Sample records for lysimachia heterogenea klatt

  1. Two New Triterpenoids from Lysimachia heterogenea Klatt and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity

    Xin-Xin Zhou


    Full Text Available Two new 13,28-epoxy oleanane-type triterpenoids, namely heterogenoside E and F, were isolated from Lysimachia heterogenea Klatt, together with the eight known compounds: palmitic acid, β-stigmasterol, kaempferol, quercetin, hyperin, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-galactopyranoside and anagallisin C. Heterogenoside F possesses acetoxyl groups at the unusual C-21 and C-22 positions of its oleanane skeleton. The cytotoxic activities of anagallisin C, heterogenoside E and F were weak.

  2. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia davurica

    Jing Kui TIAN; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Guang Hong TU; Hong Wu ZHANG; Shi Lin YANG; Dong Ge AN


    Two new saponins named davuricoside I (1) and davuricoside E (2) were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia davurica. Their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR,FAB-MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  3. Two Novel Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes

    Jing Kui TIAN; Chen XIE; Zhong Mei ZOU; Li Zhen XU; Shi Lin YANG


    Two new saponins named capilliposide C1 and capilliposide D 2 were isolated from the whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes, their structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR, ESIMS techniques, and chemical methods. Capilliposide C showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  4. New Cytotoxic Saponins from Lysimachia davurica Ledeb.


    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia davurica Ledeb., two new saponins named davuricoside I (compound 1) and E (compound 2) were isolated. Their chemical structures were elucidated as 3β,16α, 28, 29-tetrihydroxy-olean-12-en-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 1)and 3β,16α, 29-trihydroxy-13, 28-epoxy-oleanane-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (compound 2) on the basis of their one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry data, and chemical methods. Compound 1 showed significant cytotoxic activity against human A2780 cells.

  5. Two New Saponins from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl

    Jing-Kui TIAN; Zhong-Mei ZOU; Li-Zhen XU; Shi-Lin YANG


    To investigate the saponins from whole plants of Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl., two new saponins, named capilliposide E (1) and capilliposide F (2), were isolated. The structures of the new sa ponins were elucidated as 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13 -lactone-oleanane-3 -O- [β-D-glucopyranosyl(1→2)-α-L-arabinpyranoyl]-22-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3 β, 22α-dihydroxy- 16α-acetat-28→ 13-1actone-oleanane-3-O- { [β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)]-α-L-arabinpyranoyl }-22-O-βD-glucopyranoside (2). The structures of these compounds were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR, MS techniques, and chemical methods.

  6. Genetic algorithm to estimate the input parameters of Klatt and HLSyn formant-based speech synthesizers.

    Araújo, Fabíola; Filho, José; Klautau, Aldebaro


    Voice imitation basically consists in estimating a synthesizer's input parameters to mimic a target speech signal. This is a difficult inverse problem because the mapping is time-varying, non-linear and from many to one. It typically requires considerable amount of time to be done manually. This work presents the evolution of a system based on a genetic algorithm (GA) to automatically estimate the input parameters of the Klatt and HLSyn formant synthesizers using an analysis-by-synthesis process. Results are presented for natural (human-generated) speech for three male speakers. The results obtained with the GA-based system outperform those obtained with the baseline Winsnoori with respect to four objective figures of merit and a subjective test. The GA with Klatt synthesizer generated similar voices to the target and the subjective tests indicate an improvement in the quality of the synthetic voices when compared to the ones produced by the baseline.

  7. [Comparison between Lysimachiae Herba and Desmodii Styracifolii Herba in pharmacological activities].

    Xiong, Ying; Wang, Jun-wen; Deng, Jun


    Lysimachiae Herba and Desmodii Styracifolii Herba are common traditional Chinese medicines for treating lithiasis. Both of them have efficacies of clearing heat, diuresis and eliminating calculi. However, there are some differences in their clinic applications. The former is mainly used to treat hepatolithiasis, gallstones, jaundice, stranguria and gout; Whereas the latter is mainly used to treat urinary calculus. In this paper, the pharmacological effects of Lysimachiae Herba and Desmodii Styracifolii Herba on removing calculus, choleresis, anti-inflammation and oxidation resistance were compared and analyzed based on document retrieval. In conclusion, both of them show the preventive and therapeutic effects on kidney stones and gallstones. Particularly, Desmodii Styracifolii Herba has a better effect in treating the kidney stones, while Lysimachiae Herba has a better effect in treating cholesterol gallstones.

  8. A New Poly-substituted Benzaldehyde from the Leaves of Lysimachia fordiana Oliv.

    Wen-di Deng


    Full Text Available A new poly-substituted benzaldehyde, 1, and a known compound quercetin (2 were isolated from the leaves of Lysimachia fordiana Oliv. The structure of compound 1, named fordianol, was determined as 2-heptyl-3,6-dihydroxy-4- methoxybenzaldehyde on the basis of spectroscopic methods. Fordianol did not inhibit the growth of SWO-38 (human brain neuroglioma, MCF-7 (human breast cancer or HeLa (human cervical carcinoma cell lines.

  9. Study on HPLC Fingerprint of Herba Lysimachiae%金钱草药材的HPLC指纹图谱研究

    郭林林; 赵德; 邓君


    Objective: To establish the chromatographic fingerprint for Herba Lysimachiae by RP-HPLC. Methods: The sample solutions were prepared by extracting material with boiling water, followed by extracting with BuOH from the aqueous extract and analyzed by RP-HPLC with a Phenomenex C18 column(4. 6 mm × 150 mm,5 μm) ,gradiently eluted with A(acetonitrile containing 0.5 % of acetic acid) -B( water containing 0. 5 % of acetic acid) at 30℃ ,and monitored with UV detector at 255 nm. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min,and sample volume injected was 20 μL. The chromatograms of different balches of Herba Lysimachiae were compared by the software of Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of TCM( Version 2004A). Results: HPLC Fingerprint of Herba Lysimachiae was established with Rutin as the reference compound. 13 common peaks were selected as the fingerprint peaks of Herba Lysimachiae. Conclusion: The established HPLC fingerprint of Herba Lysimachiae has desirable precision, reproducibility, and can be applied to routine quality control of Herba Lysimachiae.%目的:建立金钱草药材的HPLC指纹图谱,为金钱草药材的质控提供依据.方法:用水煎-正丁醇萃取-甲醇溶解制备样品溶液,采用RP-HPLC分析,色谱条件为Phenomenex C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5 μm),以含0.5%冰醋酸的乙腈(A)-0.5%冰醋酸水(R)梯度洗脱,流速1.0 mL/min,柱温30℃,检测波长255 nm,进样量20μL.利用中药色谱指纹图谱相似度评价系统(2004A版)对不同批次金钱草药材的HPLC图进行比较分析.结果:建立了金钱草药材的HPLC指纹图谱,以芦丁为参照峰,确立了金钱草药材指纹图谱中的13个共有峰.结论:所建立的指纹图谱稳定性和重现性均好,可用于金钱草药材的常规质量控制.

  10. Suppression of Adipocyte Differentiation by Foenumoside B from Lysimachia foenum-graecum Is Mediated by PPARγ Antagonism.

    Hyun Jeong Kwak

    Full Text Available Lysimachia foenum-graecum extract (LFE and its active component foenumoside B (FSB have been shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation, but their mechanisms were poorly defined. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms responsible for their anti-adipogenic effects. Both LFE and FSB inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes induced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ agonists, accompanied by reductions in the expressions of the lipogenic genes aP2, CD36, and FAS. Moreover, LFE and FSB inhibited PPARγ transactivation activity with IC50s of 22.5 μg/ml and 7.63 μg/ml, respectively, and showed selectivity against PPARα and PPARδ. Rosiglitazone-induced interaction between PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD and coactivator SRC-1 was blocked by LFE or FSB, whereas reduced NCoR-1 binding to PPARγ by rosiglitazone was reversed in the presence of LFE or FSB. In vivo administration of LFE into either ob/ob mice or KKAy mice reduced body weights, and levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα in fat tissues. Furthermore, insulin resistance was ameliorated by LFE treatment, with reduced adipose tissue inflammation and hepatic steatosis. Thus, LFE and FSB were found to act as PPARγ antagonists that improve insulin sensitivity and metabolic profiles. We propose that LFE and its active component FSB offer a new therapeutic strategy for metabolic disorders including obesity and insulin resistance.

  11. 从单条草中分得一个新的三萜皂苷%A new triterpenoid saponin from Lysimachia candida

    张晓瑢; 彭树林; 王明奎; 丁立生


    目的对报春花科珍珠菜属药用植物单条草Lysimachia candida的化学成分进行研究.方法采用硅胶柱层析进行分离和纯化,通过波谱和化学方法进行结构鉴定.结果从正丁醇萃取部分分离出1个三萜皂苷类化合物,结构鉴定为:3β,16a-二羟基齐墩果-12-烯-28-醛-3-O-β-D-吡喃葡萄糖基-23-O-a-D-呋喃核糖苷,命名为单条草苷甲(I).结论单条草苷甲是新结构的三萜皂苷.%Object To investigate the chemical constituents from the whole plant of Lysimachia candida Ldl.. Methods The constituents were isolated and purified on silica gel column chromatography.Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic evidence. Results A triterpenoid saponin,named candidoside A ( Ⅰ ), was isolated from the extract of n-BuOH. Its structure was shown to be 3β,16α-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-al-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-23-O-α-D-ribofuranoside. Conclusion Candidoside A was a new triterpenoid saponin.

  12. Study on Anti-oxidation of Polysaccharide from Lysimachia christinae Hance%对金钱草多糖抗氧化性的研究

    吴亚妮; 朱意丽; 史洁文; 郭玉华


    [Purpose] Study on Extraction of Lysimachia christinae polysaccharide. [Method] The polysaccharide was extracted by ultrasonic method, its reducing power, ?OH, the ultra oxygen anion scavenging ability of study. [Results] Within a certain range of research, with the increase of concentration of polysaccharide, polysaccharide ?OH, the ultra oxygen anion scavenging ability enhancement. [Conclusion] Lysimachia christinae Hance polysaccharide has a strong antioxidant capacity.%目的:研究中药金钱草中多糖抗氧化活性。方法:采用超声波法提取金钱草中的多糖,然后对其总还原能力、对?OH及超氧阴离子的清除能力进行研究。结果:在一定的研究范围内,随着金钱草多糖含量的增加,其总还原能力及对?OH、超氧阴离子的清除能力均增强。结论:金钱草多糖有很强的抗氧化能力。

  13. Study on Anti-oxidation of Polysaccharide from Lysimachia christinae Hance%对金钱草多糖抗氧化性的研究

    吴亚妮; 朱意丽; 史洁文; 郭玉华


    Study on Extraction of Lysimachia christinae polysaccharide. [Method] The polysaccharide was extracted by ultrasonic method, its reducing power, ?OH, the ultra oxygen anion scavenging ability of study. [Results] Within a certain range of research, with the increase of concentration of polysaccharide, polysaccharide ?OH, the ultra oxygen anion scavenging ability enhancement. [Conclusion] Lysimachia christinae Hance polysaccharide has a strong antioxidant capacity.%研究中药金钱草中多糖抗氧化活性。方法:采用超声波法提取金钱草中的多糖,然后对其总还原能力、对?OH及超氧阴离子的清除能力进行研究。结果:在一定的研究范围内,随着金钱草多糖含量的增加,其总还原能力及对?OH、超氧阴离子的清除能力均增强。结论:金钱草多糖有很强的抗氧化能力。

  14. Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes.

    Zhang, Zhi-Juan; Xia, Zhao-Yang; Wang, Jin-Mei; Song, Xue-Ting; Wei, Jin-Feng; Kang, Wen-Yi


    Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides.

