Sample records for lymphocyte population develops

  1. Protein kinase C-associated kinase is not required for the development of peripheral B lymphocyte populations. (United States)

    Moran, Stewart T; Cariappa, Annaiah; Liu, Haoyuan; Boboila, Cristian; Shi, Hai Ning; Holland, Pamela M; Peschon, Jacques J; Pillai, Shiv


    Protein kinase C-associated kinase (PKK; DIK/RIP4) is an ankyrin-repeat containing serine/threonine receptor-interacting protein (RIP)-family kinase that can activate NFkappaB, and is required for keratinocyte development. In earlier studies, the expression of a catalytically inactive mutant of PKK in the B cell lineage resulted in a marked decrease in peripheral B cells in the spleen and a severe reduction of B-1 B cells. Here we explore the consequences of a null mutation in PKK with respect to the generation of peripheral B cell lineages and the activation of NFkappaB. We show that PKK is not required for the production of B cells in the bone marrow or for the development and maintenance of all mature B lymphocyte populations. We also show that PKK is not required for the activation of NFkappaB downstream of the BCR, CD40, or TLR-4 in B cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the loss of this RIP-family kinase does not compromise B lymphocyte development and maintenance, but leaves open the possibility that PKK may have a redundant role in these processes.

  2. Normal lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population

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    Sâmia Macedo Queiroz Mota Castellão Tavares


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the lymphocyte immunophenotype in an elderly population.METHODS: This study enrolled 35 over 60-year-old volunteers and a control group composed of 35 young adults. The study included elderly without diseases that might affect the functioning of the immune system. These individuals were consulted by doctors and after a physical examination, laboratory tests were performed using a Beckman Coulter (r flow cytometer. The GraphPad Prism computer program was employed for statistical analysis with the level of significance being set for p-values <0.05.RESULTS: There is a statistically significant reduction in the number of lymphocytes (CD8 +, CD2 + and CD3 + cells in the elderly compared to young adults. These low rates are explained by changes attributed to aging and may be partly responsible for the reduction in the cellular immune response, lower proliferative activity and the low cytotoxicity of lymphocytes.CONCLUSION: These parameters showed greater impairment of adaptive immunity in the elderly population and can therefore explain the greater fragility of the aged body to developing diseases.

  3. Reduction of specific circulating lymphocyte populations with metabolic risk factors in patients at risk to develop type 2 diabetes.

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    Helena Cucak

    Full Text Available Low-grade inflammation, characterized by increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, is present in patients with obesity-linked insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia and considered to play a leading role to progression into type 2 diabetes (T2D. In adipose tissue in obese patients and in pancreatic islets in T2D patients cellular inflammation is present. However, the systemic leukocyte compartment and the circulating endothelial/precursor compartment in patients at risk to develop T2D has so far not been analyzed in detail. To address this, peripheral blood cells from a cohort of 20 subjects at risk to develop diabetes with normal to impaired glucose tolerance were analyzed by flow cytometry using a wide range of cellular markers and correlated to known metabolic risk factors for T2D i.e. fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2 h plasma glucose (2 h PG, HbA1c, body mass index (BMI, homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-B, homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IS and fasting insulin (FI. The four highest ranked cell markers for each risk factor were identified by random forest analysis. In the cohort, a significant negative correlation between the number of TLR4(+ CD4 T cells and increased FPG was demonstrated. Similarly, with increased BMI the frequency of TLR4(+ B cells was significantly decreased, as was the frequency of IL-21R(+ CD4 T cells. Unlinked to metabolic risk factors, the frequency of regulatory T cells was reduced and TLR4(+ CD4 T cells were increased with age. Taken together, in this small cohort of subjects at risk to develop T2D, a modulation of the circulating immune cell pool was demonstrated to correlate with risk factors like FPG and BMI. This may provide novel insights into the inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression to diabetes in subjects at risk.


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    S. V. Khaidukov


    Full Text Available Abstract. Determination of lymphocyte subpopulations and their phenotypes is an important diagnostic feature, in order to elucidate some disturbances connected with immune system functioning. However, insufficient data are obtained when analyzing only major populations of peripheral lymphocytes. In order to perform clinical diagnostics, the data about minor lymphocytic populations and activated cellular pools seem to be more pertinent.Studies of peripheral blood cell subpopulations of healthy donors performed in different Russian regions allowed to assess quantitative distribution intervals for both major and minor immune cell subpopulations in humans. The results obtained, as compared with data from literature, provide an evidence for similar reference intervals for main immune cell subpopulations in healthy donors, independent on their habitation area.Present work has resulted into development of algorithms for cytometric studies and generation of certain panels of monoclonal antibodies enabling evaluation of all main lymphocyte subpopulations, as well as their minor subsets participating in emerging immune response. The distribution intervals have been estimated for such minor subpopulations, as B1- and B2-lymphocytes, memory B-cells, γδ- and αβT-cells, regulatory and naїve T-cells, cytotoxic and secretory NK-cell polupations.The results of present study, while been performed with peripheral blood of healthy donors, may provide a basis of reference values when studying subpopulation profile of immune cells.

  5. Human lymphocyte sub-populations and K cells. (United States)

    Sandilands, G; Gray, K; Cooney, A; Froebel, K; Anderson, J R


    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 19 normal subjects were examined for surface Ig (SIg) and capacity to form rosettes with normal and neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes and with chicken erythrocytes sensitised with IgG antibody. Information on the relationship between the presence of SIg and capacity to form rosettes was obtained by combined tests and depletion experiments. By these means, a population of lymphocytes with Fc receptors, but lacking SIg (mean 14.6%) was defined and shown to correlate closely with cytotoxic activity for antibody-sensitised target cells. Indirect evidence was also obtained that these lymphocytes, which are regarded as the major population of antibody-dependent cytotoxic cells, are capable of forming rosettes with normal and neuraminidase-treated sheep erythrocytes. The nature of these cells is briefly discussed.

  6. Association of lymphocytic colitis and lactase deficiency in pediatric population. (United States)

    Sun, Jihong; Lin, Jingmei; Parashette, Kalayan; Zhang, Jianjun; Fan, Rong


    Characterized by colonic mucosa intraepithelial lymphocytosis, lymphocytic colitis is primarily an entity presented in the middle-aged to elderly patient population. Very few large series of lymphocytic colitis of childhood occurrence are available in the medical literature. Ten cases each of lymphocytic colitis and of colonic lymphocytosis of other diagnosis, all with duodenal disaccharidases analysis data, were collected from the files of our institution. The electronic medical records were reviewed and multiple variables were analyzed. The ten patients with lymphocytic colitis presented with diarrhea. Of these, three had abdominal pain. The age range was 2-18 years. Nearly all patients were Caucasian (90%) and 70% were female. Endoscopically, most had normal appearing colonic mucosa. Significant past medical history, family medical history and associated comorbidities included celiac disease, Down syndrome, juvenile arthritis and other autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, the most revealing observation was that the majority of cases (80%) were associated with lactase deficiency and, for the most part, gastrointestinal symptoms improved simply by treatment with Lactaid or avoidance of dairy products. This association is statistically significant. Our clinicopathological study indicates that the typical pediatric patient is a female Caucasian. A large of portion of the patients had associated lactase deficiency and improved on Lactaid supplement alone.

  7. Population Pharmacokinetics of Ofatumumab in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Follicular Lymphoma, and Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Struemper, Herbert; Sale, Mark; Patel, Bela R;


    Ofatumumab is a human monoclonal antibody directed at CD20 approved for treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The population pharmacokinetics of intravenous ofatumumab were characterized in patients with relapsed/refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia, relapsed/refractory follicular lymphoma...

  8. Origen y desarrollo de linfocitos B1: Una población celular involucrada en defensa y autoinmunidad Origin and development of B1 lymphocytes: A cell population involved in defence and auto-immunity

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    María C. Merino


    Full Text Available Las células B1, responsables de la producción de IgM sérica en ausencia de aparente estimulación antigénica, son linfocitos B maduros con ubicación anatómica y características fenotípicas y funcionales particulares.Los linfocitos B1 se ubican mayoritariamente en cavidad peritoneal y pleural, presentan características de células activadas y son de mayor tamaño y complejidad citoplasmática que las células B convencionales. Mientras que estos últimos deben diferenciarse a células plasmáticas para poder secretar inmunoglobulinas, los linfocitos B1 liberan espontáneamente anticuerpos al medio extracelular operando bajo un programa de diferenciación particular. Los anticuerpos producidos por los linfocitos B1 tendrían un rol protector, ya que están implicados en la remoción de células envejecidas y apoptóticas, en mecanismos de inmunomodulación y en resistencia a infecciones, sin embargo su participación en procesos autoinmunes también ha sido sugerida. Muchos estudios han aportado información sobre el origen, desarrollo y diferenciación de los linfocitos B1, los cuales son analizados en esta revisión.B1 lymphocytes are an anatomically, phenotypically, and functionally distinct subset of B cells producing the bulk of natural serum IgM in the absence of any apparent stimulation by specific antigens. These cells are a dominant population of B cells in peritoneal and pleural cavities and they have characteristics of activated cells and higher cell size and cytoplasmic complexity than conventional B cells. B1 cells spontaneously secrete antibodies and operate under a differentiation program that is unique and differs from the paradigm associated with Ig-secreting B-2 cells. The antibodies produced by B1 cells may participate in a variety of physiological activities since they are involve in immune regulation, clearance of senescent and apoptotic cells and resistance to infection. However, it has been suggested that they are

  9. IAN family critically regulates survival and development of T lymphocytes.

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    Takeshi Nitta


    Full Text Available The IAN (immune-associated nucleotide-binding protein family is a family of functionally uncharacterized GTP-binding proteins expressed in vertebrate immune cells and in plant cells during antibacterial responses. Here we show that all eight IAN family genes encoded in a single cluster of mouse genome are predominantly expressed in lymphocytes, and that the expression of IAN1, IAN4, and IAN5 is significantly elevated upon thymic selection of T lymphocytes. Gain-of-function experiments show that the premature overexpression of IAN1 kills immature thymocytes, whereas short hairpin RNA-mediated loss-of-function studies show that IAN4 supports positive selection. The knockdown of IAN5 perturbs the optimal generation of CD4/CD8 double-positive thymocytes and reduces the survival of mature T lymphocytes. We also show evidence suggesting that IAN4 and IAN5 are associated with anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, whereas IAN1 is associated with pro-apoptotic Bax. Thus, the IAN family is a novel family of T cell-receptor-responsive proteins that critically regulate thymic development and survival of T lymphocytes and that potentially exert regulatory functions through the association with Bcl-2 family proteins.

  10. Cell-extrinsic defective lymphocyte development in Lmna(-/- mice.

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    J Scott Hale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mutations in the LMNA gene, which encodes all A-type lamins, result in a variety of human diseases termed laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice appear normal at birth but become runted as early as 2 weeks of age and develop multiple tissue defects that mimic some aspects of human laminopathies. Lmna(-/- mice also display smaller spleens and thymuses. In this study, we investigated whether altered lymphoid organ sizes are correlated with specific defects in lymphocyte development. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lmna(-/- mice displayed severe age-dependent defects in T and B cell development which coincided with runting. Lmna(-/- bone marrow reconstituted normal T and B cell development in irradiated wild-type recipients, driving generation of functional and self-MHC restricted CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells. Transplantation of Lmna(-/- neonatal thymus lobes into syngeneic wild-type recipients resulted in good engraftment of thymic tissue and normal thymocyte development. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data demonstrate that the severe defects in lymphocyte development that characterize Lmna(-/- mice do not result directly from the loss of A-type lamin function in lymphocytes or thymic stroma. Instead, the immune defects in Lmna(-/- mice likely reflect indirect damage, perhaps resulting from prolonged stress due to the striated muscle dystrophies that occur in these mice.

  11. Population and development. (United States)

    Okita, S


    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends.


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    Ye. E. Zueva


    Full Text Available Abstract. Uterine myoma is one of the most widespread gynecological pathology among reproductive women older than 30 years. It is known, that often progress of this pathology is associated with genetic and endocrinologic factors. The immune system is not evident still. The aim of this study was to analyze the state of patient's immune system using flow cytometry assessment of different subpopulations of lymphocytes in peripheral blood. We have examined 46 patients with simple and proliferating forms of the myoma, with different variants of clinical symptoms. Absolute and relative content of different subpopulations of lymphocytes was not differed from normal population's standard. Significant differences of B-lymphocytes and natural killers content were observed between groups with simple and proliferating forms of disease. It was shown that metrorrhagia is associated with high level of T-lymphocytes and T-killers. It was noted that decreasing of B-lymphocytes content took place in cases with large number of uterine nodes. Obtained data are not sufficient for complete understanding of the role of immune system in pathogenesis of this disease, but they confirm that using of immunomodulating therapy is expedient for complex treatment of uterine myoma.

  13. Population, environment and development. (United States)

    Karkal, M


    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994.

  14. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT from Growing Wistar Rats

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    Gustavo A. Sosa


    Full Text Available The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1 the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2 that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+, were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats.

  15. Population and development. (United States)

    Pavlik, Z


    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century.

  16. Labour-efficient in vitro lymphocyte population tracking and fate prediction using automation and manual review.

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    Rajib Chakravorty

    Full Text Available Interest in cell heterogeneity and differentiation has recently led to increased use of time-lapse microscopy. Previous studies have shown that cell fate may be determined well in advance of the event. We used a mixture of automation and manual review of time-lapse live cell imaging to track the positions, contours, divisions, deaths and lineage of 44 B-lymphocyte founders and their 631 progeny in vitro over a period of 108 hours. Using this data to train a Support Vector Machine classifier, we were retrospectively able to predict the fates of individual lymphocytes with more than 90% accuracy, using only time-lapse imaging captured prior to mitosis or death of 90% of all cells. The motivation for this paper is to explore the impact of labour-efficient assistive software tools that allow larger and more ambitious live-cell time-lapse microscopy studies. After training on this data, we show that machine learning methods can be used for realtime prediction of individual cell fates. These techniques could lead to realtime cell culture segregation for purposes such as phenotype screening. We were able to produce a large volume of data with less effort than previously reported, due to the image processing, computer vision, tracking and human-computer interaction tools used. We describe the workflow of the software-assisted experiments and the graphical interfaces that were needed. To validate our results we used our methods to reproduce a variety of published data about lymphocyte populations and behaviour. We also make all our data publicly available, including a large quantity of lymphocyte spatio-temporal dynamics and related lineage information.

  17. Novel INHAT repressor (NIR) is required for early lymphocyte development. (United States)

    Ma, Chi A; Pusso, Antonia; Wu, Liming; Zhao, Yongge; Hoffmann, Victoria; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Fowlkes, B J; Jain, Ashish


    Novel inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase repressor (NIR) is a transcriptional corepressor with inhibitor of histone acetyltransferase activity and is a potent suppressor of p53. Although NIR deficiency in mice leads to early embryonic lethality, lymphoid-restricted deletion resulted in the absence of double-positive CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes, whereas bone-marrow-derived B cells were arrested at the B220(+)CD19(-) pro-B-cell stage. V(D)J recombination was preserved in NIR-deficient DN3 double-negative thymocytes, suggesting that NIR does not affect p53 function in response to physiologic DNA breaks. Nevertheless, the combined deficiency of NIR and p53 provided rescue of DN3L double-negative thymocytes and their further differentiation to double- and single-positive thymocytes, whereas B cells in the marrow further developed to the B220(+)CD19(+) pro-B-cell stage. Our results show that NIR cooperate with p53 to impose checkpoint for the generation of mature B and T lymphocytes.

  18. Damage of chromosoms under irradiation of human blood lymphocytes and development of bystander effect. (United States)

    Shemetun, O V


    the research the distribution of radiation induced damages among chromosomes and their bands in irra diated in vitro human blood lymphocytes and in unirradiated bystander cells.Material and methods of research: cultivation of human peripheral blood lymphocytes by semi micromethod D.A. Hungerford, modeling of radiation induced bystander effect in mixed cultures consisting of irradiated in vitro and non irradiated blood lymphocytes from persons of different gender, GTG staining of metaphase chromosomes and their cytogenetic analysis. Break points in chromosomes under the formation of aberrations were identified in exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes in doses 0.25 Gy (95 breaks in 1248 cells) and 1.0 Gy (227 breaks in 726 cells) and in non irradiated bystander cells under their joint cultivation with irradiated in vitro human lymphocytes (51 breaks in 1137 cells at irradiation of adjacent populations of lymphocytes in dose 0.25 Gy and 75 breaks in 1321 cells at irradiation of adjacent population of lymphocytes in a dose 1.0 Gy). The distribution of injuries among the chromo somes and their bands was investigated. in radiation exposed in vitro human peripheral blood lymphocytes as well as in bystander cells the fre quency of damaged bands and number of breaks which localized in them exceeded the control value (p bystander effect, chromosomes were damaged according to their relative length. Location of bands with increasing number of breaks coincided with the «hot spots» of chromosome damage following irradiation and fragile sites. More sensitive to damage were G negative euchromatin chromosome bands, in which were localized 82 88 % breaks. Damageability of telomeric regions in the irradiated cells had no significant difference from the control, while in bystander cells was lower than control value (p < 0.05). O. V. Shemetun.

  19. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen


    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population...

  20. Population and Development Issues. (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher


    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  1. Population and Development Issues. (United States)

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher


    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  2. Varied sensitivity to therapy of HIV-1 strains in CD4+ lymphocyte sub-populations upon ART initiation

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    Paxton William A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although antiretroviral therapy (ART has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Methods From five patients cellular HIV-1 infection levels were quantified before and after initiation of therapy (2-5 weeks. Through sequencing the C2V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope, we studied the effect of short-term therapy on virus variants derived from naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets. Results During short-term ART, HIV-1 infection levels declined in all lymphocyte subsets but not as much as RNA levels in serum. Virus diversity in the naïve and central memory lymphocyte populations remained unchanged, whilst diversity decreased in serum and the effector memory lymphocytes. ART differentially affected the virus populations co-circulating in one individual harboring a dual HIV-1 infection. Changes in V3 charge were found in all individuals after ART initiation with increases within the effector memory subset and decreases found in the naïve cell population. Conclusions During early ART virus diversity is affected mainly in the serum and effector memory cell compartments. Differential alterations in V3 charge were observed between effector memory and naïve populations. While certain cell populations can be targeted preferentially during early ART, some virus strains demonstrate varied sensitivity to therapy, as shown from studying two strains within a dual HIV-1 infected individual.

  3. Population preference values for treatment outcomes in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: a cross-sectional utility study

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    Meiklejohn David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that treatments for chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL are palliative rather than curative, evaluating the patient-perceived impacts of therapy is critical. To date, no utility (preference studies from the general public or patient perspective have been conducted in CLL. The objective of this study was to measure preferences for health states associated with CLL treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 89 members of the general population in the UK (England and Scotland. Using standard gamble, each participant valued four health states describing response status, six describing treatment-related toxicities based on Common Toxicity Criteria, and two describing line of treatment. The health states incorporated standardized descriptions of treatment response (symptoms have "improved," "stabilized," or "gotten worse", swollen glands, impact on daily activities, fatigue, appetite, and night sweats. Utility estimates ranged from 0.0, reflecting dead, to 1.0, reflecting full health. Results Complete response (CR was the most preferred health state (mean utility, 0.91, followed by partial response (PR, 0.84; no change (NC, 0.78; and progressive disease (PD, 0.68. Among the toxicity states, grade I/II nausea and nausea/vomiting had the smallest utility decrements (both were -0.05, and grade III/IV pneumonia had the greatest decrement (-0.20. The utility decrements obtained for toxicity states can be subtracted from utilities for CR, PR, NC, and PD, as appropriate. The utilities for second- and third-line treatments, which are attempted when symptoms worsen, were 0.71 and 0.65, respectively. No significant differences in utilities were observed by age, sex, or knowledge/experience with leukaemia. Conclusions This study reports UK population utilities for a universal set of CLL health states that incorporate intended treatment response and unintended toxicities. These utilities can be applied in future cost

  4. The role of nucleotides in augmentation of lymphocyte locomotion: Adaptional countermeasure development in microgravity analog environments (United States)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Kulkarni, Anil D.; Yamauchi, Keiko; Pellis, Neal R.


    Space travel and long-term space residence such as envisaged in the exploration era implicates burdens on the immune system. An optimal immune response is required to countered and with-stand exposure to pathogens. Countermeasure development is an important avenue in space research especially for long-term space exploration. Microgravity exposure causes detrimental effects in lymphocyte functions which may impair immune response. Impaired lymphocyte function can be remedied by bypassing cell membrane events. This is done by using compounds such as Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA). Since activation in mouse splenocytes was augmented using nucleotides, it was essential to observe their effects on human lymphocyte locomotion. A nucleotide/nucleoside (NT/NT) mixture from Otsuka Pharmaceuticals (Naruto, Japan) was used at recommended doses. In lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity, the NT/NT mixture used orchestrated locomotion recovery by more than 87%, similar to the response documented with PMA in lymphocytes. Both 12µM and 120µM doses worked similarly. These are preliminary results leading to the possible use of the NT/NT mixture to mitigate immune suppression in micro-gravity. More studies in this direction are required to delineate the role of NT/NT on the immune response in microgravity.

  5. Population and Australian development assistance. (United States)

    Jones, R


    Australia's position on international population issues is consistent with the major international statements on population: the World Population Plan of Action (1974), the Mexico City Declaration (1984), and the Amsterdam Declaration (1989). Australia's policy emphasizes the importance of population policies as an integral part of social, economic, and cultural development aimed at improving the quality of life of the people. Factors that would promote smaller families include improving economic opportunities, old-age security, education and health (particularly for women), as well as improving the accessibility and quality of family planning services. The quality of care approach is directly complementary to the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau (AIDAB)'s Women-In-Development Policy and its Health Policy, which stresses the theme of Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH). Australia's support for population programs and activities has increased considerably over the last few years. Total assistance for the year 1990/91 was around $7 million out of a total aid program of $1216 million. In recent years AIDAB has funded family planning activities or health projects with family planning components in a number of countries in the Asia-Pacific region. In the South Pacific region AIDAB has funded a reproductive health video project taking into consideration the cultural sensitivities and customs of the peoples of the region. AIDAB has supported a UN Population Fund project in Thailand that aims to strengthen the capacity of the National Statistical Office to collect population data. The US currently accounts for around 40% of all population-related development assistance to improve the health of women and children through family planning. The other major donors are Japan, the Scandinavian countries, and the Netherlands. Funding for population has been a relatively low percentage of overall development assistance budgets in OECD countries. In the

  6. Local glucocorticoid production in lymphoid organs of mice and birds: Functions in lymphocyte development. (United States)

    Taves, Matthew D; Hamden, Jordan E; Soma, Kiran K


    Circulating glucocorticoids (GCs) are powerful regulators of immunity. Stress-induced GC secretion by the adrenal glands initially enhances and later suppresses the immune response. GC targets include lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, which are well known for their sensitivity to GCs. Less appreciated, however, is that GCs are locally produced in lymphoid organs, such as the thymus, where GCs play a critical role in selection of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) repertoire. Here, we review the roles of systemic and locally-produced GCs in T lymphocyte development, which has been studied primarily in laboratory mice. By antagonizing TCR signaling in developing T cells, thymus-derived GCs promote selection of T cells with stronger TCR signaling. This results in increased T cell-mediated immune responses to a range of antigens. We then compare local and systemic GC patterns in mice to those in several bird species. Taken together, these studies suggest that a combination of adrenal and lymphoid GC production might function to adaptively regulate lymphocyte development and selection, and thus antigen-specific immune reactivity, to optimize survival under different environmental conditions. Future studies should examine how lymphoid GC patterns vary across other vertebrates, how GCs function in B lymphocyte development in the bone marrow, spleen, and the avian bursa of Fabricius, and whether GCs adaptively program immunity in free-living animals.

  7. Dynamics of Lymphocyte Populations during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: From Thymocyte Depletion to Differential Cell Expansion/Contraction in Peripheral Lymphoid Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Morrot


    Full Text Available The comprehension of the immune responses in infectious diseases is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we review current findings on the dynamics of lymphocyte subpopulations following experimental acute infection by Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. In the thymus, although the negative selection process of the T-cell repertoire remains operational, there is a massive thymocyte depletion and abnormal release of immature CD4+CD8+ cells to peripheral lymphoid organs, where they acquire an activated phenotype similar to activated effector or memory T cells. These cells apparently bypassed the negative selection process, and some of them are potentially autoimmune. In infected animals, an atrophy of mesenteric lymph nodes is also observed, in contrast with the lymphocyte expansion in spleen and subcutaneous lymph nodes, illustrating a complex and organ specific dynamics of lymphocyte subpopulations. Accordingly, T- and B-cell activation is seen in subcutaneous lymph nodes and spleen, but not in mesenteric lymph nodes. Lastly, although the function of peripheral CD4+CD8+ T-cell population remains to be defined in vivo, their presence may contribute to the immunopathological events found in both murine and human Chagas disease.

  8. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E


    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using aci

  9. Purification of Human Monocytes and Lymphocyte Populations by Counter Current Elutriation– A Short Protocol


    Clarke, Elizabeth V.; Benoit, Marie E.; Tenner, Andrea J.


    Investigations of the activation processes involved in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells often required large numbers of cells that have not been possibly altered or activated by adherence to surfaces, by binding of antibodies to surface antigens during positive selection, or by release of activators by platelets or other non myeloid cells during isolation or co-culture. Human peripheral blood monocytes as well as lymphocytes from the same blood donor can be...

  10. A Rare Case of Waldenström Macroglobulinemia/Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma with Light Chain Discrepancy between B Lymphocyte Population and Serum Paraprotein. (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Hur, Mina; Kim, Hanah; Moon, Hee-Won; Yun, Yeo-Min; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Mark Hong


    Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) is a subset of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with bone marrow involvement, monotypic immunoglobulin (Ig) M and a light chain of neoplastic cells. A 68-year-old woman presented with fever, nausea, vomiting, and pancytopenia. Her serum albumin/globulin ratio was reversed, and monoclonal gammopathy of IgM, lambda type (23.20%, 1.58 g/dL) was detected. In her bone marrow, increased small lymphocytes were admixed with plasmacytoid lymphocytes and plasma cells. She was diagnosed as having lymphoplasmacytic variant of WM. Immunohistochemical stains and flow cytometic analysis revealed two distinct populations; monoclonal B cells (kappa+) and abnormal plasma cells (CD19-/CD56+/lambda+). She expired 19 days after admission due to septic shock. This is a rare case of WM exhibiting a light chain discrepancy between monoclonal B lymphocytes and paraprotein-secreting plasma cells. Light chain restriction may occur distinctly between lymphocyte and plasma cell populations in WM.

  11. The development of in vitro mutagenicity testing systems using T-lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, R.J.


    This work has focused on the development of in vitro T-cell mutation assays. Conditions have been defined to measure the in vitro induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in human T-lymphocytes. This assay is a parallel to our in vivo hprt assay, in that the same cells are utilized. However, the in vitro assay allows for carefully controlled dose response studies. 21 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. Population and human resources development. (United States)

    Jones, G W


    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  13. The role of apoptosis in the development and function of T lymphocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nu ZHANG; Heather HARTIG; Ivan DZHAGALOV; David DRAPER; You Wen HE


    Apoptosis plays an essential role in T cell biology. Thymocytes expressing nonfunctional or autoreactive TCRs are eliminated by apoptosis during development. Apoptosis also leads to the deletion of expanded effector T cells during immune responses. The dysregulation of apoptosis in the immune system results in autoimmunity, tumorogenesis and immunodeficiency. Two major pathways lead to apoptosis: the intrinsic cell death pathway controlled by Bcl-2 family members and the extrinsic cell death pathway controlled by death receptor signaling. These two pathways work together to regulate T lymphocyte development and function.

  14. Population change and educational development. (United States)

    Jayasuriya, J E


    The 4 principal conditions of a stable society are: 1) minimum disruption of ecological processes, 2) maximum conservation of material and energy or an economy of stock rather than flow, 3) a population in which recruitment equals loss, and 4) a social system in which individuals can enjoy rather than be restricted by the 1st 3 conditions. In 1960 the developing countries set goals relating to education including the achievement of universal primary education, the eradication of illiteracy, and the provision of secondary and tertiary education to meet manpower needs. The countries with the highest enrollment ratios in 1980 were Korea, 100%, Singapore, 100%, Malaysia, 94%, Philippines 80.6%, Thailand, 77.8%, and Iran 75.5%. Eradication of illiteracy has not been reached since by 1990 Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan will have illiteracy rates of over 50% and as a result of increases in the absolute number of illiterates over the period of 1970-90 in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan, the number of illiterates in the developing countries of Asia will increase from 339.1 million in 1970 to 425.6 million in 1990. The females and rural population are especially disadvantaged groups in terms of education; 98.4% of rural females are illiterate as compared to 63.8% of urban males and in Iran 91.7% of rural females compared with 31.3% of urban males are illiterate. One reason for shortfalls in the achievement of educational goals is rapid population growth, especially of school-age groups; for instance the total population aged 6-11 in Indonesia increased by 89.3%. In a study on the Philippines conducted in 1975 it was found that, for the series of high projections, the schedule of age-specific fertility rates observed for 1968-72 resulting in a total fertility rate of 5.89 would remain constant throughout the projection period, the death rate would decline by 4.8 points, international migration would remain negligible; for the low projections

  15. Increased micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes contributes to cancer risk in the methyl isocyanate-affected population of Bhopal. (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Chinnu Sugavanam; Akhter, Sameena; Malla, Tahir Mohiuddin; Sah, Nand Kishore; Ganesh, Narayanan


    The Bhopal gas tragedy involving methyl isocyanate (MIC) is one of the most horrific industrial accidents in recent decades. We investigated the genotoxic effects of MIC in long-term survivors and their offspring born after the 1984 occurrence. There are a few cytogenetic reports showing genetic damage in the MIC-exposed survivors, but there is no information about the associated cancer risk. The same is true about offspring. For the first time, we here assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequency using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay to predict cancer risk in the MIC-affected population of Bhopal. A total of 92 healthy volunteers (46 MIC- affected and 46 controls) from Bhopal and various regions of India were studied taking gender and age into consideration. Binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (BNMN), total number of micronuclei in lymphocytes (MNL), and nuclear division index (NDI) frequencies and their relationship to age, gender and several lifestyle variabilities (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) were investigated. Our observations showed relatively higher BNMN and MNL (Pexposure to MIC. Briefly, the observed cytogenetic damage to the MIC-affected could contribute to cancer risk, especially in the EF and FOE.

  16. Effects of Canarium odontophyllum leaves on plasma glucose and T lymphocyte population in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. (United States)

    Saari, Shafikha Mohd; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Budin, Siti Balkis; Warif, Nor Malia Abd


    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by lack of insulin production. Immune mechanisms are implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 1 diabetes. Canarium odontophyllum (CO) fruits and leaves have been shown to possess high antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of CO leaves aqueous extract on the blood glucose and T lymphocyte population in the spleen of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Nineteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal, diabetic control and CO treated diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 65 mg STZ/kg body weight. The extract of CO leaves was administered orally by force feeding daily at the dose of 300 mg/kg for 28 days. The rats were sacrificed at the end of the study and the spleen was harvested for flow cytometry analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight of diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups compared with the normal group (p diabetic group was significantly lower than the diabetic group (p Diabetic and CO treated diabetic groups showed a significant increase in the percentage of spleen CD3(+) CD4(+) T lymphocytes (p diabetic rats.

  17. Effects of dietary Fusarium mycotoxins on intestinal lymphocyte subset populations, cell proliferation and histological changes in avian lymphoid organs. (United States)

    Girish, C K; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J; Anil Kumar, P; Girgis, G N


    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Fusarium mycotoxins on gut immunity, cell proliferation, and histology of avian lymphoid organs. The efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) was also determined. Seventy-two one-day-old male turkey poults were fed corn, wheat, and soybean meal-based diets for 21 days. Diets included control grains, contaminated grains and contaminated grains +0.2% GMA. The major contaminant was deoxynivalenol (3.9 μg/g) with lesser amounts of zearalenone (0.67-0.75 μg/g), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (0.34 μg/g) and HT-2 toxin (0.078-0.085 μg/g). T- and B-lymphocyte populations and crypt cellular proliferation in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecal tonsil were measured immunohistochemically on day 14 and 21. Histological changes were recorded after 14 and 21 days of feeding. Feeding contaminated grains significantly increased the percentage of B-lymphocytes in ileum on day 14, and reduced (Pcontaminated diets also caused a reduction (Pcontaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins results in adverse effects on gut immunity and mucosal cell proliferation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Onishchenko


    Full Text Available In this review article the necessity of adaptation and introduction into clinical practice of simultaneous monitoring of immune blood cells and cytokines in patients with grafted organs for a choice of individual tactic of immuno- suppressive therapy, determination of its efficiency and forecasting is proved. It is emphasized, that with the spe- cial attention it ought to concern to characteristic of CD4 + T-lymphocytes and to definition of an interrelation of their separate populations in peripheral blood (Treg, Th17, Tact memory cells – CD4+CD25hiCD127hiCD45RO since they are the basic participants of immune system reaction on grafts. 

  19. Impaired intestinal mucosal immunity is associated with the imbalance of T lymphocyte sub-populations in intrauterine growth-restricted neonatal piglets. (United States)

    Dong, Li; Zhong, Xiang; Zhang, Lili; Kong, Lingrui; Kong, Yili; Kou, Tao; Wang, Tian


    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) impairs the immunity of both piglets and humans. We hypothesized that the poor cytokine secreting ability of the small intestines of IUGR neonatal piglets might be associated with lower CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Therefore, we used neonatal piglets as IUGR models to investigate the effects of IUGR on the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte cell populations. Six normal-birth-weight (NBW) and six IUGR neonatal piglets were chosen and divided into NBW and IUGR groups, respectively. The cytokine and immunoglobulin levels in the blood; the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocyte contents in the thymus, blood, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, jejunum and ileum; and the distribution of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the ileum were measured. We further compared the gene expression and protein distribution of MHC-II in the jejunum and ileum of the NBW and IUGR neonatal piglets. The results showed that the IUGR piglets exhibited lower (Pmucosal immunity is associated with an imbalance in the T lymphocyte sub-populations in IUGR neonatal piglets.

  20. Thyrocytes responding to IFN-gamma are essential for development of lymphocytic spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis and inhibition of thyrocyte hyperplasia. (United States)

    Yu, Shiguang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen


    IFN-gamma promotes the development of lymphocytic spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (L-SAT) in NOD.H-2h4 mice and inhibits the development of thyrocyte hyperplasia and proliferation (TEC H/P). The precise mechanisms by which IFN-gamma promotes L-SAT and inhibits TEC H/P are unknown. To determine whether responsiveness of lymphocytes or thyrocytes to IFN-gamma is important for the development of these lesions, IFN-gammaR-/- mice, which develop TEC H/P similar to IFN-gamma-/- mice, were used as recipients for adoptive cell transfer. Wild-type (WT) splenocytes or bone marrow induced L-SAT and inhibited TEC H/P in IFN-gamma-/-, but not IFN-gammaR-/- recipients. IFN-gammaR-/- recipients of WT cells developed severe TEC H/P, but did not develop L-SAT, suggesting that thyrocytes responding to IFN-gamma are important for inhibition of TEC H/P. Unexpectedly, IFN-gammaR-/- splenocytes or bone marrow did not induce L-SAT in IFN-gamma-/- or WT mice even though IFN-gammaR-/- lymphocyte donors produced as much IFN-gamma as lymphocytes from WT donors, and thyrocytes could respond to IFN-gamma. Real-time PCR indicated that recipients of IFN-gammaR-/- bone marrow expressed less mRNA for IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines compared with recipients of WT bone marrow. This might limit the migration of IFN-gammaR-/- lymphocytes to thyroids. Few IFN-gammaR-/- lymphocytes infiltrated thyroids even in the presence of WT lymphocytes, suggesting that lymphocytes unable to respond to IFN-gamma are not induced to migrate to thyroids. These results suggest that thyrocytes must be able to respond to IFN-gamma for the development of L-SAT and inhibition of TEC H/P, and lymphocytes must be able to respond to IFN-gamma to induce L-SAT.

  1. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: design, development and place in therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sawaf O


    Full Text Available Othman Al-Sawaf, Kirsten Fischer, Anja Engelke, Natali Pflug, Michael Hallek, Valentin Goede German CLL Study Group, Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany Abstract: For decades, treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL has been based on chemotherapy. This changed when the first CD20 antibody rituximab was introduced. Since 2008, the combination of chemotherapy and CD20 antibodies has become the standard of care for most patients, and a significant fraction of patients had very long-lasting remissions after chemoimmunotherapy. Despite the improvement of response rates and overall survival (OS by the use of chemoimmunotherapy, most CLL patients will relapse eventually. One approach to achieve more durable responses was the development of obinutuzumab (GA101, a new type of CD20 antibody that has unique molecular and functional characteristics. Obinutuzumab is a type II fully humanized CD20 antibody that binds to a partly different epitope of the CD20 protein than rituximab and due to its glycoengineered design induces greater antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC. Initial preclinical observations of a more effective B-cell depletion have been successfully reproduced in clinical trials with CLL patients. This review summarizes results of preclinical as well as clinical studies with obinutuzumab and provides an outlook on its future role in the therapy of CLL. Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, GA101, obinutuzumab, CD20 antibody

  2. Peripheral regulatory T lymphocytes recirculating to the thymus suppress the development of their precursors. (United States)

    Thiault, Nicolas; Darrigues, Julie; Adoue, Véronique; Gros, Marine; Binet, Bénédicte; Perals, Corine; Leobon, Bertrand; Fazilleau, Nicolas; Joffre, Olivier P; Robey, Ellen A; van Meerwijk, Joost P M; Romagnoli, Paola


    Most T lymphocytes, including regulatory T cells (Treg cells), differentiate in the thymus. The age-dependent involution of this organ leads to decreasing production of T cells. Here we found that the output of new Treg cells from the thymus decreased substantially more than that of conventional T cells. Peripheral mouse and human Treg cells recirculated back to the thymus, where they constituted a large proportion of the pool of Treg cells and displayed an activated and differentiated phenotype. In the thymus, the recirculating cells exerted their regulatory function by inhibiting interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent de novo differentiation of Treg cells. Thus, Treg cell development is controlled by a negative feedback loop in which mature progeny cells return to the thymus and restrain development of precursors of Treg cells.

  3. Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence in HIV-Infected Patients: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Quiros-Roldan

    Full Text Available Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs. To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs. A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males were included (person-years 28768.6. A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02 of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the general population. NLR levels measured at baseline and during follow-up were independently associated with CVD incidence, when also adjusting for both traditional CVD risk factors and HIV-related factors (HR 3.05 for NLR≥ 1.2. The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve showed a modest, not statistically significant, increase, from 0.81 to 0.83, with addition of NLR to Framingham risk score model covariates. In conclusion an elevated NLR is a predictor of risk CVD in HIV-infected patients, independently from the traditional CVD risk factors.

  4. Interferon regulatory factor 4 attenuates Notch signaling to suppress the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Shukla, Vipul; Shukla, Ashima; Joshi, Shantaram S; Lu, Runqing


    Molecular pathogenesis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is not fully elucidated. Genome wide association studies have linked Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4) to the development of CLL. We recently established a causal relationship between low levels of IRF4 and development of CLL. However, the molecular mechanism through which IRF4 suppresses CLL development remains unclear. Deregulation of Notch signaling pathway has been identified as one of the most recurrent molecular anomalies in the pathogenesis of CLL. Yet, the role of Notch signaling as well as its regulation during CLL development remains poorly understood. Previously, we demonstrated that IRF4 deficient mice expressing immunoglobulin heavy chain Vh11 (IRF4-/-Vh11) developed spontaneous CLL with complete penetrance. In this study, we show that elevated Notch2 expression and the resulting hyperactivation of Notch signaling are common features of IRF4-/-Vh11 CLL cells. Our studies further reveal that Notch signaling is indispensable for CLL development in the IRF4-/-Vh11 mice. Moreover, we identify E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4, which targets Notch for degradation, as a direct target of IRF4 in CLL cells and their precursors. Collectively, our studies provide the first in vivo evidence for an essential role of Notch signaling in the development of CLL and establish IRF4 as a critical regulator of Notch signaling during CLL development.

  5. The influence of pregnancy on the development of autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Viggo; Bock, Johannes E; Hilden, Jørgen


    cell autoantibodies and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura were equally common in women and men, whereas autoimmune thyroiditis, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen in higher rates in women than in men. The spectrum of autoimmunity suggests......To examine whether pregnancy influences the development of autoimmunity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we studied 591 consecutive CLL patients (202 post-menopausal women and 389 men). The mean observation time for all patients was 3.8 years, corresponding to approximately 2200 person....... In female CLL patients, the frequency of autoimmunity and the number of pregnancies and the number of partners were strongly correlated. Each of the major autoimmune types approximately doubled in frequency for each additional pregnancy. The impact of pregnancy on expressed autoimmunity increased with each...

  6. Early B lymphocyte development: Similarities and differences in human and mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michiko; Ichii; Kenji; Oritani; Yuzuru; Kanakura


    B lymphocytes differentiate from hematopoietic stem cells through a series of distinct stages. Early B cell development proceeds in bone marrow until immature B cells migrate out to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as a spleen and lymph nodes, after completion of immunoglobulin heavy and light chain rearrangement. Although the information about the regulation by numerous factors, including signaling molecules, transcription factors, epigenetic changes and the microenvironment, could provide the clinical application, our knowledge on human B lymphopoiesis is limited. However, with great methodological advances, significant progress for understanding B lymphopoiesis both in human and mouse has been made. In this review, we summarize the experimental models for studies about human adult B lymphopoiesis, and the role of microenvironment and signaling molecules, such as cytokines, transforming growth factor-β superfamily, Wnt family and Notch family, with point-by-point comparison between human and mouse.

  7. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 gene polymorphism is related to rheumatoid arthritis in Egyptian population. (United States)

    Fattah, Shaimaa A; Ghattas, Maivel H; Saleh, Samy M; Abo-Elmatty, Dina M


    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on T-cells which suppresses T cell proliferation. CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism is involved in regulation of CTLA-4 expression. The study aimed to investigate the genetic association of CTLA-4 -318C/T polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the activity and severity of the disease in the Egyptian population. A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs5742909) in CTLA-4 was genotyped in 100 RA patients and 100 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Diagnostic tests were measured for RA patients. The frequency of T allele in RA patients was significantly higher than in the control subjects (p = 0.002). CT and TT genotypes had high C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and disease activity score 28 while CC genotype had a high rheumatoid factor. A minor allele of CTLA-4 rs5742909 polymorphism was associated with RA and the activity but not the severity of the disease.

  8. Population and economic development in Sarawak, Malaysia


    Furuoka, Fumitaka


    This paper chooses a Malaysian state in Borneo Island, Sarawak, as the case study to examine the relationship between population growth and economic development. The findings imply that there is no statistically significant long-run relationship, but a causal relationship between population growth and economic development in Sarawak. In other words, the empirical findings indicate that population can have neither positive nor negative impact on economic development. The findings also indicate...

  9. [The development of population policies in Africa]. (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M


    Influencing demographic dynamics in order to improve the welfare of the population is the fundamental objective of a population policy. The efficacy of a population policy cannot be satisfactorily evaluated without referring to the objectives of the overall development strategy, of which the population policy is only one component. At the time of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, the positions of the developed and developing countries were polarized. The developing countries were accused of impeding their own socioeconomic development by their high fertility rates and rapid population growth, while the industrialized world was blamed for environmental degradation and exhaustion of nonrenewable resources due to overconsumption by households and industry. Despite the near total disagreement about what constituted the problem, a "World Population Plan of Action" was adopted almost unanimously, indicating agreement at least on the existence of a problem even if ther was no consensus on its content. The Plan affirmed that each nation has a sovereign right to formulate and implement its own population policies, that international cooperation is needed in population matters, and that population policies are components of social and economic development policies and not substitutes for them. Interest in African population dates back to the beginning of the colonial era, when the imperial powers wished to control population movements, estimate the taxable population, and control depopulation due to pathological infertility. Colonial population legislation was somewhat more liberal in English-speaking countries than in those under the sway of France because of the influence of Malthusianism in Great Britain and the movement for birth control that developed there. By the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico, the governments of African countries had adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning the African Population and Autonomous Development

  10. China Faces Nine Obstacles in Population Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    With drastic changes in both the international and domestic environment for population and family planning development, China faces nine major challenges in its efforts to further its population and family planning program, said Zhang Weiqing,Minister of the National Population and Family

  11. Bioprocess development for the cultivation of human T-lymphocytes in a clinical scale. (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, H; Hilbert, U; Noll, T


    Adoptive transfer of large numbers of donor-derived T-lymphocytesmay offer a promising treatment of a variety of viral and malignant diseases. The key step in this approach is the ex vivo generation of sufficient quantities of these cells in a short time.We have investigated the influence of several important cultivation parameters on the proliferation of human T-lymphocytes to develop a large-scale fermentation process usingdifferent types of stirred bioreactors. Such systems offer manypotential advantages over the static culture systems commonlyused today.Peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy but CMV positive donors were stimulated with monoclonal antibodies (anti-CD3 and anti-CD28) and Interleukin-2. The influence of osmolality, Interleukin-2 concentration, pH, oxygen tension, feeding strategyand temperature on T-cell proliferation was investigated and theoptimised conditions were transferred to a novel stirred suspension bioreactor with an especially designed magnetic stirrbar to minimize the shear force (working volume 550 ml) and a standard stirred vessel (working volume 1000 ml).Preferable conditions for the cultivation of primary T-lymphocytes were an osmolality of 276-330 mOsmol kg(-1),an Interleukin-2 concentration of 100 U ml(-1), a pH rangeof 7.0 to 7.3, an oxygen tension of 5-50% and a temperature of 38.5 degrees C. After 238 h of cultivation 2.8 x 10(9) cells in the stirred vesseland 1.5 x 10(9) cells in the suspension bioreactor were obtained with a percentage of T-cells >94%. The specificity of the cells wasmaintained during cultivation as proven by IFN-gamma secretionafter exposure to a hCMV protein.

  12. PCR based RFLP genotyping of bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 in Iranian Holstein population. (United States)

    Pashmi, Morteza; Qanbari, Saber; Ghorashi, Seyed Ali; Salehi, Abdolreza


    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class II locus DRB3 was investigated by PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A total of 262 Holstein cows participating in the national recording system were sampled from 10 herds. A two-step polymerase chain reaction was carried out in order to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonucleas enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Digested fragments were analyzed by polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified. Identified alleles are: BoLA-DRB3.2 *3, *6, *7, *8, *9, *10, *11, *12, *13, *14, *15, *16,20, *21, *22, *23, *24, *25, *26, *27, *28, *32, *36, *37, *40, *51, *iaa and *ibb. The BoLA-DRB3.2*40 allele that was observed in this study has not been reported previously. The calculated frequencies were as follows: 2.29, 1.34, 0.19, 14.5, 0.38, 3.05, 12.21, 1.34, 2.29, 1.34, 2.48, 9.16, 0.95, 0.77, 6.68, 9.16, 17.94, 1.15, 0.57, 1.15, 0.95, 0.57, 0.38, 1.91, 0.38, 5.73, 0.19 and 0.95% respectively. The six most frequently observed alleles (BoLA-DRB3.2 *8, *11, *16, *22, *23 and *24) accounted for 69.65% of the alleles in these 10 herds. The results of this study confirm the allelic distribution of six most frequent alleles in Holstein population's worldwide.

  13. Development of a serum-free medium for in vitro expansion of human cytotoxic T lymphocytes using a statistical design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyun


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum-containing medium (SCM, which has a number of poorly defined components with varying concentrations, hampers standardization of lymphocyte cultures. In order to develop a serum-free medium (SFM for the expansion of human lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, a statistical optimization approach based on a fractional factorial method and a response surface method was adopted. A basal medium was prepared by supplementing RPMI1640 medium with insulin, albumin, ferric citrate, ethanolamine, fatty acids, glutamine, sodium pyruvate, 2-mercaptoethanol, 1-thioglycerol, nonessential amino acids, and vitamins. We identified additional positive determinants and their optimal concentrations for cell growth through a statistical analysis. Results From a statistical analysis using the fractional factorial method, cholesterol and polyamine supplement were identified as positive determinants for cell growth. Their optimal concentrations were determined by the response surface method. The maximum viable cell concentration in the developed SFM was enhanced by more than 1.5-fold when compared to that in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Furthermore, a cytotoxicity assay and an enzyme-linked immunospot assay revealed that the effector function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes generated from PBMCs grown in SFM, by stimulation of peptide-presenting dendritic cells, was retained or even better than that in SCM. Conclusions The use of a developed SFM with cholesterol and polyamine supplement for human lymphocyte culture resulted in better growth without loss of cellular function when compared to SCM.

  14. Common-Lymphoid-Progenitor-Independent Pathways of Innate and T Lymphocyte Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghaedi


    Full Text Available All lymphocytes are thought to develop from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs. However, lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors (LMPPs are more efficient than CLPs in differentiating into T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s. Here, we have divided LMPPs into CD127− (LMPP−s and CD127+ (LMPP+s subsets and compared them with Ly6D− and Ly6D+ CLPs. Adult LMPP+s differentiated into T cells and ILCs more rapidly and efficiently than other progenitors in transplantation assays. The development of T cells and ILC2s is highly active in the neonatal period. Neonatal CLPs are rare and, unlike prominent neonatal LMPP+s, do not efficiently differentiate into T cells and ILC2s. ILC2s generated in the neonatal period are long lived and persist in adult tissues. These results suggest that some ILCs and T cells may develop from LMPP+s via CLP-independent pathways.

  15. [Policies of economic development and population]. (United States)

    Aleman, J L


    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  16. PPARgamma activation attenuates T-lymphocyte-dependent inflammation of adipose tissue and development of insulin resistance in obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation of adipose tissue (AT has been recently accepted as a first step towards obesity-mediated insulin resistance. We could previously show that mice fed with high fat diet (HFD develop systemic insulin resistance (IR and glucose intolerance (GI associated with CD4-positive T-lymphocyte infiltration into visceral AT. These T-lymphocytes, when enriched in AT, participate in the development of fat tissue inflammation and subsequent recruitment of proinflammatory macrophages. The aim of this work was to elucidate the action of the insulin sensitizing PPARgamma on T-lymphocyte infiltration during development of IR, and comparison of the PPARgamma-mediated anti-inflammatory effects of rosiglitazone and telmisartan in diet-induced obesity model (DIO-model in mice. Methods In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying early development of systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance male C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD for 10-weeks in parallel to the pharmacological intervention with rosiglitazone, telmisartan, or vehicle. Results Both rosiglitazone and telmisartan were able to reduce T-lymphocyte infiltration into AT analyzed by quantitative analysis of the T-cell marker CD3gamma and the chemokine SDF1alpha. Subsequently, both PPARgamma agonists were able to attenuate macrophage infiltration into AT, measured by the reduction of MCP1 and F4/80 expression. In parallel to the reduction of AT-inflammation, ligand-activated PPARgamma improved diet-induced IR and GI. Conclusion Together the present study demonstrates a close connection between PPARgamma-mediated anti-inflammation in AT and systemic improvement of glucose metabolism identifying T-lymphocytes as one cellular mediator of PPARgamma´s action.

  17. B-Lymphocytes from a Population of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Their Unaffected Siblings Exhibit Hypersensitivity to Thimerosal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn A. Sharpe


    Full Text Available The role of thimerosal containing vaccines in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been an area of intense debate, as has the presence of mercury dental amalgams and fish ingestion by pregnant mothers. We studied the effects of thimerosal on cell proliferation and mitochondrial function from B-lymphocytes taken from individuals with autism, their nonautistic twins, and their nontwin siblings. Eleven families were examined and compared to matched controls. B-cells were grown with increasing levels of thimerosal, and various assays (LDH, XTT, DCFH, etc. were performed to examine the effects on cellular proliferation and mitochondrial function. A subpopulation of eight individuals (4 ASD, 2 twins, and 2 siblings from four of the families showed thimerosal hypersensitivity, whereas none of the control individuals displayed this response. The thimerosal concentration required to inhibit cell proliferation in these individuals was only 40% of controls. Cells hypersensitive to thimerosal also had higher levels of oxidative stress markers, protein carbonyls, and oxidant generation. This suggests certain individuals with a mild mitochondrial defect may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial specific toxins like the vaccine preservative thimerosal.

  18. National trends in incidence and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway for 1953-2012: a systematic analysis of population-based data. (United States)

    Lenartova, Andrea; Johannesen, Tom Børge; Tjønnfjord, Geir Erland


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a disease of the elderly, and despite major advances in treatment, remains incurable. The Cancer Registry of Norway has registered data on patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia since 1953. We aimed to analyze trends in incidence and survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Norway. We identified 7664 patients reported with chronic lymphocytic leukemia to the registry between 1953 and 2012. We gathered information on sex, age at diagnosis, date of death and basis for diagnosis. The age-standardized incidence increased from 0.6/100.000 person-years in 1953 to 3.1/100,000 person-years in 2012. We found a significant decrease in median age between 1993-2002 and 2003-2012 (75 vs. 72 years, 95%CI: 2.52-3.98, P survival increased from 3 years in 1952-1963 to 8.5 years in 2003-2012. Five- and 10-year age-standardized net survival increased throughout the whole period across age groups and reached 79% and 57%, respectively. Median observed survival was significantly shorter in men than in women in 1993-2002 (4.9 vs. 6.1 years, P survival rates for men and women was diminishing in 2003-2012 in patients younger than 60 years while it remained considerable in older patients. Despite an aging Norwegian population, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients become younger at diagnosis. A fourfold increase in incidence, a prolonged survival, and major changes in diagnostic methods in Norway were observed.

  19. Impaired Lymphocytes Development and Xenotransplantation of Gastrointestinal Tumor Cells in Prkdc-Null SCID Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Hye Jung


    Full Text Available Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID mice have widely been used as hosts for human tumor cell xenograft study. This animal model, however, is labor intensive. As zebrafish is largely emerging as a promising model system for studying human diseases including cancer, developing efficient immunocompromised strains for tumor xenograft study are also demanded in zebrafish. Here, we have created the Prkdc-null SCID zebrafish model which provides the stable immune-deficient background required for xenotransplantation of tumor cell. In this study, the two transcription activator-like effector nucleases that specifically target the exon3 of the zebrafish Prkdc gene were used to induce a frame shift mutation, causing a complete knockout of the gene function. The SCID zebrafish showed susceptibility to spontaneous infection, a well-known phenotype found in the SCID mutation. Further characterization revealed that the SCID zebrafish contained no functional T and B lymphocytes which reflected the phenotypes identified in the mice SCID model. Intraperitoneal injection of human cancer cells into the adult SCID zebrafish clearly showed tumor cell growth forming into a solid mass. Our present data show the suitability of using the SCID zebrafish strain for xenotransplantation experiments, and in vivo monitoring of the tumor cell growth in the zebrafish demonstrates use of the animal model as a new platform of tumor xenograft study.

