLUSION: Clinical pharmacist and medical staff should enhance their knowledge of pharmacy, realize the high risk factors of tumor lysis syndrome and offer individualized pharmaceutical care for patients.

  17. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Successful treatment with bromocriptine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Elderson, Arthur; Westenberg, H.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication of antipsychotic drugs and is characterized by severe muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and autonomic dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of NMS is considered to be related to dopamine-receptor blockade in the basal

  18. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome : Successful treatment with bromocriptine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, W.M.A.; Elderson, Arthur; Westenberg, H.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    The neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a potentially fatal complication of antipsychotic drugs and is characterized by severe muscle rigidity, hyperpyrexia, and autonomic dysfunctions. The pathogenesis of NMS is considered to be related to dopamine-receptor blockade in the basal ganglia and hyp

  19. Successful treatment of SAPHO syndrome with an oral bisphosphonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Jiro; Sato, Eiichi; Haro, Hirotaka; Ando, Takashi; Maekawa, Singo; Hamada, Yoshiki

    2009-04-01

    The etiology of the synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome remains unclear and treatment with various drugs for SAPHO syndrome often fails. But recently the effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonates (BPs) for SAPHO syndrome has been reported in many cases and the use of intravenous BPs as first choice drug has been thought to be effective. On the other hand, serious side effects of intravenous BPs were reported in some cases. This is the first reported case of successful treatment of SAPHO syndrome with an oral BPs, the use of which is safer and more practical than intravenous BPs.

  20. Success of behaviour modification in a child with Asperger's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Šteh, Urška

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this degree dissertation is the success rate of behaviour modification in a child with the autistic spectrum disorder Asperger’s syndrome. I decided to pursue this subject based on my work in a kindergarten, where I became acquainted with a boy with Asperger’s syndrome. The issue I encountered was that I could find no sources where the method of behaviour modification was implemented with persons that have Asperger’s syndrome. For this reason I decided to determine, by using...

  1. Cardiac dysfunction is reversed upon successful treatment of Cushing's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Pereira (Alberto); V. Delgado (Victoria); J.A. Romijn (Johannes); J.W.A. Smit (Jan); J.J. Bax (Jeroen); R.A. Feelders (Richard)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS), cardiac structural and functional changes have been described in a limited number of patients. It is unknown whether these changes reverse after successful treatment. We therefore evaluated the changes in cardiac structure and d

  2. Acute spontaneous tumor lysis in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma presenting with hyperuricemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsiang-Hao; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2004-01-01

    Acute spontaneous tumor lysis (ASTL) syndrome, an extremely rare disease, requires prompt recognition and aggressive management because it is fulminant at its outset, associated with severe metabolic derangement, and potentially reversible. We describe an unusual case in which spontaneous tumor lysis occurred in anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma associated with acute uric acid nephropathy, persistent oliguria, and shock. This case contrasts markedly with previously reported cases of ASTL syndrome, which developed mainly in the pathologic type of Burkitt lymphoma. To our knowledge, this is the first reported occurrence of ASTL syndrome associated with anaplastic large T-cell type lymphoma. This report also chronicles our successful experience with continuous renal replacement therapy in the presence of compromised hemodynamic status.

  3. A successful team treatment for left main shock syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Que; Yu-Tong Cheng; Hai Gao; Xiao-Tong Hou; Ran Dong; Nan Li; Shao-Ping Nie

    2013-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and left main coronary artery disease is called left main shock syndrome. It is reported that the morbility and mortality of the syndrome is approximately 0.46%and 55%-80%, respectively. However, the best treat-ment strategy in these cases is unknown. In this article, we present a patient with LMSS who successively underwent emergency percutane-ous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting with hemodynamic support within 5 days. The patient is now on his three month uneventful out-patient follow-up.

  4. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  5. Successful Pulmonary Endarterectomy in a Patient with Klinefelter Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wierda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a frequent genetic disorder due to one or more supernumerary X chromosomes. KS is associated with an increased risk for venous thromboembolic events like deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. This paper describes a 37-year-old male patient with KS referred to our tertiary center with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and who was successfully treated by pulmonary endarterectomy.

  6. Successful Pregnancy Outcome In Maternal Crigler Najjar Syndrome Type II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakuntala PN

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimated incidence of Crigler-Najjar syndrome(CNS is 1 case per 1,000,000 births(1 million. The overall prevalence of CN syndrome is unknown, with only several hundred people reported to have this disease. It is interestingly very rare to encounter a pregnant adult women with congenital jaundice. Pregnancy in CN type II patients is a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge because of the high risk of bilirubin encephalopathy with serious neurological damage as life-threatening complications for the fetus. To date 8 pregnancy outcome have been reported from 5 women and we report the6 woman with a successful 9 th pregnancy outcome. We have discussed detail history, presentation and management during pregnancy and care of the new born.

  7. Plummer-Vinson syndrome successfully treated by endoscopic dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Masaru; Kohmoto, Madoka; Arafa, Usama Ahmed; Shiba, Masatsugu; Watanabe, Toshio; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Saeki, Yoshihiko; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Shiomi, Susumu; Osugi, Haruji; Kinoshita, Hiroaki; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2007-12-01

    Plummer-Vinson (Paterson-Brown-Kelly) syndrome is uncommon nowadays. Although iron repletion improves its symptoms, endoscopic dilatation of associated esophageal webs is sometimes required. The case is described of a 69-year-old woman with Plummer-Vinson syndrome who was successfully treated by endoscopic bougienage. The patient had a longstanding history of anemia and slowly progressive dysphagia of solid food. Laboratory data on admission showed iron deficiency anemia (red blood cell count 402 x 10(4)/microL, hemoglobin 6.8 g/dL, serum iron 8 microg/dL, and serum ferritin 2.4 ng/mL). Radiographic esophagography revealed two circumferential webs at the level of the cervical esophagus. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a severe upper esophageal stricture caused by a smooth mucosal diaphragm. The patient was prescribed 40 mg of intravenous iron supplements daily for 30 days; her anemia improved but the dysphagia did not. Endoscopic bougienage was performed with the use of Celestin dilators of serially increasing diameters. The webs were easily disrupted without complications. The patient's dysphagia resolved shortly after the treatment and did not recur. This experience indicates that endoscopic bougienage is safe, effective, and relatively easy to perform in patients with severe esophageal stenosis.

  8. Successful Anticoagulation Therapy for Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Mobile Aortic Thrombi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Oh; Moon, Seong Ho; Kim, Jong Woo; Byun, Joung Hun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yang, Jun Ho; Lee, Chung-Eun; Kim, Jong-Duk

    2016-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states have been associated with aortic thrombosis. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the commonest types of acquired thrombophilia. We report the case of successful anticoagulation management in an APS patient with mobile thrombi within the aorta. A 58-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department (ED) with right-sided hemiparesis. His first symptoms were noted approximately 12–16 hours before presentation to the ED. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed acute embolic infarction of the left frontal and parietotemporal lobes. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated mobile thrombi attached to the wall of the ascending aorta and aortic arch. The patient was diagnosed with APS based on positivity of anti-beta-2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies, and was initiated on anticoagulation therapy. Repeated TEE and CTA revealed complete resolution of the thrombi after 12 days of treatment; the patient was discharged well. PMID:28042559

  9. Successful capecitabine rechallenge following 5-fluorouracil-induced Takotsubo syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; McCarthy, Michael T.; Yusof, Haliana; Osman, Nemer

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity is a widely reported complication of fluoropyrimidine chemotherapies (5-fluorouracil and capecitabine); however, Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is less widely reported. There is little data available describing the viability of fluoropyrimidine rechallenge after fluoropyrimidine-induced TS. We report the case of Ms X, a 41-year-old woman with metastatic oesophageal cancer, who developed acute onset left ventricular dysfunction, with a measured left ventricular ejection fraction of 15% on cycle 1 day 3 of FOLFOX chemotherapy, after disconnection of the fluorouracil infusion pump. Her symptoms resolved over 2 days, and an echocardiogram returned to normal within 2 weeks. 5-Fluorouracil was discontinued, and replaced with capecitabine, without recurrence of symptoms. The remainder of her treatment was uneventful. This is the second case to describe successful capecitabine retreatment following 5-fluorouracil-induced TS. PMID:26989494

  10. Empty follicle syndrome: Successful pregnancy following dual trigger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Empty follicle syndrome (EFS is an uncommon, but the frustrating complication of assisted reproductive technology with failure to obtain oocytes after an adequate ovarian response to stimulation. Most of the reported cases of EFS are drug-related problems which are actually avoidable and do not represent any potential pathology and that the risk of genuine EFS (GEFS is much smaller than was once thought. Our case is thefirst report of a pregnancy obtained after management of GEFS with dual trigger in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist cycle. In this report, we present a patient who underwent two oocyte retrievals, in which no oocytes were obtained. In the third in-vitrofertilization cycle, a dual trigger with the combination of GnRH agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin yielded 11 oocytes, which led to the transfer of 2 blastocysts resulting in a live birth. Changing the treatment protocol with dual trigger brought about a successful outcome.

  11. Empty follicle syndrome: Successful pregnancy following dual trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepika, K; Rathore, Suvarna; Garg, Nupur; Rao, Kamini

    2015-01-01

    Empty follicle syndrome (EFS) is an uncommon, but the frustrating complication of assisted reproductive technology with failure to obtain oocytes after an adequate ovarian response to stimulation. Most of the reported cases of EFS are drug-related problems which are actually avoidable and do not represent any potential pathology and that the risk of genuine EFS (GEFS) is much smaller than was once thought. Our case is the first report of a pregnancy obtained after management of GEFS with dual trigger in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist cycle. In this report, we present a patient who underwent two oocyte retrievals, in which no oocytes were obtained. In the third in-vitro fertilization cycle, a dual trigger with the combination of GnRH agonist and human chorionic gonadotropin yielded 11 oocytes, which led to the transfer of 2 blastocysts resulting in a live birth. Changing the treatment protocol with dual trigger brought about a successful outcome.

  12. Síndrome de lisis tumoral en un paciente con cáncer de riñón tratado con sunitinib Tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with a renal carcinoma treated with sunitinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Rodríguez-Reimúndes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT es un trastorno metabólico que ocurre como consecuencia de una destrucción celular masiva. Se caracteriza por la presencia de hiperuricemia, hiperfosfatemia, hipocalcemia e hiperkalemia, y predispone al desarrollo de insuficiencia renal aguda. En la mayoría de los casos el SLT ocurre luego de instaurarse un tratamiento antitumoral y es más frecuente en tumores de alto grado de malignidad y alta sensibilidad a la quimioterapia. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con diagnóstico de cáncer de riñón recidivado que presenta un SLT e insuficiencia renal aguda luego de iniciar tratamiento con sunitinib.The tumor mor lysis syndrome (TLS is a metabolic disorder resulting from a massive tumor breakdown. It is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia and hyperkalemia and predisposes to acute renal failure. TLS usually occurs after the initiation of cytotoxic therapy and is more frequent in the case of neoplasias with a high proliferative rate or that are highly chemo-sensitive. We report the case of a man with a recurrent kidney cancer who presented with a TLS and acute renal failure after initiation of sunitinib.

  13. Piriformis syndrome in fibromyalgia: clinical diagnosis and successful treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiq, Md Abu Bakar; Khasru, Moshiur Rahman; Rasker, Johannes J

    2014-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis muscle or sciatic nerve. In this paper, we describe piriformis and fibromyalgia syndrome in a 30-year-old young lady, an often missed diagnosis. We also focus on management of the piriformis syndrome.

  14. Piriformis Syndrome in Fibromyalgia: Clinical Diagnosis and Successful Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Bakar Siddiq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis muscle or sciatic nerve. In this paper, we describe piriformis and fibromyalgia syndrome in a 30-year-old young lady, an often missed diagnosis. We also focus on management of the piriformis syndrome.

  15. Development of abdominal compartment syndrome secondary to tumor lysis in an infant with disseminated stage 4 neuroblastoma despite decompressive laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy V. Klimovich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-week-old girl presented with disseminated stage 4 neuroblastoma complicated with massive hepatomegaly and signs of liver failure. She underwent wedge liver biopsy and decompressive laparotomy with GORE-TEX® patch placement prior to the administration of chemotherapy. Her fluid losses during chemotherapy were so severe that her GORE-TEX® patch became tense and filled with ascites resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. A negative pressure dressing system was applied after opening the patch to assist in the quantification of the fluid losses and to allow decompression. Unfortunately, in spite of favorable histology, the patient failed to adequately respond to chemotherapy resulting in persistent hepatomegaly. Soon after, she developed respiratory, renal insufficiency and disseminated intravascular coagulation, leading to her death 12 days after the initiation of treatment.

  16. Piriformis Syndrome in Fibromyalgia: Clinical Diagnosis and Successful Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Md Abu Bakar Siddiq; Moshiur Rahman Khasru; Rasker, Johannes J

    2014-01-01

    Piriformis syndrome is an underdiagnosed extraspinal association of sciatica. Patients usually complain of deep seated gluteal pain. In severe cases the clinical features of piriformis syndrome are primarily due to spasm of the piriformis muscle and irritation of the underlying sciatic nerve but this mysterious clinical scenario is also described in lumbar spinal canal stenosis, leg length discrepancy, piriformis myofascial pain syndrome, following vaginal delivery, and anomalous piriformis m...

  17. INTRAPERITONEAL LYSIS OF TUBERCLE BACILLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, W H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1913-12-01

    1. Tubercle bacilli injected into the peritoneal cavities of tuberculous guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys, rapidly disappear from the peritoneal fluids, while persisting in the peritoneal fluids of normal control animals. 2. This disappearance is in part due to an adhesion of the injected bacilli to the peritoneal leucocytes and a fixation of the leucocytes on the omentum. 3. The injected tubercle bacilli can be recovered quantitatively from the peritoneal cavities of normal guinea pigs from one and one half to two hours after the injection, while from tuberculous guinea pigs only 65 per cent. of the bacilli can be recovered at this time. 4. Isolated peritoneal tissues from tuberculous guinea pigs have the power of destroying tubercle bacilli in vitro. 5. A second factor reducing the number of tubercle bacilli free in the peritoneal fluid is therefore an actual lysis of the bacilli. 6. The intraperitoneal lysis is not due solely to substances present in the circulating fluids, since the phenomenon cannot be produced by these fluids in vitro, and since a lytic power cannot be passively conferred even by a direct transfusion of blood from tuberculous to normal animals. 7. The intraperitoneal lysis is apparently due to specific changes in the fixed peritoneal cells of the tuberculous animals.

  18. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    OpenAIRE

    Poskurica Mileta; Petrović Dejan; Poskurica Mina

    2016-01-01

    Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, alt...

  19. [Successful therapy of sacroiliitis in SAPHO syndrome by etanercept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolber, Carola; David-Jelinek, Karin; Udvardi, Astrid; Artacker, Gottfried; Volc-Platzer, Beatrix; Kurz, Herbert

    2011-04-01

    Painful, aseptic osteitis remains the major problem in the treatment of patients with SAPHO syndrome. We present a child suffering of both sacroiliitis and acne conglobata in the context of SAPHO syndrome. While acne lesions responded well to systemic isotretinoin, sacroiliitis associated pain could be controlled neither by NSAR nor by intralesional or systemic steroid injection. Worse pain limited substantially patient's mobility. This changed immediately after starting etanercept. Within a few days, pain resolved and the patient regained his mobility. This favourable response lasted for 8 months when we tried to stop etanercept under protection with the DMARD sulfazalazin. Unfortunately, within a few days, pain and immobility re-occurred requiring reinstitution of etanercept. This case demonstrates that, similar to other reports, TNF blockade is able to induce prompt and long-lasting response of SAPHO syndrome associated osteoarthritis to TNF blockade.

  20. What General Educators Have To Say about Successfully Including Students with Down Syndrome in Their Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, Gloria

    2001-01-01

    Investigated classroom management techniques of K-12 teachers whose classrooms included children with Down Syndrome. Teachers, all selected by parents as successful, reported that praise was the best motivator for the Down Syndrome children, and the most effective learning methods were individual and small-group instruction, hands-on activities,…

  1. A common, non-optimal phenotypic endpoint in experimental adaptations of bacteriophage lysis time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantranupong Lynne

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimality models of evolution, which ignore genetic details and focus on natural selection, are widely used but sometimes criticized as oversimplifications. Their utility for quantitatively predicting phenotypic evolution can be tested experimentally. One such model predicts optimal bacteriophage lysis interval, how long a virus should produce progeny before lysing its host bacterium to release them. The genetic basis of this life history trait is well studied in many easily propagated phages, making it possible to test the model across a variety of environments and taxa. Results We adapted two related small single-stranded DNA phages, ΦX174 and ST-1, to various conditions. The model predicted the evolution of the lysis interval in response to host density and other environmental factors. In all cases the initial phages lysed later than predicted. The ΦX174 lysis interval did not evolve detectably when the phage was adapted to normal hosts, indicating complete failure of optimality predictions. ΦX174 grown on slyD-defective hosts which initially entirely prevented lysis readily recovered to a lysis interval similar to that attained on normal hosts. Finally, the lysis interval still evolved to the same endpoint when the environment was altered to delay optimal lysis interval. ST-1 lysis interval evolved to be ~2 min shorter, qualitatively in accord with predictions. However, there were no changes in the single known lysis gene. Part of ST-1's total lysis time evolution consisted of an earlier start to progeny production, an unpredicted phenotypic response outside the boundaries of the optimality model. Conclusions The consistent failure of the optimality model suggests that constraint and genetic details affect quantitative and even qualitative success of optimality predictions. Several features of ST-1 adaptation show that lysis time is best understood as an output of multiple traits, rather than in isolation.

  2. Successful pregnancy outcome in Swyer-James-Macleod syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Seema

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Swyer-James-MacLeod (SJM syndrome is a chronic, progressive lung disease as a result of infection and bronchial obstruction that ultimately leads to emphysema. It is associated with chronic cough, sputum production and recurrent chest infections and is occasionally seen in women of reproductive age. The radiological finding of unilateral hyperlucent lung is considered synonymous with the disease entity.

  3. Successful Treatment with Cyclosporin A in Tocilizumab-resistant TAFRO Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaga, Yusuke; Tokuyama, Kiyonobu; Kato, Takehiro; Yamada, Rie; Murayama, Masanori; Ikeda, Tsuneko; Yamakita, Noriyoshi; Kunieda, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly (TAFRO) syndrome is a unique clinicopathologic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease that has recently been identified in Japan. Previous reports have shown that affected patients typically respond to immunosuppressive therapy, such as prednisolone and tocilizumab. However, the optimal treatment for refractory TAFRO syndrome, which can be fatal, remains unclear. We herein report a case of tocilizumab-resistant TAFRO syndrome successfully treated with cyclosporin A, indicating that cyclosporine A may be an alternative therapy for refractory TAFRO syndrome.

  4. Abdominal compartment syndrome successfully treated with neuromuscular blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris T Chiles

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 48 year old male admitted to the intensive care unit after a cardiac arrest complicated by a stroke intra-operatively during automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement. He post-operatively developed a rigid abdomen, elevated peak and plateau pressures, hypoxia and renal insufficiency. He was diagnosed with abdominal compartment syndrome with an intra-abdominal compartment pressure of 40mmHg. The patient was administered 10 mg of intravenous cisatracuriumbesylate in preparation for bedside surgical abdominal decompression. Cisatracurium eliminated the patients need for surgical intervention by reducing his abdominal compartment pressures to normal and improving his hypoxia and renal function. This case illustrates that neuromuscular blockade should be attempted in patients with abdominal compartment syndrome prior to surgical intervention.

  5. Successful treatment of SAPHO syndrome with adalimumab: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellví, Ivan; Bonet, Maria; Narváez, Jose A; Molina-Hinojosa, Jose C

    2010-10-01

    SAPHO syndrome is a disorder involving the skin, bone and joints. The underlying causes of SAPHO are poorly understood, and treatment is, therefore, directed towards the individual symptoms. However, many patients are refractory to treatment, and new treatment options are needed. Herein, we describe a 28-year-old patient with SAPHO syndrome and palmoplantar pustulosis seen at our hospital. Treatment was initiated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but clinical improvement was poor. The addition of sulfasalazine and oral alendronate also failed to alleviate symptoms. We subsequently commenced treatment with adalimumab 40 mg every 15 days and suspended bisphosphonates. Following 4 weeks' treatment with adalimumab, there was clear articular improvement and disappearance of palmoplantar pustulous lesions. Nocturnal inflammatory lumbar pain and global disease assessment were also improved. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of adalimumab for SAPHO. More studies are required to confirm our findings.

  6. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis.

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    Alexandra Ziemann

    Full Text Available Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors.We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events.We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness.We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings.

  7. Vandetanib successfully controls medullary thyroid cancer-related Cushing syndrome in an adolescent patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nella, A A; Lodish, M B; Fox, E; Balis, F M; Quezado, M M; Whitcomb, P O; Derdak, J; Kebebew, E; Widemann, B C; Stratakis, C A

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic Cushing syndrome due to ACTH secretion from metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to describe the first case of Cushing syndrome associated with MTC in a pediatric patient and the successful reversal of Cushing syndrome with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (vandetanib) therapy. A 17-year-old Brazilian adolescent presented with metastatic MTC and associated ACTH-dependent ectopic Cushing syndrome in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. When the patient was treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor vandetanib, rapid decrease in serum cortisol and improvement of clinical symptoms were observed. We describe the first pediatric case of clinical and biochemical improvement of paraneoplastic MTC-related Cushing syndrome after treatment with vandetanib. Vandetanib and possibly other tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be a novel beneficial option in patients with neuroendocrine tumor-related ectopic Cushing syndrome.

  8. Síndrome de lisis tumoral "espontáneo" en paciente con enfermedad de Crohn tratado con inmunosupresores Acute spontaneous tumor lysis syndrome in a patient with Crohn's disease taking immunosuppressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Froilán Torres

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de lisis tumoral (SLT es una complicación catastrófica del tratamiento de ciertas enfermedades neoplásicas. Si bien es más frecuente en pacientes con neoplasias hematológicas malignas tras el inicio de la quimioterapia, puede presentarse excepcionalmente, tras la necrosis espontánea de algunos tumores, en ausencia de tratamiento citostático. Clínicamente cursa con hiperuricemia, hiperfosfatemia, hipocalcemia, hiperpotasemia y fallo renal agudo. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con enfermedad de Crohn en tratamiento inmunospresor, que desarrolló un síndrome de lisis tumoral espontáneo como debut de un plasmocitoma. Al ingreso, se objetivó un fracaso renal oligoanúrico que, a pesar de tratamiento precoz con hiperhidratación, alcalinización de la orina, urato-oxidasa y hemodiálisis, tuvo un desenlace fatal en 72 horas. Este caso reviste un interés particular por lo excepcional de la naturaleza "espontánea" del síndrome de lisis tumoral en ausencia de quimioterapia, por presentarse con una hiperuricemia extrema, probablemente la más alta de las recogidas en la literatura, y por la controversia actual de la terapia con inmunosupresores y/o biológicos en la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal y su relación con el desarrollo de determinados tumores.Acute tumour lysis syndrome (TLS is a catastrophic complication of the treatment of certain neoplastic disorders. It most commonly occurs in association with hematologic malignancies and appears a few hours to a few days after initiation of specific chemotherapy, as the result from the release of intracellular components into the bloodstream due to abrupt malignant cell death. Acute spontaneous TLS is rare, and it has been described in leukemia and lymphoma and in some patients with solid tumors prior to institution of therapy. The syndrome is characterized by hyperuricemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperkalemia, and acute oliguric or anuric renal failure due to

  9. Successful treatment for West syndrome with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Inaba, Yuji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Kurata, Takashi; Niimi, Taemi; Saito, Shoji; Shiba, Naoko; Nishimura, Takafumi; Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Sakashita, Kazuo; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Ichikawa, Motoki; Koike, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Several immune mechanisms are suspected in the unknown etiology of West syndrome (WS). We report a male infant who suffered from WS and X-linked T-B+NK- severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) with a missense mutation of the IL2RG gene (c.202G>A, p.Glu68Lys). He promptly began vitamin B6 and valproic acid treatment, but infantile spasms (IS) and hypsarrhythmia persisted. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and the change to topiramate (TPM) at 7 months of age resulted in the rapid resolution of IS. The CD4/8 ratio in his peripheral blood increased from 0.04-0.09 to 0.20-1.95 following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A and the ability of B lymphocytes to produce antibodies improved as well. Electroencephalogram findings became normal 1 month after UCBT. Thus, we consider that T-cell dysfunction and/or impairments in T-B cell interactions due to X-SCID may have played important roles in the onset of WS. Immune-modulating therapies along with the administration of TPM effectively treated this severe epileptic syndrome in our patient.

  10. Successful Growth Hormone Therapy in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Michael; Kant, Sarina G; Wit, Jan Maarten; Willem Redeker, Egbert Johan; Eduard Santen, Gijs Willem; Henriëtta Verkerk, Annemieke Johanna Maria; Uitterlinden, André Gerardus; Losekoot, Monique; Oostdijk, Wilma

    2017-06-07

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a heterogeneous syndrome, both clinically and genetically, in its classical form characterised by distinctive facial features, intra-uterine growth retardation, short stature, developmental delay and anomalies in multiple organ systems. NIPBL, SMC1A, SMC3, RAD21 and HDAC8, all involved in the Cohesin pathway, have been identified to cause CdLS. Growth hormone (GH) secretion has been reported as normal, and to our knowledge there are no reports on the effect of recombinant human GH (r-hGH) treatment in CdLS patients. We present a patient born small for gestational age (SGA) with persistent severe growth retardation (height -3.4 SDS) and mild dysmorphic features, who was treated with GH from 4.3 years of age onward, and diagnosed 6 years later with CdLS using whole exome sequencing. Treatment led to a height gain of 1.6 standard deviation score (SDS) over 8 years. Treatment was interrupted shortly due to high serum IGF-1 serum values. We conclude that GH therapy appears effective and safe for short children with CdLS.

  11. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-associated Encephalopathy Successfully Treated with Corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosaka, Takashi; Nakamagoe, Kiyotaka; Tamaoka, Akira

    2017-09-25

    The encephalopathy that occurs in association with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli), has a high mortality rate and patients sometimes present sequelae. We herein describe the case of a 20-year-old woman who developed encephalopathy during the convalescent stage of HUS caused by E.coli O26. Hyperintense lesions were detected in the pons, basal ganglia, and cortex on diffusion-weighted brain MRI. From the onset of HUS encephalopathy, we treated the patient with methylprednisolone (mPSL) pulse therapy alone. Her condition improved, and she did not present sequelae. Our study shows that corticosteroids appear to be effective for the treatment of some patients with HUS encephalopathy.

  12. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Chaudhary

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral salt wasting (CSW syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  13. Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome following Head Injury in a Child Managed Successfully with Fludrocortisone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Nagendra; Pathak, Santosh; Gupta, Murli Manohar; Agrawal, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) syndrome is an important cause of hyponatremia in head injuries apart from syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Proper diagnosis and differentiation between these two entities are necessary for management as the treatment is quite opposite in both conditions. Fludrocortisone can help in managing CSW where alone saline infusion does not work. We report a 17-month-old female child with head injury managed successfully with saline infusion and fludrocortisone.

  14. The Effect of Metabolic Syndrome upon the Success of Varicocelectomy

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    Ufuk Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to investigate the impact of metabolic syndrome (MetS on the varicocele treatment. 101 patients underwent spermatic vein ligation between 2007 and 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Those patients were divided into two groups as without (n: 56, Group 1 or with MetS (n: 48, Group 2. All the patients underwent left microsurgical subinguinal spermatic vein ligation. Groups were compared by the improvement on sperm parameters and spontaneous pregnancy rates at a mean of 19 (±4 months followup. When sperm parameters were compared postoperatively, the significant improvement in total sperm count, motile sperm count percentage, and normal sperm percentage was reported. The groups were compared to each other and the improvement seemed significantly better in Group 1. There was no statistically significant improvement difference in the normal sperm percentage between groups. Spontaneous pregnancy rate after two years was 45% in Group 1 and 34% in Group 2 (. Patients with MetS and varicocele improved after surgery, but not as well as the similar group without MetS. This may help to show that MetS can be a factor for male infertility.

  15. Successful Treatment in a Case of Massive Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Paraneoplastic Syndrome

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    Atsunori Tsuchiya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic syndromes of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC are not uncommon. However, the prognosis is poor and follow-up and improvement of paraneoplastic syndromes with treatment have been reported rarely. We report a successful case in an aged man of a massive HCC with paraneoplastic syndrome, treated by combined intraarterial chemotherapy and hepatic resection. Paraneoplastic syndrome (erythrocytosis and hyperlipidemia was monitored throughout the treatment and erythropoietin (EPO mRNA also was analyzed in the resected liver. The hemoglobin level and serum levels of EPO and total cholesterol (T-cho decreased dramatically with treatment, along with a decrease in serum levels of α-fetoprotein and protein induced by vitamin vitamin K absence II (PIVKA-II. Semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR revealed that the residual cancer expressed EPO RNA but the nontumor tissue did not. This was a rare case of paraneoplastic syndrome of HCC that was treated successfully. This case indicates that paraneoplastic syndrome reflected tumor progression and that serum levels of both EPO and T-cho might be used as tumor markers.

  16. Maintenance, endogeneous, respiration, lysis, decay and predation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    loosdrecht, Marc C. M. Van; Henze, Mogens

    1999-01-01

    In activated sludge processes an increased sludge age is associated with a decreased sludge production. This phenomenon is generally interpreted as a result of endogenous respiration processes. In the activated sludge models cell lysis (or decay) is incorporated. The lysis is modelled...... mechanism is microbiologically correct. The lysis/decay model mechanism is a strongly simplified representation of reality. This paper tries to review the processes grouped under endogenous respiration in activated sludge models. Mechanisms and processes such as maintenance, lysis, internal and external...... and maintenance processes. This conversion will in general be denoted as endogenous respiration. Based on the literature review the phenomena are discussed and organised, in order to create a working platform for discussing more detailed activated sludge models, one of which is being sketched. (C) 1999 IAWQ...

  17. Successful treatment of catatonic syndrome in bipolar I disorder adding aripiprazole to ECT: A case report

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    Diego Hidalgo, MD

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Catatonic syndrome is a condition presenting in multiple ways, sharing many of them with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome and other diseases. This diagnostic challenge is the main cause of keep treating catatonic syndromes without neuroleptics. Methods: Review of the literature and a case report. Results: We present the case of a 19 years old bipolar I patient with a severe catatonic syndrome, with a torpid clinical evolution, partial response to benzodiazepines and ECT, which successfully resolved with intramuscular aripiprazole. We found through a systematic review (PubMed 2005-2010 that there are few but significant case reports of catatonic syndromes treated with new second generation antipsychotics for different reasons with good outcomes as ours. The pharmacological profile of aripiprazole and the low incidence of NMS reported make it a suitable option in treating this syndrome. Conclusions: We think that this case report could contribute to add more evidence for aripiprazole to be considered a good third-line option in the treatment of catatonic syndrome. However, this would require randomized controlled trials to confirm its effectiveness and safety.

  18. Successful Endoscopic Management of Bouveret’s Syndrome in a Patient with Cholecystoduodenocolic Fistulae

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    S. Tanwar

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Bouveret’s syndrome, first described in 1896 by Léon Bouveret, is rare, limited to approximately 200 published case reports to date [Ariche et al.: Scand J Gastroenterol 2000;35:781–783]. It is a subgroup of gallstone ileus in which a cholecystoduodenal fistula allows the passage of a gallstone that obstructs the duodenum, causing gastric outlet obstruction. This case is unique as it describes Bouveret’s syndrome in a patient with combined cholecystoduodenocolic fistulae. Gastric outlet obstruction was successfully managed endoscopically with lithotripsy. Both fistulae were subsequently managed conservatively without any complications.

  19. Successful treatment of Kasabach-Merritt syndrome with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresse, M F; David, M; Hume, H; Blanchard, H; Russo, P; Van Doesberg, N; Rivard, G E

    1991-01-01

    The Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is characterized by thrombocytopenia and localized coagulopathy associated with a hemangioma. Most techniques applied to eradicate the tumor or accelerate its involution (surgery, radiation therapy, embolization) are invasive and require transfusion of large amounts of blood products. In some cases, medical treatment is the only alternative. Efficacy of steroids and antifibronolytic agents has already been described, but even this approach is associated with the administration of blood products. We report two cases of infants with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome associated with cardiac and hepatic hemangiomas. At admission, both had signs of cardiac failure. They were successfully treated with prednisone and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA). Blood products were not required once the diagnosis was made. These observations have important implications for the management of patients with Kasabach-Merritt syndrome because they show that even in severe cases blood transfusions can be avoided by the use of prednisone and EACA.

  20. Successful Venous Angioplasty of Superior Vena Cava Syndrome after Heart Transplantation

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    Thomas Strecker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For patients with terminal heart failure, heart transplantation (HTX has become an established therapy. Before transplantation there are many repeated measurements with a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC via the superior vena cava (SVC necessary. After transplantation, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB is recommended for routine surveillance of heart transplant rejection again through the SVC. Case Presentation. In this report, we present a HTX patient who developed a SVC syndrome as a possible complication of all these procedures via the SVC. This 35-year-old Caucasian male could be successfully treated by balloon dilatation/angioplasty. Conclusion. The SVC syndrome can lead to pressure increase in the venous system such as edema in the head and the upper part of the body and further serious complications like cerebral bleeding and ischemia, or respiratory problems. Balloon angioplasty and stent implantation are valid methods to treat stenoses of the SVC successfully.

  1. Treating TRAPS Syndrome with a Previously Undescribed TNF α Gene Receptor Mutation Successfully with Canakinumab

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    T. V. Sleptsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an observation of one of the most common autoinflammatory syndromes — TRAPS (periodic syndrome associated with a mutation in the TNF α receptor gene. During a molecular-genetic examination of a 9-year-old child, a c.337_339del deletion in the heterozygous state of the TNFRSF1A gene exon 04, leading to a p.Glu113del amino acid deletion, was found. This mutation has not been described previously in TRAPS patients, and according to computer analysis (Alamut Visual the issue is pathogenic. This observation indicates the presence of families with TRAPS in the Russian population, who can have «atypical» TNFRSF1A gene mutations. A successful use of monoclonal antibodies to interleukin 1 — canakinumab — in the patient is described. As a result, fever and abdominal syndromes have completely stopped, while knee joints pain decreased a day later. After a week of treatment, the child’s disease activity laboratory indices returned to normal (ESR, C-reactive protein. No exacerbations were fixed over the next 32 weeks. No adverse effects were registered during canakinumab therapy. Thus, canakinumab has demonstrated a high level of effectiveness and safety for the patient suffering from a periodic syndrome associated with a mutation in the TNF α  gene receptor. This indicates therapeutic use prospects for the interleukin 1 β blocker in TRAPS syndrome patients.

  2. The application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in patients with failed back surgery syndrome A aplicação da lise percutânea de aderências epidurais em pacientes com síndrome pós-laminectomia

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    He Chun-jing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and the feasibility of application of percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS using a stiff type guide wire and 4F vascular catheter. METHODS: Ninety two patients with FBSS were randomly divided into two groups, the control group (treated by injection dexamethasone only and percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions group. Visual analog scale scores (VAS and therapeutic evaluation were observed in the preoperative, seven days postoperative, one month and six months postoperative. RESULTS: VAS scores for pain were significantly reduced in both groups at seven days. The VAS scores were in controlled group at one month, six months was significantly higher than that in epidural lysis group. However, there was no statistical difference in VAS scores of one month and six months when respectively compared to that of before operation in controlled group. Patients on epidural lysis reported clinical effectiveness rate was 50%. Patients on control was 5.26%, there was a statistical difference between two groups. CONCLUSION: Percutaneous lysis of epidural adhesions by using a stiff type guide wire and 4F vascular catheter is an effective method in the treatment of FBSS and it has a value in clinical application.OBJETIVO: Investigar a eficácia e a exequibilidade da aplicação da lise percutânea de aderências epidurais na síndrome pós-laminectomia usando um fio-guia tipo Stiff e um cateter vascular 4F. MÉTODOS: Noventa e dois pacientes com síndrome pós-laminectomia foram randomizados em dois grupos: grupo controle (tratado somente com injeção de dexametazona e grupo lise percutânea de aderências epidurais. Escores de escala visual analógica (VAS e avaliação terapêutica foram observadas no pré-operatório, no sétimo dia de pós-operatório, um mês e seis meses de pós-operatório. RESULTADOS: Escores VAS para dor foram significantemente reduzidos em ambos os grupos

  3. Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia with Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Corticosteroid Monotherapy Led to Successful Ventilator Weaning

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Mari; Murata, Kengo; Kiriu, Takahiro; Kouzai, Yasuji; Takamori, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    A 62-year-old man with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) presented to our hospital with a high fever. Although treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics was initiated, his respiratory status worsened to the point that he required mechanical ventilation. However, he was successfully treated with a corticosteroid without immunosuppression. Sequential transbronchial lung biopsies revealed abundant fibrin exudate in the alveolar spaces, which was subsequently replaced by fibroblasts, showing that ac...

  4. Bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis complicating antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, successfully treated with thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamsi-Pasha, Mohammed A; Alyousef, Tareq; Sayyed, Samer

    2014-10-01

    The incidence of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis and related embolic complications is extremely rare, obviating the need for long-term anticoagulation. As a result, experience in the diagnosis and treatment of bioprosthetic valve thrombosis is fairly limited. We report the first case of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome presenting as bioprosthetic mitral valve thrombosis, 15 months after valve replacement, and successfully treated with thrombolytic therapy.

  5. Successful treatment of dwarfism secondary to long-term steroid therapy in steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Linlin; Chen, Dongping; Zhao, Xuezhi; Xu, Chenggang; Mei, Changlin

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged steroid therapy is generally used for steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. However, dwarfism secondary to a long-term regimen and its successful reverse is rarely reported. The underlying mechanism of dwarfism is still poorly understood, as both long-term steroid use and nephrotic syndrome may interact or independently interfere with the process of growth. Here, we present a 17-year-old patient with dwarfism and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome and the successful treatment by recombinant human growth factor and cyclosporine A with withdrawal of steroid. We also briefly review the current understanding and the management of dwarfism in pediatric patients with nephrotic syndrome.

  6. Detergent induced lysis of erythrocytes in kwashiorkor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A; Onuora, C U; Cherian, A

    1987-09-15

    The effect of the non-ionic detergent Nonidet P40 on lysis of erythrocytes in children suffering from kwashiorkor was studied. The concentration of the detergent causing 50% haemolysis was significantly reduced in these patients. Detergent haemolysis was more sensitive than osmotic fragility (which was reduced). The abnormality was only slight in marasmic children.

  7. Lupus erythematosus/lichen planus overlap syndrome: successful treatment with acitretin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lospinoso, D J; Fernelius, C; Edhegard, K D; Finger, D R; Arora, N S

    2013-07-01

    Lupus erythematosus/lichen planus overlap syndrome is a rare disorder combining the clinical, histological and immunopathological features of both lupus erythematosus (LE) and lichen planus (LP). Cutaneous lesions mostly affect the distal arms, legs, face and trunk. Palmoplantar involvement is felt to be characteristic of this condition. Plaques are often painful, centrally atrophic, bluish-red to hypopigmented in color, large, and scaly. On biopsy of clinically ambiguous lesions, histopathological features of one or both processes can be found, obscuring the diagnosis and complicating prognosis and treatment. Thus, direct immunofluorescence has become an essential tool in helping to diagnose this condition. In this report we describe the unique clinical and immunohistopathological manifestations of lupus erythematosus/lichen planus overlap syndrome along with a successful response to treatment with acitretin.

  8. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud’s Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ciapetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud’s phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the “gold standard” imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud’s phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  9. Successful percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of adrenal gland for ectopic Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zener, Rebecca; Zaleski, Andrew; Van Uum, Stan H; Gray, Daryl K; Mujoomdar, Amol

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone production by pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) is rare and results in hyperstimulation of the adrenal gland to produce ectopic Cushing syndrome. Our case showcases the safety and effectiveness of percutaneous CT-guided microwave ablation of the adrenal gland in a 49-year-old female with PNET and hepatic metastases who presented with ectopic Cushing syndrome despite surgical resection of the primary pancreatic tumor and left adrenal gland. Prior to ablation, the right adrenal gland measured 4.3×1.6×2.0cm and the patient had malignant hypertension with elevated morning serum cortisol level (1976nmol/L). After microwave ablation of the right adrenal gland, the hypertension resolved and the cortisol level decreased dramatically (74nmol/L). As expected after successful treatment, the patient developed adrenal insufficiency and was placed on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid supplementation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combined Thenar and Hypothenar Hammer Syndromes and Raynaud's Phenomenon Successfully Treated with Iloprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapetti, Alessandro; Carotti, Marina; Di Carlo, Marco; Salaffi, Fausto

    2016-01-01

    Thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes are uncommon conditions characterised by digital ischemia of the hand as a result of repetitive trauma at level of the thenar and/or hypothenar eminence and damage to the radial and/or ulnar arteries, respectively. The symptoms are related to the mechanism of the trauma and a Raynaud's phenomenon can be predominant for a long time. The angiography is the "gold standard" imaging technique which allows to confirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic strategy depends on the type of the lesion and severity of symptoms and includes pharmacological (antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs) and surgical treatments. The authors present a case of a 53-year-old man, carpenter by profession, with combined thenar and hypothenar hammer syndromes and Raynaud's phenomenon, successfully treated with a short course of intravenous infusion of iloprost.

  11. Successful pregnancy outcome in a case of Swyer Syndrome with hypertension and morbid obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aradhana Kalra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To report a case of Swyer syndrome with hypertension and morbid obesity with successful pregnancy and live birth after assisted reproductive technology. 27 year old morbidly obese female with essential hypertension who had been on HRT for 10 years with well-developed secondary sexual characters with primary infertility. After adequate development of the uterus and the endometrial preparation, Patients with Swyer syndrome conceive with oocyte donation and ICSI. Caesarean section rate is high due to multiple pregnancies and other obstetric complications. Early detection of these cases would help in timely development of their secondary sexual characters and restoration of menses and gonadectomy for prevention of malignancy as its propensity is high. Multidisciplinary approach is required including counseling and management of long term health problems. Pregnancy is feasible but caesarean rate is high. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2061-2064

  12. Successful treatment of life-threatening Evans syndrome due to antiphospholipid antibody syndrome by rituximab-based regimen: a case with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, A; Glimm, H; Lübbert, M; Grüllich, C

    2008-08-01

    An association of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with antibodies directed against either phospholipids or plasma proteins strongly suggest that B-cell dysfunction may be involved in its pathogenesis. Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with autoimmune cytopenias shows a poor response rate to conventional treatment with anticoagulants, glucocorticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasmapheresis. We report a case of life-threatening antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with Evans syndrome receiving successful multimodal treatment including anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab with long-term follow-up.

  13. Successful Endoscopic Management of Late Biliary Cast Syndrome in a Liver Transplant Recipient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Mahler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biliary cast syndrome (BCS is an unusual complication of liver transplantation (LT. The pathophysiology is not known, and it is thought to develop because of mucosal damage in the bile duct related to obstruction, ischemia, or bacterial infection. It occurs in 2.5–18% of LT patients and is associated with increased graft failure, need for retransplantation, and mortality. Here we report on a case of BCS of late appearance after LT who was successfully treated by endoscopic means.

  14. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obs...

  15. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome successfully treated with unrelated cord blood transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almagor, Yotam; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Averbuch, Diana; Mechoulam, Hadas; Engelhard, Dan; Resnick, Igor B; Weintraub, Michael; Stepensky, Polina

    2011-10-01

    We report a successful umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) in an 8-month male with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) and congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. The child presented at 3 months of age with symptomatic thrombocytopenia and CMV infection. Despite appropriate antiviral treatment no rise in the platelet count was observed. Genetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis of WAS. The clinical course was complicated by severe CMV retinitis with bilateral retinal hemorrhages and renal vasculitis. He underwent unrelated UCBT resulting in a rapid resolution of autoimmunity and thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The effects of differential extraction conditions on the premature lysis of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennekens, Catherine M; Cooper, Elyse S; Cotton, Robin W; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect Proteinase K, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), incubation times, and temperatures had on differential extraction efficiencies and the premature lysis of spermatozoa. The effect was measured using Quantifiler® Duo and Identifiler™ PCR Amplification kits, where the resultant male and female DNA concentrations and their ratios within the nonsperm- and sperm fractions (SFs) were determined. Comparisons between expected and observed ratios illustrate the quantity of female DNA in the SF increased when Proteinase K was absent during the initial incubation. Additionally, there is no indication of simultaneous sperm and epithelial cell lysis in the absence of DTT at Proteinase K concentrations ranging from 10 to 300 μg/mL. All other conditions exhibited minimal variation in DNA concentration. Therefore, despite the various protocols used for the differential lysis of cell mixtures encountered in casework, the method is robust and successful at most conditions.

  17. Lysis of a Single Cyanobacterium for Whole Genome Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N. Zare

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial species from natural environments, exhibiting a great degree of genetic diversity that has yet to be characterized, pose a specific challenge to whole genome amplification (WGA from single cells. A major challenge is establishing an effective, compatible, and controlled lysis protocol. We present a novel lysis protocol that can be used to extract genomic information from a single cyanobacterium of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 known to have multilayer cell wall structures that resist conventional lysis methods. Simple but effective strategies for releasing genomic DNA from captured cells while retaining cellular identities for single-cell analysis are presented. Successful sequencing of genetic elements from single-cell amplicons prepared by multiple displacement amplification (MDA is demonstrated for selected genes (15 loci nearly equally spaced throughout the main chromosome.

  18. Factors influencing lysis time stochasticity in bacteriophage λ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennehy John J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite identical genotypes and seemingly uniform environments, stochastic gene expression and other dynamic intracellular processes can produce considerable phenotypic diversity within clonal microbes. One trait that provides a good model to explore the molecular basis of stochastic variation is the timing of host lysis by bacteriophage (phage. Results Individual lysis events of thermally-inducible λ lysogens were observed using a temperature-controlled perfusion chamber mounted on an inverted microscope. Both mean lysis time (MLT and its associated standard deviation (SD were estimated. Using the SD as a measure of lysis time stochasticity, we showed that lysogenic cells in controlled environments varied widely in lysis times, and that the level of lysis time stochasticity depended on allelic variation in the holin sequence, late promoter (pR' activity, and host growth rate. In general, the MLT was positively correlated with the SD. Both lower pR' activities and lower host growth rates resulted in larger SDs. Results from premature lysis, induced by adding KCN at different time points after lysogen induction, showed a negative correlation between the timing of KCN addition and lysis time stochasticity. Conclusions Taken together with results published by others, we conclude that a large fraction of λ lysis time stochasticity is the result of random events following the expression and diffusion of the holin protein. Consequently, factors influencing the timing of reaching critical holin concentrations in the cell membrane, such as holin production rate, strongly influence the mean lysis time and the lysis time stochasticity.

  19. Successful control of dyslipidemia in patients with metabolic syndrome: focus on lifestyle changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Neil J

    2006-01-01

    Approaches to controlling dyslipidemia in patients with metabolic syndrome must take into consideration a patient's individual characteristics and underlying lipid disorder. Some patients will require pharmacologic therapy, whereas others can be controlled with lifestyle changes alone. The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) guidelines recommend that patients with at least 3 of the following clinical variables be designated as having metabolic syndrome: abdominal obesity as reflected in increased waist circumference; a low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level; an elevated triglyceride level; elevated blood pressure or treatment with antihypertensive medications; and/or elevated fasting plasma glucose or treatment with antidiabetic medications. Unless patients with metabolic syndrome change their lifestyle, existing cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors will worsen or new risk factors will develop. This helps explain why these patients are at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD). The lifestyle changes recommended by NCEP ATP III for controlling dyslipidemia (i.e., elevated levels of triglycerides and decreased levels of HDL-C) in patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 DM include (1) reduced intake of saturated fats and dietary cholesterol, (2) intake of dietary options to enhance lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (3) weight control, and (4) increased physical activity. If lifestyle changes are not successful for individuals at high risk of developing CHD, or for those who currently have CHD, a CHD risk equivalent, or persistent atherogenic dyslipidemia, then pharmacotherapy may be necessary as defined by NCEP ATP III guidelines.

  20. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brohée D

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999. We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p -6. The efficiency scores of the method are Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors.

  1. A new device for measurement of fibrin clot lysis: application to the Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjeltia, K Zouaoui; Cauchie, Ph; Remacle, Cl; Guillaume, M; Brohée, D; Hubert, JL; Vanhaeverbeek, M

    2002-01-01

    Background Determination of clot lysis times on whole blood, diluted whole blood, plasma or plasma fraction has been used for many years to assess the overall activity of the fibrinolytic system. We designed a completely computerised semi-automatic 8-channel device for measurement and determination of fibrin clot lysis. The lysis time is evaluated by a mathematical analysis of the lysis curve and the results are expressed in minute (range: 5 to 9999). We have used this new device for Euglobulin Clot Lysis Time (ECLT) determination, which is the most common test used in laboratories to estimate plasma fibrinolytic capacity. Results The correlation between ECLT and manual method is very tight : R = 0,99; p < 10-6. The efficiency scores of the method are <4% in intra-assay and <7% in inter-assay. It allows to achieve the tests on hyperlipaemic samples. This new device has been easily integrated in laboratory routine and allows to achieve several ECLT every day without disturbance of laboratory workflow. Conclusions The routine use of this new device could be useful in various situations such as assessment in atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis associated diseases, coagulation survey of liver transplantations, cardiovascular surgery or pharmacological research. It has already provided highly promising results in preliminary studies on the relation between fibrinolysis and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:11985782

  2. Histoplasma capsulatum fungemia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: detection by lysis-centrifugation blood-culturing technique Fungemia por Histoplasma capsulatum em pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida: detecção através da técnica de hemocultivo por lise-centrifugação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Mattos Oliveira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH is an increasingly common cause of infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. We report 21 cases of PDH associated with AIDS diagnosed by lysis-centrifugation blood culture method. The most prevalent clinical findings were fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and mucocutaneous lesions. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in 13 of 21 patients (62%. Brochoalveolar fluid has yelded positive culture in four patients only in medium with cycloheximide.Histoplasmose progressiva disseminada (HPD tem aumentado e é causa comum de infecção em pacientes com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids. Relatamos 21 casos de HPD associado com Aids diagnosticada pela técnica de hemocultivo por lise-centrifugação. Os achados clínicos mais prevalentes foram febre, perda de peso, sintomas respiratórios e lesões mucocutâneas. Raios X de tórax mostrou infiltrados pulmonares difusos em 13 dos 21 pacientes (62%. Amostras de lavado broncoalveolar foram positivos em apenas 4 pacientes através de meio com cicloheximida.