  15. Effects of Flavonoids in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the Activities of Cytochrome P450 CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in Rat Liver Microsomes

    Zhi-Juan Zhang


    Full Text Available Incubation systems were established to investigate the effects of quercetin, kaempferol, isoquercitrin and astragalin in Lysimachia clethroides Duby on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. Probe substrates of 4-nitrophenol and testosterone as well as flavonoids at different concentrations were added to the incubation systems. After incubation, a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was applied to separate and determine the relevant metabolites. The results suggested that kaempferol exhibited a weak inhibition of CYP2E1 activity with an IC50 of 60.26 ± 2.54 μM, while quercetin and kaempferol caused a moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 activity with IC50 values of 18.77 ± 1.69 μM and 32.65 ± 1.32 μM, respectively. Isoquercitrin and astragalin had no effects on the activities of either CYP2E1 or CYP3A4. It could be speculated from these results that the inhibitory effects of quercetin and kaempferol on the activities of CYP2E1 and CYP3A4 could be the mechanisms underlying the hepatoprotective effects of L. clethroides.

  16. Capilliposide Isolated from Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. Induces ROS Generation, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis in Human Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Zheng-hua Fei


    Full Text Available Several data has reported that capilliposide, extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Lysimachia capillipes Hemsl. (LC could exhibit inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in various cancers. The current study investigated the antitumor efficacy of Capilliposide and elucidated its potential molecular mechanism involved in vivo and vitro. Our results indicated that LC capilliposide inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. LC capilliposide induced cell cycle arrest at the S stage and enhanced apoptosis in NSCLC cells. Treatment with LC capilliposide increased the intracellular level of ROS, which activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Blockage of ROS by NAC highly reversed the effect of LC capilliposide on apoptosis. Xenograft tumor growth was significantly lower in the LC-treated group compared with the untreated control group (P<0.05. The results also show that LC treatment does not produce any overt signs of acute toxicity in vivo. These findings demonstrate that LC capilliposide could exert an anti-tumor effect on NSCLC through mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic pathway and the activation of ROS is involved.

  17. Comparison on HPLC fingerprints of Lysimachia christinae and Desmodium styracifolium%过路黄和广金钱草的HPLC指纹图谱比较研究

    王俊文; 熊颖; 陈晓虎; 赵德; 邓君


    目的 比较过路黄Lysimachia christinae和广金钱草Desmodium styracifolium的化学成分异同,为阐明二者药效异同提供参考.方法 采用RP-HPLC建立过路黄和广金钱草的HPLC-UV指纹图谱和HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱,比较二者2种指纹图谱的差异.结果 过路黄的HPLC-UV指纹图谱和其HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱的差异很大,UV检测到的强峰并非ELSD检测到的强峰,广金钱草亦然;过路黄的HPLC-UV指纹图谱有14个共有峰,HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱有5个共有峰;而广金钱草的HPLC-UV指纹图谱有28个共有峰,HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱有18个共有峰;13批过路黄的指纹图谱相似度较13批广金钱草的相似度差;过路黄和广金钱草的HPLC-UV指纹图谱有4个共有峰,二者的HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱有2个共有峰.结论 HPLC-ELSD指纹图谱能更好地反映过路黄和广金钱草中量较高的非挥发性成分组成的全貌;市售过路黄的质量差异大,而市售广金钱草的质量稳定;过路黄和广金钱草可能含有2种量较高的相同成分,作为二者治疗相同病症的物质基础,但该2种药材应该各具偏性,各有独特的治疗功用,应明确区分.

  18. Glaucoma congenito primario : uma entidade genetica heterogenea

    Andrea Trevas Maciel


    Resumo: A visão clássica sobre o mecanismo de herança do glaucoma congênito primário é a que essa anomalia é sempre transmitida de modo autossômico recessivo monogênico. A análise dos dados familiais de 1408 portadores dessa anomalia mostra que o glaucoma congênito primário é, na verdade, uma entidade genética heterogênea, visto que foi possível detectar pelo menos duas formas autossômicas monogênicas dessa doença, sendo uma dominante e outra recessiva. Há, ainda, um grande contingente de anô...

  19. Intraclonal resource sharing of stoloniferous herb Lysimachia christinae in response to reciprocal patchiness of light and nutrients in the eastern edge of the Qing-Zang Plateau in China%青藏高原东缘过路黄在资源交互斑块性生境中的克隆内资源共享

    陈劲松; 刘鹏; 刘庆


    Heterogeneity is a common feature of natural habitats and connected ramets of clonal plants may share resources under heterogeneous environments. Intraclonal resources sharing of the stoloniferous herb Lysimachia christinae, growing at two sites with different altitudes (618m above sea level and 1800m above sea level) in the transitional belt between the Qing-Zang Plateau and Sichuan basin, China, was investigated in response to the reciprocal patchiness of resources. The results indicate that biomass and number of ramets in the proximal part, the distal part and whole clonal fragments significantly increased in the resource heterogeneity treatments (Ⅲ)and(Ⅳ), compared with resource homogeneity treatments (Ⅰ) and(Ⅱ)at the site of 1800m above sea level; However, their biomass significantly increased in the resource heterogeneity treatments (Ⅲ)and(Ⅳ), compared with resource homogeneity treatments (Ⅰ) and(Ⅱ)at the site of 618m above sea level. At the two sites with different altitudes, the distal ramets growing in the treatment with low light and high nutrient allocated more biomass to the below-ground as connected to the proximal ramets growing in high light and low nutrient than as connected to the proximal ramets growing in low light and high nutrient. At the site of 1800m above sea level, the distal ramets growing in the treatment with high light and low nutrient allocated more biomass to the above-ground as connected to the proximal ramets growing in low light and high nutrient than as connected to the proximal ramets growing in high light and low nutrient. At the two sites with different altitudes, the proximal ramets growing in the treatment with high light and low nutrient allocated more biomass to the above-ground as connected to the distal ramets growing in low light and high nutrient than as connected to the distal ramets growing in high light and low nutrient. At both sites, therefore, L. christina ramets showed environmentally induced

  20. Fenotipaje de individuos del género fasciola linnaeus, 1758 (trematoda: fasciolidae) de areas endemicas con caracteristicas heterogeneas

    Vieira Peixoto, Raquel


    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease emerging in numerous parts of the world. Fascioliasis is an important food-borne parasitic disease caused by the two trematode species, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. The characterisation and di erentiation of Fasciola populations is crucial to control the disease, given the di erent transmission, epidemiology and pathology characteristics of the two species. Furthermore, in any endemic area, the characterisation of scenarios and patterns of infec...

  1. Treatment of Chronic Dysfunction of Transplantation Kidney in Rats By Tanshinone, Lysimachiae Combined with Mycophenolate Mofetil or Cyclosporine Alone


    Kidney transplantation has become an extensively accepted therapy for the terminal-stage of kidney diseases. Yet the high incidence of the chronic dysfunction remains a major clinical problem; long-term survival of patient is reduced by graft dysfunction after kidney transplantation.(1-3) However, the precise mechanisms of chronic dysfunction are not yet known. Moreover, current therapies are still suboptimal. In this study, our research goal was to determine whether microcirculatory disturbance is a major contributing factor for the chronic dysfunction development.

  2. 黄连花化学成分研究(Ⅱ)%Studies on Chemical Constituents in Herba of Lysimachia davurica

    田景奎; 邹忠梅; 刘安; 徐丽珍; 张宏武; 穆红梅; 杨世林



  3. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Youngjin Lee


    Full Text Available To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC₅₀ of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml, a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide.

  4. Winery wastewater treatment by heterogeneous Photo-Fenton process and activated sludges; Depuracion de efluentes vinicolas ediante tratamientos Foto-Fenton en fase heterogenea y lodos activos

    Mosteo, R.; Lalinde, N.; Ormad, Maria O. M.; Ovelleiro, J. L.


    The system composed by heterogeneous Photon-Fenton assisted by solar light and biological treatment based on activated sludge process treats adequately real winery wastewaters. the previous stage based on heterogeneous Photo-Fenton process produces a partial degradation of winery wastewaters and achieves a yield of degradation of organic matter (measured as TOC) close to 50%. The activated sludge process in simple stage doesn't present any operation problems (bulking phenomenon) and achieves a yield of degradation of organic matter of 90%. (Author) 16 refs.


    Iván Machín


    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone un conjunto de procedimientos basados en métodos matemáticos de optim ización que permiten establecer fases activas óptimas de sulfuros que pueden generar mayores actividades a HDS. Se propone n en este trabajo una lista de las fases activas óptimas como una guía para ayudar a orientar el trabajo experimental en la búsqueda d e nuevos catalizadores que permitan optimizar el proceso de HDS . Los estudios realizados en este trabajo permiten establecer que los sistemas Co - S, Cr - S, Nb - S y Ni - S tienen la mayor posibilidad de mejorar la actividad a HDS.

  6. Dispersión de semillas por murciélagos en zonas abiertas heterogeneas adyacentes a fragmentos de bosque de la Orinoquía colombiana

    Suárez Castro, Andrés Felipe


    Ante el efecto negativo de la creación de zonas de pastoreo y cultivo sobre la biodiversidad, existe una necesidad para restaurar áreas degradadas, mediante la facilitación de procesos como la lluvia de semillas. Los murciélagos juegan un papel principal en este proceso, al consumir plantas involucradas en diferentes estadios de la sucesión. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios publicados que evalúen el aporte de esta fauna en la dispersión de semillas en áreas abiertas, y su relación con los ...

  7. Catálisis heterogenea en redes metaloporfírinicas: sistema MnII-TPPS (TPPS= meso-tetra(4-sulfonatofenil)-porfirina)

    Barandika Argoitia, Miren Gotzone; Fidalgo Marijuan, Arkaitz; Bazán Blau, Begoña del Pilar; Urtiaga Greaves, Miren Karmele; Arriortua Marcaida, María Isabel


    Comunicación: Póster presentado en el XXXV Congreso Bienal de la RSEQ (Real Sociedade Española de Química), celebrado en La Coruña, 19 - 23 de Julio de 2015 Las entidades supramoleculares basadas en el auto-ensamblaje de metaloporfirinas son ejemplos paradigmáticos de la gran eficiencia de los nanodispositivos utilizados por los sistemas naturales en la fotosíntesis, transporte de oxígeno, la transferencia de electrones y catálisis. Así, los catalizadores basados en metaloporfirinas son co...

  8. Environ: E00477 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available m-graecum [TAX:213265] Primulaceae (primrose family) Lysimachia foenum-graecum herb (dried) Crude drugs [BR:...br08305] Dicot plants: asterids Primulaceae (primrose family) E00477 Lysimachia foenum-graecum herb ...


    Michele C. Reis


    Full Text Available This work presents the biofuel production results of the esterification of fatty acids (C12-C18 and high-acid-content waste vegetable oils from different soap stocks (soybean, palm, and coconut with methanol, ethanol, and butanol by acid catalysis. We used Amberlyst-35 (A35 sulfonic resin as a heterogeneous acid catalyst and p-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst for comparison. Both the heterogeneous (A35 and homogeneous (p-toluenesulfonic acid reactions were performed with 5% w/w of catalyst. The final products were analyzed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR. The homogeneous catalyzed esterification of fatty acids with methanol, ethanol, and butanol produced esters with yields higher than 90%. In the reaction with fatty acids and methanol catalyzed by A35, the best results were achieved with lauric acid and methanol, with a yield of 97%. An increase in the hydrocarbon chain decreased the rate of conversion and yield for stearic acid with methanol, which was 90%. Maximum biodiesel production was achieved from coconut and soybean soap stocks and methanol (96%-98%, which showed conversions very close to those obtained from their respective fatty acids. Microwave irradiation reduced the reaction time from 6 to 1 h in the esterification reaction of fatty acids with butanol.