  20. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: design, development and place in therapy. (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fischer, Kirsten; Engelke, Anja; Pflug, Natali; Hallek, Michael; Goede, Valentin


    For decades, treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been based on chemotherapy. This changed when the first CD20 antibody rituximab was introduced. Since 2008, the combination of chemotherapy and CD20 antibodies has become the standard of care for most patients, and a significant fraction of patients had very long-lasting remissions after chemoimmunotherapy. Despite the improvement of response rates and overall survival (OS) by the use of chemoimmunotherapy, most CLL patients will relapse eventually. One approach to achieve more durable responses was the development of obinutuzumab (GA101), a new type of CD20 antibody that has unique molecular and functional characteristics. Obinutuzumab is a type II fully humanized CD20 antibody that binds to a partly different epitope of the CD20 protein than rituximab and due to its glycoengineered design induces greater antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Initial preclinical observations of a more effective B-cell depletion have been successfully reproduced in clinical trials with CLL patients. This review summarizes results of preclinical as well as clinical studies with obinutuzumab and provides an outlook on its future role in the therapy of CLL.

  1. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: design, development and place in therapy (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fischer, Kirsten; Engelke, Anja; Pflug, Natali; Hallek, Michael; Goede, Valentin


    For decades, treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been based on chemotherapy. This changed when the first CD20 antibody rituximab was introduced. Since 2008, the combination of chemotherapy and CD20 antibodies has become the standard of care for most patients, and a significant fraction of patients had very long-lasting remissions after chemoimmunotherapy. Despite the improvement of response rates and overall survival (OS) by the use of chemoimmunotherapy, most CLL patients will relapse eventually. One approach to achieve more durable responses was the development of obinutuzumab (GA101), a new type of CD20 antibody that has unique molecular and functional characteristics. Obinutuzumab is a type II fully humanized CD20 antibody that binds to a partly different epitope of the CD20 protein than rituximab and due to its glycoengineered design induces greater antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Initial preclinical observations of a more effective B-cell depletion have been successfully reproduced in clinical trials with CLL patients. This review summarizes results of preclinical as well as clinical studies with obinutuzumab and provides an outlook on its future role in the therapy of CLL. PMID:28182141

  2. Clonal evolution in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia developing resistance to BTK inhibition (United States)

    Burger, Jan A.; Landau, Dan A.; Taylor-Weiner, Amaro; Bozic, Ivana; Zhang, Huidan; Sarosiek, Kristopher; Wang, Lili; Stewart, Chip; Fan, Jean; Hoellenriegel, Julia; Sivina, Mariela; Dubuc, Adrian M.; Fraser, Cameron; Han, Yulong; Li, Shuqiang; Livak, Kenneth J.; Zou, Lihua; Wan, Youzhong; Konoplev, Sergej; Sougnez, Carrie; Brown, Jennifer R.; Abruzzo, Lynne V.; Carter, Scott L.; Keating, Michael J.; Davids, Matthew S.; Wierda, William G.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Zenz, Thorsten; Werner, Lillian; Cin, Paola Dal; Kharchencko, Peter; Neuberg, Donna; Kantarjian, Hagop; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Brien, Susan; Letai, Anthony; Weitz, David A.; Nowak, Martin A.; Getz, Gad; Wu, Catherine J.


    Resistance to the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has been attributed solely to mutations in BTK and related pathway molecules. Using whole-exome and deep-targeted sequencing, we dissect evolution of ibrutinib resistance in serial samples from five chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. In two patients, we detect BTK-C481S mutation or multiple PLCG2 mutations. The other three patients exhibit an expansion of clones harbouring del(8p) with additional driver mutations (EP300, MLL2 and EIF2A), with one patient developing trans-differentiation into CD19-negative histiocytic sarcoma. Using droplet-microfluidic technology and growth kinetic analyses, we demonstrate the presence of ibrutinib-resistant subclones and estimate subclone size before treatment initiation. Haploinsufficiency of TRAIL-R, a consequence of del(8p), results in TRAIL insensitivity, which may contribute to ibrutinib resistance. These findings demonstrate that the ibrutinib therapy favours selection and expansion of rare subclones already present before ibrutinib treatment, and provide insight into the heterogeneity of genetic changes associated with ibrutinib resistance. PMID:27199251

  3. Developing IEC Strategies for Population Programmes. (United States)

    Cohen, Sylvie I.


    Proposes a systematic and stepwise approach to the design of population information, education, and communication (IEC) strategies. Clarifies the role of IEC in population programs, details methodological steps to follow in IEC strategy development, and identifies types of research and sources of data needed. (MDH)

  4. Developing IEC Strategies for Population Programmes. (United States)

    Cohen, Sylvie I.


    Proposes a systematic and stepwise approach to the design of population information, education, and communication (IEC) strategies. Clarifies the role of IEC in population programs, details methodological steps to follow in IEC strategy development, and identifies types of research and sources of data needed. (MDH)

  5. Population development in Ljubljana urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik


    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristic of population development and urbanisation processes in Ljubljana and Ljubljana urban region. Up to the end of the seventies fast population growth was a consequence of strong immigration from rural parts of Slovenia and the rest of Yugoslavia. In the eighties and nineties deconcentration of population within the region with intense suburbanisation and depopulation of inner city and older residential neighbourhoods were the main urbanisation processes. In the second half of the nineties the highest population growth was recorded in dispersed rural settlements in the periphery of the region. In some parts of the inner city reurbanisation and gentrification occurred.

  6. Overexpression of a Novel Lymphocyte Population, Positive for an Intracellular CD14-Like Antigen, in Patients Positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (United States)

    Turner, Dan; Hoffman, Michael; Yust, Israel; Fried, Mordechai; Bleiberg, Margalit; Tartakovsky, Boris


    CD14, originally recognized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, has recently been implicated in the process of T-cell suppression and apoptosis. Its soluble form has been shown to bind, in vitro, to human T cells, a process that may carry a negative signal onto these cells. We recently described a novel lymphocyte population in human peripheral blood, a population that expresses an intracellular CD14-like antigen. This novel T-cell population, composed mainly of CD8 cells and of very few CD4 cells, was found to be greatly enhanced in asymptomatic, untreated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. In the present study, we further characterized this cell population and found that it differed from other CD8 subpopulations associated with HIV infection such as CD8/CD38. In addition, we followed HIV patients under conditions of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and observed two groups of patients: patients in whom the CD14-like positive-testing T cells returned to normal within 1 to 3 months, and patients in whom it did not, in spite of a significant plasma HIV-RNA viral load decrease. Thus, this new CD14-like positive-testing lymphocyte population may represent an interesting and important component of the cellular events associated with HIV infection. On the basis of its modulation following HAART, we speculate that it may be used, in the future, as a drug-monitoring cellular marker in antiretroviral treatment. PMID:15539503

  7. Identification and cloning of a prethymic precursor T lymphocyte from a population of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)-positive fetal bone marrow cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Daley, J


    We have cloned common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALLA)-positive cells from human fetal bone marrow containing less than 1 in 10,000 E-RFC in round-bottomed microtiter wells (one cell per well) using the autocloning unit of an EPICS-V cell sorter. Expansion of such cells (with IL-2 and heavily...... irradiated autologous thymocytes as feeder cells) resulted in growth in 6-14% of the wells (mean, 11%) with cells with mature T lymphocyte phenotype. Two-color fluorescence analysis of outgrowing cultures furthermore ascertained that these cells had differentiated through a phase of simultaneous expression...... of T4 and T8 antigens and at the same time expression of the thymocyte-associated T6 antigens. Thus, given the fact that 10-20% of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALLs) are CALLA+, we have been able to identify a human prethymic T lymphocyte population that might be the normal counterpart...

  8. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeteman, M.A. (Centre de Genetique Medicale and INSERM U. 242, France); Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.


    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes.

  9. Lymphocyte subsets in healthy Malawians: implications for immunologic assessment of HIV infection in Africa. (United States)

    Mandala, Wilson L; MacLennan, Jenny M; Gondwe, Esther N; Ward, Steven A; Molyneux, Malcolm E; MacLennan, Calman A


    CD4(+)T lymphocyte measurements are the most important indicator of mortality in HIV-infected individuals in resource-limited settings. There is currently a lack of comprehensive immunophenotyping data from African populations to guide the immunologic assessment of HIV infection. To quantify variation in absolute and relative lymphocyte subsets with age in healthy Malawians. Lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood of 539 healthy HIV-uninfected Malawians stratified by age were enumerated by flow cytometry. B and T-lymphocyte and T-lymphocyte subset absolute concentrations peaked in early childhood then decreased to adult levels, whereas lymphocyte subset proportions demonstrated much less variation with age. Adult lymphocyte subsets were similar to those in developed countries. In contrast, high B-lymphocyte and CD8(+)T-lymphocyte levels among children under 2 years, relative to those in developed countries, resulted in low CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages that varied little between 0 and 5 years (35% to 39%). The CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in 35% of healthy children under 1 year and 18% of children age 1 to 3 years were below the World Health Organization threshold defining immunodeficiency in HIV-infected children in resource-limited settings. Thirteen percent of healthy children under 18 months old had a CD4:CD8T-lymphocyte ratio <1.0, which is commonly associated with HIV infection. All immunologic parameters except absolute natural killer lymphocyte concentration varied significantly with age, and percentage and overall absolute CD4(+)T-lymphocyte counts were higher in females than males. Although lymphocyte subsets in Malawian adults are similar to those from developed countries, CD4(+)T-lymphocyte percentages in young children are comparatively low. These findings need to be considered when assessing the severity of HIV-related immunodeficiency in African children under 3 years. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  10. Population and Economic Growth in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Quang Dao


    Full Text Available This paper examines the economic effects of the demographic transition in developing countries. Based on data from the World Bank and using a sample of forty-three developing economies, we find that the growth rate of per capita GDP is linearly dependent upon population growth, both the young and old dependency ratios, the mortality rate, and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Using interaction variables in light of the severe degree of multicollinearity among explanatory variables, we find that per capita GDP growth linearly depends on population growth, the old dependency ratio, the mortality rate, and the interactions between population growth and both the young and old dependency ratios, between population growth and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year, and the interaction term between the young dependency ratio and whether or not the rate of population growth is less than 1.2 percent per year. Statistical results of such an empirical examination will assist governments in devising policies aimed at influencing the economic effects of the demographic transition. Data for all variables are from the 2010 World Development Indicators. We apply the least-squares estimation technique in a multivariate linear regression. We also test for the nonlinear effect of population growth on economic growth and note that the introduction of interaction terms between population growth and dependency ratios as well as those between whether or not the population growth rate is less than 1.2 percent and population growth and the young dependency ratio yields better statistical results.

  11. Lawmakers: population and social development inseparable. Social development summit. (United States)


    Parliamentarians from around the world endorsed action to promote social development by approving the Copenhagen Statement on Population and Social Development during the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development held at the National Parliament in Copenhagen, Denmark, March 4-5, 1995. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is a similar meeting held ahead of the International Conference on Population and Development during September 1994 in Cairo, Egypt. Among the key points of the Copenhagen Statement is the recognition of the importance of slowing rapid population growth, eradicating poverty, protecting the environment, creating jobs, and promoting social integration so that people can participate equally and fully in all spheres of social, cultural, economic, and political life. The document also acknowledges the need to promote universal access to education and health care, affirms the 20/20 principle as an useful concept against poverty and in development cooperation, and notes South-South cooperation as a means to promote national and international cooperation. Shin Sakurai, chairman of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development, presided over the event and led the Japanese delegation of four legislators. The first such national suprapartisan body of lawmakers concerned with population and development, the Japan Parliamentarians Federation for Population was established in 1974. The federation has since been a pioneer in Asia and worldwide in fostering political commitment on population and development, playing an important role in gaining and maintaining support in Japan for multilateral and bilateral assistance in the field. Sakurai stressed in his March 4 address that population problems cannot be resolved without social development.

  12. Talent Development in Economically Disadvantaged Populations (United States)

    Coleman, Laurence


    The purpose of this article is to summarize what is generally known about talent development and schooling by stating some propositions about the way such programs are structured. This article sets the stage for a series of stories of programs that attempt to address the challenge of talent development in diverse low-income populations. The…

  13. Up-regulation of lymphocyte antigen 6 complex expression in side-population cells derived from a human trophoblast cell line HTR-8/SVneo. (United States)

    Inagaki, Tetsunori; Kusunoki, Soshi; Tabu, Kouichi; Okabe, Hitomi; Yamada, Izumi; Taga, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Akemi; Makino, Shintaro; Takeda, Satoru; Kato, Kiyoko


    The continual proliferation and differentiation of trophoblasts are critical for the maintenance of pregnancy. It is well known that the tissue stem cells are associated with the development of tissues and pathologies. It has been demonstrated that side-population (SP) cells identified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) are enriched with stem cells. The SP cells in HTR-8/SVneo cells derived from human primary trophoblast cells were isolated by FACS. HTR-8/SVneo-SP cell cultures generated both SP and non-SP (NSP) subpopulations. In contrast, NSP cell cultures produced NSP cells and failed to produce SP cells. These SP cells showed self-renewal capability by serial colony-forming assay. Microarray expression analysis using a set of HTR-8/SVneo-SP and -NSP cells revealed that SP cells overexpressed several stemness genes including caudal type homeobox2 (CDX2) and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), and lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus D (LY6D) gene was the most highly up-regulated in HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. LY6D gene reduced its expression in the course of a 7-day cultivation in differentiation medium. SP cells tended to reduce its fraction by treatment of LY6D siRNA indicating that LY6D had potential to maintain cell proliferation of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. On ontology analysis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) pathway was involved in the up-regulated genes on microarray analysis. HTR-SVneo-SP cells showed enhanced migration. This is the first report that LY6D was important for the maintenance of HTR-8/SVneo-SP cells. EMT was associated with the phenotype of these SP cells.

  14. Qa-2 expression levels is related with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes profile during solid Ehrlich tumor development. (United States)

    da Silva, Istéfani Luciene; Veloso, Emerson Soares; Gonçalves, Ivy Nayra Nascimento; Braga, Ariadne Duarte; Lopes, Miriam Teresa Paz; Cassali, Geovanni Dantas; Quintanilla, Miguel; Simões, Renata Toscano; Ferreira, Enio


    The Qa-2 has been described as Human Leucocyte Antigen G (HLA-G) murine homolog. This homology is well accepted to gene and protein structure, in different pathology process and embryos implantation. However, in some neoplasm, this homology is questioned, where Qa-2 has been proposed as an immunogenic molecule, associated to tumor rejection. In this way, the aim of this study was to describe the pattern of Qa-2 expression and its relationship with the profile of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in solid Ehrlich tumor. The Ehrlich tumor growth was evaluated in Balb/c female mice in different tumor stages. The inflammatory infiltration features were determined by histopathology and, both lymphocyte type and tissue Qa-2 expression by immunohistochemistry. ELISA kit was used to determine soluble Qa-2 in the serum from the animals. We observed that Qa-2 in neoplastic cells increases in intermediate tumor development stages, while, serum Qa-2 increases in the late stage. Qa-2 increasing is correlated with CD3+ increase. Our results suggest that Qa-2 has a role opposite to HLA-G in Ehrlich solid carcinoma, and may be modulating the immune response by attracting the inflammatory infiltrate, especially T CD8+ Lymphocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: design, development and place in therapy


    Al-Sawaf O; Fischer K; Engelke A; Pflug N; Hallek M; Goede V


    Othman Al-Sawaf, Kirsten Fischer, Anja Engelke, Natali Pflug, Michael Hallek, Valentin Goede German CLL Study Group, Department I of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany Abstract: For decades, treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has been based on chemotherapy. This changed when the first CD20 antibody rituximab was introduced. Since 2008, the combination of chemotherapy and CD20 antibodies has become the standard of care for most patients, and a si...

  16. Genomics based analysis of interactions between developing B-lymphocytes and stromal cells reveal complex interactions and two-way communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryder David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of functional genomics has largely increased our understanding of cell biology and promises to help the development of systems biology needed to understand the complex order of events that regulates cellular differentiation in vivo. One model system clearly dependent on the integration of extra and intra cellular signals is the development of B-lymphocytes from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. This developmental pathway involves several defined differentiation stages associated with specific expression of genes including surface markers that can be used for the prospective isolation of the progenitor cells directly from the bone marrow to allow for ex vivo gene expression analysis. The developmental process can be simulated in vitro making it possible to dissect information about cell/cell communication as well as to address the relevance of communication pathways in a rather direct manner. Thus we believe that B-lymphocyte development represents a useful model system to take the first steps towards systems biology investigations in the bone marrow. Results In order to identify extra cellular signals that promote B lymphocyte development we created a database with approximately 400 receptor ligand pairs and software matching gene expression data from two cell populations to obtain information about possible communication pathways. Using this database and gene expression data from NIH3T3 cells (unable to support B cell development, OP-9 cells (strongly supportive of B cell development, pro-B and pre-B cells as well as mature peripheral B-lineage cells, we were able to identify a set of potential stage and stromal cell restricted communication pathways. Functional analysis of some of these potential ways of communication allowed us to identify BMP-4 as a potent stimulator of B-cell development in vitro. Further, the analysis suggested that there existed possibilities for progenitor B cells to send signals to

  17. T-cell population of primary and secondary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas does not express the cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA). (United States)

    Marti, R M; Hausmann, G; Estrach, T; Cid, M C; Palou, J; Herrero, C; Mascaro, J M


    Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (CBCL) are a group of malignant lymphomas with apparently distinct clinicopathological and immunophenotypical features. As in other B-cell lymphomas, the accompanying benign cell population in CBCL includes a variable number of T lymphocytes whose role is not well understood. In the present study we characterized the immunophenotype of these T cells and compared it with that of the reactive T-cell population in specific skin involvement by noncutaneous B-cell malignancies. Our results indicated that most T cells in both primary and secondary B-cell lymphomas were CLA+ memory/effector helper T cells which differed from the currently known CLA+ memory/effector helper T lymphocytes of the skin-associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) system. However, the endothelial CLA ligand, E-selectin, was expressed on dermal vessels. These results suggest that a B cell environment and/or a lack of epidermal involvement promote(s) the recruitment into the skin of a different, apparently less specific, subset of memory helper T cells from those seen in T-cell-mediated dermatoses.

  18. Population and Strategy Development in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Praharani


    Full Text Available Buffalo is a potential large ruminant that its contribution in national program on beef self sufficiency has been unrecognized in Indonesia. In rural community, buffalo has similar functions as cattle, it is used as draught animal, meat (beef producer, saving, milk producer, sacrificial ritual animal to social status. The peak of buffalo population was on 1925, 3.227 million heads in Java and 1.10 million in outside Java. The centers of cattle production sites for national program of self sufficiency on beef were formly as noted the centers of buffalo production. The introduction of Bali cattle to those former buffalo centers particularly in outside of Java depressed buffalo population and then dominated by Bali cattle. Then Bali cattle were noted to be the major beef animal supplier beside buffalo to the centers of consumers for domestic and export. This article aims to discuss the depleting buffalo population and to formulate development strategy. Historical approaches system and critical evaluation population, SWOT (strength, weaknesses, opportunity and threat analysis were used as tools for analyzing. Two case studies on herd survival from Banten indicated depleting population of buffalo. Despite low reproductive profile, strategic diseases and farmers’ institution needed to be optimized on services. Understanding criticizing on ecological habitats in the potential regions, the need of spatial planning for its development, zoning program for strategic diseases free, reproductive problems and village institution are the important areas of improvement for buffalo development in supporting beef self sufficiency and the welfare of rural people with their buffalo in sustainable beef production.

  19. New development of China's population programme. (United States)

    Peng, P


    This article presents excerpts of a speech presented by the State Family Planning Commissioner of China at the UNFPA headquarters. Madame Peng Peiyun indicated that China has adopted some new decision-making processes as a follow-up to the 1994 ICPD Plan of Action. President Jiang Zemin stated that sustainable development must be achieved as part of the movement toward modernization. China places great importance on balancing population growth, social production, economic development, resources, and the environment. In 1995, the State Family Planning Commission changed its guidelines and approaches by integrating family planning (FP) within socioeconomic development and shifting to an interest oriented program integrated with social restraints and integrating FP publicity and education with comprehensive services and modern management. The FP program should meet the needs for reproductive health and contraception and be integrated within poverty alleviation and economic development schemes in rural areas. The aim is to build happy and more civil-minded farming families. Attention should be directed to the interests of farmers and the physical and psychological health of women. Programs should be voluntary. Many poverty reduction programs operated in the early 1990s. Pilot programs were established in 1995, in 11 selected counties and urban districts. The aim was to improve grassroots efforts to meet clients' needs for quality reproductive health and contraception. In 1994, providers received upgrading of skills. As the most populous country in the world, China needs UNFPA support in stabilizing population growth.

  20. T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism in the marmoset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niblack, G.D.; Kateley, J.R.; Gengozian, N.


    Marmosets are natural blood chimeras, this condition resulting from the high frequency of fraternal twinning and the consistent development of placental vascular anastomoses between the two embryos. Identification of chimerism by sex-chromosome analysis of cultured blood lymphocytes provided a means of determining the proportion of chimerism among T and B lymphocytes. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were enriched for T or B cells by filtration through a nylon column (yields >95% T-cells) or inactivation of T lymphocytes by treatment with a goat anti-marmoset thymocyte antiserum in the presence of complement (yields >95% B cells). Mitogenic stimulation of these separated, enriched cell populations yielded metaphase plates which could be scored for percentage male and female cells. Tests on five different blood chimeras showed the T- and B-lymphocyte chimerism to be the same. Stimulation of blood lymphocytes with cells from another species of marmoset in a mixed lymphocyte culture test revealed the chimeric T-cell response (i.e., host and co-twin cells) to be similar to that obtained with a mitogenic lectin. The demonstration of equivalent T- and B-cell chimerism in these animals suggests derivation of these cells from a common stem cell pool and the response of both T-cell populations to an antigenic stimulus in proportions similar to their percentage chimerism suggests complete immunologic tolerance exists in this species for co-twin histocompatibility antigens.

  1. Cranial radiotherapy predisposes to abdominal adiposity in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Lee, Maria Lúcia de Martino; Andreoni, Solange; Geloneze, Bruno; Lederman, Henrique; Guerra-Junior, Gil


    Advances in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia increased the likelihood of developing late treatment-associated effects, such as abdominal adiposity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease in this population...

  2. Topographical and mechanical characterization of living eukaryotic cells on opaque substrates: development of a general procedure and its application to the study of non-adherent lymphocytes. (United States)

    Daza, Rafael; Cruces, Julia; Arroyo-Hernández, María; Marí-Buyé, Núria; De la Fuente, Mónica; Plaza, Gustavo R; Elices, Manuel; Pérez-Rigueiro, José; Guinea, Gustavo V


    The mechanical behavior of living murine T-lymphocytes was assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). A robust experimental procedure was developed to overcome some features of lymphocytes, in particular their spherical shape and non-adherent character. The procedure included the immobilization of the lymphocytes on amine-functionalized substrates, the use of hydrodynamic effects on the deflection of the AFM cantilever to monitor the approaching, and the use of the jumping mode for obtaining the images. Indentation curves were analyzed according to Hertz's model for contact mechanics. The calculated values of the elastic modulus are consistent both when considering the results obtained from a single lymphocyte and when comparing the curves recorded from cells of different specimens.

  3. Population Education: A Critical Population and Development Intervention. (United States)

    United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA)


    This review and assessment of population education programs demonstrates that, although population education has made many contributions to the overall education process, its success requires continual revision and review of existing conceptualizations and content. Outlines and discusses other critical factors, pertinent issues, and guidelines for…

  4. Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Quddus


    Full Text Available Economic Development and Population Growth. International Evidence The paper usses Granger causality tests on economic development and population growth for 44 countries to discriminate among several alternative hypotheses. The time series evidence does not provide an unambiguous picture as to the exact nature of the relationship. Therefore, previous attempts to generalize such relationship based on simple cross-section data are strongly suspect.

  5. Eguchipsammia fistula Microsatellite Development and Population Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Mehreen


    Deep water corals are an understudied yet biologically important and fragile ecosystem under threat from recent increasing temperatures and high carbon dioxide emissions. Using 454 sequencing, we develop 14 new microsatellite markers for the deep water coral Eguchipsammia fistula, collected from the Red Sea but found in deep water coral ecosystems globally. We tested these microsatellite primers on 26 samples of this coral collected from a single population. Results show that these corals are highly clonal within this population stemming from a high level of asexual reproduction. Mitochondrial studies back up microsatellite findings of high levels of genetic similarity. CO1, ND1 and ATP6 mitochondrial sequences of E. fistula and 11 other coral species were used to build phylogenetic trees which grouped E. fistula with shallow water coral Porites rather than deep sea L. Petusa.

  6. The peripheral blood compartment in patients with Graves' disease: activated T lymphocytes and increased transitional and pre-naive mature B lymphocytes (United States)

    Van der Weerd, K; Van Hagen, P M; Schrijver, B; Kwekkeboom, D J; De Herder, W W; Ten Broek, M R J; Postema, P T E; Van Dongen, J J M; Staal, F J T; Dik, W A


    Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease that involves aberrant B and T lymphocyte responses. Detailed knowledge about lymphocyte subpopulation composition will therefore enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of GD and might support the development of new immunomodulatory treatment approaches. The aim of this study was to gain detailed insight into the composition of the peripheral blood lymphocyte compartment in GD before and during anti-thyroid drug therapy. Major B and T lymphocyte subpopulations were investigated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood from newly diagnosed GD patients (n = 5), GD patients treated with anti-thyroid drugs (n = 4), patients with recurrent GD (n = 7) and healthy controls (HC; n = 10). In GD patients, numbers of activated T lymphocytes [human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR)+ and CD25+] were increased. The B lymphocyte compartment in GD was characterized by significantly higher numbers of transitional (CD38highCD27−, P < 0·03) and pre-naive mature (CD38lowCD27−IgD+CD5+, P < 0·04) B lymphocytes, while memory populations were slightly decreased. The increased numbers of CD5+, transitional and pre-naive mature B lymphocytes correlated positively with fT4 plasma levels. GD is associated with increased numbers of activated T lymphocytes and transitional and pre-naive mature CD5+ B lymphocytes within the peripheral blood. The increase in CD5+ B lymphocytes was due mainly to an increase in transitional and pre-naive mature B lymphocytes. Increased fT4 plasma levels might be associated with this increase in transitional and pre-naive mature CD5+ B lymphocytes. PMID:23901889

  7. No association of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated gene CTLA4 +49A/G polymorphisms with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Hungarian population samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lili Magyari; Béla Melegh; Bernadett Faragó; Judit Bene; Katalin Horvatovich; Lilla Lakner; Márta Varga; Mária Figler; Beáta Gasztonyi; Gyula Mózsik


    AIM: The goal of the current work was to analyse the prevalence of the +49A/G variant of the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4) in Hungarian patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).METHODS: A total of 130 unrelated subjects with CD and 150 with UC, and 170 matched controls were genotyped for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).The genotypes were determined by using PCR/RFLP test.RESULTS: The G allele frequency and the prevalence of the GG genotype were 38.1% and 12.3% in the CD group, 40.6% and 18.6% in the UC patients, and 37.4%and 15.9% in the control group, respectively.CONCLUSION: The results of the current study show that carriage of the +49G SNP in heterozygous or in homozygous form does not confer risk either for CD or for UC in the Hungarian population.

  8. Population Pharmacokinetics of Obinutuzumab (GA101) in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma and Exposure-Response in CLL. (United States)

    Gibiansky, E; Gibiansky, L; Carlile, D J; Jamois, C; Buchheit, V; Frey, N


    Treatment regimens involving obinutuzumab (GA101) demonstrated increased efficacy to rituximab in clinical trials for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and the exposure-response relationships of obinutuzumab still need to be fully described. Data from four clinical trials of obinutuzumab were analyzed to describe the PK properties in patients with NHL or CLL and the pharmacodynamic (PD) properties in patients with CLL. A population PK model with linear time-dependent clearance described the obinutuzumab concentration-time course. Diagnosis, baseline tumor size (BSIZ), body weight, and gender were the main covariates affecting obinutuzumab exposure. In patients with CLL, exposure was not associated with safety but showed positive trends of correlation with efficacy. Although efficacy correlated positively with exposure, since both efficacy and exposure correlated negatively with BSIZ, it was not possible to determine with certainty whether it would be beneficial to adjust the dose according to BSIZ.

  9. Revival of the identification of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes for immunological diagnosis, therapy and vaccine development. (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shihong; Tan, Shuguang; Zheng, Beiwen; Gao, George F


    Immunogenic T-cell epitopes have a central role in the cellular immunity against pathogens and tumors. However, in the early stage of cellular immunity studies, it was complicated and time-consuming to identify and characterize T-cell epitopes. Currently, the epitope screening is experiencing renewed enthusiasm due to advances in novel techniques and theories. Moreover, the application of T-cell epitope-based diagnoses for tuberculosis and new data on epitope-based vaccine development have also revived the field. There is a growing knowledge on the emphasis of epitope-stimulated T-cell immune responses in the elimination of pathogens and tumors. In this review, we outline the significance of the identification and characterization of T-cell epitopes. We also summarize the methods and strategies for epitope definition and, more importantly, address the relevance of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes to clinical diagnoses, therapy and vaccine development.

  10. Blockade of CTLA-4 promotes the development of effector CD8+ T lymphocytes and the therapeutic effect of vaccination with an attenuated protozoan expressing NY-ESO-1. (United States)

    Dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; de Faria, Paula Cristina; Junqueira, Caroline; Dutra, Miriam Santos; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Ritter, Gerd; Bannard, Oliver; Fearon, Douglas Thomas; Antonelli, Lis Ribeiro; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes


    The development of cancer immunotherapy has long been a challenge. Here, we report that prophylactic vaccination with a highly attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi strain expressing NY-ESO-1 (CL-14-NY-ESO-1) induces both effector memory and effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes that efficiently prevent tumor development. However, the therapeutic effect of such a vaccine is limited. We also demonstrate that blockade of Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) during vaccination enhances the frequency of NY-ESO-1-specific effector CD8(+) T cells producing IFN-γ and promotes lymphocyte migration to the tumor infiltrate. As a result, therapy with CL-14-NY-ESO-1 together with anti-CTLA-4 is highly effective in controlling the development of an established melanoma.

  11. New developments in the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: role of ofatumumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurenti L


    Full Text Available Luca Laurenti,1 Idanna Innocenti,1 Francesco Autore,1 Simona Sica,1 Dimitar G Efremov2 1Department of Hematology, Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Rome, 2Molecular Hematology, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Monterotondo, Italy Abstract: Ofatumumab is one of the three anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies currently available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved the use of ofatumumab in patients with CLL refractory to fludarabine and alemtuzumab in 2009, and the European Medicines Agency (EMA granted approval for the same indication in 2010. Subsequent positive results of ofatumumab in combination with chlorambucil in treatment-naïve patients led the FDA in April 2014 to approve the use of this combination for first-line treatment of patients with CLL for whom fludarabine-based therapy is considered inappropriate. Later that year, the EMA approved the use of ofatumumab in combination with chlorambucil or bendamustine for the same indication. Ofatumumab has also shown potential as maintenance therapy for patients with relapsed CLL; an application to broaden the label for ofatumumab as maintenance therapy was submitted earlier this year to the EMA and FDA. Finally, ofatumumab has shown promising activity in combination with ibrutinib or idelalisib in relapsed/refractory CLL patients; combinations of ofatumumab with B-cell-receptor pathway inhibitors could represent another potential use of this antibody in the near future. Keywords: CLL, ofatumumab, monoclonal antibodies, immunotherapy

  12. Effect of transgenic overexpression of FLIP on lymphocytes on development and resolution of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. (United States)

    Fang, Yujiang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen


    In our previous studies, resolution of granulomatous experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (G-EAT) was promoted when thyroid epithelial cells were protected from Fas-mediated apoptosis due to transgenic overexpression of FLIP. We hypothesized that if FLIP were overexpressed on lymphocytes, CD4(+) effector cells would be protected from Fas-mediated apoptosis, and resolution would be delayed. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing FLIP under the CD2 promoter. Transgenic FLIP was expressed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and B cells. Transgenic overexpression of FLIP protected cultured splenocytes from Fas-mediated, but not irradiation-induced, apoptosis in vitro. Unexpectedly, Tg(+) donor cells transferred minimal G-EAT, which was partially overcome by depleting donor CD8(+) T cells. When Tg(+) and Tg(-) donors transferred equivalent disease, G-EAT resolution was delayed in FLIP transgenic mice. However, CD2-FLIP Tg(+) donors often transferred less severe G-EAT, even after depletion of CD8(+) T cells. This influenced the rate of G-EAT resolution, resulting in little difference in G-EAT resolution between groups. Tg(+) mice always had reduced anti-mouse thyroglobulin autoantibody responses, compared with Tg(-) littermates, presumably because of FLIP overexpression on B cells. These results suggest that effects of transgenic FLIP on a particular autoimmune disease vary, depending on what cells express the transgene and whether those cells are effector cells or if they function to modulate disease.

  13. Developing IEC strategies for population programmes. (United States)

    Cohen, S I


    The thrust of this article is to define terms of IEC, IEC strategies, the stepwise planning process for IEC, data requirements, the ideational change process, and the need for situational and institutional analysis. A chart provided an at-a-glance perspective on the 11 steps in IEC strategic planning for as many specific target groups as needed. The steps are to state the goals, select and prioritize the target audience, describe the target audience,, determine the IEC activities, outline appropriate messages, identify communication channels, identify managerial and organizational strategies, calculate the amount of resources required, identify a realistic time frame, and evaluate critical factors and obstacles. IEC goals are to contribute to solving a problem or supporting an issue, which involved attitudinal and/or behavioral changes. Many strategies are possible. The common weaknesses are the lack of priorities, the view of targets as a mass audience, a lack in support for population strategies, a lack of integration with family planning or specific population sectors, a lack of integration of up-to-data research findings on population programs, vague or difficult-to-measure objectives, reliance on printed media, and sporadic assessment of personnel needs. THe levels of strategy are identified as follows: 1) national and multisectoral, 2) national and sectoral specific, and 3) project specific. Traditional sociocultural research and KAP surveys are not sufficient to provide an understanding of the target audience. There must be an understanding of the stages of individual change: unaware, aware, concerned, information seeking, learning, motivated to change, initial behavior change, sustained behavior change, and adoption or refusal of behavior change. Beliefs must be distinguished from attitudes in measurement. Changes in beliefs may involve correction of misinformation; attitude change requires a motivational approach. Behavior may be determined by other

  14. [World population, family planning and development]. (United States)

    Van Roosmalen, J


    The 1991 world population report of the UNFPA projects a world population of 8.504 billion by 2025. The prevalence of the use of modern contraceptives increased from 9% in previous years to an average of 51% at the present time: to 70% in East Asia, to 60% in Latin America, but only to 17% in Africa. 20% of pregnancies are unwanted, the prevention of which would reduce the expected population by 2.2 billion people in 2100. Without birth control programs today there would be 412 million more people in Asia, Latin America, and Africa; and in 2100 1.48 billion would live on Earth instead of 10 billion forecast by the World Bank. The aim of UNFPA is to increase contraceptive prevalence form 51% to 59% by 2000: from 381 million users in 1991 to 567 million acceptors. Only 15% of men use contraceptives, although the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases especially AIDS makes the use of condoms highly advisable. In the report scant mention is made of breast feeding as a family planning method, although the Bellagio Consensus of 1988 states that if a woman almost exclusively breast feeds during lactation amenorrhea a more than 98% protection against pregnancy is offered during the 1st 6 months postpartum. During this period no additional contraception is necessary until the 1st menstruation occurs. Women in Bangladesh taking an oral contraceptive after delivery had shorter birth intervals than women exclusively relying on breast feeding. The Working Group of Medical Development Association issued guidelines concerning contraceptive methods including subdermal implant of levonorgestrel, although excessively strict standards can foil the contraceptive needs of the Third World. Their reproductive mortality is mainly determined by an extremely high maternal mortality rather than by complications from contraceptive use.

  15. Idelalisib for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. (United States)

    Barrientos, Jacqueline C


    Idelalisib is a first-in-class selective oral PI3Kδ inhibitor for the treatment of patients with relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and small lymphocytic lymphoma, a predominantly elderly population with high comorbidity. The drug promotes apoptosis in primary CLL cells ex vivo, independent of common prognostic markers and inhibits CLL cell homing, migration and adhesion to cells in the microenvironment. Idelalisib has shown efficacy with acceptable safety as monotherapy and combination therapy in relapsed/refractory CLL. Idelalisib has clinical activity in patients with CLL with del(17p). The development of other novel B-cell-targeted agents provides the opportunity to evaluate additional idelalisib treatment combinations for their potential to further improve outcomes in CLL/small lymphocytic lymphoma.

  16. The association between personal sun exposure, serum vitamin D and global methylation in human lymphocytes in a population of healthy adults in South Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair-Shalliker, Visalini, E-mail: [Cancer Research Division, Cancer Council New South Wales (Australia); Dhillon, Varinderpal [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia); Clements, Mark [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Armstrong, Bruce K. [Sydney School of Public Health, University of Sydney (Australia); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences (Australia)


    Highlights: • Solar UV exposure is positively correlated with LINE 1 hypomethylation. • This was observed in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. • There was no evident effect modification by serum vitamin D (25OHD) levels. • This was observed in a population of healthy adults from South Australia. - Abstract: Background: There is a positive association between solar UV exposure and micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and this association may be stronger when serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Micronucleus formation can result from global hypomethylation of DNA repeat sequences. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the relationship between solar UV exposure and methylation pattern in LINE-1 repetitive elements in PBL DNA and to see if serum 25(OH)D levels modify it. Method: Personal solar UV exposure was estimated from hours of outdoor exposure over 6 weeks recalled at the time of blood collection in 208 male and female participants living in South Australia. Methylation in LINE-1 repetitive elements was assessed in PBL using pyrosequencing. Results: Methylation in LINE-1 decreased with increasing solar UV exposure (% decrease = 0.5% per doubling of sUV; 95%CI: −0.7 to −0.2 p{sub value} = 0.00003). Although there was no correlation between LINE-1 methylation and micronucleus frequency, there was a 4.3% increase (95%CI: 0.6–8.1 p-value = 0.02) in nucleoplasmic bridges and a 4.3% increase in necrosis (CI: 1.9–6.8 p-value = 0.0005) for every 1% increase in LINE-1 methylation. Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with DNA methylation; or did it modify the association of solar UV with DNA methylation. Conclusion: Exposure to solar UV radiation may reduce DNA methylation in circulating lymphocytes. This association does not appear to be influenced or mediated by vitamin D status.

  17. New developments in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: role of obinutuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah A


    Full Text Available Arpita Shah Department of Pharmacy, Georgia Regents University Medical Center, Augusta, GA, USA Abstract: Obinutuzumab is a novel glycoengineered type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody with a higher affinity for CD20 epitope, enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and direct cell death, leading to superior cytotoxicity compared with rituximab. The approval of obinutuzumab by US Food and Drug Administration was based on a pivotal, phase III, randomized trial of chlorambucil monotherapy (n=118, chlorambucil plus obinutuzumab (n=333, or chlorambucil plus rituximab (n=330 in previously untreated patients with CLL. Obinutuzumab was administered intravenously as 1,000 mg on days 1, 8, and 15 of cycle 1 and day 1 of subsequent cycles. Obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil was associated with an overall response rate of 78% and a median progression-free survival of 26.7 months. Overall, obinutuzumab was fairly well tolerated in this pivotal study. The incidence of grade 3 or higher adverse events was infusion-related reactions (20%, neutropenia (33%, thrombocytopenia (10%, and infections (7%. Obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil is a safe and effective new treatment option for previously untreated elderly patients with CLL. It should become the new standard of care for these patients with significant co-morbidities who are not candidates for fludarabine-based therapy. Obinutuzumab combination therapy with several agents that inhibit kinases involved in the B-cell receptor signaling pathway, as well as many other agents utilized in the frontline and relapsed/refractory setting, is currently under investigation. As the results from these studies become available, the role of obinutuzumab is expected to expand to other settings. Keywords: obinutuzumab, untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia, GA101, chlorambucil

  18. Serial CD4 and CD8 T-lymphocyte counts and associated mortality in an HIV-2-infected population in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Poulsen, A G; Aaby, P;


    ratio, white blood cell counts, lymphocyte percentages, and absolute lymphocyte counts for HIV-2-seropositive compared with HIV-2-seronegative individuals. Only absolute CD4 T-lymphocyte counts changed more for the HIV-2-seropositive than for HIV-2-seronegative individuals (p = 0.037). HIV-2-infected...... percentages, and CD4/CD8 ratios for the same individual were stable for 31 seropositive and 51 seronegative individuals with repeated measurements. We found no significant differences in the changes during a 2- or 4-year period in CD4 percentages, CD8 percentages, absolute CD8 T-lymphocyte counts, CD4/CD8...

  19. Developing STR databases on structured populations: the native South Siberian population versus the Russian population. (United States)

    Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Malyarchuk, Boris A; Derenko, Miroslava V; Wozniak, Marcin; Grzybowski, Tomasz


    Developing a forensic DNA database on a population that consists of local ethnic groups separated by physical and cultural barriers is questionable as it can be genetically subdivided. On the other side, small sizes of ethnic groups, especially in alpine regions where they are sub-structured further into small villages, prevent collecting a large sample from each ethnic group. For such situations, we suggest to obtain both a total population database on allele frequencies across ethnic groups and a list of theta-values between the groups and the total data. We have genotyped 558 individuals from the native population of South Siberia, consisting of nine ethnic groups, at 17 autosomal STR loci of the kit packages AmpFlSTR SGM Plus i, Cyrillic AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus. The groups differentiate from each other with average theta-values of around 1.1%, and some reach up to three to four percent at certain loci. There exists between-village differentiation as well. Therefore, a database for the population of South Siberia is composed of data on allele frequencies in the pool of ethnic groups and data on theta-values that indicate variation in allele frequencies across the groups. Comparison to additional data on northeastern Asia (the Chukchi and Koryak) shows that differentiation in allele frequencies among small groups that are separated by large geographic distance can be even greater. In contrast, populations of Russians that live in large cities of the European part of Russia are homogeneous in allele frequencies, despite large geographic distance between them, and thus can be described by a database on allele frequencies alone, without any specific information on theta-values.

  20. WOVOdat: Data Population and Current Development (United States)

    Ratdomopurbo, A.; Widiwijayanti, C.; Baguet, A.; Lyou, C.; Newhall, C. G.


    WOVOdat is the World Organization of Volcano Observatories’ (WOVO) Database of Volcanic Unrest. A large and valuable body of data on volcanic seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other precursory parameters is now being assembled into a single database which later will be open to all and accessible through the WOVOdat website. The project is now hosted at Earth Observatory of Singapore (Nanyang Technological University). Historical data of volcanic unrest, whether that unrest leads to an eruption or not, can be a reference in forecasting of future activity. Forecasts are based mainly on interpretation of present unrest, but comparisons to past unrest and outcomes give a useful context for the first. WOVOdat will help researchers and those responding to volcanic crisis to search for all close matches to some features of unrest in question, and to use modern techniques to find patterns. For eruption data, WOVOdat uses the Smithsonian Institution’s database of historical eruptions. In the current stage of WOVOdat (data population), our website is supports interaction between WOVOdat developers, observatories, and other partners in building the database, e.g. accessing design information and documentation, and also data uploading. When the database is sufficiently complete, this website will provide tools for users to access and query data, and visualize it in time-series and spatial distributions and other ways.

  1. The role of Ly49E receptor expression on murine intraepithelial lymphocytes in intestinal cancer development and progression. (United States)

    Van Acker, Aline; Louagie, Els; Filtjens, Jessica; Taveirne, Sylvie; Van Ammel, Els; Kerre, Tessa; Elewaut, Dirk; Taghon, Tom; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Plum, Jean; Leclercq, Georges


    Ly49E is a member of the Ly49 family of NK receptors and is distinct from other members of this family on the basis of its structural properties, expression pattern and ligand recognition. Importantly, Ly49E receptor expression is high on small intestinal and colonic intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs). Intestinal IELs are regulators of the mucosal immune system and contribute to front-line defense at the mucosal barrier, including anti-tumor immune response. Whereas most Ly49 receptors have MHC class-I ligands, we showed that Ly49E is instead triggered by urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). uPA has been extensively implicated in tumor development, where increased uPA expression correlates with poor prognosis. As such, we investigated the role of Ly49E receptor expression on intestinal IELs in the anti-tumor immune response. For this purpose, we compared Ly49E wild-type mice to Ly49E knockout mice in two established tumor models: Apc(Min/+)-mediated and azoxymethane-induced intestinal cancer. Our results indicate that Ly49E expression on IELs does not influence the development or progression of intestinal cancer.

  2. Curriculum Development in Population Education. Abstract-Bibliography, Series 6. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Part of a series of annotated bibliographies dealing with issues and problems raised by educators involved with population education programs, this publication addresses curriculum development in population education. Curriculum development is the most important component of a population education program, for it is through curriculum materials…

  3. 525 Population Growth, Hysteresis and Development Outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The examples of the East Asian countries; especially the cases of China and. India are very ... increasing population indices; accounting for 15.2 percent of the world population ...... Economic Development (Eleventh Edition). Pearson ...

  4. Oxidative stress as a significant factor for development of an adaptive response in irradiated and nonirradiated human lymphocytes after inducing the bystander effect by low-dose X-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermakov, Aleksei V., E-mail: [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Konkova, Marina S.; Kostyuk, Svetlana V.; Egolina, Natalya A.; Efremova, Liudmila V.; Veiko, Natalya N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Science, ul. Moskvorechye, 1, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation)


    X-radiation (10 cGy) was shown to induce in human lymphocytes transposition of homologous chromosomes loci from the membrane towards the centre of the nucleus and activation of the chromosomal nucleolus-forming regions (NFRs). These effects are transmitted by means of extracellular DNA (ecDNA) fragments to nonirradiated cells (the so-called bystander effect, BE). We demonstrated that in the development of the BE an important role is played by oxidative stress (which is brought about by low radiation doses and ecDNA fragments of the culture medium of the irradiated cells), by an enzyme of apoptosis called caspase-3, and by DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells, presumably TLR9. Proposed herein is a scheme of the development of an adaptive response and the BE on exposure to radiation. Ionizing radiation induces apoptosis of the radiosensitive fraction of cells due to the development of the 'primary' oxidative stress (OS). DNA fragments of apoptotic cells are released into the intercellular space and interact with the DNA-binding receptors of the bystander cells. This interaction activates in lymphocytes signalling pathways associated with synthesis of the reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species, i.e., induces secondary oxidative stress accompanied by apoptosis of part of the cells, etc. Hence, single exposure to radiation may be followed by relatively long-lasting in the cellular population oxidative stress contributing to the development of an adaptive response. We thus believe that ecDNA of irradiated apoptotic lymphocytes is a significant factor of stress-signalling.

  5. Recent developments in bryophyte population ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    During, H.J.; Tooren, B.F. van


    Bryophytes abound in a wide variety of habitats, and despite their low stature play a significant role in many ecosystems. Earlier views of bryophytes as being ‘evolutionary failures’ are being questioned since the discovery of high genetic variability in those species and populations which have bee

  6. Historic Development of the TIbetan Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The Tibet Autonomous Region in China's Far West, with an aver-age elevation above 3,000 meters, suffers from oxygen deficiency and inferior natural conditions,which led to low life expectancy in the past. The population reported by the local former government of Tibet was 1 million according to the first census of New

  7. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean]. (United States)

    Boland, B


    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  8. The Diagnostic Value of Flow Cytometry Imunophenotyping in an Albanian Patient Population with a Preliminary Clinical Diagnosis of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Semanaj


    Conclusion: Flow cytometry immunophenotyping is a fundamental examination for the final diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The expression of CD38+ in CLL patients stands for a more advanced clinical stage.

  9. Feeding a diet devoid of choline to lactating rodents restricts growth and lymphocyte development in offspring. (United States)

    Lewis, E D; Goruk, S; Richard, C; Dellschaft, N S; Curtis, J M; Jacobs, R L; Field, C J


    The nutrient choline is necessary for membrane synthesis and methyl donation, with increased requirements during lactation. The majority of immune development occurs postnatally, but the importance of choline supply for immune development during this critical period is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the importance of maternal supply of choline during suckling on immune function in their offspring among rodents. At parturition, Sprague-Dawley dams were randomised to either a choline-devoid (ChD; n 7) or choline-sufficient (ChS, 1 g/kg choline; n 10) diet with their offspring euthanised at 3 weeks of age. In a second experiment, offspring were weaned to a ChS diet until 10 weeks of age (ChD-ChS, n 5 and ChS-ChS, n 9). Splenocytes were isolated, and parameters of immune function were measured. The ChD offspring received less choline in breast milk and had lower final body and organ weight compared with ChS offspring (Pstimulation (lower stimulation index and less IFN-γ production) ex vivo (Pstimulation compared with cells from ChS-ChS (P<0·05). Our study suggests that choline is required in the suckling diet to facilitate immune development, and choline deprivation during this critical period has lasting effects on T cell function later in life.

  10. Lymphocyte fluorescent profiles (LFP): a possible screening technique in neoplasia. (United States)

    Love, L A; Metcalf, N F; Metcalf, W K; Sharp, J G


    A technique involving fluorescent protein staining and microfluorometry has been developed for measuring the lymphocyte fluorescent profile (LFP) of peripheral blood lymphocytes. In contrast to normal humans who display a regular bell-shaped curve, the profile from patients with cancer is irregular, showing a bimodal distribution of fluorescence, with a significant population of cells fluorescing at a higher relative intensity. It is suggested that this elevation in protein concentration is due to an immune response to the presence of a neoplasm, and thus this technique may prove to be a useful indicator of malignancy.

  11. Developing innovative programs for unique student populations. (United States)

    Heath, D A; Caruso, J; Chauncey, D M


    Optometric education has been faced with ever-increasing expectations. These include the ability to educate students and practitioners to care for new patient populations, deal with more diverse and complex clinical problems, to be significant participants in the research community and to fulfill leadership positions within the profession. To fulfill this expectation, schools and colleges need to diversify their program offerings to attract and educate unique student populations who come from diverse backgrounds and bring a range of pre-existing knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of The New England College of Optometry's efforts in this area and two programs, the "Advanced Standing International Program" and the "Accelerated Doctor of Optometry Degree Program," are examined in detail. An emphasis is placed on outcomes assessment to ensure the programs are fulfilling their purpose and the results of a retrospective analysis of the two programs is provided.

  12. Male-to-female sex ratios of abnormalities detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization in a population of chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S. Cantú


    Full Text Available Distorted sex ratios occur in hematologic disorders. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL displays disproportionate sex ratios with a large male excess. However, the underlying genetics for these disparities are poorly understood, and gender differences for specific cytogenetic abnormalities have not been carefully investigated. We sought to provide an initial characterization of gender representation in genetic abnormalities in CLL by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We confirm the well known skewed male-to-female (M/F sex ratio of ~1.5 in our CLL study population, but also determine the genotypic M/F sex ratio values corresponding to specific FISH DNA probes. Genetic changes in CLL detectable by four FISH probes were statistically compared with respect to gender. Initial FISH evaluations of 4698 CLL patients were retrospectively examined and new findings of the genotypic M/F sex ratios for these probes are reported. This study represents the largest CLL survey conducted in the United States using FISH probes. The CLL database demonstrated that FISH abnormalities (trisomy 12, 13q14.3 deletion and 17p13.1 deletion probes had skewed M/F ratios of ~1.5. Also, by statistical analysis it was shown that ATM gene loss (11q22.3q23.1 deletion solely or with other abnormalities was considerably higher in males with an M/F ratio of 2.5 and significantly different from M/F ratios of 1.0 or 1.5. We hypothesize that interactions involving these autosomal abnormalities (trisomy 12, and deletions of 11q22.3, 13q14.3, and 17p13.1, and the sex chromosomes may provide the genetic basis for the altered phenotypic M/F ratio in CLL.

  13. Occupational solvent exposure and adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia: No risk in a population-based case-control study in four Nordic countries. (United States)

    Talibov, Madar; Auvinen, Anssi; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hansen, Johnni; Martinsen, Jan-Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Pukkala, Eero


    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of occupational solvent exposure on the risk of adult chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The current case-control study was nested in the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA) cohort. 20,615 CLL cases diagnosed in 1961-2005 in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, and 103,075 population-based controls matched by year of birth, sex, and country were included. Occupational histories for cases and controls were obtained from census records in 1960, 1970, 1980/1981, and 1990. Exposure to selected solvents was estimated by using the NOCCA job-exposure matrix (NOCCA-JEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by using conditional logistic regression models. Overall, nonsignificant CLL risk elevations were observed for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. Compared to unexposed, significantly increased risks were observed for cumulative perchloroethylene exposure ≤13.3 ppm-years (OR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.16-2.96) and average life-time perchloroethylene exposure ≤2.5 ppm (1.61, 95% CI 1.01-2.56) among women, and cumulative methylene chloride exposure ≤12.5 ppm-years (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41) and 12.5-74.8 ppm-years (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.51) among men in an analysis with 5 years lag-time, though without dose-response pattern. Decreased CLL risk was observed for aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents and toluene. This study did not support associations for solvent exposure and CLL. Observed weak associations for methylene chloride, perchloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane exposures, aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons and toluene were not consistent across sexes, and showed no gradient with amount of exposure. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Population Explosion in Africa and its Implications for Economic Development (United States)

    Akinbode, Ade


    Analyzes patterns of population growth in Africa, accounts for the population explosion in certain parts of the continent, and discusses implications of the population growth for economic development. Seven tables and two maps are included in the article. (Author/DB)

  15. Soil science, population growth and food production: some historical developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.