  3. A Case Report on Red Ear Syndrome with Tinnitus Successfully Treated with Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold

    2017-01-01

    The red ear syndrome represents a rare symptom complex consisting of auricular erythema associated with painful and burning sensations. It has been described in combination with tinnitus rarely. It has been hypothesized to be etiologically related to altered trigeminal afferent input, temporomandibular disorders, and thalamic dysfunction. The initial objective of applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) in a case of red ear syndrome in combination with tinnitus was the alleviation of the phantom sounds. This is a case report on the successful treatment of red ear syndrome with tinnitus by means of transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and a short review on the published cases of this condition. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman reporting a simultaneous onset of constant left-sided tinnitus and feelings of warmth accompanied by an intermittent stabbing and/or oppressive pain stretching from the ipsilateral ear to the head/neck/shoulder region, occasionally accompanied by nausea/vomiting and dizziness. After failure of pharmacological treatment attempts, either because of lacking clinical effects (gabapentin, zolmitriptan, and indomethacin) or because of adverse reactions (pregabaline), the patient was offered an experimental neuromodulatory treatment with bitemporal tRNS primarily targeting the tinnitus complaints of the patient. tRNS was conducted in 2 - 3 day sessions (stimulation site: bilateral temporal cortex/2.0 mA/10 s on-and-off-ramp/offset 0 mA/20 min/random frequencies 101 - 640 Hz / NeuroConn Eldith DC-Stimulator plus). In 3 consecutive pain attacks repeated sessions of tRNS resulted in substantial alleviation of pain intensity and a prolongation of the interval between attacks. This was an expected finding as the proposed tRNS treatment was initially offered to the patient aiming at an alleviation of the tinnitus complaints (which remained unaffected by tRNS). The reported data derive from compassionate use treatment in one

  4. Relation Between Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, Successful Long-Term Weight Reduction, and Right Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Judith; Strack, Christina; Fenk, Sabine; Mohr, Margareta; Loew, Thomas; Schmitz, Gerd; Maier, Lars; Fischer, Marcus; Baessler, Andrea

    2016-07-27

    This study sought to examine the relationships between right ventricular (RV) function and geometry, morbid obesity with and without the metabolic syndrome, and the effect of long-term weight loss. Obese (n = 153, BMI 41.2 ± 8.7 kg/m(2)) and healthy non-obese control subjects (n = 38, BMI 25.5 ± 3.3 kg/m(2)) of similar age and gender distribution were prospectively studied during the course of a 1-year weight reduction program with echocardiography at baseline and after one year of follow up. Function and geometry of the right heart were evaluated by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (TDI S'), RV myocardial performance index (TEI), RV end-diastolic (RVEDD) and end-systolic diameter (RVESD), area of the right atrium (RAA), and systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP). Whereas parameters of systolic and diastolic LV function were significantly worse in the obese subjects than those in the non-obese subjects (EF 66 ± 6 versus 69 ± 6%, P = 0.004; E/E' 7.4 ± 2.5 versus 6.3 ± 2.6, P = 0.010), parameters of RV function (TAPSE 25.6 ± 4.5 versus 25.1 ± 3.5 mm, P = 0.528; TDI S' 13.5 ± 2.9 versus 13.8 ± 2.9 mm/second, P = 0.553; TEI 0.25 ± 0.13 versus 0.28 ± 0.09, P = 0.283) as well as geometry measurements were comparable between the obese and non-obese participants and also in obese subjects with full blown metabolic syndrome. Additionally, successful weight reduction did not alter the RV parameters. Nevertheless, in the few obese subjects with RV dysfunction (n = 7), metabolic syndrome parameters were more pronounced than in obese with normal RV function.Morbid obesity with and without the metabolic syndrome is accompanied by an impaired LV systolic and diastolic function. In contrast, RV function appears to be less affected by obesity independent of the presence of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Errorless compliance training: success-focused behavioral treatment of children with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Joseph M; Sanjuan, Elena; Drain, Tammy

    2007-05-01

    Errorless compliance training is a noncoercive, success-focused approach to treatment of problem behavior in children. The intervention involves graduated exposure of a child to increasingly more challenging requests at a slow enough rate to ensure that noncompliance rarely occurs, providing parents with many opportunities to reinforce cooperative responses and rendering punishment unnecessary. The authors evaluated this approach with three boys with characteristics of Asperger syndrome. Mothers first delivered a range of requests to their children and recorded child responses. For each child, the authors calculated compliance probability for all requests and categorized them into four probability levels, from those yielding high compliance (Level 1) to those that commonly led to opposition (Level 4). Treatment began with delivery of Level 1 requests. Requests from Levels 2 through 4 were faded in sequentially over several weeks. All three children demonstrated substantial generalized improvement in compliance.

  6. Successful fetoscopic laser coagulation for twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome under local anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooley, S

    2011-06-01

    A review of the efficacy and outcome of fifteen fetoscopic laser ablations under local anaesthesia for twin to twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) in the National Maternity Hospital Dublin was undertaken. The mean gestation at laser was 19.7 weeks (range 16-25 weeks) with a mean gestation at delivery of 29.1 weeks (range 20-35 weeks). The overall liveborn birth rate was 79% (22 infants) and one pregnancy was still ongoing. There were four neonatal deaths secondary to complications of prematurity. The surviving eighteen infants (64%) undergo regular paediatric review. The procedure was performed successfully in all cases with local anaesthesia. In no case was there maternal discomfort that warranted the procedure to be abandoned and good visual access of the vascular anastamoses was obtained in all cases. Local anaesthesia therefore offers a safe effective anaesthetic option for fetoscopic laser coagulation in monochorionic pregnancies complicated by TTTS.

  7. Solubilization of proteins: the importance of lysis buffer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Mandy; Marsh, Noelle; Miskiewicz, Ewa I; MacPhee, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The efficient extraction of proteins of interest from cells and tissues is not always straightforward. Here we demonstrate the differences in extraction of the focal adhesion protein Kindlin-2 from choriocarcinoma cells using NP-40 and RIPA lysis buffer. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of a more denaturing urea/thiourea lysis buffer for solubilization, by comparing its effectiveness for solubilization of small heat-shock proteins from smooth muscle with the often utilized RIPA lysis buffer. Overall, the results demonstrate the importance of establishing the optimal lysis buffer for specific protein solubilization within the experimental workflow.

  8. Factors predicting the duration of adrenal insufficiency in patients successfully treated for Cushing disease and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Alessandro; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Bottiglieri, Filomena; Rota, Carlo Antonio; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Salvatori, Roberto; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2017-03-01

    Successful treatment of Cushing syndrome causes transient or permanent adrenal insufficiency deriving from endogenous hypercortisolism-induced hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression. We analyzed pre-treatment factors potentially affecting the duration of adrenal insufficiency. We conducted a retrospective analysis on patients successfully treated for Cushing disease (15 patients) who underwent transsphenoidal surgery, and nonmalignant primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (31 patients) who underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, divided into patients with overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (14 patients) and subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome (17 patients). Epidemiological data, medical history, and hormonal parameters depending on the etiology of hypercortisolism were collected and compared to the duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of follow-up after surgery for Cushing disease and primary adrenal Cushing syndrome was 70 and 48 months, respectively. In the Cushing disease group, the median duration of adrenal insufficiency after transsphenoidal surgery was 15 months: younger age at diagnosis and longer duration of signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism before diagnosis and surgery were associated with longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. The median duration of adrenal insufficiency was 6 months for subclinical primary adrenal Cushing syndrome and 18.5 months for overt primary adrenal Cushing syndrome. The biochemical severity of hypercortisolism, the grade of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal-axis suppression, and treatment with ketoconazole before surgery accounted for longer duration of adrenal insufficiency. In patients with Cushing disease, younger age and delayed diagnosis and treatment predict longer need for glucocorticoid replacement therapy after successful transsphenoidal surgery. In patients with primary adrenal Cushing syndrome, the severity of hypercortisolism plays a primary role in influencing the duration of

  9. Disposable on-chip microfluidic system for buccal cell lysis, DNA purification, and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Woong; Maeng, Joon-Ho; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Yong

    2013-09-01

    This paper reports the development of a disposable, integrated biochip for DNA sample preparation and PCR. The hybrid biochip (25 × 45 mm) is composed of a disposable PDMS layer with a microchannel chamber and reusable glass substrate integrated with a microheater and thermal microsensor. Lysis, purification, and PCR can be performed sequentially on this microfluidic device. Cell lysis is achieved by heat and purification is performed by mechanical filtration. Passive check valves are integrated to enable sample preparation and PCR in a fixed sequence. Reactor temperature is needed to lysis and PCR reaction is controlled within ±1°C by PID controller of LabVIEW software. Buccal epithelial cell lysis, DNA purification, and SY158 gene PCR amplification were successfully performed on this novel chip. Our experiments confirm that the entire process, except the off-chip gel electrophoresis, requires only approximately 1 h for completion. This disposable microfluidic chip for sample preparation and PCR can be easily united with other technologies to realize a fully integrated DNA chip.

  10. 持续肾脏替代治疗侵袭性NK/T细胞淋巴瘤并发急性肿瘤溶解综合征1例并文献复习%Continuous renal replacement therapy on acute tumor lysis syndrome in an aggressive NK/T cell lymphoma:A case report and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芯仪; 吴俣

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To improve the recognition of acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) and to explore the role of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) in its emergency.Method:A case of ATLS in an aggressive NK/T cell lymphoma was emergently cured by CRRT.Result:After CRRT,the patient with heart failure symptoms quickly eased,urine output increased,potassium and metabolic acidosis were corrected promptly,and renal function improved quickly.Conclusion:ATLS patients should be considered early CRRT if efficacy of drugs is poor.In ATLS patients of unstable hemodynamics and intolerance for routine hemodialysis,CRRT should be a superior option.%目的:提高对急性肿瘤溶解综合征(ATLS)的认识和探讨持续肾脏替代治疗(CRRT)在其急救中的作用.方法:对1例侵袭性NK/T细胞淋巴瘤化疗后并发ATLS患者,采用CRRT救治.结果:通过CRRT,患者心力衰竭症状很快得到缓解,尿量增多,高钾、代谢性酸中毒及时得到纠正,肾功能也很快得到改善,疗效显著.结论:对于ATLS患者,如果药物疗效欠佳,应及早考虑CRRT;如果患者血流动力学不稳定,不能耐受普通血液透析治疗,CRRT应成为优先考虑的治疗选择.

  11. Green Nail Syndrome (Pseudomonas aeruginosa Nail Infection: Two Cases Successfully Treated with Topical Nadifloxacin, an Acne Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Müller

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Green nail syndrome (GNS caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common bacterial nail infection. The treatment of GNS is challenging in many cases and recommendations based on clinical trials are lacking. We report two cases with GNS successfully treated with off-label use of topical nadifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone approved for acne and bacterial skin infections in some countries.

  12. Successful treatment on an out-patient basis of a patient with Down's syndrome and disseminated testicular seminoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijfer, S; vanderGraaf, WTA; Schraffordt Koops, H.

    Due to a high incidence of undescended testicles, patients with Down's syndrome have an increased risk of testicular cancer. The treatment of these patients with the successful cisplatin-containing regimens, which are however toxic and require hospitalization, can cause several problems. We present

  13. Successful Advanced Maternal Age Pregnancy with Mosaic Turner Syndrome Conceived after Ovulation Induction with Clomiphene Citrate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Murakami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC. The patient’s ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  14. Successful advanced maternal age pregnancy with mosaic turner syndrome conceived after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masahiro; Hinokio, Kenji; Kiyokawa, Machiko; Morine, Mikio; Iwasa, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Turner women typically experience gonadal dysfunction that results in amenorrhea and sterility. We encountered a case of mosaic Turner syndrome where conception was possible after ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate (CC). The patient's ovaries were overresponsive to induction with CC. The challenges and successful outcome are reported.

  15. [Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskurica, Mileta; Petrović, Dejan; Poskurica, Mina

    2016-01-01

    `Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al.), as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc.), can lead to acute or chronic renal failure.The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS). It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat) significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn't possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase). Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  16. Acute renal failure in patients with tumour lysis sindrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poskurica Mileta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematologic malignancies (leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, et al., as well as solid tumours (renal, liver, lung, ovarian, etc., can lead to acute or chronic renal failure. The most common clinical manifestation is acute renal failure within the tumour lysis syndrome (TLS. It is characterized by specific laboratory and clinical criteria in order to prove that kidney disorders result from cytolysis of tumour cells after chemotherapy regimen given, although on significantly fewer occasions it is likely to occur spontaneously or after radiotherapy. Essentially, failure is the disorder of functionally conserved kidney or of kidney with varying degrees of renal insufficiency, which render the kidney impaired and unable to effectively eliminate the end products of massive cytolysis and to correct the resulting disorders: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphatemia, and others. The risk of TLS depends on tumour size, proliferative potential of malignant cells, renal function and the presence of accompanying diseases and disorders. Hydration providing adequate diuresis and administration of urinary suppressants (allopurinol, febuxostat significantly reduce the risk of developing TLS. If prevention of renal impairment isn’t possible, the treatment should be supplemented with hemodynamic monitoring and pharmacological support, with the possible application of recombinant urate-oxidase enzyme (rasburicase. Depending on the severity of azotemia and hydroelectrolytic disorders, application of some of the methods of renal replacement therapy may be considered.

  17. Severe neuroleptic malignant syndrome: successful treatment with high-dose lorazepam and diazepam: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Chang; Huang, Tiao-Lai

    2010-01-01

    Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is an idiosyncratic and potentially fatal adverse complication of antipsychotic medications and other dopamine-modulating agents. It is characterized by hyperthermia, muscle rigidity, autonomic dysfunction and alteration in mental status. Here, we report a patient with severe NMS who was successfully treated with highdose lorazepam and diazepam. A 61-year-old man with bipolar I disorder was admitted to the hospital because of manic episodes. Fever, muscle rigidity, tachycardia, diaphoresis, elevated blood pressure and delirium occurred following intramuscular injection of haloperidol and NMS was diagnosed. Supportive treatment included hydration, alkalinized fluids and correction of abnormal electrolytes without the use of dantrolene, dopaminergic agents or electroconvulsive therapy. The Francis-Yacoub NMS rating scale was employed for evaluation of clinical improvement, and scores were 55 on the first day and 0 at discharge. The patient was followed up for 6 months and was free of NMS. In conclusion, this is the first report of rapid relief of NMS with high-dose lorazepam and diazepam in a Taiwanese patient.

  18. Successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in patient with Ehler-Danlos syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraj, Hemant; Mohajer, Michelle; Bhattacharjee, Deepannita

    2011-12-01

    We present the case of a 31-year-old woman with Ehler-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type 2. She had a previous caesarean section and went on to have an uncomplicated vaginal birth in her last pregnancy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a successful vaginal birth after caesarean section in a patient with EDS. EDS is a multisystem disorder involving a genetic defect in collagen and connective-tissue synthesis and structure. It is a heterogeneous group of 11 different inherited disorders. Obstetric complications in these patients include miscarriages, stillbirths, premature rupture of the membranes, preterm labour, uterine prolapse, uterine rupture and severe postpartum haemorrhage. There has been much controversy over the appropriate mode of delivery. Abdominal deliveries are complicated by delayed wound healing and increased perioperative blood loss. Vaginal deliveries may be complicated by tissue friability causing extensive perineal tears, pelvic floor and bladder lesions. Our case highlights that in specific, controlled situations it is possible to have a vaginal delivery even after previous caesarean section in patients with EDS.

  19. Successful sublingual cobalamin treatment in a child with short-bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotilea, Kallirroi; Quennery, Stefanie; Decroës, Valérie; Hermans, Dominique A

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12) is essential for deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, to maintain normal hematologic and neurologic functions. Studies suggest that cobalamin deficiency in children is more common than previously recognized. Main causes are decreased intake, abnormal absorption, and inborn errors of metabolism. The classic treatment for cobalamin deficiency is intramuscular administration of B12. There are no data concerning the use of alternative routes of cobalamin administration in children. This report shares the experience of sublingual administration of B12 to a patient with short-bowel syndrome and B12 malabsorption. We report the case of successful treatment of cobalamin deficiency by sublingual administration in a 9-year-old patient who had undergone intestinal resection and jejunum-colon, with anastomosis of 32 cm of residual small intestine and absence of distal jejunum and ileocecal junction. We determined a B12 deficiency because low serum cobalamin levels (sublingual cobalamin preparation, 1000-mcg sublingual nuggets per day for 1 month. Normalization of serum cobalamin was obtained (790 pg/mL) after 1 month of treatment. The sublingual route of administration not only improved the quality of life of this patient by avoiding monthly painful injections but also reduced the cost of treatment and the number of hospital visits.

  20. Successful treatment of SAPHO syndrome with severe spinal disorder using entercept: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L L; Zhao, J X; Liu, X Y

    2012-07-01

    SAPHO syndrome (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) is a rare disease. Presently, there is no treatment guideline for this illness. Several studies suggested entercept, a novel biological agent against tumor necrosis factor-alpha, is effective in treating SAPHO syndrome. We report a case in which the clinical conditions of a middle-aged female patient diagnosed with SAPHO syndrome, with noted spinal disorder, improved significantly after receiving entercept treatment. The patient remained stable after 3-month follow-up.

  1. An integratable microfluidic cartridge for forensic swab samples lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianing; Brooks, Carla; Estes, Matthew D; Hurth, Cedric M; Zenhausern, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Fully automated rapid forensic DNA analysis requires integrating several multistep processes onto a single microfluidic platform, including substrate lysis, extraction of DNA from the released lysate solution, multiplexed PCR amplification of STR loci, separation of PCR products by capillary electrophoresis, and analysis for allelic peak calling. Over the past several years, most of the rapid DNA analysis systems developed started with the reference swab sample lysate and involved an off-chip lysis of collected substrates. As a result of advancement in technology and chemistry, addition of a microfluidic module for swab sample lysis has been achieved in a few of the rapid DNA analysis systems. However, recent reports on integrated rapid DNA analysis systems with swab-in and answer-out capability lack any quantitative and qualitative characterization of the swab-in sample lysis module, which is important for downstream forensic sample processing. Maximal collection and subsequent recovery of the biological material from the crime scene is one of the first and critical steps in forensic DNA technology. Herein we present the design, fabrication and characterization of an integratable swab lysis cartridge module and the test results obtained from different types of commonly used forensic swab samples, including buccal, saliva, and blood swab samples, demonstrating the compatibility with different downstream DNA extraction chemistries. This swab lysis cartridge module is easy to operate, compatible with both forensic and microfluidic requirements, and ready to be integrated with our existing automated rapid forensic DNA analysis system. Following the characterization of the swab lysis module, an integrated run from buccal swab sample-in to the microchip CE electropherogram-out was demonstrated on the integrated prototype instrument. Therefore, in this study, we demonstrate that this swab lysis cartridge module is: (1) functionally, comparable with routine benchtop lysis

  2. Testing optimality with experimental evolution: lysis time in a bacteriophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineman, Richard H; Bull, James J

    2007-07-01

    Optimality models collapse the vagaries of genetics into simple trade-offs to calculate phenotypes expected to evolve by natural selection. Optimality approaches are commonly criticized for this neglect of genetic details, but resolution of this disagreement has been difficult. The importance of genetic details may be tested by experimental evolution of a trait for which an optimality model exists and in which genetic details can be studied. Here we evolved lysis time in bacteriophage T7, a virus of Escherichia coli. Lysis time is equivalent to the age of reproduction in an organism that reproduces once and then dies. Delaying lysis increases the number of offspring but slows generation time, and this trade-off renders the optimum sensitive to environmental conditions: earlier lysis is favored when bacterial hosts are dense, later lysis is favored when hosts are sparse. In experimental adaptations, T7 evolved close to the optimum in conditions favoring early lysis but not in conditions favoring late lysis. One of the late lysis adaptations exhibited no detectable phenotypic evolution despite genetic evolution; the other evolved only partly toward the expected optimum. Overall, the lysis time of the adapted phages remained closer to their starting values than predicted by the model. From the perspective of the optimality model, the experimental conditions were expected to select changes only along the postulated trade-off, but a trait outside the trade-off evolved as well. Evidence suggests that the model's failure ultimately stems from a violation of the trade-off, rather than a paucity of mutations.

  3. Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saffer, Fernanda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available See also: Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2015; 19(01: 080-085 DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1393957 Rio de Janeiro, July 23, 2015 Dear readers, In the article Predictors of Success in the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome with Mandibular Repositioning Appliance: A Systematic Review,[1] published in Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2015;19(1:80–85, where it reads: José Faibes Lubianca Lubianca2 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, Brazil It should read José Faibes Lubianca Neto2 2Department of Clinical Surgery, UFSCPA, Porto Alegre, Brazil

  4. All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation.

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-11-24

    This paper describes a handheld device that uses an all-in-one membrane for continuous mechanical cell lysis and rapid DNA isolation without the assistance of power sources, lysis reagents, and routine centrifugation. This nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane was fabricated to isolate DNA by selective adsorption to silica surface immediately after disruption of nucleus membranes by ultrasharp tips of nanowires for a rapid cell lysis, and it can be directly assembled with commercial syringe filter holders. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to create microchannel arrays followed by hydrothermal synthesis of nanowires and deposition of silica. The proposed membrane successfully purifies high-quality DNA within 5 min, whereas a commercial purification kit needs more than an hour.

  5. Local lysis in acute basilar artery occlusions: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, R.; Perneczky, G.; Ammerer, H.P.; Brenner, H.; Slany, J. (Krankenanstalt der Stadt Wien Rudolfstiftung (Austria))

    1984-01-01

    Thrombosis of the basilar artery is not a rare disease, and the mortality is reported to be 60 to 80%. Present standard therapy with heparin infusions yields poor results. The high risk of intracerebral haemorrhage prohibits systemic fibrinolytic therapy. Due to these facts and good experience in our department with the use of local intracoronary lysis in acute myocardial infarction, the method of local thrombolysis was applied in a case of acute basiliar artery thrombosis. Fibrinolytic therapy was started via an angiography catheter placed in the vertebral artery in a 28 year-old woman with hemiplegia and severe brain stem symptoms. The patient received 200,000 IU streptokinase within 2 hours and subsequently 300,000 IU urokinase within 10 hours. The vessel re-opened completely. The neurological symptoms decreased during the following weeks. Based on this experience and according to rare reports in the literature we believe local low-dose thrombolysis to be a causal therapy promising success for acute thrombosis of the basilar artery. This therapy can be carried out in every medical centre able to perform selective angiography and experienced in the administration of fibrinolytic drugs.

  6. Arthroscopic Lysis of Arthrofibrosis of the Fifth Tarsometatarsal Joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Loss of motion of the fifth tarsometatarsal joint can be a cause of lateral foot pain after Lisfranc fracture-dislocation or fracture of the fifth metatarsal tubercle. Arthroscopic lysis of the joint can be an effective surgical treatment with the advantage of minimal soft-tissue trauma and early vigorous mobilization of the joint. The lysis can be extended to the fourth tarsometatarsal joint and the adjacent tendons if indicated.

  7. The Spheroplast Lysis Assay for Yeast in Microtiter Plate Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Rafael; Spencer, Moyah; Thiwanont, Monthiwa; Lipke, Peter N.

    1999-01-01

    A yeast lysis assay in the microtiter plate format improved precision and throughput and led to an improved algorithm for estimating lag time. The assay reproducibly revealed differences of 10% or greater in the maximal lysis rate and 50% or greater in the lag time. Clonal differences were determined to be the major source of variation. Microtiter-based assays should be useful for screening for drug susceptibility and for analyzing mutant phenotypes. PMID:10427014

  8. A case of organic brain syndrome following head injury successfully treated with carbamazepine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvy, P F; van de Wetering, B J; Meerwaldt, J D; Bruijn, J B

    1988-03-01

    A case of organic brain syndrome occurring in relation to psychological stress 2 years after a severe head injury is described. Treatment with haloperidol resulted only in slight improvement. A dramatic improvement was achieved with carbamazepine.

  9. Plasma nanotextured polymeric lab-on-a-chip for highly efficient bacteria capture and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougeni, K; Papadakis, G; Gianneli, M; Grammoustianou, A; Constantoudis, V; Dupuy, B; Petrou, P S; Kakabakos, S E; Tserepi, A; Gizeli, E; Gogolides, E

    2016-01-07

    We describe the design, fabrication, and successful demonstration of a sample preparation module comprising bacteria cell capture and thermal lysis on-chip with potential applications in food sample pathogen analysis. Plasma nanotexturing of the polymeric substrate allows increase of the surface area of the chip and the antibody binding capacity. Three different anti-Salmonella antibodies were directly and covalently linked to plasma treated chips without any additional linker chemistry or other treatment. Then, the Ab-modified chips were tested for their capacity to bind bacteria in the concentration range of 10(2)-10(8) cells per mL; the module exhibited 100% efficiency in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteria capture for cell suspensions below 10(5) cells per mL (10(4) cells injected with a 100 μL sample volume) and efficiency higher than 50% for 10(7) cells per mL. Moreover, thermal lysis achieved on-chip from as low as 10 captured cells was demonstrated and shown to compare well with off-chip lysis. Excellent selectivity (over 1 : 300) was obtained in a sample containing, in addition to S. Typhimurium and E. coli bacteria.

  10. One-step cell lysis suitable for quantitative bacteria detection in inhibitor-laden sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun Jeong; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ahjeong

    2015-04-01

    Complexity and heterogeneity of soils often hinder effective DNA extraction from the soil matrix. In particular, conventional DNA extraction techniques require extensive purification which makes DNA extraction time-consuming and labor-intensive. Other drawbacks include lower recovery yield, degradation, and damage of DNA, which are also caused by intensive purifications during DNA extraction. Therefore a rapid and simple and yet effective DNA pretreatment method is preferred for environmental monitoring and screening. This study has evaluated the feasibility of simple physical pretreatment for effective cell lysis of bacteria in sands. Bead beating method was selected as an effective physical cell lysis method in this study. We examined the capability of this physical lysis for Pseudomonas putida seeded sands without additional chemical purification steps. The lysate from the method was analysed by the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay and subsequently compared to that by commercial DNA extraction kit. The best lysis condition (treatment with 0.1 mm glass beads at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes) was selected. The qPCR results of bead beating treated samples showed the better performance than that of conventional DNA extraction kit. Moreover, the qPCR assay was performed to the sands laden with qPCR inhibitors (humic acids, clay, and magnesium), which generally present in environmental samples. Further experiments with the sands containing less than 10 μg/g of humic acids and 70% of clay showed successful quantification results of qPCR assay. In conclusion, the bead beating method is useful for simplified DNA extraction prior to qPCR analysis for sand samples of particular composition. It is expected that this approach will be beneficial for environmental in-situ analysis or immediate pre-screening. It also provides the groundwork for future studies with real soil samples that have various physico-chemical properties.

  11. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a dermatologic perspective and successful treatment with losartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero, James

    2014-08-01

    The postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a disease characterized by excessively increased heart rate during orthostatic challenge associated with symptoms of orthostatic intolerance including dizziness, exercise intolerance, headache, fatigue, memory problems, nausea, blurred vision, pallor, and sweating, which improve with recumbence. Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome patients may present with a multitude of additional symptoms that are attributable to vascular vasoconstriction. Observed signs and symptoms in a patient with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome include tachycardia at rest, exaggerated heart rate increase with upright position and exercise, crushing chest pain, tremor, syncope, loss of vision, confusion, migraines, fatigue, heat intolerance, parasthesia, dysesthesia, allodynia, altered traditional senses, and thermoregulatory abnormalities. There are a number of possible dermatological manifestations of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome easily explained by its recently discovered pathophysiology. The author reports the case of a 22-year-old woman with moderate-to-severe postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome with numerous dermatological manifestations attributable to the disease process. The cutaneous manifestations observed in this patient are diverse and most noticeable during postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome flares. The most distinct are evanescent, hyperemic, sharply demarcated, irregular patches on the chest and neck area that resolve upon diascopy. This distinct "evanescent hyperemia" disappears spontaneously after seconds to minutes and reappears unexpectedly. Other observed dermatological manifestations of this systemic disease include Raynaud's phenomenon, koilonychia, onychodystrophy, madarosis, dysesthesia, allodynia, telogen effluvium, increased capillary refill time, and livedo reticularis. The treatment of this disease poses a great challenge. The author reports the unprecedented use of an oral

  12. Associated Da Vinci and magellan robotic systems for successful treatment of nutcracker syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaveau, Fabien; Nicolini, Philippe; Lucereau, Benoit; Georg, Yannick; Lejay, Anne; Chakfe, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman suffering from nutcracker syndrome with concurrent disabling pelvic congestion syndrome. She was given the minimally invasive treatment of left renal vein transposition with the Da Vinci(®) robotic system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA), followed the next day by a gonadal vein and pelvic varicose embolization using a robotic intraluminal navigation with the Magellan™ robotic system (Hansen Medical, Mountain View, CA). The procedure was uneventful, and the patient had good results at 6 months of follow-up, including a patent left renal vein and complete relief of symptoms.

  13. Guillain-Barre syndrome in a 7-month-old boy successfully applied plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarcan, Sanem Eren; İşgüder, Rana; Yılmaz, Ünsal; Ayhan, Yüce; Ceylan, Gökhan; Ağın, Hasan

    2016-02-01

    Despite being the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in children Guillain-Barré syndrome has a low incidence under 18 years old, and is even rarer under the age of 2. Established treatment regimens include intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange in older children and adults. However very limited data are available for the efficacy and safety of plasma exchange in infants younger than 12 month-old. This article presents the experience of plasma exchange in the case of 7-month-old boy diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. A 7-month-old boy was referred to the pediatric intensive care unit with a 10-day history of progressive weakness, feeding difficulty and constipation. He was diagnosed with axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome on the basis of clinical and electromyographical findings. The patient recovered fully with intravenous immunoglobulin and plasma exchange. Plasma exchange may be a safe option in the treatment in infants with Guillain-Barré syndrome as young as 7-month-age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Successful Treatment of Olfactory Reference Syndrome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Pichora, Andrea L.; Antony, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Olfactory reference syndrome (ORS) is characterized by a preoccupation with the belief that one's body emits a foul odor. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) was used to treat a woman in her 50s who presented in our outpatient anxiety disorders specialty clinic with ORS, accompanied by embarrassment, shame, distress, avoidance behavior, and social…

  15. Direct cell lysis for single-cell gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSvec

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest to analyze single and few cell samples is rapidly increasing. Numerous extraction protocols to purify nucleic acids are available, but most of them compromise severely on yield to remove contaminants and are therefore not suitable for the analysis of samples containing small numbers of transcripts only. Here, we evaluate 17 direct cell lysis protocols for transcript yield and compatibility with downstream reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Four endogenously expressed genes are assayed together with RNA and DNA spikes in the samples. We found bovine serum albumin (BSA to be the best lysis agent, resulting in efficient cell lysis, high RNA stability and enhanced reverse transcription efficiency. Furthermore, we found direct cell lysis with BSA superior to standard column based extraction methods, when analyzing from 1 up to 512 mammalian cells. In conclusion, direct cell lysis protocols based on BSA can be applied with most cell collection methods and are compatible with most analytical workflows to analyze single cells as well as samples composed of small numbers of cells.

  16. Successful treatment of mature B-cell lymphoma with rituximab-based chemotherapy in a patient with Bloom syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastaniah, Wasil

    2017-07-01

    This report presents a case of Bloom syndrome (BS) in a consanguineous Saudi family. The patient, an 11-year-old male with mature B-cell lymphoma, had minimal therapeutic response and significant dose-limiting toxicity with standard chemotherapy treatment. He later responded successfully to a rituximab-based chemotherapy protocol. This case highlights that the rituximab-based chemotherapy protocol is an effective and safe treatment alternative for mature B-cell lymphoma in patients with BS. Further trials are warranted to investigate this modality of treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The success of sleeve gastrectomy in the management of metabolic syndrome and obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asim Shabbir; Dallan Dargan

    2015-01-01

    The rapid reversal of diabetes,hypertension,hyperlipidaemia and obesity by surgical means has challenged accepted doctrines regarding the management of metabolic syndrome.Sleeve gastrectomy,which developed initially as a preparatory procedure for biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch,has seen an exponential rise in popularity as an effective lone laparoscopic bariatric procedure.Superior excess weight loss,a low complication rate,and excellent food tolerance,combined with a short hospital stay,have made this the procedure of choice for patients and surgeons across the globe.High volume centres nurture the ongoing development of experienced and specialized teams,pathways and regimens.Optimum surgical outcomes allow minimization of metabolic syndrome,reducing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk.

  18. Success of serial transverse enteroplasty in an adult with extreme short bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengxian; Li, Yousheng; Zhang, Shaoyi; Wang, Jian; Li, Jieshou

    2015-04-01

    Since its introduction as an alternative intestinal lengthening technique, serial transverse enteroplasty has been increasingly used as the surgical treatment of choice for children with refractory short bowel syndrome, but there have been few reports about the adult patients. This report describes the case of a 71-year-old man with a short bowel after distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction for gastric cancer, followed by extensive intestinal resection. The serial transverse enteroplasty operation was performed and lengthened the small intestine from 49 to 67 cm. The patient tolerated the procedure well and weaned off total parenteral nutrition. Liver function also improved. This case shows that the serial transverse enteroplasty procedure increases intestinal length. This procedure should be considered a surgical option for adult patients with extreme short bowel syndrome.

  19. [Successful treatment of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic-uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Hideki; Minouchi, Keiji; Aoyama, Shou; Hinoue, Yoshinobu

    2015-07-01

    We report a case of a woman in her twenties with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111-induced hemolytic-uremic syndrome who developed acute encephalopathy on day 5 of admission. She recovered after treatment with steroid pulse therapy, plasmapheresis, and recombinant thrombomodulin, without any adverse sequelae. We report this interesting case and provide a summary of the recent outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111.

  20. Miniaturized Cell Lysis Device Using Spherically Focused Ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李刚; 肖宏; 郭旻; 程京

    2003-01-01

    A prototype of a miniaturized cell lysis device developed using a concave spherical transducer is capable of lysing bacteria without added chemical denaturants, enzymes or microparticles and is capable of efficiently lysing yeast without any mechanical or enzymatic pretreatment.The device is designed for miniature bio-analysis systems where cell lysing is needed to obtain intracellular materials for further analysis such as DNA identification.The device lysis efficiency was evaluated using viable cell counts and microscopy.Additionally, the device efficiency was compared with that of traditional chemical cell lysis methods using standard molecular biological techniques such as agarose gels and ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy.The results indicate that efficient bacteria and cell disruption can be achieved through a low-voltage-driven and spherically focused high-frequency ultrasonic device.

  1. Successful treatment of Chlamydophila pneumoniae acute respiratory distress syndrome with extracorporeal membrane oxygenator: a case report and diagnostic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Bels David

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chlamydophila pneumoniae is a respiratory pathogen known to infect the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Infection severity can range from sub-clinical pulmonary infection to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Case presentation A previously healthy 62-year-old Caucasian man was admitted to our hospital for acute respiratory failure. Serum samples obtained every week starting from the day of admission showed clear-cut seroconversion for C. pneumoniae antibodies. All other cultures obtained during the first days of hospitalization were negative. Despite maximal ventilatory support (high positive end expiratory pressure, fraction of inspired oxygen of 1.0, nitric oxide inhalation, neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning, our patient remained severely hypoxemic, which led us to initiate an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodiafiltration were withdrawn on day 12. Our patient was extubated on day 18 and discharged from our Intensive Care Unit on day 20. He went home a month later. Conclusion We describe the first published case of acute respiratory distress syndrome due to C. pneumoniae infection successfully treated by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, a very useful tool in this syndrome. A quick and specific method for the definite diagnosis of Chlamydophila infection should be developed.

  2. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder complicated with Sjogren syndrome successfully treated with tocilizumab: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Toshihiko; Shoda, Hirofumi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Sakurai, Keiichi; Shibuya, Mihoko; Kubo, Kanae; Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Fujio, Keishi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman with relapsing longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis and Sjogren's syndrome (SS) was admitted with lower extremity muscle weakness. Studies showed high serum titer of anti-aquaporin4 antibody and gadolinium-enhanced-MRI T1-weighted lesions within thoracic cord. Clinical findings suggested neuromyelitis optica-spectrum disorder (NMO-SD). High-dose corticosteroids, plasma exchange and cyclophosphamide were not effective. After starting tocilizumab, her neurological findings gradually improved. This report describes the first evidence to show tocilizumab could be effective for NMO-SD with SS.

  3. [Successful treatment with azacitidine for myelodysplastic syndrome with large vessel vasculitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Mai; Makita, Masanori; Sando, Yasuhisa; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Shiote, Yasuhiro; Hara, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Imajo, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Paraneoplastic inflammation of the large vessels is a rare complication of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and patients with MDS and systemic vasculitis have a poor prognosis. We present a 66-year-old male with MDS and large vessel vasculitis treated with azacitidine. Azacitidine administration improved his clinical symptoms, high fever and thickening of the arterial wall, and he achieved a complete bone marrow remission. However, 1 year later he showed progression of MDS. For MDS with vasculitis, intensive therapy, the same as that given to the high-risk group, should be considered and azacitidine administration may represent an efficacious treatment.

  4. Successful treatment of a case of extensive radiation burns with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeyang; Wang, Jinlun; Li, Gang; Lin, Weihua; Li, Xiaojian; Tong, Renlian

    2013-01-01

    A patient sustained acute third-degree radiation burns over 41% of his body surface. The burns were due to occupational injury caused by an electron accelerator. Most of his wounds appeared and spread gradually during the 10th week after the radiation burn. Subsequently, severe wound infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, severe pneumonia, respiratory failure, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, nephropathy, and hypoproteinemia had developed 3 months after the radiation injury. Most of the skin grafts could neither survive nor spread on the fresh wound after removing the necrotic tissue. This phenomenon resulted in many more wounds after operations, increasing the risk of wound infection. Parenteral nutrition, respiratory support with a ventilator, antibiotics for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, steroid therapeutics for nephropathy, deeper debridement for wounds, and skin grafting were applied for treatment of this patient. The patient recovered gradually and was discharged from the hospital in good condition after 18 months. The authors suggest that deeper excision of necrotic tissue and skin grafting as well as appropriate antibiotics are principal measures to counteract systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Sufficient albumen by vein and steroid should be administered for treatment against nephropathy and for control of infection. Functions of organs should be carefully monitored to fine-tune the therapeutic programs and to minimize complications of organs.

  5. Eculizumab prevents recurrent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and enables successful renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonze, B E; Zachary, A A; Magro, C M; Desai, N M; Orandi, B J; Dagher, N N; Singer, A L; Carter-Monroe, N; Nazarian, S M; Segev, D L; Streiff, M B; Montgomery, R A

    2014-02-01

    Renal transplantation in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies has historically proven challenging due to increased risk for thrombosis and allograft failure. This is especially true for patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and its rare subtype, the catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS). Since a critical mechanism of thrombosis in APS/CAPS is one mediated by complement activation, we hypothesized that preemptive treatment with the terminal complement inhibitor, eculizumab, would reduce the extent of vascular injury and thrombosis, enabling renal transplantation for patients in whom it would otherwise be contraindicated. Three patients with APS, two with a history of CAPS, were treated with continuous systemic anticoagulation together with eculizumab prior to and following live donor renal transplantation. Two patients were also sensitized to human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and required plasmapheresis for reduction of donor-specific antibodies. After follow-up ranging from 4 months to 4 years, all patients have functioning renal allografts. No systemic thrombotic events or early graft losses were observed. While the appropriate duration of treatment remains to be determined, this case series suggests that complement inhibitors such as eculizumab may prove to be effective in preventing the recurrence of APS after renal transplantation.

  6. Fluorescent method for monitoring cheese starter permeabilization and lysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunthof, C.J.; Schalkwijk, van S.; Meijer, W.; Abee, T.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence method to monitor lysis of cheese starter bacteria using dual staining with the LIVE/DEAD BacLight bacterial viability kit is described. This kit combines membrane-permeant green fluorescent nucleic acid dye SYTO 9 and membrane-impermeant red fluorescent nucleic acid dye propidium iod

  7. Errorless Compliance Training: Success-Focused Behavioral Treatment of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducharme, Joseph M.; Sanjuan, Elena; Drain, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    Errorless compliance training is a noncoercive, success-focused approach to treatment of problem behavior in children. The intervention involves graduated exposure of a child to increasingly more challenging requests at a slow enough rate to ensure that noncompliance rarely occurs, providing parents with many opportunities to reinforce cooperative…

  8. Successful treatment of dopamine dysregulation syndrome with dopamine D2 partial agonist antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizushima Jin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS consists of a series of complications such as compulsive use of dopaminergic medications, aggressive or hypomanic behaviors during excessive use, and withdrawal states characterized by dysphoria and anxiety, caused by long-term dopaminergic treatment in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Although several ways to manage DDS have been suggested, there has been no established treatment that can manage DDS without deterioration of motor symptoms. In this article, we present a case of PD in whom the administration of the dopamine D2 partial agonistic antipsychotic drug aripiprazole improved DDS symptoms such as craving and compulsive behavior without worsening of motor symptoms. Considering the profile of this drug as a partial agonist at D2 receptors, it is possible that it exerts its therapeutic effect on DDS by modulating the dysfunctional dopamine system.

  9. Successful Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome with the Addition of Linezolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Rac

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS. Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy. While the patient was hemodynamically stable, the patient’s wounds, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia all progressively worsened. After initiation of linezolid, the patient slowly improved clinically. The present report is the first to highlight the role of linezolid in streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and TSS not improving with standard therapy.

  10. Bridges and barriers to successful transitioning as perceived by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarelli, Ellen; Ruttenberg, Jean; Segal, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thematic content analysis we examined the expectations, and perceived facilitators of (referred to as bridges) and barriers to transition to community as reported by adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were adolescents/young adults, ages 18-23 years were from the East Coast of the United States. Seventy percent of adolescents hoped for employment (n = 10). Thirty percent desired to find a partner and raise a family. Perceived barriers were: self-assessed behavioral problems, self-assessed associated features, other personal factors, and institutional factors. Bridges to facilitate transition were: accommodations in the community, cognitive abilities, personal qualities/strengths, and mentor's qualities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Harrech, Y; Abaka, N; Ghoundale, O; Touiti, D

    2013-10-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  12. Successful Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome with the Addition of Linezolid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojikian, Karine D.; Lucar, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy. While the patient was hemodynamically stable, the patient's wounds, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia all progressively worsened. After initiation of linezolid, the patient slowly improved clinically. The present report is the first to highlight the role of linezolid in streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and TSS not improving with standard therapy. PMID:28299216

  13. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y El harrech

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed.

  14. Successful treatment of migrating partial seizures in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome with bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Ayako; Saito, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Yoko; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Ohno, Koyo; Sejima, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro

    2016-08-01

    A girl with mild psychomotor developmental delay developed right or left hemiclonic convulsion at 10months of age. One month later, clusters of hemiclonic or bilateral tonic seizures with eyelid twitching emerged, resulting in status epilepticus. Treatment with phenobarbital and potassium bromide completely terminated the seizures within 10days. Ictal electroencephalography revealed a migrating focus of rhythmic 3-4Hz waves from the right temporal to right frontal regions and then to the left frontal regions. Genetic analysis was conducted based on the characteristic facial appearance of the patient, which identified a 2.1-Mb terminal deletion on chromosome 4p. This is the first case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome complicated by epilepsy with migrating partial seizures.

  15. Polysomnographic record and successful management of augmentation in restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Michelangelo; Fulda, Stephany; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Zucconi, Marco; Marelli, Sara; Staedler, Claudio; Bassetti, Claudio L; Manconi, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    Dopamine agonists (DAs) represent the first-line treatment in restless legs syndrome (RLS); however, in the long term, a substantial proportion of patients will develop augmentation, which is a severe drug-related exacerbation of symptoms and the main reason for late DA withdrawal. Polysomnographic features and mechanisms underlining augmentation are unknown. No practice guidelines for management of augmentation are available. A clinical case series of 24 consecutive outpatients affected by RLS with clinically significant augmentation during treatment with immediate-release DA was performed. All patients underwent a full-night polysomnographic recording during augmentation. A switchover from immediate-release DAs (l-dopa, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) to the long-acting, extended-release formula of pramipexole was performed. Fifty percent of patients presented more than 15 periodic limb movements per hour of sleep during augmentation, showing longer sleep latency and shorter total sleep time than subjects without periodic limb movements. In all patients, resolution of augmentation was observed within two to four weeks during which immediate-release dopamine agonists could be completely withdrawn. Treatment efficacy of extended-release pramipexole has persisted, thus far, over a mean follow-up interval of 13 months. Pramipexole extended release could be an easy, safe, and fast pharmacological option to treat augmentation in patients with restless legs syndrome. As such it warrants further prospective and controlled investigations. This observation supports the hypothesis that the duration of action of the drug plays a key role in the mechanism of augmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Budd-Chiari and inferior caval vein syndromes due to membranous obstruction of the liver veins. Successful treatment with angioplasty and transcaval TIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland-Fischer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    -up the stents remain open and the patient is symptom free. This successful combination of stent placement and TIPS has not been described before. The case report is followed by a review of the literature on the use of angioplasty in short hepatic vein stenosis and TIPS in Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is concluded...... that angioplasty and TIPS are safe and efficient procedures to reduce liver engorgement and complications of portal hypertension in selected patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome....

  17. Successful management of aortic thrombi resulting in spinal cord infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Izumi, Shoko Teraoka, Keisuke Yamashita, Kenji Matsumoto, Tomohiro Muronoi, Yoshimitsu Izawa, Chikara Yonekawa, Masaki Ano, Masayuki SuzukawaDepartment of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 74-year-old man with coronary artery disease was suffering from acute nonobstructive cholecystitis and was admitted to a nearby hospital. Dual antiplatelet (aspirin and ticlopidine therapy was discontinued before preparation for surgical resection of the gall bladder. During his time in hospital he was aware of lumbar pain and weakness in both legs. He was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and therapy. Diffuse intra-aortic thrombi were revealed by computed tomography with contrast media, and magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord infarction. However, computed tomography scans of the descending aorta obtained 4 months before admission exhibited no signs of atherosclerotic plaques or intra-aortic thrombi. Laboratory data suggest that antiphospholipid antibody syndrome might have caused these acute multiple intra-arterial thrombi. By restarting dual antiplatelet therapy and increasing the dose of heparin (from 10,000 IU/day to 15,000 IU/day we successfully managed the patient's clinical condition and symptoms. It is important to understand that stopping antiplatelet therapy may rapidly grow thrombi in patients with a hypercoagulative state.Keywords: intra-aortic thrombus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, spinal cord infarction

  18. Successful Salvage of a Renal Allograft after Acute Renal Vein Thrombosis due to May-Thurner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omkar U. Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old Caucasian female with a past medical history of a deceased donor kidney transplant four months prior was admitted with a two-day history of anuria and acute kidney injury. A renal ultrasound demonstrated thrombus in the transplanted kidney's renal vein that extended into the left iliac vein as well as into the left femoral venous system. Catheter-guided tissue thrombolytics were infused directly into the clot. Within twelve hours of initiating thrombolytic infusion, there was brisk urine output. Interval venography demonstrated decreasing clot burden. At the time of discharge her creatinine was 0.78 mg/dL, similar to her baseline value prior to presentation. The patient was noted to have May-Thurner syndrome on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS. Angioplasty followed by stent placement was done. Unique to our case report was the timing of the presentation of renal vein thrombosis (four months after transplant and the predisposing anatomy consistent with May-Thurner syndrome, which was diagnosed with IVUS and successfully treated with local thrombolytics.

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) treated successfully by veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a nearly drowned patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Tomohiro; Ohshima, Kazuma; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Asada, Toshifumi; Hiruma, Takahiro; Doi, Kento; Gunshin, Masataka; Murakawa, Tomohiro; Anraku, Masaki; Nakajima, Susumu; Nakajima, Jun; Yahagi, Naoki

    2014-09-01

    This report highlights about one acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) case after near-drowning resuscitated using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Few cases have been reported about ECMO use for near-drowning and in most of these cases, ECMO was initiated within the first week. However, in our report, we would like to emphasize that seemingly irreversible secondary worsening of ARDS after nearly drowned patient was successfully treated by ECMO use more than 1 week after near-drowning followed by discharge without home oxygen therapy, social support, or any complication. This is probably due to sufficient lung rest for ventilator-associated lung injury during ECMO use. Based on our case's clinical course, intensive care unit physicians must consider ECMO even in the late phase of worsened ARDS after near-drowning.

  20. The Successful Use of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Management of Severe Hepatopulmonary Syndrome after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS is characterized by pulmonary vasodilation and subsequent hypoxemia in the setting of hepatic dysfunction. There is currently no pharmacologic intervention that has been shown to significantly affect outcomes and liver transplantation remains the mainstay of therapy. Unfortunately, patients undergoing liver transplantation are at high risk of significant hypoxemia and mortality in the early postoperative period. In the following case series, we present two cases of patients with severe HPS who underwent liver transplantation and experienced marked hypoxemia in the early postoperative period. In both cases, we successfully treated the patients with inhaled nitric oxide for their severe refractory life-threatening hypoxemia which led to immediate and dramatic improvements in their oxygenation. Although the use of inhaled nitric oxide in patients with HPS has been sporadically reported in pediatric literature and in animal studies, to our knowledge, our cases are the first recorded in adult patients.

  1. Successful treatment of post-exertion acute myocardial infarction by primary angioplasty and stenting in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musuraca, Gerardo; Imperadore, Ferdinando; Terraneo, Clotilde; De Girolamo, Piergiuseppe; Cemin, Claudio; Bonmassari, Roberto; Vergara, Giuseppe

    2004-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is a disorder characterized by arterial and venous thromboses, thrombocytopaenia and stroke. Acute myocardial infarction is rarely associated with this syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. This report is about a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome presenting with an acute myocardial infarction after an exercise test. The infarct-related coronary artery was successfully revascularized by primary angioplasty and stenting without any major bleeding complications. We think that the physical exertion could have favoured acute coronary thrombosis in this particular setting.

  2. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome in a patient with a pre-existing patent foramen ovale successfully treated with an atrial septal occluder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting-Ting ZHANG; Ge-Sheng CHENG; Jun WANG; Xing-Ye WANG; Xue-Gang XIE; Ya-Juan DU; Yu-Shun ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome is associated with dyspnea and arterial oxygen desaturation accentuated by an upright posture. It can be secondary to an intracardiac shunt. We report a case of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) in a 58-year old male patient who had a pre-existing patent foramen ovale (PFO) and substantial pulmonary pathologies. He was successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter closure of the PFO. Our case highlights the importance of recognition of this rare syndrome in patients who present with unexplained hy-poxia for whom transcatheter closure of the interatrial shunt can be safely carried out.