  10. Coordinated Use of Heterogeneous Infrastructures for Scientific Computing at CIEMAT by means of Grid Technologies; Aprovechamiento Coordinado de las Infraestructuras Heterogeneas para Calculo Cientifico Participadas por el CIEMAT por medio de Tecnologias Grid

    Rubio-Montero, A. J.


    Usually, research data centres maintain platforms from a wide range of architectures to cover the computational needs of their scientists. These centres are also frequently involved in diverse national and international Grid projects. Besides, it is very difficult to achieve a complete and efficient utilization of these recourses, due to the heterogeneity in their hardware and software configurations and their unequal use along the time. This report offers a solution to the problem of enabling a simultaneous and coordinated access to the variety of computing infrastructures and platforms available in great Research Organisms such as CIEMAT. For this purpose, new Grid technologies have been deployed in order to facilitate a common interface which enables the final user to access the internal and external resources. The previous computing infrastructure has not been modified and the independence on its administration has been guaranteed. For a sake of comparison, a feasibility study has been performed with the execution of the Drift Kinetic Equation solver (Dikes) tool, a high throughput scientific application used in the TJ-II Flexible Heliac at National Fusion Laboratory. (Author) 35 refs.


    Iolanda Cristiny Nascimento Duarte


    Full Text Available O biodiesel se enquadra perfeitamente nas exigências ambientais requeridas por ser um biocombustível renovável, biodegradável e não-tóxico apresentando-se como uma possível solução para amenizar os problemas atuais provocado pela dependência do petróleo pela sociedade, reduzindo alguns efeitos causadores do aquecimento global. O presente trabalho relata a extração dos lipídios da macroalga Gracilaria caudata e a utilização dos mesmos na preparação do biodiesel. A metodologia utilizada para extração dos lipídios foi extração à quente usando hexano como solvente e também o método de extração a frio, usando a mistura de solventes, clorofórmio/metanol numa proporção de 2:1. O método de conversão foi hidro-esterificação usando iodo sublimado na presença de álcool, etílico ou metílico. Com essa metodologia pode-se obter resultados interessantes para a aplicação do biodiesel feito a partir da matéria prima.

  12. Application of heterogeneous photocatalysis solar and artificial for removal of ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus in sanitary waste water; Aplicacao da fotocatalise heterogenea solar na remocao de nitrogenio amoniacal e fosforo total em esgoto sanitario

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail:; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Tecnologia


    The advanced oxidative processes (AOP) contribute or to polishing a plenty of effluent treatment, or improvement at any stage of treatment, being heterogeneous photocatalysis the most used among AOP. This study aimed to compare the heterogeneous photocatalysis in solar and artificial wastewater treatment according to the removal of ammonia nitrogen and phosphorus. The photocatalytic reactor using titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) as semiconductor photocatalytic process. The heterogeneous photocatalysis using solar UV consisted material of PET bottles and the sample was added TiO{sub 2} in constant aeration for a period of 360 minutes. In the case of reactor artificial UV light protected by a quartz tube, the process was made in a Pyrex glass reactor, where the sample was undergoing 180 minutes of aeration. The photocatalytic tests for removal of ammonia nitrogen showed more favorable in the photocatalysis of artificial UV than the solar, coming achieve average efficiency of 51% and 32%, respectively. In the case of phosphorus, the situation was reversed, the solar UV photocatalytic average efficiency reached 51% and artificial UV 32 %. (author)

  13. Analytical solution of the diffusive equations from the general perturbation theory in seven-layered slab using using Laplace transform technique; Solucao analitica das equacoes difusivas da teoria geral de perturbacao em uma placa plana heterogenea com sete regioes utilizando a transformada de Laplace

    Lemos, Rosandra S. Mottola; Vilhena, Marco Tullio M. Barreto de; Wortmann, Sergio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica. Dept. de Matematica Aplicada e Computacional]. E-mail:; Silva, Fernando C. da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia]. E-mail:


    In this work, we present numerical simulations to the analytical solutions found to the neutron and adjoint neutron fluxes as well as to the effective multiplication factor, in a seven-layered slab by the Laplace Transform Technique. (author)

  14. Congenital spherocytic anemia

    ... blood cells, spherocytosis Blood cells References Gallagher PG. Red blood cell membrane disorders. In: Hoffman R, Benz EJ Jr, Silberstein LE, ... chap 43. Klatt EC, Kumar V. Hematopathology of red blood cells and bleeding disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  15. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 December 2010-31 January 2011.

    Agata, Kiyokazu; Alasaad, Samer; Almeida-Val, Vera Maria Fonseca; Alvarez-Dios, J A; Barbisan, F; Beadell, Jon S; Beltrán, J F; Benítez, M; Bino, G; Bleay, Colin; Bloor, P; Bohlmann, Jörg; Booth, Warren; Boscari, E; Caccone, Adalgisa; Campos, Tatiana; Carvalho, B M; Climaco, Gisele Torres; Clobert, Jean; Congiu, L; Cowger, Christina; Dias, G; Doadrio, I; Farias, Izeni Pires; Ferrand, N; Freitas, Patrícia D; Fusco, G; Galetti, Pedro M; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gaunt, Michael W; Ocampo, Zaneli Gomez; Gonçalves, H; Gonzalez, E G; Haye, Pilar; Honnay, O; Hyseni, Chaz; Jacquemyn, H; Jowers, Michael J; Kakezawa, Akihiro; Kawaguchi, Eri; Keeling, Christopher I; Kwan, Ye-Seul; La Spina, Michelangelo; Lee, Wan-Ok; Leśniewska, M; Li, Yang; Liu, Haixia; Liu, Xiaolin; Lopes, S; Martínez, P; Meeus, S; Murray, Brent W; Nunes, Aline G; Okedi, Loyce M; Ouma, Johnson O; Pardo, B G; Parks, Ryan; Paula-Silva, Maria Nazaré; Pedraza-Lara, C; Perera, Omaththage P; Pino-Querido, A; Richard, Murielle; Rossini, Bruno C; Samarasekera, N Gayathri; Sánchez, Antonio; Sanchez, Juan A; Santos, Carlos Henrique Dos Anjos; Shinohara, Wataru; Soriguer, Ramón C; Sousa, Adna Cristina Barbosa; Sousa, Carolina Fernandes Da Silva; Stevens, Virginie M; Tejedo, M; Valenzuela-Bustamante, Myriam; Van de Vliet, M S; Vandepitte, K; Vera, M; Wandeler, Peter; Wang, Weimin; Won, Yong-Jin; Yamashiro, A; Yamashiro, T; Zhu, Changcheng


    This article documents the addition of 238 microsatellite marker loci to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alytes dickhilleni, Arapaima gigas, Austropotamobius italicus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Cobitis lutheri, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Glossina morsitans morsitans, Haplophilus subterraneus, Kirengeshoma palmata, Lysimachia japonica, Macrolophus pygmaeus, Microtus cabrerae, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pallisentis (Neosentis) celatus, Pulmonaria officinalis, Salminus franciscanus, Thais chocolata and Zootoca vivipara. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Acanthina monodon, Alytes cisternasii, Alytes maurus, Alytes muletensis, Alytes obstetricans almogavarii, Alytes obstetricans boscai, Alytes obstetricans obstetricans, Alytes obstetricans pertinax, Cambarellus montezumae, Cambarellus zempoalensis, Chorus giganteus, Cobitis tetralineata, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes, Glossina pallidipes, Lysimachia japonica var. japonica, Lysimachia japonica var. minutissima, Orconectes virilis, Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii, Salminus brasiliensis and Salminus hilarii.

  16. Distribution and co-existence of the Macropis species and their cleptoparasite Epeoloides coecutiens (Fabr.) in NW Europe Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Melittidae and Apidae)

    Pekkarinen, Antti; Berg, Øistein; Calabuig, Isabel;


    The Macropis species collect pollen and fatty oil secreted by flowers of loosestrifes (Lysimachia, Primulaceae) and are the only known oil-collecting bees in the Holarctic. In NW Europe, L. vulgaris is the main or (in large areas) sole pollen and oil source for M. europaea Warncke (labiata auct...

  17. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter;


    , 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha...

  18. Is plasticity in partitioning of photosynthetic resources between and within leaves important for whole-plant carbon gain in canopies?

    Pons, T.L.; Anten, N.P.R.


    1. The significance for whole-plant carbon gain of plasticity in between-leaf and within-leaf partitioning of photosynthetic resources was investigated using an experimental and modelling approach. Lysimachia vulgaris L. was grown at two contrasting stand densities and two levels of nutrient availab

  19. Wei et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(3):70-75


    Polydimethyl siloxane-divinyl benzene (PDMS-DVB), fiber head that purchased .... derivatives, such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, phenols, ethers, lactones, ... pyruvate decarboxylase catalyst by oxidation decarboxylation pathway, and then, ... Flower Scent of Floral Oil-Producing Lysimachia punctata as Attractant for the ...

  20. Sensitivity Based Segmentation and Identification in Automatic Speech Recognition.


    by a network constructed from phonemic, phonetic , and phonological rules. Regardless of the speech processing system used, Klatt 1 2 has described...analysis, and its use in the segmentation and identification of the phonetic units of speech, that was initiated during the 1982 Summer Faculty Research...practicable framework for incorporation of acoustic- phonetic variance as well as time and talker normalization. XOI iF- ? ’:: .:- .- . . l ] 2 D

  1. 陕西省种子植物区系新记录%Newly Recorded Spermatophyte to Shaanxi,China

    黎斌; 李思锋; 张莹; 袁永明


    报道了陕西省种子植物区系2新记录属[茜草科(Rubiaceae)的虎刺属(Damnacanthus Gaertn.f.),桔梗科(Campanulaceae)的刺萼参属(Echinocodon Hong)],3新记录种[四川虎刺(Damnacanthus of ficinarum Huang),刺萼参(Echinocodon lobophyllus Hong)及报春花科(Primulaceae)的异花珍珠菜Lysimachia crispidens(Hance) Hemsl.].

  2. 不同基质厚度对几种草本地被植物生长的影响

    乔柳??; 陈迪



  3. The iris family (Iridaceae in the flora of eastern Indochina

    L. V. Averyanov


    Full Text Available Iris family in the countries of eastern part of Indochina Peninsula, such as Cambodia, Laos and Viet­nam includes lone native genus – Iris L. with two aboriginal species – I. japonica Thunb. and I. tectorum Maxim. Iris japonica is often cultivated as an outdoor ornamental plant in mountainous regions in the northern Vietnam, where it occasionally naturalizes. Herbarium specimens of I. japonica, collected in central Laos near Nape town, probably represent southernmost locality of the Iris genus in Eurasia. Iris tectorum was discovered in native, primary plant communities of karstic highly eroded limestone in Cao Bang province (Bao Lac district of the northern Vietnam. This species is recorded as new for the flora of the Indochina Peninsula. The report of I. collettii Hook. f. on the territory of peninsular flora does not yet confirmed by herbaria and remains doubtful. Data on taxonomy, authentic specimens, distribution, habitats, phenology, conservation status and biology are provided for all Iris species. The identification key for Iris species is compiled, as well as dotted distribution maps on the territory of countries of eastern Indochina. Other representatives of the family from such genera as Belamcanda Adans. (B. chinensis (L. Redouté, Crocosmia Planch. (C. × crocosmiiflora (G. Nicholson N. E. Br., Eleutherine Herb. (E. bulbosa (Mill. Urb., Freesia Klatt (F. refracta (Jacq. Klatt., Gladiolus L. (numerous horticultural forms и Trimezia Salisb. ex Herb. (T. martinicensis (Jacq. Herb. reported from Indochina are introduced cultivated ornamental plants capable to occasional naturaliza­tion as an adventive element of the Indochinese flora.