    The world¿s population has doubled since 1960. Currently, the developing world accounts for about 95% of the population growth with Africa as the world¿s fastest growing continent. The growing population has many implications but most of all it requires an increase in agricultural production to meet

  16. China's coastal population and economic development: summary of the symposium. (United States)

    Song, R


    China's coastal areas have led the rest of China in economic development and low fertility rates; migration from inland areas and urbanization are well advanced. A symposium on China's coastal population and economic development was conducted in 1990 by the Population Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Liaoning Population Institute, and the Dalian Population Institute at the request of the China Population Institute. There were 50 people in attendance representing major research institutes and family planning associations and media organizations. 26 papers were submitted. The opening speaker addressed developing the economy as a positive cycle of population and development, and accelerating change. Discussion focused on the following topics: the relationship between fertility rate changes and coastal economic development, population mobility and migration to coast areas, population urbanization, and related problems. In the summation by Professor Tian Xueyuan, 7 trends were identified: continued coastal population growth, a two-directional change in natural population growth, an increase in the rate of coastal population migration, rapid urban population growth, productive age population growth and changes in the employment structure, improvements in economic and technological progess and quality of life, and rapid population aging. The symposium was considered particularly timely in highlighting the current problems and strengths, integrating theorists with field workers, and maintaining an open exchange of ideas and information. Problems were identified as regional open areas in Heihai in Guangxi, Heihe in Heilongjiang, and Dalian in Liaoning Province. Although the population is considered professionally better qualified than in other regions, there is still a lack of technicians and skilled workers and an excess of untrained workers. Development is being slowed and mismanaged due to deficiencies in the job allocation and personnel

  17. Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension. (United States)

    Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith


    There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; Phypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain.

  18. DNA methylation profiling of transcription factor genes in normal lymphocyte development and lymphomas. (United States)

    Ivascu, Claudia; Wasserkort, Reinhold; Lesche, Ralf; Dong, Jun; Stein, Harald; Thiel, Andreas; Eckhardt, Florian


    Transcription factors play a crucial role during hematopoiesis by orchestrating lineage commitment and determining cellular fate. Although tight regulation of transcription factor expression appears to be essential, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms involved in transcription factor gene regulation. We have analyzed DNA methylation profiles of 13 key transcription factor genes in primary cells of the hematopoietic cascade, lymphoma cell lines and lymph node biopsies of diffuse large B-cell- and T-cell-non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Several of the transcription factor genes (SPI1, GATA3, TCF-7, Etv5, c-maf and TBX21) are differentially methylated in specific cell lineages and stages of the hematopoietic cascade. For some genes, such as SPI1, Etv5 and Eomes, we found an inverse correlation between the methylation of the 5' untranslated region and expression of the associated gene suggesting that these genes are regulated by DNA methylation. Differential methylation is not limited to cells of the healthy hematopoietic cascade, as we observed aberrant methylation of c-maf, TCF7, Eomes and SPI1 in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Our results suggest that epigenetic remodelling of transcription factor genes is a frequent mechanism during hematopoietic development. Aberrant methylation of transcription factor genes is frequently observed in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and might have a functional role during tumorigenesis.

  19. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations


    Rosenzweig, Mark R.


    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  20. The development of in vitro mutagenicity testing systems using T-lymphocytes. Research progress report, November 1, 1989--April 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, R.J.


    This work has focused on the development of in vitro T-cell mutation assays. Conditions have been defined to measure the in vitro induction of mutations at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus in human T-lymphocytes. This assay is a parallel to our in vivo hprt assay, in that the same cells are utilized. However, the in vitro assay allows for carefully controlled dose response studies. 21 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma Versus Those With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Naamit K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Atoria, Coral L.; Elkin, Elena B. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health Outcomes Research Group, New York, New York (United States); Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)


    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is rare, comprising approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. Patients with NLPHL tend to have better prognoses than those with classical HL (CHL). Our goal was to assess differences in survival between NLPHL and CHL patients, controlling for differences in patient and disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: Using data from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry program, we identified patients diagnosed with pathologically confirmed HL between 1988 and 2010. Results: We identified 1,162 patients with NLPHL and 29,083 patients with CHL. With a median follow-up of 7 years, 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 91% and 83% for NLPHL, respectively, and 81% and 74% for CHL, respectively. After adjusting for all available characteristics, NLPHL (vs CHL) was associated with higher OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, P<.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; HR: 0.48, P<.01). The male predominance of NLPHL, compared to CHL, as well as the more favorable prognostic features in NLPHL patients are most pronounced in NLPHL patients <20 years old. Among all NLPHL patients, younger patients were less likely to receive radiation, and radiation use has declined by 40% for all patients from 1988 to 2010. Receipt of radiation was associated with better OS (HR: 0.64, P=.03) and DSS (HR: 0.45, P=.01) in NLPHL patients after controlling for available baseline characteristics. Other factors associated with OS and DSS in NLPHL patients are younger age and early stage. Conclusions: Our results in a large population dataset demonstrated that NLPHL patients have improved prognosis compared to CHL patients, even after accounting for stage and baseline characteristics. Use of radiation is declining among NLPHL patients despite an association in this series between radiation and better DSS and OS. Unique treatment strategies for NLPHL are warranted in both

  2. Integration of Chinese Herbal Medicine Therapy Improves Survival of Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study. (United States)

    Fleischer, Tom; Chang, Tung-Ti; Chiang, Jen-Huai; Hsieh, Ching-Yun; Sun, Mao-Feng; Yen, Hung-Rong


    Utilization of Chinese Medicine (CM) is not uncommon in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). However, the current knowledge of the usage and efficacy of CM among CLL patients is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of integrative Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM) on the disease course of CLL and ascertain the herbal products most commonly prescribed to patients with CLL.A Taiwanese nationwide population-based study involving the use of Western medicine and CM services provided by the National Health Insurance (NHI) was conducted.An NHI Research Database-based cohort study was performed; the timeframe of the study was January 2000 to December 2010. The end of the follow-up period was defined as December 31, 2011.A total of 808 patients were diagnosed with CLL in Taiwan within the defined study period. After randomly matching for age and sex and excluding patients younger than 18 years of age, data from 616 patients were analyzed.The 2 study groups both received standard of care treatment. In addition, 1 group also received CHM. Patients who were registered as receiving other forms of CM, such as acupuncture, were excluded.Hazard ratios of mortality were used to determine the influence of CHM and the therapeutic potential of herbal products.In total, 616 CLL patients were included in the analyses. We found that the HR associated with the adjunctive use of CHM was less than half when compared to the non-CHM group (0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55, P < 0.0001) and that treatment-naive patients who used CHM had the lowest HR. We also established that this association between reduction in HR and CHM was dose-dependent, and the longer CHM users received prescriptions, the lower the HR (P < 0.001).We supplied data from a relatively large population that spanned a significant amount of time. Our data suggests that the treatment of CLL with adjunctive CHM may have a substantial positive impact on mortality, especially for treatment-naive patients

  3. Women's involvement in population and development policies. (United States)

    Siqueira Wiarda, I


    Too many development and family planning policymakers have regarded women as target consumers rather than as active participants in their own development. Women need more than contraceptives. They need opportunities to learn income-generating skills, to develop leadership, and to be involved in the choice of contraceptives. 2 examples of women's development are cited from Brazil. Romy Medeiros da Fonseca, lawyer and President of the National Council of Women, fights for women's rights to a full range of state-financed family planning services and liberalized abortion laws. Abortion in Brazil is available to those who can afford it. The Servicio de Orientacao da Familia (SOF) was founded in 1963 by professional women in Sao Paulo. In their pleasant clinic, women are seen by nurses, doctors, social workers, and psychologists. A monthly publication details upcoming events which include sewing, handicraft lessons, and literacy courses. In 1979 the 3,000 members used over 25,000 services from the clinic. Much of the professional staff volunteers their time. The "global approach" to women's development is endorsed by numerous women leaders of various ideological persuasions. Clients pay according to their ability. The organization receives little or no money other than from its members. In the 1980's planning, legislating, organizing and implementing programs will be done by women as agents and participants, not as passive consumers.

  4. Ontogenic development of kidney, thymus and spleen and phenotypic expression of CD3 and CD4 receptors on the lymphocytes of cobia (Rachycentroncanadum). (United States)

    Klosterhoff, Marta C; Pereira Júnior, Joaber; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Gusmão, Emeline P; Sampaio, Luís A; Tesser, Marcelo B; Romano, Luis A


    In the present study was evaluated the ontogenic of immunocompetent organs of cobia up to 53 days after hatching (dah) through histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. The kidney was the first lymphohematopoietic organ to appear, at 1 dah, followed by the spleen at 5 dah and the thymus at 7 dah. The first CD3 receptors on the lymphocytes were observed in 27% of the thymic tissue at 7 dah and in 99% at 53 dah. The phenotypic expression of CD3 receptors was registered in 10% of the kidney at 8 dah and in 32% at 53 dah. CD4 receptors were observed in 5% and 63% of the thymic area at 7 and 53 dah, respectively. In the kidney, T4 lymphocytes were first observed at 13 dah in 9% of the organ and in 28% at 53 dah, defining the functional development of the specific system associated with immunological memory capacity.

  5. Population culture and development: a case study. (United States)

    Hartman, P


    Communications and development in the broadest sense of the terms are examined in relation to evaluation of the work of the Communication Foundation for Asia (CFA). CFA produces, in conjunction with public and private development agencies, flip-charts, comics, a fieldworker's handbook for use in family planning education, sound cassette magazines for agricultural extension work, booklets and sound-slides on forming cooperatives, and other educational materials. CFA operates in the Philippines. A developmental radio drama produced by CFA delivered a pro-development message, one that tells people they can do something about their conditions/situations, compared to the passive, consumer-oriented commercial radio drama. The most prominent theme was achievement. The characters had complex motivations and displayed wide range of motives. Like other forms of propaganda, developmental radio drama is not welcomed by radio station owners. Not many people in the industry perceive the opportunity for increasing overall development and economic growth. All pressures from commercial radio are in consumerist directions while developmental drama encourages production.

  6. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the development of NKp46+ innate lymphocytes via the Notch pathway. (United States)

    Rankin, Lucille C; Groom, Joanna R; Chopin, Michaël; Herold, Marco J; Walker, Jennifer A; Mielke, Lisa A; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Carotta, Sebastian; Nutt, Stephen L; Belz, Gabrielle T


    NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) serve important roles in regulating the intestinal microbiota and defense against pathogens. Whether NKp46+ ILCs arise directly from lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells or represent a separate lineage remains controversial. We report here that the transcription factor T-bet (encoded by Tbx21) was essential for the development of NKp46+ ILCs but not of LTi cells or nuocytes. Deficiency in interleukin 22 (IL-22)-producing NKp46+ ILCs resulted in greater susceptibility of Tbx21-/- mice to intestinal infection. Haploinsufficient T-bet expression resulted in lower expression of the signaling molecule Notch, and Notch signaling was necessary for the transition of LTi cells into NKp46+ ILCs. Furthermore, NKp46+ ILCs differentiated solely from the CD4- LTi population, not the CD4+ LTi population. Our results pinpoint the regulation of Notch signaling by T-bet as a distinct molecular pathway that guides the development of NKp46+ ILCs.

  7. Relationship between different subpopulations of circulating CD4+ T lymphocytes and microvascular or systemic oxidative stress in humans. (United States)

    De Ciuceis, Carolina; Agabiti-Rosei, Claudia; Rossini, Claudia; Airò, Paolo; Scarsi, Mirko; Tincani, Angela; Tiberio, Guido Alberto Massimo; Piantoni, Silvia; Porteri, Enzo; Solaini, Leonardo; Duse, Sarah; Semeraro, Francesco; Petroboni, Beatrice; Mori, Luigi; Castellano, Maurizio; Gavazzi, Alice; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Rizzoni, Damiano


    Different components of the immune system, including innate and adaptive immunity (T effector lymphocytes and T regulatory lymphocytes - TREGs) may be involved in the development of hypertension, vascular injury and inflammation. However, no data are presently available in humans about possible relationships between T-lymphocyte subtypes and microvascular oxidative stress. Our objective was to investigate possible relationships between T-lymphocyte subtypes and systemic and microvascular oxidative stress in a population of normotensive subjects and hypertensive patients. In the present study we enrolled 24 normotensive subjects and 12 hypertensive patients undergoing an elective surgical intervention. No sign of local or systemic inflammation was present. All patients underwent a biopsy of subcutaneous fat during surgery. A peripheral blood sample was obtained before surgery for assessment of T lymphocyte subpopulations by flow cytometry and circulating indices of oxidative stress. A significant direct correlation was observed between Th1 lymphocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (mainly in microvessels). Additionally, significant inverse correlations were observed between ROS and total TREGs, or TREGs subtypes. Significant correlations were detected between circulating indices of oxidative stress/inflammation and indices of microvascular morphology/Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes. In addition, a significant inverse correlation was detected between TREGs in subcutaneous small vessels and C reactive protein. Our data suggest that TREG lymphocytes may be protective against microvascular damage, probably because of their anti-oxidant properties, while Th1-Th17 lymphocytes seem to exert an opposite effect, confirming an involvement of adaptive immune system in microvascular damage.

  8. A 20-year population-based study on the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. (United States)

    Strobbe, L; Valke, L L F G; Diets, I J; van den Brand, M; Aben, K; Raemaekers, J M M; Hebeda, K M; van Krieken, J H J M


    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by a unique clinical and histological presentation. Because of the rare nature of this disease, few large-scale studies are available. We conducted a cohort study in which patients were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry in the Southeast of the Netherlands between 1990 and 2010. Of these patients, we collected all clinical characteristics and re-reviewed pathologic material to confirm NLPHL diagnosis. Seventy-three histologically confirmed cases of NLPHL were analyzed with a median follow-up of 65 months (range 4-257 months). Median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range 1-87); 84.9 % of the patients were male; B symptoms were present in 5.5 %; and stage I/II disease was most common (75.4 %). Patients were primarily treated with radiotherapy (50.7 %), chemotherapy (26 %), combined modality (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) (11 %), or surgical excision with careful watch-and-wait (12.3 %). Relapses occurred in seven patients (9.6 %) after a median of 26 months (21-74 months). Six patients (8.2 %) developed histologic transformation to large cell lymphoma. Five patients (6.8 %) died during follow-up due to progression of NLPHL (n = 1), histologic transformation (n = 2) and intercurrent deaths (n = 2). The estimated 10-year overall survival was 94.0 % and the 10-year progression-free survival 75.8 %. Our study confirms the distinct characteristics of NLPHL with a relatively good long-term prognosis. It may be possible to reduce treatment intensity in early stage NLPHL without affecting long-term outcome.

  9. T-lymphocyte and B-lymphocyte dichotomy in anuran amphibians: III. Assessment and identification of inducible killer T-lymphocytes (IKTL) and spontaneous killer T-lymphocytes (SKTL). (United States)

    Klempau, A E; Cooper, E L


    We have established the existence of alloreactive inducible killer (IK) T-lymphocytes in Rana pipiens by injecting immunogenic concentrations of allogeneic frog erythrocytes (RBC). Assessment of specific IK activity was determined microscopically, observing effector-target conjugate formation, and spectrophotometrically as released hemoglobin (Hb) from lysed targets (RBC). The presence of spontaneous killer (SK) T-lymphocyte activity was also determined using unimmunized frogs and similar assay conditions. Assays using rabbit anti-frog Thy-1.1 antiserum inhibition, but not E-rosetted T-lymphocyte depletion, confirmed the T-lymphocyte category of both effector cell populations in Rana pipiens. For IK activity, we determined the 1) best priming doses, 2) best effector cell source (peripheral blood), 3) best priming route (intraperitoneal), 4) kinetics of immunity development, and 5) kinetics of lysis. Kinetics of lysis and organ distribution for spontaneous killer cells were also determined. Our results may assist 1) in establishing the evolutionary origin of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells, and 2) in predicting where the capacity of immuno-surveillance against modified-self appeared in phylogeny. The implications are important for understanding origins of mechanisms of resistance against neoplastic conditions.

  10. Reduced-intensity conditioning lowers treatment-related mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic lymphocytic leukemia : a population-matched analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreger, P; Brand, R; Milligan, D; Corradini, P; Finke, J; Deliliers, GL; Martino, R; Russell, N; van Biezen, A; Michallet, M; Niederwieser, D


    To elucidate whether reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) decreases treatment-related mortality (TRM) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we retrospectively compared 73 RIC cases from a recent EBMT survey with 82 patients from the EBMT databa

  11. Chronic proliferative dermatitis in Sharpin null mice: development of an autoinflammatory disease in the absence of B and T lymphocytes and IL4/IL13 signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher S Potter

    Full Text Available SHARPIN is a key regulator of NFKB and integrin signaling. Mice lacking Sharpin develop a phenotype known as chronic proliferative dermatitis (CPDM, typified by progressive epidermal hyperplasia, apoptosis of keratinocytes, cutaneous and systemic eosinophilic inflammation, and hypoplasia of secondary lymphoid organs. Rag1(-/- mice, which lack mature B and T cells, were crossed with Sharpin(-/- mice to examine the role of lymphocytes in CDPM. Although inflammation in the lungs, liver, and joints was reduced in these double mutant mice, dermatitis was not reduced in the absence of functional lymphocytes, suggesting that lymphocytes are not primary drivers of the inflammation in the skin. Type 2 cytokine expression is increased in CPDM. In an attempt to reduce this aspect of the phenotype, Il4ra(-/- mice, unresponsive to both IL4 and IL13, were crossed with Sharpin(-/- mice. Double homozygous Sharpin(-/- , Il4ra(-/- mice developed an exacerbated granulocytic dermatitis, acute system inflammation, as well as hepatic necrosis and mineralization. High expression of CHI3L4, normally seen in CPDM skin, was abolished in Sharpin(-/- , Il4ra(-/- double mutant mice indicating the crucial role of IL4 and IL13 in the expression of this protein. Cutaneous eosinophilia persisted in Sharpin(-/- , Il4ra(-/- mice, although expression of Il5 mRNA was reduced and the expression of Ccl11 and Ccl24 was completely abolished. TSLP and IL33 were both increased in the skin of Sharpin(-/- mice and this was maintained in Sharpin(-/- , Il4ra(-/- mice suggesting a role for TSLP and IL33 in the eosinophilic dermatitis in SHARPIN-deficient mice. These studies indicate that cutaneous inflammation in SHARPIN-deficient mice is autoinflammatory in nature developing independently of B and T lymphocytes, while the systemic inflammation seen in CPDM has a strong lymphocyte-dependent component. Both the cutaneous and systemic inflammation is enhanced by loss of IL4 and IL13 signaling

  12. Parliamentarians play key role in linking population and social development. (United States)


    Mr. Hirofunti Ando, Deputy Executive Director of the UNFPA, delivered the statement of Dr. Nafis Sadik, Executive Director of the UNFPA at the International Meeting of Parliamentarians on Population and Social Development. The International Conference of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (ICPPD) in Cairo in September 1994 made a significant impact on the attitudes and support of parliamentarians regarding population issues. The Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development (AFPPD) brought together a group of parliamentarians from all over the world to discuss population issues and social development. The World Summit included in its deliberations the accumulated experiences of earlier international conferences dealing with social economic issues. The ICPD Program of Action addressed concerns relevant to the agenda of the Social Summit: the crucial contribution that early population stabilization will make towards the attainment of sustainable development; the significant role of integrated policies on population and development in creating employment; the importance of population policies and programs in alleviating poverty; the contributions of reproductive health policies, including high-quality family planning services, to the enhancement of the status of women and to the achievement of gender equality; the synergy between education, family planning, and the general improvement of the human condition; and the relationship between population pressures, poverty, and environmental degradation. The ICPD Program of Action also identified critically important population and development objectives, such as ensuring access to education, especially of girls; reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health and family planning services. Now the challenge is to mobilize the necessary resources for the Social Summit.

  13. [Women, development and population in Latin America]. (United States)

    Bravo, R


    Women's situation as defined according to cultural factors which are present both in the division of labor by sex and in the power relationships, has its own specificities in the different social groups of a society. This happens for material reasons as well as because prevalent ideologies vary, among the different groups, from very traditional models of sexual roles to others which allow a greater flexibility in these roles. The consequences are reflected in the reproductive behavior. A woman's social insertion affects her specific situation, through a set of closely related variables: the educational opportunities, the quantity and characteristics of the domestic work they must carry out and the opportunities to participate in paid work. These variables influence demographic behavior through the age at 1st marriage, infant mortality, the values assigned to children and the capacity of taking reproductive decisions. In order to improve the situation of poorer women it is necessary that the economic, social and cultural development give special benefits to that sector, greater educational opportunities which could lead to possibilities of stable and well remunerated work. In these conditions women could achieve a greater self-determination to establish more equitable conjugal relationships and to decide with more freedom the number of their children.

  14. On sustainable development of population and national economy. (United States)

    Tian, X


    This article offers a strategy for achieving sustainable development of population and the national economy in China. It is argued that economic growth and population growth must be in balance and coordinated. In 1993 it was estimated that a national economic growth rate of 4.03-4.60% was needed in order to balance the natural population growth rate of 1.15% at the existing standard of living. When the national economy grows faster than population in the life expectancy time period, overpopulation can be checked. Population must be balanced with sufficient means for subsistence. The key measure of sustainable development is the ratio between the size of the working-age population and the means of production. The number of people in the labor force is positively related to fixed assets and negatively related to the labor force's technical equipment. China's problems include weak industrial fixed assets, a surplus labor force, and slow growth in industrial and agricultural productivity. Potential solutions are to shift employment from a cultivation-oriented rural economy to a diversified rural economy, to increase the pace of change to an industrial and commercial economy, and to increase the pace of change to nonmaterial production and to raising employment efficiency. Solutions are dependent upon improvement in the quality of population, which means increased levels of education. China still has 181,610,00 people who are illiterate or semi-illiterate among the working-age population. Sustainable development also relies on active promotion of social support for the elderly by a pension system, family support, and reemployment of the elderly. Surplus labor should be absorbed by the service industry. Population structure and economic development are more advanced in coastal areas that have 41% of total population. Inland areas should develop labor-intensive, technology-intensive, and investment-intensive industries. Northwest areas need an educated population

  15. Development of a preliminary diagnostic measure for bovine leukosis in dairy cows using peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts (United States)

    NISHIIKE, Masao; HAOKA, Michiyo; DOI, Takashi; KOHDA, Tomoko; MUKAMOTO, Masafumi


    Analysis of the association between antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV), BLV proviral load, and white blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte counts was performed with 774 dairy cows. The average age, WBC counts and lymphoid cell counts tended to be higher in BLV antibody-positive cows than in antibody-negative cows. There was a similar trend in levels of proviral DNA. We analyzed age, WBC counts and lymphocyte counts by principal component analyses to create a distribution chart of the principle component scores. Using the chart, we categorized cows into four quadrants based on additional information, such as the presence of antibody and the levels of proviral DNA. Antibody-positive cows and cows with high BLV proviral load were found mostly in one quadrant of the chart, indicating that it is possible to predict the risk of infection without any knowledge on antibody status by using information, such as WBC counts as a biomarker. When only antibody-positive cows were included in the analysis, a characteristic distribution of different levels of proviral DNA was seen in the quadrants, suggesting that it is possible to estimate the extent of bovine leukosis infection by using this analysis. For this analysis and categorization of the cows into quadrants, we computed a mathematical formulation using discriminant analysis based on age and WBC and lymphocyte counts. This mathematical formulation for the hematological preliminary diagnosis of the disease is recommended as a screening tool to monitor bovine leukosis. PMID:27064146

  16. Population Growth and Poverty in the Developing World. (United States)

    Birdsall, Nancy


    The link between rapid population growth and the absolute poverty which currently afflicts 780 million people in developing countries (excluding China and other centrally planned economies) is examined. As a result of rapid population growth, many countries suffer slow per capita income growth, a lack of progress in reducing income inequality, and…

  17. Population and sustainable development in China: Population and household scenarios for two regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, L.


    China's notoriously bulging population has challenged the government's and the land's ability to provide sufficient food, employment, housing, education, and the like. The Chinese environment and resources have been further fatigued by rapid economic development and modernisation. This precarious si

  18. Population growth, human development, and deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. (United States)

    Jha, S; Bawa, K S


    Human population and development activities affect the rate of deforestation in biodiversity hotspots. We quantified the effect of human population growth and development on rates of deforestation and analyzed the relationship between these causal factors in the 1980s and 1990s. We compared the averages of population growth, human development index (HDI, which measures income, health, and education), and deforestation rate and computed correlations among these variables for countries that contain biodiversity hotspots. When population growth was high and HDI was low there was a high rate of deforestation, but when HDI was high, rate of deforestation was low, despite high population growth. The correlation among variables was significant for the 1990s but not for the 1980s. The relationship between population growth and HDI had a regional pattern that reflected the historical process of development. Based on the changes in HDI and deforestation rate over time, we identified two drivers of deforestation: policy choice and human-development constraints. Policy choices that disregard conservation may cause the loss of forests even in countries that are relatively developed. Lack of development in other countries, on the other hand, may increase the pressure on forests to meet the basic needs of the human population. Deforestation resulting from policy choices may be easier to fix than deforestation arising from human development constraints. To prevent deforestation in the countries that have such constraints, transfer of material and intellectual resources from developed countries may be needed. Popular interest in sustainable development in developed countries can facilitate the transfer of these resources.

  19. Population-Development-Environment Modeling in the Philippines: A Review



    This article surveys existing forecasting models in the Philippines and discusses several promising alternatives in the process of developing a methodological modeling. Investigation of CGE models leads to the findings of the absence of population-environment interactions.

  20. Development of mapping populations for genetic analysis in yams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in hybridization was validated based on DNA analysis with SSR markers on agarose ... Traits for which the populations were developed included multiple tuber ... Key words: Dioscorea alata, Dioscorea rotundata, hybrid identification, ...

  1. [Uphold and develop Mao Zedong's thoughts on population]. (United States)

    Wang, J


    Mao Zedong's thoughts on population were based upon the positions, viewpoints, methods, and basic theory of Marxism, with some adjustments made according to China's practical situation. The population theory of Marxism was developed and used with creative elements. Mao Zedong's thoughts on population can be summarized in three points: (1) An understanding of China's backwar economy and culture and their relationship to overpopulation. There is an urgent need to solve the population problem. (2) An understanding of the close relationship between material production and the reproduction of human beings themselves. A balance between the two should be achieved. (3) Family planning should be practiced so that population growth may be put under control. Under the leadership of Deng Xiaoping, the Party's Central Committee has reconfirmed and developed Mao Zedong's population thoughts in various important official documents and writings. In such new writings, special emphasis is placed on the fact that with limited arable land, China has to plan its population growth and that family planning should be made part of the national policy. With ideological education serving as a foundation, special administrative actions and economic measures should be taken to motivate and transform the general public. Mao Zedong's thoughts on population and related new developments represent the crystallization of the Party's collective wisdom.

  2. A comprehensive review of occupational and general population cancer risk: 1,3-Butadiene exposure-response modeling for all leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, myeloid neoplasm and lymphoid neoplasm. (United States)

    Sielken, Robert L; Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco


    Excess cancer risks associated with 1,3-butadiene (BD) inhalation exposures are calculated using an extensive data set developed by the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) from an epidemiology study of North American workers in the styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) industry. While the UAB study followed SBR workers, risk calculations can be adapted to estimate both occupational and general population risks. The data from the UAB SBR study offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the association between cumulative exposure to BD and different types of cancer, accounting for the number of tasks involving high-intensity exposures to BD as well as confounding associated with the exposures to the multiple other chemicals in the SBR industry. Quantitative associations of BD exposure and cancer, specifically leukemia, can be further characterized by leukemia type, including potential associations with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), and the groups of lymphoid and myeloid neoplasms. Collectively, these multiple evaluations lead to a comprehensive analysis that makes use of all of the available information and is consistent with the risk assessment goals of the USEPA and other regulatory agencies, and in line with the recommendations of the USEPA Science Advisory Board. While a range of cancer risk values can result from these multiple factors, a preferred case for occupational and general population risk is highlighted. Cox proportional hazards models are used to fit exposure-response models to the most recent UAB data. The slope of the model with cumulative BD ppm-years as the predictor variable is not statistically significantly greater than zero for CML, AML, or, when any one of eight exposure covariates is added to the model, for all leukemias combined. The slope for CLL is statistically significantly different from zero. The slope for myeloid neoplasms is not statistically

  3. The Avian Transcription Factor c-Rel is Expressed in Lymphocyte Precursor Cells and Antigen-Presenting Cells During Thymus Development


    Huguet, C.; Bouali, F.; Enrietto, P. J.; Stehelin, D.; B. Vandenbunder; Abbadie, C


    Transcription factors of the Rel/NF-κB family are widely involved in the immune system. In this study, we investigate the in vivo expression of the avian protein c-Rel in the T-cell lineage during thymus development. The majority of thymocytes do not express the c-Rel protein. However, lymphocyte precursor cells that colonize the thymus express the c-Rel protein shortly after their homing in the organ and before they begin to differentiate, c-Rel is also detected in different subsets of,antig...

  4. Maldives. Package on population education for special interest groups developed. (United States)


    The Population Education Program of the Non-Formal Education Center has developed a package of Population Education for Special Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's guide. The learning package is especially developed for teaching population education for out-of-school populations. Special interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples, adolescents, and working youth. Produced under the guidance of UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods. The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD, and respect for old people. Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials. The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming, survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based population education courses.

  5. Population growth and economic development revisited with reference to Asia. (United States)

    Jha, S C; Deolalikar, A B; Pernia, E M


    "This article takes another look at the old issue of population growth and economic development in the context of recent developments and with the benefit of the increasing stock of knowledge on the subject. It first presents a demographic perspective; then it analyzes the implications of population growth with respect to such integral aspects of economic development as human capital accumulation, income distribution and poverty, the environment, and sustainable economic growth. The approach in each case is to review the theoretical considerations, survey the empirical evidence, and then draw policy implications. An overall conclusion with implications for policy caps the paper." The geographical focus is on Asia.

  6. Framework for projecting employment and population changes accompanying energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Metzger, J.E.


    This report provides a framework which energy planners can use to readily estimate the size and timing of the population and employment changes associated with energy development. The direct employment requirements for eight different technologies are listed. This direct employment requirement can be combined with the set of employment multipliers and other information provided to obtain practical estimates of the employment and population impacts of new energy development. Some explanation is given for the variation of the multipliers among counties in the same region. A description is presented of a demographic model for deriving the annual population changes that can be expected as a result of in-migrating workers and their families. Several hypothetical examples of the procedure for making the calculations are discussed as practical exercises in using the multipliers. The necessary data are provided for obtaining estimates of population and employment changes in any county in the US.

  7. Role of legislation in population and development planning. (United States)

    Jayasuriya, D C


    This article examines how law can influence population and development planning in the Asian and Pacific region. Countries in the region have a variety of legal systems and development dynamics, and variations in both occur even within countries, among different population groups. Population law regulates population growth, composition, and movement and induces behavior and attitudinal changes to enhance quality of life at all levels. Population law often also governs human reproduction (e.g. contraception, abortion), family formation (e.g. age factors, marriage), sexual behavior, (e.g. prostitution, rape), quality of life (e.g. education, employment, women's status), vital events (e.g. birth, death, marriage registration, residence) and the physical environment. Some national constitutions make mention of population/development objectives (China, Thailand) and equality of the sexes (e.g. Sri Lanka), an important step given that some countries have provided legal impediments to population planning; e.g. mang governments have been opposed to the use of IUD. Social trends such as later marriages have been in evidence. Abortion has prevented millions of births in Asia. The effect of illegality of abortion is generally to penalize the poor (who do not have resources to circumvent the law, and to increase female mortality indirectly through increases in abortion under poor medical conditions. Sexual sterilization is problematic in situations of coersion or where the infant mortality rate is high, or childless couples are stigmatized, because of its permanecnce. Law interfaces with contraceptive distribution in issues such as qualifications of distributors and age of recipients. The impact of the law on behavior and quality of life is not always clear. The role of legislation in development should be determined by multidisciplinar study groups, since no profession alone has enough perspective on development. Development policies should be global in nature, and mindful of

  8. PARP activity in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a predictive biomarker for PARP inhibition in tumor tissues - A population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of rucaparib. (United States)

    Wang, Diane D; Li, Chunze; Sun, Wan; Zhang, Shuzhong; Shalinsky, David R; Kern, Kenneth A; Curtin, Nicola J; Sam, Wai-Johnn; Kirkpatrick, Tanya R; Plummer, Ruth


    Rucaparib is a potent Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitor currently under clinical development. The objectives of this analysis were to establish population PK and PK/PD models for rucaparib, and to evaluate the predictability of PARP activity in PBL for PARP activity in tumor tissues. Rucaparib concentrations and PARP activity in human PBLs and tumor issues were obtained from 32 patients with solid tumors in a Phase 1 First-in-Patient study. Simulations were conducted to evaluate different dosing regimens. A 3-compartment PK model best described the PK of rucaparib. An Emax model best described the exposure and PARP inhibition relationship. The maximum PARP inhibition (Imax) achieved in PBLs and in tumors were 90.9% and 90.0% of the baseline PARP activity, and the IC50 values were 1.05 ng/mL and 1.10 ng/mL, respectively. PAR polymer baseline value was found to be a covariate of Emin. Population PK and PK/PD models have been established to describe population PK of rucaparib and the relationship between rucaparib plasma concentration and PARP inhibition in both PBLs and tumor issues. Results from this trial indicated that PARP inhibition in PBLs can be used as a substitute for PARP inhibition in melanoma tumor tissues. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.


    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  10. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Sannikov


    Full Text Available The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  11. Development of Forest Population Biology and Biogeocenology in the Urals


    S. N. Sannikov; N. S. Sannikova; I. V. Petrova; S. A. Shavnin


    The priority directions, concepts, approaches, methods and results of half a century investigations of forest genetics, ecology, geography and biogeocenology in the Ural school of population biology of woody plants are briefly discussed. The results of quantitative genetic-ecologic-geographical studies of the forests based on population approaches as well as main theoretic generalizations are presented, to assist possible interpretation and development of future investigations.

  12. Growing B Lymphocytes in a Three-Dimensional Culture System (United States)

    Wu, J. H. David; Bottaro, Andrea


    A three-dimensional (3D) culture system for growing long-lived B lymphocytes has been invented. The capabilities afforded by the system can be expected to expand the range of options for immunological research and related activities, including testing of immunogenicity of vaccine candidates in vitro, generation of human monoclonal antibodies, and immunotherapy. Mature lymphocytes, which are the effectors of adaptive immune responses in vertebrates, are extremely susceptible to apoptotic death, and depend on continuous reception of survival-inducing stimulation (in the forms of cytokines, cell-to-cell contacts, and antigen receptor signaling) from the microenvironment. For this reason, efforts to develop systems for long-term culture of functional, non-transformed and non-activated mature lymphocytes have been unsuccessful until now. The bone-marrow microenvironment supports the growth and differentiation of many hematopoietic lineages, in addition to B-lymphocytes. Primary bone-marrow cell cultures designed to promote the development of specific cell types in vitro are highly desirable experimental systems, amenable to manipulation under controlled conditions. However, the dynamic and complex network of stromal cells and insoluble matrix proteins is disrupted in prior plate- and flask-based culture systems, wherein the microenvironments have a predominantly two-dimensional (2D) character. In 2D bone-marrow cultures, normal B-lymphoid cells become progressively skewed toward precursor B-cell populations that do not retain a normal immunophenotype, and such mature B-lymphocytes as those harvested from the spleen or lymph nodes do not survive beyond several days ex vivo in the absence of mitogenic stimulation. The present 3D culture system is a bioreactor that contains highly porous artificial scaffolding that supports the long-term culture of bone marrow, spleen, and lymph-node samples. In this system, unlike in 2D culture systems, B-cell subpopulations developing

  13. Establishment of Immortalized Human Lymphocytes Cell Lines with Multiple SNP Genotyping in Chinese Han Population%中国汉族人群代谢酶基因分型永生化淋巴细胞库的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 熊梦祯; 尹立红; 浦跃朴


    目的 建立汉族人群代谢酶基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞库,为单核苷酸多态(SNP)结构对毒物诱导的基因功能表达的影响建立研究平台.方法 用EB病毒(Epstein-Barr Virus,EBV)转化中国汉族健康成人外周血B淋巴细胞,通过对中国汉族人群CYP2E1和NQ01的单核苷酸多态(SNP)位点信息分析,选择中国人群特异性CYP2EI、NQ01基因SNP位点CYP2E1rs2070673,CYP2E1rs2031921,CYP2E13813866,NQO1rs 1800566,NQO1rs10517,应用适配器连接介导的等位基因特异性扩增法(ALM-SAS)对上述位点进行基因分型.将供体信息和细胞株基因分型的信息录入,构建中国汉族基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞库.结果 通过对细胞株进行上述5个SNP位点的基因分型,获得每株细胞的基因分型信息,获得CYP2E1rs2070673,CYP2E1rs2031921,CYP2E13813866,NQO1rs 1800566,NQO1rs10517不同基因分型的永生化淋巴细胞株.结论 通过永生化细胞库的建立、基因分型,初步建立中国的汉族人群代谢酶基因分型永生化淋巴细胞库,该细胞库的进一步建设,可以为研究中国人群环境毒物和药物代谢酶基因结构和功能的关系提供技术平台.%Objective To establish immortalized human lymphocytes cell lines with multiple SNP genotyping of Chinese Han population which could afford a platform to study gene function expression influenced by SNPs structure induced by chemical Methods EBV (Epstein-Bart Virus) were used to immortalize peripheral B lymphocytes derived from Chinese Hah population. After analyzing CYP2EI、NQOI SNP database of Chinese population, the five Chinese specific SNP sites: CYP2EIrs2070673,CYP2Elrs2031921, CYP2E13813866,NQOlrs 1800566, NQOl rs10517 were genotyped by an adapter-ligation mediated allele specific amplification (ALM-ASA) method. The information of providers and genotypes of cell lines were input to establish the database of immortalized human lymphocytes cell lines with multiple SNP genotyping

  14. Adipose tissue lymphocytes: types and roles. (United States)

    Caspar-Bauguil, S; Cousin, B; Bour, S; Casteilla, L; Castiella, L; Penicaud, L; Carpéné, C


    Besides adipocytes, specialized in lipid handling and involved in energy balance regulation, white adipose tissue (WAT) is mainly composed of other cell types among which lymphocytes represent a non-negligible proportion. Different types of lymphocytes (B, alphabetaT, gammadeltaT, NK and NKT) have been detected in WAT of rodents or humans, and vary in their relative proportion according to the fat pad anatomical location. The lymphocytes found in intra-abdominal, visceral fat pads seem representative of innate immunity, while those present in subcutaneous fat depots are part of adaptive immunity, at least in mice. Both the number and the activity of the different lymphocyte classes, except B lymphocytes, are modified in obesity. Several of these modifications in the relative proportions of the lymphocyte classes depend on the degree of obesity, or on leptin concentration, or even fat depot anatomical location. Recent studies suggest that alterations of lymphocyte number and composition precede the macrophage increase and the enhanced inflammatory state of WAT found in obesity. Lymphocytes express receptors to adipokines while several proinflammatory chemokines are produced in WAT, rendering intricate crosstalk between fat and immune cells. However, the evidences and controversies available so far are in favour of an involvement of lymphocytes in the control of the number of other cells in WAT, either adipocytes or immune cells and of their secretory and metabolic activities. Therefore, immunotherapy deserves to be considered as a promising approach to treat the endocrino-metabolic disorders associated to excessive fat mass development.

  15. Mutagenesis Screen Identifies agtpbp1 and eps15L1 as Essential for T lymphocyte Development in Zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Seiler

    Full Text Available Genetic screens are a powerful tool to discover genes that are important in immune cell development and function. The evolutionarily conserved development of lymphoid cells paired with the genetic tractability of zebrafish make this a powerful model system for this purpose. We used a Tol2-based gene-breaking transposon to induce mutations in the zebrafish (Danio rerio, AB strain genome, which served the dual purpose of fluorescently tagging cells and tissues that express the disrupted gene and provided a means of identifying the disrupted gene. We identified 12 lines in which hematopoietic tissues expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP during embryonic development, as detected by microscopy. Subsequent analysis of young adult fish, using a novel approach in which single cell suspensions of whole fish were analyzed by flow cytometry, revealed that 8 of these lines also exhibited GFP expression in young adult cells. An additional 15 lines that did not have embryonic GFP+ hematopoietic tissue by microscopy, nevertheless exhibited GFP+ cells in young adults. RT-PCR analysis of purified GFP+ populations for expression of T and B cell-specific markers identified 18 lines in which T and/or B cells were fluorescently tagged at 6 weeks of age. As transposon insertion is expected to cause gene disruption, these lines can be used to assess the requirement for the disrupted genes in immune cell development. Focusing on the lines with embryonic GFP+ hematopoietic tissue, we identified three lines in which homozygous mutants exhibited impaired T cell development at 6 days of age. In two of the lines we identified the disrupted genes, agtpbp1 and eps15L1. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of these genes mimicked the T cell defects in the corresponding mutant embryos, demonstrating the previously unrecognized, essential roles of agtpbp1 and eps15L1 in T cell development.

  16. Syk Inhibition with Fostamatinib Leads to Transitional B Lymphocyte Depletion (United States)

    Barr, Paul M.; Wei, Chungwen; Roger, James; Schaefer-Cutillo, Julia; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Rosenberg, Alexander F.; Jung, John; Sanz, Iñaki; Friedberg, Jonathan W.


    Cell signaling initiated by the B cell receptor is critical to normal development of B lymphocytes, most notably at the transitional B cell stage. Inhibition of this signaling pathway with the syk inhibitor, fostamatinib, has produced significant efficacy in lymphoid malignancies and autoimmune conditions. Here, we demonstrate that short-term use of fostamatinib impairs B lymphocyte development at the transitional stage without affecting mature B cell populations. Additionally, IL-10 producing B cells remained relatively constant throughout the treatment period. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of action of B cell receptor inhibition in autoimmune disease. As the development of agents targeting B cell receptor signaling proceeds, monitoring for long-term consequences as well as functional evaluation of B cell subsets may further improve our understanding of this rapidly growing class of novel agents. PMID:22284392

  17. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference. (United States)


    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  18. Baby booms, busts, and population ageing in the developed world. (United States)

    Reher, David S


    The key challenge facing contemporary society is a process of population ageing rooted mainly in past fertility cycles. The goals of the study reported in this paper were (i) to analyse jointly the post-1930s baby boom and the baby bust that followed, (ii) to consider the specific ways this particular combination influenced the process of ageing in different societies, and (iii) to evaluate some possible implications for policy of different historical experiences. Demographic time series for 27 nations in the developed world were used. The main results confirm the importance of the boom and bust fertility cycle of the second half of the twentieth century for population ageing. Some countries will experience ageing processes driven mainly by the growth of elderly populations while others will age largely as a result of declines in working-age populations. These differences underscore the need to tailor policy priorities for specific patterns of ageing.

  19. Enlarged colitogenic T cell population paradoxically supports colitis prevention through the B-lymphocyte-dependent peripheral generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells. (United States)

    do Canto, Fábio Barrozo; Campos, Sylvia Maria Nicolau; Granato, Alessandra; da Silva, Rafael F; de Paiva, Luciana Souza; Nóbrega, Alberto; Bellio, Maria; Fucs, Rita


    Intestinal inflammation can be induced by the reconstitution of T/B cell-deficient mice with low numbers of CD4(+) T lymphocytes depleted of CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). Using RAG-knockout mice as recipients of either splenocytes exclusively depleted of CD25(+) cells or FACS-purified CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(-) T cells, we found that the augmentation of potentially colitogenic naïve T cell numbers in the inoculum was unexpectedly beneficial for the suppression of colon disease and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Protection against T cell-mediated colitis correlated with a significant increment in the frequency of peripherally-induced CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T (pTreg) cells, especially in the mesenteric lymph nodes, an effect that required the presence of B cells and CD4(+)CD25(-)Foxp3(+) cells in physiological proportions. Our findings support a model whereby the interplay between B lymphocytes and a diversified naïve T cell repertoire is critical for the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) pTreg cells and colitis suppression.

  20. Developing population models with data from marked individuals (United States)

    Hae Yeong Ryu,; Kevin T. Shoemaker,; Eva Kneip,; Anna Pidgeon,; Patricia Heglund,; Brooke Bateman,; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Reşit Akçakaya,


    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a powerful tool for biodiversity assessments, but its use has been limited because of the requirements for fully specified population models such as demographic structure, density-dependence, environmental stochasticity, and specification of uncertainties. Developing a fully specified population model from commonly available data sources – notably, mark–recapture studies – remains complicated due to lack of practical methods for estimating fecundity, true survival (as opposed to apparent survival), natural temporal variability in both survival and fecundity, density-dependence in the demographic parameters, and uncertainty in model parameters. We present a general method that estimates all the key parameters required to specify a stochastic, matrix-based population model, constructed using a long-term mark–recapture dataset. Unlike standard mark–recapture analyses, our approach provides estimates of true survival rates and fecundities, their respective natural temporal variabilities, and density-dependence functions, making it possible to construct a population model for long-term projection of population dynamics. Furthermore, our method includes a formal quantification of parameter uncertainty for global (multivariate) sensitivity analysis. We apply this approach to 9 bird species and demonstrate the feasibility of using data from the Monitoring Avian Productivity and Survivorship (MAPS) program. Bias-correction factors for raw estimates of survival and fecundity derived from mark–recapture data (apparent survival and juvenile:adult ratio, respectively) were non-negligible, and corrected parameters were generally more biologically reasonable than their uncorrected counterparts. Our method allows the development of fully specified stochastic population models using a single, widely available data source, substantially reducing the barriers that have until now limited the widespread application of PVA. This method

  1. Ofatumumab, Pentostatin, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (United States)


    Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries. (United States)

    Kojima, R


    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  3. 中华鳖太湖种群淋巴细胞培养及染色体核型分析%The Lymphocytic Cell Culture and Chromosome Karyotype of Trionyx sinensis in Taihu Lake Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊良伟; 王建国; 封琦; 黄爱军


    In order to provide the logical proofs for germplasm research and chromosomal manipulation of Trionyx sinensis. The karyotypes of the chromosomes of Trionyx sinensis in Taihu Lake were examined by lymphocytic cell cultivation-air drying-Giemsa staining method. The results showed that the chromosome karyotype of T. Sinensis in Taihu Lake population could be obtained through the lymphocytic cell cultivation method. There were 33 pairs chromosome including 6 pairs of large chromosome and 27 pairs of smaller chromosome.%为给中华鳖种质研究和染色体操作提供理论依据.以中华鳖太湖种群为材料,采用淋巴细胞培养、空气干燥法制片、Giemsa染色,对中华鳖染色体核型进行了分析.结果表明:通过淋巴细胞培养法可以得到良好的染色体制片;中华鳖太湖种群具有33对染色体,其中6对是大型染色体,27对是小型染色体.

  4. Population change and some aspects of socio-economic development. (United States)


    Some of the major dimensions of the interrelationship of population dynamics and socioeconomic development are examined in the context of Asia and the Pacific. Most of the countries in the region are developing, and population growth is viewed more as an obstacle to development rather than as a stimulant to economic progress. There are at least 10 countries in the region whose per capita income is less than US$300, namely: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Burma, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. In 1979 these countries had an estimated combined population of 1,867,103,000 or about 77% of the population of the region. Per capita gross national product (GNP) masks the real economic condition of the people as it fails to show the actual distribution of income and wealth. In most nonsocialist countries there is maldistribution of income and wealth. The International Labor Organization (ILO) report points out that during 1963-73 in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka, the richest 20% of households receive about half the income. In contrast, the poorest 40% receive between 12-18% of total income. In short, there could be economic development but not social development, such as equitable distribution of wealth and income. Studies have shown that equitable income distribution exerts a far greater influence on fertility than the GNP. In many countries of the region poverty is reality. The World Bank estimates that half of the people in absolute poverty live in South Asia, mainly India and Bangladesh. It is most unfortunate that among the very poor, poverty is frequently regarded as the cause rather than the effect of high fertility. Among the very poor, mortality, particularly infant mortality, tends to be high. China is among the countries which have recognized that rapid population growth is not beneficial to the accelerated speed of capital accumulation. It has been observed that in most countries as the GNP per

  5. Stochastic model for computer simulation of the number of cancer cells and lymphocytes in homogeneous sections of cancer tumors

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos-Moreno, Arnulfo; Corella-Madueño, Adalberto; Gutiérrez-López, Sergio; Rosas-Burgos, Rodrigo


    We deal with a small enough tumor section to consider it homogeneous, such that populations of lymphocytes and cancer cells are independent of spatial coordinates. A stochastic model based in one step processes is developed to take into account natural birth and death rates. Other rates are also introduced to consider medical treatment: natural birth rate of lymphocytes and cancer cells; induced death rate of cancer cells due to self-competition, and other ones caused by the activated lymphocytes acting on cancer cells. Additionally, a death rate of cancer cells due to induced apoptosis is considered. Weakness due to the advance of sickness is considered by introducing a lymphocytes death rate proportional to proliferation of cancer cells. Simulation is developed considering different combinations of the parameters and its values, so that several strategies are taken into account to study the effect of anti-angiogenic drugs as well the self-competition between cancer cells. Immune response, with the presence ...

  6. What some African development plans say on population related issues in development. (United States)


    This discussion reviews what development plans say about population related issues in development in the countries of Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Senegal, Nigeria, Ivory Coast, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia Democratic Republic, Sudan, The United Republic of Cameroon, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana's 1970-73 development plan recognized the need to have fewer children who would be better fed, well clothed, properly housed, and better educated. The government set a target of population growth not to exceed 2.5% for the 1970-80 period. The government of Kenya has expressed much concern about population growth and is devoted to continuing and strengthening the official family planning program instituted in 1967. Lesotho's 1980-81 to 1984-85 development plan emphasizes the need to enhance the well-being of the rural population. The orientation of the health sector strategy is towards primary health care, health education, family planning, water supply, sanitation, and nutrition. Nigeria's 1975-80 plan indicates that demographic factors do not appear as yet to constitute a significant or serious obstacle to domestic economic progress. The objective of the Ivory Coast's 1976-80 plan for economic, social, and cultural development is to increase population since the Ivory Coast still seems to be an underpopulated country. The 1979-83 National Development Plan of Seychelles includes the following objectives: to remedy the housing problem, to achieve full employment, and to introduce responsible family planning. Sierra Leone's development plan for 1974-75 to 1978-79 did not indicate a need to decrease population growth. Population variables in relation to development are not well articulated in the plan of the Somalia Democratic Republic. Like many other developing countries, Sudan's plan has objectives to improve all aspects of the standard of living. It recognizes the serious problem of absorbing a larger population in urban areas. In Tanzania family planning is

  7. Bendamustine Plus Alemtuzumab for Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) (United States)


    Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  8. Human third molars development: Comparison of 9 country specific populations. (United States)

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G


    The majority of age estimation models based on third molar development are constructed on samples from populations with described and outlined origin. Due to unlike research protocols these studies can rarely be compared for the evaluation of possible geographical or ethnical influences on third molar development. The aim of this study is to evaluate country specific third molar development on standardized collected and analyzed data. On panoramic radiographs selected from subjects out of 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India) the four third molar scores were registered, according to a modified Gleiser and Hunt methodology. To obtain for each subject a (factor) score which represents the degree of third molar development, a generalized linear mixed model for multivariate ordinal data was fitted on the repeated third molar scores. Differences between countries are analyzed using gender-specific regression models for these factor scores with age and country as predictors. Comparisons between countries revealed differences in speed and onset of development. However, although reaching statistical significance, differences in actual value were small and not constant over the considered age range. In all countries, at all ages, males were ahead in third molar development compared to females.

  9. Rapid exacerbation of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (United States)

    Shibue, Kimitaka; Fujii, Toshihito; Goto, Hisanori; Yamashita, Yui; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Tanji, Masahiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Inagaki, Nobuya


    Abstract Rationale: Lymphocytic hypophysitis is a relatively rare autoimmune disease defined by lymphocytic infiltration to the pituitary. Its rarity and wide spectrum of clinical manifestations make clarification of the pathology difficult. Here, we describe a case we examined from the primary diagnosis to final discharge, showing the serial progression of lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH) to panhypopituitarism with extrapituitary inflammatory invasion in a short period, and responding favorably to high-dose glucocorticoid treatment. Patient concerns: Polyuria, General fatigue and Nausea/Vomiting. Diagnoses: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI), Lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis (LINH). Interventions: Desmopressin acetate, High-dose glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. Outcomes: He was prescribed desmopressin acetate and subsequently discharged. A month later, he revisited our hospital with general fatigue and nausea/vomiting. A screening test disclosed hypopituitarism with adrenal insufficiency. MRI revealed expanded contrast enhancement to the peripheral extrapituitary lesion. He received high-dose GC treatment and the affected lesion exhibited marked improvement on MRI, along with the recovery of the anterior pituitary function. Lessons: This case demonstrates the potential for classical LINH to develop into panhypopituitarsim. We consider this is the first documentation of approaching the cause of atypical LINH with progressive clinical course from the pathological viewpoint. PMID:28248860

  10. What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? (United States)

    ... Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) About Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia What Is Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia? Cancer starts when cells ... body, including the lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts ...

  11. [Impact of backward sexual viewpoints on population development]. (United States)

    Wang, B


    In the development of human society, the reproductive function was considered the sole purpose of sexual activities. Any other purposes were deemed abnormal or deviant. The prevalence of that viewpoint reflected the needs during the transformation from hunting to farming as major means of production of the society and the needs for large populations under the socioeconomic conditions of rural society. With the low level of productivity in a family-oriented economy, further development depended on the number of labor hands in the family. The wars for extension of territory and for survival need a constant supply of soldiers. Under such circumstances, the need for large populations implied the importance of fertility behavior in sexual relations. In the rural farming societies, fertility was important in strengthening and developing the family wealth, status, and family structure. Blood relations were emphasized in rural society for family inheritance, for expansion of family influence, and for old age support. The rapid decline of fertility in Europe at the beginning of this century was proposed by some Chinese scholars as the result of their citizens pursuing individual happiness including in sexual relations. The use of contraceptives prevented couples from being overburdened with children. These concepts on sexual relations facilitated the decline of fertility. The necessary social and economic conditions and advances in technology are already present for the changes of the traditional concepts toward sexual relations. The united efforts of social agencies in promoting these changes will be an efficient ensure in regulating the speed of population growth.