  3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Early Successful Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Therapy in Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Ming Su

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by acute-onset dyspnea, diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration, low pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP, and an arterial oxygen tension/ inspired oxygen fraction (PaO2/FiO2 ratio of less than 200 mmHg. Acute myocardial infarction (AMI, whether complicated by circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, and hypotension or not, was reported as an etiologic factor in the development of ARDS in the prethrombolytic era. In the thrombolytic era, two cases of AMI complicated with ARDS have been reported. ARDS in these two patients resulted from anaphylactic reaction to the thrombolytic agent and not from the hemodynamic consequences of AMI. Development of ARDS during the AMI period has not been reported after early successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Herein, we report a 61-year-old male patient with persistent chest pain who was diagnosed with Killip II anterior ST-segment elevation AMI. He was treated successfully with primary PCI 2.5 hours after the onset of chest pain. Unfortunately, on the third hospital day, acuteonset dyspnea (respiratory rate, 33 beats/min, fever (38.5°C, leukocytosis (white blood cell count, 18,360/μL, and diffuse bilateral pulmonary infiltration were noted. ARDS was diagnosed from the low PCWP (8 mmHg and a PaO2/FiO2 of less than 200 mmHg (160 mmHg. No usual causes of ARDS such as infection, aspiration, trauma, shock, or drug reactions were noted. We assumed that, in this particular patient, the systemic inflammatory response syndrome frequently induced by AMI might have caused this episode of ARDS. This may imply that AMI itself is a possible etiology of ARDS.

  4. Macrophage Activation Syndrome Associated with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease Successfully Treated with Anakinra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aswini Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS is a potentially fatal complication of Adult-Onset Still’s disease (Still’s disease. Whereas an increasing body of evidence supports interleukin-1 (IL-1 blockade as a promising treatment for Still’s disease, whether it is therapeutic for MAS associated with Still’s disease remains unclear. We report a 34-year-old Caucasian man with one-decade history of TNF-blockade-responsive seronegative arthritis who presented with abrupt onset of fever, serositis, bicytopenia, splenomegaly, hepatitis, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Striking hyperferritinemia was noted without evidence of infection, malignancy, or hemophagocytosis on bone marrow biopsy. NK cells were undetectable in the peripheral blood, whereas soluble IL-2 receptor was elevated. His multiorgan disease resolved in association with methylprednisolone pulse therapy, Anakinra, and a tapering course of prednisone. This case reinforces the notion that Still’s disease is inherently poised to manifest MAS as one of the clinical phenotypes by shedding light on the role of IL-1 underlying both Still’s disease and related MAS.

  5. Successful unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kállay, Krisztián; Liptai, Zoltán; Benyó, Gábor; Kassa, Csaba; Goda, Veronika; Sinkó, János; Tóth, Agnes; Kriván, Gergely

    2012-06-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) is a chronic, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder causing motor and behavioral dysfunction due to decreased synthesis of the enzyme hypoxantine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT). Affected boys have mental retardation, delayed development, extrapyramidal motor disturbances and self-injuring behavior. As hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to be effective in several neurodevelopmental inborn errors, we hypothesized that it could be favorable in LNS as well. Following a myeloablative conditioning regimen (busulphan 3.2 mg/kg/day for 4 days, cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/day for 2 days with ATG Thymoglobin 2.5 mg/kg/day for 4 days) an unrelated umbilical cord blood unit was transfused at the age of 2 years. The graft was a 6/6 HLA-matched at HLA-A, B loci by antigen level, and at DRB1 by allelic level typing. Infused total nucleated cell dose was 3.6 × 10e7 per kilogram body weight. Serum HPRT levels reached normal values by the end of the sixth month post transplant. Slow neurodevelopmental improvement seen during the three-year follow-up and the missing self-injuring behavior can be considered as a proof for the presence of enzyme-competent cells behind the blood-brain barrier.

  6. Estimating successive cancer risks in Lynch Syndrome families using a progressive three-state model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Hee; Briollais, Laurent; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Kopciuk, Karen

    2014-02-20

    Lynch Syndrome (LS) families harbor mutated mismatch repair genes,which predispose them to specific types of cancer. Because individuals within LS families can experience multiple cancers over their lifetime, we developed a progressive three-state model to estimate the disease risk from a healthy (state 0) to a first cancer (state 1) and then to a second cancer (state 2). Ascertainment correction of the likelihood was made to adjust for complex sampling designs with carrier probabilities for family members with missing genotype information estimated using their family's observed genotype and phenotype information in a one-step expectation-maximization algorithm. A sandwich variance estimator was employed to overcome possible model misspecification. The main objective of this paper is to estimate the disease risk (penetrance) for age at a second cancer after someone has experienced a first cancer that is also associated with a mutated gene. Simulation study results indicate that our approach generally provides unbiased risk estimates and low root mean squared errors across different family study designs, proportions of missing genotypes, and risk heterogeneities. An application to 12 large LS families from Newfoundland demonstrates that the risk for a second cancer was substantial and that the age at a first colorectal cancer significantly impacted the age at any LS subsequent cancer. This study provides new insights for developing more effective management of mutation carriers in LS families by providing more accurate multiple cancer risk estimates.

  7. Successful treatment of nephrotic syndrome due to FMF amyloidosis with azathioprine: report of three Turkish cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayarlioglu, Hayriye; Erkoc, Reha; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Dogan, Ekrem; Soyoral, Yasemin

    2006-12-01

    Secondary amyloidosis is a well-known complication of certain familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). We presented three Turkish patients with FMF and biopsy proven amyloidosis. These patients were treated with colchicine 1.5 mg/day. They have experienced five to six peritonitis attacks with fever within 1 year. On admission, the laboratory test results were as follows: serum creatinine 2.3, 0.6, and 0.5 mg/dl; albumin 4.2, 1.9, and 1.8 g/dl; and urinary protein excretion 4, 15, and 10 g/day, respectively. All the patients were started azathioprine (AZA) 100 mg/day and attacks were completely stopped. Laboratory findings were as follows after 1 year of AZA treatment: serum creatinine 1, 0.8, and 0.6 mg/dl; albumin 4.3, 3, and 3.5 g/dl; and urinary protein excretion 3, 8, and 1.5 g/day, respectively. Treatment with azathioprine in addition to colchicine could ameliorate the nephrotic syndrome and control the attacks very effectively in these cases.

  8. Successful surgical treatment of scoliosis secondary to Guillain-Barré syndrome: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Liang, Jinqian; Feng, Fan

    2016-06-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy that mostly affects the peripheral nervous system. Little is reported about spinal deformity associated with GBS. This study aims to present a case of scoliosis occurring in the setting of GBS.Case report and literature review.The patient was a 14-year-old male with scoliosis. His spinal plain radiographs showed that the Cobb angle of thoracic scoliosis was 114°. History review revealed that he developed profound lower extremity pain, weakness, and numbness after catching a cold 5 years ago. These symptoms progressed to unsteady gait and inability to stand up from squatting position. The diagnosis of GBS was confirmed based on these symptoms. He underwent a posterior correction at Thoracic 5-Lumbar 5 (T5-L12) levels using the (LEGACY, USA) spinal system. The Cobb angle was corrected from 114° to 45° (correction rate 60.5%). His follow-up was symptomatic, well balanced in the coronal planes, with solid fusion 12 months after the operation.Neuromuscular scoliosis could develop secondary to GBS. When evaluating patients with acute inflammatory polyneuropathy, clinical examination of the spine is essential to identify patients with rare neuromuscular scoliosis.

  9. Successful live birth in a woman with resistant ovary syndrome following in vitro maturation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Pan, Ping; Yuan, Ping; Qiu, Qi; Yang, Dongzi

    2016-09-06

    Resistant ovary syndrome (ROS) is a rare endocrine disorder characterized with hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism. Infertility is a common complaint of woman presenting with ROS, and little progress has been made in term of reproduction with the patient's own gamete. So far only one case report of live birth has been reported after in vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes in a patient suffering from ROS in 2013. A secondary infertile woman of 33 years-old was manifested with oligomenorrhea and markedly increased gonadotropin levels around postmenopausal range, but had normal antral follicle count, normal serum inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone levels. She had normal karyotype of 46,XX and normal thyroid function. There were no abnormal findings in some autoantibody assays and FSH receptor sequencing. After oral contraceptive pills combined with triptorelin depot were administered, her gonadotropin levels reduced but it showed no response to high doses of exogenous gonadotropins (hp-HMG 300IU/d for 15 days). Then endometrium was prepared with estradiol valerate and IVM from small antral follicles were performed. Five immature oocytes were retrieved. Twenty-four hours after IVM culture, 3 oocytes matured to metaphase II stage and were inseminated by intracytoplasmic sperm injection using her husband's sperm. Two top-quality embryos were transferred and one embryo was cryopreserved. The patient got pregnant and delivered a healthy boy at term. IVM using their own oocytes could be an available treatment for infertile women with ROS.

  10. Budd-Chiari syndrome and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in polycythemia vera: Successful treatment with repeated TIPS and interferon alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akoum Riad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycythemia vera (PV is a common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS and portal vein thrombosis (PVT. The postpartum period is a precipitating cofactor. An additional heparin-induced thrombocytopenia/thrombosis (HIT/T leads to a life-threatening condition in which transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS seems to be the only life-saving procedure. We describe the case of a subacute BCS and PVT in the late postpartum period. The diagnosis was established using CT scan, MRI, and Doppler ultrasonography of abdominal vessels and the laboratory findings were compatible with PV. After a successful creation of TIPS, a HIT/T worsened the hemorrhagic and thrombotic picture. TIPS procedure was successfully repeated and heparin was replaced with Fondaparinux and then vitamin K antagonist. The treatment with interferon alpha-2A, started after the normalization of liver functions, resulted in a complete remission within 6 months. The JAK2 V617F mutation clone remained undetectable after 2 years′ follow-up.

  11. Restless led syndrome model Drosophila melanogaster show successful olfactory learning and 1-day retention of the acquired memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika F. Asaba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS is a prevalent but poorly understood disorder that ischaracterized by uncontrollable movements during sleep, resulting in sleep disturbance.Olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be a useful tool for the study ofcognitive deficits caused by sleep disturbances, such as those seen in RLS. A recently generatedDrosophila model of RLS exhibited disturbed sleep patterns similar to those seen in humans withRLS. This research seeks to improve understanding of the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and sleep disturbances in a new model for RLS. Here, we tested learning andmemory in wild type and dBTBD9 mutant flies by Pavlovian olfactory conditioning, duringwhich a shock was paired with one of two odors. Flies were then placed in a T-maze with oneodor on either side, and successful associative learning was recorded when the flies chose theside with the unpaired odor. We hypothesized that due to disrupted sleep patterns, dBTBD9mutant flies would be unable to learn the shock-odor association. However, the current studyreports that the recently generated Drosophila model of RLS shows successful olfactorylearning, despite disturbed sleep patterns, with learning performance levels matching or betterthan wild type flies.

  12. Direct Cellular Lysis/Protein Extraction Protocol for Soil Metaproteomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chourey, Karuna [ORNL; Jansson, Janet [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verberkmoes, Nathan C [ORNL; Shah, Manesh B [ORNL; Chavarria, Krystle L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Tom, Lauren M [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Brodie, Eoin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Hettich, Robert {Bob} L [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  13. Direct cellular lysis/protein extraction protocol for soil metaproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourey, Karuna; Jansson, Janet; VerBerkmoes, Nathan; Shah, Manesh; Chavarria, Krystle L; Tom, Lauren M; Brodie, Eoin L; Hettich, Robert L

    2010-12-03

    We present a novel direct protocol for deep proteome characterization of microorganisms in soil. The method employs thermally assisted detergent-based cellular lysis (SDS) of soil samples, followed by TCA precipitation for proteome extraction/cleanup prior to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric characterization. This approach was developed and optimized using different soils inoculated with genome-sequenced bacteria (Gram-negative Pseudomonas putida or Gram-positive Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus). Direct soil protein extraction was compared to protein extraction from cells isolated from the soil matrix prior to lysis (indirect method). Each approach resulted in identification of greater than 500 unique proteins, with a wide range in molecular mass and functional categories. To our knowledge, this SDS-TCA approach enables the deepest proteome characterizations of microbes in soil to date, without significant biases in protein size, localization, or functional category compared to pure cultures. This protocol should provide a powerful tool for ecological studies of soil microbial communities.

  14. Direct Cell Lysis for Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiling

    OpenAIRE

    David eSvec; Daniel eAndersson; Milos ePekny; Robert eSjöback; Mikael eKubista; Anders eStåhlberg

    2013-01-01

    The interest to analyze single and few cell samples is rapidly increasing. Numerous extraction protocols to purify nucleic acids are available, but most of them compromise severely on yield to remove contaminants and are therefore not suitable for the analysis of samples containing small numbers of transcripts only. Here, we evaluate 17 direct cell lysis protocols for transcript yield and compatibility with downstream reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR. Four endogenously express...

  15. Dark membrane lysis and photosensitization by 3-carbethoxypsoralen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Grossweiner, L.I. (Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (USA). Dept. of Physics)

    1981-03-01

    Aqueous solutions of 3-carbethoxypsoralen (3-CPs) induced lysis of egg lecithin liposomes and whole human erythrocytes in the dark. Near-UV irradiation of 3-CPs sensitized the inactivation of lysozyme attributed to the production of reactive radical intermediates. The implications of these findings for the use of 3-CPs as a sensitizer in psoralen + UV-A (PUVA) therapy of psoriasis are discussed.

  16. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  17. Revisiting bistability in the lysis/lysogeny circuit of bacteriophage lambda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Bednarz

    Full Text Available The lysis/lysogeny switch of bacteriophage lambda serves as a paradigm for binary cell fate decision, long-term maintenance of cellular state and stimulus-triggered switching between states. In the literature, the system is often referred to as "bistable." However, it remains unclear whether this term provides an accurate description or is instead a misnomer. Here we address this question directly. We first quantify transcriptional regulation governing lysogenic maintenance using a single-cell fluorescence reporter. We then use the single-cell data to derive a stochastic theoretical model for the underlying regulatory network. We use the model to predict the steady states of the system and then validate these predictions experimentally. Specifically, a regime of bistability, and the resulting hysteretic behavior, are observed. Beyond the steady states, the theoretical model successfully predicts the kinetics of switching from lysogeny to lysis. Our results show how the physics-inspired concept of bistability can be reliably used to describe cellular phenotype, and how an experimentally-calibrated theoretical model can have accurate predictive power for cell-state switching.

  18. Perineural infusion of 0.5% ropivacaine for successful treatment of phantom limb syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, B; Bugamelli, S; Stagni, G; Missiroli, M; Genco, R; Colizza, M T

    2009-11-01

    Phantom limb syndrome (PLS) comprises various disturbances, including pain in the missing limb and phantom sensations. This study is about the successful treatment of a PLS patient by prolonged infusion of local anesthetic through a perineural catheter. A 45-year-old man came to the Rizzoli Orthopedic Institute (Bologna, Italy) complaining of a painful right leg after trauma. Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type II was diagnosed. Therapy with tricyclics, gabapentin, and spinal infusion of morphine was started. After 4 years of treatment, infection led to the need for right below-the-knee amputation. After amputation, PLS appeared immediately and was not responsive to pharmacological treatment. At day II, a perineural sciatic catheter was positioned and 0.5% ropivacaine infusion with an elastomeric pump at 5 mL/h was started. The infusion was temporarily discontinued every week to evaluate the PLS. After 7 days, a 30% reduction in pain was observed, increased to 60% after 14 days, and disappeared completely after 21 days, leaving only the phantom limb sensations. After 28 days of continuous infusion, the phantom limb sensations had also disappeared. The perineural catheter was removed after 48 hours without perineural infusion. The patient was weaned from morphine over 150 days. Follow-ups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months confirmed that the PLS did not reappear. The results are limited to one patient but are encouraging, particularly due to the relevance of the pathology and the poor results of conventional treatments. More cases are obviously needed to support the efficacy of this therapy.

  19. Wireless induction heating in a microfluidic device for cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung-ki; Min, Junghong; Park, Jung-Hwan

    2010-04-07

    A wireless induction heating system in a microfluidic device was devised for cell lysis to extract DNA and RNA from Escherichia coli. The thermal responses of nickel, iron and copper heating units were studied by applying an alternating magnetic field as a function of geometry of unit, strength of magnetic field, and kind of metal. Heating units were prepared by cutting metal film using a fiber laser, and the units were integrated into a microchannel system using a soft lithographic process. Variation and distribution of temperature on the surface of the heating units was observed using a thermographic camera and temperature labels. The amount of protein released from E. coli by thermal lysis was determined by protein concentration measurement. Hemoglobin released from red blood cells was observed using colorimetric intensity measurement. Extracted DNA was quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the profile was compared with that of a positive control of ultrasonically disrupted E. coli. The stability of RNA extracted by induction heating was quantified by the measurement of 23S/16S rRNA ratio and comparison with that by normal RNA extraction kit as a gold standard. A solid-shaped nickel structure was selected as the induction heating element in the microfluidic device because of the relatively small influence of geometries and faster thermal response.The amount of protein extracted from E. coli and hemoglobin released from red blood cells by induction heating of the nickel unit in the microfluidic device was proportional to the strength of the applied magnetic field. The lysis of E. coli by induction heating was as effective as lysis of DNA by the ultrasonication method because the threshold cycle values of the sample were compatible with those of the positive control as measured by ultrasonication. Thermal lysis of E. coli by induction heating represents a reasonable alternative to a commercial RNA extraction method as shown by the comparative

  20. Successful treatment with Korean herbal medicine and lifestyle management in an obese woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyeon; Jo, Junyoung

    2017-09-01

    In Korea, herbal remedies have been widely used to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). We report the case of a woman with obese-type PCOS who was successfully treated with Korean herbal medicine (KHM) and lifestyle management. A 23-year-old female patient was first examined at our clinic in April 2015. She had amenorrhea for the previous 9 months and presented with obesity and abnormal reproductive hormone levels. She was treated using KHM and lifestyle management. We observed her menstrual cycles and re-evaluated her hormonal levels during the treatment. After KHM therapy, her body weight decreased from 88.2 kg to 66.7 kg. Her menstrual cycles resumed regularly, and the serum levels of the hormones had normalized. No adverse effects on liver and renal functions were observed. This study indicates that KHM might be considered an option for treating women with obese-type PCOS. Further large-scale trials are needed.

  1. Successful Treatment of Both Mother and Infant in Pregnancy-Associated Group A Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available All perinatal cases of group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS previously documented in English literature have been fatal for the mother, the fetus or both. We present the first report of successful treatment of a mother-infant pair with perinatal STSS. A pregnant woman developed STSS at 34 weeks’ gestation 3 h after delivery, following a 25-h history of fever and sore throat. The patient received intravenous penicillin, clindamycin and immnoglobulins and continuous hemodialysis, along with numerous supportive agents during early clinical course. The newborn infant was born with mild asphyxia and developed transient tachypnea. Both mother and infant survived without any sequelae. Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated from the patient’s blood, nasopharynx of the infant and throat of two family members. These strains were identically type T1M1 (emm1 and produced streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins A (SPEA and B. SPEA was remarkably elevated in the maternal blood, but not in the infant’s blood. Extremely low serum anti-SPEA antibody levels might have predisposed the mother to severe invasive infection. This case highlights the importance of early recognition, prompt and intensive multimodal therapy and rapid delivery before a transfer of pathogen and its toxin to the fetus.

  2. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis with small fibrils in a patient with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome successfully treated with immunosuppressive therapy

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    Tagboto Senyo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibrillary glomerulonephritis is a rare cause of progressive renal dysfunction, often leading to the need for dialysis within a few years. The role of immunosuppressive treatment is still uncertain although this has been tried with variable success. Case presentation A 56 year old woman with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (IgM anticardiolipin antibodies was seen in the nephrology clinic with haematuria, proteinuria, and worsening renal function. A renal biopsy demonstrated a mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis on light microscopy and smaller fibrils (10.6–13.8 nm in diameter than is usual for fibrillary glomerulonephritis (typically 18–22 nm on electron microscopy. Amyloidosis was excluded following detailed evaluation. On account of rapidly worsening renal failure she was started on cyclophosphamide and prednisolone which led to the partial recovery and stabilization of her renal function. Conclusion This case highlights the need for routine electron microscopy in native renal biopsies, where the differential diagnosis is wide and varied and the light and immunofluorescence microscopic findings may be non specific.

  3. Successful management of aortic thrombi resulting in spinal cord infarction in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome and acute cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Manabu; Teraoka, Shoko; Yamashita, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Kenji; Muronoi, Tomohiro; Izawa, Yoshimitsu; Yonekawa, Chikara; Ano, Masaki; Suzukawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with coronary artery disease was suffering from acute nonobstructive cholecystitis and was admitted to a nearby hospital. Dual antiplatelet (aspirin and ticlopidine) therapy was discontinued before preparation for surgical resection of the gall bladder. During his time in hospital he was aware of lumbar pain and weakness in both legs. He was transferred to our hospital for further evaluation and therapy. Diffuse intra-aortic thrombi were revealed by computed tomography with contrast media, and magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal cord infarction. However, computed tomography scans of the descending aorta obtained 4 months before admission exhibited no signs of atherosclerotic plaques or intra-aortic thrombi. Laboratory data suggest that antiphospholipid antibody syndrome might have caused these acute multiple intra-arterial thrombi. By restarting dual antiplatelet therapy and increasing the dose of heparin (from 10,000 IU/day to 15,000 IU/day) we successfully managed the patient's clinical condition and symptoms. It is important to understand that stopping antiplatelet therapy may rapidly grow thrombi in patients with a hypercoagulative state.

  4. Miniature acoustic wave lysis system and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branch, Darren W.; Vreeland, Erika Cooley; Smith, Gennifer Tanabe

    2016-12-06

    The present invention relates to an acoustic lysis system including a disposable cartridge that can be reversibly coupled to a platform having a small, high-frequency piezoelectric transducer array. In particular, the system releases viable DNA, RNA, and proteins from human or bacterial cells, without chemicals or additional processing, to enable high-speed sample preparation for clinical point-of-care medical diagnostics and use with nano/microfluidic cartridges. Also described herein are methods of making and using the system of the invention.

  5. Modeling cellular lysis in skeletal muscle due to electric shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Carlos J; Lee, Raphael C; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2011-05-01

    High-voltage electrical trauma frequently results in injury patterns that cannot be completely attributed to Joule heating. An electrical-injury model describing cellular lysis damage caused by supraphysiological electric fields is introduced, and used to evaluate the effects of high-voltage electric shock on the skeletal muscle of a human upper limb in a configuration that simulates hand-to-hand contact. A novel multiresolution admittance method, capable of efficiently handling large computational models while maintaining excellent accuracy, was used to perform the numerical computations. Values for the computed current through the arm and the upper limb impedance are reported.

  6. Possible bradycardic mode of death and successful pacemaker treatment in a large family with features of long QT syndrome type 3 and Brugada syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Den Berg, Maarten P.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Viersma, Jan Willem; Brouwer, Jan; Haaksma, Jaap; Van Der Hout, Annemieke H.; Stolte-Dijkstra, Irene; Bezzina, Connie R.; Van Langen, Irene M.; Beaufort-Krol, Gertie C. M.; Hein Cornel, J.A.N.; Crijns, Harry J. G. M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: We recently identified a novel mutation of SCN5A (1795insD) in a large family with features of both long QT syndrome type 3 and the Brugada syndrome. The purpose of this study was to detail the clinical features and efficacy of pacemaker therapy in preventing sudden death in this famil

  7. Successful treatment of severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome despite multiple organ failure with defibrotide after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behre Gerhard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We report a case of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, a typical and life-threatening complication after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, successfully treated with defibrotide despite massive multiple organ failure. Case presentation A 64-year-old Caucasian woman underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation from her human leukocyte antigen-identical sister against aggressive lymphoplasmocytoid immunocytoma. Seven days later, the patient developed severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome according to the modified Seattle criteria. We initiated treatment with defibrotide. Despite early treatment, multiple organ failure with kidney failure requiring dialysis and ventilator-dependent lung failure aggravated the clinical course. Furthermore, central nervous dysfunction occurred as well as transfusion refractory thrombocytopenia. Conclusion As highlighted in our report, defibrotide is the most promising drug in the treatment of the formerly, almost lethal, severe sinusoidal obstruction syndrome to date. This is demonstrated very clearly in our patient. She improved completely, even after renal, cerebral and respiratory failure.

  8. Silicon Nitride Bioceramics Induce Chemically Driven Lysis in Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Bock, Ryan M; McEntire, Bryan J; Jones, Erin; Boffelli, Marco; Zhu, Wenliang; Baggio, Greta; Boschetto, Francesco; Puppulin, Leonardo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kanamura, Narisato; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Bal, B Sonny

    2016-03-29

    Organisms of Gram-negative phylum bacteroidetes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, underwent lysis on polished surfaces of silicon nitride (Si3N4) bioceramics. The antibacterial activity of Si3N4 was mainly the result of chemically driven principles. The lytic activity, although not osmotic in nature, was related to the peculiar pH-dependent surface chemistry of Si3N4. A buffering effect via the formation of ammonium ions (NH4(+)) (and their modifications) was experimentally observed by pH microscopy. Lysis was confirmed by conventional fluorescence spectroscopy, and the bacteria's metabolism was traced with the aid of in situ Raman microprobe spectroscopy. This latter technique revealed the formation of peroxynitrite within the bacterium itself. Degradation of the bacteria's nucleic acid, drastic reduction in phenilalanine, and reduction of lipid concentration were observed due to short-term exposure (6 days) to Si3N4. Altering the surface chemistry of Si3N4 by either chemical etching or thermal oxidation influenced peroxynitrite formation and affected bacteria metabolism in different ways. Exploiting the peculiar surface chemistry of Si3N4 bioceramics could be helpful in counteracting Porphyromonas gingivalis in an alkaline pH environment.

  9. Weight reduction is associated with increased plasma fibrin clot lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezińska-Kolarz, Beata; Kolarz, Marek; Wałach, Angelika; Undas, Anetta

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of vascular thrombotic events. We sought to investigate how obesity and weight loss affect plasma fibrin clot properties. A total of 29 obese patients were studied before and after 3-month low-fat diet. Plasma fibrin clot parameters, including fibrin clot permeation coefficient (Ks), the lag phase of the turbidity curve, clot lysis time (t 50%), maximum rate of increase in D-dimer levels, and maximum D-dimer concentrations, were determined. Low-fat diet resulted in the reduction of body weight (P < .0001), body mass index (P < .0001), fat mass (P < .0001), total cholesterol (P < .0001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = .0005), triglycerides (P = .008), and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (P = .02), but not in fibrinogen or C-reactive protein. The only change in fibrin clot variables was shorter t 50% (P = .02). Baseline t 50%, but not posttreatment, correlated with waist circumference (r = .44, p = .02). This study demonstrates that weight loss in obese people can increase the efficiency of fibrin clot lysis.

  10. Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome in Patients Exposed to Indoor Air Dampness Microbiota Treated Successfully with Triiodothyronine

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    Taija Liisa Somppi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to dampness microbiota induces multi-organ morbidity. One of the symptoms related to this disorder is non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS. A retrospective study was carried out in nine patients with a history of mold exposure, experiencing chronic fatigue, cognitive disorder, and different kinds of hypothyroid symptoms despite provision of levothyroxine (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine, LT4 monotherapy. Exposure to volatile organic compounds present in water-damaged buildings including metabolic products of toxigenic fungi and mold-derived inflammatory agents can lead to a deficiency or imbalance of many hormones, such as active T3 hormone. Since the 1970s, the synthetic prohormone, levothyroxine (LT4, has been the most commonly prescribed thyroid hormone in replacement monotherapy. It has been presumed that the peripheral conversion of T4 (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine into T3 (3,5,3′-triiodothyronine is sufficient to satisfy the overall tissue requirements. However, evidence is presented that this not the case for all patients, especially those exposed to indoor air molds. This retrospective study describes the successful treatment of nine patients in whom NTIS was treated with T3-based thyroid hormone. The treatment was based on careful interview, clinical monitoring, and laboratory analysis of serum free T3 (FT3, reverse T3 (rT3 and thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA values. The ratio of FT3/rT3 was calculated. In addition, some patients received adrenal support with hydrocortisone and DHEA. All patients received nutritional supplementation and dietary instructions. During the therapy, all nine patients reported improvements in all of the symptom groups. Those who had residual symptoms during T3-based therapy remained exposed to indoor air molds in their work places. Four patients were unable to work and had been on disability leave for a long time during LT4 monotherapy

  11. Successful treatment of Raynaud's syndrome in a lupus patient with continuous bilateral popliteal sciatic nerve blocks: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thuan; Amaro-Driedger, David; Mehta, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud's syndrome has been treated medically and invasively, sometimes with regional anesthesia leading up to sympathectomy. We demonstrate that regional anesthesia was in this case a useful technique that can allow some patients to find temporary but significant relief from symptoms of Raynaud's syndrome exacerbation. We present a 43-year-old woman with Raynaud's syndrome secondary to lupus who was treated with bilateral popliteal nerve block catheters for ischemic pain and necrosis of her feet; this led to almost immediate resolution of her pain and return of color and function of her feet. While medical management should continue to be a front-line treatment for Raynaud's syndrome, regional anesthesia can be useful in providing rapid dissipation of symptoms and may thus serve as a viable option for short-term management of this syndrome.

  12. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

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    Kunio Yoshizawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis.

  13. A Case of Sublingual Ranula That Responded Successfully to Localized Injection Treatment with OK-432 after Healing from Drug Induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Kunio; Moroi, Akinori; Kawashiri, Shuichi; Ueki, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    A ranula is a mucus retention cyst or pseudocyst caused by leakage of mucus from the sublingual gland and generally occurs in the oral floor. In addition, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) is a rare but well-recognized serious adverse effect characterized by fever, skin rashes, generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatitis, and hepatosplenomegaly and oral stomatitis. This paper presents the first case of successfully treated sublingual ranula with localized injection of OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome, which has previously been unreported in the literature. We present the case of a 38-year-old Japanese woman with sublingual ranula that responded successfully to localized injection treatment with OK-432 after healing from drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome. She was affected with cutaneous myositis and interstitial lung disease when she was 26 years old. At the age 34 years, she received additional oral treatment of diaminodiphenyl-sulfone due to deterioration of the cutaneous myositis, which resulted in drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) with severe oral stomatitis. Local injection of OK-432 to the ranula may be a very safe and useful treatment method even if the patient has a history of drug allergy and has connective tissue disease such as cutaneous myositis. PMID:27144039

  14. Successful weaning of a laryngeal mask airway after a tongue-lip adhesion operation in a case with cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Chi-Yung; Ng, Yan-Yan; Peng, Chih-Yu; Hu, Jui-Ming; Chen, Suh-Jen; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Su, Pen-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) consists of severe micrognathia, glossoptosis, posterior rib-gap defects and developmental delay. It may cause upper airway obstruction andflail chest, resulting in neonatal hypoxia, and possibly death. Early airway management or surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway is critical to avoid hypoxia in CCMS patients. We report a newborn with CCMS who was successfully weaned from a laryngeal mask after undergoing a tongue-lip adhesion operation at 164 days of age.

  15. Sustainable microbial water quality monitoring programme design using phage-lysis and multivariate techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnane, Daniel Ekane

    2011-11-15

    Contamination of surface waters is a pervasive threat to human health, hence, the need to better understand the sources and spatio-temporal variations of contaminants within river catchments. River catchment managers are required to sustainably monitor and manage the quality of surface waters. Catchment managers therefore need cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring and management designs to proactively protect public health and aquatic ecosystems. Multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were used to investigate spatio-temporal variations of water quality, main polluting chemophysical and microbial parameters, faecal micro-organisms sources, and to establish 'sentry' sampling sites in the Ouse River catchment, southeast England, UK. 350 river water samples were analysed for fourteen chemophysical and microbial water quality parameters in conjunction with the novel human-specific phages of Bacteroides GB-124 (Bacteroides GB-124). Annual, autumn, spring, summer, and winter principal components (PCs) explained approximately 54%, 75%, 62%, 48%, and 60%, respectively, of the total variance present in the datasets. Significant loadings of Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and human-specific Bacteroides GB-124 were observed in all datasets. Cluster analysis successfully grouped sampling sites into five clusters. Importantly, multivariate and phage-lysis techniques were useful in determining the sources and spatial extent of water contamination in the catchment. Though human faecal contamination was significant during dry periods, the main source of contamination was non-human. Bacteroides GB-124 could potentially be used for catchment routine microbial water quality monitoring. For a cost-effective low-cost long-term sustainable water quality monitoring design, E. coli or intestinal enterococci, turbidity, and Bacteroides GB-124 should be monitored all-year round in this river catchment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All

  16. Stabilizing additives added during cell lysis aid in the solubilization of recombinant proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Leibly

    Full Text Available Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl(2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K(2PO(4 solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40% were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher.

  17. Does the duration of lysis affect the sensitivity of the in vitro alkaline comet assay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, José Manuel; Sánchez, Oscar; López de Cerain, Adela; Azqueta, Amaya

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline comet assay is now the method of choice for measuring different kinds of DNA damage in cells. Several attempts have been made to identify and evaluate the critical points affecting the comet assay outcome, highlighting the requirement of arriving at a standardised protocol in order to be able to compare the results obtained in different laboratories. However, reports on the effect of modifying the time of lysis are lacking. Here we tested different times of lysis (from no lysis to 1 week) in control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with different concentrations of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) or H2O2. We also tested different times of lysis in the comet assay combined with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in untreated and Ro 19-8022 plus light-treated HeLa cells. The same DNA damage levels were detected in the absence of lysis or after 1h of lysis when the standard comet assay was used to detect the MMS- and H2O2-induced lesions; the response increased when longer lysis was used, up to at least 1 week. When FPG was used, a minimum lysis period of 5 min was necessary to allow the enzyme to reach the DNA; the same DNA damage levels were detected after 5 min or 1h of lysis and the response increased up to 24h. In conclusion, the time of lysis can be varied depending on the sensitivity needed in both versions of the assay, and a constant time of lysis should be used if results from different experiments or laboratories are to be compared.

  18. Propuesta de una vía de abordaje y técnica para el tratamiento de los síndromes de atrapamiento nervioso lumbar postcirugía (SANLPC, como alternativa a las técnicas de adhesiolisis o epidurolisis Proposal for a new approach and technique for the treatment of post-surgery lumbar nerve entrapment syndromes, as an alternative to adhesiolysis or epidu-ral lysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. González-Durán

    2006-08-01

    -za una sección de entre 10 y 15 cm del catéter y se verifica su permeabilidad. Finalmente se colocaron los filtros bacterianos del catéter. Con el catéter colocado y tunelizado se siguieron pautas de tratamiento con diferentes fármacos que se inyectaron a través del catéter 2 días a la semana durante 5 semanas, o sea, se realizaron 10 administraciones de fármacos. Después de la inyección de las dosis se lavó el catéter con 1 mL de lidocaína 1% s/a y se realizaron curas diarias de la inserción del catéter. Resultados: Los resultados del uso de la técnica presentan como única complicación en dos de los casos la salida del catéter, a lo largo del tiempo del tratamiento, sin complicaciones en el acto de colocación. Refieren mejoría subjetiva de 50% o más de disminución del dolor 5 de los 8 pacientes. Conclusiones: En nuestra experiencia, utilizando la técnica de abordaje caudal descrita en la literatura, se presentan múltiples complicaciones y resultados muy limitados. Especialmente se han producido complicaciones graves, una de ellas consistió en una severa afectación de las raíces S2 y S3, con parálisis de esfínter vesical y detrusor, así como afectación de esfínter rectal con abolición de sensibilidad. También se presentaron casos de anestesia en silla de montar, en uno de ellos con una evolución prolongada. Adicionalmente, los resultados del tratamiento con epidurolisis caudal, cuando presenta mejoría, son limitados temporalmente a pocos meses de mejoría de la sintomatología dolorosa.Aim: To describe a supra scar approach and technique for epi-dural lysis of adhesions and/or repeated radicular blocks in pain syndromes due to posterior nerve entrapment caused by scar tissue after low back surgery, as an alternative to caudal epidural lysis of adhesions as described in literature. Considering that it may present fewers complications and better outcomes. Material and method: 8 patients presenting pain after lumbar spine surgery, as

  19. Electron Microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus Cell Wall Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, R.; González, C.; Muñoz, Nubia; Mendoza, Silvia

    1966-01-01

    Virgilio, Rafael (Escuela de Química y Farmacia, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile), C. González, Nubia Muñoz, and Silvia Mendoza. Electron microscopy of Staphylococcus aureus cell wall lysis. J. Bacteriol. 91:2018–2024. 1966.—A crude suspension of Staphylococcus aureus cell walls (strain Cowan III) in buffer solution was shown by electron microscopy to lyse slightly after 16 hr, probably owing to the action of autolysin. The lysis was considerably faster and more intense after the addition of lysozyme. A remarkable reduction in thickness and rigidity of the cell walls, together with the appearance of many irregular protrusions in their outlines, was observed after 2 hr; after 16 hr, there remained only a few recognizable cell wall fragments but many residual particulate remnants. When autolysin was previously inactivated by trypsin, there was a complete inhibition of the lytic action of lysozyme; on the other hand, when autolysin was inactivated by heat and lysozyme was added, a distinct decrease in the thickness of the cell walls was observed, but there was no destruction of the walls. The lytic action of lysozyme, after treatment with hot 5% trichloroacetic acid, gave rise to a marked dissolution of the structure of the cell walls, which became lost against the background, without, however, showing ostensible alteration of wall outlines. From a morphological point of view, the lytic action of autolysin plus lysozyme was quite different from that of trichloroacetic acid plus lysozyme, as shown by electron micrographs, but in both cases it was very intense. This would suggest different mechanisms of action for these agents. Images PMID:5939482

  20. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    1999-01-01

    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  1. Portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step DNA extraction of Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Lee, E-H; Yoon, Y; Chua, B; Son, A

    2016-02-01

    To demonstrate and characterize a portable lysis apparatus for rapid single-step bacterial DNA extraction. Our portable lysis apparatus employed a novel design consisting of an annular piezo-element with perforated diaphragm. Using Bacillus subtilis as target bacteria, our portable lysis apparatus was able to achieve a normalized percent lysis as high as 66% within 30 s. This is comparable to that by microprobe ultrasonication and almost 7 times higher than that by conventional bead beating. The effect from adding glass beads was predictable. However, the results from the addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) were counter-intuitive because a further increase from 0·5 to 1% concentration reduced the lysis performance. The portable lysis apparatus is also at least 1·5-5 times more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. Our portable lysis apparatus is capable of rapidly extracting bacterial DNA and is more power efficient than microprobe ultrasonication. The addition of glass beads or SDS concentration (up to 0·5%) improves its performance. The portable lysis apparatus provides a standalone, rapid, low cost and power efficient way of obtaining genomic constituents prior to a variety of bioassays used in the field of environmental, biomedical and other applied microbiology. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Activated protein C accelerates clot lysis by virtue of its coagulant activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw, N.J. de; Tilburg, N.H. van; Haverkate, F.; Bertina, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of human activated protein C (APC) on t-PA dependent fibrinolysis was studied in vitro using plasma (and whole blood) clot lysis techniques. Clot lysis was monitored by measuring the release of soluble 125I-labelled fibrin degradation products from the clot over time. It was demonstrated

  3. On-chip lysis of mammalian cells through a handheld corona device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo, C; Bürgel, S C; Kemmerling, S; Sauter, N; Braun, T; Hierlemann, A

    2015-07-21

    On-chip lysis is required in many lab-on-chip applications involving cell studies. In these applications, the complete disruption of the cellular membrane and a high lysis yield is essential. Here, we present a novel approach to lyse cells on-chip through the application of electric discharges from a corona handheld device. The method only requires a microfluidic chip and a low-cost corona device. We demonstrate the effective lysis of BHK and eGFP HCT 116 cells in the sub-second time range using an embedded microelectrode. We also show cell lysis of non-adherent K562 leukemia cells without the use of an electrode in the chip. Cell lysis has been assessed through the use of bright-field microscopy, high-speed imaging and cell-viability fluorescence probes. The experimental results show effective cell lysis without any bubble formation or significant heating. Due to the simplicity of both the components involved and the lysis procedure, this technique offers an inexpensive lysis option with the potential for integration into lab-on-a-chip devices.

  4. A Method for Purifying Obligate Intracellular Coxiella burnetii that Employs Digitonin Lysis of Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Diane C.; Beare, Paul A.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Howe, Dale; Heinzen, Robert. A.

    2008-01-01

    Purification of the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii requires physical disruption of infected cells. Here we describe a gentle and safe digitonin lysis procedure to release C. burnetii from infected cells. The purity, yield, and infectivity of digitonin-prepped organisms are comparable to that of organisms purified using cell lysis by sonication. PMID:18242746

  5. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis. Suffici

  6. Cellular lysis in Bacillus subtilis; the affect of multiple extracellular protease deficiencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stephenson, K; Bron, S; Harwood, CR

    Cellular lysis properties of strains of Bacillus subtilis deficient in the synthesis of extracellular proteases was investigated. In all cases, extracellular protease deficiency was found to increase the extent of cellular lysis of batch cultured strains following the transition to stationary phase,

  7. Biological variation in tPA-induced plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); J.J.M.C. Malfliet (Joyce); G. Rudež (Goran); H.M.H. Spronk (Henri); N.A.H. Janssen (Nicole); P. Meijer (Piet); C. Kluft (Cornelius); M.P.M. de Maat (Moniek); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractHypofibrinolysis is a risk factor for venous and arterial thrombosis, and can be assessed by using a turbidimetric tPA-induced clot lysis time (CLT) assay. Biological variation in clot lysis time may affect the interpretation and usefulness of CLT as a risk factor for thrombosis.

  8. Evidence that Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin induces colloid-osmotic lysis of erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R W; Sims, P J; Tweten, R K

    1991-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens theta-toxin was shown to lyse target erythrocytes by a colloid-osmotic mechanism. Analysis showed the onset of lysis of erythrocytes by theta-toxin could be temporarily stabilized with 0.3 M sucrose. Flow cytometry analysis of the size distribution of theta-toxin-treated erythrocytes showed swelling of the erythrocytes prior to lysis.

  9. [DYNAMIC OF CLINICAL, LABORATORY AND SONOGRAPHIC PARAMETERS AFTER SUCCESSFUL LITHOLITIC THERAPY AT PATIENTS WITH GALLSTONE DISEASE IN ASSOCIATION WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, O V; Akhmedov, V A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the leading clinical, immunological and sonographic pararneters, reflecting the efficiency of Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) at the rate of 10 mg per 1 kg of body weight in the treatment of gallstone disease in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS). An assessment of clinical, biochemical immunological and sonographic parameters in 54 patients with gallstone disease associated with the metabolic syndrome before and after the six-month treatment UDCA were made. In accordance with our results the significant predictors, reflecting successful litholitic therapy at patients with gallstone disease in association with metabolic syndrome are decrease the serum concentration of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (P = 0.003), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (P = 0.001), increase the serum concentration of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (P = 0.02), decrease the left liver lobe thickness (P = 0,003) and the thickness of gallbladder wall (P = 0.0002). The results of our study have shown that the therapy with ursodesoxycholic acid of patients with metabolic syndrome leads to decrease of factors of gallstone progression (elevated levels of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 and increased thickness of the left lobe liver and gallbladder wall).

  10. Successful treatment of icodextrin-single peritoneal dialysis for refractory nephrotic syndrome induced by idiopathic membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Daisuke; Mii, Akiko; Higo, Seiichiro; Obara, Yoshihiro; Kurabayashi, Yuichi; Kurosawa, Norio; Miura, Shiro; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Akira

    2012-05-01

    The patient was a 76-year-old male who developed nephrotic syndrome. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy was diagnosed by renal biopsy and clinical findings. The patient had been refractory to predonisolone and cyclosporine A therapies, and overhydration recurred repeatedly during the clinical course. One year after an initial hospitalization, he had to be hospitalized a second time because of overhydration. During the hospitalization, he underwent fluid removal by the extracorporeal ultrafiltration method (ECUM), as his response to diuretics was too weak to permit the control of cardiac insufficiency. The ECUM alleviated his overhydration, but no remission of nephrotic syndrome was achieved. The patient was then discharged temporarily, but overhydration developed again 2 months later. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) using an overnight dwell of a single dose of icodextrin was initiated to obtain stable fluid removal. This promptly alleviated the refractory subcutaneous edema, and type I incomplete remission of nephrotic syndrome was achieved about 2 weeks after the start of PD. The patient could be withdrawn from the PD therapy 4 months later. Subsequently, the urinary volume was maintained and the serum creatinine level was stabilized at about 2 mg/dl. In our patient, the protein leakage into the drainage was small enough to permit remission of the nephrotic syndrome with stable fluid removal. On this basis, we believe that PD using icodextrin is considered as one of the options for the treatment of refractory nephrotic syndrome with poor water control.

  11. Case Report: ALCAPA syndrome: successful repair with an anatomical and physiological alternative surgical technique [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Vilá Mollinedo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, or ALCAPA syndrome, is a rare congenital cardiac disease that can cause myocardial infarction, heart failure and even death in paediatric patients. Only few untreated patients survive until adult age. Here we present the case of a 33-year-old female patient with paroxysmal tachycardia, syncope and mild exertional dyspnoea. She was diagnosed with ALCAPA syndrome and underwent surgical correction with an alternative technique of left main coronary artery extension to the aorta.

  12. Successful anesthetic management of a child with blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect for reconstructive ocular surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, Dalim Kumar; Khanna, Puneet; Kumar, Anil; Shende, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by eyelid malformation, involvement of reproductive system and abnormal facial morphology leading to difficult airway. We report a rare association of blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect in a 10-year-old girl who came for reconstruction surgery of eyelid. The child had dyspnea on exertion. Atrial septal defect was identified preoperatively by clinical examination and echocardiography. Anesthesia management was complicated by failure in laryngeal mask airway placement and Cobra perilaryngeal airway was subsequently used. PMID:22096296

  13. Successful anesthetic management of a child with blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect for reconstructive ocular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalim Kumar Baidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blepharophimosis syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by eyelid malformation, involvement of reproductive system and abnormal facial morphology leading to difficult airway. We report a rare association of blepharophimosis syndrome and atrial septal defect in a 10-year-old girl who came for reconstruction surgery of eyelid. The child had dyspnea on exertion. Atrial septal defect was identified preoperatively by clinical examination and echocardiography. Anesthesia management was complicated by failure in laryngeal mask airway placement and Cobra perilaryngeal airway was subsequently used.

  14. Acute intermittent porphyria with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and neurological crisis, successfully treated with haemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 35 years old male, a case of Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH and neurological crisis for its rarity. Since specific parenteral medication (hemin was not available, patient was empirically treated with haemodialysis with satisfactory outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 795-797

  15. Rasburicase in the management of tumor lysis: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinnel J

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Dinnel,1 Bonny L Moore,1 Brent M Skiver,1 Prithviraj Bose1,2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2VCU Massey Cancer Center, Richmond, VA, USA Abstract: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a potentially life-threatening complication of cancer therapy characterized by two or more of the following laboratory abnormalities: hyperuricemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia, with resultant end-organ damage, eg, renal failure, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias. High-risk patients include those with highly proliferative cancers and/or large tumor burdens, particularly in the setting of highly effective chemotherapy, among other risk factors. Before 2002, antihyperuricemic drug therapy was limited to allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. Rasburicase, a recombinant urate oxidase, was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for children in 2002 and adults in 2009, ushering in a new era in TLS therapy. We attempted to critically appraise the available evidence supporting the perceived benefits of rasburicase in the management of TLS. A Medline search yielded 98 relevant articles, including 26 retrospective and 22 prospective studies of rasburicase for the treatment of TLS, which were then evaluated to determine the best available evidence for the effectiveness of rasburicase in terms of disease-oriented, patient-oriented, and economic outcomes. Rasburicase is now a standard of care for patients at high risk of TLS despite continuing debate on the correlation between its profound and rapid lowering of plasma uric acid levels with hard patient outcomes, eg, need for renal replacement therapy and mortality. Rasburicase is dramatically effective in lowering plasma uric acid levels. The mortality and cost-effectiveness benefits of this expensive drug remain to be conclusively proven, and well designed, randomized controlled trials are needed to answer these fundamentally important questions. Keywords

  16. Nimesulide induced Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS; managed successfully with combined approach of steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin and placentrex gel: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Tilak Raj

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a high mortality rate in Stevens Johnson Syndrome (SJS and it ranges between 5%-15%. At present, there is no definite consensus regarding treatment in SJS although the effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulin’s (IVIg and immunosuppressive like cyclosporine have generated new hopes in the lives of these patients. But the options of combination therapy of steroids, IVIg and Placentrex gel have not been fully exercised in SJS. Henceforth, we report a case of Nimesulide induced SJS; managed successfully with a combined approach without any recurrence during a 12 months follow-up.

  17. Fungal lysis by a soil bacterium fermenting cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Andrew C; Cerisy, Tristan; El-Sayyed, Hafez; Boutard, Magali; Salanoubat, Marcel; Church, George M

    2015-08-01

    Recycling of plant biomass by a community of bacteria and fungi is fundamental to carbon flow in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we report how the plant fermenting, soil bacterium Clostridium phytofermentans enhances growth on cellulose by simultaneously lysing and consuming model fungi from soil. We investigate the mechanism of fungal lysis to show that among the dozens of different glycoside hydrolases C. phytofermentans secretes on cellulose, the most highly expressed enzymes degrade fungi rather than plant substrates. These enzymes, the GH18 Cphy1799 and Cphy1800, synergize to hydrolyse chitin, a main component of the fungal cell wall. Purified enzymes inhibit fungal growth and mutants lacking either GH18 grow normally on cellulose and other plant substrates, but have a reduced ability to hydrolyse chitinous substrates and fungal hyphae. Thus, C. phytofermentans boosts growth on cellulose by lysing fungi with its most highly expressed hydrolases, highlighting the importance of fungal interactions to the ecology of cellulolytic bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Successful Colectomy for Hemorrhagic Colitis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Acute Encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Oikawa, Masahiro; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kunizaki, Masaki; Tou, Kazuo; Abo, Takafumi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Nanashima, Atsushi; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old man was admitted to a primary care hospital due to bloody diarrhea. The findings of abdominal computed tomography indicated ischemic colitis, so conservative therapy was started. On the 4th hospital day, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. Physical examination showed clouding of consciousness and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed massive ascites and thickening of the whole colonic wall. With a diagnosis of acute abdomen, an emergent laparotomy was performed. Extended right hemicolectomy was performed because of severe ischemic change and necrosis of the right side of the colon. In the stool culture before the operation, Escherichia coli O157 and verotoxin were found, so this case was diagnosed as hemorrhagic colitis with hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 infection. Postoperatively, the hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy were prolonged. However, with intensive care, the patient recovered and was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day.