  4. Effect of different plant extracts on prevention of oviposition in Plutella xylostella (L.) adults%10种植物提取物对小菜蛾产卵忌避作用研究初报

    黎柳锋; 曾涛; 韦德卫; 陈海珊


    [目的]寻找新的小菜蛾生物防治方法,为植物源农药的研究和开发提供科学依据.[方法]以10种产于广西的楝科、番荔枝科、无患子科和报春花科植物提取物对小菜蛾成虫进行室内产卵忌避作用试验.[结果]以地黄连(Melia sinica)、香椿(叶)(Toona sinensis)、番荔枝(Annona squamosa)、四瓣米仔兰(A.terapetala)、灵香草(Lysimachia foenum-gmecum)等植物提取物处理后48 h对小菜蛾成虫的产卵忌避率分别为86.21%、94.69%、97.92%、98.91%和100.00%.[结论]地黄连、香椿(叶)、番荔枝、四瓣米仔兰、灵香草等5种植物对小菜蛾成虫有强烈的产卵忌避作用,在蔬菜害虫生态控制中均具有广阔的应用前景和开发潜力.%[Objective] The objective of the current study was to explore some biological control methods against Plutella xylostella (L.). [Method] The efficiency of extracts taken from 10 different plants (belonging to families meliaceae, annonaceae, sapindaceae and primulaceae) in preventing the oviposition in Plutella xylostella (L.) adults have been observed under laboratory conditions. [Result] The average oviposition deterrent rates of Plutella xylostella (L.). adults treated for 48 hour with extracts of Melia sinica, Toona sinensis (leaf) ,Annona squamosa, A. terapetala and Lysimachia foenum-graecum were 86.21, 94.69, 97.92, 98.91 and 100.00%, respectively. [Conclusion] Five plants, viz, Melia sinica, Toona sinensis (leaf) ,Annona squamosa, A. terapetala and Lysimachia foenum-graeeum were found to have the best control effects on oviposition of Plutella xylostella ( L ) adults, and they have broad application prospects and exploration potential as biological control agents against vegetable pests.

  5. [Treatment of autism spectrum disorders: union between understanding and evidence-based practice].

    Martos-Pérez, Juan; Llorente-Comí, María


    Introduccion. De manera sintetica se da cuenta de las caracteristicas heterogeneas de funcionamiento de las personas con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA) y como dichas caracteristicas tambien pueden estar en la base de la variabilidad en la respuesta al tratamiento. Se recalca la necesidad de combinar, en el tratamiento, la practica basada en la evidencia y una comprension profunda de los TEA. Desarrollo. Se explican algunos de los principios esenciales que deben guiar el tratamiento desde la optica de indicadores de calidad que han de contener los programas de intervencion. Se incide en las caracteristicas y contenidos que forman parte de los programas que se llevan a cabo en el ambito de la intervencion temprana, explicando brevemente algunos de esos programas, y posteriormente se caracteriza la intervencion, con el uso de tecnicas y estrategias, que habitualmente se realiza en niños y adolescentes de alto nivel de funcionamiento. Conclusion. La investigacion y conocimiento acumulados y la cada vez mayor evidencia experimental configuran las caracteristicas que deben adoptar los programas de intervencion y tratamiento usados en personas con TEA. Dicho tratamiento debe comenzar de manera temprana, lo antes posible y extenderse a lo largo del ciclo vital.

  6. [Peripheral nervous system and speech disorders].

    Ferri, Lluís


    Introduccion. Las afectaciones de la neurona motora inferior en la infancia, de etiologia congenita o adquirida, provocan dificultades en la respuesta motriz del habla en un periodo especialmente critico para el desarrollo del lenguaje. El interes por esta patologia radica en su baja incidencia, en su comorbilidad con otras afectaciones cerebrales y en su pronostico incierto. Objetivo. Hacer una revision de las alteraciones motoras del habla, de la valoracion funcional y de la intervencion logopedica en la disartria flacida. Desarrollo. Se plantea la caracterizacion clinica de las alteraciones en la produccion verbal de origen periferico, concretamente de la disartria flacida y sus manifestaciones respiratorias, fonatorias, de resonancia, de articulacion y de prosodia. Seguidamente, se esboza la valoracion funcional y se plantean las lineas de intervencion para su tratamiento. Conclusiones. Las manifestaciones clinicas de la disartria flacida son muy heterogeneas y van desde leves dificultades articulatorias a graves trastornos que limitan gravemente la capacidad para la expresion verbal. En la mayoria de los casos, la exploracion funcional proporciona hallazgos valiosos para su identificacion y tipificacion, para determinar la necesidad de valoraciones complementarias y para establecer el programa idoneo de intervencion logopedica. La participacion guiada de la familia y el abordaje interdisciplinar son factores que contribuyen decisivamente a mejorar estos procesos.

  7. Immature stages and natural history of the Andean butterfly Altinote ozomene (Nymphalidae: Heliconiinae: Acraeini

    Patricia Duque Velez


    Full Text Available The immature stages (eggs, larvae and pupae, oviposition and larval behavior of Altinote ozomene (Godart, 1819 are described here for the first time. Larvae were reared from egg clutches collected from the host plants Erato vulcanica (Klatt H.Rob and Munnozia senecionidis Benth (Asteraceae. Eggs were laid in groups on the undersides of leaves. The number of instars varied from five to eight within the same egg clutch, and the corresponding development time from larva to adult varied from 91 to 115 days. Most (72% larvae pupated during the sixth instar. The first four instars fed only on the leaf cuticle, whereas later instars consumed the whole leaf. Larvae were gregarious during all instars but rested together only during the day in later instars, either hidden inside dry leaves, on the stem at the base of the host plants, or in the leaf litter. Larvae showed similar morphology and behavior to those previously described for species of Actinote Hübner, 1819 from southeastern Brazil and the Andes.

  8. Age differences in the irrelevant sound effect: A serial recognition paradigm

    Schwarz Helene


    Full Text Available In adults, the disrupting effect of irrelevant background sounds with distinct temporalspectral variations (changing-state sounds on short-term memory performance was found to be robust. In the present study, a verbal serial recognition task was used to investigate this so-called Irrelevant Sound Effect (ISE in adults and 8- to 10-year-old children. An essential part of the short-term memory impairment during changing-state speech is due to interference processes (changing-state effect which can be differentiated from the deviation effect of auditory distraction. In line with recent findings (Hughes et al., 2013, our study demonstrates that the changing-state effect is not modulated by task difficulty. Moreover, our results show that the changing-state effect remains stable for children and adults. This suggests that the differences in the magnitude of the ISE as reported by Elliott (2002 and Klatte et al. (2010 are most likely related to the increase in attentional control during childhood.

  9. Strategies to promote resilience, empathy and well-being in the health professions: Insights from the 2015 CENTILE Conference.

    Haramati, Aviad; Cotton, Sian; Padmore, Jamie S; Wald, Hedy S; Weissinger, Peggy A


    The high prevalence of physician burnout is of great concern and may begin with observed declines in empathy and increases in stress and burnout in medical and health professions students. While underlying causes have been described, there is less certainty on how to create effective interventions in curricula and workplace. In October 2015, The Center for Innovation and Leadership in Education (CENTILE) at Georgetown University, together with MedStar Health, Georgetown's clinical partner, and six academic institutions sponsored a conference in Washington, DC. The goal was to discuss the current state of stress and burnout in the health professions, and to share best practices on strategies to promote resilience, empathy and well-being in students, residents, faculty and practitioners across health professions. In this issue of Medical Teacher, three articles address pertinent themes of the conference. Maslach and Leiter provide insights into burnout and strategies to alleviate it. Ekman and Krasner discuss various types of empathy and how neuroscience can be used to effectively cultivate empathy. In the third paper, Kreitzer and Klatt highlight three successful curricular interventions that foster self-awareness and boost resilience. Ultimately, effective strategies will be needed to address this issue at both the individual and organizational levels.

  10. [Brainstem dysgenesis: functional prognosis and rehabilitative treatment. A series of nine cases].

    Alberdi-Otazu, Ainara; Vives-Ortega, Juan C; Castelló-Verdú, Teresa; Toro-Tamargo, Esther; Meléndez-Plumed, Mar


    Introduccion. La disgenesia del tronco encefalico es una entidad clinica heterogenea, de baja incidencia y alta variabilidad clinica, que afecta a estructuras del tronco del encefalo. La combinacion de sintomatologia, neuroimagen y estudios neurofisiologicos es la base diagnostica. Objetivo. Conocer las caracteristicas clinicas comunes, pronostico funcional y necesidades de tratamiento rehabilitador en un grupo de niños con disgenesia del tronco encefalico. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo observacional de nueve pacientes diagnosticados de disgenesia del tronco encefalico controlados en consultas externas. Resultados. La edad media de los pacientes era de 5,5 años. Cinco presentaron alteraciones en la neuroimagen y, en los cinco con estudio neurofisiologico, este estaba alterado. Seis presentaron hipotonia muscular; ocho, amimia/hipomimia; seis, hipoacusia central, y cinco, gastrostomia. Un tercio presento un episodio de parada cardiorrespiratoria. En todos se detecto retraso psicomotor. Actualmente cinco realizan marcha autonoma por interiores y cuatro de ellos por exteriores. Un porcentaje elevado (77,7%) comprende ordenes simples y es capaz de comunicarse (66,6%). Conclusiones. Las alteraciones de los pares craneales, del tono muscular y la disfagia son las manifestaciones mas comunes en nuestra poblacion. El riesgo de broncoaspiracion y parada cardiorrespiratoria supone una amenaza vital para estos pacientes. Todos los niños presentan retraso psicomotor y la mitad de ellos alcanza marcha autonoma. Dada la diversidad de discapacidad que presentan estos pacientes, consideramos necesario un tratamiento de rehabilitacion integral e individualizado para conseguir un nivel funcional optimo. Necesitamos estudios con muestras mas amplias para obtener grupos homogeneos y establecer el pronostico funcional y las necesidades de tratamiento rehabilitador.

  11. [Frontal variant of Alzheimer's disease. Two pathologically confirmed cases and a literature review].

    Herrero-San Martín, Alejandro; Villarejo-Galende, Alberto; Rábano-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Guerrero-Márquez, Carmen; Porta-Etessam, Jesús; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix


    Introduccion. La enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA) es la causa mas frecuente de demencia en nuestro medio. En la mayoria de los pacientes, las manifestaciones iniciales consisten en una afectacion selectiva y progresiva de la memoria. Sin embargo, no se trata de un proceso homogeneo y, en algunos casos, el modo de presentacion puede ser atipico. La presentacion de la EA en forma de alteracion precoz de la personalidad, el comportamiento y las funciones ejecutivas se ha denominado variante frontal de la EA. En nuestro caso, su diagnostico definitivo solo fue posible mediante el estudio histologico, pues los criterios clinicos vigentes resultaron entonces insuficientes para el diagnostico de esta forma atipica de la EA. Casos clinicos. Dos pacientes, una mujer y un hombre de 60 y 52 años respectivamente, presentaron un cuadro progresivo de deterioro cognitivo con afectacion inicial de las funciones ejecutivas y cambio de personalidad, junto con alteraciones del estado de animo, por lo que se realizo el diagnostico inicial de probable demencia frontotemporal. No obstante, en ambos casos, la autopsia revelo datos compatibles con el diagnostico de EA, con una distribucion de la patologia que afectaba fundamentalmente a los lobulos frontales. Conclusiones. La EA tiene una forma heterogenea de presentacion, lo que puede originar errores en su diagnostico inicial, dado que los criterios clinicos actuales no recogen de modo suficiente esta variabilidad clinica. Por ello, consideramos importante prestar atencion a las formas atipicas de la EA con el objeto de desarrollar nuevos metodos diagnosticos que permitan diferenciar la EA del resto de procesos degenerativos.

  12. [Oxytocin in the treatment of the social deficits associated to autism spectrum disorders].