  12. Alvocidib in Treating Patients With B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (United States)


    B-cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  13. Effect of in vitro x-irradiation on human peripheral blood T and B lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prusek, W. (Szpital Wojewodzki, Wroclaw (Poland)); Astaldi, G. (The Blood Research Foundation Centre, Tortona (Italy))


    The effect of in vitro irradiation with increasing in logarythmic progress X-ray doses on lymphocyte viability and on T and B lymphocyte populations was studied in normal adults, patients with myasthenia gravis and in patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy. Decrease in numbers of lymphocytes carrying T or B lymphocyte surface markers was higher than the viable cell loss. The decrease showed no linear correlation with X-ray doses applied, which might reflect the existence of radioresistant T and B lymphocytes. A higher so-called early radiosensitivity of B lymphocytes was demonstrated. In patients with myasthenia gravis early radioresistance of T lymphocytes was detected. In patients undergoing long-term steroid therapy, an increase in numbers of cells lacking markers of any of lymphocyte populations was found in parallel with a decrease in T lymphocyte number which, in these patients, showed a higher radiosensitivity.

  14. Lentiviral vector delivery of human interleukin-7 (hIL-7 to human immune system (HIS mice expands T lymphocyte populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan M O'Connell

    Full Text Available Genetically modified mice carrying engrafted human tissues provide useful models to study human cell biology in physiologically relevant contexts. However, there remain several obstacles limiting the compatibility of human cells within their mouse hosts. Among these is inadequate cross-reactvitiy between certain mouse cytokines and human cellular receptors, depriving the graft of important survival and growth signals. To circumvent this problem, we utilized a lentivirus-based delivery system to express physiologically relevant levels of human interleukin-7 (hIL-7 in Rag2-/-gammac-/- mice following a single intravenous injection. hIL-7 promoted homeostatic proliferation of both adoptively transferred and endogenously generated T-cells in Rag2-/-gammac-/- Human Immune System (HIS mice. Interestingly, we found that hIL-7 increased T lymphocyte numbers in the spleens of HIV infected HIS mice without affecting viral load. Taken together, our study unveils a versatile approach to deliver human cytokines to HIS mice, to both improve engraftment and determine the impact of cytokines on human diseases.

  15. Development of Permanent Mapping Populations RILs in Diploid A Genome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) serve as powerful tools for genetic mapping.RILs are obtained by crossing two inbred lines followed by repeated selfing or sib-mating to create a set of new inbred lines.The resulting genome in the finally developed RILs is a mosaic of the parental genomes.The fixed variation in RILs is used of for fine mapping of complex traits.Cultivated diploid A genome species of cotton holds special significance to dissect complexity of a developing cotton fibers.We have evaluated the interspecifc population (Gossypium arboreum var.

  16. Developing recreational harvest regulations for an unexploited lake trout population (United States)

    Lenker, Melissa A; Weidel, Brian C.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Solomon, Christopher T.


    Developing fishing regulations for previously unexploited populations presents numerous challenges, many of which stem from a scarcity of baseline information about abundance, population productivity, and expected angling pressure. We used simulation models to test the effect of six management strategies (catch and release; trophy, minimum, and maximum length limits; and protected and exploited slot length limits) on an unexploited population of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush in Follensby Pond, a 393-ha lake located in New York State’s Adirondack Park. We combined field and literature data and mark–recapture abundance estimates to parameterize an age-structured population model and used the model to assess the effects of each management strategy on abundance, catch per unit effort (CPUE), and harvest over a range of angler effort (0–2,000 angler-days/year). Lake Trout density (3.5 fish/ha for fish ≥ age 13, the estimated age at maturity) was similar to densities observed in other unexploited systems, but growth rate was relatively slow. Maximum harvest occurred at levels of effort ≤ 1,000 angler-days/year in all the scenarios considered. Regulations that permitted harvest of large postmaturation fish, such as New York’s standard Lake Trout minimum size limit or a trophy size limit, resulted in low harvest and high angler CPUE. Regulations that permitted harvest of small and sometimes immature fish, such as a protected slot or maximum size limit, allowed high harvest but resulted in low angler CPUE and produced rapid declines in harvest with increases in effort beyond the effort consistent with maximum yield. Management agencies can use these results to match regulations to management goals and to assess the risks of different management options for unexploited Lake Trout populations and other fish species with similar life history traits.

  17. Automated Scoring and Analysis of Micronucleated Human Lymphocytes. (United States)

    Callisen, Hannes Heinrich

    Physical and chemical mutagens and carcinogens in our environment produce chromosome abberations in the circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes. The abberations, in turn, give rise to micronuclei when the lymphocytes proliferate in culture. In order to improve the micronucleus assay as a method for screening human populations for chromosome damage, I have (1) developed a high-resolution optical low-light-level micrometry expert system (HOLMES) to digitize and process microscope images of micronuclei in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, (2) defined a protocol of image processing techniques to objectively and uniquely identify and score micronuclei, and (3) analysed digital images of lymphocytes in order to study methods for (a) verifying the identification of suspect micronuclei, (b) classifying proliferating and non-proliferating lymphocytes, and (c) understanding the mechanisms of micronuclei formation and micronuclei fate during cell division. For the purpose of scoring micronuclei, HOLMES promises to (a) improve counting statistics since a greater number of cells can be scored without operator/microscopist fatigue, (b) provide for a more objective and consistent criterion for the identification of micronuclei than the human observer, and (c) yield quantitative information on nuclear and micronuclear characteristics useful in better understanding the micronucleus life cycle. My results on computer aided identification of micronuclei on microscope slides are gratifying. They demonstrate that automation of the micronucleus assay is feasible. Manual verification of HOLMES' results show correct extraction of micronuclei from the scene for 70% of the digitized images and correct identification of the micronuclei for 90% of the extracted objects. Moreover, quantitative analysis on digitized images of lymphocytes using HOLMES has revealed several exciting results: (a) micronuclear DNA content may be estimated from simple area measurements, (b) micronuclei seem to

  18. Sustainable development under population pressure: lessons from developed land consumption in the conterminous U.S. (United States)

    Grekousis, George; Mountrakis, Giorgos


    Population growth will result in a significant anthropogenic environmental change worldwide through increases in developed land (DL) consumption. DL consumption is an important environmental and socioeconomic process affecting humans and ecosystems. Attention has been given to DL modeling inside highly populated cities. However, modeling DL consumption should expand to non-metropolitan areas where arguably the environmental consequences are more significant. Here, we study all counties within the conterminous U.S. and based on satellite-derived product (National Land Cover Dataset 2001) we calculate the associated DL for each county. By using county population data from the 2000 census we present a comparative study on DL consumption and we propose a model linking population with expected DL consumption. Results indicate distinct geographic patterns of comparatively low and high consuming counties moving from east to west. We also demonstrate that the relationship of DL consumption with population is mostly linear, altering the notion that expected population growth will have lower DL consumption if added in counties with larger population. Added DL consumption is independent of a county's starting population and only dependent on whether the county belongs to a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). In the overlapping MSA and non-MSA population range there is also a constant DL efficiency gain of approximately 20 km2 for a given population for MSA counties which suggests that transitioning from rural to urban counties has significantly higher benefits in lower populations. In addition, we analyze the socioeconomic composition of counties with extremely high or low DL consumption. High DL consumption counties have statistically lower Black/African American population, higher poverty rate and lower income per capita than average in both NMSA and MSA counties. Our analysis offers a baseline to investigate further land consumption strategies in anticipation of growing

  19. Harmonizing Settlement, Infrastructure, and Population Data to Support Sustainable Development (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Yetman, G.


    The geospatial data community has been developing global-scale georeferenced population, human settlements, and infrastructure data for more than two decades, pushing available technologies to process ever growing amounts of data and increase the resolution of the outputs. These population, settlement, and infrastructure data products have seen wide use in varied aspects of sustainable development, including agriculture, energy, water, health, land use, transportation, risk management, and climate impact assessment. However, in most cases, data development has been driven by the availability of specific data sources (e.g., census data, night-time lights, radar data, or moderate- to high-resolution imagery), rather than by an integrated view of how best to characterize human settlement patterns over time and space on multiple dimensions using diverse data sources. Such an integrated view would enhance our ability to observe, model, and predict where on the planet people live and work—in the past, present, and future—and under what conditions, i.e., in relationship not only to environmental systems, resources, extremes, and changes, but also to the human settlements and built infrastructure that mediate impacts on both people and the environment. We report here on a new international effort to improve understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of existing and planned georeferenced data products, and to create a collaborative community across the natural, social, health, engineering, and data sciences and the public and private sectors supporting data integration and coordination to meet sustainable development data needs. Opportunities exist to share data and expertise, coordinate activities, pool computing resources, reduce duplication, improve data quality and harmonization, and facilitate effective data use for sustainable development monitoring and decision making, especially with respect to the 17 Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the international

  20. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski


    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  1. Novel Confocal Microscopic and Flow Cytometric Based Assays to Visualize and Detect the (Beta)2-Adrenergic Receptor in Human Lymphocyte and Mononuclear Cell Populations (United States)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B. E.; Nelman, M. A.; Sams, C. F.; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D.


    The data show that immunophenotyping of leukocyte populations with (beta)2AR is possible with the commercially available Ab, although the FC assay is limited to the IST as a result of the Ab binding site to the intracellular C-terminus of the 2AR. The FC assay has applications for measuring alterations in total (beta)2AR in human leukocyte populations as changes in fluorescence. In addition, CM confirms that both surface and intracellular compartments stain positively for the (beta)2AR and can be used for qualitative assays that screen for changes in receptor compartmentalization and localization.

  2. Bilateral dacryoadenitis complicated by lymphocytic hypophysitis. (United States)

    Baoke, Hou; Shihui, Wei; Maonian, Zhang; Zhaohui, Li; Zhitong, Zou; Zhigang, Song; Yan, Hei


    Three patients developed dacryoadenitis (DA) or lymphocytic pneumonitis before the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis (LyH). There were two previous reports of concurrence of DA and LyH. Our patients add support to the idea that DA and LyH are manifestations of a systemic autoimmune disease. We suggest that the discovery of DA should prompt imaging and endocrine investigation of LyH.

  3. Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (United States)

    ... for information in your local library and on the Internet. Good sources include the National Cancer Institute, the ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. The molecular population genetics of shoot development in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Shepard, Kristen A


    Studies in Arabidopsis thaliana have provided us with a wealth of information about the genetic pathways that regulate plant morphogenesis. This developmental genetic treasure trove represents a fantastic resource for researchers interested in the microevolution of development. Several laboratories have begun using molecular population genetic analyses to investigate the evolutionary forces that act upon loci that regulate shoot morphogenesis. Much of this work has focused on coding sequence variation in transcription factors; however, recent studies have explored sequence variation in other types of proteins and in promoter regions. Several genes that regulate shoot development contain signatures of selective sweeps associated with positive selection or harbor putative balanced polymorphisms in coding and noncoding sequences. Other regulatory genes appear to be evolving neutrally, but have accumulated potentially deleterious replacement polymorphisms.

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa: population pressures on development. (United States)

    Goliber, T J


    The population of sub-Saharan Africa, estimated at 434 million in 1984, is expected to reach 1.4 billion by 2025. The birth rate, currently 48/1000 population, continues to increase, and the death rate, 17/1000, is declining. Rapid population growth has curtailed government efforts to provide adequate nutrition, preserve the land base essential for future development, meet the demand for jobs, education, and health services, and address overcrowding in urban areas. Low education, rural residence, and low incomes are key contributors to the area's high fertility. Other factors include women's restricted roles, early age at marriage, a need for children as a source of security and support in old age, and limited knowledge of and access to modern methods of contraception. Average desired family size, which is higher than actual family size in most countries, is 6-9 children. Although government leaders have expressed ambivalence toward development of population policies and family planning programs as a result of the identification of such programs with Western aid donors, the policy climat is gradually changing. By mid-1984, at least 13 of the 42 countries in the region had indicated that they consider current fertility rates too high and support government and/or private family planning programs to reduce fertility. In addition, 26 countries in the region provide some government family planning services, usually integrated with maternal and child health programs. However, 10 countries in the region do not support family planning services for any reason. Unfortunately, sub-Saharan Africa has not yet produced a family planning program with a measurable effect on fertility that could serve as a model for other countries in the region. Social and economic change is central to any hope of fertility reduction in sub-Saharan Africa. Lower infant and child mortality rates, rising incomes, higher education, greater economic and social opportunities for women, and increased

  6. Population as an Economic Development Factor: the Case of Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Kosovo's population is a young population and is gradually entering the final stage of demographic transition, that is characterized by considerable decline in fertility, natality, mortality and natural growth. Despite demographic disturbances caused by numerous social and economic factors, the long period under Serbian occupation, major population displacement and the War of 1999, the population of Kosovo over the last hundred years have continued to increase, with high and low fluctuations. Kosovo population remains one of the populations with the highest growth in the region and broader. The objective of this study is to present and analyse the main charachteristics and trends of population of Kosovo.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Faderl, Stefan; Keating, Michael J


    Multiple options are now available for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Over the last 10 years, monoclonal antibodies have become an integral part of the management of this disease. Alemtuzumab has received approval for use in patients with fludarabine-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Rituximab has been investigated extensively in chronic lymphocytic leukemia both as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy and other monoclonal antibodies. Epratuzumab and lumiliximab are newer monoclonal antibodies in the early phase of clinical development. This article will review the monoclonal antibodies more commonly used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the results obtained with monoclonal antibodies as single agents and in combination with chemotherapy, and other biological agents and newer compounds undergoing clinical trials.

  8. Abnormalities of lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, H; Tønnesen, E; Clemmensen, O


    We examined the blood lymphocyte function and phenotypic pattern in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis after taking salazopyrin. We studied cell surface markers, natural killer cell activity and mitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation. Our results point to temporary immunosuppression...... as evidenced by lymphopenia with a large "null cell" population, reduced natural killer cell activity, and impaired lymphocyte response to mitogens....

  9. [The relationship between population dynamics and the process of development: an interdependence requiring the definition of population policies]. (United States)


    The case of Senegal is used to illustrate the impact of population dynamics on the economic development of a country and the process of creating a population policy. 1 of the 6 principles of the Kilimanjaro Program of Action concerning African population and autonomous development was the interdependence between population and development, but interest in the problem was only sporadic until the deepening of the economic crisis. Population growth is now regarded as a major constraint on improvement of welfare for the population. The population of the Sahel countries has almost doubled in the past 2 decades as a consequence of very high fertility rates and declining mortality rates. About 44% of the Sahel population is under 15 years old and only about 53% is aged 15-64. The population is unequally distributed and the proportion urban increased from 18 to 23% between 1982-85. The general opinion is that the African population is increasing more rapidly than available resources. From 1973-83, Senegal's gross national product increased by 2.2%/year on average, less than the population increase of 2.5%. Cereal production increased by 1%/year between 1973-81. Investments in agriculture have declined continuously since 1973. Cereal needs are on the order of 6.69 million tons, while production is only 4.4 million tons. According to the World Bank the literacy rate for 5 Sahel countries was only 15% in 1982, and only 35% of school aged children are enrolled. The constant increase of population is also putting pressure on health services. In response to these problems, Senegal developed its population policy in 3 phases. In the 1st phase, 3 commissions and a working group carried out research and documentation around the country, producing sectorial documents. In the 2nd phase, workshops and seminars were held for the critical examination of the sectorial documents, culminating in presentation of a synthesis to the National Commission on Population and to the

  10. Integrated population-development program performance: the Malaysian Felda experience. (United States)

    Fong, C O


    Program performance of the Malaysian Felda program, an integrated population development program, is examined in this report. It also evaluates the relationship of the performance of this program with its organizational, integrational, and community support factors. Starting in 1956, Felda had, by the end of 1981, developed 308 land schemes covering an area of 1.4 million acres planted predominantly with oil palm (59.4%) and rubber (31.6%). The land schemes have settled a total of 70,600 families or over 400,000 people. The integrated programs existing in the Felda schmes are the focus of analysis for this study. Out of the universe of 308 Felda schemes, 26 schemes were randomly selected for the study. In each scheme, 2 surveys were conducted: first, the staff surveys to gather information on the organizational factors and extent of integration in existence in the scheme and then household surveys to gather information on the extent of community support for the integrated program and the performance of the program. In the case of the performance variables, the information gathered from the household survey was supplemented by the records from the Felda scheme office. In the sample of 26 schemes, a total of 1641 settler households were selected for the household survey and 363 staff were selected for the staff survey. The surveys were conducted in the 1st quarter of 1982. The results indicate that the Felda mode of delivering population and community development services has been very effective. Over 55.2% of the eligible women were found to be practicing family planning (compared to about 35.5% for the national rural average), while over 78.9% of the eligible women utilized postnatal health care facilities. About 1 in 3 of the eligible children in Felda schemes attend kindergarten classes, while over 46.9% of the Felda households are involved in some form of extramural income generating activities. The more integrated the program in a particular community, the more

  11. Iron induces bimodal population development by Escherichia coli. (United States)

    DePas, William H; Hufnagel, David A; Lee, John S; Blanco, Luz P; Bernstein, Hans C; Fisher, Steve T; James, Garth A; Stewart, Philip S; Chapman, Matthew R


    Bacterial biofilm formation is a complex developmental process involving cellular differentiation and the formation of intricate 3D structures. Here we demonstrate that exposure to ferric chloride triggers rugose biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain UTI89 and by enteric bacteria Citrobacter koseri and Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Two unique and separable cellular populations emerge in iron-triggered, rugose biofilms. Bacteria at the air-biofilm interface express high levels of the biofilm regulator csgD, the cellulose activator adrA, and the curli subunit operon csgBAC. Bacteria in the interior of rugose biofilms express low levels of csgD and undetectable levels of matrix components curli and cellulose. Iron activation of rugose biofilms is linked to oxidative stress. Superoxide generation, either through addition of phenazine methosulfate or by deletion of sodA and sodB, stimulates rugose biofilm formation in the absence of high iron. Additionally, overexpression of Mn-superoxide dismutase, which can mitigate iron-derived reactive oxygen stress, decreases biofilm formation in a WT strain upon iron exposure. Not only does reactive oxygen stress promote rugose biofilm formation, but bacteria in the rugose biofilms display increased resistance to H(2)O(2) toxicity. Altogether, we demonstrate that iron and superoxide stress trigger rugose biofilm formation in UTI89. Rugose biofilm development involves the elaboration of two distinct bacterial populations and increased resistance to oxidative stress.

  12. Deletion of IFT20 in early stage T lymphocyte differentiation inhibits the development of collagen-induced arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yuan; Lee Ann Garrett-Sinha; Debanjan Sarkar; Shuying Yang


    IFT20 is the smallest member of the intraflagellar transport protein (IFT) complex B. It is involved in cilia formation. Studies of IFT20 have been confined to ciliated cells. Recently, IFT20 was found to be also expressed in non-ciliated T cells and have functions in immune synapse formation and signaling in vitro. However, how IFT20 regulates T-cell development and activation in vivo is still unknown. We deleted the IFT20 gene in early and later stages of T-cell development by crossing IFT20flox/flox (IFT20f/f) mice with Lck-Cre and CD4-Cre transgenic mice, and investigated the role of IFT20 in T-cell maturation and in the development of T cell-mediated collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). We found that both Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f and CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice were indistinguishable from their wild-type littermates in body size, as well as in the morphology and weight of the spleen and thymus. However, the number of CD4-and CD8-positive cells was significantly lower in thymus and spleen in Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice. Meanwhile, the incidence and severity of CIA symptoms were significantly decreased, and inflammation in the paw was significantly inhibited in Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice compared to Lck-Cre/IFT201/1 littermates. Deletion IFT20 in more mature T cells of CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice had only mild effects on the development of T cells and CIA. The expression of IL-1b, IL-6 and TGF-b1 were significantly downregulated in the paw of Lck-Cre/IFT20f/f mice, but just slight decreased in CD4-Cre/IFT20f/f mice. These results demonstrate that deletion of IFT20 in the early stage of T-cell development inhibited CIA development through regulating T-cell development and the expression of critical cytokines.

  13. Development and changes in consumption expenditures of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Toufarová


    Full Text Available The paper deals with development and changes in consumption expenditures of population. It uses secondary data to analyze consumption expenditures of EU-25 and the Czech Republic and concetrates on changes in the expenditure groups over the period of past years. Other part of this paper is devoted to primary data analysis. Primary data were obtained in a questionnaire survey. Primary data analysis is based on statistical methods and it investigates changes in the structure of consumption expenditures of households in relation to changes in household income. By using dependency analysis the paper verifies dependency of surveyed groups of consumption expenditures and groups of households sorted by identification characteristics. Additionally, also based on the primary research, the paper tries to find out the way households allocate money surplus remaining after covering all the adequate expenses.

  14. Impact of Biogas Technology in the Development of Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhawat Ali1


    Full Text Available Biogas technology is useful technology to produce a renewable, high-quality fuel i.e. biogas. In Rural areas people use biomass fuels (firewood and dried dung for meeting their energy utilization demands. This demand is fulfilled by deforestation and land degradation which results in different health and societal problems and also cause excessive emission of greenhouse gases. The rural population of developing countries is in dire need of biogas for cooking, lighting, heating and feedstock etc. The biogas production derives from various agricultural resources, such as manure and harvest remains enormously available. Biogas technology represents a sustainable way to produce energy for household, particularly in developing countries. It can be cost-effective and environment friendly technology for the people in rural areas. So, Biogas can be a best substitute of biomass fuels for use in rural areas. This review evaluates the use of biogas in developing rural areas and glances at problems and challenges as well as benefits and success factors.

  15. Increased TCR signal strength in DN thymocytes promotes development of gut TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) intraepithelial lymphocytes. (United States)

    Grandjean, Capucine L; Sumaria, Nital; Martin, Stefania; Pennington, Daniel J


    CD4((+))CD8((+)) "double positive" (DP) thymocytes differentiate into diverse αβ T cell sub-types using mechanistically distinct programs. For example, conventional αβ T cells develop from DP cells after partial-agonist T cell receptor (TCR) interactions with self-peptide/MHC, whereas unconventional αβ T cells, such as TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), require full-agonist TCR interactions. Despite this, DP cells appear homogeneous, and it remains unclear how distinct TCR signalling instructs distinct developmental outcomes. Moreover, whether TCR signals at earlier stages of development, for example in CD4((-))CD8((-)) double negative (DN) cells, impact on later fate decisions is presently unknown. Here, we assess four strains of mice that display altered TCR signal strength in DN cells, which correlates with altered generation of unconventional TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IELs. FVB/n mice (compared to C57BL/6 animals) and mice with altered preTCRα (pTα) expression, both displayed weaker TCR signalling in DN cells, an inefficient DN-to-DP transition, and reduced contribution of TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IELs to gut epithelium. Conversely, TCRαβ((+))CD8αα((+)) IEL development was favoured in mice with increased TCR signal strength in DN cells. Collectively, these data suggest TCR signal strength in DN cells directly impacts on subsequent DP cell differentiation, fundamentally altering the potential of thymocyte progenitors to adopt conventional versus unconventional T cell fates.

  16. Prenatal ontogeny of lymphocyte subpopulations in pigs. (United States)

    Sinkora, M; Sinkora, J; Reháková, Z; Splíchal, I; Yang, H; Parkhouse, R M; Trebichavsk, I


    Although porcine lymphocytes have been classified into numerous subpopulations in postnatal animals, little is known about the ontogeny of these complex cell subsets. Using double- and triple-colour flow cytometry (FCM), we investigated the surface phenotype of fetal lymphoid cells in the thymus, cord blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes at different stages of gestation. It was found that the major lymphocyte subpopulations started to appear at the beginning of the second third of the gestation period, with B cells being the earliest lymphocyte subpopulation to appear in the periphery. The T-cell receptor (TCR) gamma delta+ cells were the earliest detectable T-cell subset, developing first in the thymus and subsequently arriving in the periphery. Later in ontogeny, however, the number of TCRalpha beta+ lymphocytes rapidly increased, becoming the predominant T cells both in the thymus and in the periphery. Cells with the phenotype of adult natural killer cells were also identified in pig fetuses, though their nature and functional roles remain to be investigated. In addition, CD2 was expressed on most B cells whilst very few CD4+ TCRalpha beta+ cells or CD2+ TCRgamma delta+ cells expressed CD8, suggesting that the expression of CD2 and CD8 may reflect the functional status of the cells in postnatal animals. Taken together, this study has provided a systematic analysis of fetal porcine lymphocyte subpopulations and may provide the base for studies to establish the physiological roles of these lymphocyte subsets.

  17. Studies on the Development of Interest Group Populations in Corporative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Helene Marie

    This dissertation investigates how the Danish population of interest groups develops over time and whether population mechanisms, societal factors, and corporative institutions can explain this development. How interest group populations develop and which factors explain this development...... are important questions with implications for the quality of democracy. The answers can indicate the degree of bias and diversity in interest group populations. Earlier studies have especially focused on snapshots of the composition of interest group populations and not on the dynamics and development...... of populations. The dissertation attempts to fill this gap in the literature by investigating the development of a total interest group population. The central claim of the dissertation is that societal factors and population dynamics can explain how a population develops and that corporative institutions...

  18. Increased presence of effector lymphocytes during Helicobacter hepaticus-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah J McCaskey; Elizabeth A Rondini; Jonathan F Clinthorne; Ingeborg M Langohr; Elizabeth M Gardner; Jenifer I Fenton


    AIM:To identify and characterize drosophila mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)3-dependent changes in immune cell populations following infection with HeliCobacter hepaticus (H.hepaticus).METHODS:SMAD3-/-(n =19) and colitis-resistant SMAD3+/-(n =24) mice (8-10 wk of age) were infected with H.hepaticus and changes in immune cell populations [T lymphocytes,natural killer (NK) cells,T regulatory cells] were measured in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (MsLNs) at 0 d,3 d,7 d and 28 d post-infection using flow cytometry.Genotypedependent changes in T lymphocytes and granzyme B+ cells were also assessed after 28 d in proximal colon tissue using immunohistochemistry.RESULTS:As previously observed,SMAD3-/-,but not SMAD3+/-mice,developed colitis,peaking at 4 wk post-infection.No significant changes in T cell subsets were observed in the spleen or in the MsLNs between genotypes at any time point.However,CD4+ and CD8+/CD62L10 cells,an effector T lymphocyte population,as well as NK cells (NKp46/DX5+) were significantly higher in the MsLNs of SMAD3-/-mice at 7 d and 28 d post-infection.In the colon,a higher number of CD3+ cells were present in SMAD3-/-compared to SMAD3+/-mice at baseline,which did not significantly change during infection.However,the number of granzyme B+ cells,a marker of cytolytic lymphocytes,significantly increased in SMAD3-/-mice 28 d post-infection compared to both SMAD3+/-mice and to baseline values.This was consistent with more severe colitis development in these animals.CONCLUSION:Data suggest that defects in SMAD3signaling increase susceptibility to H.hepaticus-induced colitis through aberrant activation and/or dysregulation of effector lymphocytes.

  19. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.


    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  20. Population growth and the development of a central place system (United States)

    Cromley, Robert G.; Hanink, Dean M.


    This paper describes the spatial and functional evolution of a central place system as market conditions change with population growth. Utilizing a partial equilibrium optimization model, we examine the spatial response of two economic sectors to increases in market populations resulting from natural increase and migration. Response in both sectors is conditioned by threshold demand, with factor prices also affecting one of the sectors. As the central place system evolves it exhibits spatial and functional characteristics that are initially consistent with a Löschian landscape, then a Christallerian landscape at higher populations, while at even larger populations Krugman’s landscape emerges.

  1. Cyclophosphamide, Alvocidib, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With High Risk B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (United States)


    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  2. Analysis of relationship between bovine lymphocyte antigen DRB3.2 alleles, somatic cell count and milk traits in Iranian Holstein population. (United States)

    Pashmi, M; Qanbari, S; Ghorashi, S A; Sharifi, A R; Simianer, H


    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a gene complex closely linked to the vertebrate immune system due to its importance in antigen recognition and immune response to pathogens. To improve our understanding of the MHC and disease resistance in dairy cattle, we gathered 5119 test day records of somatic cell count (SCC) and performance traits of 262 Holstein dairy cows to determine whether the DRB region of the MHC contains alleles that are associated with elevated SCC, milk yield, protein and fat percent of milk. To this purpose, genotyping of animals for DRB3 gene was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A two-step PCR was carried out so as to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of exon 2 of the target gene. Second PCR products were treated with three restriction endonuclease enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Twenty-eight BoLA-DRB3 alleles were identified including one novel allele (*40). The results in general are in good accordance with allele frequencies of Holstein cattle populations reported by previous studies. Analyses of associations were modeled based on repeated measurement anova and generalized logistic linear methods for production traits and SCC data, respectively. The results of this study showed a significant relationship between the elevated SCC reflecting an increased probability of occurrence to subclinical mastitis and DRB3.2 allele *8 (p < 0.03). The results also revealed significant positive relationships of alleles*22 (p < 0.01) and allele*11 (p < 0.05) with milk fat percent as well as of alleles*24 (p < 0.03) and *22 (p < 0.05) with protein percent. The present study failed to find any association between milk yield and tested alleles. Because of the lack of consistency among results of similar studies, we suggest further investigations to determine the precise nature of these associations with the high polymorphic bovine MHC region to be performed based on haplotypes.

  3. 24 CFR 960.407 - Selection preference for mixed population developments. (United States)


    ... population developments. 960.407 Section 960.407 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Elderly Families and Disabled Families in Mixed Population Projects § 960.407 Selection preference for mixed population developments. (a) The PHA must give preference to elderly families and disabled...

  4. [Development of products for the elderly population: vitamin enriched pudding]. (United States)

    Vera, M S; de Penna, E W; Bunger, A; Soto, D; Cariaga, L; Fuenzalida, R; Cornejo, E; Lopez, L


    An instant dessert powder, pudding type was developed to be consumed at lunch or dinner time. The dessert was designed to be prepared in skim milk and meets the nutritional needs of elderly people. The dessert contains modified starch, carragenine, vegetal fat, sacharose. Each serving has been enriched with 30% of the daily vitamin requirement advised for adults over 51 years old. The optimized process was carried out according to the Karlsruhe test. Each serving consists of 22g powder prepared in proportion of 18% in skim milk. The optimized dessert powder was controlled by means of physical, chemical and microbiological analyses. The sensory quality was determined in the ready to eat product and the acceptability level was measured in a group of people selected according to the characteristics of the target population. The dessert powder contains 1.1% protein, 5.2% fats, 89.76% carbohidrates, and provides 409 Kcal/100g. Both the sensory and microbiological quality were good and the level of acceptance reached 98%.

  5. Morphometric Characterization of Small Cell Lymphocytic Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisoi Anca


    Full Text Available The morphometry in histopathology is used to characterize cell populations belonging to different tissues and to identify differences in their parameters with prognostic implications. To achieve morphometric examination were selected 6 of 24 cases identified as small cell lymphocytic lymphoma. For each case analysis was done on five fields, for each field measuring the parameters of 20 cells. The studied parameters were for cytoplasm: cytoplasmic area, maximum and minimum cytoplasmic diameter, cytoplasmic perimeter; for nucleus were measured: nuclear area, minimum and maximum nuclear diameter, nuclear perimeter, nuclear contour index, nuclear ellipticity index, nuclear irregularity index. Also the nucleocytoplasmic ratio was calculated in all studied cases. Small cell lymphocytic lymphoma is characterized in morphometric terms having a small cytoplasmic area (average 29.206 and also a small nuclear area (mean 28.939 having a nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio appearance suggestive for adult lymphocyte. A nuclear contour index small value (3.946, ellipticity index value also small (3.521 and small nuclear irregularity index (3.965. Standard deviations, in any of the studied morphometric categories, is around or below 1 suggesting monomorphic cell appearance. These morphometric and microscopic features characterized mainly by a small population of adult lymphocytes, monomorphic, with rounded hipercromic nuclei, dense chromatin, support the framing into indolent lymphoma group in terms of clinical outcome.

  6. China: Awakening Giant Developing Solutions to Population Aging (United States)

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Guo, Man; Zheng, Xiaoying


    As the world's most populous country with the largest aging population and a rapidly growing economy, China is receiving increased attention from both the Chinese government and the governments of other countries that face low fertility and aging problems. This unprecedented shift of demographic structure has repercussions for many aspects of…

  7. China: Awakening Giant Developing Solutions to Population Aging (United States)

    Zhang, Ning Jackie; Guo, Man; Zheng, Xiaoying


    As the world's most populous country with the largest aging population and a rapidly growing economy, China is receiving increased attention from both the Chinese government and the governments of other countries that face low fertility and aging problems. This unprecedented shift of demographic structure has repercussions for many aspects of…

  8. [Population Education: Curriculum Development and Materials for Teacher Education. (United States)

    Paik, Hyun Ki

    These materials include two papers concerning population education. In the first paper, the author reports the results of a study done at West Visayas State College in the Philippines. There, seventy-five fourth-year students were divided into three groups. Group A received experimental population curriculum materials and formal instruction; group…

  9. Mice deficient in STAT1 but not STAT2 or IRF9 develop a lethal CD4+ T-cell-mediated disease following infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofer, M.J.; Li, W.; Manders, P.; Terry, R.; Lim, S.L.; King, N.J.; Campbell, I.L.


    Interferon (IFN) signaling is crucial for antiviral immunity. While type I IFN signaling is mediated by STAT1, STAT2, and IRF9, type II IFN signaling requires only STAT1. Here, we studied the roles of these signaling factors in the host response to systemic infection with lymphocytic choriomeningiti

  10. Population Development Programme. Reduction of fertility rate a major goal. (United States)


    South Africa's development program has aimed to reduce total fertility to 2 children per woman by the year 2010. Since the program's inception, fertility declined from 4.6 to 4.1. White fertility over the last 4 years decreased from 2.1 to 1.7; Asian fertility declined from 2.8 to 2.3; Black fertility declined from 4.2 to 3.7. Black fertility was very low in the PWV area (2.6) and in metropolitan areas (3.2). High fertility was reflected in TBVC countries and self-governing areas (5.3). Teenage births among Whites have declined from 7.2% to 5.9%, and among Coloreds from 16% to 12.8%. Asian teenage childbearing declined from 10.9% to 8.2%, and Black teenage childbearing increased from 11.4% to 16.5%. The infant mortality rate declined for all races, and Blacks remained with the highest rate of 50/1000 live births. Literacy rates improved for Coloreds from 60% to 66% and for Blacks from 48% to 54%. Contraceptive usage was 65% among Whites, 59.2% among Coloreds, 60.2% among Asians, and 43.8% among Blacks. Awareness of population growth problems was 68% in rural and 82% in urban areas. The business sector will gain from becoming involved in development through a better trained work force, improved job satisfaction and less unrest, reduced absenteeism rates, improved trust between employer and employee, and more favorable socioeconomic conditions for business. Public health and reduction in sexually transmitted diseases would also improve. The business community has the opportunity to invest in a variety of development activities: to promote technical education through scholarships, public campaigns to promote the image of technical careers, and exchange of information with educators about business needs. Business might also provide employee training, women's training, employee involvement in decision making, and employee benefits such as preventive health services. Family planning could be integrated into training courses for employees and emphasize the small family


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. M. Kapuler


    Full Text Available Abstract. Forty-two patients with progressive vulgar psoriasis (PASI = 19.7 ± 1.5 and 40 healthy volunteers were under investigation. Psoriatic patients were characterized by increased number of CD4+ CD95+ peripheral blood T lymphocytes, which correlates with clinical psoriatic score, and by increased levels of soluble Fas (sFas in serum, as compared to controls (resp., 1868.1 ± 186.8 pg/ml vs. 1281.4 ± 142.5 pg/ml, PLSD = 0.019. The levels of spontaneous lymphocyte apoptosis and anti-Fas (Mab-induced apoptosis in psoriatic patients did not differ from the controls. However, apoptosis induced by “oxidative stress” (50 M Н202, 4 hrs was depressed in the patients. Moreover, a simultaneous assessment of cell cycle structure (metachromatic staining with Acridine Orange, apoptosis and Fas receptor expression (AnnV-FITC/antiFas mAbs-PE staining following a short-term mitogenic stimulation (PHA-P, 5 µg/ml, 24 hrs were performed. We found no marked differences in mitogenic reactivity, activation-induced apoptosis, and activation-induced Fas receptor expression when studying lymphocytes from healthy donors and psoriatic patients. However, PHA-activated lymphocytes from psoriatic patients displayed a significantly decreased ratio of AnnV+CD95+ to the total AnnV+ subpopulation, thus suggesting a decreased role of Fas-dependent mechanisms of apoptosis during the cell activation. The data obtained confirm a view, that an abnormal lymphocyte “apoptotic reactivity”, which plays a crucial role in the mechanisms of autoimmunity, may also of importance in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  12. Life-course origins of social inequalities in adult immune cell markers of inflammation in a developing southern Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Douglas A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic position (SEP throughout life is associated with cardiovascular disease, though the mechanisms linking these two are unclear. It is also unclear whether there are critical periods in the life course when exposure to better socioeconomic conditions confers advantages or whether SEP exposures accumulate across the whole life course. Inflammation may be a mechanism linking socioeconomic position (SEP with cardiovascular disease. In a large sample of older residents of Guangzhou, in southern China, we examined the association of life course SEP with inflammation. Methods In baseline data on 9,981 adults (≥ 50 years old from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (2006-08, we used multivariable linear regression and model fit to assess the associations of life course SEP at four stages (childhood, early adult, late adult and current with white blood, granulocyte and lymphocyte cell counts. Results A model including SEP at all four life stages best explained the association of life course SEP with white blood and granulocyte cell count for men and women, with early adult SEP (education making the largest contribution. A critical period model best explained the association of life course SEP with lymphocyte count, with sex-specific associations. Early adult SEP was negatively associated with lymphocytes for women. Conclusions Low SEP throughout life may negatively impact late adult immune-inflammatory status. However, some aspects of immune-inflammatory status may be sensitive to earlier exposures, with sex-specific associations. The findings were compatible with the hypothesis that in a developing population, upregulation of the gonadotropic axis with economic development may obscure the normally protective effects of social advantage for men.

  13. Development of a North American survey for monitoring shorebird populations (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to investigate the feasibility of a survey for North American shorebird populations that will provide reliable annual indices to...

  14. Population Development and Reproduction Health Education in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MY ancestors have lived in Lhasa, Tibet, for generations. I have personally witnessed the great changes in modern Tibetan society. The total population of the region has doubled since 1951. The Fourth National Census in 1990 revealed that the human fertility rate in the Tibet Autonomous Region was 27.60 per thousand, the natural population growth rate 18.40 per thousand, and the total fertility rate of women at childbearing age 4.22.

  15. Regulatory functions of hapten-reactive helper and suppressor T lymphocytes. II. Selective inactivation of hapten-reactive suppressor T cells by hapten-nonimmunogenic copolymers of D-amino acids, and its application to the study of suppressor T-cell effect on helper T-cell development (United States)

    Hamaoka, T; Yoshizawa, M; Yamamoto, H; Kuroki, M; Kitagawa, M


    An experimental condition was established in vivo for selectively eliminating hapten-reactive suppressor T-cell activity generated in mice primed with a para-azobenzoate (PAB)-mouse gamma globulin (MGG)-conjugate and treated with PAB-nonimmunogenic copolymer of D-amino acids (D- glutamic acid and D-lysine; D-GL). The elimination of suppressor T-cell activity with PAB-D-GL treatment from the mixed populations of hapten- reactive suppressor and helper T cells substantially increased apparent helper T-cell activity. Moreover, the inhibition of PAB-reactive suppressor T-cell generation by the pretreatment with PAB-D-GL before the PAB-MGG-priming increased the development of PAB-reactive helper T-cell activity. The analysis of hapten-specificity of helper T cells revealed that the reactivity of helper cells developed in the absence of suppressor T cells was more specific for primed PAB-determinants and their cross-reactivities to structurally related determinants such as meta-azobenzoate (MAB) significantly decreased, as compared with the helper T-cell population developed in the presence of suppressor T lymphocytes. In addition, those helper T cells generated in the absence of suppressor T cells were highly susceptible to tolerogenesis by PAB-D- GL. Similarly, the elimination of suppressor T lymphocytes also enhanced helper T-cell activity in a polyclonal fashion in the T-T cell interactions between benzylpenicilloyl (BPO)-reactive T cells and PAB- reactive T cells after immunization of mice with BPO-MGG-PAB. Thus inhibition of BPO-reactive suppressor T-cell development by the BPO-v-GL- pretreatment resulted in augmented generation of PAB-reactive helper T cells with higher susceptibility of tolerogenesis to PAB-D-GL. Thus, these results support the notion that suppressor T cells eventually suppress helper T-cell activity and indicate that the function of suppressor T cells related to helper T-cell development is to inhibit the increase in the specificity and apparent

  16. Sustainable Development Policy for the Environomy: Population, Land-use, and Development (United States)

    Ravago, M.; Roumasset, J.


    Despite its inertia and avowed purpose of being practical and feasible, sustainability science has yet to embrace the policy sciences. The existing sustainability science agenda emphasizes the importance of taking a systems approach and stresses capturing many interactions between natural and human systems. In order to incorporate policy analysis, we first trace the history of thought of sustainable development, including its definition and operationalization. After rejecting the popular Venn diagram approach to sustainable development (environment, economy, society) as non-operational and unfettered preservationism as counterproductive, two promising approaches to sustainable growth are contrasted. Negative sustainability is an injunction not to deplete the total value of natural and produced capital, leaving all other questions of economic and environmental management unanswered. To fill the void, we offer positive sustainability, which maximizes intertemporal welfare while incorporating interlinkages within the total environomy. This provides an operational framework for sustainable growth, including the efficiency values of produced and natural capital. In addition, sustainable development must include the optimal patterns of production, consumption, and trade. We illustrate particular patterns of unsustainable development by drawing on lessons from cultivation patterns in the Philippines. In the province of Bukidnon, Philippines the traditional drivers of agricultural expansion were logging and forest fires. In recent decades, intense vegetable cultivation coupled with access to roads and lack of well-defined property rights drive intensification and environmental degradation. Population in the province has risen and grew more than the national average. The high population growth, combined with distorted economic policies, has resulted in extreme population pressure in the province, which decreased the fallow period and caused erosion, falling yields, and

  17. Lymphocyte subpopulations in Sheehan's syndrome. (United States)

    Atmaca, Hulusi; Araslı, Mehmet; Yazıcı, Zihni Acar; Armutçu, Ferah; Tekin, Ishak Özel


    The role of autoimmunity in the development of Sheehan's syndrome is obscure. There are a limited number of studies investigating the immunological alterations accompanying Sheehan's Syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate lymphocyte subsets in these patients. We conducted a cross-sectional clinical study. Cytofluorometry was used for the immunophenotyping of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with Sheehan's syndrome followed up in the endocrine clinic during 2005-2009. Fifteen consecutive patients (mean age 61.6 ± 11.3, range 34-75 years) and 25 healthy controls (mean age 56.7 ± 10.6, range 34-80 years) were included. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age. The percentages of CD19(+), CD16(+)/56(+), CD8(+)28(-), γδTCR(+), CD8(+); the total lymphocyte counts; and the ratio of CD8(+)28(-)/CD8(+)28(+) were similar (p > 0.05) between patients and controls. Whereas the leucocyte counts (p = 0.003), the percentage of CD3 (+) DR (+) (p Sheehan's syndrome compared to healthy controls. There was a positive correlation between the duration of illness and the percentage of CD3(+)DR(+) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) expression. Some peripheral lymphocyte cell subsets show marked variation in patients with Sheehan's syndrome in comparison to matched healthy subjects, which may have implications for altered immune regulation in these patients. High CD3 (+) DR (+) expression that correlates with the duration of illness in Sheehan's patients is suggestive of an ongoing inflammation accompanying the slow progression of pituitary dysfunction in Sheehan's syndrome. It is not clear if these cellular alterations contribute to the cause or consequence of pituitary deficiency in Sheehan's syndrome.

  18. Population Ageing and Sustainable Development Research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongxin


    According to the United Nations population projections, the population of the elderly is expected to roughly triple in China from 2000 to 2050,particularly when the generations who were born between the 1950s and 1970s move through the age structure, and also because people are living longer and fertility rates have fallen. population aging is expected to put pressure on government's fiscal balance through higher old-age security benefits and health-care expenditures. This work draws together the broad range of elements involved within a consistent framework, based on a computable dynamic general equilibrium model with an overlapping generation structure. Further analysis using model simulation illustrates that the alternative schemes for the benefit rate, retirement age and technological progress are likely to be beneficial, and that an obvious slow-down in the growth of living standards is likely to be avoided.

  19. Population and family planning in developing countries: the employer's role. (United States)

    Tata, N H


    The overall population problem of the world is discussed briefly. The author asserts that rapid population growth has serious social and political implications and imposes serious restraints on economic progress. It is also linked to problems of urbanization. Family planning is a way out. The state alone is not enough to make family planning successful, it must be supported by the different segments of society. Employers have a major social responsibility in this respect. After this general introduction, and the assertion of the basic role of the employer in family planning programs, the author deals with the specific situation in India in terms of 1) its population problem, 2) progress and impact of the Indian family planning program, and 3) the role of employers in the promotion of family planning in India; a detailed section is devoted to the family planning centers of the Tata group of companies (Tata textile units, chemicals, iron and steel, engineering and locomotive, etc.). The author enumerates the measures to promote effective participation by employers, which include 1) an organized framework, 2) assistance to employers, and 3) removal of disincentives. The author concludes by saying that the efforts of employers to limit population growth need to be supplemented by international cooperation and action.

  20. Mitochondrial apoptosis of lymphocyte is induced in type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hui; Chen Yanbo; Li Yanxiang; Xia Fangzhen; Han Bing; Zhang Huixin; Zhai Hualing


    Background Lymphocyte function and homeostasis is associated with immune defence to infection.Apoptosis of lymphocytes might be a considerably important component which has an impact on immunity to infections in people with hyperglycemia.The aim of this study was to explore the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway of lymphocyte in diabetic patients.Methods Sixty patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and fifty healthy volunteers were included in this study.Annexin V and propidiumiodide (Pl) were joined in the isolated lymphocytes and the rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was calculated with flow cytometry.Observation of the lymphocytes was done using transmission electron microscopy; mitochondria had been extracted and then mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was detected to assess mitochondrial function; the mRNA level of Bcl-2,cytochrome c (Cyt-C),caspase-9 and caspase-3 were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results Apoptosis rate of lymphocyte was significantly higher in diabetic group than that in normal control group (P <0.05).Transmission electron microscopy showed lymphocyte shrinkage and breakage,chromatin condensation and less mitochondria; a fall in MMP levels was also evident; Bcl-2 concentration was reduced and the expressions of caspase-9,caspase-3 and Cyt-C were elevated (P <0.05) in diabetic patients.Conclusions The rate of lymphocyte apoptosis was significantly higher in type 2 diabetic patients than that in normal population.Mitochondrial apoptosis pathway may play a very important role in decreasing function of lymphocyte in diabetes.

  1. B lymphocytes not required for progression from insulitis to diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice. (United States)

    Charlton, B; Zhang, M D; Slattery, R M


    Previous studies have implicated B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. While it is clear that B lymphocytes are necessary, it has not been clear at which stage of disease they play a role; early, late or both. To clarify when B lymphocytes are needed, T lymphocytes were transferred from 5-week-old NOD female mice to age-matched NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recipient mice. NOD/SCID mice, which lack functionally mature T and B lymphocytes, do not normally develop insulitis or insulin-dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM). The NOD/SCID mice that received purified T lymphocytes from 5-week-old NOD mice subsequently developed insulitis and diabetes even though they did not have detectable B lymphocytes. This suggests that while B lymphocytes may be essential for an initial priming event they are not requisite for disease progression in the NOD mouse.

  2. Targeting cytotoxic T lymphocytes for cancer immunotherapy


    Maher, J; Davies, E. T.


    In light of their preeminent role in cellular immunity, there is considerable interest in targeting of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes to cancer. This review summarises the active and passive immunotherapeutic approaches under development to achieve this goal, emphasising how recent advances in tumour immunology and gene transfer have impacted upon this field.

  3. SnapShot: chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Ciccone, Maria; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J; Calin, George A


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia among adults in western countries. This SnapShot depicts the origins and evolution of this B cell malignancy, describes prognostic factors and CLL animal models, and illustrates therapies in preclinical and clinical development against CLL.

  4. [Population development and economic growth. A simulation analysis for Switzerland]. (United States)

    Schmidt, C; Straubhaar, T


    "A simulation exercise of a general equilibrium model for Switzerland makes clear that the macroeconomic impacts of aging populations are not very strong. There is no need for urgent policy actions to avoid severe negative economic consequences....However, the aging of population affects negatively the net income of the active labor force. An increasing share of their gross salaries goes to the retirement system to finance the pension payments of a growing number of pensioners. Attempts to moderate the elderly dependency ratio would lower this burden for the active labor force. Options are an increase of the female participation rate, an increase of the labor participation rate of the elderly--[which] also means a higher retirement age--and an increasing flow of immigrants. But socioeconomic problems might probably generate practical limits on the extent to which immigration can be increased." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND FRE) excerpt

  5. Development of paradigms for the dynamics of structured populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This is a technical progress report on the dynamics of predator-prey systems in a patchy environment. A new phenomenon that might contribute to outbreaks in systems of discrete patches has been determined using a discrete time model with both spatial and age structure. A model for a single species in a patchy environment with migration, local population growth and disasters with in patches has been formulated and a brief description is included.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István EGRESI


    Full Text Available Islamic banks have, over the last few decades, become very popular in the Gulf countries and in some countries in Southeast Asia with a majority Muslim population. They are on the rise even in some western cities such as London or New York which have witnessed a significant increase in their Muslim population. In this context, it is then surprising to see that in Turkey, a country in which almost 100% of the population is Muslim, the Islamic banking system is still in its incipient stage. This study has investigated the reasons for the underdevelopment of the Islamic banking system in Turkey. We found that, due to the long period of secularism, most Turks separate religion from business and select their bank based on financial advantages, diversity of financial products and quality of service rather than based on the need to adhere to Shari’a principles. Many people also do not trust that these institutions are really Shari’a-compliant and safe. This is partly due to the customers’ lack of understanding of how these banks operate and partly due to the numerous cases of bad practices reported by the media and the academic literature. We conclude that, while their assets and share will most probably increase over the next 10 years it seems very unlikely that Islamic banks will really become a sustainable alternative banking system in Turkey. The Islamic banking system will rather remain an additional or complementary banking system.

  7. Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis after lobectomy in a patient with papillary thyroid carcinoma: a case report


    Choi Young Sik; Han You Jin; Yeo Go Eun; Kwon Su Kyoung; Kim Bu Kyung; Park Yo-Han; Kim Sung Won; Chun Bong Kwon; Kong Eun Hee; Kim Jeong Hoon


    Abstract Introduction Subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis is anautoimmune thyroid disease presenting with transient thyrotoxicosis as well as transient hypothyroidism. Several factors have been thought to be the initiating event in subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis. However, subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis that develops after thyroid lobectomy has not yet been reported in the literature. We report a case of subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis after lobectomy in a patient with papillary thyroid carc...

  8. Lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel de Moraes-Pinto


    Full Text Available Ethnic origin, genetics, gender and environmental factors have been shown to influence some immunologic indices, so that development of reference values for populations of different backgrounds may be necessary. We have determined the distribution of lymphocyte subsets in healthy Brazilian individuals from birth to adulthood. Lymphocyte subsets were determined using four-colour cytometry in a cross-sectional study of 463 human immunodeficiency virus-unexposed children and adults from birth through 49 years of age. Lymphocyte subsets varied according to age, as previously observed in other studies. However, total CD4+ T cell numbers were lower than what was described in the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1009 (PACTG P1009, which assessed an American population of predominantly African and Hispanic backgrounds until the 12-18 year age range, when values were comparable. Naïve percentages and absolute values of CD8+ T cells, as assessed by CD45RA expression, were also lower than the PACTG P1009 data for all analysed age ranges. CD38 expression on both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was lower than the PACTG P1009 values, with a widening gap between the two studies at older age ranges. Different patterns of cell differentiation seem to occur in different settings and may have characteristic expression within each population.

  9. Socioeconomic status and obesity in adult populations of developing countries: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monteiro, Carlos A; Moura, Erly C; Conde, Wolney L; Popkin, Barry M


    .... The present review, on studies conducted in adult populations from developing countries, published between 1989 and 2003, shows a different scenario for the relationship between SES and obesity...

  10. Curcumin and Cholecalciferol in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage 0-II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (United States)


    Contiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage 0 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage I Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage II Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

  11. B-cell differentiation in the chicken: expression of immunoglobulin genes in the bursal and peripheral lymphocytes. (United States)

    Mansikka, A; Veromaa, T; Vainio, O; Toivanen, P


    We have studied the expression of immunoglobulin genes in the chicken B-cell precursors, and of a B-cell surface marker (Bu-1) on the bursal and peripheral B cells during normal ontogeny. Since there is no way of distinguishing the precursor cells from the more mature bursal lymphocytes on the basis of surface markers, we chose to study the total bursal lymphocyte population at ages when the numbers of the various precursor cells (bursal, early post-bursal, and post-bursal stem cells) in the bursa are estimated to be at their highest. Thereafter, comparisons with the more mature lymphocytes in the peripheral organs were made. As a result, levels of the lambda and mu transcripts and expression of Bu-1 antigen in the chicken B-cell precursors were found to be unchanged during the post-hatching period. In the light of these experiments, the later events of B-cell differentiation, i.e. the development from the bursal to post-bursal B lymphocytes, occurs without the lambda, mu, and Bu-1 gene loci involved. On the other hand, the higher level of lambda and mu expression in the splenic B lymphocytes indicates that the post-bursal stem cells mature into highly active plasma cells after seeding to the peripheral organs.

  12. Development and validation of an individual based Daphnia magna population model: The influence of crowding on population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preuss, T.G.; Hammers-Wirtz, M.; Hommen, U.; Rubach, M.N.; Ratte, H.T.