  19. Experience of the successful treatment with canakinumab of a patient with NLPC4-associated autoinflammatory syndrome with enterocolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Sleptsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the observation of rare NLPC4-associated autoinflammatory syndrome with enterocolitis and familial cold urticaria. Diagnosis is confirmed molecularly-genetically: previously not described mutation c.928C>T in the heterozygous state in NLRC4 gene is discovered by a method of the new generation sequencing. The use of a monoclonal antibody to the interleukin 1 canakinumab provided complete relief of fever and skin and intestinal symptoms in just 1 week of treatment. Later the signs of inflammation have disappeared completely; the patient’s quality of life improved and life-threatening complications were prevented. The above example demonstrates the high clinical efficacy of canakinumab in the patient with NLRC4-associated autoinflammatory syndrome and suggests promising therapeutic use of interleukin 1 blockers in such patients. There were no adverse events during canakinumab therapy.

  20. Pelvic pain from a giant presacral Tarlov cyst successfully obliterated using aneurysm clips in a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bonnie; Moon, Seong-Jin; Olivero, William C; Wang, Huan

    2014-11-01

    Patients with Marfan syndrome used to succumb early in life from cardiovascular complications. With the current rapid advance in medical and surgical care, such patients may now have near-normal longevities. Consequently, rare late-life complications are emerging in these patients and represent challenges to clinicians for their diagnoses and treatments. The authors report a rare case of pelvic pain and genital prolapse from a giant presacral Tarlov cyst in a 67-year-old patient with Marfan syndrome. This 67-year-old Caucasian female presented with progressively severe pelvic pain, intermittent explosive diarrhea, and dysuria. Physical and bimanual examination demonstrated genital prolapse and a nontender, cyst-like mass fixed in the midline. She underwent ultrasound, CT, and eventually MRI evaluations that led to the diagnosis of a giant (6.7 × 6.4 × 6.6 cm) Tarlov cyst originating from the right S-2 nerve root sleeve/sacral foramen with intrapelvic extension. She underwent S1-S2 and S2-S3 laminectomy with obliteration of the Tarlov cyst using aneurysm clips. Postoperatively, her pelvic pain and bowel symptoms resolved and the bladder symptoms improved. The 3-month follow-up CT of abdomen/pelvis demonstrated resolution of the cyst. The present case illustrates that clinicians caring for elderly patients with Marfan syndrome need to increasingly recognize such unusual late-life complications. Also, these large Tarlov cysts can be simply and effectively obliterated with aneurysm clips.

  1. Successful management of a patient with Marfan syndrome complicated with acute aortic dissection using landiolol during Cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Noboru; Taguchi, Shima; Kawamoto, Masashi

    2010-04-01

    Aortic dissection is a lethal complication in pregnant women with Marfan syndrome. To decrease arterial wall stress, beta-blockers have been used as standard treatment, although uterine contractions caused by beta-2-adrenergic receptor antagonism may result. Herein, we report a patient with Marfan syndrome who was given landiolol, a selective beta-1-adrenergic receptor antagonist with a short half-life, for management during a Cesarean section procedure following development of acute aortic dissection. A 30-year-old pregnant woman with Marfan syndrome in the 38th week of gestation was referred to our department for an emergency Cesarean section because of development of acute aortic dissection. Blood pressure (BP) decreased from 157/70 to 128/64 mmHg after giving nicardipine and nitroglycerin. However, heartrate (HR) increased from 112 to 145 bpm, which was reduced to 105 bpm with landiolol, while BP was maintained. A Cesarean section was performed without complications under combined spinal-epidural anesthesia. Hemodynamic state, uterine contraction, and the extent of aortic dissection remained stable. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient and her baby were discharged safely. Landiolol was useful for reduction of HR without affecting BP or uterine contractions during a Cesarean section procedure in our patient with aortic dissection.

  2. Case report: a successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with non-mosaic Turner syndrome (45, X) via in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Nobuo; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2013-03-01

    We describe a successful pregnancy outcome in a patient with non-mosaic Turner syndrome (45, X) via in vitro fertilization. The patient achieved a second pregnancy at 35 years of age. The her blood lymphocyte karyotype was examined by G-band and FISH. Furthermore, cumulus cells and her elbow skin cells were evaluated via FISH. Non-mosaic Turner syndrome was determined by G-banding [100 % (50/50) 45, X]. Lymphocytes were shown as 478/500 (95.6 %) cells of X sex chromosome signal, 15/500 (3.0 %) cells of XXX signal, and 7/500 (1.4 %) cells of XX signal. The cumulus cells were mosaic: 152/260 (58.5 %) were X; 84/260 (32.3 %) were XXX, 20/260 (7.7 %) were XX, and 4/260 (1.5 %) were XY. Moreover, skin cells included a mosaic karyotype [47, XXX(29)/46, XX(1)]. We conclude that the collection of a large number of blood lymphocytes can reveal different mosaic patterns (X, XX and XXX) by FISH in spite of non-mosaic Turner syndrome.

  3. Successful pregnancy outcome in grade IV lupus nephritis and secondary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with recurrent pregnancy failures - challenging achievement of motherhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliki Hymavathi Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a chronic multisystem autoimmune disease that occurs predominantly in women of childbearing age. The risk of complications and adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant women with lupus is high viz., increased risks of preterm birth, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and lupus flares both during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. An additional association with Antiphospholipid antibody (APLA syndrome is expected to multiply the pregnancy complications. Though improved understanding of the disease nature and greater number of therapeutic options in the treatment of SLE, made the medical community regard these patients with less trepidation, the risk of significant morbidity to both the mother and the fetus still exist. We report an interesting case of grade IV Lupus nephritis (LN with secondary APLA syndrome and h/o recurrent pregnancy failures for twenty times but had a successful pregnancy and delivery in the 21st attempt though pregnancy was absolutely contraindicated in view of her medical illness. Many complications were encountered during her pregnancy which could be successfully tackled and a live male baby was delivered by Caesarean section.

  4. Carbon nanotubes for voltage reduction and throughput enhancement of electrical cell lysis on a lab-on-a-chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahini, Mehdi; Yeow, John T W, E-mail: jyeow@uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2011-08-12

    We report on the enhancement of electrical cell lysis using carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Electrical cell lysis systems are widely utilized in microchips as they are well suited to integration into lab-on-a-chip devices. However, cell lysis based on electrical mechanisms has high voltage requirements. Here, we demonstrate that by incorporating CNTs into microfluidic electrolysis systems, the required voltage for lysis is reduced by half and the lysis throughput at low voltages is improved by ten times, compared to non-CNT microchips. In our experiment, E. coli cells are lysed while passing through an electric field in a microchannel. Based on the lightning rod effect, the electric field strengthened at the tip of the CNTs enhances cell lysis at lower voltage and higher throughput. This approach enables easy integration of cell lysis with other on-chip high-throughput sample-preparation processes.

  5. Explosive cell lysis as a mechanism for the biogenesis of bacterial membrane vesicles and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Lynne; Toyofuku, Masanori; Hynen, Amelia L; Kurosawa, Masaharu; Pessi, Gabriella; Petty, Nicola K; Osvath, Sarah R; Cárcamo-Oyarce, Gerardo; Gloag, Erin S; Shimoni, Raz; Omasits, Ulrich; Ito, Satoshi; Yap, Xinhui; Monahan, Leigh G; Cavaliere, Rosalia; Ahrens, Christian H; Charles, Ian G; Nomura, Nobuhiko; Eberl, Leo; Whitchurch, Cynthia B

    2016-04-14

    Many bacteria produce extracellular and surface-associated components such as membrane vesicles (MVs), extracellular DNA and moonlighting cytosolic proteins for which the biogenesis and export pathways are not fully understood. Here we show that the explosive cell lysis of a sub-population of cells accounts for the liberation of cytosolic content in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that explosive cell lysis also produces shattered membrane fragments that rapidly form MVs. A prophage endolysin encoded within the R- and F-pyocin gene cluster is essential for explosive cell lysis. Endolysin-deficient mutants are defective in MV production and biofilm development, consistent with a crucial role in the biogenesis of MVs and liberation of extracellular DNA and other biofilm matrix components. Our findings reveal that explosive cell lysis, mediated through the activity of a cryptic prophage endolysin, acts as a mechanism for the production of bacterial MVs.

  6. Evaluation of conventional castaneda and lysis centrifugation blood culture techniques for diagnosis of human brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantur, Basappa G; Mangalgi, Smita S

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the role of the lysis centrifugation blood culture technique over the conventional Castaneda technique for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. The lysis centrifugation technique has been found to be more sensitive in both acute (20% higher sensitivity; P < 0.00001) and chronic (40% higher sensitivity; P = 0.087) forms of brucellosis. The major advantage of lysis centrifugation was in the mean detection time, which was only 2.4 days in acute and 2.7 days in chronic cases, with 103 out of 110 (93.6%) and 17 out of 20 (85%) cultures from acute and chronic brucellosis, respectively, detected before the conventional culture was positive. Our results confirmed the potential usefulness of the lysis technique in diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  7. Physical lysis only (PLO) methods suitable as rapid sample pretreatment for qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofang; Lee, Byung-Tae; Son, Ahjeong

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) enables rapid and sensitive gene quantification and is widely used in genomics, such as biological, medical, environmental, and food sciences. However, sample pretreatment requires the use of conventional DNA extraction kits which are time-consuming and labor intensive. In this study, we investigated four physical lysis only (PLO) methods which are rapid and could serve as alternatives to conventional DNA extraction kits. These PLO methods are bead mill, heating, sonication, and freeze-thaw. Using ethidium bromide-based assay, their performance was evaluated and compared. The effects of cell debris and its removal were also investigated. Bead mill method without cell debris removal appeared to yield the best qPCR results among the four PLO methods. In addition, bead mill method also performed better than conventional DNA extraction kits. It is probably due to the substantial loss of DNA material during the extensive purification of the conventional DNA extraction kits. The bead mill method has been demonstrated to successfully quantify 10(2) to 10(7) copies of the PAH-RHDα gene of Pseudomonas putida.

  8. Polypeptone induces dramatic cell lysis in ura4 deletion mutants of fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzy Matsuo

    Full Text Available Polypeptone is widely excluded from Schizosaccharomyces pombe growth medium. However, the reasons why polypeptone should be avoided have not been documented. Polypeptone dramatically induced cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant when cells approached the stationary growth phase, and this phenotype was suppressed by supplementation of uracil. To determine the specificity of this cell lysis phenotype, we created deletion mutants of other genes involved in de novo biosynthesis of uridine monophosphate (ura1, ura2, ura3, and ura5. Cell lysis was not observed in these gene deletion mutants. In addition, concomitant disruption of ura1, ura2, ura3, or ura5 in the ura4 deletion mutant suppressed cell lysis, indicating that cell lysis induced by polypeptone is specific to the ura4 deletion mutant. Furthermore, cell lysis was also suppressed when the gene involved in coenzyme Q biosynthesis was deleted. This is likely because Ura3 requires coenzyme Q for its activity. The ura4 deletion mutant was sensitive to zymolyase, which mainly degrades (1,3-beta-D glucan, when grown in the presence of polypeptone, and cell lysis was suppressed by the osmotic stabiliser, sorbitol. Finally, the induction of cell lysis in the ura4 deletion mutant was due to the accumulation of orotidine-5-monophosphate. Cell wall integrity was dramatically impaired in the ura4 deletion mutant when grown in the presence of polypeptone. Because ura4 is widely used as a selection marker in S. pombe, caution needs to be taken when evaluating phenotypes of ura4 mutants.

  9. Successful Colectomy for Hemorrhagic Colitis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Acute Encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tominaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old man was admitted to a primary care hospital due to bloody diarrhea. The findings of abdominal computed tomography indicated ischemic colitis, so conservative therapy was started. On the 4th hospital day, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. Physical examination showed clouding of consciousness and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed massive ascites and thickening of the whole colonic wall. With a diagnosis of acute abdomen, an emergent laparotomy was performed. Extended right hemicolectomy was performed because of severe ischemic change and necrosis of the right side of the colon. In the stool culture before the operation, Escherichia coli O157 and verotoxin were found, so this case was diagnosed as hemorrhagic colitis with hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 infection. Postoperatively, the hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy were prolonged. However, with intensive care, the patient recovered and was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day.

  10. Charge injection through nanocomposite electrode in microfluidic channel for electrical lysis of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Madhusmita; Krishna, Anil; Chandra, Aman; Shenoy, B. M.; Hegde, G. M.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2013-03-01

    Several concepts have been developed in the recent years for nanomaterial based integrated MEMS platform in order to accelerate the process of biological sample preparation followed by selective screening and identification of target molecules. In this context, there exist several challenges which need to be addressed in the process of electrical lysis of biological cells. These are due to (i) low resource settings while achieving maximal lysis (ii) high throughput of target molecules to be detected (iii) automated extraction and purification of relevant molecules such as DNA and protein from extremely small volume of sample (iv) requirement of fast, accurate and yet scalable methods (v) multifunctionality toward process monitoring and (vi) downward compatibility with already existing diagnostic protocols. This paper reports on the optimization of electrical lysis process based on various different nanocomposite coated electrodes placed in a microfluidic channel. The nanocomposites are synthesized using different nanomaterials like Zinc nanorod dispersion in polymer. The efficiency of electrical lysis with various different electrode coatings has been experimentally verified in terms of DNA concentration, amplification and protein yield. The influence of the coating thickness on the injection current densities has been analyzed. We further correlate experimentally the current density vs. voltage relationship with the extent of bacterial cell lysis. A coupled multiphysics based simulation model is used to predict the cell trajectories and lysis efficiencies under various electrode boundary conditions as estimated from experimental results. Detailed in-situ fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy studies are performed to validate various hypotheses.

  11. Low-Cost Energy-Efficient 3-D Nano-Spikes-Based Electric Cell Lysis Chips

    KAUST Repository

    Riaz, Kashif

    2017-05-04

    Electric cell lysis (ECL) is a promising technique to be integrated with portable lab-on-a-chip without lysing agent due to its simplicity and fast processing. ECL is usually limited by the requirements of high power/voltage and costly fabrication. In this paper, we present low-cost 3-D nano-spikes-based ECL (NSP-ECL) chips for efficient cell lysis at low power consumption. Highly ordered High-Aspect-Ratio (HAR). NSP arrays with controllable dimensions were fabricated on commercial aluminum foils through scalable and electrochemical anodization and etching. The optimized multiple pulse protocols with minimized undesirable electrochemical reactions (gas and bubble generation), common on micro parallel-plate ECL chips. Due to the scalability of fabrication process, 3-D NSPs were fabricated on small chips as well as on 4-in wafers. Phase diagram was constructed by defining critical electric field to induce cell lysis and for cell lysis saturation Esat to define non-ECL and ECL regions for different pulse parameters. NSP-ECL chips have achieved excellent cell lysis efficiencies ηlysis (ca 100%) at low applied voltages (2 V), 2~3 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional systems. The energy consumption of NSP-ECL chips was 0.5-2 mJ/mL, 3~9 orders of magnitude lower as compared with the other methods (5J/mL-540kJ/mL). [2016-0305

  12. The feeling of family success and the professional burnout syndrome among penitentiary staff (a draft of a research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczykowska

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutual relations between family and professional life have been for many years one of the most important fields of research in economics, sociology and, more and more often, pedagogy, which focuses on searching for factors protecting from the development of burnout syndrome and aims at increasing the effectiveness of pedagogic efforts. Due to the above, this article, being a draft of a research project, is dedicated to the facilitating effect of family life on professional life of the penitentiary staff. The authors take a stance that the feeling of satisfaction from family life can not only significantly neutralize the feeling of failure but, primarily, contribute to the search for more and more innovative forms of work.

  13. Successful isolated liver transplantation in a child with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome and a mutation in complement factor H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, W; Milford, D V; Goodship, T H J; Sharif, K; Mirza, D F; McKiernan, P J

    2010-09-01

    A male infant was diagnosed with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) at the age of 5.5 months. Sequencing of the gene (CFH) encoding complement factor H revealed a heterozygous mutation (c.3644G>A, p.Arg1215Gln). Despite maintenance plasmapheresis he developed recurrent episodes of aHUS and vascular access complications while maintaining stable renal function. At the age of 5 years he received an isolated split liver graft following a previously established protocol using pretransplant plasma exchange (PE) and intratransplant plasma infusion. Graft function, renal function and disease remission are preserved 2 years after transplantation. Preemptive liver transplantation prior to the development of end stage renal disease is a valuable option in the management of aHUS associated with CFH mutations.

  14. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Ding; Choylen Fong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, in contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFlex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  15. Combined Transfection with EBV-Specific Epitopes and HLA-A2 genes is More Effective than Separate Transfection in Promoting CTL Lysis against Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WeijunDing; ChoylenFong

    2004-01-01

    To augment specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) lysis is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. In this study,we examined the boosting effect of CTLs upon autologous lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs) transfected with diverse plasmids, to explore the possible CTL-based immunotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).FCM analysis displayed rather high ratio (>30%) of successfully transfected LCLs by utilizing the DMRIE-C kit. CTL assays demonstrated that substantially higher ratio of CTL specific lysis was observed upon the LCLs transfected with both expression vectors encoding EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2, In contrast with those transfected separately. By transfecting the vector encoding HLA-A2 alone, only the LCLs of HLA-A2+ donors elicited markedly higher CTL lysis. CTL assays also showed that there existed no marked differences upon transfection by either different vectors (pcDNA3, pNGVL3 or pNGVL3-hFIex), or different EBV-derived peptides (LMP2Pep1 or LMP2Pep2), or with or without the doubled DNA sequence encoding peptides. This study indicated a promising immunotherapy strategy on NPC through boosting and eliciting the EBV-specific CTL activation by transferring vectors encoding both EBV-specific epitopes and their presentation molecule HLA-A2 into autologous LCL, the presentation cells of MHC/peptide tetrameric complex.

  16. Refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with DiGeorge syndrome treated successfully with plasma exchange: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damlaj, Moussab; Séguin, Chantal

    2014-11-01

    Warm antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) results from targeted antibodies towards the red blood cells (RBCs) and can be either idiopathic or secondary to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders or malignancy, drugs, or infection. Patients with DiGeorge syndrome are particularly vulnerable to autoimmune conditions secondary to thymic hypoplasia and dysfunction of the immune system. First-line therapy for AIHA consists of corticosteroids, with most patients showing signs of response. Relapses are not uncommon and are treated with splenectomy or rituximab. There is a paucity of reports in the literature regarding treatment options beyond this stage. Herein, we describe an unusual case of a 20-year-old female affected by DiGeorge syndrome with a history of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), who presented with life-threatening AIHA. Standard first- and second-line therapeutic modalities were ineffective in controlling her disease and she ultimately underwent plasma exchange therapy with successful resolution of hemolysis. At her last follow-up, one year after her initial presentation, she remains clinically well without signs of hemolysis. We conclude that in refractory cases of warm AIHA, plasma exchange therapy can be a valuable tool in the therapeutic armamentarium.

  17. Severe pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome due to scrub typhus: Successful ventilation with airway pressure release ventilation mode after becoming refractory to protective ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Chandelia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus can affect lungs from mild illness like pneumonitis to a severe illness like acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Such patients may be very challenging to treat when their hypoxemia becomes severe and refractory to treatment. Main treatment is supportive in terms of mechanical ventilation. In adult ARDS, low tidal volume (TV ventilation has been recommended, but there is no consensus on most effective ventilation mode in children. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl who developed severe ARDS (PO 2 /FiO 2 ratio - 58, refractory to low TV ventilation. There was a rapid improvement in oxygenation on the application of airway pressure release ventilation (APRV mode within ΍ h. She was successfully ventilated and weaned off the ventilator over 5 days. This case highlights the utility of APRV mode of ventilation as a rescue therapy for severe refractory ARDS in children.

  18. Japanese case of Budd-Chiari syndrome due to hepatic vein thrombosis successfully treated with liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Kawai, Hirokazu; Oseki, Koushi; Togashi, Tadayuki; Shioji, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Yoshinobu; Suzuki, Kenji; Toba, Ken; Nomoto, Minoru; Hatakeyama, Katsuyoshi; Aoyagi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    A 22-year-old Japanese woman was found to have severe esophageal varices and then suffered from hepatic encephalopathy. She was diagnosed with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) due to hepatic vein (HV) thrombosis accompanied by portal vein thrombosis without inferior vena cava (IVC) obstruction. Latent myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) lacking the JAK2-V617F mutation was considered to be the underlying disease. Liver transplantation was strikingly effective for treating the clinical symptoms attributable to portal hypertension. Although thrombosis of the internal jugular vein occurred due to thrombocythemia, which manifested after transplantation despite anticoagulation therapy with warfarin, the thrombus immediately disappeared with the addition of aspirin. Neither thrombosis nor BCS has recurred in more than 4 years since the amelioration of the last thrombotic event, and post-transplant immunosuppression with tacrolimus has not accelerated the progression of MPN. In Japan, IVC obstruction, which was a predominant type of BCS, is suggested to have decreased in incidence with recent improvements in hygiene. The precise diagnosis of BCS and causative underlying diseases should be made with attention to the current trend of the disease spectrum, which fluctuates with environmental sanitation levels. Because the stepwise strategy, including liver transplantation, has been proven effective for patients with pure HV obstruction in Western countries, this strategy should also be validated for utilization in Japan and in developing countries where HV obstruction potentially predominates.

  19. Central sensitization does not identify patients with carpal tunnel syndrome who are likely to achieve short-term success with physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; de-la-Llave-Rincon, Ana Isabel; Martínez-Perez, Almudena; Pareja, Juan A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify whether hyperexcitability of the central nervous system is a prognostic factor for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) likely to experience rapid and clinical self-reported improvement following a physical therapy program including soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic interventions. Women presenting with clinical and electrophysiological findings of CTS were involved in a prospective single-arm trial. Participants underwent a standardized examination and then a physical therapy session. The physical therapy sessions included both soft tissue mobilization directed at the anatomical sites of potential median nerve entrapment and a passive nerve slider neurodynamic technique targeted to the median nerve. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) over the median, radial and ulnar nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, carpal tunnel and tibialis anterior muscle were assessed bilaterally. Additionally, thermal detection and pain thresholds were measured over the carpal tunnel and thenar eminence bilaterally to evaluate central nervous system excitability. Subjects were classified as responders (having achieved a successful outcome) or non-responders based on self-perceived recovery. Variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate variables for determining prognosis. Data from 72 women were included in the analysis, of which 35 experienced a successful outcome (48.6%). Three variables including PPT over the C5-C6 joint affected side 66 points were identified. If 2 out of 3 variables were present (LR + 14.8), the likelihood of success increased from 48.6 to 93.3%. We identified 3 factors that may be associated with a rapid clinical response to both soft tissue mobilization and nerve slider neurodynamic techniques targeted to the median nerve in women presenting with CTS. Our results support that widespread central sensitization may not be present in women with CTS who

  20. Stochastic holin expression can account for lysis time variation in the bacteriophage λ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhyudai; Dennehy, John J

    2014-06-06

    The inherent stochastic nature of biochemical processes can drive differences in gene expression between otherwise identical cells. While cell-to-cell variability in gene expression has received much attention, randomness in timing of events has been less studied. We investigate event timing at the single-cell level in a simple system, the lytic pathway of the bacterial virus phage λ. In individual cells, lysis occurs on average at 65 min, with an s.d. of 3.5 min. Interestingly, mutations in the lysis protein, holin, alter both the lysis time (LT) mean and variance. In our analysis, LT is formulated as the first-passage time (FPT) for cellular holin levels to cross a critical threshold. Exact analytical formulae for the FPT moments are derived for stochastic gene expression models. These formulae reveal how holin transcription and translation efficiencies independently modulate the LT mean and variation. Analytical expressions for the LT moments are used to evaluate previously published single-cell LT data for λ phages with mutations in the holin sequence or its promoter. Our results show that stochastic holin expression is sufficient to account for the intercellular LT differences in both wild-type phages, and phage variants where holin transcription and the threshold for lysis have been experimentally altered. Finally, our analysis reveals regulatory motifs that enhance the robustness of lysis timing to cellular noise.

  1. Performance Evaluation of Fast Microfluidic Thermal Lysis of Bacteria for Diagnostic Sample Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelyn C. Alocilja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new diagnostic platforms that incorporate lab-on-a-chip technologies for portable assays is driving the need for rapid, simple, low cost methods to prepare samples for downstream processing or detection. An important component of the sample preparation process is cell lysis. In this work, a simple microfluidic thermal lysis device is used to quickly release intracellular nucleic acids and proteins without the need for additional reagents or beads used in traditional chemical or mechanical methods (e.g., chaotropic salts or bead beating. On-chip lysis is demonstrated in a multi-turn serpentine microchannel with external temperature control via an attached resistive heater. Lysis was confirmed for Escherichia coli by fluorescent viability assay, release of ATP measured with bioluminescent assay, release of DNA measured by fluorometry and qPCR, as well as bacterial culture. Results comparable to standard lysis techniques were achievable at temperatures greater than 65 °C and heating durations between 1 and 60 s.

  2. Sub classification and targeted characterization of prophage-encoded two-component cell lysis cassette

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K V Srividhya; S Krishnaswamy

    2007-08-01

    Bacteriophage induced lysis of host bacterial cell is mediated by a two component cell lysis cassette comprised of holin and lysozyme. Prophages are integrated forms of bacteriophages in bacterial genomes providing a repertoire for bacterial evolution. Analysis using the prophage database (http://bicmku.in:8082) constructed by us showed 47 prophages were associated with putative two component cell lysis genes. These proteins cluster into four different subgroups. In this process, a putative holin (essd) and endolysin (ybcS), encoded by the defective lambdoid prophage DLP12 was found to be similar to two component cell lysis genes in functional bacteriophages like p21 and P1. The holin essd was found to have a characteristic dual start motif with two transmembrane regions and C-terminal charged residues as in class II holins. Expression of a fusion construct of essd in Escherichia coli showed slow growth. However, under appropriate conditions, this protein could be over expressed and purified for structure function studies. The second component of the cell lysis cassette, ybcS, was found to have an N-terminal SAR (Signal Arrest Release) transmembrane domain. The construct of ybcS has been over expressed in E. coli and the purified protein was functional, exhibiting lytic activity against E. coli and Salmonella typhi cell wall substrate. Such targeted sequence-structure-function characterization of proteins encoded by cryptic prophages will help understand the contribution of prophage proteins to bacterial evolution.

  3. Recurrent Goodpasture's syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, B. R.; Bear, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Goodpasture's syndrome was diagnosed in a 17-year-old boy with glomerulonephritis and hemoptysis. He was successfully treated with cyclophosphamide, prednisone and courses of plasmapheresis. The syndrome recurred 3 1/2 years later and was again successfully treated.

  4. Antihypertensive medication versus health promotion for improving metabolic syndrome in preventing cardiovascular events: a success rate-oriented simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Makiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In practice, it is difficult to compare the effectiveness of traditional antihypertensive treatment with that of health promotion in reducing incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (IRCVD, events/year. This simulation study compared the effectiveness of two approaches to reducing IRCVD in a sample population: a traditional approach, in which high-risk patients are treated with conventional antihypertensive medications, and a population-based approach, in which subjects participate in a health promotion program. Methods We constructed a simulation model for a sample population of middle-aged Japanese men whose systolic blood pressure (SBP levels are normally distributed (130 ± 20 mm Hg. The principal assumption was that IRCVD increases exponentially according to SBP. The population IRCVD was calculated as the product of the distribution of SBP multiplied by IRCVD at each SBP. The cumulative IRCVD was calculated by the definite integral from the lowest to the highest SBP of IRCVD at each SBP level. The success rates were calculated according to SBP and metabolic risk profiles in the two approaches, respectively. Results The reduction in IRCVD was twice as large for antihypertensive medications as it was for health promotion in several situations. For example, if adherence to antihypertensive treatment occurred at a realistic level, the decrease in IRCVD was estimated at 9.99 × 10-4. In contrast, even if the health program was promoted optimistically, the decrease in IRCVD was estimated at 4.69 × 10-4. Conclusions The success rate-oriented simulation suggests that prescribing antihypertensive medications is superior to promoting the health promotion program in reducing IRCVD in virtual middle-aged Japanese men.

  5. Artificial Intelligence vs. Statistical Modeling and Optimization of Continuous Bead Milling Process for Bacterial Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Shafiul; Khan, Saif; Wahid, Mohd; Dar, Sajad A; Soni, Nipunjot; Mandal, Raju K; Singh, Vineeta; Tiwari, Dileep; Lohani, Mohtashim; Areeshi, Mohammed Y; Govender, Thavendran; Kruger, Hendrik G; Jawed, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    For a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD) was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial response surface methodology (RSM) design was employed and compared to artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA). Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A), bead load (B), cell load (C), and run time (D), were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v), cell loading OD600nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN-GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h): 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v): 80%, cell loading (OD600nm): 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN) in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA) for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  6. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minet, Valentine, E-mail: valentine.minet@unamur.be; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, Olivier [Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC) (Belgium); Lucas, Stéphane [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre for the Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR-LARN), Namur Nanosafety Center NNC, NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie, E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur – UNamur, Department of Pharmacy, Namur Thrombosis and Hemostasis Center (NTHC), Namur Nanosafety Center (NNC), NAmur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-07-15

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  7. The euglobulin clot lysis time to assess the impact of nanoparticles on fibrinolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minet, Valentine; Alpan, Lutfiye; Mullier, François; Toussaint, Olivier; Lucas, Stéphane; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Laloy, Julie

    2015-07-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are developed for many applications in various fields, including nanomedicine. The NPs used in nanomedicine may disturb homeostasis in blood. Secondary hemostasis (blood coagulation) and fibrinolysis are complex physiological processes regulated by activators and inhibitors. An imbalance of this system can either lead to the development of hemorrhages or thrombosis. No data are currently available on the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis. The objectives of this study are (1) to select a screening test to study ex vivo the impact of NPs on fibrinolysis and (2) to test NPs with different physicochemical properties. Euglobulin clot lysis time test was selected to screen the impact of some NPs on fibrinolysis using normal pooled plasma. A dose-dependent decrease in the lysis time was observed with silicon dioxide and silver NPs without disturbing the fibrin network. Carbon black, silicon carbide, and copper oxide did not affect the lysis time at the tested concentrations.

  8. Utilization of graphene electrode in transparent microwell arrays for high throughput cell trapping and lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, S Kabiri; Singh, P K; Sonkusale, S

    2014-11-15

    Here we present a high-throughput, transparent microfluidic device with embedded microwell arrays sandwiched between transparent electrodes made from graphene (at the bottom) and indium tin oxide (at the top) for dielectrophoretic cell trapping and electrical lysis. Graphene suppresses unwanted faradaic reaction effects on the cells and the medium that is typically observed in ITO based electrodes from application of DC field for electrical lysis. This is because graphene is more electrochemically inert than indium tin oxide (ITO) where ITO undergoes reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction in the presence of electrolyte in most standard cell media. This redox process also compromises ITO's electrical properties and optical transparency over multiple use. The presented microfluidic device shows high efficiency for cell trapping and lysis and an electrochemically stable behavior for long operational life.

  9. Age and markers of Leydig cell function, but not of Sertoli cell function predict the success of sperm retrieval in adolescents and adults with Klinefelter's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohayem, J; Fricke, R; Czeloth, K; Mallidis, C; Wistuba, J; Krallmann, C; Zitzmann, M; Kliesch, S

    2015-09-01

    Microsurgical testicular sperm extraction (mTESE), combined with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) represents a chance for azoospermic men with Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) to father children. The objective of this study was to identify predictive factors for the success of mTESE from adolescents and adults with KS. The clinical data of 50 late pubertal adolescents (13-19 years) and 85 adult patients (20-61 years) with non-mosaic KS, who underwent mTESE, were analysed with respect to factors, potentially predictive of active spermatogenesis; specifically a history of cryptorchidism, age, testicular volumes, serum levels of LH, FSH, testosterone (T) and estradiol at the time of surgery. Inhibin B, AMH and INSL3 were additionally analysed in the adolescents. A younger age and a near-compensated Leydig cell function were associated with higher success of sperm retrieval via mTESE: In adolescents ≥15-19 years, spermatozoa were retrieved in 45%, compared to 31% in adults; in adolescents aged 13-14 years, spermatozoa were collected in only 10%. Adolescents with an LH ≤17.5 U/L, along with a T level ≥7.5 nmol/L had the best success rate (54%), which fell to 44% with higher LH, whereas those with low T (history of cryptorchidism was associated with lower retrieval rates. A window of opportunity for an approximate 50% chance to retrieve spermatozoa via mTESE exists for young, late pubertal KS patients between age 15 and young adulthood, when Leydig cell function is at its best. In these cases, referral to a centre of expertise should be considered.

  10. Lysis-deficient phages as novel therapeutic agents for controlling bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempashanaiah Nanjundappa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interest in phage therapy has grown over the past decade due to the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. However, the use of bacteriophages for therapeutic purposes has raised concerns over the potential for immune response, rapid toxin release by the lytic action of phages, and difficulty in dose determination in clinical situations. A phage that kills the target cell but is incapable of host cell lysis would alleviate these concerns without compromising efficacy. Results We developed a recombinant lysis-deficient Staphylococcus aureus phage P954, in which the endolysin gene was rendered nonfunctional by insertional inactivation. P954, a temperate phage, was lysogenized in S. aureus strain RN4220. The native endolysin gene on the prophage was replaced with an endolysin gene disrupted by the chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (cat gene through homologous recombination using a plasmid construct. Lysogens carrying the recombinant phage were detected by growth in presence of chloramphenicol. Induction of the recombinant prophage did not result in host cell lysis, and the phage progeny were released by cell lysis with glass beads. The recombinant phage retained the endolysin-deficient genotype and formed plaques only when endolysin was supplemented. The host range of the recombinant phage was the same as that of the parent phage. To test the in vivo efficacy of the recombinant endolysin-deficient phage, immunocompromised mice were challenged with pathogenic S. aureus at a dose that results in 80% mortality (LD80. Treatment with the endolysin-deficient phage rescued mice from the fatal S. aureus infection. Conclusions A recombinant endolysin-deficient staphylococcal phage has been developed that is lethal to methicillin-resistant S. aureus without causing bacterial cell lysis. The phage was able to multiply in lytic mode utilizing a heterologous endolysin expressed from a plasmid in the propagation host

  11. Sensitivity of simian virus 40-transformed C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts to lysis by murine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Karjalainen, H E; Tevethia, S S

    1987-02-15

    The susceptibility of mouse cells expressing full-length or truncated transforming protein (T antigen) of simian virus 40 (SV40) to lysis by murine natural killer (NK) cells was assessed. For these studies, C57BL/6 mouse embryo fibroblasts (B6/MEF) were transformed by transfection with SV40 DNA encoding the entire T antigen. The transformed cell lines were tested for susceptibility to lysis by nonimmune CBA splenocytes as a source of NK cells and to lysis by C57BL/6, SV40-specific cytolytic T cells (CTL). It was found that 13 of 15 clonally derived, SV40-transformed H-2b cell lines were susceptible to lysis by NK cells. However, there was some variation in their susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. There was no correlation between susceptibility to lysis by SV40-specific CTL and to lysis by NK cells. Cells transfected with a plasmid which encodes only the N-terminal half of the SV40 T antigen were consistently less susceptible to lysis by NK cells, suggesting that expression of only the N-terminus of the T antigen was insufficient for optimal susceptibility to lysis by NK cells. Primary mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed by human adenovirus type 5 E1 region DNA were also found to be susceptible to NK cell-mediated lysis. Lysis of SV40-transformed cells by nonimmune CBA splenocytes was mediated by NK cells because: lysis was augmented when the effector cells were treated with interferon before assay; and lysis was abrogated when the effector cells were obtained from mice that had been depleted of NK activity by treatment with antiserum against the asialo GM1 surface marker. These results indicate that primary mouse cells which are transformed by SV40 and which express the native T antigen are susceptible to lysis by mouse NK cells. Conversely, cells transformed by a plasmid encoding only the N-terminal half of the T antigen express reduced susceptibility to lysis by NK cells.

  12. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  13. [Detection of Yersinia Enterocolitica Bacteriophage PhiYe-F10 Lysis Spectrum and Analysis of the Relationship between Lysis Ability and Virulence Gene of Yersinia Enterocolitica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Tao; Liang, Junrong; Xiao, Yuchun; Jing, Huaiqi

    2016-03-01

    To determine the lysis spectrum of Yersinia enterocolitica bacteriophage phiYe-F10 and to analyze the relationship between the lysis ability of phiYe-F10 and the virulence gene of Yersinia enterocolitica. To observe the lysis ability of the phage phiYe-F10 to the different Yersinia strains with the double-layer technique. The strains used in this study including 213 of Yersinia enterocolitica and 36 of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and 1 of Yersinia pestis. The virulence genes of these Yersinia enterocolitica (attachment invasion locus (ail) and enterotoxin (ystA, ystB) and yersinia adhesin A (yadA), virulence factor (virF), specific gene for lipopolysaccharide O-side chain of serotype O : 3 (rfbc) were all detected. Among the 213 Yersinia enterocolitica, 84 strains were O : 3 serotype (78 strains with rfbc gene), 10 were serotype O : 5, 13 were serotype O : 8, 34 were serotype O : 9 and 72 were other serotypes. Of these, 77 were typical pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica harboring with virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA+, virF+), and 15 were pathogenic bacterial strains deficiency virulence plasmid (ail+, ystA+, ystB-, yadA-, virF-) and the rest 121 were non pathogenic genotype strains. PhiYe-F10 lysed the 71 serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitica strains which were all carried with rfbc+, including 52 pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, 19 nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed serotype O : 5, O : 9 and other serotype Y. enterocolitica, the lysis rate of serotype O : 3 was as high as 84.5%. The phiYe-F10 can not lysed Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Yersinia phage phiYe-F10 is highly specific for serotype O : 3 Yersinia enterocolitic at 25 degrees C, which showed a typical narrow lysis spectrum. Phage phiYe-F10 can lysed much more pathogenic Y. enterocolitica than nonpathogenic Y. enterocolitica.

  14. Fabrication of rigid microstructures with thiol-ene-based soft lithography for continuous-flow cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jeffrey M; Pandit, Kunal R; Goertz, John P; White, Ian M

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we introduce a method for the soft-lithography-based fabrication of rigid microstructures and a new, simple bonding technique for use as a continuous-flow cell lysis device. While on-chip cell lysis techniques have been reported previously, these techniques generally require a long on-chip residence time, and thus cannot be performed in a rapid, continuous-flow manner. Microstructured microfluidic devices can perform mechanical lysis of cells, enabling continuous-flow lysis; however, rigid silicon-based devices require complex and expensive fabrication of each device, while polydimethylsiloxane (PMDS), the most common material used for soft lithography fabrication, is not rigid and expands under the pressures required, resulting in poor lysis performance. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of microfluidic microstructures from off-stoichiometry thiol-ene (OSTE) polymer using soft-lithography replica molding combined with a post-assembly cure for easy bonding. With finite element simulations, we show that the rigid microstructures generate an energy dissipation rate of nearly 10(7), which is sufficient for continuous-flow cell lysis. Correspondingly, with the OSTE device we achieve lysis of highly deformable MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells at a rate of 85%, while a comparable PDMS device leads to a lysis rate of only 40%.

  15. Genetically Determined Variation in Lysis Time Variance in the Bacteriophage φX174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christopher W; Miller, Craig R; Thaweethai, Tanayott; Yuan, Jeffrey; Baker, Meghan Hollibaugh; Joyce, Paul; Weinreich, Daniel M

    2016-04-07

    Researchers in evolutionary genetics recently have recognized an exciting opportunity in decomposing beneficial mutations into their proximal, mechanistic determinants. The application of methods and concepts from molecular biology and life history theory to studies of lytic bacteriophages (phages) has allowed them to understand how natural selection sees mutations influencing life history. This work motivated the research presented here, in which we explored whether, under consistent experimental conditions, small differences in the genome of bacteriophage φX174 could lead to altered life history phenotypes among a panel of eight genetically distinct clones. We assessed the clones' phenotypes by applying a novel statistical framework to the results of a serially sampled parallel infection assay, in which we simultaneously inoculated each of a large number of replicate host volumes with ∼1 phage particle. We sequentially plated the volumes over the course of infection and counted the plaques that formed after incubation. These counts served as a proxy for the number of phage particles in a single volume as a function of time. From repeated assays, we inferred significant, genetically determined heterogeneity in lysis time and burst size, including lysis time variance. These findings are interesting in light of the genetic and phenotypic constraints on the single-protein lysis mechanism of φX174. We speculate briefly on the mechanisms underlying our results, and we discuss the potential importance of lysis time variance in viral evolution.

  16. Genetically Determined Variation in Lysis Time Variance in the Bacteriophage φX174

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. Baker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in evolutionary genetics recently have recognized an exciting opportunity in decomposing beneficial mutations into their proximal, mechanistic determinants. The application of methods and concepts from molecular biology and life history theory to studies of lytic bacteriophages (phages has allowed them to understand how natural selection sees mutations influencing life history. This work motivated the research presented here, in which we explored whether, under consistent experimental conditions, small differences in the genome of bacteriophage φX174 could lead to altered life history phenotypes among a panel of eight genetically distinct clones. We assessed the clones’ phenotypes by applying a novel statistical framework to the results of a serially sampled parallel infection assay, in which we simultaneously inoculated each of a large number of replicate host volumes with ∼1 phage particle. We sequentially plated the volumes over the course of infection and counted the plaques that formed after incubation. These counts served as a proxy for the number of phage particles in a single volume as a function of time. From repeated assays, we inferred significant, genetically determined heterogeneity in lysis time and burst size, including lysis time variance. These findings are interesting in light of the genetic and phenotypic constraints on the single-protein lysis mechanism of φX174. We speculate briefly on the mechanisms underlying our results, and we discuss the potential importance of lysis time variance in viral evolution.

  17. Electrochemical lysis at the stage of endoresection for large posterior intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Belyy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to design the new combined technique of endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis at the tumor destruction stage for large posterior intraocular tumors.Methods: 3 patients (3 eyes with large choroidal melanomas t3N0M0 (tumor thickness — 8-10 mm, base diameter — 13-15 mm, juxtapapillary localization. Mean age was 55.4 years old. Endoresection with intraoperational intraocular electrochemical lysis of the tumor was performed. Electrochemical lysis was performed with use of the technical unit ECU 300 (Soering, Germany and the original method of combined intratumoral positioning of two platinum electrodes: anode and cathode.Results: the tumor was removal completely in all 3 cases. the anatomical retinal reattachment was reached in all patients. Sclera was safe in all 3 cases. Visual acuity was not changed (NLP. At the place of the removal tumor a surgical choroidal coloboma without pigmentation all over scleral bed and periphery was shown in all cases in distant postoperative period (from 1.5 to 3 years. No local recurrences or metastasis were revealed in all patients.Conclusion: Further investigations in clinical group are necessarily to determinate the real possibilities of the combined method and the indications for endoresection with intraoperative intraocular electrochemical lysis for large intraocular tumors. 

  18. Hypochlorite- and hypobromite-mediated radical formation and its role in cell lysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Brown, B E; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    Activated leukocytes generate the potent oxidants HOCl and HOBr via the formation of H(2)O(2) and the release of peroxidase enzymes (myeloperoxidase, eosinophil peroxidase). HOCl and HOBr are potent microbiocidal agents, but excessive or misplaced production can cause tissue damage and cell lysis...

  19. A simple and novel modification of comet assay for determination of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairnar, Krishna; Sanmukh, Swapnil; Chandekar, Rajshree; Paunikar, Waman

    2014-07-01

    The comet assay is the widely used method for in vitro toxicity testing which is also an alternative to the use of animal models for in vivo testing. Since, its inception in 1984 by Ostling and Johansson, it is being modified frequently for a wide range of application. In spite of its wide applicability, unfortunately there is no report of its application in bacteriophages research. In this study, a novel application of comet assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis was described. The conventional methods in bacteriophage research for studying bacterial lysis by bacteriophages are plaque assay method. It is time consuming, laborious and costly. The lytic activity of bacteriophage devours the bacterial cell which results in the release of bacterial genomic material that gets detected by ethidium bromide staining method by the comet assay protocol. The objective of this study was to compare efficacy of comet assay with different assay used to study phage mediated bacterial lysis. The assay was performed on culture isolates (N=80 studies), modified comet assay appear to have relatively higher sensitivity and specificity than other assay. The results of the study showed that the application of comet assay can be an economical, time saving and less laborious alternative to conventional plaque assay for the detection of bacteriophage mediated bacterial cell lysis.

  20. Viral lysis and microzooplankton grazing of phytoplankton throughout the Southern Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, C.; Brussaard, C.P.D.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated microzooplankton grazing and viral lysis of the pico- and nanophytoplankton community in the Southern Ocean during the "Sensitivity of Sub-Antarctic Zone Waters to Global Change" cruise to the Australian sector (January-February 2007) and the Antarctic-XXIV/3 (February-March 2008) ex

  1. Analysis of Electric Fields inside Microchannels and Single Cell Electrical Lysis with a Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofy Mussivand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of electric fields generated inside the microchannels of a microfluidic device for electrical lysis of biological cells along with experimental verification are presented. Electrical lysis is the complete disintegration of cell membranes, due to a critical level of electric fields applied for a critical duration on a biological cell. Generating an electric field inside a microchannel of a microfluidic device has many advantages, including the efficient utilization of energy and low-current requirement. An ideal microchannel model was compared with a practical microchannel model using a finite element analysis tool that suggests that the overestimation error can be over 10%, from 2.5 mm or smaller, in the length of a microchannel. Two analytical forms are proposed to reduce this overestimation error. Experimental results showed that the high electric field is confined only inside the microchannel that is in agreement with the simulation results. Single cell electrical lysis was conducted with a fabricated microfluidic device. An average of 800 V for seven seconds across an 8 mm-long microchannel with the dimension of 100 μm × 20 μm was required for lysis, with electric fields exceeding 100 kV/m and consuming 300 mW.

  2. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: Theoretical modelling and experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernyshev, A.V.; Tarasov, P.A.; Semianov, K.A.; Nekrasov, V.M.; Hoekstra, A.G.; Maltsev, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, ela

  3. An ultra-high temperature flow-through capillary device for bacterial spore lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukari, Kyle W; Patel, Kamlesh D; Renzi, Ronald F; West, Jay A A

    2010-08-01

    Rapid and specific characterization of bacterial endospores is dependent on the ability to rupture the cell wall to enable analysis of the intracellular components. In particular, bacterial spores from the bacillus genus are inherently robust and very difficult to lyze or solubilize. Standard protocols for spore inactivation include chemical treatment, sonication, pressure, and thermal lysis. Although these protocols are effective for the inactivation of these agents, they are less well suited for sample preparation for analysis using proteomic and genomic approaches. To overcome this difficulty, we have designed a simple capillary device to perform thermal lysis of bacterial spores. Using this device, we were able to super heat (195 degrees C) an ethylene glycol lysis buffer to perform rapid flow-through rupture and solubilization of bacterial endospores. We demonstrated that the lysates from this preparation method are compatible with CGE as well as DNA amplification analysis. We further demonstrated the flow-through lysing device could be directly coupled to a miniaturized electrophoresis instrument for integrated sample preparation and analysis. In this arrangement, we were enabled to perform sample lysis, fluorescent dye labeling, and protein electrophoresis analysis of bacterial spores in less than 10 min. The described sample preparation device is rapid, simple, inexpensive, and easily integratable with various microfluidic devices.

  4. An optimised direct lysis method for gene expression studies on low cell numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Anh Viet-Phuong; Huang, Dexing; Blick, Tony; Thompson, Erik W; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2015-08-05

    There is increasing interest in gene expression analysis of either single cells or limited numbers of cells. One such application is the analysis of harvested circulating tumour cells (CTCs), which are often present in very low numbers. A highly efficient protocol for RNA extraction, which involves a minimal number of steps to avoid RNA loss, is essential for low input cell numbers. We compared several lysis solutions that enable reverse transcription (RT) to be performed directly on the cell lysate, offering a simple rapid approach to minimise RNA loss for RT. The lysis solutions were assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in low cell numbers isolated from four breast cancer cell lines. We found that a lysis solution containing both the non-ionic detergent (IGEPAL CA-630, chemically equivalent to Nonidet P-40 or NP-40) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) gave the best RT-qPCR yield. This direct lysis to reverse transcription protocol outperformed a column-based extraction method using a commercial kit. This study demonstrates a simple, reliable, time- and cost-effective method that can be widely used in any situation where RNA needs to be prepared from low to very low cell numbers.

  5. Quantifying enzymatic lysis: estimating the combined effects of chemistry, physiology and physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel J.; Nelson, Daniel C.; Weitz, Joshua S.

    2010-12-01

    The number of microbial pathogens resistant to antibiotics continues to increase even as the rate of discovery and approval of new antibiotic therapeutics steadily decreases. Many researchers have begun to investigate the therapeutic potential of naturally occurring lytic enzymes as an alternative to traditional antibiotics. However, direct characterization of lytic enzymes using techniques based on synthetic substrates is often difficult because lytic enzymes bind to the complex superstructure of intact cell walls. Here we present a new standard for the analysis of lytic enzymes based on turbidity assays which allow us to probe the dynamics of lysis without preparing a synthetic substrate. The challenge in the analysis of these assays is to infer the microscopic details of lysis from macroscopic turbidity data. We propose a model of enzymatic lysis that integrates the chemistry responsible for bond cleavage with the physical mechanisms leading to cell wall failure. We then present a solution to an inverse problem in which we estimate reaction rate constants and the heterogeneous susceptibility to lysis among target cells. We validate our model given simulated and experimental turbidity assays. The ability to estimate reaction rate constants for lytic enzymes will facilitate their biochemical characterization and development as antimicrobial therapeutics.