    Cachafeiro-Espino, Carla; Vale-Martínez, Anna M


    Introduccion. La implicacion de la oxitocina en la conducta social de animales y humanos ha llevado a estudiar los efectos de su administracion en el comportamiento y cognicion social de pacientes con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA). Objetivos. Revisar la investigacion sobre el potencial terapeutico de la oxitocina en el tratamiento de los deficits sociales de la poblacion con TEA y discutir las probables direcciones futuras de los estudios en este campo. Desarrollo. Diversos trabajos han relacionado la oxitocina con la fisiopatologia de los TEA. La mayoria de los estudios que han administrado oxitocina, generalmente por via intranasal (24 UI), ha observado mejoras significativas en el rendimiento social, sin detectar efectos secundarios destacables. No obstante, existen datos contradictorios debido a la heterogeneidad de las variables analizadas por los diferentes estudios, al uso de muestras heterogeneas y pequeñas o a la diferente duracion de los tratamientos. Las limitaciones relacionadas con la falta de comprension de los mecanismos de accion de la oxitocina y la diversidad sintomatologica de los TEA dificultan el establecimiento de este peptido como tratamiento de los pacientes autistas. Estudios recientes destacan la conveniencia de explorar el efecto de la combinacion del tratamiento de oxitocina con programas conductuales de intervencion en habilidades sociales, asi como la potenciacion de la secrecion endogena de oxitocina. Conclusiones. Los efectos de la administracion de oxitocina resultan prometedores en relacion con el tratamiento de los deficits sociales en individuos con TEA. Estudios futuros deberian facilitar la comprension de las vias de accion de la oxitocina y el establecimiento de pautas optimas de tratamiento.

  13. [Brainstem auditory evoked potentials and somatosensory evoked potentials in Chiari malformation].

    Moncho, Dulce; Poca, María A; Minoves, Teresa; Ferré, Alejandro; Rahnama, Kimia; Sahuquillo, Juan


    Introduccion. La malformacion de Chiari (MC) incluye una serie de anomalias congenitas que tienen como comun denominador la ectopia de las amigdalas del cerebelo por debajo del foramen magno, lo que puede condicionar fenomenos compresivos del troncoencefalo, la medula espinal alta y los nervios craneales, alterando las respuestas de los potenciales evocados auditivos del tronco cerebral (PEATC) y de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales (PESS). Sin embargo, las indicaciones de ambas exploraciones en las MC han sido motivo de estudio en un numero limitado de publicaciones, centradas en series cortas y heterogeneas de pacientes. Objetivo. Revisar los hallazgos de los PEATC y los PESS en los estudios publicados en pacientes con MC tipo 1 (MC-1) o tipo 2 (MC-2), y su indicacion en el diagnostico, tratamiento y seguimiento, especialmente en la MC-1. Desarrollo. Es un estudio de revision realizado mediante analisis de los estudios publicados en Medline desde 1966, localizados mediante PubMed, utilizando combinaciones de las palabras clave 'Chiari malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari malformation', 'Chiari type 1 malformation', 'Arnold-Chiari type 1 malformation', 'evoked potentials', 'brainstem auditory evoked potentials' y 'somatosensory evoked potentials', asi como informacion de pacientes con MC-1 valorados en los servicios de neurocirugia y neurofisiologia clinica del Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos mas comunes de los PESS son la reduccion en la amplitud cortical para el nervio tibial posterior, la reduccion o ausencia del potencial cervical del nervio mediano y el aumento del intervalo N13-N20. En el caso de los PEATC, los hallazgos mas frecuentes descritos son el aumento del intervalo I-V y la alteracion periferica o coclear.

  14. [Protocol for neurophysiological studies of the pelvic floor to appraise anorectal dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    Álvarez-Guerrico, Ion; Royo, Inmaculada; Andreu, Montserrat; Roquer-González, Jaume; Munteis, Elvira


    Introduccion. Los pacientes con esclerosis multiple (EM) frecuentemente desarrollan disfuncion anorrectal. Las estructuras neuromusculares del suelo pelvico y los mecanismos de control voluntario de la defecacion pueden afectarse por las lesiones parcheadas de la EM o secundarias a la discapacidad del paciente. La implicacion multifactorial limita la comprension de la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en la EM. Tests neurofisiologicos especificos valoran la funcionalidad de los elementos del sistema nervioso central y periferico implicados en las disfunciones anorrectales. Objetivo. Proponer un protocolo diagnostico de estudios neurofisiologicos estandarizados del suelo pelvico para caracterizar la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM. Pacientes y metodos. Se realizaron estudios de electromiografia de esfinter anal externo, potenciales evocados somatosensoriales desde el nervio pudendo interno, registro de reflejos sacros anales y neurografia del nervio pudendo a 16 pacientes con EM definida y criterios de estreñimiento o incontinencia fecal. Resultados. Las caracteristicas clinicas y neurofisiologicas fueron heterogeneas. Nueve pacientes presentaron estreñimiento; dos, incontinencia fecal aislada; y cinco, combinacion de ambos. La abolicion o el retraso de la latencia de los potenciales evocados somatosensoriales fue el hallazgo mas frecuente (n = 12), seguido de la deteccion de contraccion paradojica (n = 11) y de reclutamiento deficitario (n = 8) en la electromiografia de esfinter anal externo. Conclusiones. La correcta interpretacion de cada test neurofisiologico disponible y la correlacion de los hallazgos en conjunto permiten comprender la fisiopatologia de la disfuncion anorrectal. La protocolizacion de estudios neurofisiologicos del suelo pelvico permite ajustar el diagnostico al identificar la lesion nerviosa, central o periferica, determinante de disfuncion anorrectal en los pacientes con EM.

  15. Evaluation of DNA barcodes in Codonopsis (Campanulaceae) and in some large angiosperm plant genera

    Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Xiao-Hua


    DNA barcoding is expected to be one of the most promising tools in biological taxonomy. However, there have been no agreements on which core barcode should be used in plants, especially in species-rich genera with wide geographical distributions. To evaluate their discriminatory power in large genera, four of the most widely used DNA barcodes, including three plastid regions (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS), were tested in seven species-rich genera (Ficus, Pedicularis, Rhodiola, Rhododendron,Viburnum, Dendrobium and Lysimachia) and a moderate size genus, Codonopsis. All of the sequences from the aforementioned seven large genera were downloaded from NCBI. The related barcodes for Codonopsis were newly generated in this study. Genetics distances, DNA barcoding gaps and phylogenetic trees of the four single barcodes and their combinations were calculated and compared in the seven genera. As for single barcode, nrITS has the most variable sites, the clearest intra- and inter-specific divergences and the highest discrimination rates in the seven genera. Among the combinations of barcodes, ITS+matK performed better than all the single barcodes in most cases and even the three- and four-loci combinations in the seven genera. Therefore, we recommend ITS+matK as the core barcodes for large plant genera. PMID:28182623

  16. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon


    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents.

  17. Bioindication of heavy metals with aquatic macrophytes: the case of a stream polluted with power plant sewages in Poland.

    Samecka-Cymerman, A; Kempers, A J


    The Kozi Brod (left tributary of the Biala Przemsza, east of Katowice) flows in a highly industrial coal-mining area dominated by the power plant of Siersza. Concentrations of the microelements nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), barium (Ba), aluminum (Al), vanadium (V), and strontium (Sr), as well as the macronutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and sulfur (S), were measured in water and plants of the Kozi Brod. The collected plants were: Myosotis palustris L. Nathorst, Galium palustre L., Mentha rotundifolia L. Huds., Mentha aquatica L., Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville, Cardamine amara L., Epilobium angustifolium L., Geranium palustre L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Crepis paludosa L. Much., Calitriche verna L., Solanum dulcamara L., and the aquatic moss Hygrohypnum ochraceum (Turn.) Loesk. These plants were used to evaluate the spatial distribution of elements in the Kozi Brod and contained elevated levels of Co, Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Al, Pb, and Cu. Significant correlations between concentrations of Cd, Zn, and Mn in water and plants indicate the potential of these species for pollution monitoring.

  18. Evaluation of the DNA barcodes in Dendrobium (Orchidaceae from mainland Asia.

    Songzhi Xu

    Full Text Available DNA barcoding has been proposed to be one of the most promising tools for accurate and rapid identification of taxa. However, few publications have evaluated the efficiency of DNA barcoding for the large genera of flowering plants. Dendrobium, one of the largest genera of flowering plants, contains many species that are important in horticulture, medicine and biodiversity conservation. Besides, Dendrobium is a notoriously difficult group to identify. DNA barcoding was expected to be a supplementary means for species identification, conservation and future studies in Dendrobium. We assessed the power of 11 candidate barcodes on the basis of 1,698 accessions of 184 Dendrobium species obtained primarily from mainland Asia. Our results indicated that five single barcodes, i.e., ITS, ITS2, matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA, can be easily amplified and sequenced with the currently established primers. Four barcodes, ITS, ITS2, ITS+matK, and ITS2+matK, have distinct barcoding gaps. ITS+matK was the optimal barcode based on all evaluation methods. Furthermore, the efficiency of ITS+matK was verified in four other large genera including Ficus, Lysimachia, Paphiopedilum, and Pedicularis in this study. Therefore, we tentatively recommend the combination of ITS+matK as a core DNA barcode for large flowering plant genera.

  19. The distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. at Jeongseon Gangwon-do, Korea

    Jeong-Won Jang


    Full Text Available To study the distribution of vascular plants in Banronsan (Mt. located in Jeongseon-gun, Gangwon-do, Korea. The vascular flora in Banronsan (Mt. were surveyed a total of four times-three times from May 2010 to October 2010, and once in August 2012. This result revealed 447 taxa in total: 89 families, 278 genera, 390 species, four subspecies, 47 varieties, and six form. In the flora of this area, 15 taxa were Korean endemic plants including Aconitum pseudolaeve Nakai, Lysimachia coreana Nakai, and Saussurea macrolepis (Nakai Kitam., and 17 taxa were rare and endangered plants of Korea including Astragalus koraiensis Y.N. Lee, Pseudostellaria japonica Pax, and Paeonia japonica (Makino Miyabe and Takeda. Three taxa were found as a special forest conservation species designated by the Korea Forest Service including Delphinium maackianum Regel and Daphne pseudomezereum var. koreana (Nakai Hamaya. Besides, 76 taxa were found to be specific floristic plants designated by the Ministry of Environment, whereas naturalized plants in this area were 32 taxa. Resource plants were categorized by usage into eight groups: 189 edible, four fiber, 127 medical, 48 ornamental, 150 pasturing, three industrial, 10 dyeing, and eight timber plants.

  20. Hyperaccumulation of lead, zinc, and cadmium in plants growing on a lead/zinc outcrop in Yunnan Province, China

    Wang, S. L.; Liao, W. B.; Yu, F. Q.; Liao, B.; Shu, W. S.


    A field survey was conducted to identify potential hyperaccumulators of Pb, Zn or Cd in the Beichang Pb/Zn mine outcrop in Yunnan Province, China. The average total concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd in the soils were up to 28,438, 5,109, and 52 mg kg-1, respectively. A total of 68 plant species belonging to 60 genera of 37 families naturally colonizing the outcrop were recorded. According to metal accumulation in the plants and translocation factor (TF), Silene viscidula was identified as potential hyperaccumulator of Pb, Zn, and Cd with mean shoot concentrations of 3,938 mg kg-1 of Pb (TF = 1.2), 11,155 mg kg-1 of Zn (TF = 1.8) and 236 mg kg-1 of Cd (TF = 1.1), respectively; S. gracilicanlis (Pb 3,617 mg kg-1, TF = 1.2) and Onosma paniculatum (Pb 1,837 mg kg-1, TF = 1.9) were potential Pb hyperaccumulators. Potentilla griffithii (Zn 8,748 mg kg-1, TF = 1.5) and Gentiana sp. (Zn 19,710 mg kg-1, TF = 2.7) were potential Zn hyperaccumulators. Lysimachia deltoides (Cd 212 mg kg-1, TF = 3.2) was a potential Cd hyperaccumulator. These new plant resources could be used to explore the mechanisms of Pb, Zn and/or Cd hyperaccumulation, and the findings could be applied for the phytoremediation of Pb, Zn and/or Cd-contaminated soils.