    An individual-based model was developed to predict the population dynamics of Daphnia magna at laboratory conditions from individual life-history traits observed in experiments with different feeding conditions. Within the model, each daphnid passes its individual life cycle including feeding on alg

  13. Population Education and Socio-Economic Development. Selected Articles and Studies from Periodical Publications. Bibliographies on Population Education No. 2. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    The annotated bibliography lists 299 materials written in the 1970s about population education, with emphasis on the Asian region. Citations are included for journals, newsletters, and serials publications. The objective is to make available information on which curriculum developers, educators, and practising teachers may draw in developing…

  14. Safe practice of population-focused nursing care: Development of a public health nursing concept. (United States)

    Issel, L Michele; Bekemeier, Betty


    Patient safety, a cornerstone of quality nursing care in most healthcare organizations, has not received attention in the specialty of public health nursing, owing to the conceptual challenges of applying this individual level concept to populations. Public health nurses (PHNs), by definition, provide population-focused care. Safe practice of population-focused nursing care involves preventing errors that would affect the health of entire populations and communities. The purpose of this article is to conceptually develop the public health nursing concept of safe practice of population-focused care and calls for related research. Key literature on patient safety is reviewed. Concepts applying to population-focused care are organized based on Donabedian's Framework. Structural, operational and system failures and process errors of omission and commission can occur at the population level of practice and potentially influence outcomes for population-patients. Practice, research and policy implications are discussed. Safe PHN population-focused practice deserves attention.

  15. Bayesian population PBPK approach for support of drug development


    Krauß, Markus


    Low likelihood-of-approval rates of new drugs constitute a major problem in clinical development. Only one out of ten development programs entering the first clinical phase succeeds in being approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) [1]. A main challenge is thereby an insufficient understanding and prediction of drug safety and efficacy, leading to the withdrawal of new drug candidates [2,3]. Here, model-based assessment of drug exposure and response can support the development ...

  16. Tools influencing on business development and population's social protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Alieva


    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue how to develop public policy instruments that could efficiently target bothdevelopment of entrepreneurship and strengthening of social safety of workers.

  17. Lymphocyte 'homing' and chronic inflammation. (United States)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Motohiro


    Chronic inflammation is a response to prolonged exposure to injurious stimuli that harm and destroy tissues and promote lymphocyte infiltration into inflamed sites. Following progressive accumulation of lymphocytes, the histology of inflamed tissue begins to resemble that of peripheral lymphoid organs, which can be referred to as lymphoid neogenesis or formation of tertiary lymphoid tissues. Lymphocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues is also reminiscent of lymphocyte homing to peripheral lymphoid organs. In the latter, under physiological conditions, homing receptors expressed on lymphocytes adhere to vascular addressin expressed on high endothelial venules (HEVs), initiating a lymphocyte migration process composed of sequential adhesive interactions. Intriguingly, in chronic inflammation, HEV-like vessels are induced de novo, despite the fact that the inflamed site is not originally lymphoid tissue, and these vessels contribute to lymphocyte recruitment in a manner similar to physiological lymphocyte homing. In this review, we first describe physiological lymphocyte homing mechanisms focusing on vascular addressins. We then describe HEV-like vessel-mediated pathogenesis seen in various chronic inflammatory disorders such as Helicobacter pylori gastritis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), autoimmune pancreatitis and sclerosing sialadenitis, as well as chronic inflammatory cell neoplasm MALT lymphoma, with reference to our work and that of others.

  18. Lymphocyte Trafficking to Mucosal Tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikhak, Zamaneh; Agace, William Winston; Luster, Andrew D.


    Lymphocytes are the key cells of the adaptive immune system that provide antigen-specific responses tailored to the context of antigen exposure. Through cytokine release and antibody production, lymphocytes orchestrate and amplify the recruitment and function of other immune cells and contribute...... to host defense against invading pathogens and the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Lymphocyte function is critically dependent on their ability to traffic into the correct anatomic locations at the appropriate times. This process is highly regulated and requires that lymphocytes interact...

  19. Lymphocytic Interstitial Pneumonia. (United States)

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Farver, Carol; Highland, Kristin B


    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia (LIP) is a rare lung disease on the spectrum of benign pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. LIP is frequently associated with connective tissue diseases or infections. Idiopathic LIP is rare; every attempt must be made to diagnose underlying conditions when LIP is diagnosed. Computed tomography of the chest in patients with LIP may reveal ground-glass opacities, centrilobular and subpleural nodules, and randomly distributed thin-walled cysts. Demonstrating polyclonality with immunohistochemistry is the key to differentiating LIP from lymphoma. The 5-year mortality remains between 33% and 50% and is likely to vary based on the underlying disease process.

  20. [Studying Marx's discussion on the position and role of population in social and economic development]. (United States)

    Li, J


    According to Marx and Engels, population is the premise for material life. The difference between man and animal is that man, in order to exist, must have a means of subsistence; thus, his 1st historical activity is to produce these means while at the same time reproduce himself. The function and position of population is to serve as the basis and primary force for all social productive activities. Population further serves as the basis for its own material production. All human relationships and functions, regardless of form or situation, influence material production. Actually, population itself is a kind of productive force as well as consuming force. Population produces material goods which ultimately are used by the population. Hence population is the unification of production and consumption. That is, population's activities consist of production and consumption. According to Marx, accumulated capital regulates population development; at the same time, population development influences the accumulation of capital. Population growth must be the basis for the realization of accumulated capital. In addition, population structure influences the accumulation of capital. Within a single nation, the larger the laboring class, the more prosperous is the country. Among countries, however, this principle is not necessarily so. Marx also believed that raising production rates is the basic way to increase accumulated capital. And, a necessary condition for raising production rates is to raise the quality of population.

  1. Geographic Disparities in Future Global Food Security : Exploring the Impacts of Population Development and Climate Change


    Helander, Hanna


    Meeting the food demands of a growing population is one of the currently most critical issues for the world community. Additionally, negative impacts of climate change on agriculture are expected in some densely populated regions of developing economies. In this thesis, I examine spatial patterns of future impacts of population development and climate change on food security and how these impacts correlate with current patterns of food security and poverty. I aim to assess the global spatial ...

  2. [Changes in blood lymphocytes and their subpopulation in patients with myeloblastic leukemia treated with cytostatic agents]. (United States)

    Urasiński, I; Proniewska, M; Schumacher, K


    Quantitative determinations of lymphocytas were done in the active period of the disease, immediately after treatment by the COAP schedule and during remission. In 6 patients the determinations were done several times during 20 weeks of maintenance treatment. It was found that independently of the stage of the disease the absolute lymphocyte count and the counts of B and T populations were low, while that of lymphocyte O population was raised. It was observed that the reduced count concerned all 4 subclasses of lymphocytes B, that is those with surface receptors for IgA, IgM, IgG and IgE immunoglobulins. In remission the values of lymphocytes and their T and B subpopulations increased, failing, however, to reach the normal values. This rise was more pronounced in the case of lymphocytes T. Lymphocyte depression in these patients is explained by the authors as due mainly to intensive cytostatic treatment.

  3. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (United States)

    Kipps, Thomas J.; Stevenson, Freda K.; Wu, Catherine J.; Croce, Carlo M.; Packham, Graham; Wierda, William G.; O’Brien, Susan; Gribben, John; Rai, Kanti


    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a malignancy of CD5+ B cells that is characterized by the accumulation of small, mature-appearing lymphocytes in the blood, marrow and lymphoid tissues. Signalling via surface immunoglobulin, which constitutes the major part of the B cell receptor, and several genetic alterations play a part in CLL pathogenesis, in addition to interactions between CLL cells and other cell types, such as stromal cells, T cells and nurse-like cells in the lymph nodes. The clinical progression of CLL is heterogeneous and ranges from patients who require treatment soon after diagnosis to others who do not require therapy for many years, if at all. Several factors, including the immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region gene (IGHV) mutational status, genomic changes, patient age and the presence of comorbidities, should be considered when defining the optimal management strategies, which include chemotherapy, chemoimmunotherapy and/or drugs targeting B cell receptor signalling or inhibitors of apoptosis, such as BCL-2. Research on the biology of CLL has profoundly enhanced our ability to identify patients who are at higher risk for disease progression and our capacity to treat patients with drugs that selectively target distinctive phenotypic or physiological features of CLL. How these and other advances have shaped our current understanding and treatment of patients with CLL is the subject of this Primer. PMID:28102226

  4. Decreased deformability of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Wen, Jun; Nguyen, John; Cachia, Mark A.; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu


    This paper reports the first study of stiffness/deformability changes of lymphocytes in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients, demonstrating that at the single cell level, leukemic metastasis progresses are accompanied by biophysical property alterations. A microfluidic device was utilized to electrically measure cell volume and transit time of single lymphocytes from healthy and CLL patients. The results from testing thousands of cells reveal that lymphocytes from CLL patients have higher stiffness (i.e., lower deformability), as compared to lymphocytes in healthy samples, which was also confirmed by AFM indentation tests. This observation is in sharp contrast to the known knowledge on other types of metastatic cells (e.g., breast and lung cancer cells) whose stiffness becomes lower as metastasis progresses.

  5. 鸡盲肠扁桃体中B淋巴细胞的发育%Development of B lymphocytes in caecal tonsil of chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨树宝; 张英楠; 高晶晶; 张延林; 杨丽华; 栾维民


    The occurrence,migration,tissue localization and quantity changes of IgM~+, IgG~+ and IgA~+ B lymphocytes in chicken caecal tonsil were examined using the IgM, IgG and IgA monoclonal antibodies by immunohistochemical method. The results showed that IgM~+ cells first appeared in caecal tonsil from em-bryonic on day 20, both IgG~+ and IgA~+ cells appeared at 1-day-old. B lymphocytes mainly distributed in lamina propria under epithelium before 4-day-old; B lymphocytes were mainly distributed in middle and su-perior part mucous layer, whereafter they uniformly distributed in the whole mucous layer. The germinal centers which were composed by B lymphocytes appeared in the lamina propria at 14-day-old, but clear-cut germinal centers resided in the middle and inferior part of lamina propria at 21-day-old,and there were nu-merous IgM~+, IgG~+ and IgA~+ cells in germinal centers. B lymphocytes kept increasing with the increase of age,and reached stable at 35-day-old. Among the three type cells,IgM~+ cells were the most and IgG~+ cells were the least all the time. The results confirmed that the humoral immune function of caecal tonsil in chicken strengthened quickly after hatching,and reached the mature level at 35-day-old.%通过免疫组织化学方法,应用IgM、IgG和IgA单克隆抗体研究了IgM~+、IgG~+和IgA~+B淋巴细胞在鸡盲肠扁桃体中的出现、迁移、组织定位分布以及数量变化规律等一系列发育过程.结果显示,IgM~+细胞在胚胎20日龄时开始出现,而IgG~+和IgA~+细胞均在雏鸡出壳后1日龄时出现.在定位分布变化上,4日龄之前,B淋巴细胞主要分布在黏膜上皮下固有层中;4~7日龄时,B淋巴细胞则主要分布在黏膜固有层的中上部区域,随后各日龄B淋巴细胞均匀地分布在黏膜固有层中;14日龄时,黏膜固有层中出现主要由B淋巴细胞组成的生发中心,21日龄时可见轮廓更清晰的生发中心存在于黏膜固有层中下部区域,并且生发中心

  6. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould


    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  7. Distribution and development of some Manx epiphyte populations (United States)

    Russell, G.


    The success of Elachista fucicola as an epiphyte of Fucus vesiculosus is partly due to its ability to grow on most parts of the host thallus. Its ability to reach reproductive maturity quickly ensures its fitness, even on temporary structures such as receptacles. Epiphyte distribution may also vary with host morphology. Himanthalia elongata is a basiphyte for several tissue-specific epiphytes: Ectocarpus fasciculatus, Elachista scutulata, Herponema velutinum and Myriactula areschougii are exclusive, or almost so, to receptacles. On growing receptacles their specificity extends to conceptacles, which also provide refuges from grazing. Epiphyte abundance in summer is greatest at the upper and lower limits of Himanthalia distribution, suggesting that basiphytes living under suboptimal conditions are more prone to infestation by epiphytes. 5 10% of Himanthalia receptacles are thought to persist over winter and so to facilitate the transmission of epiphytes to the following year's crop of receptacles. The distribution of Ectocarpus fasciculatus on Laminaria digitata differs in pattern from that on Himanthalia. The two Ectocarpus populations also differ morphologically, but both have reproductive and developmental, characteristics that are in accord with the ecological cycles of their basiphytes. This characteristic is likely to be an important factor in determining the success of an epiphyte. Success may also be facilitated by epiphyte variability or by possession of a fixed but well-adapted phenotype. The very high incidence of brown algal epiphytes on growing Himanthalia receptacles does not reflect the composition of the surrounding algal vegetation. The possibility that some host-recognition mechanism operates cannot be discounted.

  8. Population Growth, Available Resources, and Quality of Life: China's Post-Reform Economic Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tim Futing Liao; Hua Qin


    Two opposing intellectual traditions and their contem- porary developments regarding the relations among population, available resources, and quality of life as reflected in economic growth are reviewed. What is at issue is whether population growth is detrimental to or beneficial for economic development. Neither of the extreme views gives a complete picture of the interplay among population, resources, and quality of life. Following previ- ous literature on the topic, this paper establishes a more balanced approach that considers the function linking population and quality of life not constant but variable and regards the limitedness of resources as not absolute but relative to regions and societies. The proposed approach is more flexible in better explaining the relation between population and economic growth. China is examined as a case in point to shed light on the interaction of population growth, economic development, and available resources, and its recent post-economic reform experiences showcase the appropriateness of the synthetic approach.

  9. Obinutuzumab in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Dupuis, Jehan


    Obinutuzumab is the second next-generation monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (after ofatumumab) to enter clinical practice in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Its superiority in association with chlorambucil as compared with chlorambucil alone has led to its approval as a first-line treatment for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, for patients who are not candidates for a more intensive treatment.

  10. Spotlight on ibrutinib and its potential in frontline treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (United States)

    Khan, Maliha; Gibbons, Jamie L; Ferrajoli, Alessandra


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia in the adult population. Current efforts are focused on better understanding the intricate pathophysiology of the disease to develop successful targeted therapies. Ibrutinib is emerging as an important agent in this new age of targeted treatment for CLL. As a Bruton’s tyrosine kinase inhibitor, it blocks the signaling pathway that malignant B-lymphocytes need for growth and maturation. Ibrutinib’s role in therapy was further expanded recently when the US Food and Drug Administration approved its use in both frontline and salvage treatment for patients with CLL. This review assesses the effectiveness of ibrutinib in the frontline setting, its efficacy in various types of patients with CLL, and its safety and tolerability.

  11. The role of rural population in agricultural development in the Pčinja district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slavoljub


    Full Text Available Research results presented in this paper refer to changes in the structure of the agricultural population of the Pčinja District in the period from 1971 to 2002. They point to markedly decrease in the agricultural population, the share of agricultural population in total population, the share of rural population in total population, as well as the share of active agricultural population in total active population. The process of deagrarianization in this area is a constraining factor for the development of agriculture and causes spontaneous abandonment by working-age population who is employing in other sectors. Transfer of agricultural population in non-agricultural activities takes place either by moving into the city centre or by remaining in agricultural households and employing in non-agricultural activities (which causes daily rural-urban migration. The process of depopulation and deruralization caused ageing population to be involved in agriculture in many rural settlements so that the effects of agricultural production have become significantly decreasing. To eliminate the negative effects of the regional development of the Pčinja District, it is necessary to establish and implement a functional demographic policy and concept of the revitalization of rural area.

  12. Development of genetic diversity, differentiation and structure over 500 years in four ponderosa pine populations. (United States)

    Lesser, M R; Parchman, T L; Jackson, S T


    Population history plays an important role in shaping contemporary levels of genetic variation and geographic structure. This is especially true in small, isolated range-margin populations, where effects of inbreeding, genetic drift and gene flow may be more pronounced than in large continuous populations. Effects of landscape fragmentation and isolation distance may have implications for persistence of range-margin populations if they are demographic sinks. We studied four small, disjunct populations of ponderosa pine over a 500-year period. We coupled demographic data obtained through dendroecological methods with microsatellite data to discern how and when contemporary levels of allelic diversity, among and within-population levels of differentiation, and geographic structure, arose. Alleles accumulated rapidly following initial colonization, demonstrating proportionally high levels of gene flow into the populations. At population sizes of approximately 100 individuals, allele accumulation saturated. Levels of genetic differentiation among populations (F(ST) and Jost's D(est)) and diversity within populations (F(IS)) remained stable through time. There was no evidence of geographic genetic structure at any time in the populations' history. Proportionally, high gene flow in the early stages of population growth resulted in rapid accumulation of alleles and quickly created relatively homogenous genetic patterns among populations. Our study demonstrates that contemporary levels of genetic diversity were formed quickly and early in population development. How contemporary genetic diversity accumulates over time is a key facet of understanding population growth and development. This is especially relevant given the extent and speed at which species ranges are predicted to shift in the coming century.

  13. Sternal development in the pediatric population: evaluation using computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, Jorge; Jaimes, Camilo; Gwal, Kriti [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jaramillo, Diego; Ho-Fung, Victor [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    The normal development of the sternum using CT imaging is not known. To describe the normal development of the sternum in children on chest CT imaging. CT imaging of 300 patients (150 male, 150 female), mean age: 4.97 years (range: 0.01-9.9 years), were evaluated retrospectively. The presence and number of ossification centers in the manubrium, each individual mesosternal segment and the xiphoid were reviewed. Additionally, the vertical and horizontal fusion between ossification centers was evaluated. Differences among age and gender were calculated. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variances (ANOVA), chi-square and Fisher exact tests were performed for statistical analysis. Manubrium: A single ossification center was seen in 88% of cases and two or three ossification centers were seen in 12%. More manubrial ossification centers were correlated to a younger age (P < 0.001, R = -0.2). Mesosternum: Majority of patients had a single ossification center in the first segment (85%). The majority of patients had double ossification centers in the second and third segments (51% and 64%, respectively). No ossification center was seen in the fourth segment in 38% of patients. No significant difference among the age of vertical ossification between mesosternal segments was found. (ANOVA; P > 0.05). Xiphoid: Absence was seen in 67% of the patients. Bifid xiphoid was seen in 1% of the patients. The normal development of the different components of the sternum is a process with wide variation among children. The large variability of mesosternal ossification center types should not be confused with pathology. (orig.)

  14. Poverty, Population, Inequality, and Development: the Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto


    Full Text Available Seen in historical perspective the main economic predicaments of the present world (such as poverty, inequality, backwardness appear in a somewhat different light than in many current discussions, especially by sociologists, radical economists and political scientists. In the present paper the achievements of the modern age, and in particular of the post- World War II period, are considered in the perspective of economic and demographic history, and in their connection with the systems of production and of international relations. Some considerations concerning future possible developments conclude the paper.

  15. Case report: rheumatoid arthritis and large granular lymphocytes syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonara


    Full Text Available Felty’s syndrome (FS is a rare complication (less than 1% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA, with the clinical feature of splenomegaly and neutropenia. Approximately 10-40% of FS patients have an expansion of peripheral blood large granular lymphocytes (LGL. This cell population mainly consists of two subsets: cytotoxic T cells (CD8+, CD57+ and natural killer cells (CD3-,CD8-,CD56+. It has been hypothesised that LGL expansion could be responsible for neutropenia by suppressing neutrophil precursors in the bone marrow, but various mechanisms have been proposed to explain this association. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with rheumatoid factor positive RA who developed LGL expansion responsible for splenomegaly, but without neutropenia. In conclusion, LGL expansion is an uncommon complication of RA and may be responsible for both FS and clinical pictures resembling FS.

  16. Chronic lymphocytic lymphoma and concomitant renal cell carcinoma (Clear Cell Type: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Uz


    Full Text Available In the present report, a 73 years-old male patient who developed clear cell type renal cell carcinoma (RCC 5 years after the diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL and plausible explanations for this association were discussed by the authors. The incidence of CLL and RCC occurring in the same patient is higher than that expected in the general population. Various explicative hypotheses of this concurrence include treatment-related development of a second malignancy, immunomodulatory mechanisms, viral aetiology, cytokine (interleukin 6 release from a tumor, and common genetic mutations. Further investigations are warranted.

  17. Irritant and repellent behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for RIDL disease control strategies. (United States)

    Kongmee, Montathip; Nimmo, Derric; Labbé, Geneviève; Beech, Camilla; Grieco, John; Alphey, Luke; Achees, Nicole


    Behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti male populations developed for Release of Insects Carrying a Dominant Lethal (RIDL) technology and a Malaysian wild-type population of two age groups (4-5 and 8-10 d old) were tested under laboratory conditions against chemical irritants and repellents using the high-throughput screening system device. Results indicate that all male Ae. aegypti test populations showed significant (P control interventions implemented in the same disease-endemic locale.

  18. Decades of Urban Growth and Development on Deltas; Comparative Global Analysis of Night Lights and Population (United States)

    Small, C.; Elvidge, C.; Yetman, G.; Baugh, K.; MacManus, K.


    It is well-known that coastal zones in general, and deltas in particular, are among the most densely populated environments on Earth. Decades of satellite imagery offer spatially explicit observations of the changing land use and development of deltas worldwide. Stable night lights provide globally consistent proxies for lighted development associated with a variety of human settlement types. Gridded census enumerations provide geospatial depictions of human population density associated with residential population distributions. Recent improvements in both night light imaging and census data resolution allow us to compare stable night light and residential population density with much greater spatial correspondence than previously possible. We use night light brightness from the Visible/Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the NASA/NOAA Suomi satellite and population density grids from the NASA SEDAC Gridded Population of the World v.4 (GPWv4) product to derive density/intensity transfer functions for a wide range of urban/rural gradients worldwide. These transfer functions provide the basis for spatial disaggregation of population using the higher resolution night light imagery in areas where census data lack the resolution for meaningful analysis of population and coastal hazard. Disaggregated population maps are combined with digital elevation models to estimate current population distributions with elevation and fluvial proximity for several of the world's most densely populated deltas. In addition, we use DMSP-OLS night light composites to map changes in lighted development on these deltas since 1992. Landsat imagery is then used to map the land cover changes associated with increases in night light brightness on these deltas. The result allows for spatially explicit comparisons of development patterns in different types of deltaic environments. We present a generalized methodology for mapping development and land cover with sufficient detail and

  19. Genetic approaches to understanding the population-level impact of wind energy development on migratory bats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonhof, Maarten J. [Western Michigan Univ., Kalamazoo MI (United States); Russell, Amy L. [Grand Valley State Univ. Allendale, MI (United States)


    Documented fatalities of bats at wind turbines have raised serious concerns about the future impacts of increased wind power development on populations of migratory bat species. Yet there is little data on bat population sizes and trends to provide context for understanding the consequences of mortality due to wind power development. Using a large dataset of both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variation for eastern red bats, we demonstrated that: 1) this species forms a single, panmictic population across their range with no evidence for the historical use of divergent migratory pathways by any portion of the population; 2) the effective size of this population is in the hundreds of thousands to millions; and 3) for large populations, genetic diversity measures and at least one coalescent method are insensitive to even very high rates of population decline over long time scales and until population size has become very small. Our data provide important context for understanding the population-level impacts of wind power development on affected bat species.

  20. Lymphocyte subset reference intervals in blood donors from northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The reference intervals for leukocytes and lymphocytes currently used by most clinical laboratories present limitations as they are primarily derived from individuals of North American and European origin. The objective this study was to determine reference values for peripheral blood B lymphocytes, T lymphocyte subsets (CD4+, CD8+, naïve, memory, regulatory, TCRαβ and TCRγδ+ and NK cells from blood donors in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. Results: The proportion of included male subjects was 73.7% and the median ages of males (34 and females (35 were found to be similar. Absolute counts total lymphocytes subsets to both gender was 1,956 (1,060-4,186 cells and relative values 34%. The T CD4+ and T CD8+ lymphocytes relative values was 51% (20-62 and 24% (9-28, respectively. The most statistically significant finding observed was a higher percentage of B lymphocytes (p=0.03 in females. Commonly cited subset reference intervals were found to be consistent with values in several populations from different geographic areas.

  1. Carotenoids located in human lymphocyte subpopulations and Natural Killer cells by Raman microspectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puppels, G.J.; Puppels, G.J.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Garritsen, H.S.P.; Kummer, J.A.; Greve, Jan


    The presence and subcellular location of carotenoids in human lymphocyte sub-populations (CD4+, CD8+, T-cell receptor-γδ+, and CD19+ ) and natural killer cells (CD16+ ) were studied by means of Raman microspectroscopy. In CD4+ lymphocytes a high concentration (10-3M) of carotenoids was found in the

  2. Morphologic studies of lymphocyte nuclei in follicular and diffuse mixed small- and large-cell (lymphocytic-histiocytic) lymphoma. (United States)

    Dardick, I; Caldwell, D R; Moher, D; Jabi, M


    Twelve examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma (eight follicular, one follicular and diffuse, and three diffuse) were investigated morphometrically using plastic-embedded tissue in order to study nuclear characteristics of lymphocyte populations in this form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and to test morphologic bases for current NHL classification systems. This study illustrates that there are many inaccuracies, illusions, and misconceptions in the morphologic criteria currently used to classify mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma. A principal finding was that lymphocyte nuclear profiles in mixed-cell lymphomas tend to be smaller in size (P less than .005) and more irregular in shape (P = .0001) than the morphologically similar counterparts in germinal centers of lymph nodes with reactive hyperplasia. Intercase comparison of mixed small- and large-cell lymphomas revealed a considerable range of mean nuclear area values, some of which were within the size range of normal, small lymphocytes. At the magnifications used for morphometric assessment, a high proportion of lymphocyte nuclear profiles had shallow invaginations, but only a limited number of profiles (4% to 14%) had deep (cleaved) indentations. Contrary to current definitions for this subtype of NHL, lymphocytes with "small" nuclei had the same proportion of the nuclear diameter occupied by nuclear invaginations as lymphocytes with "large" nuclei and, in fact, mean nuclear invagination depth was shallower in "small" nuclei than in "large" nuclei. Furthermore, regardless of whether it is nuclear area or shape that is evaluated, lymphocytes in mixed-cell lymphoma do not separate into two populations of small-cleaved and large noncleaved cells. Morphometry reveals that only four of the 12 examples of mixed small- and large-cell lymphoma had a proportion of the lymphocytes in the size range of fully transformed germinal center lymphocytes that exceeded 25%, and none of the cases approached 50% even

  3. Population and development scenarios for EU neighbor countries in the South and East Mediterranean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.


    This paper presents four population and development scenarios for 11 South and East Mediterranean countries (SEMC) for the period 2010-2050. Focus of analysis of scenario results is on working age population prospects, economic consequences, migration pressure in four migrant-sending SEMCs (Algeria,

  4. Developing educational resources for population genetics in R: An open and collaborative approach (United States)

    The R computing and statistical language community has developed a myriad of resources for conducting populations genetic analyses. However, resources for learning how to carry out population genetic analyses in R are scattered and often incomplete, which can make acquiring this skill unnecessarily ...

  5. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.


    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionn

  6. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.


    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A questionn

  7. Glaucoma screening during regular optician visits : can the population at risk of developing glaucoma be reached?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoutenbeek, R.; Jansonius, N. M.


    Aim: To determine the percentage of the population at risk of developing glaucoma, which can potentially be reached by conducting glaucoma screening during regular optician visits. Methods: 1200 inhabitants aged > 40 years were randomly selected from Dutch community population databases. A

  8. Syllabi and Course Content Outlines Integrating Population Education Into Non-Formal Development Programmes, 1. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Presented are syllabi and course outlines which demonstrate how certain curricula of national development programs such as agriculture and health can become useful vehicles for disseminating population education concepts. The descriptions are intended to help instructors identify entry points into which population education topics can be…

  9. Development of Out-of-School Population Education Programmes: A Synthesis. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This publication synthesizes eight case studies which trace the development of out-of-school population education programs in eight countries: Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The case studies show that in all the eight countries, the majority of the population education programs have…

  10. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  11. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida


    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  12. Stimulation of rat B-lymphocyte proliferation by corticotropin-releasing factor. (United States)

    McGillis, J P; Park, A; Rubin-Fletter, P; Turck, C; Dallman, M F; Payan, D G


    The mitogenic effect of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) on rat lymphocytes was investigated. When rat splenocytes were cultured for 48 hr with CFR, a dose-dependent increase in incorporation of 3H-thymidine (3H-Tdr) was observed, with a maximal response at 10 nM CRF. Comparison of the proliferative effect of CRF on enriched populations of B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or macrophages revealed that only B lymphocytes responded following treatment with CRF. When lymphocytes derived from different lymphoid tissues were compared, CRF had a greater proliferative effect on lymphocytes derived from gut-associated lymphoid tissue (mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches) than on lymphocytes from spleen or inguinal lymph nodes; CRF had no effect on thymocytes. Synthetic fragments of CRF were used to determine which portions of the peptide are recognized by lymphocytes. The C-terminal fragments alpha-helical CRF9-41 and CRF21-41 were as potent as native CRF in stimulating B-lymphocyte proliferation, whereas CRF1-20 did not stimulate proliferation. The activity of these peptides suggests that CRF stimulates lymphocyte proliferation by cellular recognition of structural determinants in the C-terminal one-half of the peptide.

  13. Development and utilization of low-cost audio-visual aids in population communication. (United States)


    One of the reasons why population information has to a certain degree failed to create demand for family planning services is that the majority of information and communication materials being used have been developed in an urban setting, resulting in their inappropriateness to the target rural audiences. Furthermore, their having been evolved in urban centers has hampered their subsequent replication, distribution, and use in rural areas due to lack of funds, production and distribution resources. For this reason, many developing countries in Asia have begun to demand population materials which are low-cost and simple, more appropriate to rural audiences and within local production resources and capabilities. In the light of this identified need, the Population Communication Unit, with the assistance of the Population Education Mobile Team and Clearing House, Unesco, has collaborated with the Population Center Foundation of the Philippines to undertake a Regional Training Workshop on the Design, Development, and Utilization of Low-Cost Audiovisual Aids in the Philippines from 21-26 July 1980. The Workshop, which will be attended by communications personnel and materials developers from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Nepal, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand, will focus on developing the capabilities of midlevel population program personnel in conceptualizing, designing, developing, testing and utilizing simple and low-cost audiovisual materials. It is hoped that with the skills acquired from the Workshop, participants will be able to increase their capability in training their own personnel in the development of low-cost materials.

  14. Effect of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis on apoptosis of bovine mammary gland lymphocytes. (United States)

    Slama, Petr; Sladek, Zbysek; Rysanek, Dusan; Langrova, Tereza


    The aim of this study was to determine whether lymphocyte apoptosis is modulated by infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis. Samples of cell populations were obtained by lavage of the mammary glands at 4 intervals (24, 48, 72 and 168 h) following infection. The percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes peaked at 168 h after challenge with S. aureus or S. uberis. Subsequent experiments focused on in vitro cultivation of mammary gland lymphocytes with S. aureus and S. uberis. These experiments showed a lower percentage of apoptotic lymphocytes following 3h of cultivating cells with bacteria than after cultivation without bacteria. The results demonstrate that during both experimental infection of bovine mammary glands with S. aureus or S. uberis and during in vitro cultivation of lymphocytes with S. aureus or S. uberis, apoptosis of lymphocytes is delayed.

  15. Lymphocyte maintenance during healthy aging requires no substantial alterations in cellular turnover. (United States)

    Westera, Liset; van Hoeven, Vera; Drylewicz, Julia; Spierenburg, Gerrit; van Velzen, Jeroen F; de Boer, Rob J; Tesselaar, Kiki; Borghans, José A M


    In healthy humans, lymphocyte populations are maintained at a relatively constant size throughout life, reflecting a balance between lymphocyte production and loss. Given the profound immunological changes that occur during healthy aging, including a significant decline in T-cell production by the thymus, lymphocyte maintenance in the elderly is generally thought to require homeostatic alterations in lymphocyte dynamics. Surprisingly, using in vivo (2) H2 O labeling, we find similar dynamics of most lymphocyte subsets between young adult and elderly healthy individuals. As the contribution of thymic output to T-cell production is only minor from young adulthood onward, compensatory increases in peripheral T-cell division rates are not required to maintain the T-cell pool, despite a tenfold decline in thymic output. These fundamental insights will aid the interpretation of further research into aging and clinical conditions related to disturbed lymphocyte dynamics.

  16. Population-resources-environment-development interrelationships in the United Nations: in search of an approach. (United States)

    Gosovic, B


    The relationships among population, resources, the environment, and development are reviewed, with the focus on how such questions are dealt with in the United Nations system. Emphasis is on the complexities of the issues raised rather than on their resolution.

  17. Impact of correlation of predictors on discrimination of risk models in development and external populations. (United States)

    Kundu, Suman; Mazumdar, Madhu; Ferket, Bart


    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of risk models is known to be influenced by differences in case-mix and effect size of predictors. The impact of heterogeneity in correlation among predictors has however been under investigated. We sought to evaluate how correlation among predictors affects the AUC in development and external populations. We simulated hypothetical populations using two different methods based on means, standard deviations, and correlation of two continuous predictors. In the first approach, the distribution and correlation of predictors were assumed for the total population. In the second approach, these parameters were modeled conditional on disease status. In both approaches, multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to predict disease risk in individuals. Each risk model developed in a population was validated in the remaining populations to investigate external validity. For both approaches, we observed that the magnitude of the AUC in the development and external populations depends on the correlation among predictors. Lower AUCs were estimated in scenarios of both strong positive and negative correlation, depending on the direction of predictor effects and the simulation method. However, when adjusted effect sizes of predictors were specified in the opposite directions, increasingly negative correlation consistently improved the AUC. AUCs in external validation populations were higher or lower than in the derivation cohort, even in the presence of similar predictor effects. Discrimination of risk prediction models should be assessed in various external populations with different correlation structures to make better inferences about model generalizability.

  18. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors produced by a superinfection-resistant stable packaging cell line allow genetic modification of primary human T lymphocytes. (United States)

    Labenski, Verena; Suerth, Julia D; Barczak, Elke; Heckl, Dirk; Levy, Camille; Bernadin, Ornellie; Charpentier, Emmanuelle; Williams, David A; Fehse, Boris; Verhoeyen, Els; Schambach, Axel


    Primary human T lymphocytes represent an important cell population for adoptive immunotherapies, including chimeric-antigen and T-cell receptor applications, as they have the capability to eliminate non-self, virus-infected and tumor cells. Given the increasing numbers of clinical immunotherapy applications, the development of an optimal vector platform for genetic T lymphocyte engineering, which allows cost-effective high-quality vector productions, remains a critical goal. Alpharetroviral self-inactivating vectors (ARV) have several advantages compared to other vector platforms, including a more random genomic integration pattern and reduced likelihood for inducing aberrant splicing of integrated proviruses. We developed an ARV platform for the transduction of primary human T lymphocytes. We demonstrated functional transgene transfer using the clinically relevant herpes-simplex-virus thymidine kinase variant TK.007. Proof-of-concept of alpharetroviral-mediated T-lymphocyte engineering was shown in vitro and in a humanized transplantation model in vivo. Furthermore, we established a stable, human alpharetroviral packaging cell line in which we deleted the entry receptor (SLC1A5) for RD114/TR-pseudotyped ARVs to prevent superinfection and enhance genomic integrity of the packaging cell line and viral particles. We showed that superinfection can be entirely prevented, while maintaining high recombinant virus titers. Taken together, this resulted in an improved production platform representing an economic strategy for translating the promising features of ARVs for therapeutic T-lymphocyte engineering.

  19. Snowballing movement. Legislators are now active advocates regarding population and development. (United States)

    De Leon, B D


    Newly industrializing economies (NIEs) in East Asia have demonstrated that the population programs were part of their economic success, such as in Thailand and Indonesia where family planning (FP) was made a way of life. The population growth in the Philippines has put pressure on the environment by migration to uplands where slash-and-burn agriculture adds to deforestation. The Global Committee of Parliamentarians of Population and Development headquartered in New York serves as a liaison for 56 legislative groups sponsoring meetings and seminars. In October 1981 the Asian Conference on Parliamentarians on Population and Development was held in Beijing with the participation of legislators from 19 countries. It set up the Asian Forum for Parliamentarians on Population and Development to contribute and promote activities that facilitate population and development, and to improve the living standards and welfare of people in Asia. The Secretariat is located in Bangkok, Thailand. In October 1987 in Beijing and in October 1990 follow-up regional conferences were organized. The latter was attended by 21 Asian parliamentarians who endorsed the stabilization of population growth to achieve a 1% growth rate for Asia by 2000. The Philippine population numbered 63.9 million in mid-1992 with an annual growth rate of 2.3%. The Philippine House of Representatives started an inquiry about the disturbing demographic trends with implications on economic growth. In 1987 a movement commenced that hosted the Philippine Parliamentarians Conference on Human Survival, Population and Development (PARLCON '88) in Manila. It focused on sustainable development, the conditions of women and children, the environment, and the promotion of FP which was adopted by the House and involved a major segment of legislators.

  20. [Third preparatory committee for the International Conference on Population and Development. Peru presentation]. (United States)

    Lopez, C


    This address by the Peruvian delegation to the Third Preparatory Committee Meeting for the International Conference on Population and Development focuses on four points in the proposed Plan of Action that might require further development. First, the link between drug trafficking and environmental degradation should be recognized. Cultivation of narcotic plants contributes to deforestation of the tropical forest and contamination of rivers, and along with terrorism has caused considerable population movement in Peru. The second point is that widespread poverty, limited investment in human capital, insufficient institutional capacity, and the external debt burden of the developing countries are clearly interrelated with sociodemographic processes and decisively affect the capacity of the nation to implement population policies and programs as a function of current and future international commitments. The third point is that, in the area of information, education, and communication, attention should be given to the entire life cycle and the entirety of themes related to population. Finally, coordinated programs between public and private institutions and nongovernmental organizations at the national level, and between the U.N. Population Fund, the Population Commission, and the Commission on Sustainable Development at the international level, should be organized to assure effective follow-up on Plan of Action proposals and agreements. Peru has participated in a wide variety of international conferences and activities related to population, and was a major participant in the subregional preparatory conference of the Andean nations.

  1. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.


    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  2. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise. (United States)

    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel


    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  3. Lymphocyte transformation in presumed ocular histoplasmosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganley, J.P.; Nemo, G.J.; Comstock, G.W.; Brody, J.A.


    Lymphocytes from individuals with inactive macular disciform lesions of presumed ocular histoplasmosis challenged with three histoplasmin antigens incorporated tritiated thymidine at a significantly higher rate than histoplasmin-stimulated lymphocytes of matched control and peripheral scar groups. This finding is consistent with the etiologic association of the disciform ocular syndrome and previous systemic infection with Histoplasma capsulatum. The disciform group had a higher mean response than the other two groups to pokeweed mitogen but not to phytohemagglutinin and had higher mean counts per minute to the specific antigens Toxoplasma gondii, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M battery, and M gaus, but not to Candida albicans. These data would suggest that individuals with the disciform lesion of presumed ocular histoplasmosis have a hyperreactive cellular immune response; this response may play an important role in the development of the disciform.

  4. The expanding role of bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia


    Nair KS; Ujjani C


    Kruti Sheth Nair, Chaitra Ujjani Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: As the most prevalent form of adult leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) affects thousands of patients each year. Given the indolent nature of the disease, symptomatic patients frequently experience multiple relapses throughout their clinical course. Better therapeutic options are needed, particularly for the elderly population that characterize...

  5. Initiation of lymphocyte DNA synthesis. (United States)

    Coffman, F D; Fresa, K L; Cohen, S


    The initiation of DNA replication in T lymphocytes appears to be regulated by two distinct activities: one associated with proliferation which mediates initiation, and another associated with quiescence which blocks initiation. Activated lymphocytes and proliferating lymphoid cell lines produce an activity, termed ADR, which can initiate DNA replication in isolated, quiescent nuclei. ADR is heat-labile, has protease activity or interacts closely with a protease, and is distinct from the DNA polymerases. ADR activity is absent in quiescent lymphocytes and appears in mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes after IL-2 binding. The generation of active ADR appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of a precursor which is present in resting cells. Nuclei from mitogen-unresponsive lymphocytes fail to initiate DNA replication in response to ADR, of potential importance in the age-related decline of immunity. Quiescent lymphocytes lack ADR and synthesize an ADR-inhibitory activity. The ADR inhibitor is a heat-stable protein which suppresses the initiation of DNA synthesis, but is ineffective at suppressing elongation once DNA strand replication has begun. Nuclei from several neoplastic cell lines fail to respond to the ADR inhibitor, which may play a role in the continuous proliferation of these cells. At least one of these neoplastic cell lines produces both ADR and an inhibitory factor. These findings suggest that the regulation of proliferation is dependent on the balance between activating and inhibitory pathways.

  6. Expression of the Chemokine Receptors CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR3 by Human Tissue-Infiltrating Lymphocytes (United States)

    Kunkel, Eric J.; Boisvert, Judie; Murphy, Kristine; Vierra, Mark A.; Genovese, Mark C.; Wardlaw, Andrew J.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Hodge, Martin R.; Wu, Lijun; Butcher, Eugene C.; Campbell, James J.


    Differential expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors has been useful for identification of peripheral blood memory lymphocyte subsets with distinct tissue and microenvironmental tropisms. Expression of CCR4 by circulating memory CD4+ lymphocytes is associated with cutaneous and other systemic populations while expression of CCR9 is associated with a small intestine-homing subset. CCR5 and CXCR3 are also expressed by discrete memory CD4+ populations in blood, as well as by tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes from a number of sites. To characterize the similarities and differences among tissue-infiltrating lymphocytes, and to shed light on the specialization of lymphocyte subsets that mediate inflammation and immune surveillance in particular tissues, we have examined the expression of CCR4, CXCR3, and CCR5 on CD4+ lymphocytes directly isolated from a wide variety of normal and inflamed tissues. Extra-lymphoid tissues contained only memory lymphocytes, many of which were activated (CD69+). As predicted by classical studies, skin lymphocytes were enriched in CLA expression whereas intestinal lymphocytes were enriched in α4β7 expression. CCR4 was expressed at high levels by skin-infiltrating lymphocytes, at lower levels by lung and synovial fluid lymphocytes, but never by intestinal lymphocytes. Only the high CCR4 levels characteristic of skin lymphocytes were associated with robust chemotactic and adhesive responses to TARC, consistent with a selective role for CCR4 in skin lymphocyte homing. In contrast, CXCR3 and CCR5 were present on the majority of lymphocytes from each non-lymphoid tissue examined, suggesting that these receptors are unlikely to determine tissue specificity, but rather, may play a wider role in tissue inflammation. PMID:11786428

  7. Blood and alveolar lymphocyte subsets in pulmonary cytomegalovirus infection after lung transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grenet Dominique


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV pneumonitis has been shown to be associated with lymphocytic alveolitis after lung transplantation. In the present study, we investigated a series of bronchoalveolar (BAL and blood samples, collected in the absence of rejection or acute infectious episodes. in order -1: to evaluate intra-alveolar cell population changes concomitant with CMV replication and -2: to reappraise the value of cell population analysis in the management of patients after lung transplantation. Methods We used flow cytometry to investigate modifications of lymphocyte subpopulations related to pulmonary cytomegalovirus infections in blood and BAL samples from a series of 13 lung transplant recipients. After exclusion of samples obtained during pulmonary rejection, bronchiolitis obliterans or acute bacterial infection, 48 blood and BAL samples were retained for analysis: 17 were CMV positive by shell-vial assay and 31 were CMV negative in blood and BAL. Results Our results demonstrate that pulmonary CMV infection is associated with a significant increase in the total lymphocyte population in BAL samples, but with minor modifications of the various lymphocyte subpopulations and a significantly higher absolute number of B lymphocytes in blood samples. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection is accompanied by only minor changes in BAL lymphocyte subpopulations. The study of BAL lymphocyte subpopulations therefore appears to be of limited clinical value in the diagnosis of pulmonary CMV infection. However, increased blood B-lymphocytes seems to be a clinical feature associated with CMV infection.

  8. Trends and corresponding policies related to population, resources, environment and economic development in northwest China. (United States)

    Zhang, Z; Zhu, L


    A model is presented of the interaction between population, resources, environment, and the economic system in the northwest region of China. Population pressure is yielding important impacts on the environment. Development should be guided by effective population control and continuous agricultural development. Alternative strategies include: 1) Identify effective ways to curb population growth, e.g., investment in social and economic development, and formation of a social environment with social security assurances conducive to population control. Public campaigns need to address the links between poverty and population, to awaken people's sense of responsibility, and to change people's desire for more children. 2) Give education a priority as a means of upgrading the quality of rural labor. Mass media must popularize elementary school education and nine years of education. 3) Encourage migration out of the northwest. 4) Use technology to protect and correct land resources. Local regulations are needed on land management to guarantee proper planning, use, protection, and conservation of land. 5) Upgrade agricultural structures, develop forestry and grasslands, protect water and soil, and improve the ecological conditions. 6) Invest capital in such farm constructions as irrigation systems. 7) Increase investments in agriculture in order to assure productivity and reserves and to speed the transition to modern agricultural practices. 8) Raise land efficiency by increasing imports of grain and cereals from outside the region. 9) Develop township enterprises and the rural economy.

  9. Development of population geography from antropogeography to spatial-analitical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasovski Milena


    Full Text Available Population geography is a subdiscipline of Human geography and studies the distribution, concentration and density of population over the terestrial surface, as well as differences in population size, changes and characteristics, like structures, migrations, activity etc, among some places present compared to others. Population geography has had a perscientific stage as long as human history. First modern scientific treatis of population in geography was the F. Ratzels book Antropogeography in 1882. During the first half of the XX century, French geographer Vidal de la Blanche gave a capital importance of population studies in his work Principes de Geographie Humaine. In interwar years, various aspects of population were studied. After The Second World War started the renovating movement of geography and new tendencies appear in human geography and, consequently in population geography. Attempts were made to define population geography as a separate sub-discipline. The world wide trend of treating population geography as separate discipline was expressed by publishing monographs, bibliographies and textbooks. The most significant authors who worked on defining population geography were French geographers P. George (1951, 1959, Beaujen-Garnier (1965, 1966; North-american geographers: G. Trewarta (1953, 1969, W. Bunge (1962, J. Clance (1965, 1971, W. Zelinski (1966; in Great Britain: J.I. Clarke (1965; in USSR: Ju.G. Sauškin i D.N. Anučin (1950, V.V. Pokšiševskij (1966, D.I. Valentej (1973; in Poland V. Ormotski (1931, L. Kosinski (1967 A. Jagelski (1980. Those authors and their works had the significant influence on the development of population science in the world and also in Serbia. Although the development of population geography was different in different countries and scientific research centers, we can clearly defined four stages. First stage lasted untill 1960s and was characterised by works of G.Trewarta, H. Doerres Ju.G. Sauškin, D

  10. On the relationship between population growth and social and economic development. (United States)

    Xu, D


    China's population has grown rapidly since 1949, reaching a size of 1,008,170,000 by 1982. Rapid population growth has been encouraged by a high birth rate coupled with low mortality, traditional preference for sons, and the incorrect assumption that man is only a producer and not a consumer. Rapid population growth directly decreases economic development while producing a rapidly increasing labor force requiring an increase in the number of jobs available. Population growth has already reduced arable land from 3 MN in 1949 to 1.5 MN at present and can also cause sanitation and pollution problems. Only by adopting family plnning and the 1 child family can China gradually slow population growth to correspond with economic development; then the state will be able to improve health care and education and, therefore, population quality. China's population policy is not one of NeoMalthusianism, which advocates birth control and late marriage, and assumes the existence of a capitalist system and does not apply to communist systems. Malthus may have attempted to absolve the nourgeoisie from all blame by aiming his preaching against blind reproduction at the poor; he thought that overpopulation would be reduced by pestilence, war, and famine. Protecting capitalism motivated Malthus and other capitalists, but the Chinese want to promote economic development. Marx has refuted Malthus' views on population. While Chinese population policy and NeoMalthusianism agree on advocating birth control and late marriage, their underlying philosophies are different. The author supports laws and policies on fertility and family planning, and feels that population scientists must be involved in all aspects--study, propaganda, and education--relating to family planning.

  11. Population development and status of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina in the Wadden Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter JH Reijnders


    Full Text Available An index for the condition of a population should include a measure of the recuperative power or resilience of the population in question. This measure needs to cover both the demographic and physiological condition of the population. Applied to the harbour seal population in the Wadden Sea we therefore address respectively the population development and distribution, and its health condition, and relate these to environmental conditions. The harbour seal population has been severely depleted by hunting in the first half of the 20th century. After hunting was stopped in the mid-1970s the population recovered gradually. This recovery was twice interrupted by Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV outbreaks in 1988 and 2002. These PDV-epizootics reduced the population by 57% and 50% respectively. They also lead to changes in age and sex structure of the population, which gradually returned to a stable age-structure. Despite the reduction in population size by respectively 57% and 50%, the population showed a strong recovery with a growth rate close to the considered maximum possible for this species. The observed changes in the distribution of the population over the 4 sub-regions indicate that distribution is not a static phenomenon. Long term field and pathological investigations point out that the general health status of the population has improved, particularly that of newborn seals (0-6months old. The increasing prevalence of parasites in lungs and intestine warrants continued monitoring of the health status of seals. This is especially relevant in view of the exponential increase of the population, which may finally approach the carrying capacity of the area. Concluding, we canstate that the condition of the population in terms of demographic and health parameters is satisfactory. The best guarantee for maintaining such a favourable conservation status is to abstain from human interferences (e.g. rescue, rehabilitation and release with natural

  12. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: treatment options for patients with refractory disease. (United States)

    Motta, Marina; Wierda, William G; Ferrajoli, Alessandra


    Patients with purine analogue-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have short survival and limited treatment options. Defining the best salvage strategies for this population is challenging, because limited data are available from clinical trials, and because studies have enrolled mixed populations (patients with recurrent and refractory disease or patients with refractory disease and Richter transformation). Moreover, patients with refractory CLL have a high incidence of unfavorable molecular and clinical features, such as high-risk genomic profiles, unmutated immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes, expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70, and bulky lymphadenopathies. These patients are also severely immunosuppressed because of the underlying disease and the treatments received, and experience a high rate of infectious complications that pose an additional difficulty in selecting treatment. Despite these challenges, in parallel with better characterizations of the biologic features of refractory CLL, the number of available treatment modalities for this population has increased. Several chemoimmunotherapy combinations have been developed, and novel agents with a different mechanism of action are being investigated in clinical trials. Furthermore, allogeneic stem cell transplantation with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens is a therapeutic strategy that is increasingly offered to patients with refractory CLL.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A population of B cells with characteristics of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was found in the peripheral blood of four patients who presented with cutaneous infiltration of atypical CD4+ T cells with cerebriform nuclei. The B cells had a low density of immunoglobulin on their surface membrane, expr

  14. Presentation of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma in a Warthin Tumor: Case Report and Literature Review. (United States)

    Jawad, Hadeel; McCarthy, Peter; O'Leary, Gerard; Heffron, Cynthia C


    Warthin tumor is the second most common salivary gland neoplasm. It occurs more commonly in males than in females. Malignant transformation in Warthin tumor is a rare but well-recognized phenomenon; however, the development or presentation of lymphoma in a Warthin tumor is rare. An 80-year-old man presented with painless mass of the right parotid gland of 2 years duration with recent ulceration of the overlying skin and right cervical lymphadenopathy underwent a surgical resection of parotid mass and biopsy of the periglandular lymph nodes. The histological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, present within the stroma of a Warthin tumor, and also present within the adjacent lymph node. This case is the third reported case describing a collision of Warthin tumor and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. It also emphasizes the importance of careful examination of the lymphoid stroma of these tumors.

  15. The Relationship between Natural Resources and Population Development in Liaocheng City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    According to the relevant data about the land resources and population in Liaocheng City from 1999 to 2008, by using the research method of bearing capacity of natural resources, the thesis analyzes the relationship between natural resources and dynamic change of population in Liaocheng City. The results show that the farmland tends to diminish on the whole, and forests, garden land, urban-rural settlements and land for enterprises and mining increase slowly. Based on the analysis of the dynamic relationship between land resources and population, we conclude that the land resources still can bear the current population in Liaocheng City, but the population development inflict critical pressure on the forest resources and water resources.

  16. Population growth and economic development in the very long run: a simulation model of three revolutions. (United States)

    Steinmann, G; Komlos, J


    The authors propose an economic model capable of simulating the 4 main historical stages of civilization: hunting, agricultural, industrial, and postindustrial. An output-maximizing society to respond to changes in factor endowments by switching technologies. Changes in factor proportions arise through population growth and capital accumulation. A slow rate of exogenous technical process is assumed. The model synthesizes Malthusian and Boserupian notions of the effect of population growth on per capita output. Initially the capital-diluting effect of population growth dominates. As population density increases, however, and a threshold is reached, the Boserupian effect becomes crucial, and a technological revolution occurs. The cycle is thereafter repeated. After the second economic revolution, however, the Malthusian constraint dissolves permanently, as population growth can continue without being constrained by diminishing returns to labor. By synthesizing Malthusian and Boserupian notions, the model is able to capture the salient features of economic development in the very long run.

  17. Obinutuzumab for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Rioufol, Catherine; Salles, Gilles


    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological malignancy that is incurable using standard approaches. Two anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAb), rituximab and ofatumumab, have been approved for CLL treatment. A new glycoengineered type II humanized anti-CD20 mAb, obinutuzumab (GA101), has been developed and demonstrates increased activity against B-cell malignancies by inducing direct cell death and better antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. In a recent randomized Phase III study in patients with newly diagnosed CLL and coexisting conditions, obinutuzumab plus chlorambucil demonstrated significant improvement in progression-free survival and several other outcome parameters, in contrast to rituximab plus chlorambucil. Grade 3-4 infusion-related reactions and neutropenia occurred more frequently in patients who received obinutuzumab compared with those who received rituximab; however, the rate of serious infections was similar. Obinutuzumab represents a promising new option for patients with CLL and must be investigated with other chemotherapy regimens or with new targeted agents.

  18. How T lymphocytes see antigen (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arup K.


    Complex organisms, like humans, have an adaptive immune system that enables us to do battle with diverse pathogens. This flexible system can also go awry, and many diseases are the direct consequence of the adaptive immune system failing to discriminate between markers of self and non-self. The orchestrators of adaptive immunity are a class of cells called T lymphocytes (T cells). T cells recognize minute numbers of molecular signatures of pathogens, and T cell recognition of these molecular markers of non-self is both specific and degenerate. The specific (yet, cross-reactive), diverse, and self-tolerant T cell repertoire is designed in the thymus. I will describe how an approach that brings together theoretical and computational studies (rooted in statistical physics) with experiments (carried out by key collaborators) has allowed us to shed light on the mechanistic principles underlying how T cells respond to pathogens in a digital fashion (``on'' or ``off''), and how this molecular machinery coupled with frustration (a la spin glasses) plays a key role in designing the special properties of the T cell repertoire during development in the thymus.