  6. Successful Management of Insulin Allergy and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 4 with Desensitization Therapy and Glucocorticoid Treatment: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joselyn Rojas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insulin allergy is a rare complication of insulin therapy, especially in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Key manifestations are hypersensitivity-related symptoms and poor metabolic control. T1DM, as well as insulin allergy, may develop in the context of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, further complicating management. Case Report. A 17-year-old male patient, diagnosed with T1DM, was treated with various insulin therapy schemes over several months, which resulted in recurrent anaphylactoid reactions and poor glycemic control, after which he was referred to our Endocrinology and Immunology Department. A prick test was carried out for all commercially available insulin presentations and another insulin scheme was designed but proved unsuccessful. A desensitization protocol was started with Glargine alongside administration of Prednisone, which successfully induced tolerance. Observation of skin lesions typical of vitiligo prompted laboratory workup for other autoimmune disorders, which returned positive for autoimmune gastritis/pernicious anemia. These findings are compatible with APS type 4. Discussion. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of insulin allergy in type 4 APS, as well as this particular combination in APS. Etiopathogenic components shared by insulin allergy and APS beg for further research in immunogenetics to further comprehend pathophysiologic aspects of these diseases.

  7. Successful treatment of Dandy-Walker syndrome by endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 6-month-old girl with progressive hydrocephalus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Fen; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Chang, Cheng-Fu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Chen, Shyi-Jou

    2011-02-01

    Dandy-Walker syndrome (DWS) is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Successful Treatment of Dandy–Walker Syndrome by Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy in a 6-Month-Old Girl With Progressive Hydrocephalus: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Fen Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Dandy–Walker syndrome (DWS is a congenital brain malformation involving the cerebellum and fourth ventricle. We report a 6-month-old girl with DWS presenting an initially normal ventricular system and mild cyst-like lesion over the posterior fossa as assessed by postnatal brain sonography. However, symptoms and signs of increased intracranial cerebral pressure in terms of frequent vomiting and tense anterior fontanel developed, and these were associated with mild hypotonia and poor neck support, and upward-gaze palsy at the age of 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a huge cystic lesion of the fourth ventricle, which filled the posterior fossa and ventricular dilatation. The tentorium was progressively displaced upward by the cyst. A nearly complete agenesis of the cerebellar vermis was also confirmed. After a successful endoscopic third ventriculostomy, a series of brain magnetic resonance imaging scans, taken during a follow-up survey, showed normal lateral and third ventricles. Consequently, symptoms of intracranial cerebral pressure resolved, and a developmental milestone was achieved. In conclusion, DWS can be confirmed postpartum, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy was found to be a preferential operative procedure for DWS with hydrocephalus. It may be effective for patients younger than 1 year.

  9. Optimization of a filter-lysis protocol to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated spermatid counting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sara E; Anderson, Linnea M; Boekelheide, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying testicular homogenization-resistant spermatid heads (HRSH) is a powerful indicator of spermatogenesis. These counts have traditionally been performed manually using a hemocytometer, but this method can be time consuming and biased. We aimed to develop a protocol to reduce debris for the application of automated counting, which would allow for efficient and unbiased quantification of rat HRSH. We developed a filter-lysis protocol that effectively removes debris from rat testicular homogenates. After filtering and lysing the homogenates, we found no statistical differences between manual (classic and filter-lysis) and automated (filter-lysis) counts using 1-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni's multiple comparison test. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to compare the counting methods, and there was a strong correlation between the classic manual counts and the filter-lysis manual (r = 0.85, P = .002) and the filter-lysis automated (r = 0.89, P = .0005) counts. We also tested the utility of the automated method in a low-dose exposure model known to decrease HRSH. Adult Fischer 344 rats exposed to 0.33% 2,5-hexanedione in the drinking water for 12 weeks demonstrated decreased body (P = .02) and testes (P = .002) weights. In addition, there was a significant reduction in the number of HRSH per testis (P = .002) when compared to controls. A filterlysis protocol was optimized to purify rat testicular homogenates for automated HRSH counts. Automated counting systems yield unbiased data and can be applied to detect changes in the testis after low-dose toxicant exposure.

  10. A Cell Lysis and Protein Purification - Single Molecule Assay Devices for Evaluation of Genetically Engineered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyama, Tetsuya; Tabata, Kazuhito; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yokokawa, Ryuji

    We have developed two devices applicable to evaluate genetically engineered proteins in single molecule assay: on-chip cell lysis device, and protein purification - assay device. A motor protein, F1-ATPase expressed in E.coli, was focused in this report as a target protein. Cell lysis was simply performed by applying pulse voltage between Au electrodes patterned by photolithography, and its efficiency was determined by absorptiometry. The subsequent processes, purification and assay of extracted proteins, were demonstrated in order to detect F1-ATPase and to evaluate its activity. The specific bonding between his-tag in F1-ATPase and Ni-NTA coated on a glass surface was utilized for the purification process. After immobilization of F1-ATPase, avidin-coated microspheres and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) solution were infused sequentially to assay the protein. Microsphere rotation was realized by activity of F1-ATPase corresponding to ATP hydrolysis. Results show that the cell lysis device, at the optimum condition, extracts enough amount of protein for single molecule assay. Once cell lysate was injected to the purification - assay device, proteins were diffused in the lateral direction in a Y-shape microchannel. The gradient of protein concentratioin provides an optimal concentration for the assay i.e. the highest density of rotating beads. Density of rotating beads is also affected by the initial concentration of protein injected to the device. The optimum concentration was achieved by our cell lysis device not by the conventional method by ultrasonic wave. Rotation speed was analyzed for several microspheres assayed in the purification - assay device, and the results were compatible to that of conventional assay in which F1-ATPase was purified in bulk scale. In conclusion, we have demonstrated on-chip cell lysis and assay appropriate for the sequential analysis without any pretreatment. On-chip devices replacing conventional bioanalytical methods will be

  11. Primary structure and functional analysis of the lysis genes of Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, B; Binishofer, B; Bläsi, U

    1995-01-01

    The lysis genes of the Lactobacillus gasseri bacteriophage phi adh were isolated by complementation of a lambda Sam mutation in Escherichia coli. Nucleotide sequencing of a 1,735-bp DNA fragment revealed two adjacent coding regions of 342 bp (hol) and 951 bp (lys) in the same reading frame which appear to belong to a common transcriptional unit. Proteins corresponding to the predicted gene products, holin (12.9 kDa) and lysin (34.7 kDa), were identified by in vitro and in vivo expression of the cloned genes. The phi adh holin is a membrane-bound protein with structural similarity to lysis proteins of other phage, known to be required for the transit of murein hydrolases through the cytoplasmic membrane. The phi adh lysin shows homology with mureinolytic enzymes encoded by the Lactobacillus bulgaricus phage mv4, the Streptococcus pneumoniae phage Cp-1, Cp-7, and Cp-9, and the Lactococcus lactis phage phi LC3. Significant homology with the N termini of known muramidases suggests that phi adh lysin acts by a similar catalytic mechanism. In E. coli, the phi adh lysin seems to be associated with the total membrane fraction, from which it can be extracted with lauryl sarcosinate. Either one of the phi adh lysis proteins provoked lysis of E. coli when expressed along with holins or lysins of phage lambda or Bacillus subtilis phage phi 29. Concomitant expression of the combined holin and lysin functions of phi adh in E. coli, however, did not result in efficient cell lysis. PMID:7836307

  12. Development of a duodenal gallstone ileus with gastric outlet obstruction (Bouveret syndrome four months after successful treatment of symptomatic gallstone disease with cholecystitis and cholangitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winnekendonk Guido

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cases of gallstone ileus account for 1% to 4% of all instances of mechanical bowel obstruction. The majority of obstructing gallstones are located in the terminal ileum. Less than 10% of impacted gallstones are located in the duodenum. A gastric outlet obstruction secondary to a gallstone ileus is known as Bouveret syndrome. Gallstones usually enter the bowel through a biliary enteral fistula. Little is known about the formation of such fistulae in the course of gallstone disease. Case presentation We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian woman born in Germany with a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gallstone ileus (Bouveret syndrome, with a large gallstone impacted in the third part of the duodenum. Diagnostic investigations of our patient included plain abdominal films, gastroscopy and abdominal computed tomography, which showed a biliary enteric fistula between the gallbladder and the duodenal bulb. Our patient was successfully treated by laparotomy, duodenotomy, extraction of the stone, cholecystectomy, and resection of the fistula in a one-stage surgical approach. Histopathological examination showed chronic and acute cholecystitis, with perforated ulceration of the duodenal wall and acute purulent inflammation of the surrounding fatty tissue. Four months prior to developing a gallstone ileus our patient had been hospitalized for cholecystitis, a large gallstone in the gallbladder, cholangitis and a small obstructing gallstone in the common biliary duct. She had been treated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy, balloon extraction of the common biliary duct gallstone, and intravenous antibiotics. At the time of her first presentation, abdominal ultrasound and endoscopic examination (including esophagogastroduodenoscopy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography had not shown any evidence of a biliary enteral fistula. In the four months preceding the

  13. Artificial intelligence versus statistical modeling and optimization of continuous bead milling process for bacterial cell lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiul Haque

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractFor a commercially viable recombinant intracellular protein production process, efficient cell lysis and protein release is a major bottleneck. The recovery of recombinant protein, cholesterol oxidase (COD was studied in a continuous bead milling process. A full factorial Response Surface Model (RSM design was employed and compared to Artificial Neural Networks coupled with Genetic Algorithm (ANN-GA. Significant process variables, cell slurry feed rate (A, bead load (B, cell load (C and run time (D, were investigated and optimized for maximizing COD recovery. RSM predicted an optimum of feed rate of 310.73 mL/h, bead loading of 79.9% (v/v, cell loading OD600 nm of 74, and run time of 29.9 min with a recovery of ~3.2 g/L. ANN coupled with GA predicted a maximum COD recovery of ~3.5 g/L at an optimum feed rate (mL/h: 258.08, bead loading (%, v/v: 80%, cell loading (OD600 nm: 73.99, and run time of 32 min. An overall 3.7-fold increase in productivity is obtained when compared to a batch process. Optimization and comparison of statistical vs. artificial intelligence techniques in continuous bead milling process has been attempted for the very first time in our study. We were able to successfully represent the complex non-linear multivariable dependence of enzyme recovery on bead milling parameters. The quadratic second order response functions are not flexible enough to represent such complex non-linear dependence. ANN being a summation function of multiple layers are capable to represent complex non-linear dependence of variables in this case; enzyme recovery as a function of bead milling parameters. Since GA can even optimize discontinuous functions present study cites a perfect example of using machine learning (ANN in combination with evolutionary optimization (GA for representing undefined biological functions which is the case for common industrial processes involving biological moieties.

  14. Successful treatment of pityriasis lichenoides chronica with narrow-band ultraviolet B therapy in a patient with Keratitis-Ichthyosis-Deafness syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Andac; Gencosmanoglu, Dilek Seckin; Yucelten, Ayse Deniz; Elcioglu, Nursel; Richard, Gabriele; Demirkesen, Cuyan

    2016-05-15

    Keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome is a rare genodermatosis causing ichthyosis-like skin lesions, keratitis, and deafness. Herein, we report a patient with this rare syndrome in association with pityriasis lichenoides chronica, which was succesfully treated with narrow-band ultraviolet B phototherapy despite our concerns regarding the increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma, hyperpyrexia, and keratitis.

  15. Successful treatment of Raynaud’s syndrome in a lupus patient with continuous bilateral popliteal sciatic nerve blocks: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Thuan; Amaro-Driedger, David; Mehta, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Raynaud’s syndrome has been treated medically and invasively, sometimes with regional anesthesia leading up to sympathectomy. We demonstrate that regional anesthesia was in this case a useful technique that can allow some patients to find temporary but significant relief from symptoms of Raynaud’s syndrome exacerbation. We present a 43-year-old woman with Raynaud’s syndrome secondary to lupus who was treated with bilateral popliteal nerve block catheters for ischemic pain and necrosis of her feet; this led to almost immediate resolution of her pain and return of color and function of her feet. While medical management should continue to be a front-line treatment for Raynaud’s syndrome, regional anesthesia can be useful in providing rapid dissipation of symptoms and may thus serve as a viable option for short-term management of this syndrome. PMID:27366104

  16. Characterization of cell lysis in Pseudomonas putida induced upon expression of heterologous killing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronchel, M.C.; Molina, L.; Witte, A.;

    1998-01-01

    Active biological containment systems are based on the controlled expression of killing genes. These systems are of interest for the Pseudomonadaceae because of the potential applications of these microbes as bioremediation agents and biopesticides, The physiological effects that lead to cell death...... upon the induction of expression of two different heterologous killing genes in nonpathogenic Pseudomonas putida KT2440 derivatives have been analyzed, P. putida CMC4 and CMC12 carry in their chromosomes a fusion of the PAl-04/03 promoter to the Escherichia coli gef gene and the phi X174 lysis gene E......, respectively. Expression of the killing genes is controlled by the LacI protein, whose expression is initiated from the XylS-dependent Pm promoter. Under induced conditions, killing of P. putida CMC12 cells mediated by phi X174 lysis protein E was faster than that observed for P. putida CMC4, for which the Gef...

  17. Successful treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV without arterial puncture: the transvenous triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thien J; Morton, Ryan P; Levitt, Michael R; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Wink, Onno; Hallam, Danial K

    2017-08-18

    We report successful transvenous treatment of direct carotid-cavernous fistula in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV using a novel triple-overlay embolization (TAILOREd) technique without the need for arterial puncture, which is known to be highly risky in this patient group. The TAILOREd technique allowed for successful treatment using preoperative MR angiography as a three-dimensional overlay roadmap combined with cone beam CT and live fluoroscopy, precluding the need for an arterial puncture. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Use of surface enhanced blocking (SEB electrodes for microbial cell lysis in flow-through devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdossamad Talebpour

    Full Text Available By simultaneously subjecting microbial cells to high amplitude pulsed electric fields and flash heating of the cell suspension fluid, effective release of intracellular contents was achieved. The synergistic effect of the applied electric field and elevated temperature on cell lysis in a flow-through device was demonstrated for Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, and Mycobacterium species. The resulting lysate is suitable for downstream nucleic acid amplification and detection without requiring further preparation. The lysis chamber employs surface enhanced blocking electrodes which possess an etched micro-structured surface and a thin layer of dielectric metal oxide which provides a large effective area and blocks transmission of electrical current. The surface enhanced blocking electrodes enable simultaneous suppression of the rapid onset of electric field screening in the bulk of the cell suspension medium and avoidance of undesired electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface. In addition the blocking layer ensures the robustness of the cell lysis device in applications involving prolonged flow-through processing of the microbial cells.

  19. A volatile factor inducing transmissible lysis in Gaeumannomyces graminis (Sacc.) Arx and Olivier var. tritici Walker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasithamparam, K; Stukely, M; Parker, C A

    1975-03-01

    Filtered water extract of Gabalong soil with a recent history of take-all in wheat caused lytic plaques to form in agar cultures of a virulent strain of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. The plaques resembled those produced by Bdellovibrio on plate seeded with bacteria. However, there was no evidence of the presence of bacteria, viruses, or mycoplasmas. The lytic factor was transmissible in culture filtrates to fresh subcultures of the fungus. Exposure of young healthy colonies to sublethal doses of ultraviolet light also induced transmissible lysis. The lytic factor was heat-stable, passed through a 25-nm filter, and was not affected by nuclease (enzymes) or severe irradiation with UV light. It also induced bysis in several other strains of G. graminis. Lysis was always preceded by a growth-stimulatory effect on the fungus. The lytic factor was active as a volatile chemical which induced transmissible lysis and continued to be formed, apparently as a self-perpetuating agent, in lysing cultures of the fungus.

  20. Rapid thermal lysis of cells using silicon-diamond microcantilever heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privorotskaya, Natalya; Liu, Yi-Shao; Lee, Jungchul; Zeng, Hongjun; Carlisle, John A; Radadia, Adarsh; Millet, Larry; Bashir, Rashid; King, William P

    2010-05-07

    This paper presents the design and application of microcantilever heaters for biochemical applications. Thermal lysis of biological cells was demonstrated as a specific example. The microcantilever heaters, fabricated from selectively doped single crystal silicon, provide local resistive heating with highly uniform temperature distribution across the cantilevers. Very importantly, the microcantilever heaters were coated with a layer of 100 nm thick electrically insulating ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) layer used for cell immobilization on the cantilever surface. Fibroblast cells or bacterial cells were immobilized on the UNCD/cantilever surfaces and thermal lysis was demonstrated via optical fluorescence microscopy. Upon electrical heating of the cantilever structures to 93 degrees C for 30 seconds, fibroblast cell and nuclear membrane were compromised and the cells were lysed. Over 90% of viable bacteria were also lysed after 15 seconds of heating at 93 degrees C. This work demonstrates the utility of silicon-UNCD heated microcantilevers for rapid cell lysis and forms the basis for other rapid and localized temperature-regulated microbiological experiments in cantilever-based lab on chip applications.

  1. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

  2. Hydrophobic ionic liquids for quantitative bacterial cell lysis with subsequent DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs-Telka, Sabine; Fister, Susanne; Mester, Patrick-Julian; Wagner, Martin; Rossmanith, Peter

    2017-02-01

    DNA is one of the most frequently analyzed molecules in the life sciences. In this article we describe a simple and fast protocol for quantitative DNA isolation from bacteria based on hydrophobic ionic liquid supported cell lysis at elevated temperatures (120-150 °C) for subsequent PCR-based analysis. From a set of five hydrophobic ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was identified as the most suitable for quantitative cell lysis and DNA extraction because of limited quantitative PCR inhibition by the aqueous eluate as well as no detectable DNA uptake. The newly developed method was able to efficiently lyse Gram-negative bacterial cells, whereas Gram-positive cells were protected by their thick cell wall. The performance of the final protocol resulted in quantitative DNA extraction efficiencies for Gram-negative bacteria similar to those obtained with a commercial kit, whereas the number of handling steps, and especially the time required, was dramatically reduced. Graphical Abstract After careful evaluation of five hydrophobic ionic liquids, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMPyr (+) ][Ntf 2(-) ]) was identified as the most suitable ionic liquid for quantitative cell lysis and DNA extraction. When used for Gram-negative bacteria, the protocol presented is simple and very fast and achieves DNA extraction efficiencies similar to those obtained with a commercial kit. ddH 2 O double-distilled water, qPCR quantitative PCR.

  3. A novel, compact disk-like centrifugal microfluidics system for cell lysis and sample homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Horacio; Micic, Miodrag; Smith, David; Zoval, Jim; Norton, Jim; Madou, Marc

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characterization of a novel platform for mechanical cell lysis of even the most difficult to lyse cell types on a micro or nanoscale (maximum 70 microL total volume). The system incorporates a machined plastic circular disk assembly, magnetic field actuated microfluidics, centrifugal cells and tissue homogenizer and centrifugation system. The mechanism of tissue disruption of this novel cell homogenization apparatus derives from the relative motion of ferromagnetic metal disks and grinding matrices in a liquid medium within individual chambers of the disk in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. The oscillation of the ferromagnetic disks or blades produces mechanical impaction and shear forces capable of disrupting cells within the chamber both by direct action of the blade and by the motion of the surrounding lysis matrix, and by motion induced vortexing of buffer fluid. Glass beads or other grinding media are integrated into each lysis chamber within the disk to enhance the transfer of energy from the oscillating metal blade to the cells. The system also achieves the centrifugal elimination of solids from each liquid sample and allows the elution of clarified supernatants via siphoning into a collection chamber fabricated into the plastic disk assembly. This article describes system design, implementation and validation of proof of concept on two samples--Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae representing model systems for cells that are easy and difficult to lyse, respectively.

  4. Erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride: theoretical modeling and experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Andrey V; Tarasov, Peter A; Semianov, Konstantin A; Nekrasov, Vyacheslav M; Hoekstra, Alfons G; Maltsev, Valeri P

    2008-03-07

    A mathematical model of erythrocyte lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride is presented in frames of a statistical approach. The model is used to evaluate several parameters of mature erythrocytes (volume, surface area, hemoglobin concentration, number of anionic exchangers on membrane, elasticity and critical tension of membrane) through their sphering and lysis measured by a scanning flow cytometer (SFC). SFC allows measuring the light-scattering pattern (indicatrix) of an individual cell over the angular range from 10 degrees to 60 degrees . Comparison of the experimentally measured and theoretically calculated light scattering patterns allows discrimination of spherical from non-spherical erythrocytes and evaluation of volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual spherical cells. Three different processes were applied for erythrocytes sphering: (1) colloid osmotic lysis in isotonic solution of ammonium chloride, (2) isovolumetric sphering in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate and albumin in neutrally buffered isotonic saline, and (3) osmotic fragility test in hypotonic media. For the hemolysis in ammonium chloride, the evolution of distributions of sphered erythrocytes on volume and hemoglobin content was monitored in real-time experiments. The analysis of experimental data was performed in the context of a statistical approach, taking into account that parameters of erythrocytes vary from cell to cell.

  5. Caspase-11 activation requires lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles by IFN-induced GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Etienne; Dick, Mathias S; Dreier, Roland F; Schürmann, Nura; Kenzelmann Broz, Daniela; Warming, Søren; Roose-Girma, Merone; Bumann, Dirk; Kayagaki, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Broz, Petr

    2014-05-15

    Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria is sensed in the host cell cytoplasm by a non-canonical inflammasome pathway that ultimately results in caspase-11 activation and cell death. In mouse macrophages, activation of this pathway requires the production of type-I interferons, indicating that interferon-induced genes have a critical role in initiating this pathway. Here we report that a cluster of small interferon-inducible GTPases, the so-called guanylate-binding proteins, is required for the full activity of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome during infections with vacuolar Gram-negative bacteria. We show that guanylate-binding proteins are recruited to intracellular bacterial pathogens and are necessary to induce the lysis of the pathogen-containing vacuole. Lysis of the vacuole releases bacteria into the cytosol, thus allowing the detection of their lipopolysaccharide by a yet unknown lipopolysaccharide sensor. Moreover, recognition of the lysed vacuole by the danger sensor galectin-8 initiates the uptake of bacteria into autophagosomes, which results in a reduction of caspase-11 activation. These results indicate that host-mediated lysis of pathogen-containing vacuoles is an essential immune function and is necessary for efficient recognition of pathogens by inflammasome complexes in the cytosol.

  6. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  7. Electrical lysis: dynamics revisited and advances in On-chip operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2013-01-01

    Electrical lysis (EL) is the process of breaking the cell membrane to expose the internal contents under an applied high electric field. Lysis is an important phenomenon for cellular analysis, medical treatment, and biofouling control. This paper aims to review, summarize, and analyze recent advancements on EL. Major databases including PubMed, Ei Engineering Village, IEEE Xplore, and Scholars Portal were searched using relevant keywords. More than 50 articles published in English since 1997 are cited in this article. EL has several key advantages compared to other lysis techniques such as chemical, mechanical, sonication, or laser, including rapid speed of operation, ability to control, miniaturization, low cost, and low power requirement. A variety of cell types have been investigated for including protoplasts, E. coli, yeasts, blood cells, and cancer cells. EL has been developed and applied for decontamination, cytology, genetics, single-cell analysis, cancer treatment, and other applications. On-chip EL is a promising technology for multiplexed automated implementation of cell-sample preparation and processing with micro- or nanoliter reagents.

  8. Squamous cell carcinoma complicating an hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa; Carcinome spinocellulaire compliquant une epidermolyse bulleuse hereditaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, M.; Turki, H.; Marrekchi, S.; Abdelmaksoud, W.; Masmoudi, A.; Bouassida, S.; Zahaf, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2004-08-01

    The dystrophic form of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa is associated with an increased frequency of squamous cell carcinoma. We report a new case. An 18-year-old patient, carrying a Hallopeau Siemens hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa, presented a subcutaneous nodular lesion, for 1 year that ulcerated and budded with inguinal lymphadenopathy. The histological study ted to the conclusion of a well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was treated surgically. Tumor and metastatic lymph nodes were excised. A radiotherapy was decided but the postoperative course was fatal due to an infection and to a deterioration of her general condition. Squamous cell carcinoma frequently occurs on the cicatricial lesion of hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa and usually affects males with recessive hereditary epidermo-lysis bullosa. Metastases are frequent, precocious and multiple. The treatment may be surgical. The particularities of our observation are the young age of patient and the localization. (author)

  9. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : IX. EVIDENCE OF HYDROLYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN DURING LYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1928-07-31

    1. During the process of lysis by bacteriophage, there is an appreciable increase in the amount of free amino acid present in the culture. 2. The increase of free amino acid is due to hydrolysis of bacterial protein.

  10. Successful treatment of multiple basaliomas with bleomycin-based electrochemotherapy: a case series of three patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Erika; Baltás, Eszter; Kinyó, Agnes; Varga, Erika; Nagy, Nikoletta; Gyulai, Rolland; Kemény, Lajos; Oláh, Judit

    2012-11-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is a rare multisystemic disease, characterized by numerous basal cell carcinomas. The ideal approach for patients with the syndrome would be a treatment with a high cure rate, minimal scarring, short healing time and mild side-effects. Electrochemo-therapy is a novel therapeutic option that ablates tumours with electrical current and simultaneously administered anticancer drugs. Three patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome were treated with electrochemotherapy using intravenous bleomycin. Clinical response was obtained in 98 (99%) of the lesions, 86 (87%) of them showed complete response. In 2 tumours, regression was confirmed with histological examination. Long-term cosmetic results were excellent. We consider electrochemotherapy to be an additional tool in the therapeutic armamentarium for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, and suggest using it as early as possible in selected patients to avoid disfiguring scarring.

  11. Type B insulin resistance syndrome induced by systemic lupus erythematosus and successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin: case report and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sigong; Wang, Guochun; Wang, Jinping

    2013-02-01

    Type B insulin resistance syndrome is characterized by the formation of autoantibodies against insulin receptors, which can cause severe hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Systemic lupus erythematosus is the most common underlying diseases of the syndrome. This report details our study of a case involving a Chinese female with type B insulin resistance syndrome as well as systemic lupus erythematosus who completely recovered after undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, specifically pulse therapy utilizing intravenous immunoglobulin. We also conducted search in MEDLINE and Chinese BioMedicine database to identify relevant literatures published in the past 46 years. From our searches, six case reports in Chinese, 15 case reports, and a 28-year perspective article in English met our criteria; a total of 67 cases were included in our report. The mean age of subjects at presentation for groups A, B, and C were 42.95, 44.10, and 41.68 years, respectively, yielding no significant difference between these groups. African Americans were the most susceptible group to type B insulin resistance syndrome, followed by Asians representing 20.90 % of all cases. Comparisons between the three main racial groups surveyed indicated that the mean age of subjects at presentation were very contiguous for African Americans and Asians, and mean age of white people was remarkably higher than either of the first two groups. The syndrome appeared most common among Asian males, and white males were relatively less likely to suffer from type B insulin resistance syndrome. Hypoglycemia was most commonly observed in white people than in other racial groups. Hypoalbuminemia, elevated serum immunoglobulin G, and elevated sedimentation rates were more common in African Americans; Asian cases were more likely to show low serum C3 or C4 and nephritis. Two cases received intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, which has a remarkably rapid effect on insulin resistance.

  12. Alcohol use, injuries, and prenatal visits during three successive pregnancies among American Indian women on the Northern Plains who have children with fetal alcohol syndrome or incomplete fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvigne, Valborg L; Leonardson, Gary R; Borzelleca, Joseph; Brock, Ellen; Neff-Smith, Martha; Welty, Thomas K

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare three sequential pregnancies of American Indian women who have children with FAS or children with incomplete FAS with women who did not have children with FAS. Two retrospective case-control studies were conducted of Northern Plains American Indian children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) (Study 1) or incomplete FAS (Study 2) in 1981-1993. Three successive pregnancies ending in live births of 43 case mothers who had children with FAS, and 35 case mothers who had children with incomplete FAS were compared to the pregnancies of 86 and 70 control mothers who did not have children with FAS, respectively, in the two studies. Prenatal records were abstracted for the index child (child with FAS or incomplete FAS) and siblings born just before and just after the index child, and comparable prenatal records for the controls. Compared to the controls, significantly more case mothers used alcohol before and after all three pregnancies and during pregnancy with the before sibling and the index child. Mothers who had children with FAS reduced their alcohol use during the pregnancy following the birth of the index child. All Study 1 case mothers (100%) and 60% of Study 2 case mothers used alcohol during the pregnancy with the index child compared to 20 and 9% of respective control mothers. More study 1 case mothers experienced unintentional injuries (OR 9.50) and intentional injuries during the index pregnancy (OR 9.33) than the control mothers. Most case mothers began prenatal care in the second trimester. Alcohol use was documented before, during and after each of the three pregnancies. Women of child-bearing age should be screened for alcohol use whenever they present for medical services. Mothers who had a child with FAS decreased their alcohol consumption with the next pregnancy, a finding that supports the importance of prenatal screening throughout pregnancy. Women who receive medical care for injuries should be screened for

  13. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Frances; Diala, Fitz Gerald I.; Chen, Yi-Pei; Molgora, Brenda M.; Ng, Shek Hang; Johnson, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells. PMID:27529696

  14. Leukocyte Lysis and Cytokine Induction by the Human Sexually Transmitted Parasite Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Mercer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv is an extracellular protozoan parasite that causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection: trichomoniasis. While acute symptoms in women may include vaginitis, infections are often asymptomatic, but can persist and are associated with medical complications including increased HIV susceptibility, infertility, pre-term labor, and higher incidence of cervical cancer. Heightened inflammation resulting from Tv infection could account for these complications. Effective cellular immune responses to Tv have not been characterized, and re-infection is common, suggesting a dysfunctional adaptive immune response. Using primary human leukocyte components, we have established an in vitro co-culture system to assess the interaction between Tv and the cells of the human immune system. We determined that in vitro, Tv is able to lyse T-cells and B-cells, showing a preference for B-cells. We also found that Tv lysis of lymphocytes was mediated by contact-dependent and soluble factors. Tv lysis of monocytes is far less efficient, and almost entirely contact-dependent. Interestingly, a common symbiont of Tv, Mycoplasma hominis, did not affect cytolytic activity of the parasite, but had a major impact on cytokine responses. M. hominis enabled more diverse inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to Tv and, of the cytokines tested, Tv strains cleared of M. hominis induced only IL-8 secretion from monocytes. The quality of the adaptive immune response to Tv is therefore likely influenced by Tv symbionts, commensals, and concomitant infections, and may be further complicated by direct parasite lysis of effector immune cells.

  15. Influence of a bacteriophage on the population dynamics of toxic dinoflagellates by lysis of algicidal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenwei; Wang, Hui; Tian, Yun; Chen, Feng; Zheng, Tianling

    2011-11-01

    A lytic phage (øZCW1) was isolated from an algicidal bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain SP48 that specifically kills the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense. We demonstrated that øZCW1 could trigger the growth of A. tamarense by inhibiting the growth of algicidal bacterium SP48. In contrast, the growth of A. tamarense was suppressed when cocultured with either SP48 or the øZCW1-resistant mutant of SP48. This study provides the first evidence of the indirect impact of bacteriophage on bloom-forming microalgae via phage lysis of alga-killing bacteria.

  16. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Perceptions of Software Professionals on the Asperger's Syndrome/High Functioning Autism Spectrum and the Success of Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who have Asperger's Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, as a group, are chronically underemployed and underutilized. Many in this group have abilities that are well suited for various roles within the practice of software development. Multiple studies have shown that certain organizational and management changes in the software…

  17. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Perceptions of Software Professionals on the Asperger's Syndrome/High Functioning Autism Spectrum and the Success of Software Development Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Leslie R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who have Asperger's Syndrome/High-Functioning Autism, as a group, are chronically underemployed and underutilized. Many in this group have abilities that are well suited for various roles within the practice of software development. Multiple studies have shown that certain organizational and management changes in the software…

  18. Posttransplantation cytomegalovirus-induced recurrence of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with a factor H mutation: successful treatment with intensive plasma exchanges and ganciclovir.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olie, K.H.; Goodship, T.H.; Verlaak, R.; Florquin, S.; Groothoff, J.W.; Strain, L.; Weening, J.J.; Davin, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can recur after renal transplantation and often leads to graft loss. In some series of familial HUS, the risk of early graft loss due to recurrence of HUS approaches 100% despite any therapy. This led some authors to claim that kidney transplantation is contr

  19. Plasminogen associates with phosphatidylserine-exposing platelets and contributes to thrombus lysis under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Claire S; Swieringa, Frauke; Mastenbroek, Tom G; Lionikiene, Ausra S; Lancé, Marcus D; van der Meijden, Paola E J; Heemskerk, Johan W M; Mutch, Nicola J

    2015-04-16

    The interaction of plasminogen with platelets and their localization during thrombus formation and fibrinolysis under flow are not defined. Using a novel model of whole blood thrombi, formed under flow, we examine dose-dependent fibrinolysis using fluorescence microscopy. Fibrinolysis was dependent upon flow and the balance between fibrin formation and plasminogen activation, with tissue plasminogen activator-mediated lysis being more efficient than urokinase plasminogen activator-mediated lysis. Fluorescently labeled plasminogen radiates from platelet aggregates at the base of thrombi, primarily in association with fibrin. Hirudin attenuates, but does not abolish plasminogen binding, denoting the importance of fibrin. Flow cytometry revealed that stimulation of platelets with thrombin/convulxin significantly increased the plasminogen signal associated with phosphatidylserine (PS)-exposing platelets. Binding was attenuated by tirofiban and Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro amide, confirming a role for fibrin in amplifying plasminogen binding to PS-exposing platelets. Confocal microscopy revealed direct binding of plasminogen and fibrinogen to different platelet subpopulations. Binding of plasminogen and fibrinogen co-localized with PAC-1 in the center of spread platelets. In contrast, PS-exposing platelets were PAC-1 negative, and bound plasminogen and fibrinogen in a protruding "cap." These data show that different subpopulations of platelets harbor plasminogen by diverse mechanisms and provide an essential scaffold for the accumulation of fibrinolytic proteins that mediate fibrinolysis under flow.

  20. Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in Staphylococcus is most likely not due to cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Patrick; Rinker, Janina; Götz, Friedrich

    2016-02-01

    The excretion of cytoplasmic proteins (ECP) is a long-known phenomenon in bacteria and eukaryotes. So far, it was not possible to associate either a signal peptide-dependent or a signal peptide-independent pathway to ECP. Nevertheless 25% of the proteins found in Staphylococcus aureus supernatants were cytoplasmic proteins. Because the excreted proteins do not possess a common motive, the most widespread opinion is that ECP is due to cell lysis. This explanation seems to be too easy since several indications imply that there exists a yet unknown mechanism for ECP. Certainly, the up-regulation of autolysins as well as decreased peptidoglycan cross-linking increased ECP. However, in recent years, several evidences arose that cell lysis is not the only reason for ECP. It seems that ECP is a part of the normal cell cycle of S. aureus as it turned out that ECP with several model proteins occurs mainly during cell growth. It has common features as proteins secreted via the Sec translocon and finally the excretion site is the cross wall of dividing cells.

  1. [Study of a lysis medium stabilizing microfilaments and microtubules in vitro and in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, G; Raymond, M N; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Determination of experimental conditions which allow the evaluation of the variations in the ratio of non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin during the reorganization of the cytoskeletal cell system is of most valuable importance. In order to prepare cell homogenates which would reflect the in vivo situation, we tested in vitro a lysis medium which stabilized both microfilaments and microtubules, which were determined by DNase inhibition assays and colchicine binding assays respectively. This lysis medium containing 10 mM potassium phosphate, 1mM magnesium chloride, 5 mM EGTA, 1 M hexylene glycol, 1% Triton X-100, pH 6.4, used at 4 degrees C a) diffused rapidly into the cells; b) did not denature actin and tubulin; c) did not displace the equilibrium between non polymerized and polymerized forms of actin and tubulin, allowing biochemical assays on cell homogenates; d) blocked the evolution of the cytoskeletal system and permitted structural studies; e) and allowed the decoration of microfilaments by heavy meromyosin.

  2. Deciphering How Pore Formation Causes Strain-Induced Membrane Lysis of Lipid Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Joshua A; Goh, Haw Zan; Zhdanov, Vladimir P; Knoll, Wolfgang; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-02-01

    Pore formation by membrane-active antimicrobial peptides is a classic strategy of pathogen inactivation through disruption of membrane biochemical gradients. It remains unknown why some membrane-active peptides also inhibit enveloped viruses, which do not depend on biochemical gradients. Here, we employ a label-free biosensing approach based on simultaneous quartz crystal microbalance-dissipation and ellipsometry measurements in order to investigate how a pore-forming, virucidal peptide destabilizes lipid vesicles in a surface-based experimental configuration. A key advantage of the approach is that it enables direct kinetic measurement of the surface-bound peptide-to-lipid (P:L) ratio. Comprehensive experiments involving different bulk peptide concentrations and biologically relevant membrane compositions support a unified model that membrane lysis occurs at or above a critical P:L ratio, which is at least several-fold greater than the value corresponding to the onset of pore formation. That is consistent with peptide-induced pores causing additional membrane strain that leads to lysis of highly curved membranes. Collectively, the work presents a new model that describes how peptide-induced pores may destabilize lipid membranes through a membrane strain-related lytic process, and this knowledge has important implications for the design and application of membrane-active peptides.

  3. Streptococcus pneumoniae GAPDH Is Released by Cell Lysis and Interacts with Peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrasse, Rémi; Amoroso, Ana; Vernet, Thierry; Di Guilmi, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Release of conserved cytoplasmic proteins is widely spread among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Because these proteins display additional functions when located at the bacterial surface, they have been qualified as moonlighting proteins. The GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme which plays an important role in the virulence processes of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterial invasion and host immune system modulation. However, GAPDH, like other moonlighting proteins, cannot be secreted through active secretion systems since they do not contain an N-terminal predicted signal peptide. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of GAPDH export and surface retention in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen. We addressed the role of the major autolysin LytA in the delivery process of GAPDH to the cell surface. Pneumococcal lysis is abolished in the ΔlytA mutant strain or when 1% choline chloride is added in the culture media. We showed that these conditions induce a marked reduction in the amount of surface-associated GAPDH. These data suggest that the presence of GAPDH at the surface of pneumococcal cells depends on the LytA-mediated lysis of a fraction of the cell population. Moreover, we demonstrated that pneumococcal GAPDH binds to the bacterial cell wall independently of the presence of the teichoic acids component, supporting peptidoglycan as a ligand to surface GAPDH. Finally, we showed that peptidoglycan-associated GAPDH recruits C1q from human serum but does not activate the complement pathway.

  4. Streptococcus pneumoniae GAPDH Is Released by Cell Lysis and Interacts with Peptidoglycan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Terrasse

    Full Text Available Release of conserved cytoplasmic proteins is widely spread among Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Because these proteins display additional functions when located at the bacterial surface, they have been qualified as moonlighting proteins. The GAPDH is a glycolytic enzyme which plays an important role in the virulence processes of pathogenic microorganisms like bacterial invasion and host immune system modulation. However, GAPDH, like other moonlighting proteins, cannot be secreted through active secretion systems since they do not contain an N-terminal predicted signal peptide. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of GAPDH export and surface retention in Streptococcus pneumoniae, a major human pathogen. We addressed the role of the major autolysin LytA in the delivery process of GAPDH to the cell surface. Pneumococcal lysis is abolished in the ΔlytA mutant strain or when 1% choline chloride is added in the culture media. We showed that these conditions induce a marked reduction in the amount of surface-associated GAPDH. These data suggest that the presence of GAPDH at the surface of pneumococcal cells depends on the LytA-mediated lysis of a fraction of the cell population. Moreover, we demonstrated that pneumococcal GAPDH binds to the bacterial cell wall independently of the presence of the teichoic acids component, supporting peptidoglycan as a ligand to surface GAPDH. Finally, we showed that peptidoglycan-associated GAPDH recruits C1q from human serum but does not activate the complement pathway.

  5. Comparison of point-of-care-compatible lysis methods for bacteria and viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiniger, Erin K; Buser, Joshua R; Mireles, Lillian; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ladd, Paula D; Lutz, Barry R; Yager, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Nucleic acid sample preparation has been an especially challenging barrier to point-of-care nucleic acid amplification tests in low-resource settings. Here we provide a head-to-head comparison of methods for lysis of, and nucleic acid release from, several pathogenic bacteria and viruses-methods that are adaptable to point-of-care usage in low-resource settings. Digestion with achromopeptidase, a mixture of proteases and peptidoglycan-specific hydrolases, followed by thermal deactivation in a boiling water bath, effectively released amplifiable nucleic acid from Staphylococcus aureus, Bordetella pertussis, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. Achromopeptidase was functional after dehydration and reconstitution, even after eleven months of dry storage without refrigeration. Mechanical lysis methods proved to be effective against a hard-to-lyse Mycobacterium species, and a miniature bead-mill, the AudioLyse, is shown to be capable of releasing amplifiable DNA and RNA from this species. We conclude that point-of-care-compatible sample preparation methods for nucleic acid tests need not introduce amplification inhibitors, and can provide amplification-ready lysates from a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens.

  6. High-k Dielectric Passivation: Novel Considerations Enabling Cell Specific Lysis Induced by Electric Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Klemens J; Barth, Sven; Keplinger, Franz; Noehammer, Christa; Peham, Johannes R

    2016-08-24

    A better understanding of the electrodynamic behavior of cells interacting with electric fields would allow for novel scientific insights and would lead to the next generation of cell manipulation, diagnostics, and treatment. Here, we introduce a promising electrode design by using metal oxide high-k dielectric passivation. The thermally generated dielectric passivation layer enables efficient electric field coupling to the fluid sample comprising cells while simultaneously decoupling the electrode ohmically from the electrolyte, allowing for better control and adjustability of electric field effects due to reduced electrochemical reactions at the electrode surface. This approach demonstrates cell-size specific lysis with electric fields in a microfluidic flow-through design resulting in 99.8% blood cell lysis at 6 s exposure without affecting the viability of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial spike-ins. The advantages of this new approach can support next-generation investigations of electrodynamics in biological systems and their exploitation for cell manipulation in multiple fields of medicine, life science, and industry.

  7. [Successful treatment for cryptococcal meningoencephalitis complicated by cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapenko, V G; Konovalenko, I B; Oksema, E V; Filippova, L N; Dulaeva, E N; Derevyannykh, N A; Krasnoruzhsky, A I; Klimovich, A V; Klimko, N N; Medvedeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common agent of fungal meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is one of the rare causes of severe hyponatremia in patients with CNS diseases. The paper describes the first clinical case of a patient, whose onset of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was complicated by cryptococcal meningoencephalitis presenting with mental disorders and severe electrolytic imbalance. Antifungal treatment with amphotericin B and fluconazole could alleviate an infectious process and metabolic disturbances.

  8. Rapid Detection and Identification of Candidemia by Direct Blood Culturing on Solid Medium by Use of Lysis-Centrifugation Method Combined with Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Grünastel, Barbara; Becker, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    Candida sepsis is a life-threatening condition with increasing prevalence. In this study, direct blood culturing on solid medium using a lysis-centrifugation procedure enabled successful Candida species identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time of flight mass spectrometry on average 3.8 h (Sabouraud agar) or 7.4 h (chocolate agar) before the positivity signal for control samples in Bactec mycosis-IC/F or Bactec Plus aerobic/F bottles, respectively. Direct culturing on solid medium accelerated candidemia diagnostics compared to that with automated broth-based systems. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Facile Alkaline Lysis of Escherichia coli Cells in High-Throughput Mode for Screening Enzyme Mutants: Arylsulfatase as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mei; Yang, Xiaolan; Li, Yuwei; Liu, Hongbo; Pu, Jun; Zhan, Chang-Guo; Liao, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Facile alkaline lysis of Escherichia coli cells in high-throughput (HTP) mode for screening enzyme mutants was tested with Pseudomonas aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS). The alkaline lysis buffer was 1.0 M Tris-HCl at pH 9.0 plus 0.1 % Tween-20 and 2.0 mM 4-aminobenzamidine, mixed with cell suspension at 8:1 to 12:1 ratio for continuous agitation of mixtures in 96-well plates under room temperature; enzymatic activity in lysates was measured with 96-well microplate. PAAS activity tolerated final 0.1 % Tween-20. Individual clones were amplified for 12 h in 0.50 mL TB medium with 48-well plates to enhance the repeatability of induced expression. During continuous agitation of the mixture of cells and the lysis buffer, PAAS activities in lysates were steady from 3 to 9 h and comparable to sonication treatment but better than freezing-thawing. Coefficients of variation of activities of PAAS/mutants in lysates after treatment for 7 h reached ∼22 %. The mutant M72Q had specific activity 2-fold of G138S. By HTP lysis of cells, M72Q was recognized as a positive mutant over G138S with the area under the curve of 0.873. Therefore, for enzymes tolerating concentrated alkaline buffers, the proposed alkaline lysis approach may be generally applicable for HTP lysis of host cells during directed evolution.

  10. Viral lysis of Phaeocystis pouchetii: implications for algal population dynamics and heterotrophic C, N and P cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, Jakob Brandt Borup; Middelboe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    A model ecosystem with two autotrophic flagellates, Phaeocystis pouchetii and Rhodomonas salina, a virus specific to P. pouchetii (PpV) and bacteria and heterotrophic nanoflagellates was used to investigate effects of viral lysis on algal population dynamics and heterotrophic nitrogen...... of virus-resistant P. pouchetii following cell lysis was observed in long-term incubations (150 days), and possibly influenced by nutrient availability and competition from R. salina. The observed impact of viral activity on autotrophic and heterotrophic processes provides direct experimental evidence...... for virus-driven nutrient generation and emphasizes the potential importance of the viral activity in supporting marine primary production....

  11. Overexpressions of Lambda Phage Lysis Genes and Biosynthetic Genes of Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate in Recombinant E.coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A plasmid (pTU9) containing the lambda (λ) phage lysis genes S(-)RRz and the biosynthetic genes phbCAB of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) was constructed and transformed into E.coli JM109. Cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium with 20 g/L glucose, E.coli JM109 (pTU9) could accumulate PHB in cells up to 40% (g PHB per g dry cells). A chelating agent EDTA was applied to induce a complete cell lysis and PHB granules were released. This method has a potential application in PHB separation.

  12. Scheie syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hurler syndrome) MPS II (Hunter syndrome) MPS IV (Morquio syndrome) MPS III (Sanfilippo syndrome) Causes Scheie syndrome ... Autosomal recessive Cloudy cornea Hearing loss Hurler syndrome Morquio syndrome Review Date 4/20/2015 Updated by: ...

  13. Successful Treatment with Clonazepam and Pramipexole of a Patient with Sleep-Related Eating Disorder Associated with Restless Legs Syndrome: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS. Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  14. Successful treatment with clonazepam and pramipexole of a patient with sleep-related eating disorder associated with restless legs syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Ryohei; Takano, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary eating during sleep period and is often associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS). Although pharmacotherapy is recommended for SRED patients, no drug have shown promising effects so far. The patient, a 48-year-old Japanese housewife, first visited our clinic and complained about nighttime eating. She had a history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, sleep apnea syndrome, and depression. Insomnia appeared 10 years before the first visit and she often received hypnosedatives; at the same time, she developed nocturnal eating episodes. She had amnesia for these episodes, and she felt urge to move her legs while sleeping. The patient was diagnosed with SRED and RLS. Reduction in the doses of triazolam decreased her nighttime eating frequency, and her complete amnesia changed to vague recall of eating during night. Clonazepam 1.0 mg at bedtime decreased nocturnal eating frequency from 1 to 2 times per month, though sleepwalking remained. Administration of pramipexole 0.125 mg relieved all symptoms including SRED, RLS, and sleepwalking. This is the first paper to report that the combination of clonazepam and pramipexole therapy-reduced SRED episodes and RLS symptoms.

  15. Preliminary Clinical Application of Massage Lysis on Posterior Atlantooccipital Membrane%寰枕后膜推拿松解术的初步临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于高潞; 英健民; 李茵; 史华敬; 王琳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of massage lysis on posterior atlantooccipital membrane (PAM) for treating contracture syndrome of PAM. Methods: All 60 patients in our division from October 2008 to May 2010 were randomly divided into treatment group and control group, with 30 cases in each group. The patients of treatment group were treated with massage lysis on PAM, and the patients of control group were treated with dexamethasone and chlorzoxazone tablets. Ten days was a course of treatment, and observed for two courses. All the patients were followed up. Results: The atlantooccipital space in the treatment group was significantly improved than control group (P<0. 01). All the CDFI index of vertebral artery in the treatment group were improved obviously than the control group (P<0. 05). The total effective rate of the treatment group and control group was 93. 33% and 56. 70% respectively (P<0. 05). Conclusion: The method of massage lysis of PAM, as a new way to treat contracture syndrome of PAM, is used feasibly and practically in clinic for its advantages of safe, convenient, and cheap.%目的:观察寰枕后膜推拿松解术治疗寰枕后膜挛缩症的临床疗效.方法:对2008年10月~2010年5月我科收治寰枕后膜挛缩症患者60例,运用SPSS16.0随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例.治疗组采用寰枕后膜松解术;对照组给予地塞米松和氯唑沙宗口服,10d为1个疗程,观察2个疗程.所有患者均进行随访.结果:治疗组寰枕后间隙间距改善情况明显高于对照组(P<0.01);治疗组椎动脉各项指标(CDFI)改善情况明显高于对照组(P<0.05);治疗组总有效率为93.33%,对照组总有效率56.70%,2组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:寰枕后膜推拿松解术作为治疗寰枕后膜挛缩症的新方法,具有安全、简便、廉验的特点,具有一定临床实用及推广价值.

  16. Hyphal growth of phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum causes cell lysis and death of murine macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M; Di Pietro, Antonio; Gow, Neil A R; Erwig, Lars P

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host.

  17. Entropy Production Rate Changes in Lysogeny/Lysis Switch Regulation of Bacteriophage Lambda*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui; LUO Liao-Fu; LIN Hao

    2011-01-01

    According to the chemical kinetic model of lysogeny/lysis switch in Escherichia coli (E. coli) intected by bacteriophage λ, the entropy production rates of steady states are calculated. The results show that the lysogenic state has lower entropy production rate than lytic state, which provides an explanation on why the lysogenic state of λ phage is so stable. We also notice that the entropy production rates of both lysogenic state and lytic state are lower than that of saddle-point and bifurcation state, which is consistent with the principle of minimum entropy production for living organism in nonequilibrium stationary state. Subsequently, the relations between CI and Cro degradation rates at two bifurcations and the changes of entropy production rate with CI and Cro degradation are deduced. The theory and method can be used to calculate entropy change in other molecular network.