  1. Antennal responses of an oligolectic bee and its cleptoparasite to plant volatiles.

    Dötterl, Stefan


    Cleptoparasitic or cuckoo bees lay their eggs in nests of other bees, and the parasitic larvae feed the food that had been provided for the host larvae. Nothing is known about the specific signals used by the cuckoo bees for host nest finding, but previous studies have shown that olfactory cues originating from the host bee alone, or the host bee and the larval provision are essential. Here, I compared by using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) the antennal responses of the oligolectic oil-bee Macropis fulvipes and their cleptoparasite, Epeoloides coecutiens, to dynamic headspace scent samples of Lysimachia punctata, a pollen and oil host of Macropis. Both bee species respond to some scent compounds emitted by L. punctata, and two compounds, which were also found in scent samples collected from a Macropis nest entrance, elicited clear signals in the antennae of both species. These compounds may not only play a role for host plant detection by Macropis, but also for host nest detection by Epeoloides. I hypothesise that oligolectic bees and their cleptoparasites use the same compounds for host plant and host nest detection, respectively.

  2. Influence of different plant species on methane emissions from soil in a restored Swiss wetland.

    Gurbir S Bhullar

    Full Text Available Plants are a major factor influencing methane emissions from wetlands, along with environmental parameters such as water table, temperature, pH, nutrients and soil carbon substrate. We conducted a field experiment to study how different plant species influence methane emissions from a wetland in Switzerland. The top 0.5 m of soil at this site had been removed five years earlier, leaving a substrate with very low methanogenic activity. We found a sixfold difference among plant species in their effect on methane emission rates: Molinia caerulea and Lysimachia vulgaris caused low emission rates, whereas Senecio paludosus, Carex flava, Juncus effusus and Typha latifolia caused relatively high rates. Centaurea jacea, Iris sibirica, and Carex davalliana caused intermediate rates. However, we found no effect of either plant biomass or plant functional groups--based on life form or productivity of the habitat--upon methane emission. Emissions were much lower than those usually reported in temperate wetlands, which we attribute to reduced concentrations of labile carbon following topsoil removal. Thus, unlike most wetland sites, methane production in this site was probably fuelled chiefly by root exudation from living plants and from root decay. We conclude that in most wetlands, where concentrations of labile carbon are much higher, these sources account for only a small proportion of the methane emitted. Our study confirms that plant species composition does influence methane emission from wetlands, and should be considered when developing measures to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions.

  3. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  4. Spatial patterns and links between microbial community composition and function in cyanobacterial mats

    Alnajjar, Mohammad Ahmad


    We imaged reflectance and variable fluorescence in 25 cyanobacterial mats from four distant sites around the globe to assess, at different scales of resolution, spatial variabilities in the physiological parameters characterizing their photosynthetic capacity, including the absorptivity by chlorophyll a (Achl), maximum quantum yield of photosynthesis (Ymax), and light acclimation irradiance (Ik). Generally, these parameters significantly varied within individual mats on a sub-millimeter scale, with about 2-fold higher variability in the vertical than in the horizontal direction. The average vertical profiles of Ymax and Ik decreased with depth in the mat, while Achl exhibited a sub-surface maximum. The within-mat variability was comparable to, but often larger than, the between-sites variability, whereas the within-site variabilities (i.e., between samples from the same site) were generally lowest. When compared based on averaged values of their photosynthetic parameters, mats clustered according to their site of origin. Similar clustering was found when the community composition of the mats\\' cyanobacterial layers were compared by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), indicating a significant link between the microbial community composition and function. Although this link is likely the result of community adaptation to the prevailing site-specific environmental conditions, our present data is insufficient to identify the main factors determining these patterns. Nevertheless, this study demonstrates that the spatial variability in the photosynthetic capacity and light acclimation of benthic phototrophic microbial communities is at least as large on a sub-millimeter scale as it is on a global scale, and suggests that this pattern of variability scaling is similar for the microbial community composition. © 2014 Al-Najjar, Ramette, Kühl, Hamza, Klatt and Polerecky.

  5. Rainfall deficit and excess rainfall during vegetation of early potatoes varieties in central-eastern Poland (1971-2005

    Elżbieta Radzka


    Full Text Available The study was based on data collected from nine stations of the Institute of Meteoro­logy and Water Management in central-eastern Poland (1971-2005 concerning monthly precipitation total and mean monthly air temperature during the vegetation period of early potatoes (April-July. Optimal precipitation for early potato was calculated according to the Klatt indexes for medium cohesive and light soils in the successive months of the vegetation period. Rainfall deficit and excess rainfall were determined based on differences between monthly precipitation totals recorded in the years of the study and values considered to be optimal. It was found that the frequency of rainfall deficit during vegetation of early potato in each analysed location both for medium cohesive soil and for light soil exceeded the frequency of its excess. The greatest mean monthly rainfall deficit from the multiannual period in the vegetation season of early potato in all the analysed locations and for both soil types was recorded in June, while excess rainfall was observed in July. Lower values of standard deviation for rainfall deficit were calculated in the case of light soil than medium cohesive soil, while an opposite dependence was recorded for excess rainfall. The risk for early potato plantations on light soil was connected with frequent extreme deficits. They were observed most often in the south-eastern part of the study area, while they were rarest in the belt from Pułtusk towards Szepietowo. Values of the slope of the trend lines were low for all the weather stations and most of them were statistically non-significant. However, all values concerning rainfall deficit were negative, which indicates its slight increase from year to year. A significant trend for changes in rainfall deficit was observed only in Włodawa and Siedlce, while for excess rainfall it was found in Szepietowo and Białowieża.

  6. Three cryptic new species of Aristea (Iridaceae from southern Africa

    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available Field work in southern Africa over the past several years has resulted in the discovery of three new species of the sub- Saharan African and Madagascan genus Aristea Aiton, which now comprises some 53 species. Aristea has a pronounced centre in southern Africa and a centre of diversity in the winter rainfall zone of the subcontinent, where all three new species occur, one extending eastward into the adjacent southern edge of the summer rainfall zone. All three novelties have been collected in the past but were confused with related species. A elliptica (subgenus Eucapsulares, confused in the past with A. pusilla (Thunb. Ker Gawl., has a more robust habit, usually with 4 or 5 flower clusters per flowering stem, pale blue flowers, smooth ellipsoid seeds with flattened surface cells, and pollen shed as monads, whereas A. pusilla usually has 1-3 flower clusters per flowering stem, dark blue flowers, pollen shed as tetrads, and globose seeds with faint foveate sculpturing and colliculate surface cells. A. nana (also subgenus  Eucapsulares, known from few collections, and also confused with A. pusilla or A. anceps Eckl. ex Klatt. has the unbranched and leafless flowering stem of the latter but has large green floral spathes, flowers borne on long pedicels, and lacks a leaf subtending the single terminal flower cluster in contrast to nearly sessile flowers in A. pusilla and A. anceps, and in the latter, dry, rusty spathes. A. cistiflora (subgenus Pseudaristea closely resembles A. teretifoha Goldblatt & J.C.Manning but has linear to narrowly sword-shaped leaves and ± secund flowers with the outer tepals only slightly smaller than the inner and with small, dark brown markings at the bases of all the tepals. In contrast, A. teretifolia has narrower, sometimes terete leaves and flowers held upright with the outer tepals notice-ably smaller than the inner and bearing dark markings covering the lower half, whereas the inner tepals are unmarked.

  7. Experimental numerical study utilizing CFD in a stratified gasifier operating with biomass; Estudio numerico experimental de un gasificador estratificado que opera con biomasa, utilizando CFD

    Rogel Ramirez, Alejandro


    The central idea behind this work is the developing of a numeric-experimental model, useful to optimize the biomass stratified gasifier design. Firstly, model validation will be carried up by comparison with reference experimental data available. This study describes a 1-D + 2-D numerical model used to simulate the gasification of pine wood pellets in a stratified downdraft gasifier whereby Eulerian conservation equations are solved for particle and gas phase components, velocities and specific enthalpies. The model takes into account the biomass particle process such as heating up, drying, primary pyrolysis of biomass, secondary pyrolysis of tar, homogeneous reactions and heterogeneous combustion/gasification reactions, and particle size change. This CFD model can be used to predict temperature profiles, gas composition, producer gas lower heating value, and carbon conversion efficiency, and the reactor performance when operating parameters and feed properties are changed. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} and RNG {kappa}-{epsilon} models were used to simulate the turbulent flow conditions. [Spanish] La idea central del presente trabajo es el desarrollo de un modelo numerico- experimental, para optimizar el diseno de gasificadores estratificados de biomasa. Primeramente, el modelo sera validado utilizando datos experimentales disponibles en la literatura. Este estudio describe un modelo numerico 1-D+2-D, utilizado para simular la gasificacion de 'pelets' de madera de pino en un gasificador estratificado de flujos paralelos, en el que se resuelven ecuaciones de conservacion Eulerianas para los componentes de la fase gaseosa, la fase solida, velocidades y entalpias especificas. El modelo considera procesos como: calentamiento, secado de la biomasa, pirolisis primaria de la madera, pirolisis secundaria de los alquitranes, reacciones homogeneas, reacciones heterogeneas de combustion/gasificacion y cambio en el tamano de la particula. Este modelo CFD puede ser

  8. CFD modelling of an open core downdraft moving bed biomass gasifier; Modelado de un gasificador estratificado de lecho movil de biomasa, utilizando CFD

    Rogel-Ramirez, A [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail:


    las reacciones heterogeneas entre el carbon activo y O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} y H{sub 2}O. El efecto de la turbulencia en la fase gaseosa se determina usando el modelo {kappa}-{epsilon}. El modelo proporciona informacion de la composicion del gas, velocidades y temperaturas de salida y el comportamiento del reactor, y permite cambiar los parametros de operacion, y las propiedades de la alimentacion. Finalmente, se comparan los valores predichos por el modelo con datos disponibles en la literatura, mostrando congruencia satisfactoria desde un punto de vista cualitativo.