  19. Population health metrics: crucial inputs to the development of evidence for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A


    Full Text Available Abstract Valid, reliable and comparable measures of the health states of individuals and of the health status of populations are critical components of the evidence base for health policy. We need to develop population health measurement strategies that coherently address the relationships between epidemiological measures (such as risk exposures, incidence, and mortality rates and multi-domain measures of population health status, while ensuring validity and cross-population comparability. Studies reporting on descriptive epidemiology of major diseases, injuries and risk factors, and on the measurement of health at the population level – either for monitoring trends in health levels or inequalities or for measuring broad outcomes of health systems and social interventions – are not well-represented in traditional epidemiology journals, which tend to concentrate on causal studies and on quasi-experimental design. In particular, key methodological issues relating to the clear conceptualisation of, and the validity and comparability of measures of population health are currently not addressed coherently by any discipline, and cross-disciplinary debate is fragmented and often conducted in mutually incomprehensible language or paradigms. Population health measurement potentially bridges a range of currently disjoint fields of inquiry relating to health: biology, demography, epidemiology, health economics, and broader social science disciplines relevant to assessment of health determinants, health state valuations and health inequalities. This new journal will focus on the importance of a population based approach to measurement as a way to characterize the complexity of people's health, the diseases and risks that affect it, its distribution, and its valuation, and will attempt to provide a forum for innovative work and debate that bridge the many fields of inquiry relevant to population health in order to contribute to the development of valid

  20. Heterogeneity of Genetic Damage in Cervical Nuclei and Lymphocytes in Women with Different Levels of Dysplasia and Cancer-Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alvarez-Moya


    Full Text Available The comet assay can be used to assess genetic damage, but heterogeneity in the length of the tails is frequently observed. The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic damage and heterogeneity in the cervical nuclei and lymphocytes from patients with different levels of dysplasia and to determine the risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer. The study included 97 females who presented with different levels of dysplasia. A comet assay was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cervical epithelial cells. Significant genetic damage (P≤0.05 was observed only in patients diagnosed with nuclei cervical from dysplasia III (NCDIII and lymphocytes from dysplasia I (LDI. However, the standard deviations of the tail lengths in the cervical nuclei and lymphocytes from patients with dysplasia I were significantly different (P≤0.0001 from the standard deviations of the tail lengths in the nuclei cervical and lymphocytes from patients with DII and DIII (NCDII, NCDIII and LDII, LDIII, indicating a high heterogeneity in tail length. Results suggest that genetic damage could be widely present but only manifested as increased tail length in certain cell populations. This heterogeneity could obscure the statistical significance of the genetic damage.

  1. Heterogeneity of Genetic Damage in Cervical Nuclei and Lymphocytes in Women with Different Levels of Dysplasia and Cancer-Associated Risk Factors (United States)

    Alvarez-Moya, Carlos; Reynoso-Silva, Mónica; Canales-Aguirre, Alejandro A.; Chavez-Chavez, José O.; Castañeda-Vázquez, Hugo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo I.


    The comet assay can be used to assess genetic damage, but heterogeneity in the length of the tails is frequently observed. The aims of this study were to evaluate genetic damage and heterogeneity in the cervical nuclei and lymphocytes from patients with different levels of dysplasia and to determine the risk factors associated with the development of cervical cancer. The study included 97 females who presented with different levels of dysplasia. A comet assay was performed in peripheral blood lymphocytes and cervical epithelial cells. Significant genetic damage (P ≤ 0.05) was observed only in patients diagnosed with nuclei cervical from dysplasia III (NCDIII) and lymphocytes from dysplasia I (LDI). However, the standard deviations of the tail lengths in the cervical nuclei and lymphocytes from patients with dysplasia I were significantly different (P ≤ 0.0001) from the standard deviations of the tail lengths in the nuclei cervical and lymphocytes from patients with DII and DIII (NCDII, NCDIII and LDII, LDIII), indicating a high heterogeneity in tail length. Results suggest that genetic damage could be widely present but only manifested as increased tail length in certain cell populations. This heterogeneity could obscure the statistical significance of the genetic damage. PMID:26339603

  2. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  3. Development of a practical modeling framework for estimating the impact of wind technology on bird populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, M.L. [California State Univ., Sacramento, CA (United States); Pollock, K.H. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    One of the most pressing environmental concerns related to wind project development is the potential for avian fatalities caused by the turbines. The goal of this project is to develop a useful, practical modeling framework for evaluating potential wind power plant impacts that can be generalized to most bird species. This modeling framework could be used to get a preliminary understanding of the likelihood of significant impacts to birds, in a cost-effective way. The authors accomplish this by (1) reviewing the major factors that can influence the persistence of a wild population; (2) briefly reviewing various models that can aid in estimating population status and trend, including methods of evaluating model structure and performance; (3) reviewing survivorship and population projections; and (4) developing a framework for using models to evaluate the potential impacts of wind development on birds.

  4. UNFPA highlights key population issues in area of regional social development. (United States)


    The UNFPA representative for Thailand was one of the most important speakers on population-related issues at the 54th session of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). The representative discussed some key areas in the field of social development which will need attention in the ESCAP region during the early decades of the 21st century, citing reproductive health needs, including family planning; the sexual health needs of adolescents; population aging and the needs of the elderly; and the eradication of poverty in the region as priority concerns. The CITYNET representative considered the effects of population growth upon poverty in some developing countries of the region. The absolute numbers of poor are increasing as population size grows, while urban poverty becomes more prominent as urbanization occurs. The provision of UNFPA assistance to the Asia and Pacific region is discussed.

  5. A Role for T-Lymphocytes in Human Breast Cancer and in Canine Mammary Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Carvalho


    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation in the tumor microenvironment has a prominent role in carcinogenesis and benefits the proliferation and survival of malignant cells, promoting angiogenesis and metastasis. Mammary tumors are frequently infiltrated by a heterogeneous population of immune cells where T-lymphocytes have a great importance. Interestingly, similar inflammatory cell infiltrates, cytokine and chemokine expression in humans and canine mammary tumors were recently described. However, in both species, despite all the scientific evidences that appoint for a significant role of T-lymphocytes, a definitive conclusion concerning the effectiveness of T-cell dependent immune mechanisms has not been achieved yet. In the present review, we describe similarities between human breast cancer and canine mammary tumors regarding tumor T-lymphocyte infiltration, such as relationship of TILs and mammary tumors malignancy, association of ratio CD4+/ CD8+ T-cells with low survival rates, promotion of tumor progression by Th2 cells actions, and association of great amounts of Treg cells with poor prognostic factors. This apparent parallelism together with the fact that dogs develop spontaneous tumors in the context of a natural immune system highlight the dog as a possible useful biological model for studies in human breast cancer immunology.

  6. Characterization of human γδ T lymphocytes infiltrating primary malignant melanomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cordova

    Full Text Available T lymphocytes are often induced naturally in melanoma patients and infiltrate tumors. Given that γδ T cells mediate antigen-specific killing of tumor cells, we studied the representation and the in vitro cytokine production and cytotoxic activity of tumor infiltrating γδ T cells from 74 patients with primary melanoma. We found that γδ T cells represent the major lymphocyte population infiltrating melanoma, and both Vδ1(+ and Vδ2(+ cells are involved. The majority of melanoma-infiltrating γδ cells showed effector memory and terminally-differentiated phenotypes and, accordingly, polyclonal γδ T cell lines obtained from tumor-infiltrating immune cells produced IFN-γ and TNF-α and were capable of killing melanoma cell lines in vitro. The cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 cell lines was further improved by pre-treatment of tumor target cells with zoledronate. Moreover, higher rate of γδ T cells isolation and percentages of Vδ2 cells correlate with early stage of development of melanoma and absence of metastasis. Altogether, our results suggest that a natural immune response mediated by γδ T lymphocytes may contribute to the immunosurveillance of melanoma.

  7. Virus-specific T lymphocytes home to the skin during natural dengue infection. (United States)

    Rivino, Laura; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A; Thein, Tun-Linn; Too, Chien Tei; Gan, Victor Chih Hao; Hanson, Brendon J; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Bertoletti, Antonio; Gascoigne, Nicholas R J; Lye, David Chien; Leo, Yee Sin; Akbar, Arne N; Kemeny, David M; MacAry, Paul A


    Dengue, which is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease afflicting human populations, causes a spectrum of clinical symptoms that include fever, muscle and joint pain, maculopapular skin rash, and hemorrhagic manifestations. Patients infected with dengue develop a broad antigen-specific T lymphocyte response, but the phenotype and functional properties of these cells are only partially understood. We show that natural infection induces dengue-specific CD8(+) T lymphocytes that are highly activated and proliferating, exhibit antiviral effector functions, and express CXCR3, CCR5, and the skin-homing marker cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA). In the same patients, bystander human cytomegalovirus -specific CD8(+) T cells are also activated during acute dengue infection but do not express the same tissue-homing phenotype. We show that CLA expression by circulating dengue-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells correlates with their in vivo ability to traffic to the skin during dengue infection. The juxtaposition of dengue-specific T cells with virus-permissive cell types at sites of possible dengue exposure represents a previously uncharacterized form of immune surveillance for this virus. These findings suggest that vaccination strategies may need to induce dengue-specific T cells with similar homing properties to provide durable protection against dengue viruses.

  8. Recent Trends and Developments: Regional Co-operation in Population Education. (United States)

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1990


    Presented is an outline of objectives and outcomes specific to curriculum development, materials development, professional training, research and assessment, management and monitoring, and an agenda for future consultative seminars, all formulated at the UNESCO-sponsored regional consultative seminar on population education during May 1990, in…

  9. The Relationship Among Electricity Consumption, Economic Growth and Population in Developing Countries

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    Betül İSMİÇ


    Full Text Available The importance of electiricity as a type of energy is the main obejective of this study. This study aims to test the relationship between variables of electricity consumption, economic growth and population for 8 developing countries according to the IMF list. Data were analyzed for 8 countries for 1990-2012 period to test the direction and impact of economic growth and population on electricity consumption by using panel data analysis. Our model is analyzed through Swamy’s Random Coefficient Model and Seemingly Unrelated Model; the positive effect of economic growth on electricity consumption is observed and the effect of population seems insignificant for 2 countries.

  10. Urban Optimum Population Size and Development Pattern Based on Ecological Footprint Model: Case of Zhoushan, China

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    Yuan LU


    Full Text Available The agglomeration of population in the city can reflect the prosperity in the economy, society and culture. However, it has also brought a series of problems like environmental pollution, traffic congestion, housing shortage and jobs crisis. The results can be shown as the failure of urban comprehensive function, the decline of city benefits, and the contradiction between socioeconomic circumstance and ecosystem. Therefore, a reasonable population capacity, which is influenced by ecological resources, urban environment, geographical elements, social and economic factors, etc., is objectively needed. How to deal with the relationship between the utilization of natural capital and development of the city is extremely essential. This paper takes Zhoushan Island as an example, which is the fourth largest island off the coast of China. Firstly, the interactively influencing factors of urban optimal population are illustrated. And method is chosen to study the optimal population size. Secondly, based on the model of ecological footprint (EP, the paper calculates and analyzes the ecological footprint and ecological capacity of the Zhoushan Island, in order to explore the optimal population size of the city. Thirdly, analysis and evaluation of the resources and urban environment carrying capacity is made. Finally, the solution of the existing population problems and the suggestion for the future development pattern of the city are proposed in the urban eco-planning of Zhoushan Island. The main strategies can be summarized in two aspects: one is to reduce the ecological footprint, the other is to increase the ecological supply. The conclusion is that the current population of Zhoushan Island is far beyond the optimum population size calculated by the ecological footprint model. Therefore, sustainable development should be the guidance for urban planning in Zhoushan Island, and a low-carbon development pattern for the city is advocated.

  11. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations


    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick


    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 ...

  12. Biophysical aspects of T lymphocyte activation at the immune synapse

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    Claire eHivroz


    Full Text Available T lymphocyte activation is a pivotal step of the adaptive immune response. It requires the recognition by T-cell receptors (TCR of peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex molecules (pMHC present at the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs. T lymphocyte activation also involves engagement of co-stimulatory receptors and adhesion molecules recognizing ligands on the APC. Integration of these different signals requires the formation of a specialized dynamic structure: the immune synapse. While the biochemical and molecular aspects of this cell-cell communication have been extensively studied, their mechanical features have only recently been addressed. Yet, the immune synapse is also the place of exchange of mechanical signals. Receptors engaged on the T lymphocyte surface are submitted to many tensile and traction forces. These forces are generated by various phenomena: membrane undulation/protrusion/retraction, cell mobility or spreading and dynamic remodeling of the actomyosin cytoskeleton inside the T lymphocyte. Moreover, the TCR can both induce force development, following triggering, and sense and convert forces into biochemical signals, as a bona fide mechanotransducer. Other co-stimulatory molecules such as LFA-1, engaged during immune synapse formation, also display these features. Moreover, T lymphocytes themselves are mechanosensitive, since substrate stiffness can modulate their response. In this review, we will summarize recent studies from a biophysical perspective to explain how mechanical cues can affect T lymphocyte activation. We will particularly discuss how forces are generated during immune synapse formation; how these forces affect various aspects of T lymphocyte biology; and what are the key features of T lymphocyte response to stiffness.

  13. Hierarchical population genetic structure in a direct developing antarctic marine invertebrate.

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    Joseph I Hoffman

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between life-history variation and population structure in marine invertebrates is not straightforward. This is particularly true of polar species due to the difficulty of obtaining samples and a paucity of genomic resources from which to develop nuclear genetic markers. Such knowledge, however, is essential for understanding how different taxa may respond to climate change in the most rapidly warming regions of the planet. We therefore used over two hundred polymorphic Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs to explore population connectivity at three hierachical spatial scales in the direct developing Antarctic topshell Margarella antarctica. To previously published data from five populations spanning a 1500 km transect along the length of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, we added new AFLP data for four populations separated by up to 6 km within Ryder Bay, Adelaide Island. Overall, we found a nonlinear isolation-by-distance pattern, suggestive of weaker population structure within Ryder Bay than is present over larger spatial scales. Nevertheless, significantly positive F st values were obtained in all but two of ten pairwise population comparisons within the bay following Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. This is in contrast to a previous study of the broadcast spawner Nacella concinna that found no significant genetic differences among several of the same sites. By implication, the topshell's direct-developing lifestyle may constrain its ability to disperse even over relatively small geographic scales.

  14. The lymphocyte transformation test in allergic contact dermatitis: New opportunities. (United States)

    Popple, Amy; Williams, Jason; Maxwell, Gavin; Gellatly, Nichola; Dearman, Rebecca J; Kimber, Ian


    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is driven by the activation and proliferation of allergen-specific memory T-lymphocytes and is currently diagnosed by patch testing with a selected panel of chemical allergens. The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) can be used to monitor ex vivo T-lymphocyte responses to antigens, including contact allergens. The LTT is not viewed as being an alternative to patch testing, but it does seek to reflect experimentally skin sensitization to specific chemicals. The LTT is based on stimulation in vitro of antigen-driven T-lymphocyte proliferation. That is, exposure in culture of primed memory T-lymphocytes to the relevant antigen delivered in an appropriate configuration will provoke a secondary response that reflects the acquisition of skin sensitization. The technical aspects of this test and the utility of the approach for investigation of immune responses to contact allergens in humans are reviewed here, with particular emphasis on further development and refinement of the protocol. An important potential application is that it may provide a basis for characterizing those aspects of T-lymphocyte responses to contact allergens that have the greatest influence on skin sensitizing potency and this will be considered in some detail.

  15. Developing population models: A systematic approach for pesticide risk assessment using herbaceous plants as an example. (United States)

    Schmolke, Amelie; Kapo, Katherine E; Rueda-Cediel, Pamela; Thorbek, Pernille; Brain, Richard; Forbes, Valery


    Population models are used as tools in species management and conservation and are increasingly recognized as important tools in pesticide risk assessments. A wide variety of population model applications and resources on modeling techniques, evaluation and documentation can be found in the literature. In this paper, we add to these resources by introducing a systematic, transparent approach to developing population models. The decision guide that we propose is intended to help model developers systematically address data availability for their purpose and the steps that need to be taken in any model development. The resulting conceptual model includes the necessary complexity to address the model purpose on the basis of current understanding and available data. We provide specific guidance for the development of population models for herbaceous plant species in pesticide risk assessment and demonstrate the approach with an example of a conceptual model developed following the decision guide for herbicide risk assessment of Mead's milkweed (Asclepias meadii), a species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. The decision guide specific to herbaceous plants demonstrates the details, but the general approach can be adapted for other species groups and management objectives. Population models provide a tool to link population-level dynamics, species and habitat characteristics as well as information about stressors in a single approach. Developing such models in a systematic, transparent way will increase their applicability and credibility, reduce development efforts, and result in models that are readily available for use in species management and risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of microsatellite markers to genetically differentiate populations of Octopus minor from Korea and China. (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Yi-Kyung; Park, Jung-Youn; An, Chel-Min; Jun, Je-Chun


    Of the more than 300 octopus species, Octopus minor is one of the most popular and economically important species in Eastern Asia, including Korea, along with O. vulgaris, O. ocellatus, and O. aegina. We developed 19 microsatellite markers from Octopus minor and eight polymorphic markers were developed to analyze the genetic diversity and relationships among four octopus populations from Korea and three from China. The number of alleles per locus varied from 10 to 49, and allelic richness per locus ranged from 2 to 16.4 across all populations. The average allele number among the populations was 11.1, with a minimum of 8.3 and a maximum of 13.6. The mean allelic richness was 8.7 in all populations. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test revealed significant deviation in 19 of the 56 single-locus sites, and null alleles were presumed in five of eight loci. The pairwise F ( ST ) values between populations from Korea and China differed significantly in all pairwise comparisons. The genetic distances between the China and Korea samples ranged from 0.161 to 0.454. The genetic distances among the populations from Korea ranged from 0.033 to 0.090, with an average of 0.062; those among populations from China ranged from 0.191 to 0.316, with an average of 0.254. The populations from Korea and China formed clearly separated into clusters via an unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean dendrogram. Furthermore, a population from muddy flats on the western coast of the Korean Peninsula and one from a rocky area on Jeju Island formed clearly separated subclusters. An assignment test based on the allele distribution discriminated between the Korean and Chinese origins with 96.9 % accuracy.

  17. Development of a cognitive screening instrument for tribal elderly population of Himalayan region in northern India

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    Sunil Kumar Raina


    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive impairment, characteristic of dementia, is measured objectively by standard neuropsychological (cognitive tests. Given the diversity of culture and language in India, it is difficult to use a single modified version of MMSE uniformly to Indian population. In this article, we report methods on the development of a cognitive screening instrument suitable for the tribal (Bharmour elderly (60 years and above population of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: We used a systematic, item-by-item, process for development of a modified version of MMSE suitable for elderly tribal population. Results: The modifications made in the English version of MMSE and the pretesting and pilot testing thereof resulted in the development of Bharmouri version of cognitive scale. Discussion: The study shows that effective modifications can be made to existing tests that require reading and writing; and that culturally sensitive modifications can be made to render the test meaningful and relevant, while still tapping the appropriate cognitive domains.

  18. Population, sexual and reproductive health, rights and sustainable development: forging a common agenda. (United States)

    Newman, Karen; Fisher, Sarah; Mayhew, Susannah; Stephenson, Judith


    This article suggests that sexual and reproductive health and rights activists seeking to influence the post-2015 international development paradigm must work with sustainable development advocates concerned with a range of issues, including climate change, environmental issues, and food and water security, and that a way of building bridges with these communities is to demonstrate how sexual and reproductive health and rights are relevant for these issues. An understanding of population dynamics, including urbanization and migration, as well as population growth, can help to clarify these links. This article therefore suggests that whether or not sexual and reproductive health and rights activists can overcome resistance to discussing "population", become more knowledgeable about other sustainable development issues, and work with others in those fields to advance the global sustainable development agenda are crucial questions for the coming months. The article also contends that it is possible to care about population dynamics (including ageing and problems faced by countries with a high proportion of young people) and care about human rights at the same time. It expresses concern that, if sexual and reproductive health and rights advocates do not participate in the population dynamics discourse, the field will be left free for those for whom respecting and protecting rights may be less of a priority.

  19. Development time plasticity of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa populations under laboratory conditions

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    L. Berardi


    Full Text Available The pine processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae is a univoltine defoliator that is active over a wide range of latitudes and elevations, being largely influenced by temperature variations, especially during larval development across the winter. This work compares field development time with that observed in the laboratory rearing under controlled conditions, in four Th. pityocampa populations characterized by different life history phenology: two populations from the Italian Alps characterized by early and late adult emergence, and two populations from Portugal, the first characterized by winter feeding and late adult emergence, the second by a switch of the larval feeding from winter to summer. The rearing started from the egg stage and was maintained in the laboratory at 20-25°C under natural light in transparent boxes. In spite of the different geographic origins and asynchrony of the period of larval development, all populations maintained an annual life cycle under laboratory conditions, as well as a phenology similar to that of the field populations. Such an outcome was possible due to a trade-off in the duration of the larval and pupal stages, the latter being identified as the phase of development when an efficient regulatory mechanism is acting to maintain the univoltine life cycle.

  20. In vitro cytotoxic activity of equine lymphocytes on equine herpesvirus-1 infected allogenic fibroblasts


    Edens, Lucy Marie


    The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a technique to analyze the in vitro cytotoxic activity of lymphocytes from adult horses against equine herpes virus-1 (EHV-1) infected allogenic equine dermal fibroblasts (EDF); 2) evaluate the ability of a 72 hour in vitro incubation with interleukin-2 (I L-2) to enhance the lymphocytic cytolytic activity against EHV-1 infected EDF; 3) compare the cytotoxic activity among lymphocytes isolated from pregnant mares and non-pregnant...

  1. Role of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule in T helper cell responses

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    Jan E. de Vries


    Full Text Available Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM; CDw150 is a 70 kDa glycoprotein. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is constitutively expressed on memory T cells, CD56+ T cells, a subset of T cell receptor γδ+ cells, immature thymocytes and, at low levels, on a proportion of peripheral blood B cells. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is rapidly upregulated on all T and B cells after activation. Engagement of SLAM by F(ab’2 fragments of an anti-SLAM monoclonal antibody (mAb A12 enhances antigen-specific T cell proliferation. In addition, mAb A12 was directly mitogenic for T cell clones and activated T cells. T cell proliferation induced by mAb A12 is independent of interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-12 and IL-15, but is cyclosporin A sensitive. Ligation of SLAM during antigen-specific T cell proliferation resulted in upregulation of interferon (IFN-γ production, even by allergen-specific T helper cell (Th 2 clones, whereas the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 production were only marginally affected. The mAb A12 was unable to induce IL-4 and IL-5 production by Th1 clones. Co-stimulation of skin-derived Der P1-specific Th2 cells from patients with atopic dermatitis via SLAM resulted in the generation of a population of IFN-γ-producing cells, thereby reverting their phenotype to a Th0 pattern. Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule is a high-affinity self ligand mediating homophilic cell interaction. In addition, soluble SLAM enhances both T and B cell proliferation. Collectively, these data indicate that SLAM molecules act both as receptors and ligands that are not only involved in T cell expansion but also drive the expanding T cells during immune responses into the Th0/Th1 pathway. This suggests that signaling through SLAM plays a role in directing Th0/Th1 development.

  2. Dynamic Analysis on Population Suburbanization and New Town Development in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Chunlan; Yang; Shangguang


    This paper studies the suburbanization process of Shanghai from 2000 to 2010 and the population aggregation of its five suburban new towns including Jiading,Songjiang,Qingpu,Nanqiao,and Lingang.It finds that Shanghai’s population distribution pattern is featured by both continuity and variety.In detail,although Shanghai is still dominated by a single-centered expansion pattern,a multi-centered spatial pattern is gradually formed with a narrowing gap in population density between the central city and the suburbs.As the suburbanization of the migrant population is faster than that of the registered population and migrants re-gather in the central city as a result of its service industry development,there is a relatively smaller migrant population in the area between the Inner Ring Road and the Outer Ring Road.Consequently,the population in the new towns that the city planning strategy has focused on is not increasing at the expected speed,thus more attention should be paid to a reasonable central citycentered,multi-leveled,towns-grouped,and compact urban spatial structure.

  3. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goals leads to lower world population growth. (United States)

    Abel, Guy J; Barakat, Bilal; Kc, Samir; Lutz, Wolfgang


    Here we show the extent to which the expected world population growth could be lowered by successfully implementing the recently agreed-upon Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The SDGs include specific quantitative targets on mortality, reproductive health, and education for all girls by 2030, measures that will directly and indirectly affect future demographic trends. Based on a multidimensional model of population dynamics that stratifies national populations by age, sex, and level of education with educational fertility and mortality differentials, we translate these goals into SDG population scenarios, resulting in population sizes between 8.2 and 8.7 billion in 2100. Because these results lie outside the 95% prediction range given by the 2015 United Nations probabilistic population projections, we complement the study with sensitivity analyses of these projections that suggest that those prediction intervals are too narrow because of uncertainty in baseline data, conservative assumptions on correlations, and the possibility of new policies influencing these trends. Although the analysis presented here rests on several assumptions about the implementation of the SDGs and the persistence of educational, fertility, and mortality differentials, it quantitatively illustrates the view that demography is not destiny and that policies can make a decisive difference. In particular, advances in female education and reproductive health can contribute greatly to reducing world population growth.

  4. Investigation of the Nonlinear Model of the Cellular Population System Development

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    M. S. Vinogradova


    Full Text Available An isolated population system is considered which consists of two types of human stem cells: normal cells and cells with chromosomal anomalies (abnormal. In the paper the nonlinear dynamic model which describes dynamics of cell populations developing in vitro is elaborated. The model allows to investigate the processes of the formation of the abnormal cells population from the abnormal cells population of normal cells as well as joint development of these populations. The model takes into account the limited resources.An important feature of the developed model is the use of biological characteristics of processes in the cell population system, such as the proportion of cells, divided over a specified time, the proportion of cells whish are not divided, and which are "lost" and which are passed in the population of abnormal cells from the normal population. This approach allows a more detailed analysis of the impact of various "primary" parameters on the evolution of the population system.Under cultivation of cell populations in vitro a struggle for resources primarily affects the processes of the cell reproduction. This is reflected in the existence of the dividing cells frequency dependence of the total population of normal and abnormal cells. For the account of such dependencies different non-linear functions are typically used. However, the use of such non-linear relationships leads to the difficulties in finding confidence intervals for the estimates of the model parameters at subsequent stages of research. At the same time, the problem of the system parameters estimating and finding of the corresponding confidence intervals for estimates can be solved easy in case when the nonlinear system is linear with respect to the unknown parameters. In the paper it is achieved due to the piecewise linear approximation of nonlinear dependencies.An important feature of the model is a different view of the right part of the differential equations system

  5. Relationships between initial population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and nematode population development in terms of variable soybean resistance. (United States)

    Fourie, Hendrika; Mc Donald, Alexander H; De Waele, Dirk


    The effect of increasing initial population density levels (Pi) of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on nematode population development and yield of a susceptible (Prima2000) and resistant (LS5995) soybean cultivar was investigated. Two experiments, one in a hail net cage and one in microplots, were conducted one each during two consecutive growing seasons at Potchefstroom in the North West Province of South Africa. Nematode reproduction was assessed by determining the number of eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) in the rhizosphere and roots, egg masses, egg-laying females (ELF) and reproduction factor (Rf) values per root system at harvesting 110 days after planting. Percentage yield reduction in the two cultivars was also calculated. Strong non-linear relationships existed between all nematode variables as well as between Pi and percentage yield loss in both cultivars for both experiments in this study. Significantly higher numbers of eggs and J2, egg masses and ELF were maintained in the roots of the nematode-susceptible Prima2000 than in the resistant LS5995 from Pi = 100 and higher in both experiments. Rf values were inversely related to Pi for both cultivars and were lowest on LS5995, with Prima2000 maintaining significantly higher Rf values in both experiments. Yield loss in LS5995 was at least six times higher than that of Prima2000. The difference in monetary terms is demonstrated, although it is suggested that host plant resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes may not be sufficient as the only management tool in highly infested soils or in rotation systems including nematode susceptible crops.

  6. [Experiences of Cameroon in population planning and economic and social development]. (United States)

    Kossivi Ayassou, M V


    Because it already has over 30 years of experience in preparing and executing 5-year plans, Cameroon was chosen as the case study for a workshop on training of African planners in population, human resources, and development planning. This communication, based on analysis of the 1st 5 plans and preparatory documents for the 6th, is divided into 4 chapters. The 1st chapter studies the methodology and structures for plan development and the models used in projections and forecasts. The 2nd chapter discusses sectorial programs while the 3rd examines the place of population in the different plans. The final chapter proposes a practical approach to planning of population, human resources, and development in Africa. Cameroon's experience in planning is instructive because it shows the growing consciousness of the importance of population factors and the progressive integration of demographic variables in the plans. The 20-year process began with construction of planning structures at the central, regional, and provincial levels, followed by constitution of series of demographic data and finally the establishment of a population commission that defined the major outlines of Cameroon's population policy and its translation into national, regional, and sectorial development plans. The results obtained were evidence of the political will of high authorities and of the technical competence of planning staffs. The framework for planning of population, human resources, and development in Africa is intended to guide planners while being adaptable to the conditions, structures, and needs of each particular country. The 9-step framework begins with an inventory and evaluation of statistical data available for planning, followed by definitions of the overall orientation of national development and of sectorial, regional, and national objectives of the plan. The 4th step is a study of the interdependence between population and social and economic factors, followed by development of

  7. Role the Local Population in Ecotourism Development – Attitudes of Citizens Northeastern Montenegro: a Case Study

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    Goran Rajović


    Full Text Available Contemporary trends in world tourism seek spaces of the original or at least altered the environment and the chance of northeastern Montenegro, in the example of municipalities Berane, Petnjica, Andrijevica, Plav and Gusinje the choosy market may to be a destination with undisturbed ambient wholes. This paper explores the role of local people in the development of eco-tourism, and analyzed the results of surveys of environmental awareness. The survey showed the population desire for the development of eco-tourism and that they look forward to that notion. In achieving a better and higher quality of eco-tourism destination in just planning must be integrated with the local population because what is tourist’s product that is offered to the tourist market, it is the local population living space in which takes place an everyday life.

  8. Development of microsatellite markers for Viscum coloratum (Santalaceae) and their application to wild populations1 (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Yun; Park, Han-Sol; Kim, Soonok; Kim, Young-Dong


    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed for Viscum coloratum (Santalaceae), a semiparasitic medicinal plant that is known for its anticancer properties. Due to excessive human harvesting and loss of suitable habitat of its populations, it has become a potentially threatened species requiring immediate conservation efforts. Methods and Results: Based on transcriptome data for V. coloratum, 124 primer pairs were randomly selected for initial validation, of which 19 yielded polymorphic microsatellite loci, with two to six alleles per locus. The usefulness of these markers was assessed for 60 individuals representing three populations of V. coloratum. Observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.033 to 0.833 and 0.032 to 0.672, respectively. Cross-species amplification for 19 loci in the related species V. album was conducted. Conclusions: The 19 newly developed loci are expected to be useful for studying the population genetics and ecological conservation of V. coloratum. PMID:28090408

  9. Increased production of interleukin-6 by T lymphocytes from patients with multiple myeloma. (United States)

    Lapeña, P; Prieto, A; Garcia-Suarez, J; Reyes, E; San Miguel, J; Jorda, J; Alvarez-Mon, M


    Alterations in T lymphocyte functions may affect other cellular components of the immune system. Several lymphokines produced by T cells are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of human B lymphocytes. Alterations in the secretion of these molecules may be implicated in the development of B cell lymphoproliferative diseases. We have investigated the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by T lymphocytes from 14 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and 16 healthy controls. The phenotypical and functional characteristics of these T lymphocytes were also studied. The proliferative response to vegetal lectin phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation was decreased in T lymphocytes from MM patients (p 0.05) but not by exogenous IL-6 (p lectin stimulation, the production of IL-2 by T lymphocytes from those patients was normal, while IL-6 secretion was increased.

  10. Characterization of the lymphocyte substance P receptor

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    McGillis, J.P.; Organist, M.L.; Payan, D.G.


    Recent studies have provided evidence that tissues of the immune and reticuloendothelial systems are influenced by various hormones and neuropeptides. While the interrelationship between these peptides and the immune system, and the physiological relevance of their effects is not clear, a variety of highly specific, receptor-mediated effects has been demonstrated. One neuropeptide for which immunomodulatory effects have been identified is substance P (SP). SP acts as a potent T-cell mitogen, and enhances the mitogenic effects of PHA. Radioreceptor and FACS binding studies suggest that the SP receptor is present on a discrete population of T-cells and has a Kd of 0.87 nM and a density of 24,000. Studies have been initiated to biochemically characterize the lymphocyte SP receptor on IM-9 lymphoblasts. (/sup 125/I)-labeled SP was covalently crosslinked to the receptor using disuccinimidyl suberate and solubilized. Two radioactive bands of m.w. 55,000 and 33,000 were seen when the solubilized crosslinked receptor was electrophoresed on SDS gels. The authors are currently using a combination of HPLC immunoaffinity and reverse-phase chromatography to purify the receptor. The initial studies indicate that the receptor can be purified to homogeneity using this approach. The biochemical characterization of this receptor should provide a better understanding of its importance not only on lymphocytes, but in other tissues as well.

  11. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

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    da Cunha-Bang C


    Full Text Available Caspar da Cunha-Bang,1 Christian Hartmann Geisler,2 Lisbeth Enggaard,3 Christian Bjørn Poulsen,4 Peter de Nully Brown,2 Henrik Frederiksen,5 Olav Jonas Bergmann,6 Elisa Jacobsen Pulczynski,7 Robert Schou Pedersen,8 Linda Højberg Nielsen,9 Ilse Christiansen,10 Carsten Utoft Niemann2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark; 2Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Hematology, Herlev Hospital, Herlev, Denmark; 4Department of Hematology, Roskilde Hospital, Roskilde, Denmark; 5Department of Hematology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 6Department of Hematology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark; 7Department of Hematology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 8Department of Hematology, Holstebro Hospital, Holstebro, Denmark; 9Department of Hematology, Esbjerg Hospital, Esbjerg, Denmark; 10Department of Hematology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark Aim: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate adherence to national guidelines and to provide source data for research purposes. Study population: All patients diagnosed with CLL in Denmark from 2008 onward are included in the registry. Patients are followed in one of nine hematology centers. All centers participate in the registry and are all obliged to collect data. Main variables: Predefined data are collected at the time of diagnosis, and follow-up at the time of significant events: treatment, progression, transplantation, and death. Parameters included in the International Workshop on Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia criteria for diagnosis, and for decision on treatment initiation as well as characteristics included in the CLL

  12. Differentiation of ovarian development and the evolution of fecundity in rapidly diverging exotic beetle populations. (United States)

    Macagno, Anna L M; Beckers, Oliver M; Moczek, Armin P


    Fecundity is a fundamental determinant of fitness, yet the proximate developmental and physiological mechanisms that enable its often rapid evolution in natural populations are poorly understood. Here, we investigated two populations of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus that were established in exotic ranges in the early 1970s. These populations are subject to drastically different levels of resource competition in the field, and have diverged dramatically in female fecundity. Specifically, Western Australian O. taurus experience high levels of resource competition, and exhibit greatly elevated reproductive output compared to beetles from the Eastern US, where resource competition is minimal and female fecundity is low. We compared patterns of ovarian maturation, relative investment into and timing of egg production, and potential trade-offs between ovarian investment and the duration of larval development and adult body size between populations representative of both exotic ranges. We found that the rapid divergence in fecundity between exotic populations is associated with striking differences in several aspects of ovarian development: (1) Western Australian females exhibit accelerated ovarian development, (2) produce more eggs, (3) bigger eggs, and (4) start laying eggs earlier compared to their Eastern US counterparts. At the same time, divergence in ovarian maturation patterns occurred alongside changes in (5) larval developmental time, and (6) adult body size, and (7) mass. Western Australian females take longer to complete larval development and, surprisingly, emerge into smaller yet heavier adults than size-matched Eastern US females. We discuss our results in the context of the evolutionary developmental biology of fecundity in exotic populations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Genetic Diversity of Maize Populations Developed by Two Kinds of Recurrent Selection Methods Investigated with SSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lu-jiang; YANG Ke-cheng; PAN Guang-tang; RONG Ting-zhao


    Two cycles of biparental mass selection (MS) and one cycle of half-sib-S3 family combining selection (HS-S3) for yield were carried out in 2 synthetic maize populations P4C0 and P5C0 synchronously.The genetic diversity of 8 maize populations,including both the basic populations and their developed populations,were evaluated by 30 SSR primers.On the 30 SSR loci,a total of 184 alleles had been detected in these populations.At each locus,the number of alleles varied from 2 to 14,with an average of 6.13.The number and ratio of polymorphic loci in both the basic populations were higher than those of their developed populations,respectively.There was nearly no difference after MS but decreased after HS-S3 in both the basic populations in the mean gene heterozygosity.The mean genetic distance changed slightly after MS but decreased in a bigger degree after HS-S3 in both the basic populations.Analyses on the distribution of genetic distances showed that the ranges of the genetic distance were wider after MS and most of the genetic distances in populations developed by HS-S3 were smaller than those in both the basic populations.The number of genotypes increased after MS but decreased after HS-S3 in both the basic populations.The genetic diversity of intra-population was much more than genetic diversity of inter-population in both the basic populations.All these indexes demonstrated that the genetic diversity of populations after MS was similar to their basic populations,and the genetic diversity was maintained during MS,whereas the genetic diversity of populations decreased after HS-S3.This result indicated that heterogeneity between some of the individuals in the developed populations increased after MS,whereas the populations become more homozygotic after HS-S3.

  14. Needs of the Host Population and Tourism Development in the Lake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Needs of the Host Population and Tourism Development in the Lake Bosomtwe Basin ... is essential for the long term sustainability or tourism destinations. ... Based on the top needs of the communities, it was concluded that most of the needs ...

  15. Socioeconomic Gradients and Child Development in a Very Low Income Population: Evidence from Madagascar (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy


    Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…

  16. Socioeconomic Gradients and Child Development in a Very Low Income Population: Evidence from Madagascar (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C. H.; Weber, Ann; Galasso, Emanuela; Ratsifandrihamanana, Lisy


    Our objectives were to document and examine socioeconomic gradients across a comprehensive set of child development measures in a population living in extreme poverty, and to interpret these gradients in light of findings from the neuroscience literature. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 3-6-year-old children (n = 1332) from 150…

  17. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  18. Population Development of Baltic Bird Species: Great Cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) - Update with results from 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Christof; Bregnballe, Thomas; Larsson, Kjell


    pairs (bp) only, of which Germany and Poland hosted more than the half. During the following two decades, the population development apparently has also been affected by the harmful effects of DDT and PCB. As a result of protection measures, and seemingly also due to the ban of DDT and PCB, breeding...

  19. Development of a leafy Brassica rapa fixed line collection for genetic diversity and population structure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, W.; Li, X.; Choi, S.R.; Dhandapani, V.; Im, S.; Park, M.Y.; Jang, C.S.; Yang, M.S.; Ham, I.K.; Lee, E.M.; Kim, W.; Lee, S.S.; Bonnema, A.B.; Park, S.; Piao, Z.; Lim, Y.P.


    Brassica rapa is an economically important crop with a wide range of morphologies. Developing a set of fixed lines and understanding their diversity has been challenging, but facilitates resource conservation. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of 238 fixed lines of leafy

  20. Isolation of Lymphocytes and Their Innate Immune Characterizations from Liver, Intestine, Lung and Uterus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhong Zhang; Zhongjun Dong; Rongbin Zhou; Deming Luo; Haiming Wei; Zhigang Tian


    In steady-state conditions, the number and distribution of lymphocyte populations are under homeostatic control.New lymphocytes are continuously produced in primary and secondary lymphoid organs and then achieve immune-competence within different tissues, and they must challenge with resident cells for survival. The first step in the study of tissue lymphoid cells is their isolation in intact and viable form appropriate for establishment of in vitro culture systems. For reasons of simplicity, cell purity, cell yields and various purposes, lymphocytes obtained from different tissues in different labs were subjected to diverse protocols. To fully elucidate the nature of the local immune system as well as to adequately study the innate role of lymphocytes in liver, intestine, lung and uterus, we briefly reviewed the characterization of resident lymphocytes, and additional information on those cells from non-lymphoid tissues by using the recommended operation procedure was also presented.

  1. Mode of production and population patterns: policy implications for West African development. (United States)

    Franke, R W


    Recent developments in population theory have made possible a re-examination of demographic evidence from West Africa which suggests that population growth and migration are primarily responses to changes in the nature of the production system. Precolonial, colonial, and independence period data provide a series of correlations consistent with the approach and suggest a possible new synthesis of the West African data. The poorest countries of West Africa are those bordering on the Sahara Desert, known as the "Sahel" region. In response to the drought and famine in that region from 1968-1974, numerous proposals have been made for increased attention to reducing population growth. The analysis presented in this paper leads to the conclusion that population policies other than those attempting to lower the birth rate are called for. These would include relocation of populations previously displaced by colonial labor migrations and the re-integration of herding and farming production systems, both of which policies should be considered as population policies. Data are presented from specific projects underway in Senegal, Mauritania, and Mali, to illustrate the argument.

  2. Studies on rabbit lymphocytes in vitro (United States)

    Sell, S.; Gell, P. G. H.


    Anti-allotypic sera that have no known allotypic determinants other than those also present in the genotype of the lymphocyte donor are as able to induce lymphocyte `blast' transformation in vitro as are anti-allotypic sera that do have allotypic determinants that are not present in the lymphocyte donor. Therefore, anti-allotypic sera do not appear to function in the stimulation of blast transformation by providing access for any of the known allotypic determinants into lymphocytes. PMID:5769980

  3. Spinal epidural compression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Michalevicz, R; Burstein, A; Razon, N; Reider, I; Ilie, B


    Spinal epidural compression is a rare neurologic complication in patients with lymphoma. It occurs mostly in those with intermediate-grade to high-grade malignancy disease. This type of neurologic involvement has not been described in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). A patient with a long, stable CLL course developed spinal epidural compression and consequently died. The frequency of spinal epidural compression in lymphoma, according to the histologic subtypes and the considerations in making the right choice of therapy are discussed in light of the presented case.

  4. Rapid Population Growth and Human Carrying Capacity: Two Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers No. 690 and Population and Development Series No. 15. (United States)

    Mahar, Dennis J., Ed.; And Others

    Two perspectives on carrying capacity and population growth are examined. The first perspective, "Carrying Capacity and Rapid Population Growth: Definition, Cases, and Consequences" (Robert Muscat), explores the possible meanings of the idea of carrying capacity under developing country conditions, looks at historical and present-day cases of…

  5. Treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. (United States)

    Ferrajoli, Alessandra; O'Brien, Susan M


    Treatment options for patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia have changed over the past two decades. This article reviews the experience accumulated with the use of alkylating agents alone and in combination; purine analogues alone and in combination and monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab, and alemtuzumab alone and in combination. The results obtained with different treatment strategies are summarized, compared, and reviewed.

  6. A multi-center open-labeled study of recombinant erythropoietin-beta in the treatment of anemic patients with multiple myeloma, low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia in Chinese population. (United States)

    Yang, Shen; Jun, Ma; Hong-Li, Zhu; Jian-Min, Wang; Chun, Wang; Lu-Gui, Qiu; Yong-Qiang, Zhao; Jun, Zhu; Jian, Hou; Zhi-Xiang, Shen


    The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant erythropoietin-beta in the treatment of anemic patients with multiple myeloma (MM), low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). From December 2005 to November 2006, the patients with MM, low-grade NHL, and CLL were enrolled in this study, male or female, aged > or = 18 years, transfusion-dependant, and receiving anti-neoplasia chemotherapy. Recombinant human erythropoietin-beta was used in this study with the dose initiated at 150 IU/kg, thrice a week, subcutaneously. The total treatment duration was 12 weeks. The primary endpoint of the study is response rate (RR), which is defined as hemoglobin increasing > or = 2 g/dL comparing to baseline level, or returning to normal range, without any transfusion within 6 weeks of evaluation. Fifty out of 82 (64.6%) patients enrolled in this study responded to the treatment and 29 patients had no response. Hypertension (12.2%) is the most common adverse effect; however, all the adverse events were mild, categorized in NCI grade I or II. We conclude that recombinant erythropoietin-beta was effective in the treatment of anemia of the patients with MM, NHL, and CLL, as well as it is well-tolerated.

  7. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.


    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  8. Prioritizing Avian Species for Their Risk of Population-Level Consequences from Wind Energy Development. (United States)

    Beston, Julie A; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Loss, Scott R; Johnson, Douglas H


    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species' distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species' conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson's hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and management

  9. Prioritizing avian species for their risk of population-level consequences from wind energy development (United States)

    Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Loss, Scott; Johnson, Douglas H.


    Recent growth in the wind energy industry has increased concerns about its impacts on wildlife populations. Direct impacts of wind energy include bird and bat collisions with turbines whereas indirect impacts include changes in wildlife habitat and behavior. Although many species may withstand these effects, species that are long-lived with low rates of reproduction, have specialized habitat preferences, or are attracted to turbines may be more prone to declines in population abundance. We developed a prioritization system to identify the avian species most likely to experience population declines from wind facilities based on their current conservation status and their expected risk from turbines. We developed 3 metrics of turbine risk that incorporate data on collision fatalities at wind facilities, population size, life history, species’ distributions relative to turbine locations, number of suitable habitat types, and species’ conservation status. We calculated at least 1 measure of turbine risk for 428 avian species that breed in the United States. We then simulated 100,000 random sets of cutoff criteria (i.e., the metric values used to assign species to different priority categories) for each turbine risk metric and for conservation status. For each set of criteria, we assigned each species a priority score and calculated the average priority score across all sets of criteria. Our prioritization system highlights both species that could potentially experience population decline caused by wind energy and species at low risk of population decline. For instance, several birds of prey, such as the long-eared owl, ferruginous hawk, Swainson’s hawk, and golden eagle, were at relatively high risk of population decline across a wide variety of cutoff values, whereas many passerines were at relatively low risk of decline. This prioritization system is a first step that will help researchers, conservationists, managers, and industry target future study and

  10. Ly49E expression on CD8αα-expressing intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes plays no detectable role in the development and progression of experimentally induced inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Van Acker

    Full Text Available The Ly49E NK receptor is a unique inhibitory receptor, presenting with a high degree of conservation among mouse strains and expression on both NK cells and intraepithelial-localised T cells. Amongst intraepithelial-localised T cells, the Ly49E receptor is abundantly expressed on CD8αα-expressing innate-like intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs, which contribute to front-line defense at the mucosal barrier. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs, encompassing Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, have previously been suggested to have an autoreactive origin and to evolve from a dysbalance between regulatory and effector functions in the intestinal immune system. Here, we made use of Ly49E-deficient mice to characterize the role of Ly49E receptor expression on CD8αα-expressing iIELs in the development and progression of IBD. For this purpose we used the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS- and trinitrobenzenesulfonic-acid (TNBS-induced colitis models, and the TNFΔARE ileitis model. We show that Ly49E is expressed on a high proportion of CD8αα-positive iIELs, with higher expression in the colon as compared to the small intestine. However, Ly49E expression on small intestinal and colonic iIELs does not influence the development or progression of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  11. Development of a spatially distributed model of fish population density for habitat assessment of rivers (United States)

    Sui, Pengzhe; Iwasaki, Akito; Ryo, Masahiro; Saavedra, Oliver; Yoshimura, Chihiro


    Flow conditions play an important role in sustaining biodiversity of river ecosystem. However, their relations to freshwater fishes, especially to fish population density, have not been clearly described. This study, therefore, aimed to propose a new methodology to quantitatively link habitat conditions, including flow conditions and other physical conditions, to population density of fish species. We developed a basin-scale fish distribution model by integrating the concept of habitat suitability assessment with a distributed hydrological model (DHM) in order to estimate fish population density with particular attention to flow conditions. Generalized linear model (GLM) was employed to evaluate the relationship between population density of fish species and major environmental factors. The target basin was Sagami River in central Japan, where the river reach was divided into 10 sections by estuary, confluences of tributaries, and river-crossing structures (dams, weirs). The DHM was employed to simulate river discharge from 1998 to 2005, which was used to calculate 10 flow indices including mean discharge, 25th and 75th percentile discharge, duration of low and high flows, number of floods. In addition, 5 water quality parameters and 13 other physical conditions (such as basin area, river width, mean diameter of riverbed material, and number of river-crossing structures upstream and downstream) of each river section were considered as environmental variables. In case of Sagami River, 10 habitat variables among them were then selected based on their correlations to avoid multicollinearity. Finally, the best GLM was developed for each species based on Akaike's information criterion. As results, population densities of 16 fish species in Sagami River were modelled, and correlation coefficients between observed and calculated population densities for 10 species were more than 0.70. The key habitat factors for population density varied among fish species. Minimum

  12. Development of 19-plex Y STR system and polymorphism studies in Pakistani population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    For the development of 19-plex Y STR system and polymorphism studies in local ethnic populations sixteen markers of non-recombining regions (NRY) of Y chromosome, which show high power of discrimination among individuals, were selected in this study. Blood samples (600) were collected from the males of three most common castes of Pakistani population (Arain, Awan and Rajput) with different parent lineages. Three markers (DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II and YCAIIa/b) among 16 Y STRs are double-targeted regions of the ...

  13. Land settlement policies and population redistribution in developing countries: performance, problems and prospects. (United States)

    Oberai, A S


    The author describes and compares land settlement in various developing countries, focusing on the movement of people to underutilized agricultural areas. "The purpose of this article is fourfold: first, to discuss the performance of settlement programmes, concentrating on the extent to which they have achieved their population redistribution and other objectives; second, to analyse major economic and social problems confronting them; third, to identify factors that have contributed to their success or failure; and, fourth, to assess alternative policy options." This analysis of land settlement programs "suggests that so far they have made no more than a modest contribution to the solution of the problems of population distribution, unemployment and poverty."

  14. Development of Chromosomal Segment Substitution Lines from a Backcross Recombinant Inbred Population of Interspecific Rice Cross

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; Hafeez Ur Rahman BUGHIO; CHEN Da-zhou; LIU Guang-jie; ZHENG Kang-le; ZHUANG Jie-yun


    A backcross recombinant inbred line population consisting of 202 lines was developed from Xieqingzao B//Xieqingzao B Dongxiang wild rice. The population was assayed with DNA markers and phenotyped on planthopper resistance and yield traits. A linkage map consisting of 119 DNA markers and spanned for 1188 cM over the 12 rice chromosomes was constructed. Thirty-two chromosomal segment substitution lines were selected based on the percentage of Xieqingzao B allele at marker loci. These lines are of great potential for gene mapping and alien gene introgression.

  15. Prognostic impact of lymphocytes in soft tissue sarcomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung W Sorbye

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of lymphocyte infiltration in soft tissue sarcomas (STS. Prognostic markers in potentially curable STS should guide therapy after surgical resection. The immune status at the time of resection may be important, but the prognostic significance of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes is controversial as the immune system has conflicting roles during cancer development. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tissue microarrays from 249 patients with STS were constructed from duplicate cores of viable and representative neoplastic tumor areas. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD45+ lymphocytes in tumors. RESULTS: In univariate analyses, increased numbers of CD4+ (P = 0.008 and CD20+ (P = 0.006 lymphocytes in tumor correlated significantly with an improved disease-specific survival (DSS in patients with wide resection margins (n = 108. In patients with non-wide resection margins (n = 141 increased numbers of CD3+ (P = 0.028 lymphocytes in tumor correlated significantly with shorter DSS. In multivariate analyses, a high number of CD20+ lymphocytes (HR = 5.5, CI 95%  = 1.6-18.6, P = 0.006 in the tumor was an independent positive prognostic factor for DSS in patients with wide resections margins. CONCLUSIONS: High density of CD20+ lymphocytes in STS with wide resection margins is an independent positive prognostic indicator for these patients. Further research is needed to define if CD20+ cells can modify tumors in a way that reduces disease progression and metastatic potential.

  16. Association of Htra1 Gene Polymorphisms with the Risk of Developing AMD in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Askari


    Full Text Available Background: Half of the cases of vision loss in people under 60 years of age have been attributed to age-related macular degeneration (AMD. This is a multifactorial disease with late onset. It has been demonstrated that many different genetic loci are implicated in the risk of developing AMD in different populations. In the current study, we investigated the association of high-temperature requirement A-1 (HTRA1 gene polymorphisms with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population. Methods: Genomic DNA samples were extracted from 120 patients with AMD and 120 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. A 385 base-pair fragment of the HTRA1 gene promoter region was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique and sequenced. The frequencies of the alleles were calculated and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: Our study demonstrated that the rate of polymorphisms rs11200638 -625 G>A and rs2672598 -487T>C were significantly greater in AMD patients than in healthy controls from the Iranian population. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that HTRA1 gene promoter region polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing AMD in the Iranian population

  17. Population redistribution towards core areas of less developed countries, 1950-1980. (United States)

    Vining, D R


    "This paper presents estimates of the rate of population redistribution to the core areas of 44 developing countries over the period 1950-80. Particular attention is given to the period 1970-80, a time during which the core areas of developed countries experienced substantial declines in their rates of net inmigration. The principal finding is that the core areas of most developing countries are still experiencing high and, in a number of cases, increasing rates of net inmigration." The author contends that "this finding confirms the developmental model of spatial concentration and dispersal and should lay to rest other explanations of deconcentration, including arguments that focus on diseconomies of absolute size in the core area or on fluctuations in the aggregate economy." The difference between the population growth rates of entire nations and of core areas is used as a measure of interregional migration. Data for the 44 countries and information on the data sources are included in appendixes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Filatova


    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is a widespread disease caused by certain members of Herpesviridae family. Acute infectious mononucleosis develops predominantly in children and is accompanied by an increase of the number of circulating naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. The normalization of immunological parameters is achieved within 4–6 months after recovery and that is an indicator of a proper functioning of the immune system. CD95 and DR3 death receptors are involved in the initiation of apoptosis of naive T-lymphocytes in healthy people and in patients with infectious mononucleosis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of CD95 and DR3 receptors to initiate apoptosis of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes in children with infectious mononucleosis during convalescence. The material for the study was the samples of the peripheral blood of children who previously had infectious mononucleosis. The blood sampling was carried out again after 4–6 months after the disease. At the time of the study, children did not display clinical and laboratory signs of infectious mononucleosis. Same children who were examined earlier in the period of the development of acute infectious mononucleosis, as well as relatively healthy children were used as the comparison groups. Isolation of naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes was performed by negative magnetic immunoseparation. For specific stimulation of CD95 and DR3 receptors monoclonal antibodies were used. The level of apoptosis and expression of death receptors were evaluated by flow cytometry. Freshly isolated cells were analyzed, as well as cells cultured with the addition of appropriate monoclonal antibodies. It was shown that the recovery period was accompanied by increased apoptosis of freshly isolated naive CD4+ and naive CD8+ T-lymphocytes compared with the acute phase of infectious mononucleosis. Thus in both populations of naive T-cells showed an increase of

  19. Fludarabine Phosphate, Radiation Therapy, and Rituximab in Treating Patients Who Are Undergoing Donor Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Rituximab for High-Risk Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (United States)


    Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage III Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Stage IV Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Stage IV Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Large Granular Lymphocyte Leukemia

  20. Some Demographic Changes in the Population of Montenegro with the Projection of Future Demographic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajović


    Full Text Available Dramatic demographic changes through which in recent decade’s passes Montenegrin society, the consequences arising from the new realities require a serious socio-political engagement. Process of population aging, that began the seventies of the 20th century, represents a significant problem. The process of demographic change was accompanied by an internal migration to major urban centers, primarily Podgorica and Montenegrin coast, leading to emptying the interior of Montenegro. Unfortunately, this development of the population structure of Montenegro opens a series of questions and challenges that would the creators of the future you should put high on the scale of its priorities. In this text we will point out on change of total number of citizens of Montenegro according to the base and chain indexes of 1921-2011 and population in Montenegro 2016–2091 (cohort model projections.