  18. LYSIS OF BACTERIAL PROTOPLASTS AND SPHEROPLASTS BY STAPHYLOCOCCAL ALPHA-TOXIN AND STREPTOLYSIN S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BERNHEIMER, A W; SCHWARTZ, L L

    1965-05-01

    Bernheimer, Alan W. (New York University School of Medicine, New York, N.Y.), and Lois L. Schwartz. Lysis of bacterial protoplasts and spheroplasts by staphylococcal alpha-toxin and streptolysin S. J. Bacteriol. 89:1387-1392. 1965.-Protoplasts of Bacillus megaterium, Sarcina lutea, and Streptococcus pyogenes, and spheroplasts of Escherichia coli were lysed by staphylococcal alpha-toxin, whereas spheroplasts of Vibrio metschnikovii and V. comma were not. In the spectrum of its lytic action, streptolysin S qualitatively resembled staphylococcal alpha-toxin except for failure to lyse S. pyogenes protoplasts. In contrast to the two foregoing agents, streptolysin O did not lyse protoplasts and spheroplasts. The observations are interpreted in relation to similarities and differences in lipid composition of bacterial and mammalian cell membranes.

  19. Perforin enhances the granulysin-induced lysis of Listeria innocua in human dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Carsten A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL and natural killer (NK cells play an essential role in the host defence against intracellular pathogens such as Listeria, and Mycobacteria. The key mediator of bacteria-directed cytotoxicity is granulysin, a 9 kDa protein stored in cytolytic granules together with perforin and granzymes. Granulysin binds to cell membranes and is subsequently taken up via a lipid raft-associated mechanism. In dendritic cells (DC granulysin is further transferred via early endosomes to L. innocua-containing phagosomes were bacteriolysis is induced. In the present study we analysed the role of perforin in granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis in DC. Results We found granulysin-induced lysis of intracellular Listeria significantly increased when perforin was simultaneously present. In pulse-chase experiments enhanced bacteriolysis was observed when perforin was added up to 25 minutes after loading the cells with granulysin demonstrating no ultimate need for simultaneous uptake of granulysin and perforin. The perforin concentration sufficient to enhance granulysin-induced intracellular bacteriolysis did not cause permanent membrane pores in Listeria-challenged DC as shown by dye exclusion test and LDH release. This was in contrast to non challenged DC that were more susceptible to perforin lysis. For Listeria-challenged DC, there was clear evidence for an Ca2+ influx in response to sublytic perforin demonstrating a short-lived change in the plasma membrane permeability. Perforin treatment did not affect granulysin binding, initial uptake or intracellular trafficking to early endosomes. However, enhanced colocalization of granulysin with listerial DNA in presence of perforin was found by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Conclusion The results provide evidence that perforin increases granulysin-mediated killing of intracellular Listeria by enhanced phagosome-endosome fusion triggered by a transient Ca2+ flux.

  20. Prediction of recurrent venous thromboembolism by clot lysis time: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Traby

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolism (VTE is a chronic disease, which tends to recur. Whether an abnormal fibrinolytic system is associated with an increased risk of VTE is unclear. We assessed the relationship between fibrinolytic capacity (reflected by clot lysis time [CLT] and risk of recurrent VTE. We followed 704 patients (378 women; mean age 48 yrs with a first unprovoked VTE for an average of 46 months after anticoagulation withdrawal. Patients with natural coagulation inhibitor deficiency, lupus anticoagulant, cancer, homozygosity for factor V Leiden or prothrombin mutation, or requirement for indefinite anticoagulation were excluded. Study endpoint was symptomatic recurrent VTE. For measurement of CLT, a tissue factor-induced clot was lysed by adding tissue-type plasminogen activator. Time between clot formation and lysis was determined by measuring the turbidity. 135 (19% patients had recurrent VTE. For each increase in CLT of 10 minutes, the crude relative risk (RR of recurrence was 1.13 (95% CI 1.02-1.25; p = 0.02 and was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98-1.20; p = 0.13 after adjustment for age and sex. For women only, the adjusted RR was 1.14 (95% CI, 0.91-1.42, p = 0.22 for each increase in CLT of 10 minutes. CLT values in the 4(th quartile of the female patient population, as compared to values in the 1(st quartile, conferred a risk of recurrence of 3.28 (95% CI, 1.07-10.05; p = 0.04. No association between CLT and recurrence risk was found in men. Hypofibrinolysis as assessed by CLT confers a moderate increase in the risk of recurrent VTE. A weak association between CLT and risk of recurrence was found in women only.

  1. Citrullination in Rheumatoid Arthritis—A Process Promoted by Neutrophil Lysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazitt, Tal; Lood, Christian; Elkon, Keith B.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are highly specific serologic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and can pre-date clinical disease onset by up to 10 years, also predicting erosive disease. The process of citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues, is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes present in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs). Calcium ions (Ca2+) are required for PAD activation, but the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in normal cells is much lower than the optimal Ca2+ concentration needed for PAD activation. For this reason, it has been proposed that PAD activation, and thus citrullination, occurs only during PMN cell death when PAD enzymes leak out of the cells into the extracellular matrix, or extracellular Ca2+ enters the cells, with the high Ca2+ concentration activating PAD. Recently, using artificial in vitro systems to corroborate their hypothesis, Romero et al. demonstrated that “hypercitrullination,” citrullination of multiple intracellular proteins, occurs within synovial fluid (SF) cells of RA patients, and that only modes of death leading to membranolysis such as perforin-granzyme pathway or complement membrane attack complex activation cause hypercitrullination. In order for Romero’s hypothesis to hold, it is reasonable to surmise that PMN-directed lysis should occur in the rheumatoid joint or the circulation of RA patients. Research conducted thus far has shown that immunoglobulin G (IgG) targeting PMNs are present in RA SF and mediate PMN activation. However, the role of anti-PMN IgG in mediating complement activation and subsequent PMN lysis and hypercitrullination has not been fully evaluated. PMID:27824546

  2. Citrullination in Rheumatoid Arthritis—A Process Promoted by Neutrophil Lysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Gazitt

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs are highly specific serologic markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and can pre-date clinical disease onset by up to 10 years, also predicting erosive disease. The process of citrullination, the post-translational conversion of arginine to citrulline residues, is mediated by peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD enzymes present in polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs. Calcium ions (Ca2+ are required for PAD activation, but the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in normal cells is much lower than the optimal Ca2+ concentration needed for PAD activation. For this reason, it has been proposed that PAD activation, and thus citrullination, occurs only during PMN cell death when PAD enzymes leak out of the cells into the extracellular matrix, or extracellular Ca2+ enters the cells, with the high Ca2+ concentration activating PAD. Recently, using artificial in vitro systems to corroborate their hypothesis, Romero et al. demonstrated that “hypercitrullination,” citrullination of multiple intracellular proteins, occurs within synovial fluid (SF cells of RA patients, and that only modes of death leading to membranolysis such as perforin-granzyme pathway or complement membrane attack complex activation cause hypercitrullination. In order for Romero’s hypothesis to hold, it is reasonable to surmise that PMN-directed lysis should occur in the rheumatoid joint or the circulation of RA patients. Research conducted thus far has shown that immunoglobulin G (IgG targeting PMNs are present in RA SF and mediate PMN activation. However, the role of anti-PMN IgG in mediating complement activation and subsequent PMN lysis and hypercitrullination has not been fully evaluated.

  3. Hsp90 inhibition accelerates cell lysis. Anti-Hsp90 ribozyme reveals a complex mechanism of Hsp90 inhibitors involving both superoxide- and Hsp90-dependent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Amere Subbarao; Mihály, Katalin; Pató, Bálint; Schnaider, Tamás; Steták, Attila; Kis-Petik, Katalin; Fidy, Judit; Simonics, Tibor; Maraz, Anna; Csermely, Péter

    2003-09-12

    The 90 kDa heat shock protein, Hsp90, is an abundant molecular chaperone participating in the cytoprotection of eukaryotic cells. Here we analyzed the involvement of Hsp90 in the maintenance of cellular integrity using partial cell lysis as a measure. Inhibition of Hsp90 by geldanamycin, radicicol, cisplatin, and novobiocin induced a significant acceleration of detergent- and hypotonic shock-induced cell lysis. The concentration and time dependence of cell lysis acceleration was in agreement with the Hsp90 inhibition characteristics of the N-terminal inhibitors, geldanamycin and radicicol. Glutathione and other reducing agents partially blocked geldanamycin-induced acceleration of cell lysis but were largely ineffective with other inhibitors. Indeed, geldanamycin treatment led to superoxide production and a change in membrane fluidity. When Hsp90 content was diminished using anti-Hsp90 hammerhead ribozymes, an accelerated cell lysis was also observed. Hsp90 inhibition-induced cell lysis was more pronounced in eukaryotic (yeast, mouse red blood, and human T-lymphoma) cells than in bacteria. Our results indicate that besides the geldanamycin-induced superoxide production, and a consequent increase in cell lysis, inhibition or lack of Hsp90 alone can also compromise cellular integrity. Moreover, cell lysis after hypoxia and complement attack was also enhanced by any type of Hsp90 inhibition used, which shows that the maintenance of cellular integrity by Hsp90 is important in physiologically relevant lytic conditions of tumor cells.

  4. In black south africans from rural and urban communities, the 4G/5G PAI-1 polymorphism influences PAI-1 activity, but not plasma clot lysis time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. de Lange (Zelda); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman); T. Hoekstra (Tiny); K.R. Conradie (Karin); J.C. Jerling (Johann); M. Pieters (Marlien)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractData on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysi

  5. Comparison of the efficiency of different methods for the lysis of cells in lab-on-chip systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röser, T.; Drese, K.S.; Fütterer, X.; Germar, F. von; Hansen-Hagge, T.E.; Ritzi, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bolt, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative or qualitative examination of DNA has enormous impact on medical, forensic, or genealogical, analysis. The macro as well as micro world knows a panel of different methods for cell lysis that has to happen prior to the purification of the DNA. To our knowledge the efficiency of those

  6. Comparison of the efficiency of different methods for the lysis of cells in lab-on-chip systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röser, T.; Drese, K.S.; Fütterer, X.; Germar, F. von; Hansen-Hagge, T.E.; Ritzi, M.; Bullema, J.E.; Bolt, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative or qualitative examination of DNA has enormous impact on medical, forensic, or genealogical, analysis. The macro as well as micro world knows a panel of different methods for cell lysis that has to happen prior to the purification of the DNA. To our knowledge the efficiency of those pro

  7. Successful treatment of small-for-size syndrome in adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation: single center series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruttadauria, Salvatore; Mandala', Lucio; Miraglia, Roberto; Caruso, Settimo; Minervini, Marta Ida; Biondo, Domenico; Volpes, Riccardo; Vizzini, Giovanni; Marsh, J Wallis; Luca, Angelo; Marcos, Amadeo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The portal hyperperfusion, or small-for-size syndrome (SFSS), is a widely recognized clinical complication that may occur after segmental liver transplantation. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to reduce portal blood inflow and portal pressure after partial liver transplantation. In particular, splenic artery ligation and splenectomy have been used without a firm hemodynamic basis for these procedures. Our group recently demonstrated that, in patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension, the occlusion of the splenic artery causes a significant reduction in the portal pressure gradient, which is directly related to the spleen volume and indirectly related to the liver volume. This concept is at the center of our strategy for performing early splenic artery embolization (SAE) for the treatment of SFSS after living-related liver transplantation (LRLT). Six patients developed small-for-size syndrome, defined as: onset within the first week after LRLT of progressive hyperbilirubinemia without mechanical cause; marked cholestasis; centrilobular sinusoidal dilatation and hepatocyte atrophy at liver biopsy; and refractory ascites in the absence of vascular complications. All six patients who underwent SAE rapidly improved their clinical condition, with an evident decrease in the value of bilirubin in the serum, in the production of ascites, and improvement in condition of pancytopenia. Coagulopathy expressed by the international normalized ratio value (INR) was not a reliable early marker of SFSS in this series; in fact a slight improvement in the result of this test was already present immediately after LRLT and before SAE. Because splenic flow clearly contributes to portal hyperperfusion, an early SAE can relieve the partial graft from the deleterious effect of this portal overflow.

  8. Successful use of Bruton's kinase inhibitor, ibrutinib, to control paraneoplastic pemphigus in a patient with paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Sandhu, Suneet; Imlay-Gillespie, Louise; Mulligan, Stephen; Shumack, Stephen

    2017-03-13

    We present the case of a 51-year-old man who developed paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) in the context of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). His CLL was successfully controlled with ibrutinib. Concurrently, there was significant improvement of his PNP, suggesting that ibrutinib may be a very useful addition to the treatment options in this potentially life-threatening autoimmune disorder. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  9. [Wilkie's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognár, Gábor; Ledniczky, György; Palik, Eva; Zubek, László; Sugár, István; Ondrejka, Pál

    2008-10-01

    Loss of retroperitoneal fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions and noxa is believed to be the etiologic factor of superior mesenteric artery syndrome. A case of a 35 years old female patient with severe malnutrition and weight loss is presented, who developed superior mesenteric artery syndrome. Various theories of etiology, clinical course and treatment options of this uncommon disease are discussed. In our case, conservative management was inefficient, while surgical treatment aiming to bypass the obstruction by an anastomosis between the jejunum and the proximal duodenum (duodenojejunostomy) was successful. An interdisciplinary teamwork provides the most beneficial diagnostic and therapeutic result in this often underestimated disease.

  10. Hypereosinophilic syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis presenting with recurrent Loeffler’s endocarditis and left ventricular thrombus treated successfully with immune suppressive therapy and anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Srikanth; Koshy, George; Sharp, Colin; Khalafallah, Alhossain A

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of a 28-year-old Caucasian woman with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) associated with ulcerative colitis who presented on separate occasions with Loeffler’s endocarditis. She was admitted in 2008 with fever, headache, confusion and visual loss. Diagnostic workup uncovered an eosinophilia of 3.1×109/L and major ECG abnormalities. Subsequent echocardiography revealed left ventricular wall motion abnormalities with mural thrombus. MRI brain scan showed multiple white matter lesions consistent with acute infarcts. She recovered rapidly with corticosteroids and anticoagulation. Four years later she re-presented with headache, fatigue and an eosinophilia of 13.4×109/L. This occurred 3 months after cessation of immunosuppression and within 12 months of total colectomy for fulminant ulcerative colitis. Echocardiography was suggestive of hypereosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis with left ventricular thrombus. Anticoagulation and corticosteroids were resumed with good effect. This report highlights the findings, treatment and outcome of ulcerative colitis-associated HES manifesting as recurrent Loeffler’s endocarditis. PMID:24014425

  11. Hypereosinophilic syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis presenting with recurrent Loeffler's endocarditis and left ventricular thrombus treated successfully with immune suppressive therapy and anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Srikanth; Koshy, George; Sharp, Colin; Khalafallah, Alhossain A

    2013-09-05

    We reported a case of a 28-year-old Caucasian woman with hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) associated with ulcerative colitis who presented on separate occasions with Loeffler's endocarditis. She was admitted in 2008 with fever, headache, confusion and visual loss. Diagnostic workup uncovered an eosinophilia of 3.1×10⁹/L and major ECG abnormalities. Subsequent echocardiography revealed left ventricular wall motion abnormalities with mural thrombus. MRI brain scan showed multiple white matter lesions consistent with acute infarcts. She recovered rapidly with corticosteroids and anticoagulation. Four years later she re-presented with headache, fatigue and an eosinophilia of 13.4×10⁹/L. This occurred 3 months after cessation of immunosuppression and within 12 months of total colectomy for fulminant ulcerative colitis. Echocardiography was suggestive of hypereosinophilic endomyocardial fibrosis with left ventricular thrombus. Anticoagulation and corticosteroids were resumed with good effect. This report highlights the findings, treatment and outcome of ulcerative colitis-associated HES manifesting as recurrent Loeffler's endocarditis.

  12. Non-invasive neurosensory testing used to diagnose and confirm successful surgical management of lower extremity deep distal posterior compartment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guyton Gregory P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is characterized by elevated pressures within a closed space of an extremity muscular compartment, causing pain and/or disability by impairing the neuromuscular function of the involved compartment. The diagnosis of CECS is primarily made on careful history and physical exam. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of CECS is invasive intra-compartmental pressure measurements. Sensory nerve function is often diminished during symptomatic periods of CECS. Sensory nerve function can be documented with the use of non-painful, non-invasive neurosensory testing. Methods Non-painful neurosensory testing of the myelinated large sensory nerve fibers of the lower extremity were obtained with the Pressure Specified Sensory Device™ in a 25 year old male with history and invasive compartment pressures consistent with CECS both before and after running on a tread mill. After the patient's first operation to release the deep distal posterior compartment, the patient failed to improve. Repeat sensory testing revealed continued change in his function with exercise. He was returned to the operating room where a repeat procedure revealed that the deep posterior compartment was not completely released due to an unusual anatomic variant, and therefore complete release was accomplished. Results The patient's symptoms numbness in the plantar foot and pain in the distal calf improved after this procedure and his repeat sensory testing performed before and after running on the treadmill documented this improvement. Conclusion This case report illustrates the principal that non-invasive neurosensory testing can detect reversible changes in sensory nerve function after a provocative test and may be a helpful non-invasive technique to managing difficult cases of persistent lower extremity symptoms after failed decompressive fasciotomies for CECS. It can easily be performed before and after

  13. [BPO-Specific, complement-dependant cell-lysis of differently sensitized sheep red cells: evaluation of haptenic groups and their influence on IgM and IgG-induced lysis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, G; Stemberger, H; Förster, O; Müller, M

    1976-04-01

    Sheep erythrocytes were coated with bencylpenicilloyl-(BPO)groups. Different incubation periods resulted in erythrocyte preparations with different hapten density. Complement dependent lysis induced by IgM or IgG antibodies was studied with the cell preparations. The calculation of hapten density on the erythrocyte surface was not possible by direct measurement of coupled radioactive BPO since more than 90% of radioactive material was found in the soluble supernatant after osmotic cell lysis and less than 10% was fixed to the cellular membrane. Measurement of membrane bound immunologically relevant BPO-groups was achieved, therefore, by comparison of the inhibitory capacity of the test cells with that of a standard cell preparation. The latter consisted of tannic acid treated erythrocytes coated with protein complexed radioactive BPO. Surface hapten density of the different target cell preparations varied between 1.9 x 10(5) and 4.8 10(5) BPO-groups per cell depending on the time of incubation. Complement dependent antibody mediated cell lysis was significantly reduced by reduction of haptenic sites per target cell, IgG induced lysis being much more affected than hemolysis induced by IgM antibodies. Statistical calculations led to the conclusion that 18,000 protein islets per cell bearing 4 or more BPO-groups are not sufficient for hemolysis induced by IgG antibodies. 48,000 protein islets with this hapten density are necessary for "optimal" sensitization. IgG antibodies must be apparently bound to the cell surface in bivalent form.

  14. STUDIES ON THE BACTERIOPHAGE OF D'HERELLE : VIII. THE MECHANISM OF LYSIS OF DEAD BACTERIA IN THE PRESENCE OF BACTERIOPHAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, J; Muckenfuss, R

    1927-04-30

    We have been able to confirm the observations of Twort as well as of Gratia, that dead staphylococcus may undergo lysis if, in addition to a suitable bacteriophage, there is also present live staphylococcus. Moreover, we have endeavored to ascertain the mechanism of this phenomenon and have found that in order to elicit it it is necessary to control the numbers of live and dead bacteria in the mixture. An excess of dead bacteria interferes with lysis by adsorbing the bacteriophage before it has the opportunity to initiate necessary changes in the live bacteria, so that all lysis is prevented. The phenomenon is specific, that is, the lysis of live bacteria is accompanied by lysis of dead bacteria of the same species only. Lysis of dead bacteria occurs best with staphylococcus, an organism which easily undergoes spontaneous autolysis under appropriate conditions. In the case of B. coli or B. dysenteriae the lysis of the dead bacteria is uncertain. Dead bacteria need not be present in the mixture at the beginning of the experiment; they will be dissolved if added any time before, during, or after the completion of lysis of live bacteria. If the test is performed so that a suitable semipermeable membrane is interposed between the dead and live bacteria, the dead bacteria are not dissolved, in spite of the lysis of live bacteria on the other side of the membrane. The agent determining the lysis of dead bacteria is not diffusible, while the principle initiating the lysis of live bacteria diffuses freely and is demonstrably present on both sides of the membrane. The complete independence of the agent causing dissolution of dead bacteria from bacteriophage can also be shown by separating the two agents by means of filtration, or by adsorption on bacteria. The ferment-like substance responsible for the lysis of dead bacteria is different from the bacteriophage. It is not diffusible through collodion, it is easily adsorbed on clay filters, it is heat-labile, and is

  15. Prolonged clot lysis time increases the risk of a first but not recurrent venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasu, Alev; Baglin, Trevor P; Luddington, Roger; Baglin, Caroline A; van Hylckama Vlieg, Astrid

    2016-03-01

    The role of the fibrinolytic system in the development of venous thrombosis (VT) is unclear. We studied the risk of first and recurrent VT associated with reduced fibrinolysis, as measured by clot lysis time (CLT). We also studied the relationship between CLT and thrombin generation to determine if any relationship between CLT and VT was affected by thrombin generation. Analyses were performed in the Thrombophilia Hypercoagulability Environmental risk for Venous Thromboembolism Study, a two-centre population-based case-control study, including 579 patients and 338 controls, with patients followed from the event to determine incidence of recurrent VT. Hypofibrinolysis was associated with a 1·8-fold increased risk of a first VT [95% confidence interval (CI) 1·2-2·7]. Adjustment for sex, age, study location and Endogenous Thrombin Potential (ETP) did not change the result. The risk of VT was 2·9-fold increased when the 90th percentiles of prolonged CLT and high ETP were combined, with the highest risk for unprovoked first events (Odds Ratio = 4·2, 95% CI 1·3-13·5). In the follow-up study the Hazard Ratio for a recurrent VT associated with hypofibrinolysis was 1·5 (95% CI 0·9-2·6). A weak dose response effect was observed in relation to prolongation of CLT and recurrent VT. Although hypofibrinolysis constitutes a risk factor for a first VT, an association with recurrence is, at best, weak.

  16. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity.

  17. Ag nanoparticles generated using bio-reduction and -coating cause microbial killing without cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Aniket; Adams, Joshua; Britt, David W; Shen, Fen-Ann; McLean, Joan E; Jacobson, Astrid; Kim, Young-Cheol; Anderson, Anne J

    2016-04-01

    Cost-effective "green" methods of producing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are being examined because of the potential of these NPs as antimicrobials. Ag NPs were generated from Ag ions using extracellular metabolites from a soil-borne Pythium species. The NPs were variable in size, but had one dimension less than 50 nm and were biocoated; aggregation and coating changed with acetone precipitation. They had dose-dependent lethal effects on a soil pseudomonad, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, and were about 30-fold more effective than Ag(+) ions. A role of reactive oxygen species in cell death was demonstrated by use of fluorescent dyes responsive to superoxide anion and peroxide accumulation. Also mutants of the pseudomonad, defective in enzymes that protect against oxidative stress, were more sensitive than the wild type strain; mutant sensitivity differed between exposure to Ag NPs and Ag(+) ions demonstrating a nano-effect. Imaging of bacterial cells treated with the biocoated Ag NPs revealed no cell lysis, but there were changes in surface properties and cell height. These findings support that biocoating the NPs results in limited Ag release and yet they retained potent antimicrobial activity.

  18. Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus c92 Protein Responsible for the Formation of Pyramid-Like Cellular Lysis Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan;

    2011-01-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system...... described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene...... disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures....

  19. Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus c92 protein responsible for the formation of pyramid-like cellular lysis structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Jamie C; Brumfield, Susan K; Peng, Nan; She, Qunxin; Young, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Host cells infected by Sulfolobus turreted icosahedral virus (STIV) have been shown to produce unusual pyramid-like structures on the cell surface. These structures represent a virus-induced lysis mechanism that is present in Archaea and appears to be distinct from the holin/endolysin system described for DNA bacteriophages. This study investigated the STIV gene products required for pyramid formation in its host Sulfolobus solfataricus. Overexpression of STIV open reading frame (ORF) c92 in S. solfataricus alone is sufficient to produce the pyramid-like lysis structures in cells. Gene disruption of c92 within STIV demonstrates that c92 is an essential protein for virus replication. Immunolocalization of c92 shows that the protein is localized to the cellular membranes forming the pyramid-like structures.

  20. Lisis de adherencias epidurales (Parte 2): Técnica intervencionista Percutaneous epidutal lysis of adhesions (2): Interventional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Racz, G.; Flores, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This technique consists in the use of catheters and special needles to introduce solutions into difficult access sites in order to treat fibrosis or chronic inflammation conditions. Solutions such as hyaluronidase and hypertonic saline solution can be used for the lysis of adhesions caused by the pathology. This paper refers to different alternatives to correctly apply the technique at different spine levels. The technique has evolved from the conventional Tuhoy solution needles with some neu...

  1. Lisis de adherencias epidurales (Parte 2): Técnica intervencionista Percutaneous epidutal lysis of adhesions (2): Interventional technique

    OpenAIRE

    Racz, G.; Flores, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    This technique consists in the use of catheters and special needles to introduce solutions into difficult access sites in order to treat fibrosis or chronic inflammation conditions. Solutions such as hyaluronidase and hypertonic saline solution can be used for the lysis of adhesions caused by the pathology. This paper refers to different alternatives to correctly apply the technique at different spine levels. The technique has evolved from the conventional Tuhoy solution needles with some neu...

  2. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in clinical samples by using a simple lysis method and polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folgueira, L; Delgado, R; Palenque, E; Noriega, A R

    1993-01-01

    We have evaluated the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples from patients with tuberculous infection. Two simple methods for mycobacterial DNA release have been compared: sonication and lysis with nonionic detergents and proteinase K. The more effective method was the enzymatic technique. By using this protocol with 75 specimens we detected M. tuberculosis DNA in all of the samples, whereas only 48 and 71 samples were positive by acid-fast staining and culture, respectively. Images PMID:8463383

  3. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Iñigo; Novick, Richard P; Christie, Gail E; Penadés, José R

    2013-08-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria.

  4. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse(®)) with those of an alleged biosimilar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, Werner; Krech, Ingo; Michel, Martin C; Sangole, Nishant V; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse(®) and TNKase(®)), a "biosimilar" tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim(®) in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to a different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a "biosimilar" of Metalyse, i.e., whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  5. Comparison of clot lysis activity and biochemical properties of originator tenecteplase (Metalyse® with those of an alleged biosimilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner eKliche

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The bioengineered tissue plasminogen activator tenecteplase is an important treatment modality of acute myocardial infarction recommended by international guidelines. Following introduction of originator tenecteplase (brand names Metalyse® and TNKase®, a ‘biosimilar’ tenecteplase became available for commercial use in India under the brand name Elaxim® in the absence of Indian biosimilar guidelines which came into force from September 15th, 2012. Based on a report of biochemical and fibrinolytical differences between Metalyse and Elaxim, we have systematically compared them in a range of routine quality testing assays. As compared to Metalyse, Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity and contained less of the two-chain form of tenecteplase. Even upon full in vitro conversion to the two-chain form Elaxim exhibited less clot lysis activity. This was linked to differences in sialic acid content and glycosylation pattern with Elaxim exhibiting less bi- and more tetra-antennary glycosylation, leading to different charge heterogeneity profile. Regarding purity, Elaxim contained more tenecteplase aggregates and, in contrast to Metalyse, considerable amounts of Chinese hamster ovary cell protein. Taken together these data demonstrate that Metalyse and Elaxim differ considerably in clot lysis activity and biochemical properties. These data question whether Elaxim indeed can be considered a ‘biosimilar’ of Metalyse, i.e. whether and to which extent the clinical efficacy and safety properties of Metalyse can be extrapolated to Elaxim in the absence of comparative clinical data.

  6. Determining Human Clot Lysis Time (in vitro with Plasminogen/Plasmin from Four Species (Human, Bovine, Goat, and Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omaira Cañas Bermúdez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, including failures in the plasminogen/plasmin system which is an important factor in poor lysis of blood clots. This article studies the fibrinolytic system in four species of mammals, and it identifies human plasminogen with highest thrombolysis efficiency. It examines plasminogen from four species (human, bovine, goat, and swine and identifies the most efficient one in human clot lysis in vitro. All plasminogens were identically purified by affinity chromatography. Human fibrinogen was purified by fractionation with ethanol. The purification of both plasminogen and fibrinogen was characterized by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE (10%. Human clot formation in vitro and its dissolution by plasminogen/plasmin consisted of determining lysis time from clot formation to its dilution. Purification of proteins showed greater than 95% purity, human plasminogen showed greater ability to lyse clot than animal plasminogen. The article concludes that human plasminogen/plasmin has the greatest catalysis and efficiency, as it dissolves human clot up to three times faster than that of irrational species.

  7. A super-family of transcriptional activators regulates bacteriophage packaging and lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiles-Puchalt, Nuria; Tormo-Más, María Ángeles; Campoy, Susana; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Monedero, Vicente; Lasa, Íñigo; Novick, Richard P.; Christie, Gail E.; Penadés, José R.

    2013-01-01

    The propagation of bacteriophages and other mobile genetic elements requires exploitation of the phage mechanisms involved in virion assembly and DNA packaging. Here, we identified and characterized four different families of phage-encoded proteins that function as activators required for transcription of the late operons (morphogenetic and lysis genes) in a large group of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria. These regulators constitute a super-family of proteins, here named late transcriptional regulators (Ltr), which share common structural, biochemical and functional characteristics and are unique to this group of phages. They are all small basic proteins, encoded by genes present at the end of the early gene cluster in their respective phage genomes and expressed under cI repressor control. To control expression of the late operon, the Ltr proteins bind to a DNA repeat region situated upstream of the terS gene, activating its transcription. This involves the C-terminal part of the Ltr proteins, which control specificity for the DNA repeat region. Finally, we show that the Ltr proteins are the only phage-encoded proteins required for the activation of the packaging and lysis modules. In summary, we provide evidence that phage packaging and lysis is a conserved mechanism in Siphoviridae infecting a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:23771138

  8. Plasma carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) generation during in vitro clot lysis and its interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenaerts, Dorien; Aernouts, Jef; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Sim, Yani; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Hendriks, Dirk

    2017-07-26

    Carboxypeptidase U (CPU, CPB2, TAFIa) is a basic carboxypeptidase that is able to attenuate fibrinolysis. The inactive precursor procarboxypeptidase U is converted to its active form by thrombin, the thrombin-thrombomodulin complex or plasmin. The aim of this study was to investigate and characterise the time course of CPU generation in healthy individuals. In plasma of 29 healthy volunteers, CPU generation was monitored during in vitro clot lysis. CPU activity was measured by means of an enzymatic assay that uses the specific substrate Bz-o-cyano-Phe-Arg. An algorithm was written to plot the CPU generation curve and calculate the parameters that define it. In all individuals, CPU generation was biphasic. Marked inter-individual differences were present and a reference range was determined. The endogenous CPU generation potential is the composite effect of multiple factors. With respect to the first CPU activity peak characteristics, we found correlations with baseline proCPU concentration, proCPU Thr325Ile polymorphism, time to clot initiation and the clot lysis time. The second CPU peak related with baseline proCPU levels and with the maximum turbidity of the clot lysis profile. In conclusion, our method offers a technique to determine the endogenous CPU generation potential of an individual. The parameters obtained by the method quantitatively describe the different mechanisms that influence CPU generation during the complex interplay between coagulation and fibrinolysis, which are in line with the threshold hypothesis.

  9. RNA integrity as a quality indicator during the first steps of RNP purifications : A comparison of yeast lysis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Ralf-Peter

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The completion of several genome-sequencing projects has increased our need to assign functions to newly identified genes. The presence of a specific protein domain has been used as the determinant for suggesting a function for these new genes. In the case of proteins that are predicted to interact with mRNA, most RNAs bound by these proteins are still unknown. In yeast, several protocols for the identification of protein-protein interactions in high-throughput analyses have been developed during the last years leading to an increased understanding of cellular proteomics. If any of these protocols or similar approaches shall be used for the identification of mRNA-protein complexes, the integrity of mRNA is a critical factor. Results We compared the effect of different lysis protocols on RNA integrity. We report dramatic differences in RNA stability depending on the method used for yeast cell lysis. Glass bead milling and French Press lead to degraded mRNAs even in the presence of RNase inhibitors. Thus, they are not suitable to purify intact mRNP complexes or to identify specific mRNAs bound to proteins. Conclusion We suggest a novel protocol, grinding deep-frozen cells, for the preparation of protein extracts that contain intact RNAs, as lysis method for the purification of mRNA-protein complexes from yeast cells.

  10. Beyond the pollination syndrome: nectar ecology and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in the reproductive success of Inga sessilis (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, F W; Galetto, L; Sazima, M

    2013-03-01

    Inga species present brush-type flower morphology allowing them to be visited by distinct groups of pollinators. Nectar features in relation to the main pollinators have seldom been studied in this genus. To test the hypothesis of floral adaptation to both diurnal and nocturnal pollinators, we studied the pollination ecology of Inga sessilis, with emphasis on the nectar secretion patterns, effects of sequential removals on nectar production, sugar composition and the role of diurnal and nocturnal pollinators in its reproductive success. Inga sessilis is self-incompatible and pollinated by hummingbirds, hawkmoths and bats. Fruit set under natural conditions is very low despite the fact that most stigmas receive polyads with sufficient pollen to fertilise all ovules in a flower. Nectar secretion starts in the bud stage and flowers continually secreting nectar for a period of 8 h. Flowers actively reabsorbed the nectar a few hours before senescence. Sugar production increased after nectar removal, especially when flowers were drained during the night. Nectar sugar composition changed over flower life span, from sucrose-dominant (just after flower opening, when hummingbirds were the main visitors) to hexose-rich (throughout the night, when bats and hawkmoths were the main visitors). Diurnal pollinators contributed less than nocturnal ones to fruit production, but the former were more constant and reliable visitors through time. Our results indicate I. sessilis has floral adaptations, beyond the morphology, that encompass both diurnal and nocturnal pollinator requirements, suggesting a complementary and mixed pollination system. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  11. Direct identification of microorganisms from positive blood cultures using the lysis-filtration technique and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Claudio; Arena, Fabio; Casprini, Patrizia; Cichero, Paola; Clementi, Massimo; Cosentino, Marina; Degl'Innocenti, Roberto; Giani, Tommaso; Luzzaro, Francesco; Mattei, Romano; Mauri, Carola; Nardone, Maria; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Serna Ortega, Paula Andrea; Vailati, Francesca

    2015-04-01

    Microbial identification from blood cultures is essential to institute optimal antibiotic therapy and improve survival possibilities. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been successfully applied to identify bacteria and yeasts from positive blood cultures broths. The aim of this multicentre study was to evaluate the reliability of the lysis-filtration technique associated with MALDI-TOF MS to directly identify microorganisms from 765 positive blood cultures collected in six Italian hospitals. Overall, 675/765 (78.1%) blood isolates were correctly identified at the species level, with significant differences between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria (92.6%, and 69.8%, respectively). Some difficulties arise in identifying Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, yeasts and anaerobes. The lysis-filtration protocol is a suitable procedure in terms of performance in identifying microorganisms, but it is quite expensive and technically time-consuming since the time of filtration is not regular for all the samples. The application of the MALDI-TOF MS technique to the direct microbial identification from positive blood cultures is a very promising approach, even if more experience must be gained to minimize errors and costs.

  12. Dumping Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Digestive Diseases A-Z Dumping Syndrome What is dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome occurs when food, especially sugar, ... the colon and rectum—and anus. What causes dumping syndrome? Dumping syndrome is caused by problems with ...

  13. Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Impair Natural Killer Cell Function and Exhibit Low Susceptibility to Natural Killer-Mediated Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelaRosa, Olga; Sánchez-Correa, Beatriz; Morgado, Sara; Ramírez, Cristina; del Río, Borja; Menta, Ramón; Lombardo, Eleuterio

    2012-01-01

    Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have been successfully used in treating numerous diseases. However, several aspects need to be considered, particularly in the context of allogeneic cell therapy. To better understand hASCs-host interactions, we studied the phenotype of hASCs and their modulatory effect on natural killer (NK) cells by using bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) as a reference. The hASCs displayed a lower susceptibility to NK cell-mediated lysis and a lower expression of ligands for DNAM-1 when compared with hBM-MSCs. Moreover, here we demonstrated that hASCs and hBM-MSCs can modulate NK cells through the action of soluble factors such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Altogether, these results suggest that for an adoptive cell therapy based on the transfer of allogeneic hASCs, the NK-hASCs crosstalk will not result in an immediate recognition of the transferred cells. Thus, hASCs may remain in the tissue long enough to balance the immune response before being cleared. PMID:21867426

  14. Lysis of pig endothelium by IL-2 activated human natural killer cells is inhibited by swine and human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I gene products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itescu, S; Artrip, J H; Kwiatkowski, P A; Wang, S F; Minanov, O P; Morgenthau, A S; Michler, R E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously described a form of xenograft rejection, mediated by natural killer (NK) cells, occurring in pig-to-primate organ transplants beyond the period of antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection. In this study, two distinct NK activation pathways were identified as mechanisms of pig aortic endotheliual cell (PAEC) lysis by human NK cells. Using an antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assay, a progressive increase in human NK lysis of PAEC was observed following incubation with human IgG at increasing serum titer. In the absence of IgG, a second mechanism of PAEC lysis by human NK cells was observed following activation with IL-2. IL-2 activation of human NK cells increased lysis of PAEC by over 3-fold compared with ADCC. These results indicate that IL-2 activation of human NK cells induces significantly higher levels of lytic activity than does conventional ADCC involving IgG and FcRIII. We next investigated the role of MHC class I molecules in the regulation of NK lysis following IL-2 activation. PAEC expression of SLA class I molecules was increased by up to 75% by treatment with human TNFa. Following treatment with TNFa at 1 u/ml, IL-2 activated human NK lysis of PAEC was inhibited at every effector:target (E:T) ratio tested. Maximal effect occurred at an E:T ratio of 10:1, with TNFa inhibiting specific lysis by 59% (p < 0.01). Incubation with an anti-SLA class I Mab, but not IgG isotype control, abrogated the protective effects of TNFa on NK lysis of PAEC, suggesting direct inhibitory effects of SLA class I molecules on human NK function. To investigate whether human MHC class I molecules might have similar effects on human NK lysis of PAEC, further experiments were performed using a soluble peptide derived from the alpha-helical region of HLA-B7. Incubation with the HLA-B7 derived peptide significantly reduced the IL-2 activated NK lytic activity against PAEC in a dose-dependent fashion. Maximal effect occurred at a concentration of 10 mg

  15. Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome? Obesity hypoventilation (HI-po-ven-tih- ... NHLBI Research Featured in HBO Documentary Series on Obesity Hear people talk about their challenges and successes ...

  16. Catastrophic Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawhya R. El-Shereef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports one case of successfully treated patients suffering from a rare entity, the catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS. Management of this patient is discussed in detail.

  17. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  18. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Morten Hillgaard; Söderqvist, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ has set the frame for discourse about contemporary ageing research. Through an analysis of the reception to John W. Rowe and Robert L. Kahn's launch of the concept of ‘ successful ageing’ in 1987, this article maps out the important themes...... and discussions that have emerged from the interdisciplinary field of ageing research. These include an emphasis on interdisciplinarity; the interaction between biology, psycho-social contexts and lifestyle choices; the experiences of elderly people; life-course perspectives; optimisation and prevention...... strategies; and the importance of individual, societal and scientific conceptualisations and understandings of ageing. By presenting an account of the recent historical uses, interpretations and critiques of the concept, the article unfolds the practical and normative complexities of ‘ successful ageing’....

  19. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history....... Consistent with our expectations, we find that full professors, authors appointed at economics and history departments, and authors working in Anglo-Saxon and German countries are more likely to receive citations than other scholars. Long and co-authored articles are also a factor for citation success. We...... find similar patterns when assessing the same authors' citation success in economics journals. As a novel feature, we demonstrate that the diffusion of research — publication of working papers, as well as conference and workshop presentations — has a first-order positive impact on the citation rate....

  20. Chitosan as coagulant on cyanobacteria in lake restoration management may cause rapid cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, Maíra; Noyma, Natalia Pessoa; de Magalhães, Leonardo; Miranda, Marcela; van Oosterhout, Frank; Guedes, Iamê Alves; Huszar, Vera L M; Marinho, Marcelo Manzi; Lürling, Miquel

    2017-07-01

    Combining coagulant and ballast to remove cyanobacteria from the water column is a promising restoration technique to mitigate cyanobacterial nuisance in surface waters. The organic, biodegradable polymer chitosan has been promoted as a coagulant and is viewed as non-toxic. In this study, we show that chitosan may rapidly compromise membrane integrity and kill certain cyanobacteria leading to release of cell contents in the water. A strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and one strain of Planktothrix agardhii were most sensitive. A 1.3 h exposure to a low dose of 0.5 mg l(-1) chitosan already almost completely killed these cultures resulting in release of cell contents. After 24 h, reductions in PSII efficiencies of all cyanobacteria tested were observed. EC50 values varied from around 0.5 mg l(-1) chitosan for the two sensitive strains, via about 5 mg l(-1) chitosan for an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae strain, a toxic P. agardhii strain and two Anabaena cylindrica cultures, to more than 8 mg l(-1) chitosan for a Microcystis aeruginosa strain and another A. flos-aquae strain. Differences in sensitivity to chitosan might be related to polymeric substances that surround cyanobacteria. Rapid lysis of toxic strains is likely and when chitosan flocking and sinking of cyanobacteria is considered in lake restoration, flocculation efficacy studies should be complemented with investigation on the effects of chitosan on the cyanobacteria assemblage being targeted. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Human leukocyte antigen E contributes to protect tumor cells from lysis by natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, Elisa; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-09-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network.

  2. Human Leukocyte Antigen E Contributes to Protect Tumor Cells from Lysis by Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Lo Monaco

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3 of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D. Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network.

  3. Human Leukocyte Antigen E Contributes to Protect Tumor Cells from Lysis by Natural Killer Cells12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Elisa Lo; Tremante, Elisa; Cerboni, Cristina; Melucci, Elisa; Sibilio, Leonardo; Zingoni, Alessandra; Nicotra, Maria Rita; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2011-01-01

    The nonclassic class I human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E) molecule engages the inhibitory NKG2A receptor on several cytotoxic effectors, including natural killer (NK) cells. Its tissue distribution was claimed to be wider in normal than in neoplastic tissues, and surface HLA-E was undetectable in most tumor cell lines. Herein, these issues were reinvestigated taking advantage of HLA-E-specific antibodies, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical methods detecting intracellular and surface HLA-E regardless of conformation. Contrary to published evidence, HLA-E was detected in a few normal epithelia and in a large fraction (approximately 1/3) of solid tumors, including those derived from HLA-E-negative/low-normal counterparts. Remarkably, HLA-E was detected in 30 of 30 tumor cell lines representative of major lymphoid and nonlymphoid lineages, and in 11 of 11, it was surface-expressed, although in a conformation poorly reactive with commonly used antibodies. Coexpression of HLA-E and HLA class I ligand donors was not required for surface expression but was associated with NKG2A-mediated protection from lysis by the cytotoxic cell line NKL and polyclonal NK cells from healthy donors, as demonstrated by antibody-mediated relief of protection in 10% to 20% of the tested target-effector combinations. NKG2A-mediated protection of additional targets became evident on NK effector blocking with antibodies to activating receptors (DNAM-1, natural cytotoxicity receptors, and NKG2D). Thus, initial evidence that the long-elusive HLA-E molecule is enhanced by malignant transformation and is functional in tumor cells is presented here, although its importance and precise functional role remain to be addressed in the context of a general understanding of the NK ligand-receptor network. PMID:21969815

  4. Single Lysis-Salting Out Method of Genomic DNA Extraction From Dried Blood Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Muntaj; Shivanna, Devaraju Kuramkote; Kamate, Mahesh; Ab, Vedamurthy; Tp, Kruthika-Vinod

    2016-11-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are an important form of bio-sampling and valuable approach for storing blood samples for genetic studies. This has necessitated in developing an effective protocol to isolate genomic DNA (gDNA) from DBS samples.In this study, we have elucidated a dependable and non-hazardous "single lysis-salting out" (SLSO) protocol of gDNA extraction from DBS and compared against the available commercial kits. For the purpose of this study, blood spots were collected on S&S 903 filter cards from 10 healthy volunteers and 30 patients with glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I). The gDNA was extracted from theseDBS samples by SLSO, QIAamp® gDNA Micro kit and innuPREP forensic kit methods. The quantity and quality of gDNA obtained from these methods were determined by measuring the absorbance using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer. The SLSO method showed four-fold and eight-fold increased yield of gDNA in healthy volunteers and patient samples, respectively, compared to commercial kits (p<0.0001). The protocol was also found to be cost efficient, reducing the per sample cost to almost half. The suitability of this method for genetic studies was confirmed by performing R402W genotyping by RFLP in GA-I patients. The genotyping results showed the presence of R402W mutation in 20% (6/30) of patients. The SLSO method was found to be inexpensive, non-hazardous and a suitable technique for isolating gDNA from DBS samples for genetic studies. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ogbomo

    Full Text Available Myxoma virus (MYXV is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test. Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test. Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072. These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  6. Myxoma virus infection promotes NK lysis of malignant gliomas in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbomo, Henry; Zemp, Franz J; Lun, Xueqing; Zhang, Jiqing; Stack, Danuta; Rahman, Masmudur M; McFadden, Grant; Mody, Christopher H; Forsyth, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Myxoma virus (MYXV) is a well-established oncolytic agent against different types of tumors. MYXV is also known for its immunomodulatory properties in down-regulating major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I surface expression (via the M153R gene product, a viral E3-ubiquitin ligase) and suppressing T cell killing of infected target cells. MHC I down-regulation, however, favors NK cell activation. Brain tumors including gliomas are characterized by high MHC I expression with impaired NK activity. We thus hypothesized that MYXV infection of glioma cells will promote NK cell-mediated recognition and killing of gliomas. We infected human gliomas with MYXV and evaluated their susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. MYXV enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of glioma cells (U87 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 51.73% vs. 28.63%, P = .0001, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. Mock: 40.4% vs. 20.03%, P .0007, t test). Using MYXV M153R targeted knockout (designated vMyx-M153KO) to infect gliomas, we demonstrate that M153R was responsible for reduced expression of MHC I on gliomas and enhanced NK cell-mediated antiglioma activity (U87 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 51.73% vs. 25.17%, P = .0002, t test; U251 cells, MYXV vs. vMyx-M153KO: 40.4% vs. 19.27, P = .0013, t test). Consequently, NK cell-mediated lysis of established human glioma tumors in CB-17 SCID mice was accelerated with improved mouse survival (log-rank P = .0072). These results demonstrate the potential for combining MYXV with NK cells to effectively kill malignant gliomas.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pore-Forming Exolysin and Type IV Pili Cooperate To Induce Host Cell Lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Pauline; Ragno, Michel; Elsen, Sylvie; Reboud, Emeline; Golovkine, Guillaume; Bouillot, Stephanie; Huber, Philippe; Lory, Stephen; Faudry, Eric

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lacking the type III secretion system genes employ a toxin, exolysin (ExlA), for host cell membrane disruption. Here, we demonstrated that ExlA export requires a predicted outer membrane protein, ExlB, showing that ExlA and ExlB define a new active two-partner secretion (TPS) system of P. aeruginosa. In addition to the TPS signals, ExlA harbors several distinct domains, which include one hemagglutinin domain, five arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) motifs, and a C-terminal region lacking any identifiable sequence motifs. However, this C-terminal region is important for the toxic activity, since its deletion abolishes host cell lysis. Using lipid vesicles and eukaryotic cells, including red blood cells, we demonstrated that ExlA has a pore-forming activity which precedes cell membrane disruption of nucleated cells. Finally, we developed a high-throughput cell-based live-dead assay and used it to screen a transposon mutant library of an ExlA-producing P. aeruginosa clinical strain for bacterial factors required for ExlA-mediated toxicity. The screen resulted in the identification of proteins involved in the formation of type IV pili as being required for ExlA to exert its cytotoxic activity by promoting close contact between bacteria and the host cell. These findings represent the first example of cooperation between a pore-forming toxin of the TPS family and surface appendages in host cell intoxication. PMID:28119472

  8. Enhancement of antibody-dependent mechanisms of tumor cell lysis by a targeted activator of complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Masaki; Ohta, Rieko; Varela, Juan C; Song, Hongbin; Tomlinson, Stephen

    2007-10-01

    Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide a hindrance to the therapeutic efficacy of some monoclonal antibodies (mAb). We investigated a novel strategy to overwhelm complement inhibitor activity and amplify complement activation on tumor cells. The C3-binding domain of human complement receptor 2 (CR2; CD21) was linked to the complement-activating Fc region of human IgG1 (CR2-Fc), and the ability of the construct to target and amplify complement deposition on tumor cells was investigated. CR2 binds C3 activation fragments, and CR2-Fc targeted tumor cells by binding to C3 initially deposited by a tumor-specific antibody. Complement deposition on Du145 cells (human prostate cancer cell line) and anti-MUC1 mAb-mediated complement-dependent lysis of Du145 cells were significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc. Anti-MUC1 antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity of Du145 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also significantly enhanced by CR2-Fc in both the presence and the absence of complement. Radiolabeled CR2-Fc targeted to s.c. Du145 tumors in nude mice treated with anti-MUC1 mAb, validating the targeting strategy in vivo. A metastatic model was used to investigate the effect of CR2-Fc in a therapeutic paradigm. Administration of CR2-Fc together with mAb therapy significantly improved long-term survival of nude mice challenged with an i.v. injection of EL4 cells. The data show that CR2-Fc enhances the therapeutic efficacy of antibody therapy, and the construct may provide particular benefits under conditions of limiting antibody concentration or low tumor antigen density.