  9. Seismicity, focal mechanisms, and stress distribution in the Tres Virgenes volcanic and geothermal region, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Wong, Victor; Munguia, Luis [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada (Mexico)


    In October 1993 we carried out a seismic monitoring in the Tres Virgenes volcanic region in order to record the background seismicity associated with the volcanic structures, the geothermal field and the tectonic features of the area. Hypocenters for 257 microearthquakes were located in the volcanic edifices and along the northwest right-lateral, strike-slip La Virgen fault. Focal depths range from close to the Earth surface to about 8 km. Shallow depths occur mainly in the volcanic edifices. Deeper seismic events occurred outside the volcanic area. The duration magnitudes of the located microearthquakes range between 1 and 3. The Vp/Vs ratio and the low-Q values estimated suggest heterogeneous material properties in the volcanic structures mainly toward the El Azufre fault and the El Aguajito Caldera, where hydrothermal activity has been reported. The P- and T-axes of focal mechanisms for 90 microearthquakes suggest that the region is under N-S compression and E-W extension, in agreement with the regional tectonic stress field of the NW-SE right-lateral strike-slip transform fault system of the Gulf of California. [Spanish] En octubre de 1993 se llevo a cabo un monitoreo sismico en la region volcanica Las Tres Virgenes con el proposito de registrar la actividad sismica asociada a las estructuras volcanicas, al campo geotermico y a la tectonica local. Se localizaron 257 microsismos con hipocentros en los edificios volcanicos y a lo largo de la falla de rumbo, lateral derecha conocida como falla La Virgen. La profundidad focal de los sismos varia desde los muy cercanos a la superficie de la Tierra hasta los 8 km. Las profundidades someras ocurren principalmente en los edificios volcanicos. Los sismos mas profundos ocurren fuera del area volcanica. La magnitud de duracion de los microsismos localizados varia entre 1 y 3. La razon Vp/Vs y los valores bajos de Q que se estimaron en la zona sugieren un material con propiedades heterogeneas bajo las estructuras

  10. Study on draught resistance of five herb ground cover plants%5种草本地被植物抗旱性研究

    史燕山; 骆建霞; 王煦; 赵坤平; 刘玉冬; 黄俊轩


    对5种草本地被植物(银水苏Stachys‘Sliver Carpet’,百里香丁Thymus mongolicus Ronn,金叶过路黄Lysimachia christinae,佛甲草Sedum Lineare,常夏石竹Dianthus plumarius)干旱胁迫处理后的植株外部形态表现、水分临界饱和亏、叶片游离脯氨酸含量以及叶片细胞电导率等指标进行了观察测定.结果表明,干旱胁迫下,5种地被植物的生长势下降;叶片游离脯氨酸含量及电导率增加,且抗旱性相对较弱的植物增加幅度较大;复水后各种植物恢复程度不同;在用水分临界饱和亏反映植物的抗脱水能力及抗旱能力时,应与测定该值时离体叶片至永久萎蔫所用的时间结合起来考虑,否则可能与其实际表现不符.综合分析认为,5种草本地被植物抗旱性由强至弱顺序为:佛甲草>常夏石竹>银水苏>百里香>金叶过路黄.

  11. Applications of ultrasound in electrochemistry

    Silva Martinez, Susana


    la magnitud de los transitorios de corriente registrados en el micro-electrodo en presencia del ultrasonido. Se presenta una opcion alternativa para caracterizar reacciones heterogeneas rapidas de transferencia del electron que empleando el ultrasonido como herramienta, de realce del transporte de masa. Dos tecnicas innovadoras, la voltametria corriente muestreada y la voltametria corriente-media muestreada, se desarrollaron durante el curso de esta tesis. La tecnica del voltammetria corriente de muestra senalo los valores del regimen estandar constante de la transferencia heterogenea del electron de hasta 1.2 centimetros s-1 en la presencia del ultrasonido. Esta tecnica se centra en los fenomenos electroquimicos bajo investigacion en el punto de impacto del acontecimiento ultrasonico, producido por colapso asimetrico de la burbuja de cavitacion cerca de la superficie del electrodo. Las dinamicas de la burbuja tambien fueron examinadas bajo las condiciones experimentales empleadas en el presente estudio. El comportamiento de la burbuja fue observado desde la solucion numerica de la ecuacion de RPNNP que describe el movimiento de una burbuja llena gas en una fase homogenea. Esta ecuacion fue resuelta numericamente empleando el metodo de cuarto orden de Runge-Kutta. Finalmente se presenta un estudio preliminar del proceso superficial en presencia del ultrasonido. Los eventos de erosion por corriente fueron registrados a una alta resolucion de tiempo. Estos eventos de corriente fueron atribuidos a la re-oxidacion del metal expuesto como resultado de eventos de cavitacion. Este estudio muestra que la erosion superficial puede ser investigada electroquimicamente in situ dentro del medio de cavitacion.

  12. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    J. C. Manning


    known as R. rosea var. muirii (N.E.Br. Goldblatt & J.C.Manning. Finally, the protologue of R. parviflora Eckl., until now treated under the synonomy of R. obscura Klatt var. obscura, is in fact consistent with R. rosea var. australis (Ewart Vos, and we therefore include the name in the synonomy of the latter.

  13. Romulea pilosa and R. quartzicola (Iridaceae: Crocoideae, two new species from the southern African winter rainfall region, with nomenclatural corrections

    J. C. Manning


    known as R. rosea var. muirii (N.E.Br. Goldblatt & J.C.Manning. Finally, the protologue of R. parviflora Eckl., until now treated under the synonomy of R. obscura Klatt var. obscura, is in fact consistent with R. rosea var. australis (Ewart Vos, and we therefore include the name in the synonomy of the latter.

  14. Etude du Voice Onset Time (V.O.T dans des séquences VCV produites par des patients francophones souffrants de paralysies récurrentielles

    Fauth Camille


    Notre étude se veut longitudinale puisque la voix des patients est enregistrée lors de différentes phases post-opératoires (post-opératoire 2, 3 et 4, ce qui devrait nous permettre de mettre au jour, non seulement les perturbations provoquées par l’immobilité laryngée, mais également les réajustements que les patients pourraient mettre en place au cours du temps et de leur rééducation orthophonique. Seul l’intervalle du VOT pour les occlusives sonores a été modifié. Pour les occlusives voisées, la transition CV implique uniquement un changement d’un état obstrué de conduit vocal à un état suffisamment dégagé de celui-ci pour permettre l’apparition d’une structure formantique claire et stable. En revanche, pour les occlusives non voisées, cette transition CV exige, outre le changement d’état du conduit vocal, une modification de la configuration de la glotte d’une position ouverte pour la consonne non voisée à une position fermée pour la voyelle subséquente. En conséquence, en raison de difficultés de maintien de vibrations laryngées, le VOT, qui est un indice de voisement, est alors généralement plus long pour les occlusives voisées que celles produites par les locuteurs contrôles. La durée du VOT de Klatt (1975 des occlusives voisées des patients reste toutefois quantitativement distincte des occlusives non voisées. En conséquence, la durée de la tenue consonantique des patients se voit également allongée dans les phases d’enregistrement précoces.

  15. Eight new species of Moraea (Iridaceae from southern Africa with range extensions and morphological notes in the genus

    P. Goldblatt


    Full Text Available We describe eight new southern African species in the largely sub-Saharan African genus Moraea L., one from the winterdry Great Karoo and the others from the winter-rainfall zone of the southwest of the subcontinent. M. striata Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (subg. Visciramosae Goldblatt from the southern foothills of the Great Swartberg Mtns has khaki-green flowers with reflexed tepal limbs streaked with dark lines. The acaulescent M. singularis Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (subg. Umbellatae Goldblatt & J.C.Manning with terete leaf blades is restricted to the dry, interior foothills of the Kamiesberg in Northern Cape. M. filamentosa Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, subg. Acaules (Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, is described from the dry interior of Namaqualand in Northern Cape. The species is closely allied to the widespread M. falcifolia Klatt. In subg. Polyanthes (Goldblatt Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, we describe M. thermarum Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (sect. Hexaglottis (Vent. Goldblatt from southwestern Namibia, allied to M. brevituba (Goldblatt Goldblatt, and M. lazulina Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (sect. Pseudospicata Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from the Little Karoo, until now confused with M. exiliflora Goldblatt but differing in its larger flowers with strongly reflexed tepals. The new M. petricola Goldblatt & J.C.Manning (subg. Vieusseuxia (D.Delaroche Goldblatt, is restricted to higher elevations of the Pakhuis Mtns of northern Western Cape. Lastly, in subg. Homeria (Vent. Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, we recognize M. doleritica Goldblatt & J.C.Manning with pale yellow flowers and anthers exceeding the style branches, restricted to dolerite outcrops in the Great Karoo, and M. eburnea Goldblatt & J.C.Manning from the northern foothills of the Klein Swartberg, which has a single, basal leaf and pale yellow flowers with filaments free distally. Moraea now has 222 species, including 203 in southern Africa, of which 200 are endemic to the region. In addition to describing new

  16. Ecofisiología de las plantas endémicas de las Islas Baleares en el contexto Mediterráneo

    J. Galmes


    Full Text Available Muchas de las especies endémicas del mediterráneo occidental habitan preferentemente ambientes rocosos, abiertos, con elevado grado de estrés y baja competencia interespecífica. En el caso de las Islas Baleares, a esta dimensión geológico-edáfica característica del endemismo mediterráneo, se le suma la dimensión de aislamiento geográfico. Para cualquiera de estas dos dimensiones, geológico-edáfica y geográfica, resulta sorprendente la escasez de estudios que apunten a factores fisiológicos como causantes generales de la limitada distribución de las especies endémicas. Esta escasez de evidencias sugiere que la distribución de endemismos de Baleares en su dimensión geográfica viene limitada principalmente por filtros históricos, mientras que su dimensión geológico-edáfica se adecuaría a la hipótesis de ¿refugio¿. Según esta hipótesis, las especies endémicas habitan únicamente ambientes en los que su elevado grado de estrés excluye la presencia de especies generalistas. La baja competencia interespecífica en estos ambientes permite la supervivencia de algunas especies endémicas con rasgos específicos, que resultarían desfavorables fuera del ambiente en el que habitan. Finalmente, se demuestra mediante el análisis de tres casos concretos de endemicidad (Crepis triasii, Lysimachia minoricensis y Digitalis minor, que la hipotética baja plasticidad fenotípica de las especies endémicas no es generalizable, y que algunos endemismos de Baleares presentan una elevada capacidad de adaptación a las condiciones cambiantes del medio, en especial en relación a la disponibilidad hídrica. Un mejor conocimiento de las bases fisiológicas de la falta de éxito ecológico de las especies endémicas es esencial para una correcta gestión de la biodiversidad.

  17. Regional assessment of anthropogenic impacts on air, water and soil, case: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico; Evaluacion regional del impacto antropogenico sobre aire, agua y suelo, caso: Huasteca Hidalguense, Mexico

    Gordillo Martinez, Alberto Jose; Cabrera Cruz, Rene Bernardo Elias; Hernandez Mariano, Marisol; Galindo, Erick; Otazo, Elena; Prieto, Francisco [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail:;


    The state of Hidalgo, Mexico presents an important environmental problem that manifests itself in different ways. To identify the sources, types and the magnitude of pollutants, an inventory of sources of industrial and domestic pollution for air, water and soil in ten municipalities of the Huasteca Region of the state was carried out using the technique of Rapid Assessment of Sources of Environmental Pollution and the results are reported in this paper. A total of combined pollutants emitted was 116 978.95 tons/year. Gasoline vehicles contributed 11 039 tons/year of air pollutants and diesel vehicles 1521 tons/year. For water, industrial sources contributed 22 496 tons/year and domestic effluents 15 776 tons/year. Soil pollution was a result of industrial solid waste, 4025 tons/year, and municipal solid waste, 62 121 tons/year. By municipality, Huejutla de Reyes is the most polluted in air, water and soil, with 53 % of the regional total. These results were evaluated in relation to environmental quality of each medium based on the Mexican regulations; these levels are above permissible limits for water and soil. A database with relevant information was prepared as a support for efficient management of pollutant emissions, provide base mark data for complementary studies, and to promote the future conservation of environmental quality and the biological richness of the area. [Spanish] El estado de Hidalgo, Mexico presenta una importante problematica ambiental que se manifiesta de manera heterogenea a lo largo de su territorio. Existe la necesidad de conocer las fuentes, tipos de agentes contaminantes y su magnitud. En este trabajo se realizo un inventario de la contaminacion emitida por fuentes de origen industrial y domestico en aire, agua y suelo en diez municipios de la region de la Huasteca por medio de la tecnica de Evaluacion Rapida de Fuentes de Contaminacion Ambiental (ERFCA). El total de la contaminacion emitida fue de 116 978.95 ton/ano. Las emisiones al

  18. LandscapeDNDC used to model nitrous oxide emissions from soils under an oak forest in southern England

    Cade, Shirley; Clemitshaw, Kevin; Lowry, David; Yamulki, Sirwan; Casella, Eric; Molina, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf


    model and internal parameters of LandscapeDNDC for use with an oak forest in SE England and as a result facilitates the broadening of its application. Modelled N2O soil emissions are compared with measurements from soil chambers in the forest. HAAS, E., KLATT, S., FRÖHLICH, A., KRAFT, P., WERNER, C., KIESE, R., GROTE, R., BREUER, L. and BUTTERBACH-BAHL, K., 2012. LandscapeDNDC: a process model for simulation of biosphere-atmosphere-hydrosphere exchange processes at site and regional scale. Landscape Ecology, , pp. 1-22. LI, C., FROLKING, S. and FROLKING, T.A., 1992. A model of nitrous oxide evolution from soil driven by rainfall events: 1. Model structure and sensitivity. J.Geophys.Res, 97(D9), pp. 9759-9776.