  1. Quantitative single cell analysis of cell population dynamics during submandibular salivary gland development and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre A. Nelson


    Epithelial organ morphogenesis involves reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cell types to balance progenitor cell retention and expansion with cell differentiation for evolution of tissue architecture. Underlying submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the regulated proliferation and differentiation of perhaps several progenitor cell populations, which have not been characterized throughout development, and yet are critical for understanding organ development, regeneration, and disease. Here we applied a serial multiplexed fluorescent immunohistochemistry technology to map the progressive refinement of the epithelial and mesenchymal cell populations throughout development from embryonic day 14 through postnatal day 20. Using computational single cell analysis methods, we simultaneously mapped the evolving temporal and spatial location of epithelial cells expressing subsets of differentiation and progenitor markers throughout salivary gland development. We mapped epithelial cell differentiation markers, including aquaporin 5, PSP, SABPA, and mucin 10 (acinar cells; cytokeratin 7 (ductal cells; and smooth muscle α-actin (myoepithelial cells and epithelial progenitor cell markers, cytokeratin 5 and c-kit. We used pairwise correlation and visual mapping of the cells in multiplexed images to quantify the number of single- and double-positive cells expressing these differentiation and progenitor markers at each developmental stage. We identified smooth muscle α-actin as a putative early myoepithelial progenitor marker that is expressed in cytokeratin 5-negative cells. Additionally, our results reveal dynamic expansion and redistributions of c-kit- and K5-positive progenitor cell populations throughout development and in postnatal glands. The data suggest that there are temporally and spatially discreet progenitor populations that contribute to salivary gland development and homeostasis.

  2. Level of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of Tibetan and Han populations in an altitude of 4 500 meters%海拔4500m地区藏、汉人群外周血淋巴细胞亚群检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晶萍; 顾松琴; 彭海; 龙溯; 刘兰; 王芝; 丁国祥


    To investigate the impact of high altitude hypoxia on immune function, the lymphocyte subsets of CD4\\ CD8+, CD3CD19+ (B cells) and CD3-CD56+ (NK cells) of 52 healthy Han Chinese and 35 heallhy Tibetan people in high-altitude areas (4 500 m) were detected using the flow eylometry, and compared them with 45 healthy Han Chinese in middle-altitude areas (Xining area). We found that the level of CD8+ in 4 500 m area groups was higher than that of Xining group, but CD4+ is obviously lower than that of the Xining group (both P<0.05); the level of CD19+ (B cells) in Xining group is higher than that of the other group in high-altitude areas (P<0.05. There is no statistical significance of CD8+ and CD4+ levies in Tibetan group and Han group of high altitude area (P<0.05), while the level of CD3-CD19+ (B cells) in Tibetan group was higher than that in Han group of high altitude area (P<0.05). We get the conclusion that lymphocyte subsets of the indicators are part of change in the environment of high altitude hypoxia.%目的 探讨高原缺氧对机体免疫功能及其免疫调节功能的影响.方法 采用流式细胞术对高海拔地区(4 500 m)52名健康汉族人群和35名健康藏族人群进行了淋巴细胞亚群CD4+、CD8+、CD3ˉ CD19+(B细胞)、CD3-CD56+(NK细胞)测定,并与中度海拔(西宁)地区45名健康汉族人群进行了比较 结果 2个海拔的CD4+、CD8+、CD3 CD 19+、CD3ˉCD56+各项中,4 500m人群CD8+高于西宁组,CD4+明显低于西宁组,P<0.05;CD19+(B细胞)西宁组高于高海拔组,P<0.05;海拔4 500m 汉族、世居藏族人群的CD4+CD8+无统计学意义比较,P>0.05;CD3 CD56+(NK)藏族低于汉族,P<0.05;CD3-CD19+(B细胞)藏族高于汉族,P<0.05.结论 高原低氧环境影响机体的免疫调节功能.

  3. Fludarabine Phosphate and Total-Body Irradiation Before Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Small Lymphocytic Leukemia (United States)


    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  4. Risk factors for development of critical limb ischemia -- a survey of diabetic vs. nondiabetic population. (United States)

    Bosevski, M; Meskovska, S; Tosev, S; Peovska, I; Asikov, I; Georgievska-Ismail, L J


    The aim of this study is to identify the risk factors for development of chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). 127 patients (pts) with PAD (63 with type 2 diabetes and 64 nondiabetic) were randomly included in a cross sectional study. Out of them 17 were with CLI. Population was investigated for age, height, weight, sex, duration of PAD and diabetes, arterial hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, obesity, systolic blood pressure, value of ankle-brachial index, previous claudicating distance and peripheral intervention, amputation, medical treatment with prostanoids, insulin and antiplatelet drugs and histories of cerebrovascular disease, coronary artery disease and other concomitant diseases. After adjudging linear correlation between mentioned variables and presence of CLI, logistic regression model was built. There were no significant differences in demographic data between both populations. Hyperlipidemia was more frequent in nondiabetic population. Multiple regression model show ankle-brachial index < 0,5, measured in previous 1-3 years (OR 3.39 CI 95% 0.28-40.78), microvascular complication retinopathy (OR 12.98 CI 95% 1.76-95.58), heart failure (OR 1.91 CI 95% 0.29-2.72) and previous prostanoids treatment (OR 15.92 CI 95% 0.53-476.58) as predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population with PAD. After heart failure exclusion of model of nondiabetic pts, previous surgery (OR 3.14 CI 95% 0.61-16.09) and smoking (OR 0.35 CI 95% 0.78-1.62) were presented as prognostic factors for CLI's onset. Our results indicate differences between predictors of CLI's onset in diabetic and nondiabetic population with PAD. Presence of retinopathy, previous measured ankle-brachial index and prostanoids treatment are predictors of development of CLI in diabetic population. Previous surgery is independent predictor for CLI'onset in nondiabetics. Treating concomitant heart failure for both populations

  5. Development of Microsatellites for Population Genetic Analyses of the Granulate Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (United States)

    Husseneder, Claudia; Park, Jong-Seok; Werle, Christopher T; Adamczyk, John J


    Limited male dispersal and local mating in ambrosia beetles are expected to result in extreme inbreeding and highly structured populations. In this study, we developed microsatellite markers for the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky), for use in future studies into population and family structure of this invasive pest species. We employed de novo next-generation sequencing to generate whole genome shotgun sequences for the characterization of microsatellite loci. Approximately 6% of the 84,024 contigs generated from Hi-Seq Illumina 2x250bp sequencing contained microsatellites with at least four repeats of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexamers. Primers were synthesized for 40 microsatellite loci with trimer repeat units. Twenty-four primer pairs yielded consistent PCR products of unique loci and were validated for population genetic application using three sample groups each containing 20 X. crassiusculus individuals from Mississippi. Thirteen loci were found to be polymorphic with up to five alleles per population. The two beetle sample groups from Pearl River County (Poplarville and McNeill) belonged genetically to the same population. The population from Lamar County (Purvis) was genetically distinct, separated by a moderate genetic distance (FST = 0.11) and five unique alleles (with >5% frequency). Consistent with the perceived mating structure (incest of females with flightless males), the populations showed homozygote excess at most loci, as indicated by the coefficients of inbreeding (FIT = 0.45 and FIS = 0.37) and high mean relatedness among individuals (r = 0.15). © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Population and development problems: a critical assessment of conventional wisdom. The case of Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Sibanda, A E


    Conventional wisdom, as reflected in reports by the World Bank and the Whitsun Foundation, maintains that control of population growth is the key strategy for stimulating socioeconomic development and ending widespread poverty. The Witsun Foundation has criticized the Government of Zimbabwe for failing to include specific policies for population control in its National Transitional Development Plan. the report further expressed alarm about future availability of land to contain Zimbabwe's growing population. Communal areas are designed for a maximum of 325,000 families yet presently contain 700-800,000 families. This Malthusian, deterministic emphasis on population growth as the source of social ills ignores the broader, complex set of socioeconomic, historical, and political factors that determine material life. Any analysis of population that fails to consider the class structure of society, the type of division of labor, and forms of property and production can produce only meaningless abstractions. For example, consideration of crowding in communal areas must include consideration of inequitable patterns of land ownership in sub-Saharan Africa. Unemployment must be viewed within the context of a capitalist economic structure that relies on an industrial reserve army of labor to ensure acceptance of low wages and labor-intensive conditions. While it is accepted that population growth is creating specific and real problems in Zimbabwe and other African countries, these problems could be ameliorated by land reform and restructuring of the export-oriented colonial economies. Similarly, birth control should not be promoted as the solution to social problems, yet family planning services should be available to raise the status of women. Literacy, agrarian reform, agricultural modernization, and industrialization campaigns free from the dominance of Western capitalism represent the true solutions to Zimbabwe's problems.

  7. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Escobar


    Full Text Available Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance.

  8. Oxidative Damage in Lymphocytes of Copper Smelter Workers Correlated to Higher Levels of Excreted Arsenic (United States)

    Escobar, Jorge; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Coddou, Claudio; Nelson, Pablo; Maisey, Kevin; Valdés, Daniel; Aspee, Alexis; Espinosa, Victoria; Rozas, Carlos; Montoya, Margarita; Mandiola, Cristian; Rodríguez, Felipe E.; Acuña-Castillo, Claudio; Escobar, Alejandro; Fernández, Ricardo; Diaz, Hernán; Sandoval, Mario; Imarai, Mónica; Rios, Miguel


    Arsenic has been associated with multiple harmful effects at the cellular level. Indirectly these defects could be related to impairment of the integrity of the immune system, in particular in lymphoid population. To characterize the effect of Arsenic on redox status on this population, copper smelter workers and arsenic unexposed donors were recruited for this study. We analyzed urine samples and lymphocyte enriched fractions from donors to determinate arsenic levels and lymphocyte proliferation. Moreover, we studied the presence of oxidative markers MDA, vitamin E and SOD activity in donor plasma. Here we demonstrated that in human beings exposed to high arsenic concentrations, lymphocyte MDA and arsenic urinary levels showed a positive correlation with SOD activity, and a negative correlation with vitamin E serum levels. Strikingly, lymphocytes from the arsenic exposed population respond to a polyclonal stimulator, phytohemaglutinin, with higher rates of thymidine incorporation than lymphocytes of a control population. As well, similar in vitro responses to arsenic were observed using a T cell line. Our results suggest that chronic human exposure to arsenic induces oxidative damage in lymphocytes and could be considered more relevant than evaluation of T cell surveillance. PMID:21253489

  9. Development and application of microsatellites in Carcinus maenas: genetic differentiation between Northern and Central Portuguese populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sónia Pascoal

    Full Text Available Carcinus maenas, the common shore crab of European coastal waters, has recently gained notoriety due to its globally invasive nature associated with drastic ecological and economic effects. The native ubiquity and worldwide importance of C. maenas has resulted in it becoming one of the best-studied estuarine crustacean species globally. Accordingly, there is significant interest in investigating the population genetic structure of this broadly distributed crab along European and invaded coastlines. Here, we developed polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers for one dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci, resulting from an enrichment process based on Portuguese populations. Combining these three new markers with six existing markers, we examined levels of genetic diversity and population structure of C. maenas in two coastal regions from Northern and Central Portugal. Genotypes showed that locus polymorphism ranged from 10 to 42 alleles (N = 135 and observed heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.745 to 0.987 with expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.711 to 0.960; values typical of marine decapods. The markers revealed weak, but significant structuring among populations (global F(ST = 0.004 across a 450 km (over-water distance spatial scale. Combinations of these and existing markers will be useful for studying population genetic parameters at a range of spatial scales of C. maenas throughout its expanding species range.

  10. Evidence based practice in population health: a regional survey to inform workforce development and organisational change. (United States)

    Adily, A; Ward, J


    To assess current capacity to implement evidence based practice (EBP) in population health. Postal survey of a regional population health workforce in Sydney, Australia. Division of Population Health, South Western Sydney Area Health Service. 104 population health staff (response rate: 73%). In the sample of regional population health practitioners, views about the current promotion of EBP were positive. Non-medical respondents with less that Masters degree were more likely to report "high self assessed need" to increase their capacity in EBP (p = 0.022). Confidence in understanding of EBP terminology was not associated with seniority but with highest level of education reached (pskills" or "need to increase their capacity in EBP" in their current position. The proportion of participants "strongly" supporting implementation of a colorectal cancer screening programme whose benefit was expressed as relative risk reduction was greater than that so supporting a programme whose benefit was expressed as number needed to screen (p = 0.008). Most respondents referred to their immediate managers when seeking support for EBP. The findings provide a quantitative baseline for capacity building through workplace programmes. Managerial commitment has been increased and performance development is now underway.

  11. Development of an Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay for the Detection of Antibodies against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Based on BHK-21 Cell Line Stably Expressing the Goat Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule (United States)

    Chen, Weiye; Li, Cuicui; Xie, Meimei; Bu, Zhigao


    From 2013 to 2015, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) broke out in more than half of the provinces of China; thus, the application and development of diagnostic methods are very important for the control of PPR. Here, an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) was developed to detect antibodies against PPR. However, during IPMA development, we found that Vero cells were not the appropriate choice because staining results were not easily observed. Therefore, we first established a baby hamster kidney-goat signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (BHK-SLAM) cell line that could stably express goat SLAM for at least 20 generations. Compared with Vero cells, the PPR-mediated cytopathic effect occurred earlier in BHK-SLAM cells, and large syncytia appeared after virus infection. Based on this cell line and recombinant PPR virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) (rPPRV-GFP), an IPMA for PPR diagnosis was developed. One hundred and ninety-eight PPR serum samples from goats or sheep were tested by the IPMA and virus neutralization test (VNT). Compared with the VNT, the sensitivity and specificity of the IPMA were 91% and 100%, respectively, and the coincidence rate of the two methods was 95.5%. The IPMA assay could be completed in 4 h, compared with more than 6 d for the VNT using rPPRV-GFP, and it is easily performed, as the staining results can be observed under a microscope. Additionally, unlike the VNT, the IPMA does not require antigen purification, which will reduce its cost. In conclusion, the established IPMA will be an alternative method that replaces the VNT for detecting antibodies against PPRV in the field. PMID:27768770

  12. Lymphocyte transformation response to pokeweed mitogen as a predictive marker for development of AIDS and AIDS related symptoms in homosexual men with HIV antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofmann, B; Lindhardt, B O; Gerstoft, J


    To identify factors that may predict the development of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS related symptoms various immunological measurements were studied in a group of homosexual men attending screening clinics for AIDS in Copenhagen. Fifty seven men whose ratio of T helper...

  13. The variability of lower third molar development in Northeast Malaysian population with application to age estimation. (United States)

    Johan, N A; Khamis, M F; Abdul Jamal, N Sk; Ahmad, B; Mahanani, E S


    This study aimed to assess the variability of the lower third molar (tooth 38 and 48) development in Northeast Malaysian population with respect to the side of dentition, to generate age prediction models and to compare the outcome with other studies. A total of 1080 orthopantomograms of Northeast Malaysian population aged between 14 and 25 years (540 males and 540 females) from the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia's archive which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected and the maturity stages of tooth 38 and 48 were scored using Demirjian's stages (A-H). The findings showed a wide variation of the development of lower third molars in the Northeast Malaysian population. The roots developed earlier in males than in females. The development of the dentition on opposite sides of the mandible was synchronously in females and males. A multiple regression analysis shows that 71.1% of variance in age was explained by sex and developmental stage of tooth 48. An age prediction model was generated from the regression analysis: [Age = 7.117 + 1.907*(stage of tooth 48) - 0.432*(sex)] with mean prediction errors between -0.17 to 3.14 years. The obtained data in the current study are useful for references and determining age of unidentified human remains for identification investigation.

  14. Development of 19-plex Y STR system and polymorphism studies in Pakistani population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faraz Malik; Faizan Raiz; Qurat-ul-ain; Muhammad Hassan Siddiqi; Allah Rakha; Zia ur Rehman; Zahoor Ahmed; Mahmood A. Kayani; M. Ansar; Obaid Ullah; Muhammad Shafeeq; Shahid Chohan; Yassir Abbas; Saqib Shazad,Ali Raza; Rahat Rehman


    For the development of 19-plex Y STR system and polymorphism studies in locl ethnic populations sixteen markers of non-recombining regions (NRY) of Y chromosome, which show high power of discrimination among individuals, were selected in this study. Blood samples (600) were e.ollected from the males of three most common castes of Pakistani population (Arnin, Awan and Rajput) with different parent lineages. Three markers (DYS385a/b, DYS389Ⅰ/Ⅱ and YCAⅡa/b) among 16 Y STRs are double-targeted regions of the Y chromosome and thus provide two polymorphie peaks for each respective primer set. These 16 Y-STRs were developed into Megaplex system for simultaneous amplification of all markers within the population. The overall power of discrimination observed in focused populations was 60.5%, 66.5% and 55% in Rajput, Awan and Arain casts respectively. This discrimination power will be helpful in haman identification for forensic casework studies including sexual assaults and paternity testing.

  15. Increased human occupation and agricultural development accelerates the population contraction of an estuarine delphinid (United States)

    Lin, Wenzhi; Karczmarski, Leszek; Xia, Jia; Zhang, Xiyang; Yu, Xinjian; Wu, Yuping


    Over the past few thousand years, human development and population expansion in southern China have led to local extirpation and population contraction of many terrestrial animals. At what extent this early human-induced environmental change has also affected coastal marine species remains poorly known. We investigated the demographic history of the Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis) in the Pearl River Delta (PRD); an obligatory inshore species known for its susceptibility to anthropogenic impacts in one of China’s most developed coastal regions. Although the deltaic evolution of PRD has been influenced by climate since the Holocene, ~74% reduction of the dolphin’s effective population size occurred within the last 2000 years, consistent with ~61% habitat contraction during this period. This considerable and recent population contraction may have been due to land use practices and deforestation in the upper/middle Pearl River region, all leading to increasing sedimentation rate in the estuarine area. As anthropogenic impacts within the drainage of Pearl River affected a vast area, coastal dolphins and large terrestrial mammals in southern China may share a similar demographic history, whilst the demographic and biogeographic history of the PRD humpback dolphins may be symptomatic of similar processes that this species may have undergone elsewhere in the region. PMID:27759106

  16. Rituximab for the treatment of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gentile


    Full Text Available M Gentile, E Vigna, C Mazzone, E Lucia, AG Recchia, L Morabito2, MG Bisconte, C Gentile, F Morabito1UOC di Ematologia, Azienda Ospedaliera di Cosenza, Italy; 2Servicio de Hematología y Hemoterapia, Hospital Universitario de Canarias, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainAbstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a lymphoproliferative disorder that originates from antigen-experienced B lymphocytes that do not die and hence accumulate due to external survival signals or undergo apoptosis and are replenished by proliferating precursors. These neoplastic lymphocytes exhibit a characteristic immunophenotype of CD5+/CD19+/CD20+/HLA-DR+/CD23+/sIgdim. Thus, the CD20 antigen has been an appealing target for therapy. The introduction of the monoclonal antibody rituximab (anti-CD20 enabled an outstanding advance in CLL treatment. The introduction of this monoclonal antibody into chemotherapy regimens has dramatically improved complete response rates and progression-free survival in patients with both untreated and relapsed CLL. Although only preliminary data from phase III confirmatory trials have been reported, the FCR regimen, which combines fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with rituximab, is currently the most effective treatment regimen for CLL patients, and has also been demonstrated to significantly improve overall survival . The success of rituximab and the identification of other CLL lymphocyte surface antigens have spurred the development of a multitude of monoclonal antibodies targeting distinct proteins and epitopes in an attempt to target CLL cells more effectively.Keywords: rituximab, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, chemotherapy

  17. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina. (United States)

    Bolzán, Alejandro D; Bianchi, Martha S; Giménez, Esteban M; Flaqué, María C Díaz; Ciancio, Vicente R


    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (paircrew and controls are equally sensitive to BLM G2 clastogenic effects, since both groups exhibited a similar frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (p>0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (paircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals.

  18. Analysis of spontaneous and bleomycin-induced chromosome damage in peripheral lymphocytes of long-haul aircrew members from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolzan, Alejandro D. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina)], E-mail:; Bianchi, Martha S. [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Miembro de la Carrera del Investigador Cientifico del CONICET (Argentina); Gimenez, Esteban M.; Flaque, Maria C. Diaz [Laboratorio de Citogenetica y Mutagenesis, Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Celular (IMBICE), C.C. 403, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Ciancio, Vicente R. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, 120 y 60, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    Spontaneous and bleomycin (BLM)-induced chromosomal aberrations in G0 and G2 stages of the cell cycle have been analyzed in peripheral lymphocytes of 21 long-haul aircrew members from Argentina in order to assess BLM-induced clastogenesis as a first approach to determine the DNA repair capacity and thereby the susceptibility to environmental cancers in aircrew. The possibility that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation can induce an adaptive response in their peripheral lymphocytes that can be detected by a subsequent in vitro treatment with BLM was also investigated. For comparison, aberrations were also scored in the lymphocytes of 15 healthy volunteers matched by age, health, sex, drinking and smoking habits to the flight personnel group. Aircrew exhibited a higher frequency of spontaneous dicentrics and ring chromosomes than the control population (p < 0.05). BLM sensitivity test showed that aircrew and controls are equally sensitive to BLM G2 clastogenic effects, since both groups exhibited a similar frequency of chromatid breaks per cell (p > 0.05). However, the aircrew sampled population was almost two times more sensitive to BLM G0 clastogenic effects than controls (p < 0.05). Therefore, our data suggest that chronic exposure of aircrew to cosmic radiation increases the in vitro chromosomal sensitivity of their peripheral lymphocytes to BLM (at least in the G0 stage of the cell cycle), and that occupational exposure of flight personnel to cosmic radiation does not induce an adaptive response to this radiomimetic compound. Our results justify further studies aimed at determine if those aircrew members hypersensitive to BLM are more prone to develop environmental cancer than BLM-insensitive individuals.

  19. Seven ways of causing the less developed countries' population problem to disappear -- in theory. (United States)

    Keyfitz, N


    7 ways in which excessive population growth does not harm development are critically examined. 1) Population growth rates are declining; ignore the absolute numbers. If objectivity is relevant, then rates are for cross-country comparisons and numbers are for impact. 2) Twice as many people has resulted in taking better care of trees and soils. The context is important where less populated countries may be more environmentally concerned, and one can ignore that twice as many people may mean twice as much food and fuel use. There is no convincing empirical evidence even with intermediate variables. 3) Land and materials no longer set limits; the more people, the more brains, the more ideas, and the more technology to circumvent environmental limits. Land has been superseded by productivity advances due to technology. Capital accounts for maybe 10% of economic progress. Technology has transformed but also produced the ozone layer, the greenhouse effect, and the extinction of species. Those in less developed countries want few people and more land and capital. 4) Ignoring nonlinearities and discontinuities, countries with controlled population and rapid population growth have experienced similar patterns of slow income growth. 16% of economic growth is accounted for by lower population growth. However, economic growth may be due to other factors, such as economic riches in oil. A critical point is reached where renewable resources eventually decline. 5) The market will produce an optimum of people, if parents get all the benefits and pay all the costs of having children. Fertility reduction leads to loss of utility. The impact of this decision to bear children without social limits on others must be considered. Net externalities may occur within the nuclear family where the husband plans family size and the wife raises the child; within the community where couples plan the child and the community educates the child; and between the present and future generations where

  20. The population conundrums and some implications for urban development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna


    Full Text Available Population development may reveal either a potential or constraint on functional labour markets and spatial development of the territory in concern. The first results of the 2011 Census in Serbia depict a rather bleak demographic situation, which is only the continuation of population trends from the late 20th and beginning of the 21st century, substantially fuelled by dynamic political and socioeconomic processes featuring Serbia in the past few decades. The focus is on demographic changes in relation to three correlated aspects: 1 intensive ageing process; 2 depopulation and negative natural growth; and 3 migratory movements - population exodus. This paper addresses in particular the spatial consequences and institutional aspects of recent demographic changes and their reflection on urban areas in Serbia. In the past, population movements from rural to urban areas used to colour much of the migratory balance map of the country, however this situation changed due to exhaustion of the ‘traditional’ demographic reservoirs. Still, urban primacy of the capital city Belgrade has been even intensified with the recent demographic movements, or more precisely, a tissue of the two largest cities in relative proximity - Belgrade and Novi Sad is hypertrophied in a demographic sense. Other urban settlements in Serbia, especially the smaller towns, which are numerous but demographically shrinking, have not been empowered enough to substantiate better links with smaller and larger settlements within urban-rural interface, and their role has been challenged in that respect. Demographic changes, which affect urban growth or decline, are largely to do with border effects, economic and social gaps, educational opportunities, and search of certain ‘urban lifestyles’. The latter is particularly stressed regarding the process of ‘second demographic transition’ which encompassed Serbia and is manifested by changes in the family domain, viz. partnership

  1. Development of a Web-Accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service—Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo): Study Protocol (United States)

    Foster, Gary; Navarro-Ruan, Tamara; McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Thabane, Lehana


    Background Individual pharmacokinetic assessment is a critical component of tailored prophylaxis for hemophilia patients. Population pharmacokinetics allows using individual sparse data, thus simplifying individual pharmacokinetic studies. Implementing population pharmacokinetics capacity for the hemophilia community is beyond individual reach and requires a system effort. Objective The Web-Accessible Population Pharmacokinetic Service—Hemophilia (WAPPS-Hemo) project aims to assemble a database of patient pharmacokinetic data for all existing factor concentrates, develop and validate population pharmacokinetics models, and integrate these models within a Web-based calculator for individualized pharmacokinetic estimation in patients at participating treatment centers. Methods Individual pharmacokinetic studies on factor VIII and IX concentrates will be sourced from pharmaceutical companies and independent investigators. All factor concentrate manufacturers, hemophilia treatment centers (HTCs), and independent investigators (identified via a systematic review of the literature) having on file pharmacokinetic data and willing to contribute full or sparse pharmacokinetic data will be eligible for participation. Multicompartmental modeling will be performed using a mixed-model approach for derivation and Bayesian forecasting for estimation of individual sparse data. NONMEM (ICON Development Solutions) will be used as modeling software. Results The WAPPS-Hemo research network has been launched and is currently joined by 30 HTCs from across the world. We have gathered dense individual pharmacokinetic data on 878 subjects, including several replicates, on 21 different molecules from 17 different sources. We have collected sparse individual pharmacokinetic data on 289 subjects from the participating centers through the testing phase of the WAPPS-Hemo Web interface. We have developed prototypal population pharmacokinetics models for 11 molecules. The WAPPS-Hemo website

  2. Chronological age estimation based on third molar development in a Portuguese population. (United States)

    Caldas, Inês Morais; Júlio, Paula; Simões, Ricardo Jorge; Matos, Eduarda; Afonso, Américo; Magalhães, Teresa


    Third molar development was assessed using a sample of 1,131 orthopantomograms from a Portuguese population. The methodology applied was the eight stages (A-H) method described by Demirjian et al. The final sample was made of 739 orthopantomograms, 387 (52.5%) of which belonging to females; age ranged between 6.1 and 22.5 years old (mean age = 14.49, S.D. = 4.37). For each developmental stage, mean age, standard deviation, and minimal and maximal age was assessed; evaluation of the rate formation of each tooth, according to sex, was calculated and data distribution expressed in percentiles for each stage; the probability of an individual being 16 was also evaluated. The relationship between tooth development and chronological age had a statistical significance for all teeth and both sexes (p thesis that each population need specific data.

  3. Fundamentalism, multiculturalism and problems of conducting research with populations in developing nations. (United States)

    Crigger, N J; Holcomb, L; Weiss, J


    A growing number of nurse researchers travel globally to conduct research in poor and underserved populations in developing nations. These researchers, while well versed in research ethics, often find it difficult to apply traditional ethical standards to populations in developing countries. The problem of applying ethical standards across cultures is explained by a long-standing debate about the nature of ethical principles. Fundamentalism is the philosophical stance that ethical principles are universal, while the anthropologically-based 'multicultural' model claims the philosophical position that principles are culturally bound. The authors explicate the two philosophical stances and advocate a morally sensitive but moderate position of 'ethical multiculturalism' rather than favouring either of the above philosophical positions. The final section suggests ways to promote ethical multiculturalism while planning and conducting nursing research.

  4. Population trends and developments in Kermanshah during 1966-2011, and its future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masood Safari Ali Akbari


    Full Text Available Cities and urbanization in the last decades, it has undergone enormous changes, so that in recent decades, the number of urban and spatial development, the scale is unprecedented. City of Kermanshah, in center of Kermanshah Province, not far from these developments, and according to geographical location (the center of the West Country, and its relationship to the West direction - south, in recent decades, population increases have been high.  This paper aims to examine population changes Kermanshah, ( during the years 1966 to, 2011 was performed in addition to analyzing the process of transformation, and to recognize the causes and contributing factors in the current situation, a better understanding can be reached, as appropriate, plan for the future, be provided.

  5. A variable CD3⁺ T-cell frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus development in the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Arndt

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat is an animal model of human type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, which arose through a spontaneous mutation within the MHC-congenic inbred strain LEW.1AR1 (RT1(r². In contrast to the diabetes-resistant LEW.1AR1 background strain in LEW.1AR1-iddm rats a highly variable T-cell frequency could be observed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. METHODS: In this study we therefore characterised the T-cell repertoire within the PBLs of the two strains by flow cytometry analysis and identified the CD3⁺ T-cell phenotype and its possible linkage to diabetes susceptibility. To map loci conferring susceptibility to variable CD3⁺ T-cell frequency, backcross strains (N2 were generated with the genetically divergent BN and PAR rats for microsatellite analysis. RESULTS: The LEW.1AR1-iddm rat strain was characterised by a higher variability of CD3⁺ T-cells in PBLs along with a slightly decreased mean value compared to the LEW.1AR1 background strain. The reason for this reduction was a decrease in the CD4⁺ T-cell count while the CD8⁺ T-cell proportion remained unchanged. However, both T-cell subpopulations showed a high variability. This resulted in a lower CD4⁺/CD8⁺ T-cell ratio than in LEW.1AR1 rats. Like LEW.1AR1-iddm rats all animals of the backcross populations, N2 BN and N2 PAR rats, also showed large variations of the CD3⁺ T-cell frequency. The phenotype of variable CD3⁺ T-cell frequency mapped to the telomeric region of chromosome 1 (RNO1, which is identical with the already known Iddm8 diabetes susceptibility region. The data indicate that a variable CD3⁺ T-cell frequency in PBLs is genetically linked to diabetes susceptibility in the LEW.1AR1-iddm rat. CONCLUSION: The T-cell variability in PBLs could be related to the previously reported imbalance between regulatory and effector T-cell populations which results in beta-cell autoimmunity. Since similar T-cell phenotypes have also been described in human T1

  6. [Some problems with the development of the population theory since the founding of the People's Republic of China]. (United States)

    Feng, S X


    Since the founding of the People's Republic of China, the development of the population theory has experienced some setbacks. It is important to learn lessons from the past and establish a socialist population theory based on science. During the 1st 30 years of the People's Republic of China, the development of a population theory can be divided into 3 stages: 1) stage one was from 1949 to 1957 -- belief in population control on the basis of sociology; 2) stage two was from the late 1950s to early 1960s -- represented by Mr. Ma Yinchu's "New Population Theory" and the theory of the opposing side; and 3) stage Three began after the 1960s. Throughout the 1960s, studies of population theory remained stagnant, and no progress in this field was possible. In the 1970s, especially since the downfall of the "Gang of Four," the development of a population theory has entered a new stage. 3 problems with the development of the population theory discussed by the author are: 1) an evaluation of Comrade Mao Zedong's thoughts on population, 2) the division of different schools in population theory, 3) the different periods in the development of the population theory since 1949. Mao Zedong did change his thoughts on population control, but he was in favor of family planning and supported studies in population theory. Besides Ma Yinchu, Chin Da, Fei Xiaotong, Wu Jingchao and others also had their own population theories. The author emphasizes the contributions made by Mao Zedong and the Communist Party in the development of a population theory. New accomplishments and experience are expected with the downfall of the "Gang of Four."

  7. Antigen-specific lymphocyte transformation in patients with recent yersiniosis. (United States)

    Vuento, R


    Lymphocyte transformation in patients with recent yersiniosis was studied. A micromethod using washed blood cells and Yersinia enterocolitica antigen was employed. The washed blood cells were incubated in the presence of various dilutions of heat-treated whole bacteria; these proved as antigen superior to gentamicin- or formalin-treated bacteria. Patients with recent yersiniosis had a significantly higher response against Yersinia antigen as compared to 20 healthy controls, who had either no response or a low response. No difference could be observed in responses against PPD or streptokinase-streptodornase, or in the mitogen responses between these two groups. A marked cross-reaction was observed between Yersinia and Escherichia coli antigen. The results show that patients with recent yersiniosis develop lymphocyte transformation response against Yersinia. Lymphocyte transformation test can be used in the study of host responses against infecting Yersinia in patients with different clinical pictures of yersiniosis.

  8. A new 500 kb haplotype associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers predicts a less severe expression of hereditary hemochromatosis

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    Mascarenhas Cláudia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Hemochromatosis(HH is a common genetic disorder of iron overload where the large majority of patients are homozygous for one ancestral mutation in the HFE gene. In spite of this remarkable genetic homogeneity, the condition is clinically heterogeneous, varying from a severe disease to an asymptomatic phenotype with only abnormal biochemical parameters. The recent recognition of the variable penetrance of the HH mutation in different large population studies demands the need to search for new modifiers of its phenotypic expression. The present study follows previous observations that MHC class-I linked genetic markers, associated with the setting of CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers, could be clinically relevant modifiers of the phenotypic expression in HH, and aimed to find new markers that could be used as more reliable prognostic variables. Methods Haplotype analysis, including seven genetic markers within a 1 Mb region around the microsatellite D6S105 was performed in a group of 56 previously characterized C282Y homozygous Portuguese patients. Parameters analyzed in this study were total body iron stores, clinical manifestations related with HH and immunological parameters (total lymphocyte numbers, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers. An independent group of 10 C282Y homozygous patients from Vancouver, Canada, were also included in this study and analyzed for the same parameters. Results A highly conserved ancestral haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-A, ZNF193-A, ZNF165-T (designated as A-A-T was found associated with both abnormally low CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and the development of a severe clinical expression of HH. In a small proportion of patients, another conserved haplotype defined by the SNP markers PGBD1-G, ZNF193-G, ZNF165-G (designated as G-G-G was found associated with high CD8+ T-lymphocyte numbers and a milder clinical expression. Remarkably, the two conserved haplotypes defined in Portuguese

  9. The kinetics and distribution of different macrophage populations in the developing rat skin



    Macrophages play important roles in host defense and homeostasis. In contrast to adulthood, far less is known about macrophage populations in fetuses and neonates. Macrophages were evaluated in the developing rat skin at different anatomical sites (head, anterior dorsal, posterior dorsal, and abdomen) of F344 rats obtained on gestational days 18 and 20, on neonatal days 1-21, and at adult weeks 5-15. The numbers of macrophages in the epidermis, dermis or perifollicular...

  10. Population growth and development in the Third World: the neocolonial context. (United States)

    Patterson, J G; Shrestha, N R


    Less developed countries (LDCs) that were colonies of other nations continued operating under the same social and political structures set up by the former ruling nations. The small minority of elites in the LDCs held on to the power acquired during colonial times. In order to preserve their political and financial status after independence, they maintained their close linkages to the capitalist nations and their multinational corporations (MNCs). The elites did not generally have popular support, however. These capitalist nations and their commercial interests continue to dictate most LDCs development process which supports the financial interests of the MNCs and the local elites and not those of the majority, the poor. The poor realize that they are trapped and unable to break away from the economic and political structures, therefore, to assure some form of security, they have many children which exacerbates their poverty. Yet population control policies based on Malthusian theory and those that rely on such undimensional, technical approaches as family planning alone cannot cure the multidimensional social problems of high population growth and poverty. Neither the Malthusian nor Marxist theories totally explain the situation in the LDCs or even provide workable solutions. Research on population and development in LDCs needs to address both the Malthusian concern for the problems posed by high growth rates and the Marxist critique of class struggle in development trends. To eliminate the trap of poverty and dependent economies, each country must design its own remedies based on its history, culture, and geography and alter the prevailing social, economic, and political power structures in favor of the poor. 6 propositions that must be modified to each nation's particular problems and needs are presented to guide LDCs in formulating or reformulating policies to alleviate the problems of population and poverty.

  11. Quantitative Population Epigenetics in Screening and Development of Regulator-Active Factors of the Farming System


    Stauss, R.


    Likewise, index selection based on statistical genetic theory in plant and animal breeding the methodology "Quantitative Population Epigenetics" can be appropriated to improve efficiency in screening and development of regulator-active factors of the farming system for potential to enhance quantitative characters such as yield, standability and resistance to unfavorable environmental influences (e.g., water stress, cold temperatures, disease resistance). For example, as was shown for an ef...

  12. Application of Fuzzy Borda Combination Evaluation in Subjective and Objective Evaluation Methods in Comprehensive Evaluation of Population Development

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    Yu Jiajia


    Full Text Available This paper constructs the comprehensive index evaluation of population development from the three aspects of human development, population and economic society and population, resources and environment, according to the movement course and changing trend of population development at home and abroad, and the guiding ideology of national population development strategy system. The index system consists of 3 first level indexes, 8 Secondary indexes, 22 tertiary level indexes and 42 fourth level indexes. And on the basis of commonly used comprehensive evaluation methods. The comprehensive evaluation of the population development in China in 2013 was made by using the combined evaluation method, which effectively overcomes the shortcomings of the objective evaluation method and the subjective evaluation method, and obtains a more credible comprehensive evaluation value.

  13. Gender differences in the prevalence and development of metabolic syndrome in Chinese population with abdominal obesity.

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    Shaoyong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Not all the people with metabolic syndrome (MS have abdominal obesity (AO. The study aimed to investigate gender differences in the prevalence and development of MS in Chinese population with abdominal obesity, which has rarely been reported. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2007-08 China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study, and participants were divided into two samples for analysis. Sample 1 consisted of 19,046 people with abdominal obesity, while sample 2 included 2,124 people meeting pre-specified requirements. Survival analysis was used to analyze the development of MS. RESULTS: The age-standardized prevalence of MS in Chinese population with AO was 49.5%. The prevalence in males (73.7% was significantly higher than that in females (36.9%. Males had significantly higher proportions of combinations of three or four MS components than females (36.4% vs. 30.2% and 18.4% vs. 5%, respectively. MS developed quick at first and became slow down later. Half of the participants with AO developed to MS after 3.9 years (95% CI: 3.7-4.1 from the initial metabolic abnormal component, whereas 75% developed to MS after 7.7 years (95% CI: 7.5-7.9. CONCLUSION: Compared with females, Chinese males with AO should receive more attention because of their higher prevalence of MS and its components, more complex and risky combinations of abnormal components, and faster development of MS.

  14. Signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM) expression in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. (United States)

    Piskin, A Kevser; Akpinar, Pinar; Muftuoglu, Sevda; Anlar, Banu


    Signaling lymphocyte activating molecule (SLAM) is a receptor for measles virus which also has immunomodulatory activity. We analyzed SLAM expression in mononuclear cells (MNC) of patients with SSPE (n=7) and control subjects (n=7) from the same population. Native 10% PAGE analysis in cell and brain tissue extracts followed by Western blotting using monoclonal anti-human SLAM showed four types of bands. Differences in the type and amount of SLAM expression were observed between SSPE and control cases. Lymphocytes of SSPE patients showed two types of SLAM bands in comparison to only one in control lymphocytes. Stimulation of cells with lipopolysaccharide (80 u/ml) and concanavalin A (1 microg/ml) in vitro led to the appearance of a second isoform in both groups. Brain homogenates of SSPE patients (n=2) displayed all four types of SLAM isoforms at significantly higher levels than those of control brains (n=2). Our results show native PAGE enables the detection of all SLAM isotypes. The expression of SLAM is increased in lymphocytes, monocytes, and brain tissues of SSPE patients.

  15. Loss of methylation at the IFNG promoter and CNS-1 is associated with the development of functional IFN-γ memory in human CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Ivascu, Claudia; Qian, Yu; Rezai, Soheila; Okhrimenko, Anna; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Maggi, Laura; Eckhardt, Florian; Wu, Peihua; Sieper, Joachim; Alexander, Tobias; Annunziato, Francesco; Gossen, Manfred; Li, Jun; Radbruch, Andreas; Thiel, Andreas


    Cytokine memory for IFN-γ production by effector/memory Th1 cells plays a key role in both protective and pathological immune responses. To understand the epigenetic mechanism determining the ontogeny of effector/memory Th1 cells characterized by stable effector functions, we identified a T-cell-specific methylation pattern at the IFNG promoter and CNS-1 in ex vivo effector/memory Th1 cells, and investigated methylation dynamics of these regions during the development of effector/memory Th1 cells. During Th1 differentiation, demethylation occurred at both the promoter and CNS-1 regions of IFNG as early as 16 h, and this process was independent of cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. Using an IFN-γ capture assay, we found early IFN-γ-producing cells from 2-day differentiating cultures acquired "permissive" levels of demethylation and developed into effector/memory Th1 cells undergoing progressive demethylation at the IFNG promoter and CNS-1 when induced by IL-12. Methylation levels of these regions in effector/memory Th1 cells of peripheral blood from rheumatoid arthritis patients correlated inversely with reduced frequencies of IFN-γ-producers, coincident with recruitment of effector/memory Th1 cells to the site of inflammation. Thus, after termination of TCR stimulation, IL-12 signaling potentiates the stable functional IFN-γ memory in effector/memory Th1 cells characterized by hypomethylation at the IFNG promoter and CNS-1.

  16. Profile of obinutuzumab for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia


    Hill BT; Kalaycio M


    Brian T Hill, Matt Kalaycio Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Abstract: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a hematologic malignancy derived from a clonal population of mature B-lymphocytes characterized by relatively low CD20 antigen expression. Although the disease often takes an indolent course, the majority of patients will eventually require therapy. Standard treatment for medically fit patients includes puri...

  17. Mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: changes in RT6+ T-lymphocytes of susceptible and resistant rats. (United States)

    Kosuda, L L; Greiner, D L; Bigazzi, P E


    The repeated administration of mercury to rats of the Brown Norway (BN) inbred strain results in a self-limiting production of autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin) and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. In contrast, rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain do not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment. Suppressor T-cells and/or the idiotype-anti-idiotype network have been implicated in the control of autoimmunity in susceptible (BN) rats as well as the "resistant" state of nonsusceptible (LEW) animals. In our investigations of the immune regulation of mercury-induced autoimmune glomerulonephritis, we have performed a phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleens and lymph nodes of mercury-treated and control LEW, BN, and (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats. Of particular interest were RT6+ T-cells, a subpopulation of lymphocytes that may have immunoregulatory properties and show a relative decrease in mercury-treated BN rats concomitantly with the development of autoimmune responses to renal autoantigens. LEW rats did not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment and had no significant change in the ratio of RT6+ to RT6- T-lymphocytes. Interestingly, the administration of mercury to (BN x LEW) F1 hybrid rats caused effects similar to those observed in the BN strain. Auto-immune responses to antigens of the kidney coincided with a change in the balance within the RT6 cell population, which was altered in favor of T-lymphocytes that do not express the RT6 phenotype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Contemporary population and development challenges in the Municipality of Dubrovačko Primorje, Croatia

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    Helena Karlić Mujo


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to define the basic issues and opportunities challenging the modern development of the Municipality of Dubrovačko Primorje, their causes and effects. The processes of depopulation affected this poorly developed rural region since 1960s, which had been influenced by various factors: development polarisation caused by intensive development of tourism, the poor traffic infrastructure in the highland-area of the Municipality and the unsolved water supply issue. In 1990s a series of events intensified negative demographic trends as follows: aggression on Croatia, occupation during which residential, economic and infrastructural buildings were destroyed and burnt, as well as an earthquake which happened after the return of the refugees. The long-lasting rural emigration from this region towards Dubrovnik caused not only an instantaneous decrease of population but also a contraction of the renewing basis and an accelerated decrease of natural growth in the Municipality of Dubrovačko Primorje. In that way the emigrational depopulation as a consequence of a specific socioeconomic development, became the cause of the current biological depopulation. The intensity of the depopulation processes has been established by an analysis of a total population dynamics and the changes in biological and economic population structure. The conclusion of the study indicates activities which have promising development in the Municipality of Dubrovačko Primorje and which might partly stop the negative demographic trends. Those are mainly traditional activities in this region which are not commercially used enough. They should prevent any further emigration and perhaps even attract those who immigrated, back to their place of birth.

  19. Assessing local population vulnerability to wind energy development with branching process models: an application to wind energy development (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Stanton, Jessica C.; Beston, Julie A.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.


    Quantifying the impact of anthropogenic development on local populations is important for conservation biology and wildlife management. However, these local populations are often subject to demographic stochasticity because of their small population size. Traditional modeling efforts such as population projection matrices do not consider this source of variation whereas individual-based models, which include demographic stochasticity, are computationally intense and lack analytical tractability. One compromise between approaches is branching process models because they accommodate demographic stochasticity and are easily calculated. These models are known within some sub-fields of probability and mathematical ecology but are not often applied in conservation biology and applied ecology. We applied branching process models to quantitatively compare and prioritize species locally vulnerable to the development of wind energy facilities. Specifically, we examined species vulnerability using branching process models for four representative species: A cave bat (a long-lived, low fecundity species), a tree bat (short-lived, moderate fecundity species), a grassland songbird (a short-lived, high fecundity species), and an eagle (a long-lived, slow maturation species). Wind turbine-induced mortality has been observed for all of these species types, raising conservation concerns. We simulated different mortality rates from wind farms while calculating local extinction probabilities. The longer-lived species types (e.g., cave bats and eagles) had much more pronounced transitions from low extinction risk to high extinction risk than short-lived species types (e.g., tree bats and grassland songbirds). High-offspring-producing species types had a much greater variability in baseline risk of extinction than the lower-offspring-producing species types. Long-lived species types may appear stable until a critical level of incidental mortality occurs. After this threshold, the risk of

  20. [B lymphocyte ontogeny]. (United States)

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Pelayo, Rosana


    The B cell development from hematopoietic stem cells is a continuous and highly regulated process where multiple differentiation potentials are gradually lost while acquiring lineage specialized functions. At 50 years of the B cell discovery, the current knowledge of its early differentiation largely derive from the isolation and characterization of bone marrow early progenitor cells initiating the lymphoid program, and from the definition of transcriptional activity patterns that control cell fate decisions. Of particular relevance has been the intercommunication between B cell precursors and key components of the hematopoietic microenvironment, both for generation of novel models integrating all regulatory elements of this complex process, and for the understanding of this branch of the adaptive immune system in disease settings. This review provides an overview of the complex process of lymphoid differentiation: from the hierarchical organization and biological characteristics of primitive cells involved in its earliest stages, to the principles governing its interdependence with the hematopoietic microenvironment.

  1. Changes in the adhesive phenotype of regional lymphocytes in rats with adjuvant arthritis: alteration by cyclophosphamide. (United States)

    Altankov, G; Marinova-Mutafchieva, L; Nikolaeva, N; Penkova, R


    A quantitative spectrophotometrical method was used to study the adhesive phenotype of lymphocytes from regional lymph nodes of rats with early stage adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA), pretreated or not with cyclophosphamide (CY). The results showed that adhesion of lymphocytes from AA-sensitized lymph nodes to gelatin and collagens (type I, II, III and IV) was enhanced, especially to collagen type II. However, adhesion to fibronectin and to fibrinogen did not differ from adhesion in nontreated rats. Application of CY was found to aggravate AA development and influence the lymphocytes' adhesiveness. Adhesion was inhibited in all cases except to fibrinogen, where it was augmented, compared to the adhesion in both AA and control groups. Relationships between the lymphocyte adhesive phenotype and the expression of histological changes suggest that lymphocyte-matrix interactions could play an important role in the pathogenesis of AA development and the mechanism of CY action.

  2. Development of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis holbrooki populations in lentic mesocosms. Perspectives for ecotoxicological studies

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    DREZE V.


    Full Text Available In the perspective of ecotoxicological assays in mesocosms, the development of mosquitofish populations (Gambusia affinis holbrooki has been assessed. The objective was to evaluate the ability of fish to reproduce in these experimental ponds under the climatic conditions of Brittany, and to see if population size and individual criteria were related to the number of adults initially introduced. Six mesocosms (3.2 m diameter and 0.7 m water depth similarly designed received sexually mature mosquitofish at the rate of 12 (6 females and 6 males, 6 (3 females and 3 males and 2 (1 female and 1 male in June 1996. Each assay was duplicated. In December 1996, the entire populations were collected and the weight, size and sex of the individuals were noted. Length-frequency distributions were relatively similar between mesocosms and the different mode groups showed that the reproductive activity occurred until the beginning of fall. The produced biomass (from 4.1 to 38.3 g and number of fish collected (from 26 to 301 were statistically correlated to the number of pairs initially introduced. This study provides interesting perspectives for ecotoxicological investigations in which the effects of pollutants on mosquitofish would be assessed at the population level.

  3. Development of a low bias method for characterizing viral populations using next generation sequencing technology.

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    Stephanie M Willerth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With an estimated 38 million people worldwide currently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, and an additional 4.1 million people becoming infected each year, it is important to understand how this virus mutates and develops resistance in order to design successful therapies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a novel experimental method for amplifying full-length HIV genomes without the use of sequence-specific primers for high throughput DNA sequencing, followed by assembly of full length viral genome sequences from the resulting large dataset. Illumina was chosen for sequencing due to its ability to provide greater coverage of the HIV genome compared to prior methods, allowing for more comprehensive characterization of the heterogeneity present in the HIV samples analyzed. Our novel amplification method in combination with Illumina sequencing was used to analyze two HIV populations: a homogenous HIV population based on the canonical NL4-3 strain and a heterogeneous viral population obtained from a HIV patient's infected T cells. In addition, the resulting sequence was analyzed using a new computational approach to obtain a consensus sequence and several metrics of diversity. SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates how a lower bias amplification method in combination with next generation DNA sequencing provides in-depth, complete coverage of the HIV genome, enabling a stronger characterization of the quasispecies present in a clinically relevant HIV population as well as future study of how HIV mutates in response to a selective pressure.

  4. [Some fundamental problems concerning the relationship between population growth and economic development]. (United States)

    Huang, Z


    The population growth rate is closely related to the quality of economic life, available funds for individual and social consumption, national income to be used for reproduction, and the labor employment situation. Since liberation, socialism has not been able to show its superiority, mainly because of China's large population figure, low economic productivity, low national income, and poor management in the relationship between consumption and accumulation. In order to solve these problems, we need to adequately control the pace of the population growth and match the rate of population growth with the pace of economic development. A way to increase national income is through saving and avoiding unnecessary waste. Social expenditures on education, culture, science, health and medical care, social welfare, and investment in the promotion of people's wisdom should all be increased. Meanwhile, the living standard of the people needs to be raised, and capital accumulation should also be managed so that funds will be available for industrial and economic enterprises. Existing inefficient production enterprises should be properly reorganized so that full employment may be achieved. In this way, the national economy will have more prosperity, and the people will benefit more from the Socialist policy.

  5. Development of a population-based microsimulation model of osteoarthritis in Canada. (United States)

    Kopec, J A; Sayre, E C; Flanagan, W M; Fines, P; Cibere, J; Rahman, Md M; Bansback, N J; Anis, A H; Jordan, J M; Sobolev, B; Aghajanian, J; Kang, W; Greidanus, N V; Garbuz, D S; Hawker, G A; Badley, E M


    The purpose of the study was to develop a population-based simulation model of osteoarthritis (OA) in Canada that can be used to quantify the future health and economic burden of OA under a range of scenarios for changes in the OA risk factors and treatments. In this article we describe the overall structure of the model, sources of data, derivation of key input parameters for the epidemiological component of the model, and preliminary validation studies. We used the Population Health Model (POHEM) platform to develop a stochastic continuous-time microsimulation model of physician-diagnosed OA. Incidence rates were calibrated to agree with administrative data for the province of British Columbia, Canada. The effect of obesity on OA incidence and the impact of OA on health-related quality of life (HRQL) were modeled using Canadian national surveys. Incidence rates of OA in the model increase approximately linearly with age in both sexes between the ages of 50 and 80 and plateau in the very old. In those aged 50+, the rates are substantially higher in women. At baseline, the prevalence of OA is 11.5%, 13.6% in women and 9.3% in men. The OA hazard ratios for obesity are 2.0 in women and 1.7 in men. The effect of OA diagnosis on HRQL, as measured by the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3), is to reduce it by 0.10 in women and 0.14 in men. We describe the development of the first population-based microsimulation model of OA. Strengths of this model include the use of large population databases to derive the key parameters and the application of modern microsimulation technology. Limitations of the model reflect the limitations of administrative and survey data and gaps in the epidemiological and HRQL literature. Copyright 2009 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. All rights reserved.