  9. Microphotographs of cyanobacteria documenting the effects of various cell-lysis techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Barry H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Smith, Christopher E.; Lane, Rachael F.; Keydel, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanotoxins are a group of organic compounds biosynthesized intracellularly by many species of cyanobacteria found in surface water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has listed cyanotoxins on the Safe Drinking Water Act's Contaminant Candidate List 3 for consideration for future regulation to protect public health. Cyanotoxins also pose a risk to humans and other organisms in a variety of other exposure scenarios. Accurate and precise analytical measurements of cyanotoxins are critical to the evaluation of concentrations in surface water to address the human health and ecosystem effects. A common approach to total cyanotoxin measurement involves cell membrane disruption to release the cyanotoxins to the dissolved phase followed by filtration to remove cellular debris. Several methods have been used historically, however no standard protocols exist to ensure this process is consistent between laboratories before the dissolved phase is measured by an analytical technique for cyanotoxin identification and quantitation. No systematic evaluation has been conducted comparing the multiple laboratory sample processing techniques for physical disruption of cell membrane or cyanotoxins recovery. Surface water samples collected from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers containing mixed assemblages of organisms dominated by cyanobacteria, as well as laboratory cultures of species-specific cyanobacteria, were used as part of this study evaluating multiple laboratory cell-lysis techniques in partnership with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Evaluated extraction techniques included boiling, autoclaving, sonication, chemical treatment, and freeze-thaw. Both treated and untreated samples were evaluated for cell membrane integrity microscopically via light, epifluorescence, and epifluorescence in the presence of a DNA stain. The DNA stain, which does not permeate live cells with intact membrane structures, was used as an indicator for cyanotoxin release into the

  10. P2X7 receptors mediate resistance to toxin-induced cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenauer, Roman; Atanassoff, Alexander P; Wolfmeier, Heidi; Pelegrin, Pablo; Babiychuk, Eduard B; Draeger, Annette

    2014-05-01

    In the majority of cells, the integrity of the plasmalemma is recurrently compromised by mechanical or chemical stress. Serum complement or bacterial pore-forming toxins can perforate the plasma membrane provoking uncontrolled Ca(2+) influx, loss of cytoplasmic constituents and cell lysis. Plasmalemmal blebbing has previously been shown to protect cells against bacterial pore-forming toxins. The activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), an ATP-gated trimeric membrane cation channel, triggers Ca(2+) influx and induces blebbing. We have investigated the role of the P2X7R as a regulator of plasmalemmal protection after toxin-induced membrane perforation caused by bacterial streptolysin O (SLO). Our results show that the expression and activation of the P2X7R furnishes cells with an increased chance of surviving attacks by SLO. This protective effect can be demonstrated not only in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK) cells transfected with the P2X7R, but also in human mast cells (HMC-1), which express the receptor endogenously. In addition, this effect is abolished by treatment with blebbistatin or A-438079, a selective P2X7R antagonist. Thus blebbing, which is elicited by the ATP-mediated, paracrine activation of the P2X7R, is part of a cellular non-immune defense mechanism. It pre-empts plasmalemmal damage and promotes cellular survival. This mechanism is of considerable importance for cells of the immune system which carry the P2X7R and which are specifically exposed to toxin attacks.

  11. Fractalkine expression induces endothelial progenitor cell lysis by natural killer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilyana Todorova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating CD34(+ cells, a population that includes endothelial progenitors, participate in the maintenance of endothelial integrity. Better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate their survival is crucial to improve their regenerative activity in cardiovascular and renal diseases. Chemokine-receptor cross talk is critical in regulating cell homeostasis. We hypothesized that cell surface expression of the chemokine fractalkine (FKN could target progenitor cell injury by Natural Killer (NK cells, thereby limiting their availability for vascular repair. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that CD34(+-derived Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFC can express FKN in response to TNF-α and IFN-γ inflammatory cytokines and that FKN expression by ECFC stimulates NK cell adhesion, NK cell-mediated ECFC lysis and microparticles release in vitro. The specific involvement of membrane FKN in these processes was demonstrated using FKN-transfected ECFC and anti-FKN blocking antibody. FKN expression was also evidenced on circulating CD34(+ progenitor cells and was detected at higher frequency in kidney transplant recipients, when compared to healthy controls. The proportion of CD34(+ cells expressing FKN was identified as an independent variable inversely correlated to CD34(+ progenitor cell count. We further showed that treatment of CD34(+ circulating cells isolated from adult blood donors with transplant serum or TNF-α/IFN-γ can induce FKN expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our data highlights a novel mechanism by which FKN expression on CD34(+ progenitor cells may target their NK cell mediated killing and participate to their immune depletion in transplant recipients. Considering the numerous diseased contexts shown to promote FKN expression, our data identify FKN as a hallmark of altered progenitor cell homeostasis with potential implications in better evaluation of vascular repair in patients.

  12. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    affects citations. In regard to author-specific characteristics, male authors, full professors and authors working economics or history departments, and authors employed in Anglo-Saxon countries, are more likely to get cited than others. As a ‘shortcut' to citation success, we find that research diffusion......This study analyses determinants of citation success among authors publishing in economic history journals. Bibliometric features, like article length and number of authors, are positively correlated with the citation rate up to a certain point. Remarkably, publishing in top-ranked journals hardly...

  13. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study analyses determinants of citation success among authors publishing in economic history journals. Bibliometric features, like article length and number of authors, are positively correlated with the citation rate up to a certain point. Remarkably, publishing in top-ranked journals hardl...

  14. Citation Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaio, Gianfranco Di; Waldenström, Daniel; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of citation success among authors who have recently published their work in economic history journals. Besides offering clues about how to improve one's scientific impact, our citation analysis also sheds light on the state of the field of economic history. Co...

  15. Successful ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusumastuti, Sasmita; Derks, Marloes G. M.; Tellier, Siri;

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: We performed a novel, hypothesis-free and quantitative analysis of citation networks exploring the literature on successful ageing that exists in the Web of Science Core Collection Database using the CitNetExplorer software. Outcomes were visualized using timeline-based citation patterns...

  16. "Success"ful Reading Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Carol J.

    1986-01-01

    The Success in Reading and Writing Program at a K-2 school in Fort Jackson, South Carolina, teaches children of varied races and abilities to read and write using newspapers, dictionaries, library books, magazines, and telephone directories. These materials help students develop language skills in a failure-free atmosphere. Includes two…

  17. Host range and in vitro lysis of Listeria monocytogenes seafood isolates by bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachchi, Geevika J Ganegama; Cruz, Cristina D; Dias-Wanigasekera, Beatrice M; McIntyre, Lynn; Billington, Craig; Hudson, Andrew; Flint, Steve H; Mutukumira, Anthony N

    2014-12-01

    Listeria-infecting bacteriophages (listeriaphages) can be used to control Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. However, the sensitivity of many of seafood-borne Listeria strains to phages has not been reported. This research investigated the host ranges of three listeriaphages (FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5) by the formation of lytic zones and plaques on host lawns and in vitro lysis kinetics of listeriaphage FWLLm3. The study also predicted the phage titres required to lyse host cells. The host ranges of the phages were determined using 50 L. monocytogenes strains, of which 48 were isolated from the seafood industry and two from clinical cases. Of the 50 strains, 36 were tested at 25 and 30 ℃ and the remainder (14) at 15 and 25 ℃. Based on the formation of either discrete plaques or lytic zones (host kill zones), the host ranges of FWLLm1, FWLLm3 and FWLLm5 were about 87%, 81% and 87%, respectively, at 25 ℃. Six L. monocytogenes strains from the seafood environment were insensitive to all three phages, while the other seafood strains (42) were phage-sensitive. The adsorption rate constant (k value) of listeriaphage FWLLm3 was between 1.2 × 10(-9) and 1.6 × 10(-9 )ml/min across four host strains in tryptic soy broth at 25 ℃. The cultures (at 3-4 log colony-forming unit (CFU/ml) were completely lysed ( 8.7 log phage-forming units (PFU/ml) for 30 min. Re-growth of phage-infected cultures was not detected after 24 h. The effective empirical phage titre was similar to the calculated titre using a kinetic model. Results indicate the potential use of the three phages for controlling L. monocytogenes strains in seafood processing environments. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Bacterial Lysis through Interference with Peptidoglycan Synthesis Increases Biofilm Formation by Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Carmen; Merlos, Alexandra; Viñas, Miguel; de Jonge, Marien I.; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes otitis media in children and community-acquired pneumonia or exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults. A large variety of studies suggest that biofilm formation by NTHi may be an important step in the pathogenesis of this bacterium. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in this process are poorly elucidated. In this study, we used a transposon mutant library to identify bacterial genes involved in biofilm formation. The growth and biofilm formation of 4,172 transposon mutants were determined, and the involvement of the identified genes in biofilm formation was validated in in vitro experiments. Here, we present experimental data showing that increased bacterial lysis, through interference with peptidoglycan synthesis, results in elevated levels of extracellular DNA, which increased biofilm formation. Interestingly, similar results were obtained with subinhibitory concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics, known to interfere with peptidoglycan synthesis, but such an effect does not appear with other classes of antibiotics. These results indicate that treatment with β-lactam antibiotics, especially for β-lactam-resistant NTHi isolates, might increase resistance to antibiotics by increasing biofilm formation. IMPORTANCE Most, if not all, bacteria form a biofilm, a multicellular structure that protects them from antimicrobial actions of the host immune system and affords resistance to antibiotics. The latter is especially disturbing with the increase in multiresistant bacterial clones worldwide. Bacterial biofilm formation is a multistep process that starts with surface adhesion, after which attached bacteria divide and give rise to biomass. The actual steps required for Haemophilus influenzae biofilm formation are largely not known. We show that interference with peptidoglycan biosynthesis increases biofilm formation because of the release

  19. Cushing syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypercortisolism; Cortisol excess; Glucocorticoid excess - Cushing syndrome ... The most common cause of Cushing syndrome is taking too much ... exogenous Cushing syndrome . Prednisone, dexamethasone, and ...

  20. Serotonin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperserotonemia; Serotonergic syndrome; Serotonin toxicity; SSRI - serotonin syndrome; MAO - serotonin syndrome ... two medicines that affect the body's level of serotonin are taken together at the same time. The ...

  1. Gardner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Gardner Syndrome Request Permissions Gardner Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 06/2014 What is Gardner syndrome? Gardner syndrome is a subtype of familial ...

  2. Fibrinolytic efficacy of Amediplase, Tenecteplase and scu-PA in different external plasma clot lysis models: sensitivity to the inhibitory action of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ana H C; Barrett-Bergshoeff, Marrie M; Criscuoli, Marco; Evangelista, Stefano; Rijken, Dingeman C

    2006-09-01

    In this study, the in-vitro fibrinolytic efficacy of Tenecteplase, Amediplase and scu-PA was investigated in different external lysis models by measuring the lysis of human plasma clots after the addition of the plasminogen activators (PAs) to the surrounding plasma. The effect of TAFI was examined for each PA by neutralising TAFIa with potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI). The lytic efficacy of Amediplase was lower than that of Tenecteplase at low PA concentrations but slightly higher at therapeutic concentrations. The activity of scu-PA was clearly lower than that of either Tenecteplase or Amediplase. The TAFI system inhibited external clot lysis mediated by all the PAs when thrombomodulin was present in the model. In the therapeutic range (5-10 mug/ml) however, the TAFIa effect was negligible for both Amediplase and Tenecteplase. At lower PA concentrations the effect of TAFI on Amediplase was slightly stronger than that on Tenecteplase. Under static conditions the lysis rates were lower than with stirring. The role of TAFI was similar under both conditions. In conclusion, at therapeutic concentrations Amediplase was slightly more active than Tenecteplase and scu-PA under all conditions used. Therefore, Amediplase might possibly be a more potent thrombolytic agent at these concentrations and increase the efficacy of thrombolysis. The potential of TAFI for inhibiting thrombolytic therapy is probably low. However in conditions where the local PA concentrations are sub-optimal TAFI might affect the lysis rate.

  3. A comparison of different pre-lysis methods and extraction kits for recovery of Streptococcus agalacticae (Lancefield group B Streptococcus) DNA from whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Rachael M; McKenna, James P; Cox, Ciara; Coyle, Peter V; Shields, Michael D; Fairley, Derek J

    2016-10-01

    Sub-optimal recovery of bacterial DNA from whole blood samples can limit the sensitivity of molecular assays to detect pathogenic bacteria. We compared 3 different pre-lysis protocols (none, mechanical pre-lysis and achromopeptidase pre-lysis) and 5 commercially available DNA extraction platforms for direct detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in spiked whole blood samples, without enrichment culture. DNA was extracted using the QIAamp Blood Mini kit (Qiagen), UCP Pathogen Mini kit (Qiagen), QuickGene DNA Whole Blood kit S (Fuji), Speed Xtract Nucleic Acid Kit 200 (Qiagen) and MagNA Pure Compact Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I (Roche Diagnostics Corp). Mechanical pre-lysis increased yields of bacterial genomic DNA by 51.3 fold (95% confidence interval; 31.6-85.1, pextraction methods. Including a pre-lysis step can improve the limits of detection of GBS using PCR or other molecular methods without need for culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concerning the role of cell lysis-cryptic growth in anaerobic side-stream reactors: the single-cell analysis of viable, dead and lysed bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, P; Velho, V F; Costa, R H R; Bruni, L; Quaranta, A; Andreottola, G

    2015-05-01

    In the Anaerobic Side-Stream Reactor (ASSR), part of the return sludge undergoes alternating aerobic and anaerobic conditions with the aim of reducing sludge production. In this paper, viability, enzymatic activity, death and lysis of bacterial cells exposed to aerobic and anaerobic conditions for 16 d were investigated at single-cell level by flow cytometry, with the objective of contributing to the understanding of the mechanisms of sludge reduction in the ASSR systems. Results indicated that total and viable bacteria did not decrease during the anaerobic phase, indicating that anaerobiosis at ambient temperature does not produce a significant cell lysis. Bacteria decay and lysis occurred principally under aerobic conditions. The aerobic decay rate of total bacteria (bTB) was considered as the rate of generation of lysed bacteria. Values of bTB of 0.07-0.11 d(-1) were measured in anaerobic + aerobic sequence. The enzymatic activity was not particularly affected by the transition from anaerobiosis to aerobiosis. Large solubilisation of COD and NH4(+) was observed only under anaerobic conditions, as a consequence of hydrolysis of organic matter, but not due to cell lysis. The observations supported the proposal of two independent mechanisms contributing equally to sludge reduction: (1) under anaerobic conditions: sludge hydrolysis of non-bacterial material, (2) under aerobic conditions: bacterial cell lysis and oxidation of released biodegradable compounds.

  5. Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzovic, S.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Magnus, L.; Sauerbrei, H.U.

    1982-11-01

    This article reports on 14 cases of a trichorhinophalangeal syndrome in five successive generations. Besides the well-known characteristics of the TRPS the following symptoms observed in this family are new: Teething was considerably delayed, intelligence was reduced, and there were skin manifestations resembling eczema. Besides, struma colli and colitis ulcerosa were also observed. Subsequent observations have to clarify whether these symptoms are a facultative part of the TRPS pattern. The constant appearance of carriers of these characteristics during five generation points to dominant heredity.

  6. Fibrinolytic enzyme production by newly isolated Bacillus cereus SRM-001 with enhanced in-vitro blood clot lysis potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Manoj Kumar; Chandrasekaran, Muthukumaran; Rajesh, Mathur

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of plasmin-like microbial fibrinolytic enzymes having high specificity and negligible side effects is crucial for thrombolytic therapy. Herein, we report one such extra-cellular fibrinolytic enzyme producing Bacillus cereus SRM-001 isolated from the blood-laden soil of a chicken dump yard. The potency of the enzyme was established with fibrin plate assay and in-vitro blood clot lysis assay. The shake-flask operating parameters and media composition were optimized for maximizing the productivity of the enzyme. The operating parameters, pH 7, 37°C, 1% inoculum volume and 24 h inoculum age, were found to be the optimum. The levels of media components, corn flour (0.3% w/v), soyabean powder (1.9% w/v) and MnSO4 (11.5 mM) were optimized by statistical analysis using Box-Behnken design derived RSM. This resulted in an almost 1.8 fold increase in fibrinolytic enzyme productivity. The 3D response surface plots showed soyabean powder and MnSO4 to be the key ingredients for enhancing the enzyme productivity, whereas corn flour had a marginal effect. The in-vitro blood clot lysis assay conducted at near physiological pH 7 at 37°C showed the enzyme to be a potential therapeutic thrombolytic agent.

  7. Antigen-Specific Inhibition of High-Avidity T Cell Target Lysis by Low-Avidity T Cells via Trogocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brile Chung

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Current vaccine conditions predominantly elicit low-avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs, which are non-tumor-cytolytic but indistinguishable by tetramer staining or enzyme-linked immunospot from high-avidity CTLs. Using CTL clones of high or low avidity for melanoma antigens, we show that low-avidity CTLs can inhibit tumor lysis by high-avidity CTLs in an antigen-specific manner. This phenomenon operates in vivo: high-avidity CTLs control tumor growth in animals but not in combination with low-avidity CTLs specific for the same antigen. The mechanism involves stripping of specific peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs via trogocytosis by low-avidity melanoma-specific CTLs without degranulation, leading to insufficient levels of specific pMHC on target cell surface to trigger lysis by high-avidity CTLs. As such, peptide repertoire on the cell surface is dynamic and continually shaped by interactions with T cells. These results describe immune regulation by low-avidity T cells and have implications for vaccine design.

  8. Recyclable Photo-Thermal Nano-Aggregates of Magnetic Nanoparticle Conjugated Gold Nanorods for Effective Pathogenic Bacteria Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Mohankandhasamy; Kim, Sanghyo; Lee, Su Seong; Yi, Dong Kee

    2016-01-01

    We describe the nucleophilic hybridization technique for fabricating magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) around gold nanorod (AuNR) for desired photo-thermal lysis on pathogenic bacteria. From the electromagnetic energy conversion into heat to the surrounding medium, a significant and quicker temperature rise was noted after light absorption on nanohybrids, at a controlled laser light output and optimum nanoparticle concentration. We observed a similar photo-thermal pattern for more than three times for the same material up on repeated magnetic separation. Regardless of the cell wall nature, superior pathogenic cell lysis has been observed for the bacteria suspensions of individual and mixed samples of Salmonella typhi (S.typhi) and Bacillus subtilis (B.subtilis) by the photo-heated nanoparticles. The synthesis of short gold nanorod, conjugation with magnetic nanoparticle and its subsequent laser exposure provides a rapid and reiterated photo-thermal effect with enhanced magnetic separation for efficient bactericidal application in water samples. Resultant novel properties of the nano-aggregates makes them a candidate to be used for a rapid, effective, and re-iterated photo-thermal agent against a wide variety of pathogens to attain microbe free water.

  9. Staphylococcal α-hemolysin is neurotoxic and causes lysis of brain cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Daniel; Mariussen, Espen; Goverud, Ingeborg Løstegaard; Tønjum, Tone; Mæhlen, Jan; Antal, Ellen-Ann; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2015-05-01

    Formation of a bacterial brain abscess entails loss of brain cells and formation of pus. The mechanisms behind the cell loss are not fully understood. Staphylococcus aureus, a common cause of brain abscesses, produces various exotoxins, including α-hemolysin, which is an important factor in brain abscess formation. α-Hemolysin may cause cytolysis by forming pores in the plasma membrane of various eukaryotic cells. However, whether α-hemolysin causes lysis of brain cells is not known. Nor is it known whether α-hemolysin in the brain causes cell death through pore formation or by acting as a chemoattractant, recruiting leukocytes and causing inflammation. Here we show that α-hemolysin injected into rat brain causes cell damage and edema formation within 30 min. Cell damage was accompanied by an increase in extracellular concentrations of zinc, GABA, glutamate, and other amino acids, indicating plasma membrane damage, but leukocytic infiltration was not seen 0.5-12h after α-hemolysin injection. This was in contrast to injection of S. aureus, which triggered extensive infiltration with neutrophils within 8h. In vitro, α-hemolysin caused concentration-dependent lysis of isolated nerve endings and cultured astrocytes. We conclude that α-hemolysin contributes to the cell death inherent in staphylococcal brain abscess formation as a pore-forming neurotoxin.

  10. Organic and Inorganic Nitrogen Impact Chlorella variabilis Productivity and Host Quality for Viral Production and Cell Lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Labavitch, John; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-05-01

    Microalgae have been proposed as a potential feedstock for biofuel production; however, cell disruption is usually required for collection and utilization of cytoplasmic polysaccharides and lipids. Virus infection might be one approach to disrupt the cell wall. The concentration of yeast extract and presence of KNO3 in algae cultivation media were investigated to observe their effects on Chlorella variabilis NC64A physiology and composition and the subsequent effect on production of Chlorella virus and disruption of infected cells. Cytoplasmic starch accumulation increased from 5% to approximately 35% of the total dry weight when yeast extract decreased from 1 to 0.25 g L(-1). When cells were cultured with the lowest nitrogen levels, the total polysaccharide accounted for more than 50% of the cell wall, which was 1.7 times higher than the content in cells cultured with the highest nitrogen levels. The C/N ratio of the algal biomass decreased by a factor of approximately 2 when yeast extract increased from 0.25 to 1 g L(-1). After virus infection, cells with a low C/N ratio produced a 7.6 times higher burst size than cells with a high C/N ratio, suggesting that the nitrogen content in C. variabilis has a large influence on viral production and cell lysis. The results have implications on management of nitrogen for both the synthesis of products from algae and product recovery via viral lysis.

  11. Successful Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrahman Nasihun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging concept of successful aging is based on evidence that in healthy individual when they get aged, there are  considerable variations in physiological functions alteration. Some people exhibiting greater, but others very few or no age related alteration. The first is called poor aging and the later is called successful pattern of aging (Lambert SW, 2008. Thus, in the simple words the successful aging concept is define as an opportunity of old people to stay  active and productive condition despite they get aged chronologically. Aging itself might be defined as the progressive accumulation of changes with time associated with or responsible for the ever-increasing susceptibility to disease and death which accompanies advancing age (Harman D, 1981. The time needed to accumulate changes is attributable to aging process. The marked emerging questions are how does aging happen and where does aging start? To answer these questions and because of the complexity of aging process, there are more than 300 aging theories have been proposed to explain how and where aging occured and started respectively. There are too many to enumerate theories and classification of aging process. In summary, all of these aging theories can be grouped into three clusters: 1. Genetics program theory, this theory suggests that aging is resulted from program directed by the genes; 2. Epigenetic theory, in these theory aging is resulted from environmental random events not determined by the genes; 3. Evolutionary theory, which propose that aging is a medium for disposal mortal soma in order to avoid competition between organism and their progeny for food and space, did not try to explain how aging occur, but possibly answer why aging occur (De la Fuente. 2009. Among the three groups of aging theories, the epigenetic theory is useful to explain and try to solve the enigma of aging which is prominently caused by internal and external environmental influences

  12. Competencias del especialista en medicina general integral para la atención exitosa del síndrome demencial Competences of integral general medicine specialists for a successful care of dementia syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor T. Pérez Martínez

    2010-12-01

    , according to the requirements of current community care model. METHODS: a cross-sectional, descriptive and exploratory study was conducted over 2008. A group work was developed with key informers offering a specialized care to elderly from the different health offices from tree polyclinics of the Eastern extreme of Playa municipality applying different group techniques including the storm and the ideas writing, which, together with the experience and the knowledge of each participant, allowed the achievement of the proposed objective. RESULTS: as main theoretical contribution it was determined a set of competences allowing that specialist of integral general medicine may to care in an appropriate way the patient suffering of dementia, essentially aimed to the early and correct diagnosis of this frequent health problem in elderly. CONCLUSIONS: authors defined a competence system in terms of knowledge, abilities and an attitude allowing that specialist in integral general offers the successful care to patient suffering of dementia syndrome.

  13. Very High Throughput Electrical Cell Lysis and Extraction of Intracellular Compounds Using 3D Carbon Electrodes in Lab-on-a-Chip Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Renaud

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Here we present an electrical lysis throughput of 600 microliters per minute at high cell density (108 yeast cells per ml with 90% efficiency, thus improving the current common throughput of one microliter per minute. We also demonstrate the extraction of intracellular luciferase from mammalian cells with efficiency comparable to off-chip bulk chemical lysis. The goal of this work is to develop a sample preparation module that can act as a stand-alone device or be integrated to other functions already demonstrated in miniaturized devices, including sorting and analysis, towards a true lab-on-a-chip.

  14. Daratumumab-mediated lysis of primary multiple myeloma cells is enhanced in combination with the human anti-KIR antibody IPH2102 and lenalidomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nijhof, I. S.; Lammerts van Bueren, J. J.; van Kessel, B.;

    2015-01-01

    killer cell inhibitory receptors with the human monoclonal anti-KIR antibody IPH2102, next to activation of natural killer cells with the immune modulatory drug lenalidomide. In 4-hour antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays, IPH2102 did not induce lysis of multiple myeloma cell lines......RIIa-131R allele, who bind IgG1 with lower affinity than patients carrying the FcgammaRIIIa-158V allele or the FcgammaRIIa-131H allele. Finally, a further synergistically improved myeloma cell lysis with the daratumumab-IPH2102 combination was observed by adding lenalidomide, which suggests that more...

  15. Identification, characterization, and cloning of TIP-B1, a novel protein inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-induced lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berleth, E S; Nadadur, S; Henn, A D; Eppolito, C; Shiojiri, S; Gurtoo, H L; Ehrke, M J; Mihich, E

    1999-11-01

    Some cancer cells evade elimination by virtue of their insensitivity to agents that induce apoptosis. Conversely, the side effects of anticancer agents could be diminished if normal cells were more resistant. To further elucidate the factors that contribute to the susceptibility of a cell to apoptosis, these investigations were designed to identify proteins isolated from cells exposed to low concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that, when incubated with normally TNF-sensitive cells, protect these cells from TNF-induced cytotoxicity. TIP-B1, a novel protein, has been identified, purified, and characterized from cytosolic extracts of TNF-treated human fibroblasts. The approximately 27 kDa pI-4.5 TIP-B1 protein is unique based on both the sequence of three internal peptides (comprising 51 amino acids) and the nucleotide sequence of the corresponding 783-bp cDNA partial clone. Western blot analyses using polyclonal antisera raised against both the purified native TIP-B1 and the approximately 14 kDa product of the cDNA partial TIP-B1 clone, as well as Northern blot analyses using the cDNA insert as a probe, indicate that TIP-B1 may belong to a family of proteins that are expressed in a number of cell lines from diverse tissues. TNF-sensitive cells, when exposed to 4-10 microg/ml concentrations of TIP-B1 prior to the addition of TNF, are completely protected from TNF-induced lysis. Furthermore, TIP-B1 protects cells from apoptotic lysis induced by TNF. Preincubation of TIP-B1 with TNF does not affect the ability of TNF to induce lysis. Moreover, TIP-B1 does not seem to interfere with the interactions between TNF and the TNF receptors, based on a preliminary flow cytometric analysis of the cellular binding of biotinylated TNF. On the basis of these characteristics, TIP-B1 is not a soluble TNF receptor, an anti-TNF antibody, nor a protease that degrades TNF; yet TIP-B1 functions when added exogenously to cells. These characteristics, its novel sequence, and its

  16. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  17. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Complement-Dependent Lysis of Influenza A Virus-Infected Cells by Broadly Cross-Reactive Human Monoclonal Antibodies ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terajima, Masanori; Cruz, John; Co, Mary Dawn T.; Lee, Jane-Hwei; Kaur, Kaval; Wilson, Patrick C.; Ennis, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We characterized human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) cloned from influenza virus-infected patients and from influenza vaccine recipients by complement-dependent lysis (CDL) assay. Most MAbs active in CDL were neutralizing, but not all neutralizing MAbs can mediate CDL. Two of the three stalk-specific neutralizing MAbs tested were able to mediate CDL and were more cross-reactive to temporally distant H1N1 strains than the conventional hemagglutination-inhibiting and neutralizing MAbs. One of the stalk-specific MAbs was subtype cross-reactive to H1 and H2 hemagglutinins, suggesting a role for stalk-specific antibodies in protection against influenza illness, especially by a novel viral subtype which can cause pandemics. PMID:21994454

  19. High-intensity focused ultrasound sonothrombolysis: the use of perfluorocarbon droplets to achieve clot lysis at reduced acoustic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajek, Daniel; Burgess, Alison; Huang, Yuexi; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate use of intravascular perfluorocarbon droplets to reduce the sonication power required to achieve clot lysis with high-intensity focused ultrasound. High-intensity focused ultrasound with droplets was initially applied to blood clots in an in vitro flow apparatus, and inertial cavitation thresholds were determined. An embolic model for ischemic stroke was used to illustrate the feasibility of this technique in vivo. Recanalization with intravascular droplets was achieved in vivo at 24 ± 5% of the sonication power without droplets. Recanalization occurred in 71% of rabbits that received 1-ms pulsed sonications during continuous intravascular droplet infusion (p = 0.041 vs controls). Preliminary experiments indicated that damage was confined to the ultrasonic focus, suggesting that tolerable treatments would be possible with a more tightly focused hemispheric array that allows the whole focus to be placed inside of the main arteries in the human brain.

  20. Nitric oxide hinders antibody clearance from the surface of Trypanoplasma borreli and increases susceptibility to complement-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlenza, Maria; Nakao, Miki; Wibowo, Indra; Joerink, Maaike; Arts, Joop A J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Wiegertjes, Geert F

    2009-10-01

    Trypanoplasma borreli is an extracellular blood parasite of carp belonging to the same Order (Kinetoplastida) as African trypanosomes. These mammalian parasites have developed different strategies to evade the host immune system including antigenic variation, immunosuppression and clearance of surface-bound antibodies. The latter mechanism allows trypanosomes to use their swimming movement to cause surface-bound antibodies to 'sail' and accumulate at the posterior end of the parasite, to be internalized via the flagellar pocket and be degraded. There is no evidence that T. borreli shows antigenic variation, but during the late phases of infection NO-mediated immunosuppression is observed. High levels of nitric oxide (NO) lead to extensive tissue nitration whereas the parasite itself is not affected. Therefore, the induction of NO has thus far been considered a parasite-driven response with immunosuppressive effects. In the present study, we show that the induction of NO, particularly during the early phase of T. borreli infections, should be re-considered an effective part of the host immune response. We show that T. borreli rapidly removes surface-bound IgM. In addition, moderate concentrations of NO, by hindering surface antibody clearance, maintain high the concentrations of membrane-bound IgM, thereby favoring antibody-dependent complement-mediated parasite lysis. We performed a comprehensive quantitative gene expression analysis of in total seven different complement factors involved in all three activation pathways, differentiating between 1 and 4 isoforms for each complement gene. Our gene expression analysis supports an important role for antibody-dependent complement-mediated lysis of T. borreliin vivo. To our knowledge, NO-dependent inhibition of antibody clearance from the surface of kinetoplastid parasites has not been investigated. Our data support a role for NO as an important player in host-parasite interactions, not only as immune suppressor (late

  1. CADM1/TSLC1 Identifies HTLV-1-Infected Cells and Determines Their Susceptibility to CTL-Mediated Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiruthika Manivannan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T cell lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T cells, causing inflammatory disorders or a T cell malignancy in 5% to 10% of carriers. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response is a key factor that controls the viral load and thus the risk of disease. The ability to detect the viral protein Tax in primary cells has made it possible to estimate the rate at which Tax-expressing infected cells are eliminated by CTLs in persistently infected people. However, most HTLV-1-infected cells are Tax-at a given time, and their immunophenotype is poorly defined. Here, we aimed to identify a cell-surface molecule expressed by both Tax+ and Tax-HTLV-1-infected cells and use it to analyse the CTL response in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1/TSLC1 was the best single marker of HTLV-1 infection, identifying HTLV-1-infected cells with greater sensitivity and specificity than CD25, CCR4 or ICAM-1. CADM1+CD4+ T cells carried a median of 65% of proviral copies in peripheral blood. In a cohort of 23 individuals, we quantified the rate of CTL-mediated killing of Tax+ and Tax-CADM1+ cells. We show that CADM1 expression is associated with enhanced susceptibility of infected cells to CTL lysis: despite the immunodominance of Tax in the CTL response, Tax+CADM1- cells were inefficiently lysed by CTLs. Upregulation of the CADM1 ligand CRTAM on CD8+ T cells correlated with efficient lysis of infected cells. Tax-CADM1+ cells were lysed at a very low rate by autologous CTLs, however, were efficiently killed when loaded with exogenous peptide antigen. High expression of CADM1 on most HTLV-1-infected cells in the face of enhanced CTL counterselection implies that CADM1 confers a strong benefit on the virus.

  2. Amount of colicin release in Escherichia coli is regulated by lysis gene expression of the colicin E2 operon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Mader

    Full Text Available The production of bacteriocins in response to worsening environmental conditions is one means of bacteria to outcompete other microorganisms. Colicins, one class of bacteriocins in Escherichia coli, are effective against closely related Enterobacteriaceae. Current research focuses on production, release and uptake of these toxins by bacteria. However, little is known about the quantitative aspects of these dynamic processes. Here, we quantitatively study expression dynamics of the Colicin E2 operon in E. coli on a single cell level using fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. DNA damage, triggering SOS response leads to the heterogeneous expression of this operon including the cea gene encoding the toxin, Colicin E2, and the cel gene coding for the induction of cell lysis and subsequent colicin release. Advancing previous whole population investigations, our time-lapse experiments reveal that at low exogenous stress levels all cells eventually respond after a given time (heterogeneous timing. This heterogeneous timing is lost at high stress levels, at which a synchronized stress response of all cells 60 min after induction via stress can be observed. We further demonstrate, that the amount of colicin released is dependent on cel (lysis gene expression, independent of the applied exogenous stress level. A heterogeneous response in combination with heterogeneous timing can be biologically significant. It might enable a bacterial population to endure low stress levels, while at high stress levels an immediate and synchronized population wide response can give single surviving cells of the own species the chance to take over the bacterial community after the stress has ceased.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance syndrome, low HDL cholesterol, Metabolic Syndrome, overweight, syndrome x, type 2 diabetes Family Health, Kids and Teens, Men, Women January 2005 Copyright © American Academy of Family PhysiciansThis ...

  4. Marfan Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfan syndrome is a disorder that affects connective tissue. Connective tissues are proteins that support skin, bones, ... fibrillin. A problem with the fibrillin gene causes Marfan syndrome. Marfan syndrome can be mild to severe, ...

  5. Williams syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Beuren syndrome ... Williams syndrome is caused by not having a copy of several genes. Parents may not have any family history of the condition. However, people with Williams syndrome have a 50% chance of passing the ...

  6. Fahr's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Fahr's Syndrome Information Page Fahr's Syndrome Information Page What research is being done? ... and conducts research on neurogenetic disorders such as Fahr's Syndrome. The goals of this research are to ...

  7. Process for the lysis of a culture of lactic acid bacteria by means of a lysin, and uses of the resulting lysed culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Venema, Gerard; Kok, Jan; Ledeboer, Aat M.

    1995-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the lysis of a culture of lactic acid bacteria, or a product containing such culture e.g. cheese, by means of a lysin through the in situ production of a homologous autolysin, or a heterologous autolysin obtainable from Gram-positive bacteria esp. from lactic aci

  8. Comparison of Two Cell Lysis Procedures for Recovery of Microcystins in Water Samples from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware, with Microcystin Producing Cyanobacterial Accumulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Rubio, Fernando; Kamp, Lisa; Humphries, Edythe; Whereat, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A collaboration was developed between Abraxis, LLC, the State of Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control Division of Water Resources Environmental Laboratory, the University of Delaware, and the United States Geological Survey to investigate the efficacy of the QuikLyse procedure developed by Abraxis, LLC as an alternative cell-lysis technique suitable for use with an existing liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry research method developed at the United States Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory to analyze cyanotoxins. A comparison of three sequential freeze/thaw cycles versus QuikLyse, a proprietary chemical lysis procedure was conducted on four water samples collected from Silver Lake in Dover, Delaware. Results from the Abraxis Microcystins-DM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry were tabulated as a function of the cell lysis technique. Stastical comparison of percent relative standard deviations showed no significant difference (alpha = 0.05) between both cell-lysis techniques when measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry for three of the four samples.

  9. Improved lysis efficiency and immunogenicity of Salmonella ghosts mediated by co-expression of λ phage holin-endolysin and ɸX174 gene E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Gayeon; Hajam, Irshad Ahmed; Lee, John Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial ghosts (BGs) are empty cell envelopes derived from Gram-negative bacteria by bacteriophage ɸX174 gene E mediated lysis. They represent a novel inactivated vaccine platform; however, the practical application of BGs for human vaccines seems to be limited due to the safety concerns on the presence of viable cells in BGs. Therefore, to improve the lysis efficiency of the gene E, we exploited the peptidoglycan hydrolyzing ability of the λ phage holin-endolysins to expedite the process of current BG production system. In this report, we constructed a novel ghost plasmid encoding protein E and holin-endolysins in tandem. We observed that sequential expressions of the gene E and the holin-endolysins elicited rapid and highly efficient Salmonella lysis compared to the lysis mediated by gene E only. These lysed BGs displayed improved immunogenicity in mice compared to the gene E mediated BGs. Consequently, seventy percent of the mice immunized with these novel ghosts survived against a lethal challenge while all the mice vaccinated with gene E mediated ghosts died by day 9 post-infection. We conclude that this novel strategy has the potential to generate highly efficient inactivated candidate vaccines that could replace the currently available bacterial vaccines. PMID:28332591

  10. Mexican Trypanosoma cruzi isolates: in vitro susceptibility of epimastigotes to anti-trypanosoma cruzi drugs and metacyclic forms to complement-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pérez, Floribeth; Gómez-Garcia, Lorena; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; López, R; Monteón, V M

    2007-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a clonal organization with an ample array of genetic and phenotypic features and probably anaploid constitution. Consequently, the biological behavior, biochemistry, and molecular attributes may be distinctive for each parasite strain in different geographical regions. As far as we know, there is no published information on the susceptibility of Mexican T. cruzi stocks to anti-T. cruzi drugs such as benznidazole and gentian violet, or on its resistance to complement-mediated lysis. We studied 10 Mexican T. cruzi isolates from different geographical areas, such as the pacific coast (Oaxaca, Guerrero, and Nayarit States), central part of Mexico (Guanajuato State), Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz State), and the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche State). We searched for the natural resistance to drugs in in vitro assay against the 10 Mexican isolates using epimastigote forms and the complement-mediated lysis using metacyclic trypomastigotes insect-derived in three of them (one for each geographic region). In general, we observed high resistance to benznidazole in all the Mexican isolates tested, but in the complement-mediated lysis test, they showed moderate to high susceptibility. Although it is necessary to expand this study by using trypomastigotes and the intracellular form to verify its biological role, we suggest that Mexican T. cruzi parasites may have a variable susceptibility to antibody-mediated lysis and high resistance to benznidazole.

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Angelman syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital Disease InfoSearch: Angelman Syndrome Genetics Education Materials for School Success (GEMSS) MalaCards: angelman ...

  12. Neurocysticercosis presenting as Millard Gubler syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajniti Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a common childhood neurological illness in India. A variety of presentations have been reported in the literature, including weber syndrome. Neurocysticercosis, manifesting as Millard Gubler syndrome, have not been reported in literature. Therefore, we report a child presented to us with Millard Gubler syndrome due to pontomedullary neurocysticercosis and was treated successfully.

  13. [Tumor/cytotoxic effector cross-talk in the control of tumor susceptibility to lysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, Asma; Dorothée, Guillaume; Thiéry, Jérôme; Guerra, Nadia; Richon, Catherine; Gaudin, Catherine; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia; Caignard, Anne; Diarra-Mehrpour, Maryam; Chouaib, Salem

    2003-01-01

    During the two least decades, the field of tumor immunology has met an expansion of knowledge about the molecular and cellular bases of immune regulation. The identification of cancer antigens has been of critical importance and cancer vaccine is at present a very fast moving field. However, the immunotherapy approaches in cancer are of modest success. This is mainly due to the capacity of tumor cells to escape from immunological detection and to resist to cell mediated cytotoxicity. We will discuss some mechanisms associated with the acquisition of this tumor resistance and the alteration of T cell function and how cancer profiling through genomics approaches may help to reconceptualize immunotherapy strategies.

  14. DOWN SYNDROME WITH MOYAMOYA SYNDROME

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohan Makwana; R. K. Vishnoi; Jai Prakash Soni; Kapil Jetha; Suresh Kumar Verma; Pradeep Singh Rathore; Monika Choudhary

    2017-01-01

    ...,” in which the arterial changes are seen among patients with various syndromes or other disease processes- Down syndrome, sickle cell anaemia, neurofibromatosis type-1, congenital heart disease...

  15. Ionic liquids for the concomitant use in extremophiles lysis and extremozymes extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Arnillas, E; Deive, F J; Sanromán, M A; Rodríguez, A

    2015-06-01

    Ionic liquids have been successfully proposed to modify membrane permeability in cultures of a model extremophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27, which makes up the first time that aqueous solutions of these molten salts are applied in downstream stages of this kind of microorganisms. The presence of 1g/L of C10MIMCl entails a great solubilisation of cell biomass, thus allowing the release of intracellular and membrane-bound enzyme. The influence on the enzyme activity of two inorganic salts such as Na2CO3 and (NH4)2SO4, selected on the basis of their high salting out potential and biocompatibility with enzymes, respectively, was investigated. In parallel, their ability to trigger phase segregation was confirmed in the presence of the enzyme crude, leading to very high levels of enzyme extraction (96%). The validity of the strategy was confirmed by operating at bioreactor scale, and the main bioprocess parameters were obtained by modelling the experimental data.

  16. Ensuring a successful family business management succession

    OpenAIRE

    Desbois, Joris

    2016-01-01

    Succession is the biggest long-term challenge that most family businesses face. Indeed, leaders ‘disposition to plan for their succession is frequently the key factor defining whether their family business subsists or stops. The research seeks to find out how to manage successfully the business management succession over main principles. This work project aims at researching the key points relevant to almost all family firms, to have a viable succession transition and positioni...

  17. Kindler syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Kindler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder associated with skin fragility. It is characterized by blistering in infancy, photosensitivity and progressive poikiloderma. The syndrome involves the skin and mucous membrane with radiological changes. The genetic defect has been identified on the short arm of chromosome 20. This report describes an 18-year-old patient with classical features like blistering and photosensitivity in childhood and the subsequent development of poikiloderma. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome includes diseases like Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. Our patient had classical cutaneous features of Kindler syndrome with phimosis as a complication.

  18. Altered fibrin clot structure/function in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome: association with thrombotic manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celińska-Lowenhoff, M; Iwaniec, T; Padjas, A; Musiał, J; Undas, A

    2014-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that plasma fibrin clot structure/function is unfavourably altered in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Ex vivo plasma clot permeability, turbidity and susceptibility to lysis were determined in 126 consecutive patients with APS enrolled five months or more since thrombotic event vs 105 controls. Patients with both primary and secondary APS were characterised by 11% lower clot permeability (p<0.001), 4.8% shorter lag phase (p<0.001), 10% longer clot lysis time (p<0.001), and 4.7% higher maximum level of D-dimer released from clots (p=0.02) as compared to the controls. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed denser fibrin networks composed of thinner fibres in APS. Clots from patients with "triple-antibody positivity" were formed after shorter lag phase (p=0.019) and were lysed at a slower rate (p=0.004) than in the remainder. Clots from APS patients who experienced stroke and/or myocardial infarction were 8% less permeable (p=0.01) and susceptible to lysis (10.4% longer clot lysis time [p=0.006] and 4.5% slower release of D-dimer from clots [p=0.01]) compared with those following venous thromboembolism alone. Multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders showed that in APS patients, lupus anticoagulant and "triple-positivity" were the independent predictors of clot permeability, while "triple-positivity" predicted lysis time. We conclude that APS is associated with prothrombotic plasma fibrin clot phenotype, with more pronounced abnormalities in arterial thrombosis. Molecular background for this novel prothrombotic mechanism in APS remains to be established.

  19. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sindhu Sharma, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Dhar*,Yudhvir Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) present at several differentiation from genetic defects to endorgan resistance thereby producing gender dilema dispelled by sex hormones signature.It is quite traumaticfor the patients and family of the affected baby. Extreme sensitivity and awareness on the part of thecaring doctor is necessary for early diagnosis of case of AIS &for successful outcome.

  20. Partial Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu Sharma, Kuldeep Singh, Sanjay Dhar*,Yudhvir Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS present at several differentiation from genetic defects to endorgan resistance thereby producing gender dilema dispelled by sex hormones signature.It is quite traumaticfor the patients and family of the affected baby. Extreme sensitivity and awareness on the part of thecaring doctor is necessary for early diagnosis of case of AIS &for successful outcome.

  1. Imaging secondary metabolism of Streptomyces sp. Mg1 during cellular lysis and colony degradation of competing Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Sarah R; Hoefler, B Chris; Cubillos-Ruiz, Andrés; Russell, William K; Russell, David H; Straight, Paul D

    2012-10-01

    Soil streptomycetes are saprotrophic bacteria that secrete numerous secondary metabolites and enzymes for extracellular functions. Many streptomycetes produce antibiotics thought to protect vegetative mycelia from competing organisms. Here we report that an organism isolated from soil, Streptomyces sp. Mg1, actively degrades colonies and causes cellular lysis of Bacillus subtilis when the organisms are cultured together. We predicted that the inhibition and degradation of B. subtilis colonies in this competition depends upon a combination of secreted factors, including small molecule metabolites and enzymes. To begin to unravel this complex competitive phenomenon, we use a MALDI imaging mass spectrometry strategy to map the positions of metabolites secreted by both organisms. In this report, we show that Streptomyces sp. Mg1 produces the macrolide antibiotic chalcomycin A, which contributes to inhibition of B. subtilis growth in combination with other, as yet unidentified factors. We suggest that efforts to understand competitive and cooperative interactions between bacterial species benefit from assays that pair living organisms and probe the complexity of metabolic exchanges between them.

  2. Nd:YAG Laser Lysis of the Fibrinous Membrane and Remnant Substance on the Anterior Surface of Intraocular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhendeLin; ChenjinJin

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the effects of ND:YAGlaser to disrupt the fibrinous membrane and remnant substance on the anterior surface of intraocular lens.Methods:Nd:YAGlaser was applied on 23cases of fibrinous membrane forma-tion and 8cases of remnant substance on the anterior surface of intaocular lenses(IOL)which had not reponded well to steroid therapy,Eighteen cases were male and 13female.The mean age was49.7years(range,5-78years),The in-terval between IOL implantation and laser therapy was 0.5-30months in the fibrinous membrane cases and 3-10days in the remnant substance cases.The energy applied was0.8-3.0mJ/exp.with2-112exposures.mean follow-up period was3.6months.Results:Complications during therapy included only 2cases of slight iris bleed-ing,Visual acuity after therapy was improved 1line in 16cases,2lines in 11cas-es,3lines in 1case,4lines in 1case and 5lines in 2cases,No post-therapy com-plication was found.Conclusions:Nd:YAG laser lysis is an effective alternative to ramove the fibri-nous membrane and remnant substances on the anterior surface of IOL.Eye Sci-ence1995;11:128-130.

  3. Early postnatal diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis by combining light microscopy, acidified glycerol lysis test and eosin-5'-maleimide binding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Oliver; Eber, Stefan; Speer, Christian P

    2015-12-01

    Exact diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is widely considered unreliable around birth. However, early postnatal diagnosis at the beginning of congenital hemolysis may be essential for managing neonatal anemia and hemolytic icterus, identifying those at high risk for severe hyperbilirubinemia, irreversible kernicterus, or sudden need for red cell transfusion. We analyzed 37 blood samples from neonates or infants up to six weeks of life that had been collected in-house or shipped to our laboratory due to suspected red cell membrane disorder. By combining assessment of red cell morphology, acidified glycerol lysis test (AGLT), and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding assay, we were able to clearly exclude HS in 22 and confirm HS in 10 patients, of which one had undergone red cell transfusion prior to blood sampling. Assessment of red cell morphology and normal test results allowed diagnosis of infantile pyknocytosis or Heinz body anemia in three neonates. Re-evaluation of five patients with inconsistent results of AGLT and EMA binding led to confirmation of HS in two cases. Automated analysis of hematologic parameters revealed elevated proportion of hyperdense cells to be a highly significant indicator for HS in neonatal infants. We showed that assessment of red cell morphology in combination with AGLT and EMA binding assay is a reliable basis for confirming or rejecting suspected diagnosis of HS even in neonates. Our data underline the necessity for blood sampling and laboratory exploration in suspected red cell membrane or enzyme defects at the earliest occasion.

  4. Granulocytes of sea anemone Actinia equina (Linnaeus, 1758 body fluid contain and release cytolysins forming plaques of lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MG Parisi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cnidaria phylum includes organisms that are among the most poisonous animals. The exact composition of cnidarian bioactive molecules is not known in detail, but little is known on the cells that produce the toxins. Here we have shown that the presence of cytolysins is not exclusive of nematocysts. A plaque-forming assay was carried out with cell populations extracted from the percoled body fluid showed for the first time that anthozoan granulocytes are able to form plaque of lysis. We have partitioned the total population of free cells into three distinct discrete bands by discontinuous Percoll gradient, and we have identified six small different types cells: morular granulocytes; cells with large or small peripherical granules, granulocytes with irregular shape containing blue and red granules, cells showing one fine red granule of uniform size and, finally, cells with elongated shape and small dispersed granules. Cell lysate of each cellular band resulted cytolytic toward different erythrocytes types. SDS page analysis of the lysate cell fraction showed a predominant of 20 kDa that corresponds to the weight of the cytolytic equinatoxin. The nature of equinatoxins-related activity was demonstrated by inhibition experiments using bovine sphingomyelin.

  5. Real-time monitoring of bioaerosols via cell-lysis by air ion and ATP bioluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Woo; Park, Ji-Woon; Lee, Sung Hwa; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we introduce a methodology for disrupting cell membranes with air ions coupled with ATP bioluminescence detection for real-time monitoring of bioaerosol concentrations. A carbon fiber ionizer was used to extract ATP from bacterial cells for generating ATP bioluminescence. Our methodology was tested using Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli, which were aerosolized with an atomizer, and then indoor bioaerosols were also used for testing the methodology. Bioaerosol concentrations were estimated without culturing which requires several days for colony formation. Correlation equations were obtained for results acquired using our methodology (Relative Luminescent Unit (RLU)/m(3)) and a culture-based (Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) method; CFU/m(3)=1.8 × measured RLU/m(3) for S. epidermidis and E. coli, and CFU/m(3)=1.1 × measured RLU/m(3) for indoor bioaerosols under the experimental conditions. Our methodology is an affordable solution for rapidly monitoring bioaerosols due to rapid detection time (cell-lysis time: 3 min; bioluminescence detection time: <1 min) and easy operation.

  6. Modified Atkins diet induces subacute selective ragged-red-fiber lysis in mitochondrial myopathy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Sofia; Auranen, Mari; Isohanni, Pirjo; Niemisalo, Satu; Urho, Niina; Buzkova, Jana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Lundbom, Nina; Hakkarainen, Antti; Muurinen, Tiina; Piirilä, Päivi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Suomalainen, Anu

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy (MM) with progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO) is a common manifestation of mitochondrial disease in adulthood, for which there is no curative therapy. In mice with MM, ketogenic diet significantly delayed progression of the disease. We asked in this pilot study what effects high-fat, low-carbohydrate "modified Atkins" diet (mAD) had for PEO/MM patients and control subjects and followed up the effects by clinical, morphological, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. All of our five patients, irrespective of genotype, showed a subacute response after 1.5-2 weeks of diet, with progressive muscle pain and leakage of muscle enzymes, leading to premature discontinuation of the diet. Analysis of muscle ultrastructure revealed selective fiber damage, especially in the ragged-red-fibers (RRFs), a MM hallmark. Two years of follow-up showed improvement of muscle strength, suggesting activation of muscle regeneration. Our results indicate that (i) nutrition can modify mitochondrial disease progression, (ii) dietary counseling should be part of MM care, (iii) short mAD is a tool to induce targeted RRF lysis, and (iv) mAD, a common weight-loss method, may induce muscle damage in a population subgroup.