  19. 福建九阜山野生芳香植物资源及其开发利用%Wild Aromatic Plant Resources and Their Exploitation and Utilization in Jiufu Mountain, Fujian Province

    魏开炬; 陈锡桓; 詹祖仁; 陈登云


      The wild aromatic plants resources were investigated in Jiufu Mountain Nature Reserve in Youxi, Fujian province. The results show that there are 132 species of wild aromatic plants, belonging to 91 genera in 47 families in this area, which accounted for 52.8%, 29.7% and 17.4% in families, genera, and species of the wild aromatic plants in Fujian province respectively. Among these aromatic plants, Lauraceae is the biggest population, including 22 species. Other advantage families, both Rosaceae and Orchidaceae include 10 species. Lamiaceae includes 9 species and Asteraceae includes 7 species. Magnoliaceae and Oleaceae include 5 species, 4 species respectively. The smaller population were Rutaceae, Primulaceae, Moraceae, Hamamelidaceae, including 3 species. The dominant genera are Lindera (6), Cinnamomum(4), Machilus(4), Rosa(4), Artemisia(4), Litsea(4), Photinia(3), Lysimachia(3). The wild aromatic plants with greater value of development and utilization are Pinus massoniana, Sarcandra gladra, Houttuyia Cordata, Litsea cubeba, Cinnamomum camphora, Machilus grijsii, Machilus pauhoi, Litsea aggregata, Litsea elongat, Elaeagnus pungens, Mosla punctulata, Liquidamber formosana, Rosa laevigata, Gardenia jasminoides, Lonicera nitida, Artemisia argyi and so on. The species composition, aromatic position, live form, distribution and the suggestions are put forward on their development and utilization.%  对福建省尤溪县九阜山省级自然保护区野生芳香植物资源进行调查,结果表明,该区共有野生芳香植物47科91属132种,占福建省芳香植物89科306属758种的52.8%、29.7%和17.4%.优势科有樟科(22种)、蔷薇科(10种)、兰科(10种)、唇形科(9种)、菊科(7种)、木兰科(5种)、木犀科(4种)、芸香科(3种)、报春花科(3种)、桑科(3种)、金镂梅科(3种);优势属有山胡椒属(6种)、樟属(4种)、润楠属(4种)、蔷薇属(4种)、蒿属(4种)、木姜子属(3种)、石楠属(3

  20. 肝豆片质量标准改进研究%Study on the improvement of the quality standard of Gandou Tablets

    卜伟; 臧恒昌


    Objective Increase in hepatic bean prescription medicines quality control methods,quality standards,improving liver beans more effectively control the quality of the products.Method Establish a high performance liquid chromatography determination of liver beans tablets in the content of rhubarb;Using thin-layer chromatography on identification of rhizoma coptidis,lysimachia christinae;U-sing high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of emodin.Results The identification of the identification of the root of the (6∶1.5∶3∶1.5∶0.5)was used as the solvent,and the concentration of the solution was in the light of the concentration of 365 nm;Hristina loosestrife herb with toluene ethyl formate and formic acid 10∶8∶1 as expansion agent,with 3% solution of alumin-ium chloride in ethanol as chromogenic agent,placed under ultraviolet light at 365 nm view;Emodin 8.48~25.44 mg·L-1 concentration range,the peak concentration of area a and c presents a good linear relationships,the correlation coefficient is 0.999 4,the returns-ratio is 95.8%,RSD=0.8%(n=6).Conclusion The method is accurate,rapid and with good reproducibility,the quality standards are improved.%目的:增加对肝豆片处方中药材质量控制方法,全面提高肝豆片质量标准,更有效地控制产品的质量。方法建立高效液相色谱法对处方中君药大黄进行含量测定,并对处方中臣药黄连、金钱草建立薄层色谱鉴别方法。结果黄连鉴别以甲苯-异丙醇-乙酸乙酯-甲醇-水(6∶1.5∶3∶1.5∶0.5)为展开剂,以浓氨水作为饱和溶液,置紫外灯365 nm下检视;金钱草鉴别以甲苯-甲酸乙酯-甲酸(10∶8∶1)为展开剂,以3%三氯化铝乙醇溶液为显色剂,置紫外灯365 nm下检视;大黄含量测定大黄素在8.48~25.44 mg·L-1的浓度范围,峰面积A与浓度C呈现良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9994,回收率为95.8

  1. A preliminary interpretation of gas composition in the CP IV sector wells, Cerro Prieto geothermal field, Mexico

    Barragan Reyes, Rosa Maria; Arellano Gomez, Victor M; Portugal Marin, Enrique [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Gerencia de Geotermia, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Perez Hernandez, Alfredo; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Marco Helio; Leon Vivar, Jesus de [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Residencia General Cerro Prieto, B.C. (Mexico)


    -temperature fluids descending through the H fault to the reservoir was inferred, since results for the wells affected by this process (located at the center of the CP IV area) showed small or negative excess steam values and slightly lower temperatures (265-270 degrees Celsius). [Spanish] A fin de aumentar la capacidad de generacion de 620 a 720 MW, se desarrollo el sector Cerro Prieto IV (CP IV) en la porcion NE del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, donde se perforaron catorce pozos nuevos a partir del ano 2000. Los pozos de la zona de CP IV producen fluidos bifasicos con caracteristicas heterogeneas en cuanto a la fraccion de vapor: en la porcion central y hacia el NW los pozos producen liquido dominante mientras que hacia el E y S producen una fraccion de vapor relativamente alta. En este trabajo se estudia la composicion gaseosa de los fluidos producidos para obtener parametros del yacimiento tales como la temperatura y la fraccion de vapor e identificar diferentes aportes de fluidos a los pozos. Se utilizo un metodo basado en la reaccion de Fischer Tropsch y el equilibrio del H{sub 2}S con pirita-pirrotita como amortiguador (FT-HSH3). Los resultados para el estado inicial indican que existen fluidos con temperaturas de yacimiento entre 275 y 310 grados Celsius asi valores de exceso de vapor entre -1 y 50%. Los resultados se alinean en un patron de mezcla FT-HSH3 que sugiere que los pozos descargan una mezcla de los dos miembros finales en diferentes proporciones. Uno de ellos parece ser un liquido con una temperatura superior a los 300 grados Celsius con exceso de vapor negativo o insignificante. El otro parece ser un fluido bifasico con temperatura de unos 275 grados Celsius y un exceso de fraccion de vapor de aproximadamente 0.5. De acuerdo con datos de cada pozo y dependiendo de las condiciones de produccion de cada uno, pueden ocurrir mezclas de fluidos con diferentes proporciones de liquido y vapor en el yacimiento. Datos de 2005 de pozos perforados despues del ano 2000

  2. Sobre a significação da eosinophilia na ancylostomose

    W. O. Cruz


    Full Text Available Procuramos averiguar qual a verdadeira significação da eosinophilia sanguinea na ancylostomose. Ao contrario do que affirmavam autores antigos, tentamos demonstrar que a eosinophilia não tem nenhuma relação com toxinas ou venenos porventura secretados pelos helminthos. Dado o incompleto conhecimento da funcção do leucocyto eosinophilo, a interpretação que damos da eosinophilia na ancylostomose, tem um carater, simplesmente, provisorio. Mostramos que a eosinophilia verificada no inicio da doença é provocada pela migração das larvas no interior do organismo, porém, que a eosinophilia observada posteriormente, não é uma consequencia longiqua desta inicial, pois que ella é devida á acção de albuminas heterologas acantonadas no intestino e provenientes de secreções dos vermes apensos á mucosa deste orgão. Como mechanismo desta eosinophilia, lembramos a possibilidade de que a eosinophilia localisada no intestino possa provocar uma diminuição passageira destas cellulas na circulação, o que determinaria uma excitação da medulla ossea (tal como a excitação trazida oelas perdas sanguineas nas hemorrhagias agudas e a producção de novos leucocytos. Em virtude da constante secreção helminthica, este orgão seria constantemente excitado, por este processo indirecto, o que acarretaria finalmente uma eosinophilia sanguinea persistente. Por alguns estudos que apresentamos e baseados em resultados encontrados na literatura, affirmamos a inexistencia de qualquer relação de causa a effeito entre a eosinophilia e os atores productores da syndrome anemica. Assim dizemos porque verificamos a cura completa da anemia, apezar da persistencia de intensas eosinophilias periphericas, e ainda que a taxa de eosinophilos no sangue é tanto menor quanto mais grave é a anemia. Além disto, chamamos a attenção para que a eosinophilia é um phenomeno sempre presente quando se encontra no interior do organismo albumínas a elle heterogeneas

  3. Update on the Purdue University 2-second Drop Tower

    Collicott, Steven

    ," AIAA Journal, 44, 4, pp. 859-867, April 2006. 5. S. L. Fitzpatrick, "A Study of Hydrogen Peroxide Low-Gravity Control for Propellant Management Devices," MS thesis, School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Purdue Uni-versity. May 2003. 6. M. M. Weislogel, R. Jenson, Y. Chen, S. H. Collicott, J. Klatte, and M. Dreyer. "The capillary flow experiments aboard the International Space Station: Status". Acta Astro-nautica. 65:861-869, 2009

  4. The effect of physical and chemical parameters on the macroinfaunal community structure of San Vicente bay, Chile Efectos de parámetros físicos y químicos en la estructura comunitaria de la macroinfauna en la bahía de San Vicente, Chile



    (RTR beach morphodynamic parameter. There was also a significant linear relationship between E. analoga and 1/slope parameter. Although there was a significant correlation between the physical parameters of the beach and E. analoga distribution, these results should not be taken as conclusive for we must not exclude other possible factors, including chemical ones, which were not measured in this study. Absence of the amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata Nicolet at the high water mark in the industrial zone can be explained by destruction of habitat due to direct human disturbanceLa bahía de San Vicente, situada en la zona central de Chile, está altamente industrializada y posee una playa arenosa que se extiende desde un área de uso recreativo a otra de uso industrial, en la que se vierten residuos líquidos. El estudio de la macroinfauna de la zona intermareal mostró una distribución heterogenea de la misma. Un máximo de cinco especies de invertebrados fue hallado en sólo 1 de 6 transectos muestreados a lo largo de la playa. La densidad varió de 0 a 188 individuos m-2, alcanzándose los valores más altos en la zona recreativa y los más bajos en la zona industrializada. La especie más abundante, Emerita analoga (Stimpson, fue elegida para estudiar la posible respuesta de la macrofauna frente a las variables de morfodinámica de la playa, a los parametros fisicoquímicos y a la concentración de metales pesados en el sedimento. E. analoga mostró su más alta densidad en la zona recreativa de la playa, al nivel medio-bajo del intermareal. La densidad de E. analoga a lo largo de la playa estuvo correlacionada significativamente con los valores de pH, temperatura (ºC, salinidad (‰ y concentraciones de oxígeno (ml O2 l -1 en el agua intersticial. Sin embargo, la concentración de oxígeno tuvo un mínimo de 3 ml O2 l -1 en la zona baja intermareal más cercana al area recreativa donde se contó el mayor número de individuos de macroinfauna. El análisis de 12