  7. The bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody: a model to preactivate T cells prior to tumour cell lysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    JENSEN, M; ERNESTUS, K; KEMSHEAD, J; KLEHR, M; VON BERGWELT-BAILDON, M S; SCHINKÖTHE, T; SCHULTZE, J L; BERTHOLD, F

    2003-01-01

    To target the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM, CD56) on neuroblastoma by T cell-based immunotherapy we have generated a bi-specific CD3 × NCAM antibody (OE-1). This antibody can be used to redirect T cells to NCAM+ cells. Expectedly, the antibody binds specifically to NCAM+ neuroblastoma cells and CD3+ T cells. OE-1 induces T cell activation, expansion and effector function in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. T cell activation was shown to depend on the presence of normal natural killer (NK) cells in the culture. Interestingly, while PBMC- derived T cells were activated by OE-1, NK cells were almost completely depleted, suggesting that T cells activated by OE-1 deleted the NK cells. Activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells differentiate into a larger CCR7+ central memory and a smaller CCR7– effector memory cell population. Most importantly, preactivated T cells were highly cytotoxic for neuroblastoma cells. In eight of 11 experiments tumour-directed cytotoxicity was enhanced when NK cells were present during preactivation with OE-1. These data strongly support a bi-phasic therapeutic concept of primarily stimulating T cells with the bi-specific antibody in the presence of normal NCAM+ cells to induce T cell activation, migratory capacity and finally tumour cell lysis. PMID:14616785

  8. Investigation of low-voltage pulse parameters on electroporation and electrical lysis using a microfluidic device with interdigitated electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Bashir I; Shams, Maitham; Mussivand, Tofy

    2014-03-01

    Electroporation (EP) of biological cells leads to the exchange of materials through the permeabilized cell membrane, while electrical lysis (EL) irreversibly disrupts the cell membrane. We report a microfluidic device to study these two phenomena with low-voltage excitation for lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. For systematic study of EP, we have employed a quantification metric: flow Index (FI) of EP. Simulation and experimental results with the microfluidic device containing interdigitated, coplanar, integrated electrodes to electroporate, and rapidly lyse biological cells are presented. H&E stained human buccal cells were subjected to various pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and number of pulses. Simulations show that an electric field of 25 kV/cm with a 20 V applied potential produced 1.3 (°)C temperature rise for a 5 s of excitation. For a 20 V pulse-excitation with pulse-widths between 0.5 to 5 s, EL was observed, whereas for lower excitations, only EP was observed. FI of EP is found to be a direct function of pulse magnitudes, pulsewidths, and numbers of pulses. To release DNA from nucleus, excitation-pulses of 5 s were required. Quantification of EP would be useful for systematic study of EP toward optimization with various excitation pulses, while low-voltage requirement and high yield of EP and EL are critical to develop LOC for drug delivery and cell-sample preparation, respectively.

  9. Planning farm succession: how to be successful

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Planning farm succession is really good farm planning in its broadest aspect. Unfortunately very few farmers and their families have devoted sufficient time to working out how the farm business will be transferred. After demonstrating the importance of the farm succession issue, this article goes on to explaining a method of successfully tackling the process.

  10. Study of the phage production efficiency in the bacteria lysis processes; Estudio del rendimiento en fagos para los procesos de lisis bacteriana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidania Munoz, R. de; Garces, F.; Davila, C. A.

    1979-07-01

    In this work we present a search for the best production conditions of {lambda}vir and{lambda} clear phages In E coli K12 and E coli C{sub 6}00 infected cells respectively. By keeping fixed some parameters of the process as the bacterial and phage generation times and the bacterial burst side, we have found that the lysis yield is strongly dependent on the multiplicity and in a lesser degree on the infection time. It appears from the experimental results that other variables are important, as infection efficiency and approach time from phages to bacteria. We will try to describe the lysis phenomenon by a numerical model on the bases of the se experimental results. (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Cloning of xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus in Escherichia coli and bacteriophage lambda-induced lysis for the release of cloned enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, R; Ali, S S; Srivastava, B S

    1991-03-01

    The xylanase gene of Streptomyces flavogriseus was cloned in pUC8 plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli lysogenic for lambda cI857. lambda-Induced lysis of E. coli at 42 degrees C allowed efficient release of cloned enzyme activity in extracellular environment. The xylanase gene was located in the 0.8-kb HindIII fragment and coded for 18,000 Mr xylanase.

  12. Mechanism of Action of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree) Oil on Staphylococcus aureus Determined by Time-Kill, Lysis, Leakage, and Salt Tolerance Assays and Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Christine F.; Mee, Brian J.; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-01-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and α-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement ...

  13. Enhancement of NK cell-mediated lysis of non-small lung cancer cells by nPKC activator, ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chenyuan; Yao, Chao; Xu, Zihang; Ni, Zhongya; Zhu, Xiaowen; Wang, Lixin; Yan, Xuewei; Zhou, Wuxiong; Zhu, Shiguo

    2017-03-01

    The IFN-γ production is crucial for NK cell-mediated lysis of cancer cells. Thus increasing the IFN-γ production by NK cells may be an ideal strategy to improve their tumoricidal effect. Since the focus on new drug development has shifted towards natural products, limited information is out there about natural products that enhance the IFN-γ production by NK cells. In this study, through a high-throughput screening, we have identified a natural product ingenol 3,20 dibenzoate (IDB), an activator of tumor suppressor protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, could increase the IFN-γ production and degranulation by NK cells, especially when NK cells were stimulated by non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. IDB also significantly enhanced the NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells. Furthermore, PKC inhibitor, sotrastaurin abrogated IDB-induced IFN-γ production, degranulation and cytotoxicity, but did not affect IFN-γ production by NK cells without IDB treatment and NSCLC cell stimulation. The IFN-γ neutralization reversed the IDB-induced enhancement of NK cell mediated killing. In conclusion, our study indicated that IDB enhanced NK cell-mediated lysis of NSCLC cells is dependent on specific PKC mediated IFN-γ production and degranulation. Thus, IDB may have a promising application in clinic for NK cell-based cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Reduction of excess sludge in a sequencing batch reactor by lysis-cryptic growth using quick lime for disintegration under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Mei; Song, Ju-Sheng; Li, Ji; Zhai, Kun

    2016-10-06

    In the present study, quick-lime-based thermal-alkaline sludge disintegration (SD) under low temperature was combined with cryptic growth to investigate the excess sludge reduction efficiency in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The optimized condition of SD was as follows: T = 80℃, pH = 11, t = 180 min, and the SD rate was about 42.1%. With 65.6% of excess sludge disintegrated and returned to the SBR, the system achieved sludge reduction rate of about 40.1%. The lysis-cryptic growth still obtained satisfactory sludge reduction efficiency despite the comparative low SD rate, which suggested that disintegration rate might not be the decisive factor for cryptic-growth-based sludge reduction. Lysis-cryptic growth did not impact the effluent quality, yet the phosphorus removal performance was enhanced, with effluent total phosphorus concentration decreased by 0.3 mg/L (33%). Crystal compounds of calcium phosphate precipitate were detected in the system by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, which indicated the phosphorus removal potential of SD using lime. Moreover, endogenous dehydrogenase activity of activated sludge in the lysis-cryptic system was enhanced, which was beneficial for sludge reduction. SD and cryptic growth in the present study demonstrates an economical and effective approach for sludge reduction.

  15. Cyclosporin a, but not FK506, induces osmotic lysis of pancreas zymogen granules, intra-acinar enzyme release, and lysosome instability by activating K+ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kee; Braun, Matthias; Langelüddecke, Christian; Thévenod, Frank

    2012-05-01

    The immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506) has improved pancreas allograft survival compared with cyclosporin A (CsA), possibly because of reduced acute pancreatitis following ischemia-reperfusion injury. Ion permeabilities in zymogen granule (ZG) membranes, including a KCNQ1 K channel, promote hormone-stimulated enzyme secretion. We investigated whether a differential modulation of ZG and lysosomal ion permeabilities and enzyme secretion by CsA/FK506 contributes to pancreatitis. Rat ZGs and lysosomes were isolated by gradient centrifugation, ion permeabilities assayed by osmotic lysis, and single-channel currents recorded in a planar lipid bilayer. Amylase release was measured in permeabilized acini and lysosomal cathepsin B release detected by immunoblotting. CsA (1-10 μM), but not FK506, enhanced ZGs osmotic lysis by selectively increasing K permeability up to 5-fold. Zymogen granule membrane K channels showed ∼2-fold increased single-channel open probability with CsA only. Cyclosporin A selectively increased basal (∼2-fold), but not cholecystokinin-octapeptide (1 nM)-induced amylase secretion in K medium only. Cyclosporin A (5 μM), but not FK506, increased cathepsin B release from lysosomes. Cyclosporin A selectively opens the ZG K channel and induces cathepsin B release from lysosomes, which cause increased in situ lysis of ZGs and may aggravate or fuel acute allograft pancreatitis following hypoxia-reperfusion injury.

  16. Using Mathematical Modelling to Explore Hypotheses about the Role of Bovine Epithelium Structure in Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus-Induced Cell Lysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriaki Giorgakoudi

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. FMD virus (FMDV shows a strong tropism for epithelial cells, and FMD is characterised by cell lysis and the development of vesicular lesions in certain epithelial tissues (for example, the tongue. By contrast, other epithelial tissues do not develop lesions, despite being sites of viral replication (for example, the dorsal soft palate. The reasons for this difference are poorly understood, but hypotheses are difficult to test experimentally. In order to identify the factors which drive cell lysis, and consequently determine the development of lesions, we developed a partial differential equation model of FMDV infection in bovine epithelial tissues and used it to explore a range of hypotheses about epithelium structure which could be driving differences in lytic behaviour observed in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that, based on current parameter estimates, epithelial tissue thickness and cell layer structure are unlikely to be determinants of FMDV-induced cell lysis. However, differences in receptor distribution or viral replication amongst cell layers could influence the development of lesions, but only if viral replication rates are much lower than current estimates.

  17. Production of lipase from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid and thereof for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides and lysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K; Sekaran, G

    2012-08-01

    The study demonstrates the production of lipase (LIP) from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid as the substrate for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipase was purified with the specific activity of 828 U/mg protein and the molecular weight of 56 kDa. The maximum lipase activity was observed at the pH 7.0 and the temperature 37 °C. The amino acid composition of purified lipase was determined by HPLC. The mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) was used for the immobilization of lipase for the repeated use of the enzyme catalyst. The K (m) value of immobilized lipase (MAC-LIP) and the free lipase (LIP) was 0.182 and 1.96 mM, respectively. The V (max) value of MAC-LIP and LIP was 1.33 and 1.26 mM/min, respectively. The MAC and MAC-LIP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrolysis study showed 78 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for LIP and 84 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for MAC-LIP at the reaction time of 1 h. The effect of lipase on cell wall lysis was carried out on the RBCs of blood plasma. Interestingly, 99.9% lysis of RBCs was observed within 2 h. SEM images and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the lysis of RBCs. This work provides a potential biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides.

  18. Demonstration of NK cell-mediated lysis of varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-infected cells: characterization of the effector cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilden, A.B.; Cauda, R.; Grossi, C.E.; Balch, C.M.; Lakeman, A.D.; Whitley, R.J.

    1986-06-01

    Infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) rendered RAJI cells more susceptible to lysis by non-adherent blood lymphocytes. At an effector to target ratio of 80:1 the mean percentage of /sup 51/Cr release of VZV-infected RAJI cells was 41 +/- 12%, whereas that of uninfected RAJI cells was 15 +/- 6%. The increased susceptibility to lysis was associated with increased effector to target conjugate formation in immunofluorescence binding assays. The effector cells cytotoxic for VZV-infected RAJI cells were predominantly Leu-11a/sup +/ Leu-4/sup -/ granular lymphocytes as demonstrated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effector cell active against VZV-infected RAJI cells appeared similar to those active against herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected cells, because in cold target competition experiments the lysis of /sup 51/Cr-labeled VZV-infected RAJI cells was efficiently inhibited by either unlabeled VZV-infected RAJI cells (mean 71% inhibition, 2:1 ratio unlabeled to labeled target) or HSV-infected RAJI cells (mean 69% inhibition) but not by uninfected RAJI cells (mean 10% inhibition). In contrast, competition experiments revealed donor heterogeneity in the overlap between effector cells for VZV- or HSV-infected RAJI vs K-562 cells.

  19. Successful treatment of restless legs syndrome by mouth acupuncture:A report of one case%口针治疗不安腿综合征验案1则

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦娜

    2010-01-01

    @@ 不安腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)是一种至今病因不明、发病机制亦不十分清楚的神经系统感觉运动性疾病,西医治疗本病疗效欠佳,而中医疗法治疗具有一定的优势.笔者运用口针治疗不安腿综合征1例,收效较佳,总结如次,冀为本病的治疗提供一种新的思路.

  20. Syndromic autism: II. Genetic syndromes associated with autism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Artigas-Pallarés, J; Gabau-Vila, E; Guitart-Feliubadaló, M

    2005-01-01

    ..., tuberous sclerosis, Duchenne's disease, Timothy syndrome, 10p terminal deletion, Cowden syndrome, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, Myhre syndrome, Sotos syndrome, Cohen syndrome, Goldenhar syndrome, Joubert...

  1. Edwards' syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Doreen; Dearmun, Annette

    2016-12-08

    Edwards' syndrome is a serious genetic condition that affects fetal cellular functions, tissue development and organogenesis. Most infants with the syndrome are female, but there is no race predominance.

  2. Dravet Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Craniosynostosis Information Page Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Information Page Cushing's Syndrome Information Page Dandy-Walker Syndrome Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Dementia Information ...

  3. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ... dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic ...

  4. Turner Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  5. Cushing's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder. The cause is long-term exposure to too much cortisol, a hormone ... cause your body to make too much cortisol. Cushing's syndrome is rare. Some symptoms are Upper body obesity ...

  6. Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... colon cancer may include surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Cancer screening for people with Lynch syndrome If you ... et al. Milestones of Lynch syndrome: 1895-2015. Nature Reviews Cancer. http://www.nature.com/nrc/journal/vaop/ncurrent/ ...

  7. Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These ... doctors agree on the definition or cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is ...

  8. Meckel syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salonen, R; Paavola, P

    1998-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal syndrome with a central nervous system malformation, usually occipital meningoencephalocele, bilaterally large multicystic kidneys with fibrotic changes of the liver, and polydactyly in most cases...

  9. Angelman Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ... this syndrome often display hyperactivity, small head size, sleep disorders, and movement and balance disorders that can cause ...

  10. Apert Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Saha, Sandip; Kar, Arnab; Mondal, Souvonik; Basu, Syamantak

    2014-09-01

    Apert syndrome is one of the craniosynostosis syndromes which, due to its association with other skeletal anomalies, is also known as acrocephalosyndactyly. It is a rare congenital anomaly which stands out from other craniosynostosis due to its characteristic skeletal presentations.

  11. Learning about Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What are the symptoms ... syndrome Additional Resources for Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to ...

  12. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  13. Fraser syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Kumari M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Fraser syndrome or cryptophthalmos is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by major features such as cryptophthalmos, syndactyly and abnormal genitalia. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be made on clinical examination and perinatal autopsy. We present the autopsy findings of a rare case of Fraser syndrome in a male infant.

  14. Rowell syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Y Bhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine.

  15. Wallenberg's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Page You are here Home » Disorders » All Disorders Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page Wallenberg's Syndrome Information Page What ... better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure disorders such as Wallenberg’s syndrome. Information from the National Library of Medicine’s ...

  16. Italian Succession Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    De Tullio, Giandomenico

    2012-01-01

    Italian inheritance law based on the Roman law of succession including legitimate succession and testamentary succession. The importance of drafting an Italian will and the legal requirements according to Italian Law.

  17. A case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome with acute renal failure after the discontinuation of sulpiride and maprotiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatake, I; Yamaji, K; Shirato, I; Kubota, M; Nakayama, S; Tomino, Y; Koide, H

    1991-01-01

    A 46-year-old man developed neuroleptic malignant syndrome with acute myoglobinuric renal failure after the discontinuation of sulpiride and maprotiline treatment. He showed the characteristic features of hyperpyrexia, altered consciousness, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction. Laboratory data showed lysis of skeletal muscle cells and renal impairment. Muscle biopsy revealed necrosis and regenerative changes in muscle fibers. Renal biopsy showed focal tubulitis and interstitial infiltration of small inflammatory cells. The combination of sulpiride and maprotiline has not previously been reported to be the cause of neuroleptic malignant syndrome and acute myoglobinuric renal failure.

  18. The management of Asherman syndrome in gynecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wachyu Hadisaputra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Asherman syndrome is an acquired condition characterized by the formation of adhesions in the uterine cavity. This condition is often caused by trauma to the endometrium, which mostly happens after currettage or post-partum, and can produce several complications such as menstrual disturbances, infertility, or recurrent abortion. The management of Asherman syndrome requires complete actions which can be summarized with the acronym PRACTICE, consisting of prevention, anticipation, comprehensive therapy, timely surveillance of subsequent pregnancies, investigation and continuing education. The prevention and anticipation aspects can be performed through reduction of invasive methods of therapy such as currettage, prophylactic therapy for adhesions such as antibiotics and post-estrogen therapy for high risk patients, and the use of instruments that do less damage to the uterine walls. The comprehensive therapy that become the method of choice is operative lysis using hysteroscopy, which provides direct visualization of the adhesion. To prevent reccurrence, especially to patients planning to have subsequent pregnancies, timely surveillance of the next pregnancies for high risk patients should be performed at hospital, with complete work-ups. Lastly, evaluation of operative results and continuing education to explain prognoses to the patient should be also performed. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:121-6Keywords: Asherman syndrome, hysteroscopy, intrauterine adhesion

  19. Refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández López, M T; López Otero, M J; Alvarez Vázquez, P; Arias Delgado, J; Varela Correa, J J

    2009-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a complex syndrome that occurs as a result of reintroducing nutrition (oral, enteral or parenteral) to patients who are starved or malnourished. Patients can develop fluid-balance abnormalities, electrolyte disorders (hypophosphataemia, hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia), abnormal glucose metabolism and certain vitamin deficiencies. Refeeding syndrome encompasses abnormalities affecting multiple organ systems, including neurological, pulmonary, cardiac, neuromuscular and haematological functions. Pathogenic mechanisms involved in the refeeding syndrome and clinical manifestations have been reviewed. We provide suggestions for the prevention and treatment of refeeding syndrome. The most important steps are to identify patients at risk, reintroduce nutrition cautiously and correct electrolyte and vitamin deficiencies properly.

  20. [Metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2009-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which is consisted of hypertension, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance, is one of the most significant lifestyle-related disorders that lead to cardiovascular diseases. Among many upstream factors that are related to metabolic syndrome, obesity, especially visceral obesity, plays an essential role in its pathogenesis. In recent studies, possible mechanisms which connect obesity to metabolic syndrome have been elucidated, such as inflammation, abnormal secretion of adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. In this review, we focus on the relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome; and illustrate how visceral obesity contributes to, and how the treatments for obesity act on metabolic syndrome.

  1. Primary parotid B-cell lymphoma successfully treated with chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with prolonged survival and immune reconstitution in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient: Case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL is the second most common acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS-defining cancer. In this population, up to 70-80% of cases may present as extranodal location as the primary clinical manifestation of the neoplasm disease. Gastrointestinal tract is the most frequent location of AIDS-associated NHL. However, salivary gland involvement, including the parotid gland is a rare complication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-patients. Here, we describe a patient seropositive for the HIV, who developed a primary NHL of the parotid gland histologically classified as a high-grade diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Patient was treated with a combination of chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral therapy with a good clinical, virological and immunological response and a prolonged survival, more than 5 years, without evidence of neoplasm relapse.

  2. [Autoinflammatory syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Hiroaki; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2009-03-01

    The autoinflammatory syndromes include a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by 1) seemingly unprovoked episodes of systemic inflammations, 2) absence of high titer of autoantibody or auto-reactive T cell, and 3) inborn error of innate immunity. In this article, we will focus on the clinical features, the pathogenesis related the genetic defects, and the therapeutic strategies in the representative disorders including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF), TNF receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS), hyper-IgD with periodic fever syndrome (HIDS), syndrome of pyogenic arthritis with pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA), and Blau syndrome. Recent advances in genetics and molecular biology have proceeded our understanding of the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory syndromes.

  3. Lethal pallister-killian syndrome: Phenotypic similarity with fryns syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignacio Rodriquez, J.; Garcia, I.; Alvarez, J.; Delicado, A.; Palacios, J. [La Paz Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    1994-11-01

    The Pallister-Killian syndrome is a sporadic multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, profound mental retardation, and epilepsy. Chromosomes of peripheral lymphocytes are usually normal, but tissue cultures show varying degrees of mosaicism for isochromosome 12p. In babies who die neonatally of severe malformations, including diaphragmatic hernia, and who also have a {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, and other internal anomalies, Fryns syndrome is more likely to be suspected than Pallister-Killian syndrome, especially if karyotyping is unavailable or if peripheral lumphocytes have a normal chromosome constitution. An initial diagnosis of Fryns syndrome had to be modified in 3 successive newborn infants since chromosome analysis or in situ hybridization with a chromosome 12 probe on kidney tissue demonstrated the mosaic aneuploidy characteristic of Pallister-Killian syndrome. These 3 patients confirm that a similar pattern of malformations can be present in both conditions at birth. It consists of {open_quotes}coarse{close_quotes} face, acral hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and other defects. Newborn infants who present this phenotype, but lack a conclusively normal chromosome test, may not have Fryns syndrome. A diagnosis of Fryns syndrome should be made carefully to avoid the risk of inappropriate genetic counseling. 31 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Psychose passionnelle in successive generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J; Haden, P

    1980-12-01

    This paper describes two women. The first was admitted to hospital having suddenly, and without adequate reason, developed the idea that a senior married colleague at her workplace had fallen deeply in love with her. The second woman is her mother, who had been admitted to the same hospital twenty-two years earlier with a well systematized delusion that her husband was unfaithful. Both syndromes have been described by de Clérambault as two of the three forms of psychose passionnelle. The present report is intended to clarify the concepts of psychose passionelle and demonstrate the similarities between jealousy and erotomania. We believe these case histories describe the first reported instance of psychose passionnelle in successive generations of one family.

  5. A case of recurrent autoimmune hemolytic anemia during remission associated with acute pure red cell aplasia and hemophagocytic syndrome due to human parvovirus B19 infection successfully treated by steroid pulse therapy with a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yasunobu; Shimada, Asami; Imai, Hidenori; Wakabayashi, Mutsumi; Sugimoto, Keiji; Nakamura, Noriko; Sawada, Tomohiro; Komatsu, Norio; Noguchi, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 47-year-old man diagnosed as having autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) in April 2011. He also had a congenital chromosomal abnormality, a balanced translocation. Treatment with prednisolone (PSL) 60 mg/day resulted in resolution of the AIHA, and the treatment was completed in November 2011. While the patient no longer had anemia, the direct and indirect Coombs tests remained positive. In May 2013, he developed recurrent AIHA associated with acute pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) and hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) caused by human parvovirus B19 (HPV B19) infection. Tests for anti-erythropoietin and anti-erythropoietin receptor antibodies were positive. Steroid pulse therapy resulted in resolution of the AIHA, PRCA, as well as HPS. The serum test for anti-erythropoietin antibodies also became negative after the treatment. However, although the serum was positive for anti-HPV B19 IgG antibodies, the patient continued to have a low CD4 lymphocyte count (CD4, <300/μL) and persistent HPV B19 infection (HPV B19 DNA remained positive), suggesting the risk of recurrence and bone marrow failure.

  6. Sublethal exposure to alpha radiation (223Ra dichloride) enhances various carcinomas' sensitivity to lysis by antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes through calreticulin-mediated immunogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamas, Anthony S; Gameiro, Sofia R; Knudson, Karin M; Hodge, James W

    2016-12-27

    Radium-223 dichloride (Xofigo®; 223Ra) is an alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical FDA-approved for the treatment of bone metastases in patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. It is also being examined clinically in patients with breast and lung carcinoma and patients with multiple myeloma. As with other forms of radiation, the aim of 223Ra is to reduce tumor burden by directly killing tumor cells. External beam (photon) and proton radiation have been shown to augment tumor sensitivity to antigen-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). However, little is known about whether treatment with 223Ra can also induce such immunogenic modulation in tumor cells that survive irradiation. We examined these effects in vitro by exposing human prostate, breast, and lung carcinoma cells to sublethal doses of 223Ra. 223Ra significantly enhanced T cell-mediated lysis of each tumor type by CD8+ CTLs specific for MUC-1, brachyury, and CEA tumor antigens. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that the increase in CTL killing was accompanied by augmented protein expression of MHC-I and calreticulin in each tumor type, molecules that are essential for efficient antigen presentation. Enhanced tumor-cell lysis was facilitated by calreticulin surface translocation following 223Ra exposure. The phenotypic changes observed after treatment appear to be mediated by induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response pathway. By rendering tumor cells more susceptible to T cell-mediated lysis, 223Ra may potentially be effective in combination with various immunotherapies, particularly cancer vaccines that are designed to generate and expand patients' endogenous antigen-specific T-cell populations against specific tumor antigens.

  7. The yield and quality of cellular and bacterial DNA extracts from human oral rinse samples are variably affected by the cell lysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mohsen; Nair, Raj G; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Zhang, Li; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Ahmetagic, Adnan; Good, David; Wei, Ming Q

    2016-03-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have enabled detailed mapping of human microbiome that has not been hitherto achievable by culture-based methods. DNA extraction is a key element of bacterial culture-independent studies that critically impacts on the outcome of the detected microbial profile. Despite the variations in DNA extraction methods described in the literature, no standardized technique is available for the purpose of microbiome profiling. Hence, standardization of DNA extraction methods is urgently needed to yield comparable data from different studies. We examined the effect of eight different cell lysis protocols on the yield and quality of the extracted DNA from oral rinse samples. These samples were exposed to cell lysis techniques based on enzymatic, mechanical, and a combination of enzymatic-mechanical methods. The outcome measures evaluated were total bacterial population, Firmicutes levels and human DNA contamination (in terms of surrogate GAPDH levels). We noted that all three parameters were significantly affected by the method of cell lysis employed. Although the highest yield of gDNA was obtained using lysozyme-achromopeptidase method, the lysozyme-zirconium beads method yielded the peak quantity of total bacterial DNA and Firmicutes with a lower degree of GAPDH contamination compared with the other methods. Taken together our data clearly points to an urgent need for a consensus, standardized DNA extraction technique to evaluate the oral microbiome using oral rinse samples. Further, if Firmicutes levels are the focus of investigation in oral rinse microbiome analyses then the lysozyme-zirconium bead method would be the method of choice in preference to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel integrated strategy for detection of human bocavirus based on a heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples in human specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Yao, Qing; Ma, Jing; Li, Jianning; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Yi; Li, Fang; Sun, Yuning

    2014-07-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) has been shown to be associated with acute respiratory tract infection in children. The aim of the work was to develop a novel integrated strategy for human bocavirus detection: heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples. The detection limit of the heminested PCR assay was 1.2 copies of a recombinant DNA plasmid, and no cross-reaction with other respiratory viruses or bacteria was observed. By using the integrated strategy, a total of 202 secretions of the lower respiratory tract of children with acute respiratory diseases were collected and tested. The samples were treated and lysed in boiling lysis buffer rather than extracting viral DNA from secretions, then these sample lysates could be templates and tested by heminested PCR assay, and the amplification of HBoV DNA was detected by using agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that, only 7 samples were found to be positive by conventional single-round PCR; importantly, the other new 41 samples were positive by heminested PCR assay. Additionally, the genomic viral DNA was extracted from all positive and some negative specimens, amplified, and sequenced. The results were perfectly consistent with those of the integrated strategy. Taken together, these results suggest that the novel integrated strategy (heminested PCR assay combined with boiling lysis method of samples) is a convenient, sensitive, cost-effective and reliable detective method for HBoV detection and will have broad application prospects in clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wellens' syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Lai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of quite rare cause of thoracic pain suspected by emergency physician as Wellens’ syndrome. Wellens’ syndrome is a pattern of electrocardiographic T-wave changes associated with critical, proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD. This syndrome is about 10-15% of all unstable angina in emergency department (ED. The cardiologic consult was obtained in ED and it was not conclusive for a Wellens’ syndrome, so that the diagnostistic planning was wrong. The authors point out the importance of this syndrome in ED and the necessity of an urgent angiographic study as every acute coronary syndrome presented in ED. We remark the importance in ED to recognize these changes associated with critical LAD obstruction and the high risk for anterior wall myocardial infarction.

  10. [Autoinflammatory syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, P; Gross, W L

    2009-06-01

    In its strict sense, the term "autoinflammatory syndromes" comprises the hereditary periodic fever syndromes (HPF), which are caused by mutations of pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) and perturbations of the cytokine balance. These include the crypyrinopathies, familial Mediterranean fever, TNF-receptor associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS), hyper-IgD and periodic syndrome (HIDS), pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, NALP12-HPF, and the Blau syndrome. The diseases are characterized by spontaneous activation of cells of the innate immunity in the absence of ligands. Autoantibodies are usually not found. HPF clinically present with recurrent fever episodes and inflammation, especially of serosal and synovial interfaces and the skin. Intriguingly, PRR-mediated autoinflammtory mechanisms also play a role in a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

  11. Evaluation of cell lysis procedures and use of a micro fluidic system for an automated DNA-based cell identification in interplanetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. A.; Felnagle, E.; Fries, M.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L.; Steele, A.

    2006-12-01

    A Modular Assay System for Solar System Exploration (MASSE) is being developed to include sample handling, pre-treatment, separation and analysis of biological target compounds by both DNA and protein microarrays. To better design sensitive and accurate initial upstream sample handling of the MASSE instrument, experiments investigating the sensitivity and potential extraction bias of commercially available DNA extraction kits between classes of environmentally relevant prokaryotes such as gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli), gram-positive bacteria ( Bacillus megatarium), and Archaea ( Haloarcula marismortui) were performed. For extractions of both planktonic cultures and spiked Mars simulated regolith, FTA ® paper demonstrated the highest sensitivity, with detection as low as ˜1×10 1 cells and ˜3.3×10 2 cells, respectively. In addition to the highest sensitivity, custom modified application of FTA ® paper extraction protocol is the simplest in terms of incorporation into MASSE and displayed little bias in sensitivity with respect to prokaryotic cell type. The implementation of FTA paper for environmental microbiology investigations appears to be a viable and effective option potentially negating the need for other pre-concentration steps such as filtration and negating concerns regarding extraction efficiency of cells. In addition to investigations on useful technology for upstream sample handling in MASSE, we have also evaluated the potential for μTAS to be employed in the MASSE instrument by employing proprietary lab-on-a-chip development technology to investigate the potential for microfluidic cell lysis of different prokaryotic cells employing both chemical and biological lysis agents. Real-time bright-field microscopy and quantitative PMT detection indicated that that gram positive, gram negative and archaeal cells were effectively lyzed in a few seconds using the microfluidic chip protocol developed. This included employing a lysis buffer with

  12. A novel trifunctional IgG-like bispecific antibody to inhibit HIV-1 infection and enhance lysis of HIV by targeting activation of complement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomlinson Stephen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complement system is not only a key component of innate immunity but also provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens, especially for viral pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, however, possesses several mechanisms to evade complement-mediated lysis (CoML and exploit the complement system to enhance viral infectivity. Responsible for this intrinsic resistance against complement-mediated virolysis are complement regulatory membrane proteins derived from the host cell that inherently downregulates complement activation at several stages of the cascade. In addition, HIV is protected from complement-mediated lysis by binding soluble factor H (fH through the viral envelope proteins, gp120 and gp41. Whereas inhibition of complement activity is the desired outcome in the vast majority of therapeutic approaches, there is a broader potential for complement-mediated inhibition of HIV by complement local stimulation. Presentation of the hypothesis Our previous studies have proven that the complement-mediated antibody-dependent enhancement of HIV infection is mediated by the association of complement receptor type 2 bound to the C3 fragment and deposited on the surface of HIV virions. Thus, we hypothesize that another new activator of complement, consisting of two dsFv (against gp120 and against C3d respectively linked to a complement-activating human IgG1 Fc domain ((anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc, can not only target and amplify complement activation on HIV virions for enhancing the efficiency of HIV lysis, but also reduce the infectivity of HIV through blocking the gp120 and C3d on the surface of HIV. Testing the hypothesis Our hypothesis was tested using cell-free HIV-1 virions cultivated in vitro and assessment of virus opsonization was performed by incubating appropriate dilutions of virus with medium containing normal human serum and purified (anti-gp120 × anti-C3d-Fc proteins. As a control group, viruses

  13. Changes in clot lysis levels of reteplase and streptokinase following continuous wave ultrasound exposure, at ultrasound intensities following attenuation from the skull bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roijer Anders

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound (US has been used to enhance thrombolytic therapy in the treatment of stroke. Considerable attenuation of US intensity is however noted if US is applied over the temporal bone. The aim of this study was therefore to explore possible changes in the effect of thrombolytic drugs during low-intensity, high-frequency continuous-wave ultrasound (CW-US exposure. Methods Clots were made from fresh venous blood drawn from healthy volunteers. Each clot was made from 1.4 ml blood and left to coagulate for 1 hour in a plastic test-tube. The thrombolytic drugs used were, 3600 IU streptokinase (SK or 0.25 U reteplase (r-PA, which were mixed in 160 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. Continuous-wave US exposure was applied at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensities ranging from 0.0125 to 1.2 W/cm2. For each thrombolytic drug (n = 2, SK and r-PA and each intensity (n = 9 interventional clots (US-exposed, n = 6 were submerged in thrombolytic solution and exposed to CW-US while control clots (also submerged in thrombolytic solution, n = 6 were left unexposed to US. To evaluate the effect on clot lysis, the haemoglobin (Hb released from each clot was measured every 20 min for 1 hour (20, 40 and 60 min. The Hb content (mg released was estimated by spectrophotometry at 540 nm. The difference in effect on clot lysis was expressed as the difference in the amount of Hb released between pairs of US-exposed clots and control clots. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results Continuous-wave ultrasound significantly decreased the effects of SK at intensities of 0.9 and 1.2 W/cm2 at all times (P 2 and at 1.2 W/cm2, following 40 min exposure at 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2, and following 60 min of exposure at 0.05 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and at 1.2 W/cm2 (all P Conclusion Increasing intensities of CW-US exposure resulted in increased clot lysis of r-PA-treated blood clots, but decreased clot lysis of SK-treated clots.

  14. Influence of histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA-methyltransferase inhibitors on the NK cell-mediated lysis of pediatric B-lineage leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Manuel Pfeiffer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic drugs like histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors have been shown to be effective against a variety of tumor entities. Among different molecular anticancer activities of epigenetic active substances, up-regulation of NK cell ligands was described to contribute to an enhanced NK cell-mediated killing of tumor cell lines. So far, no data is available on this effect in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We investigated the effect of two HDACi (vorinostat, VPA and two DNMTi (azacytidine, decitabine on the viability, expression of NK ligands and NK-susceptibility of the pre-B-cell-ALL cell line MHH-CALL-4. Whereas vorinostat, azacytidine and decitabine directly reduced viability of the cell line, VPA had no direct cytotoxic effect. NKG2D ligands were expressed only at very low levels and not affected by epigenetic treatment. Higher expression was found for the DNAM1 ligands with significant up regulation of CD112 after treatment with VPA (p=0.02. No significant increase in lysis mediated by resting NK cells could be observed, whereas incubation of target cells with decitabine resulted in a significant increase in lysis mediated by IL-2 activated NK cells (p=0.0051, p=0.06 for azacytidine. Vorinostat and VPA could increase the lysis by expanded NK cells which was statistically not significant due to high inter-individual variability. Furthermore, HDACi but not DNMTi reduced the NK mediated lysis of MHH-CALL-4 after incubation of effector cells. In conclusion, there is a synergistic effect between epigenetic drugs and NK cells against MHH-CALL-4 which is not as strong as in other tumor entities. In situations where NK mediated control of leukemia is assumed or wanted, a sophisticated combination of single epigenetic drugs and ex vivo expanded NK cells is needed to maximize the synergistic effect of both treatment strategies and DNMTIs may be preferred based on the direct inhibitory effect of HDACi on NK cell

  15. Urofacial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal F Akl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The urofacial syndrome is characterized by functional obstructive uropathy asso-ciated with an inverted smile. The importance of the subject is that it sheds light, not only on the muscles of facial expression, but also on the inheritance of voiding disorders and lower urinary tract malformations. We report a 10-year-old-male patient who had the urofacial syndrome. Early diagnosis of the urofacial syndrome is important to avoid upper urinary tract damage and renal failure.

  16. Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basanti Devi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  17. Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis.

  18. Metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogia Atul

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Metabolic syndrome is a widely prevalent and multi-factorial disorder. The syndrome has been given several names, including- the metabolic syndrome, the insulin resistance syndrome, the plurimetabolic syndrome, and the deadly quartet. With the formulation of NCEP/ATP III guidelines, some uniformity and standardization has occurred in the definition of metabolic syndrome and has been very useful for epidemiological purposes. The mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome are not fully known; however resistance to insulin stimulated glucose uptake seems to modify biochemical responses in a way that predisposes to metabolic risk factors. The clinical relevance of the metabolic syndrome is related to its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Management of the metabolic syndrome involves patient-education and intervention at various levels. Weight reduction is one of the main stays of treatment. In this article we comprehensively discuss this syndrome- the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical relevance and management. The need to do a comprehensive review of this particular syndrome has arisen in view of the ever increasing incidence of this entitiy. Soon, metabolic syndrome will overtake cigarette smoking as the number one risk factor for heart disease among the US population. Hardly any issue of any primary care medical journal can be opened without encountering an article on type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia or hypertension. It is rare to see type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity or hypertension in isolation. Insulin resistance and resulting hyperinsulinemia have been implicated in the development of glucose intolerance (and progression to type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, hypertension, polycystic ovary yndrome, hypercoagulability and vascular inflammation, as well as the eventual development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease manifested as myocardial infarction, stroke and myriad end organ diseases. Conversely

  19. Revesz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristine Issaho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Revesz syndrome is a rare variant of dyskeratosis congenita and is characterized by bilateral exudative retinopathy, alterations in the anterior ocular segment, intrauterine growth retardation, fine sparse hair, reticulate skin pigmentation, bone marrow failure, cerebral calcification, cerebellar hypoplasia and psychomotor retardation. Few patients with this syndrome have been reported, and significant clinical variations exist among patients. This report describes the first Brazilian case of Revesz syndrome and its ocular and clinical features.

  20. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anticipation (ie, an earlier age at onset in successive generations) is linked to repeat expansion in neurodegenerative syndromes, whereas its role in hereditary cancer is unclear. We assessed anticipation in Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), in which DN...

  1. Successful microdissection testicular sperm extraction in patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome: three cases report%非嵌合型克氏综合征患者显微取精成功3例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵连明; 马潞林; 姜辉; 洪锴; 黄锦; 唐文豪; 毛加明; 乔杰; 刘平; 廉颖

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the method for patients with nonmosaic Klinefelter syndrome ( KS ) to father children. Methods: Microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE) was performed for three patients with nonmosaic KS in our hospital. Results: Three patients (their ranging from 23 years to 36 years) , were diagnosed with azoospermia after several semen analyses. By palpation, their testis size was estimated about 3 mL, 1 mL, and 4 mL, respectively. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was 37.2 IU/L, 42.2 IU/L, and 30.5 IU/L, respectively. Luteinizing hormone (LH) was 15.5 IU/L, 11.2IU/L, and 10.1 IU/L, respectively. Testosterone was 1. 2 nmol/L, 5. 6 nmol/L, and 8. 2 nmol/L, respectively. The volume of semen was 0. 8 mL, 0. 2 mL, and 0. 5 mL, respectively. There was no sperm and fructose was positive. The transrectal B-bilateral showed vas deferens and seminal vesicles were not abnormal. And all the patients had a uniform 47 , XXY karyotype. During the operation, normal formation sperms were found in two patients. They only underwent one-side micro-TESE. Active sperms were found after being cultured. The sperms were kept under cryopreservation. The other patient underwent two-side micro-TESE. No sperm was found during the operation. After the operation, a few deformity sperms were found during the second searching. No active sperm was found after being cultured. The sperm wasn' t kept under cryopreservation. Conclusion: Although patients with nonmosaic KS have small testis and decreased spermatogenesis, some of them can obtain sperms by micro-TESE instead of accepting artificial insemination by donors.%目的:探索非嵌合型克氏综合征(Klinefelter syndrome,KS)患者生育的方法,为此类患者拥有自己遗传学意义的后代寻找出路.方法:对在北京大学第三医院就诊的3位非嵌合型克氏综合征患者实施显微镜下睾丸切开取精术.结果:3例患者,年龄分别为31、36和23岁,均多次检查无

  2. Fertility Clinic Success Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Autism 2013 Assisted Reproductive Technology Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir 2013 ART Fertility Clinic Success Rates Report [PDF - 1MB] Bookmarks and thumbnails are ...

  3. Rothmund–Thomson syndrome: anaesthesia considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rothmund–Thomson syndrome (RTS) or poikiloderma congenitale is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. Approximately ... increased likelihood of osteosarcoma and skin cancer.3. We successfully .... Anesthesia for genetic, metabolic, and.

  4. Advances on Syndromic Management of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qianqiu (王千秋)

    2002-01-01

    Research data showed that syndromic approach could successfully manage gonococcal and chlamydial infections in males and syphilis and chancroid in males and females. However, low sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were found in the syndromic management of vaginal discharge. It is recommended that the syndromic algorithm for management of vaginal discharge used when serving high-risk and symptomatic women.

  5. USAR recruiting success factors

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, George W.; Kocher, Kathryn M.; Gandolfo, Robin Ragsdale

    1987-01-01

    This study attempts to identify attributes associated with successful recruiters, to evaluate existing data on recruiter performance and characteristics, and to develop a model to aid in the selection of personnel who are likely to become successful recruiters. Conventional multivariate statistical techniques have not proved adequate in identifying successful recruiters, largely because of the absence of reliable and valid measures of recruiter success. This study applies a relatively new met...

  6. Success in Science, Success in Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mariann R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    This is a series of four different scientific problems which were resolved through collaborations. They are: "Better flow cytometry through novel focusing technology", "Take Off®: Helping the Agriculture Industry Improve the Viability of Sustainable, Large-Production Crops", "The National Institutes of Health's Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)", and "Expanding the capabilities of SOLVE/RESOLVE through the PHENIX Consortium." For each one, the problem is listed, the solution, advantages, bottom line, then information about the collaboration including: developing the technology, initial success, and continued success.

  7. Antiphospholipid syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervera, Ricard; Piette, Jean-Charles; Font, Josep

    2002-01-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression.......To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression....

  8. Lemierre's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Katrine; Bødtger, Uffe; Heltberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    Lemierre's syndrome is an often un-diagnosed disease seen in previously healthy young subjects, presenting with symptoms of pharyngitis, fever and elevated markers of inflammation. The syndrome is characterised by infectious thrombosis of the jugular vein due to infection with Fusobacteria, causi...

  9. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder K. Gupta, Ritu Gupta, Sunil Dutt Sharma

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Turner Syndrome is one of the important chromosomal disorders characterised by loss (total or part ofsex chromosome. The manifestations being peripheral edema, short stature, extra skin fold, webbing ofneck, renal and cardiovascular anomalies, sexual infantilism, learning disability etc. We present here aone month female baby who had classical features of Turner Syndrome. The karyotape analysis wasconsistent with the diagnosis.

  10. Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body, the white blood cells that fight infections, and the platelets that help with blood clotting. If you have a myelodysplastic syndrome, the stem cells do not mature into healthy blood cells. ... anemia, or easy bleeding. Myelodysplastic syndromes often do ...

  11. Proteus syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Renu

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of proteus syndrome in a 20 year old male is repoted. Hemihypertrophy, asymmetric megalodactyly, linear epidermal naevus, naevus flammeus, angiokeratoma, lymphangioma circumscriptum, thickening of the palms and soles, scoliosis and varicose veins were present. There are only few reports of these cases in adults. The syndrome has not been reported from India.

  12. Franceschetti syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Kasat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable expressivity. It is commonly known as Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS. It is named after E. Treacher Collins who described the essential components of the condition. It affects both genders equally. This article reports a case of TCS in an 18-year-old female.

  13. LEOPARD syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L, Strano S, Carbone A, Calvieri C, Giustini S. LEOPARD syndrome. Dermatol Online J . 2008;14(3):7. PMID: 18627709 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18627709 . Sarkozy A, Digilio MC, Dallapiccola B. LEOPARD syndrome. Orphanet J Rare Dis . 2008;3:13. PMID: ...

  14. Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akcan AB.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Turner syndrome is an important cause of short stature in girls and primer amenorrhea in young women that is usually caused by loss of part or all of an X chromosome. This topic will review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management of Turner syndrome.

  15. Poland syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra Madhur Sharma; Shrawan Kumar; Meghwani, Manoj K.; Agrawal, Ravi P.

    2014-01-01

    Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  16. Poland syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Madhur Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Poland′s syndrome is a rare congenital condition, characterized by the absence of the sternal or breastbone portion of the pectoralis major muscle, which may be associated with the absence of nearby musculoskeletal structures. We hereby report an 8-year-old boy with typical features of Poland syndrome, the first documented case from Uttar Pradesh, India.

  17. A Simple Method for DNA Extraction from Mature Date Palm Leaves: Impact of Sand Grinding and Composition of Lysis Buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al Sadoon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular marker techniques have been widely used for cultivar identification of inbred date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae and biodiversity conservation. Isolation of highly pure DNA is the prerequisite for PCR amplification and subsequent use such as DNA fingerprinting and sequencing of genes that have recently been developed for barcoding. To avoid problems related to the preservation and use of liquid nitrogen, we examined sterile sand for grinding the date palm leaves. Individual and combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP and lithium chloride (LiCl with the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method for a DNA yield of sufficient purity and PCR amplification were evaluated in this study. Presence of LiCl and PVP alone or together in the lysis buffer did not significantly improve the DNA yield and purity compared with the addition of NaCl. Our study suggested that grinding of date palm leaf with sterile sand and inclusion of NaCl (1.4 M in the lysis buffer without the costly use of liquid nitrogen, PVP and LiCl, provides a DNA yield of sufficient purity, suitable for PCR amplification.

  18. c-Myc regulates expression of NKG2D ligands ULBP1/2/3 in AML and modulates their susceptibility to NK-mediated lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanbakhsh, Arash; Pochon, Cécile; Mallavialle, Aude; Amsellem, Sophie; Bourhis, Jean Henri; Chouaib, Salem

    2014-06-05

    Cytarabine (cytosine arabinoside) is one of the most effective drugs for the treatment of patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Despite its efficiency against AML cells, the emergence of drug resistance due to prolonged chemotherapy in most patients is still a major obstacle. Several studies have shown that drug resistance mechanisms alter the sensitivity of leukemia cells to immune system effector cells. To investigate this phenomenon, parental acute myeloid cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1, were continuously exposed to increasing doses of cytarabine in order to establish equivalent resistant cell lines, HL-60(R) and KG-1(R). Our data indicate that cytarabine-resistant cells are more susceptible to natural killer (NK)-mediated cell lysis as compared with parental cytarabine-sensitive cells. The increased susceptibility correlates with the induction of UL-16 binding proteins (ULBP) 1/2/3 and NK group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands on target cells by a mechanism involving c-Myc induction. More importantly, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ULBP1/3 are direct targets of c-Myc. Using drug-resistant primary AML blasts as target cells, inhibition of c-Myc resulted in decreased expression of NKG2D ligands and the subsequent impairment of NK cell lysis. This study provides for the first time, the c-Myc dependent regulation of NKG2D ligands in AML. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  19. Studies on nonidet P40 lysis of murine lymphoid cells. I. Use of cholera toxin and cell surface Ig to determine degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D A

    1975-09-01

    Lymphoid cells from A/J mice were iodinated (125I) by the lactoperoxidase lysed with the non-ionic detergent NP-40. The plasma membrane glycolipid receptor for cholera toxin and cell surface immunoglobulin were utilized in immune precipitation systems to characterize the degree of dissociation of the plasma membrane under various conditions. It was found that at 0.1% NP-40 and at cell concentration from 5 to 10 times 10(7) cells/ml, lipid-protein and protein-lipid-protein complexes formed in NP-40 which were soluble after centrifugation at 10(5) times G. Column chromatography of 125I-cell lysates on agarose A-0.5 M in 0.1% or 0.5% NP-40/PBS indicated that the majority of iodinated cell surface material existed as aggregates in detergent micelles. The availability of the oligosaccharide moiety of the glycolipid to interact with the cholera toxin was dependent on both the detergent concentration and the cell concentration used for cell lysis. However, the cell surface immunoglobulin was immunoprecipitable under all conditions of lysis tested.

  20. Mechanism of action of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Staphylococcus aureus determined by time-kill, lysis, leakage, and salt tolerance assays and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Christine F; Mee, Brian J; Riley, Thomas V

    2002-06-01

    The essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The mechanisms of action of tea tree oil and three of its components, 1,8-cineole, terpinen-4-ol, and alpha-terpineol, against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 9144 were investigated. Treatment with these agents at their MICs and two times their MICs, particularly treatment with terpinen-4-ol and alpha-terpineol, reduced the viability of S. aureus. None of the agents caused lysis, as determined by measurement of the optical density at 620 nm, although cells became disproportionately sensitive to subsequent autolysis. Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material occurred after treatment with concentrations equivalent to the MIC, particularly after treatment with 1,8-cineole and alpha-terpineol. S. aureus organisms treated with tea tree oil or its components at the MIC or two times the MIC showed a significant loss of tolerance to NaCl. When the agents were tested at one-half the MIC, only 1,8-cineole significantly reduced the tolerance of S. aureus to NaCl. Electron microscopy of terpinen-4-ol-treated cells showed the formation of mesosomes and the loss of cytoplasmic contents. The predisposition to lysis, the loss of 260-nm-absorbing material, the loss of tolerance to NaCl, and the altered morphology seen by electron microscopy all suggest that tea tree oil and its components compromise the cytoplasmic membrane.