  6. Spondylarthritis in the absence of B lymphocytes. (United States)

    Baeten, Dominique; Kruithof, Elli; Breban, Maxime; Tak, Paul P


    The highly effective treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by B cell depletion and the presence of B cells in the peripheral and axial lesions of patients with spondylarthritis (SpA) raise the question as to whether B lymphocytes could also be an appropriate therapeutic target in the latter disease. We describe 2 male HLA-B27-positive patients who had active SpA despite absence of B cells. One patient developed SpA with sacroiliitis and asymmetric oligoarthritis after having been diagnosed as having severe Bruton agammaglobulinemia. Since extensive investigations excluded an infectious origin of the SpA, this case illustrates that functional B cells and/or gamma globulins are not strictly required for SpA pathogenesis. The second patient had severe axial and peripheral SpA that was treated successfully with etanercept. After discontinuation of etanercept treatment because of non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma, both axial and peripheral SpA symptoms relapsed rapidly, and this exacerbation of articular disease activity was not modulated by successful B cell depletion therapy for the lymphoma. Although case reports have obvious limitations, our clinical observations provide evidence that active SpA can occur in the absence of functional mature B cells and thus emphasize the need for systematic studies of the exact role and function of B lymphocytes in this disease.

  7. Embedding Evolution: Exploring Changes in Students' Conceptual Development, Beliefs, and Motivations in a Population Ecology Unit (United States)

    Rose, Nancy L.

    The purpose of this study was to explore student changes in conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when evolution concepts are embedded and explicit reflective discourse is used in a unit for population ecology. The two research problems were: (1) What changes are observed in student's conceptual development, epistemology, and motivations when there is explicit reflective discourse within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution?, and (2) In what ways does explicit reflection influence students' mental models within a population ecology unit with embedded evolution? This mixed-method, quasi-experimental study assessed two regular high school biology classes in a small, urban, Midwestern high school. Students in this study had not studied evolution within any formal chapters, but had been immersed in a curriculum with embedded evolution. The study was conducted over a four-week period in a population ecology unit near the beginning of second semester. Instruction emphasized basic conceptions in population ecology. Five key intervention activities included evolutionary concepts as part of an embedded curriculum. The independent variable was explicit reflective discourse with one or two intervention questions after completion of these activities. Data included pre- and posttest surveys measuring (a) evolutionary understanding of natural selection, (b) science beliefs, and (c) science motivations. Written artifacts included (a) explanations to scenarios, (b) pre- and post-argument reflections revealing student's science beliefs and science motivations resultant from two argumentations, and (c) three, pre-, post-, and 6-week final concept maps constructed from 12 concepts. All data sources provided descriptive data. Conceptual change was interpreted from an ontological, epistemological, and motivational perspective. The experimental class receiving explicit reflective discourse showed greater overall increases in conceptual development. Students

  8. Population dynamics during cell proliferation and neuronogenesis in the developing murine neocortex (United States)

    Nowakowski, Richard S.; Caviness, Verne S Jr; Takahashi, Takao; Hayes, Nancy L.


    During the development of the neocortex, cell proliferation occurs in two specialized zones adjacent to the lateral ventricle. One of these zones, the ventricular zone, produces most of the neurons of the neocortex. The proliferating population that resides in the ventricular zone is a pseudostratified ventricular epithelium (PVE) that looks uniform in routine histological preparations, but is, in fact, an active and dynamically changing population. In the mouse, over the course of a 6-day period, the PVE produces approximately 95% of the neurons of the adult neocortex. During this time, the cell cycle of the PVE population lengthens from about 8 h to over 18 h and the progenitor population passes through a total of 11 cell cycles. This 6-day, 11-cell cycle period comprises the "neuronogenetic interval" (NI). At each passage through the cell cycle, the proportion of daughter cells that exit the cell cycle (Q cells) increases from 0 at the onset of the NI to 1 at the end of the NI. The proportion of daughter cells that re-enter the cell cycle (P cells) changes in a complementary fashion from 1 at the onset of the NI to 0 at the end of the NI. This set of systematic changes in the cell cycle and the output from the proliferative population of the PVE allows a quantitative and mathematical treatment of the expansion of the PVE and the growth of the cortical plate that nicely accounts for the observed expansion and growth of the developing neocortex. In addition, we show that the cells produced during a 2-h window of development during specific cell cycles reside in a specific set of laminae in the adult cortex, but that the distributions of the output from consecutive cell cycles overlap. These dynamic events occur in all areas of the PVE underlying the neocortex, but there is a gradient of maturation that begins in the rostrolateral neocortex near the striatotelencephalic junction and which spreads across the surface of the neocortex over a period of 24-36 h. The

  9. Expression of TLR-7, MyD88, NF-kB and INF-α in B lymphocytes of Mayan Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, in Mexico

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    Guillermo eValencia Pacheco


    Full Text Available Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease involving multiple organs. It is currently accepted that several genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors contributing to its development. Innate immunity may have a great influence in autoimmunity through Toll-like receptors (TLR. TLR-7 recognizing single-strand RNA has been involved in SLE. Its activation induces intracellular signal with attraction of MyD88 and NF-kB, leading to IFN-α synthesis which correlate with disease activity. Objective: To assess the expression of TLR-7, MyD88 and NF-kB in mononuclear cells of Mayan women with SLE. Methods: One hundred patients with SLE and one hundred healthy controls, all them Mayan women, were included. TLR-7 was analyzed on B and T lymphocytes, and MyD88 and NF-kB only in B lymphocytes. Serum INF-α level was evaluated by ELISA. Results: Significant expression (p < 0.0001 of TLR-7 in B and T lymphocytes and serum IFN-α increased (p = 0.034 was observed in patients. MyD88 and NF-kB were also increased in B lymphocytes of patients. TLR-7 and NF-kB expression correlated, but no correlation with INF-α and disease activity was detected. Conclusion: Data support the role of TLR-7 and signal proteins in the pathogenesis of SLE in the Mayan population of Yucatán.

  10. Crescimento populacional e desenvolvimento sustentável Population growth and sustainable development

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    Daniel Joseph Hogan


    Full Text Available O artigo trata da inter-relação entre população, meio ambiente e desenvolvimento, com uma ênfase especial na noção de "capacidade de suporte". As formulações mais simplistas dessa noção - que reduzem o problema à pressão populacional quantitativa sobre os recursos naturais - são rejeitadas. Para ser útil aos estudos demográficos que levam em conta as perspectivas ambientais o conceito deve ser empregado em unidades mais desagregadas de pesquisa.The interrelatioship between population, environment and development is discussed with special emphasis on the concept of "carrying capacity". The use of this concept as merely concerning population pressures on natural resources is rejected. The author claims that to be useful for demographic studies talcing into account environmental perspectives the concept should be applied to research units with a lower level of aggregation.

  11. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.


    Objectives: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  12. A dynamic population-based model for the development of work-related respiratory health effects among bakery workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warren, N.; Meijster, T.; Heederik, D.; Tielemans, E.


    OBJECTIVES: This paper presents a dynamic population-based model for the development of sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in bakery workers. The model simulates a population of individual workers longitudinally and tracks the development of work-related sensitisation and respiratory symptoms in

  13. T lymphocytes and NK cells in X-linked agammaglobulinemia. (United States)

    Pituch-Noworolska, Anna; Zwonarz, Katarzyna; Błaut-Szlósarczyk, Anita; Szaflarska, Anna; Kowalczyk, Danuta; Siedlar, Maciej


    Seven boys with diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia on regular substitution of immunoglobulins were included into study. The patients showed episodes of infections but the clinical course was mild with good response to antibiotics. All patients developed, with time, the chronic sinusitis with proliferation of mucous membrane, two patients showed bronchiectases. The number of T lymphocytes, ratio of CD4:CD8 subpopulations, response to stimulation and NK number were assayed with flow cytometry and cell culture. Results showed CD4:CD8 ratio within normal value in majority of patients, reverse ratio in 2 boys, increased number of activated T cells (CD3/HLA-DR) in one of them. The number of NK cells was different from lack of these cells to high number. Response of T cells to stimulation (mitogens and CD3) were normal in majority of assays. There were no associations between clinical course and observed changes in T or NK cell populations. Further studies on number and function of NK cells are needed.

  14. Development and Environment: An Assessment of Population Growth vis-a-vis Soil Erosion in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishikesh Pandey


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the environmental myths and narratives prevailing in Nepal in reference to the population growth and soil erosion. Soil erosion is taken as primary element of environmental degradation by the theory of the Himalayan Environmental Degradation (HED. Many myths and narratives were generated by the vested interest groups to develop the HED. Population growth and over exploitation of natural resource were considered as the prominent causes of soil erosion related environmental degradation. The myths and narratives based on the theory of the HED are still influential in development and environmental policy process in Nepal. In this background this paper highlights some of the research findings that are contrary to conventional belief i.e. population growth lead to soil erosion. The paper is based on literature review. The research evidences from both social and natural sciences are entertained. This paper generates alternative thinking to end the hegemony and unquestionable acceptance of the findings of research undertaken by 'Western, White men' as truth; and their recommendations as the 'blue print' solutions. Critics over orthodox environmentalism and neo-Malthusian accounts are made to validate the ‘hybrid knowledge’ generated in this paper. There are evidences that population pressure have promoted soil erosion. However, Himalayan environmental dynamism which is purely a natural process is far more responsible for soil erosion in the Himalaya. Hence, it is suggested that a critical assessment of any ‘facts’ obtained from research should be made before making them the narratives and reflecting them in policy process. DOI: Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 173-196

  15. Population and development in Asia and the Pacific: a demographic analysis. (United States)

    Debavalya, N


    The proportion of the world population in the less developed regions, in contrast to the more developed countries, has been steadily growing from 67% of the world total in 1950 to 74% in 1980, and it is expected to reach 79% by the end of the century. It is also projected that by the year 2025the less developed regions will include 83% of the world population total. Close examination of population trends shows that the new trends reflect demographic changes that have taken place in many developing nations in Asia and the Pacific. Despite reduction in the growth rate of Asia andthe Pacific, especially during 1980-2000, in absolute terms its growth will be the largest in the world during these 20 years, 908 million out of 1687 million of the total growth. Asia and the Pacific will contribute more than 45 million people a year during the final 20 years of this century. For the world as a whole, the new estimates and projections indicate a slow but steady decline of the crude birthrate from 36.3/1000 in 1959-55 to 28.5 in 1975-80, then to 23.9 in 1955-2000, and finally to 17.9 in 2020-2025. Since 1950 it is estimated that the gross reproduction rate increased, reached its peak of 2.21 in 1970-75 and has been steadily declining. Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, the developed countries in Asia and the Pacific, have estimated birthrates in the range of 15-18 in 1975-80. In contrast with the high levels which prevail in Western and MiddleSouth Asia, fertility declines of considerable magnitude have been realized in some countries in East Asia and South Asia. As was the case with fertility, the largest gains in mortality reduction have accured among the less developed regions. A widespread, though not universal, feature of recent mortality trends appears to be a recent slowdown in progress, which, in some places, is manifested by a cessation in mortality decline. Data for Asia also indicate that mortality declines have slowed during recent years. International migration

  16. Opinion: Interactions of innate and adaptive lymphocytes (United States)

    Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.


    Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095

  17. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandercock, Brett K. [Kansas State University


    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most

  18. EBI2 overexpression in mice leads to B1 B cell expansion and chronic lymphocytic leukemia-(CLL)-like B cell malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss Arfelt, Kristine; Barington, Line; Benned-Jensen, Tau


    Human and mouse chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) develop from CD5+ B cells that in mice and macaques are known to define the distinct B1a B cell lineage. B1a cells are characterized by lack of germinal center development and the B1a cell population is increased in mice with reduced germinal...... center formation. As a major mediator of follicular B cell migration, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Epstein Barr virus-induced gene 2 (EBI2 or GPR183) directs B cell migration in the lymphoid follicles in response to its endogenous ligands, oxysterols. Thus, upregulation of EBI2 drives the B...... cells towards the extrafollicular area, whereas downregulation is essential for germinal center formation. We therefore speculated whether increased expression of EBI2 would lead to an expanded B1 cell subset and, ultimately, progression to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Here we demonstrate that B cell...

  19. Population genomics of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Denmark: insights into invasion history and population development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Louise Solveig; Götz Mikkelsen, Dorthe Marlene; Elmeros, Morten


    The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) has a wide distribution in Europe and is a prominent example of a highly adaptable alien species. It has been recorded sporadically in Denmark since 1980 but observations since 2008 suggested that the species had established a free-ranging, self-sustaini......The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) has a wide distribution in Europe and is a prominent example of a highly adaptable alien species. It has been recorded sporadically in Denmark since 1980 but observations since 2008 suggested that the species had established a free-ranging, self......-sustaining population. To elucidate the origin and genetic patterns of Danish raccoon dogs, we studied the population genomics of 190 individuals collected in Denmark (n = 141) together with reference captive individuals from Poland (n = 21) and feral individuals from different European localities (Germany, Poland......, Estonia and Finland, n = 28). We used a novel genotyping-by-sequencing approach simultaneously identifying and genotyping a large panel of single nucleotide polymorphisms (n = 4526). Overall, there was significant indication for contemporary genetic structuring of the analysed raccoon dog populations...

  20. [Urban and population development of the city of Puebla and its metropolitan area]. (United States)

    Barbosa Prieto, A


    Metropolitanization has been considered an important problem of regional development in developing countries. Attitudes toward the metropolis have been ambivalent in Latin America. On the 1 hand the metropolis is viewed as an obstacle to development that absorbs resources from the zone of influence and incurs high social costs of urbanization, but on the hand it is also viewed as a form of achieving levels of economic efficiency comparable to those of developed countries. Metropolitan areas should not be viewed as isolated, but rather as important points of demographic and manpower attraction, poles of economic growth and technological and cultural innovation. "Urban areas" and "metropolitan zones" are distinct ways of defining and delimiting urban phenomena. Although there is no consensus as to the exact definitions of these 2 urban units, it is generally accepted that the urban area is the city itself as well as the contiguous built up area reaching in all directions to the onset of nonurban land uses such as forests territorial extension that includes the politico-administrative units with urban characteristics such as work places and residences for nonagricultural workers, and that maintain constant and intense socioeconomic interrelations with the central city. The process of urban planning in the metropolitan zone of Puebla, Mexico, began in institutional form in 1980 with master plans for the population centers of Puebla, Amozoc, San Andres and San Pedro Cholula, and Zacatelco in the state of Tlaxcala. In 1987., an attempt was made by the governments of the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala to develop a plan for the metropolitan zone as a single unit. Population growth was greater within the city of Puebla than in the metropolitan zone from 1960-80, but after 1980 growth in the outlying areas exceeded that in the center city. The population density of the city of Puebla declined from 160/hectare in 1950 to 76/hectare in 1990, the result of progressive dispersion

  1. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio and Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio are Predictors of Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Durmus


    Full Text Available AbstractBackground:Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR are inflammatory markers used as prognostic factors in various diseases. The aims of this study were to compare the PLR and the NLR of heart failure (HF patients with those of age-sex matched controls, to evaluate the predictive value of those markers in detecting HF, and to demonstrate the effect of NLR and PLR on mortality in HF patients during follow-up.Methods:This study included 56 HF patients and 40 controls without HF. All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography to evaluate cardiac functions. The NLR and the PLR were calculated as the ratio of neutrophil count to lymphocyte count and as the ratio of platelet count to lymphocyte count, respectively. All HF patients were followed after their discharge from the hospital to evaluate mortality, cerebrovascular events, and re-hospitalization.Results:The NLR and the PLR of HF patients were significantly higher compared to those of the controls (p < 0.01. There was an inverse correlation between the NLR and the left ventricular ejection fraction of the study population (r: -0.409, p < 0.001. The best cut-off value of NLR to predict HF was 3.0, with 86.3% sensitivity and 77.5% specificity, and the best cut-off value of PLR to predict HF was 137.3, with 70% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Only NLR was an independent predictor of mortality in HF patients. A cut-off value of 5.1 for NLR can predict death in HF patients with 75% sensitivity and 62% specificity during a 12.8-month follow-up period on average.Conclusion:NLR and PLR were higher in HF patients than in age-sex matched controls. However, NLR and PLR were not sufficient to establish a diagnosis of HF. NLR can be used to predict mortality during the follow-up of HF patients.

  2. Sustained Dysfunction of Antiviral CD8+ T Lymphocytes after Infection with Hepatitis C Virus (United States)

    Gruener, Norbert H.; Lechner, Franziska; Jung, Maria-Christina; Diepolder, Helmut; Gerlach, Tilman; Lauer, Georg; Walker, Bruce; Sullivan, John; Phillips, Rodney; Pape, Gerd R.; Klenerman, Paul


    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) sets up persistent infection in the majority of those exposed. It is likely that, as with other persistent viral infections, the efficacy of T-lymphocyte responses influences long-term outcome. However, little is known about the functional capacity of HCV-specific T-lymphocyte responses induced after acute infection. We investigated this by using major histocompatibility complex class I-peptide tetrameric complexes (tetramers), which allow direct detection of specific CD8+ T lymphocytes ex vivo, independently of function. Here we show that, early after infection, virus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes detected with a panel of four such tetramers are abnormal in terms of their synthesis of antiviral cytokines and lytic activity. Furthermore, this phenotype is commonly maintained long term, since large sustained populations of HCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes were identified, which consistently had very poor antiviral cytokine responses as measured in vitro. Overall, HCV-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes show reduced synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) after stimulation with either mitogens or peptides, compared to responses to Epstein-Barr virus and/or cytomegalovirus. This behavior of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes induced after HCV infection may contribute to viral persistence through failure to effectively suppress viral replication. PMID:11356962

  3. Epidemiology and health-environment relationship: reflections on environmental change, sustainable development and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Montoya


    Full Text Available This essay presents a discussion on current environmental problems and their relationship to the health of populations. The limitations of the model of economic and social development are analyzed focusing on the augmentation of the capital and the industrial production and its negative impact on natural resources, the balance of ecosystems and human vulnerability. The methodological basics and the developments in environmental epidemiological approach are exposed analyzing their main potential application. Finally, options for solutions are formulated linking them to the premises of sustainable development and environmental justice. The responsibility of the academic environment is pointed out in the training of human and scientific resources in the field of environmental epidemiology, as well as the role of the community in terms of environmental awareness and active participation from a point of view that becomes critical, responsible and capable of defining proposals to make part of the solution.

  4. Developing COPD: a 25 year follow up study of the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Lange, Peter; Scharling, H;


    population. METHODS: As part of the Copenhagen City Heart Study, 8045 men and women aged 30-60 years with normal lung function at baseline were followed for 25 years. Lung function measurements were collected and mortality from COPD during the 25 year observation period was analysed. RESULTS: The percentage......BACKGROUND: Smokers are more prone to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) than non-smokers, but this finding comes from studies spanning 10 years or less. The aim of this study was to determine the 25 year absolute risk of developing COPD in men and women from the general...... cessation, especially early in the follow up period, decreased the risk of developing COPD substantially compared with continuous smoking. During the follow up period there were 2912 deaths, 109 of which were from COPD. 92% of the COPD deaths occurred in subjects who were current smokers at the beginning...

  5. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test: normative data developed for the Venezuelan population. (United States)

    Ferreira Correia, Aline; Campagna Osorio, Ilva


    The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a neuropsychological tool widely used to assess functions such as attention, memory, and learning ability in the auditory-verbal domain. Norms for the test have been developed in many different languages and they show different relationships with demographic variables. The main objective of this research was to develop specific norms for the Venezuelan population, with particular focus on the influences of age, education, gender, and socioeconomic status. A Spanish version of the test was administered to a quota sample of 629 healthy adults. Pearson's correlation analysis (p < .001) showed a significant association between RAVLT performance and age (r = -.401), education (r = .386), and socioeconomic status (r = -.196), but not between RAVLT performance and gender (r = -.054). Due to the strength of the correlations, only age and education were considered in the development of final norms.

  6. T-lymphocyte subsets in West African children: impact of age, sex, and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Whittle, H


    OBJECTIVE: There has been no reference material for T-lymphocyte subsets for normal children in developing countries. We therefore used T-lymphocyte subset determinations among children in three different studies in Guinea-Bissau to construct age-related reference material and to examine possible...... determinants of T-lymphocyte subset levels. METHODS: A total of 803 healthy West African children younger than 6 years were included in the three community studies of T-lymphocyte subsets among twins and singletons, after measles infection and after measles immunization. We used the immunoalkaline phosphatase...... method to determine T-lymphocyte subsets. RESULTS: We found differences by age, sex, and season, whereas there were no significant differences by birth order, twinning, or ethnic group. The CD4+ percentage declined from birth to age 2 years, at which time it started to increase to higher levels at age 4...

  7. [Adoptive transfer of T lymphocytes]. (United States)

    Vié, H; Clémenceau, B


    Within a few years, the success of treatments based on the use of T-cells armed with a chimeric T-receptor for the CD19 molecule (CAR-T CD19) has revolutionized the perception of adoptive transfer approaches. The levels of responses observed in acute leukemias, of the order of 70-90 % are indeed unprecedented. The medical and financial enthusiasm aroused by these results has led to the current situation where more than 300 clinical trials are under way, against some thirty different antigens. This enthusiasm, well justified by the first successes, must however be tempered by the difficulties associated with the use of these cells. Indeed, the management of patients is made very complex both for medical reasons, because the toxicities associated with these treatments are important, and for technical reasons, because the preparation of T lymphocytes for therapeutic use requires dedicated structures. During this same period, knowledge of the mechanisms of regulation of T lymphocytes and the possibilities offered by synthetic biology and techniques of genome engineering have progressed considerably. Combined, they allow envisaging a true "programming" of the T lymphocytes, intended to improve the efficiency of the treatments and the safety of the patients. Medical and industrial perspectives and the role of these approaches in the arsenal of cancer therapies will depend largely on two conditions: the emergence of a robust demonstration of their effectiveness in solid tumors, and the establishment of an acceptable production and distribution model 1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Risk Factors on Anti-HBs Development in Hepatitis B Vaccinated and Nonvaccinated Populations. (United States)

    Shaha, Modhusudon; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Ahmed, Mohammad Firoz; Rahman, Sabita Rezwana


    Hepatitis B infection is still a major global health problem even though safe and effective vaccines have been available for more than 30 years. Although development of protective antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) is a common phenomenon after vaccination as well as natural infection, sometimes it does not appear even after complete vaccination. In the present study, whether the impairment of the development of anti-HBs in naturally infected and/or vaccinated populations is associated with immunomodulating risk factors (i.e., age, gender, smoking, and diabetes) and/or other risk factors (i.e., socioeconomic status, dental, and saloon exposure) was investigated through a cross-sectional study. Among 204 nonvaccinated patients, 132 (64.7%) tested positive for anti-HBc, indicating that they had been exposed to hepatitis B virus (HBV) at least once in their lifetime. Exposure to HBV (anti-HBc positive) was significantly higher among low-income people, dental exposed, and saloon users. Among anti-HBc positive patients, only 44 (33.3%) developed natural immunity with anti-HBs. Impairment in anti-HBs formation was found to be significantly high among cigarette smokers. However, no significant association of anti-HBs development was observed with age, gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, dental exposure, and using saloon. Consistently, the frequency of developing protective anti-HBs (≥10 IU/L) among a vaccinated population was almost nine times less among smokers. These data suggest that anti-HBs development, either naturally or after vaccination, is significantly lower among smokers. It emphasizes the need to check the anti-HBs status in smokers after vaccination, and a booster vaccination should be administered if the anti-HBs antibody titer decreases below the protective level.

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M


    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  10. Lymphocyte-platelet crosstalk in Graves' disease. (United States)

    Kuznik, Boris I; Vitkovsky, Yuri A; Gvozdeva, Olga V; Solpov, Alexey V; Magen, Eli


    Platelets can modulate lymphocytes' role in the pathophysiology of thyroid autoimmune diseases. The present study was performed to clarify the status of platelet-lymphocyte subpopulations aggregation in circulating blood in patients with Graves' disease (GD). One hundred and fifty patients with GD (GD group) and 45 hyperthyroid patients with toxic multinodular goiter (TMG group) were recruited in the study. Control group consisted 150 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of lymphocytes was performed by flow cytometry. Detection of lymphocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs) was done using light microscope after Ficoll-gradient centrifugation. The group of GD patients exhibited reduced CD8 lymphocyte and higher CD19 cell counts compared with TMG group and healthy controls. A greater number of activated CD3, HLA-DR+ lymphocytes were observed in GD than in TMG group and control group. GD group was characterized by lower blood platelet count (232 ± 89 × 10 cells/µL) than TMG group (251 ± 97 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05) and control group (262 ± 95 × 10 cells/µL; P < 0.05). In GD group, more platelet-bound lymphocytes (332 ± 91 /µL) were found than that in TMG group (116 ± 67/µL, P < 0.005) and control group (104 ± 58 /µL; P < 0.001). GD is associated with higher levels of activated lymphocytes and lymphocyte-platelet aggregates.

  11. Expression of the Chemokine Receptors CCR4, CCR5, and CXCR3 by Human Tissue-Infiltrating Lymphocytes



    Differential expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors has been useful for identification of peripheral blood memory lymphocyte subsets with distinct tissue and microenvironmental tropisms. Expression of CCR4 by circulating memory CD4+ lymphocytes is associated with cutaneous and other systemic populations while expression of CCR9 is associated with a small intestine-homing subset. CCR5 and CXCR3 are also expressed by discrete memory CD4+ populations in blood, as well as by tis...

  12. Adjusting for population heterogeneity: a framework for characterizing statistical information and developing efficient test statistics. (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Daniel


    The focus of this work is the TDT-type and family-based test statistics used for adjusting for potential confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies. A variety of heuristics have been used to motivate and derive these statistics, and the statistics have been developed for a variety of analytic goals. There appears to be no general theoretical framework, however, that may be used to evaluate competing approaches. Furthermore, there is no framework to guide the development of efficient TDT-type and family-based methods for analytic goals for which methods have not yet been proposed. The purpose of this paper is to present a theoretical framework that serves both to identify the information which is available to methods that are immune to confounding due to population heterogeneity or misspecified allele frequencies, and to inform the construction of efficient unbiased tests in novel settings. The development relies on the existence of a characterization of the null hypothesis in terms of a completely specified conditional distribution of transmitted genotypes. An important observation is that, with such a characterization, when the conditioning event is unobserved or incomplete, there is statistical information that cannot be exploited by any exact conditional test. The main technical result of this work is an approach to computing test statistics for local alternatives that exploit all of the available statistical information. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Development of Resistance to Pyrethroid in Culex pipiens pallens Population under Different Insecticide Selection Pressures. (United States)

    Shi, Linna; Hu, Hongxia; Ma, Kai; Zhou, Dan; Yu, Jing; Zhong, Daibin; Fang, Fujin; Chang, Xuelian; Hu, Shengli; Zou, Feifei; Wang, Weijie; Sun, Yan; Shen, Bo; Zhang, Donghui; Ma, Lei; Zhou, Guofa; Yan, Guiyun; Zhu, Changliang


    Current vector control programs are largely dependent on pyrethroids, which are the most commonly used and only insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). However, the rapid spread of pyrethroid resistance worldwide compromises the effectiveness of control programs and threatens public health. Since few new insecticide classes for vector control are anticipated, limiting the development of resistance is crucial for prolonging efficacy of pyrethroids. In this study, we exposed a field-collected population of Culex pipiens pallens to different insecticide selection intensities to dynamically monitor the development of resistance. Moreover, we detected kdr mutations and three detoxification enzyme activities in order to explore the evolutionary mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Our results revealed that the level of pyrethroid resistance was proportional to the insecticide selection pressure. The kdr and metabolic resistance both contributed to pyrethroid resistance in the Cx. pipiens pallens populations, but they had different roles under different selection pressures. We have provided important evidence for better understanding of the development and mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance which may guide future insecticide use and vector management in order to avoid or delay resistance.

  14. Development of Resistance to Pyrethroid in Culex pipiens pallens Population under Different Insecticide Selection Pressures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Shi

    Full Text Available Current vector control programs are largely dependent on pyrethroids, which are the most commonly used and only insecticides recommended by the World Health Organization for insecticide-treated nets (ITNs. However, the rapid spread of pyrethroid resistance worldwide compromises the effectiveness of control programs and threatens public health. Since few new insecticide classes for vector control are anticipated, limiting the development of resistance is crucial for prolonging efficacy of pyrethroids. In this study, we exposed a field-collected population of Culex pipiens pallens to different insecticide selection intensities to dynamically monitor the development of resistance. Moreover, we detected kdr mutations and three detoxification enzyme activities in order to explore the evolutionary mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. Our results revealed that the level of pyrethroid resistance was proportional to the insecticide selection pressure. The kdr and metabolic resistance both contributed to pyrethroid resistance in the Cx. pipiens pallens populations, but they had different roles under different selection pressures. We have provided important evidence for better understanding of the development and mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance which may guide future insecticide use and vector management in order to avoid or delay resistance.

  15. Composite ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma involving the right inguinal lymph node. (United States)

    Persad, Paul; Pang, Changlee S


    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma are two lymphoid malignancies with completely distinct morphologies and natural histories. We present a rare case of composite anaplastic large cell lymphoma and small lymphocytic lymphoma in an inguinal lymph node of an otherwise healthy 47-year-old male patient. Immunohistochemical and molecular studies identified the two populations clearly. Their separation is imperative as anaplastic large cell lymphoma can be an aggressive neoplasm and easily overlooked in cases of small lymphocytic lymphoma with a small population of anaplastic large cell lymphoma cells.

  16. Root-Lesion Nematodes Suppress Cabbage Aphid Population Development by Reducing Aphid Daily Reproduction. (United States)

    Hol, W H G; Raaijmakers, Ciska E; Mons, Ilse; Meyer, Katrin M; van Dam, Nicole M


    Empirical studies have shown that belowground feeding herbivores can affect the performance of aboveground herbivores in different ways. Often the critical life-history parameters underlying the observed performance effects remain unexplored. In order to better understand the cause for the observed effects on aboveground herbivores, these ecological mechanisms must be better understood. In this study we combined empirical experiments with a modeling approach to analyze the effect of two root feeding endoparasitic nematodes with different feeding strategies on the population growth of the aboveground feeding specialist aphid Brevicoryne brassicae on Brassica nigra. The aim was to test whether emerging differences in life history characteristics (days until reproduction, daily reproduction) would be sufficient to explain observed differences in aphid population development on plants with and without two species of nematodes. Aphid numbers were lower on plants with Pratylenchus penetrans in comparison to aphid numbers on plants with Meloidogyne spp. A dedicated experiment showed that aphid daily reproduction was lower on plants with P. penetrans (3.08 offspring female(-1) day(-1)) in comparison to both uninfested plants and plants with Meloidogyne spp. (3.50 offspring female(-1) day(-1)). The species-specific reduction of aphid reproduction appeared independent of changes in amino acids, soluble sugars or the glucosinolate sinigrin in the phloem. An individual-based model revealed that relatively small differences in reproduction rate per female were sufficient to yield a similar difference in aphid populations as was found in the empirical experiments.

  17. Stages of development and injury patterns in the early years: a population-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Kelly


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, there are many formal public health programs under development that aim to prevent injuries in the early years (e.g. 0–6. There are paradoxically no population-based studies that have examined patterns of injury by developmental stage among these young children. This represents a gap in the Canadian biomedical literature. The current population-based analysis explores external causes and consequences of injuries experienced by young children who present to the emergency department for assessment and treatment. This provides objective evidence about prevention priorities to be considered in anticipatory counseling and public health planning. Methods Four complete years of data (1999–2002; n = 5876 cases were reviewed from the Kingston sites of the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP, an ongoing injury surveillance initiative. Epidemiological analyses were used to characterize injury patterns within and across age groups (0–6 years that corresponded to normative developmental stages. Results The average annual rate of emergency department-attended childhood injury was 107 per 1000 (95% CI 91–123, with boys experiencing higher annual rates of injury than girls (122 vs. 91 per 1000; p Conclusion This population-based injury surveillance analysis provides a strong evidence-base to inform and enhance anticipatory counseling and other public health efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood injury during the early years.

  18. A note on the population genetic consequences of delayed larval development in insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mattoso de Salles


    Full Text Available Observations by Dobzhansky's group in the 1940s suggesting that the presence of recessive genotypes could account for lower larval developmental rates in Drosophila melanogaster were not confirmed at the time and all subsequent investigations on this subject focused on the analysis of ecological models based on competition among pre-adult individuals. However, a paper published in this journal in 1991 eventually confirmed the finding made by Dobzhansky and his co-workers. In this report, we provide a theoretical analysis of the population genetic effects of a delay in the rate of larval development produced by such a genetic mechanism.

  19. Recent Developments in Genetic Study of Allergic Disease in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Suzuki


    Full Text Available Allergy is a common immune disorder characterized by raised IgE levels, which leads to clinical disorders such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic disease is largely dependent on our current understanding of the related pathophysiology and the available technology. Recent advances in molecular biology techniques have allowed a rapid and accurate identification of polymorphisms in various genes that may be important for determining the susceptibility to allergic disorders. In this review, we present some developments in genetic studies of allergic disease with particular focus on asthma and atopy in the Japanese population.

  20. Nutrient deifciency limits population development, yield formation, and nutrient uptake of direct sown winter oilseed rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yin; LIU Tao; LI Xiao-kun; REN Tao; CONG Ri-huan; LU Jian-wei


    Direct-sowing establishment method has great signiifcance in improving winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) production and guaranteeing edible oil security in China. However, nutrient responses on direct sown winter oilseed rape (DOR) performance and population development dynamic are stil not wel understood. Therefore, ifve on-farm experiments were conducted in the reaches of the Yangtze River (RYR) to determine the effects of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) deifciencies on population density, dry matter production, nutrient uptake, seed yield, and yield components of DOR plants. Four fertilization treatments included the balanced NPK application treatment (NPK, 180 kg N, 39.3 kg P, 100 kg K, and 1.8 kg borax ha–1) and three nutrient deifciency treatments based on the NPK treatment, i.e.,–N,–P, and–K. The results indicated that DOR population density declined gradual y throughout the growing season, especial y at over-wintering and pod-development stages. Nutrient deifciency decreased nutrient concentration in DOR plants, limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, and thereby exacerbated density reduction during plants growth. The poor individual growth and reduced population density together decreased seed yield in the nutrient deifciency treatment. Averaged across al the experiments, seed yield reduced 61% by N deifciency, 38.3% by P deifciency, and 14.4% by K deifciency. The negative effects of nutrient deifciency on DOR performances fol owed the order of–N>–P>–K, and the effects were various among different nutrient deifciencies. Although N deifciency improved DOR emergence, but it seriously limited dry matter production and nutrient uptake, which in turn led to substantial plants death and therefore resulted in a very low harvested density. The P deifciency signiifcantly reduced initial density, limited plants growth, and exacerbated density reduction. The K deifciency mainly decreased individual growth and yield, but

  1. Sudden infant death syndrome, population mixing and oil-related development in western Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Bentham


    Full Text Available  ABSTRACTA number of features of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS point to an aetiological role for apparentlyminor infections. The spread of infections is influenced by the rate of contact between infectiouscases and susceptibles in the population. This is likely to differ geographically depending on patternsof social contacts, with epidemics being particularly likely where an influx of migrants leads to highrates of mixing of populations lacking herd immunity. It has been shown that geographical variationsin SIDS deaths in England and Wales are strongly associated with rates of long distance in-migrationinto districts. The large influx of population into parts of western Norway as a result of oil-related developmentprovides an opportunity to examine this issue further. The most intensive development hasbeen in the Stavanger area in the county of Rogaland. Published migration statistics show that therewas a rapid build-up of long distance migration into this area reaching a peak in the late 1970s. Furthernorth, the Bergen area in the county of Hordaland was little affected by oil-related activities in the1970s. However, the more recent development of oil provinces further north has led to more activity inthe Bergen area and an increase in in-migration from the mid 1980s onwards. Annual data from 1969onwards on SIDS deaths in Rogaland and Hordaland counties and for Norway were used to assesswhether trends in SIDS mortality and migration showed any associations. Before the main populationinflux Rogaland had a SIDS rate that was below the Norwegian average. However, since the mid1970s SIDS rates have been significantly in excess of the national average. In Hordaland SIDS rateswere low throughout the 1970s but increased substantially to be significantly in excess of the Norwegianaverage in the late 1980s. In both areas population influxes resulting from oil-related developmentwere therefore followed by a significant increase in mortality rates

  2. Development of Japanese version of the checklist individual strength questionnaire in a working population. (United States)

    Aratake, Yutaka; Tanaka, Katsutoshi; Wada, Koji; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Sakata, Yumi; Aizawa, Yoshiharu


    The aims of the present study were to develop and validate the Japanese version of the checklist individual strength questionnaire (CIS) which is used to measure prolonged fatigue not only in the general population but also in the working population. We obtained permission to use CIS from its author and translated the questionnaire into Japanese. Then, the Japanese version of the questionnaire was translated back into English by a bilingual person. The author of the original version agreed that the back-translated version was conceptually and linguistically equivalent to the original CIS. To validate CIS, 399 workers (66.7% were men) from different companies answered the Japanese version of the CIS (CIS-J), Maslach burnout inventory-general survey (MBI-GS), Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), visual analogue scale (VAS) questionnaires for subjective fatigue, number of overtime hours and number of hours of sleep. Cronbach's alpha for the total CIS-J score was 0.91. The test-retest reliability assessed with an intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.82. Although confirmatory factor analysis did not show an ideal model fit, the correlation coefficients between the total CIS score and the MBI-GS exhaustion score, the BDI-II score and the VAS score were 0.58 (p<0.01), 0.66 (p<0.01) and 0.63 (p<0.01), respectively. The less workers slept and the longer they worked, the higher their total CIS score became. CIS-J showed good reliability and acceptable validity in the working population. Thus, it could be useful for studying fatigue among Japanese working populations.

  3. The theoretical and political framing of the population factor in development. (United States)

    Campbell, Martha; Bedford, Kathleen


    The silence about population growth in recent decades has hindered the ability of those concerned with ecological change, resource scarcity, health and educational systems, national security, and other global challenges to look with maximum objectivity at the problems they confront. Two central questions about population--(1) is population growth a problem? and (2) what causes fertility decline?--are often intertwined; if people think the second question implies possible coercion, or fear of upsetting cultures, they can be reluctant to talk about the first. The classic and economic theories explaining the demographic transition assume that couples want many children and they make decisions to have a smaller family when some socio-economic change occurs. However, there are numerous anomalies to this explanation. This paper suggests that the societal changes are neither necessary nor sufficient for family size to fall. Many barriers of non-evidence-based restrictive medical rules, cost, misinformation and social traditions exist between women and the fertility regulation methods and correct information they need to manage their family size. When these barriers are reduced, birth rates tend to decline. Many of the barriers reflect a patriarchal desire to control women, which can be largely explained by evolutionary biology. The theoretical explanations of fertility should (i) attach more weight to the many barriers to voluntary fertility regulation, (ii) recognize that a latent desire to control fertility may be far more prevalent among women than previously understood, and (iii) appreciate that women implicitly and rationally make benefit-cost analyses based on the information they have, wanting modern family planning only after they understand it is a safe option. Once it is understood that fertility can be lowered by purely voluntary means, comfort with talking about the population factor in development will rise.

  4. Quality of Life in Geriatric Population in a Community Development Block of Kishanganj, Bihar, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath Ghosh


    Full Text Available Background: Ageing universally affects individual, family, community and society with reduction in quality of life on chronologic, biological, social, and psychological dimensions. Aim and Objectives: The study was done to assess quality of life in physical, psychological, social and environmental domains among elderly population in relation to sociodemographic character. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among census population of 63 elderly individuals in Chanamana village, a community development block of Potia, Kishanganj, Bihar from 1st June –31st July 2014. By interview technique the quality of life was assessed using World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Mean score was computed and compared by Z -test and one-way ANOVA using SPSS software, version 19.0. Results: Among the study participants with alike gender distribution, majority (68.25% were in age group of 60-69 years, general caste (69.85%, joint family (84.12% and residing with their children (82.54%. Of them 47.62 percent were illiterates and 42.86 percent were still earning. The mean score in the distinct four domains had no significant difference in genders and age groups. Yet, residing with children and belonging to joint family were noted to be significantly improving the scores in all the four domains. Mean scores were also significantly superior in physical, psychological and environmental domains among persons who were married and had their own income. Conclusion: The study showed the quality of life within diverse domains among elderly population need to be addressed with certain socio-demographic factors (joint family, marital status, own earning and children accompanying the geriatric population.

  5. Changes of lymphocyte kinetics in the normal rat, induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormai, S.; Hagenbeek, A.; Palkovits, M.; Bekkum, D.W. van


    The changes in lymphocyte kinetics induced by the lymphocyte mobilizing agent polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) were studied in the normal rat. Quantitative data are presented concerning the degree of lymphocyte mobilization in the spleen and in various lymph nodes at different times after PMAA administra

  6. Progress and Challenges in Developing Reference Data Layers for Human Population Distribution and Built Infrastructure (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Yetman, G.; de Sherbinin, A. M.


    Understanding the interactions between environmental and human systems, and in particular supporting the applications of Earth science data and knowledge in place-based decision making, requires systematic assessment of the distribution and dynamics of human population and the built human infrastructure in conjunction with environmental variability and change. The NASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC) operated by the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) at Columbia University has had a long track record in developing reference data layers for human population and settlements and is expanding its efforts on topics such as intercity roads, reservoirs and dams, and energy infrastructure. SEDAC has set as a strategic priority the acquisition, development, and dissemination of data resources derived from remote sensing and socioeconomic data on urban land use change, including temporally and spatially disaggregated data on urban change and rates of change, the built infrastructure, and critical facilities. We report here on a range of past and ongoing activities, including the Global Human Settlements Layer effort led by the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), the Global Exposure Database for the Global Earthquake Model (GED4GEM) project, the Global Roads Open Access Data Working Group (gROADS) of the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA), and recent work with ImageCat, Inc. to improve estimates of the exposure and fragility of buildings, road and rail infrastructure, and other facilities with respect to selected natural hazards. New efforts such as the proposed Global Human Settlement indicators initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) could help fill critical gaps and link potential reference data layers with user needs. We highlight key sectors and themes that require further attention, and the many significant challenges that remain in developing comprehensive, high quality

  7. The expanding role of bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair KS


    Full Text Available Kruti Sheth Nair, Chaitra Ujjani Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: As the most prevalent form of adult leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL affects thousands of patients each year. Given the indolent nature of the disease, symptomatic patients frequently experience multiple relapses throughout their clinical course. Better therapeutic options are needed, particularly for the elderly population that characterizes the majority of affected patients. Bendamustine, a hybrid alkylating agent, has demonstrated remarkable activity in CLL in conjunction with a tolerable safety profile. Although historically used in relapsed and refractory disease, it has recently gained a role in the front-line setting, including younger, physically fit patients. Current investigatory efforts are focused on exploring the combination of bendamustine with novel therapies in CLL. Keywords: chronic lymphocytic leukemia, overall survival, aspartate aminotransferase, chlorambucil, bendamustine

  8. The fourth dimension in immunological space: how the struggle for nutrients selects high-affinity lymphocytes. (United States)

    Wensveen, Felix M; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Eldering, Eric


    Lymphocyte activation via the antigen receptor is associated with radical shifts in metabolism and changes in requirements for nutrients and cytokines. Concomitantly, drastic changes occur in the expression of pro-and anti-apoptotic proteins that alter the sensitivity of lymphocytes to limiting concentrations of key survival factors. Antigen affinity is a primary determinant for the capacity of activated lymphocytes to access these vital resources. The shift in metabolic needs and the variable access to key survival factors is used by the immune system to eliminate activated low-affinity cells and to generate an optimal high-affinity response. In this review, we focus on the control of apoptosis regulators in activated lymphocytes by nutrients, cytokines, and costimulation. We propose that the struggle among individual clones that leads to the formation of high-affinity effector cell populations is in effect an 'invisible' fourth signal required for effective immune responses.

  9. Report of the Expert Group Meeting on Population and Development Planning (Bangkok, 5-11 July 1977). Asian Population Studies Series No. 39. (United States)

    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok (Thailand).

    A group of experts on population and development planning met in Bangkok, Thailand in July, 1977. The meeting was organized by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific. This report is the result of background papers used at the conference, reactions to the papers, and further writing. The purpose of the meeting…

  10. Population Based Assessment of MHC Class 1 Antigens Down Regulation as Marker in Increased Risk for Development and Progression of Breast Cancer From Benign Breast Lesions (United States)


    Risk for Development and Progression of Breast Cancer from Benign Breast Lesions” antigen retrieval solution in the microwave . Lastly, tissue... Microwave and citrate buffer antigen-retrieval substitutions yielded comparable results. Lab 2 demonstrated that a negative control is useful as an...the infiltrating lymphocytes in germinal centers and dendritic cells as seen in case 1. Microsatellite Analysis Labs 1, 2, and 4 performed

  11. Reliability of third molar development for age estimation in Gujarati population: A comparative study. (United States)

    Gandhi, Neha; Jain, Sandeep; Kumar, Manish; Rupakar, Pratik; Choyal, Kanaram; Prajapati, Seema


    Age assessment may be a crucial step in postmortem profiling leading to confirmative identification. In children, Demirjian's method based on eight developmental stages was developed to determine maturity scores as a function of age and polynomial functions to determine age as a function of score. Of this study was to evaluate the reliability of age estimation using Demirjian's eight teeth method following the French maturity scores and Indian-specific formula from developmental stages of third molar with the help of orthopantomograms using the Demirjian method. Dental panoramic tomograms from 30 subjects each of known chronological age and sex were collected and were evaluated according to Demirjian's criteria. Age calculations were performed using Demirjian's formula and Indian formula. Statistical analysis used was Chi-square test and ANOVA test and the P values obtained were statistically significant. There was an average underestimation of age with both Indian and Demirjian's formulas. The mean absolute error was lower using Indian formula hence it can be applied for age estimation in present Gujarati population. Also, females were ahead of achieving dental maturity than males thus completion of dental development is attained earlier in females. Greater accuracy can be obtained if population-specific formulas considering the ethnic and environmental variation are derived performing the regression analysis.

  12. Gallstones increase the risk of developing renal stones: a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Li, C-H; Sung, F-C; Wang, Y-C; Lin, D; Kao, C-H


    This study identifies the effects of gall stone on the risks of developing renal stone in a nationwide cohort study. Studies on the association between gall stone and renal stone are scarce. We identified patients with gallstones using the catastrophic illness registry of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We selected a comparison cohort, random frequency-matched by age, sex and index year, from the general population. We analyzed the risk of renal stones by using Cox proportional hazards regression models for sex, age and comorbidities. Of the 23.74 million people in the database, we followed 25 258 gallstone patients (54.5% female) and 101 029 control patients. The risk of developing renal stones was 1.68-fold greater in gallstone patients, compared with patients without gallstones after adjusting for age, sex and comorbidities. The substantially increased risk of renal stones was also significant in gallstone patients regardless of comorbidities. In the follow-up period gallstone group. The cumulative incidence of renal stone in the gallstone group was higher than in the non-gallstone group (P gallstone patients, compared with the general population. This study provides information to enable physicians to implement adequate prevention measures to decrease both stones formation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Impact of plant development on the rhizobacterial population of Arachis hypogaea: a multifactorial analysis. (United States)

    Haldar, Shyamalina; Sengupta, Sanghamitra


    Present study investigates the impact of plant development on the structure and composition of root-associated bacterial community of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plant, an economically important oilseed legume. Relative abundance of total and active bacteria were studied in bulk soil and rhizosphere samples collected from different growth stages of groundnut plant by sequencing PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from soil genomic DNA and reverse-transcribed soil community RNA. Plant growth promoting potential of cultivable rhizobacteria was evaluated using assays for inorganic phosphate solubilization and production of indole acetic acid, siderophores, biofilm, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, laccase, and anti-fungal chemicals. Our study demonstrates that groundnut plant rhizosphere harbors a core microbiome populated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria. A distinct bacterial assemblage at nodulation stage due to predominance of Flavobacteria and Actinobacteria in DNA and RNA derived libraries respectively was also observed. Majority of cultivable isolates exhibiting plant growth promoting activities belonged to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Of them, Pseudomonas indica and Bacillus megaterium were detected in the rhizosphere samples from all the developmental stages of groundnut plant. This polyphasic study establishes the impact of plant development on rhizobacterial population of groundnut and underscores the applicability of soil isolates as a reliable component in sustainable agriculture.

  14. Health inequalities among rural and urban population of Eastern Poland in the context of sustainable development. (United States)

    Pantyley, Viktoriya


    The primary goals of the study were a critical analysis of the concepts associated with health from the perspective of sustainable development, and empirical analysis of health and health- related issues among the rural and urban residents of Eastern Poland in the context of the sustainable development of the region. The study was based on the following research methods: a systemic approach, selection and analysis of the literature and statistical data, developing a special questionnaire concerning socio-economic and health inequalities among the population in the studied area, field research with an interview questionnaire conducted on randomly-selected respondents (N=1,103) in randomly selected areas of the Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie and eastern part of Mazowieckie Provinces (with the division between provincial capital cities - county capital cities - other cities - rural areas). The results of statistical surveys in the studied area with the use of chi-square test and contingence quotients indicated a correlation between the state of health and the following independent variables: age, life quality, social position and financial situation (C-Pearson's coefficient over 0,300); a statistically significant yet weak correlation was recorded for gender, household size, place of residence and amount of free time. The conducted analysis proved the existence of a huge gap between state of health of the population in urban and rural areas. In order to eliminate unfavourable differences in the state iof health among the residents of Eastern Poland, and provide equal sustainable development in urban and rural areas of the examined areas, special preventive programmes aimed at the residents of peripheral, marginalized rural areas should be implemented. In these programmes, attention should be paid to preventive measures, early diagnosis of basic civilization and social diseases, and better accessibility to medical services for the residents.

  15. Nutrient estimation from an FFQ developed for a black Zimbabwean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifamba Jephat


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is little information in the literature on methods of food composition database development to calculate nutrient intake from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ data. The aim of this study is to describe the development of an FFQ and a food composition table to calculate nutrient intake in a Black Zimbabwean population. Methods Trained interviewers collected 24-hour dietary recalls (24 hr DR from high and low income families in urban and rural Zimbabwe. Based on these data and input from local experts we developed an FFQ, containing a list of frequently consumed foods, standard portion sizes, and categories of consumption frequency. We created a food composition table of the foods found in the FFQ so that we could compute nutrient intake. We used the USDA nutrient database as the main resource because it is relatively complete, updated, and easily accessible. To choose the food item in the USDA nutrient database that most closely matched the nutrient content of the local food we referred to a local food composition table. Results Almost all the participants ate sadza (maize porridge at least 5 times a week, and about half had matemba (fish and caterpillar more than once a month. Nutrient estimates obtained from the FFQ data by using the USDA and Zimbabwean food composition tables were similar for total energy intake intra class correlation (ICC = 0.99, and carbohydrate (ICC = 0.99, but different for vitamin A (ICC = 0.53, and total folate (ICC = 0.68. Conclusion We have described a standardized process of FFQ and food composition database development for a Black Zimbabwean population.

  16. Effect of water resource development and management on lymphatic filariasis, and estimates of populations at risk. (United States)

    Erlanger, Tobias E; Keiser, Jennifer; Caldas De Castro, Marcia; Bos, Robert; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg


    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a debilitating disease overwhelmingly caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, which is transmitted by various mosquito species. Here, we present a systematic literature review with the following objectives: (i) to establish global and regional estimates of populations at risk of LF with particular consideration of water resource development projects, and (ii) to assess the effects of water resource development and management on the frequency and transmission dynamics of the disease. We estimate that globally, 2 billion people are at risk of LF. Among them, there are 394.5 million urban dwellers without access to improved sanitation and 213 million rural dwellers living in close proximity to irrigation. Environmental changes due to water resource development and management consistently led to a shift in vector species composition and generally to a strong proliferation of vector populations. For example, in World Health Organization (WHO) subregions 1 and 2, mosquito densities of the Anopheles gambiae complex and Anopheles funestus were up to 25-fold higher in irrigated areas when compared with irrigation-free sites. Although the infection prevalence of LF often increased after the implementation of a water project, there was no clear association with clinical symptoms. Concluding, there is a need to assess and quantify changes of LF transmission parameters and clinical manifestations over the entire course of water resource developments. Where resources allow, integrated vector management should complement mass drug administration, and broad-based monitoring and surveillance of the disease should become an integral part of large-scale waste management and sanitation programs, whose basic rationale lies in a systemic approach to city, district, and regional level health services and disease prevention.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors for developing posttraumatic stress disorder in a general intensive care population - a literature review


    Nilsen, Cecilie Bræin


    Aim: 1) To investigate prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS) in a general intensive care patient population, and risk factors for post ICU-PTSD/PTSS. 2) To investigate how instruments and loss to follow-up could influence the prevalence of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. Background: Studies have found a wide variance of PTSD/PTSS in this patient population. A number of risk factors were associated with developing post-ICU ...

  18. Population data on 10 non-CODIS STR loci in Japanese population using a newly developed multiplex PCR system. (United States)

    Asamura, H; Ota, M; Fukushima, H


    This paper describes a newly devised autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems for 10 loci (D1S1656, D2S1353, D8S1132, D12S1090, D14S608, D18S535, D19S253, D20S480, D21S226, and D22S689) unlinked to the core STR loci (non-CODIS loci). Of 252 samples taken from the Japanese population, PCR products ranged in length from 107 bp to 319 bp. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed at any of the 10 loci. The accumulated power of discrimination and power of exclusion for the 10 loci were 0.999999999998 and 0.99991, respectively. We conclude that the present multiplex system for the 10 non-CODIS loci represents a powerful tool for forensic applications.

  19. Interpretation of NCCN Guideline: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (Version 1, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei XIA


    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL is a kind of chronic lymphocyte proliferative disease with corresponding clinical symptoms caused by the accumulation of mature B lymphocytes in peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymphatic tissues. In recent years, great achievements have been reached on the basic research, new prognostic markers, diagnostic criteria and therapeutic methods in CLL. This study mainly interpreted the corresponding diagnosis and treatment of CLL in NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (Version 1, 2017.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions bare lymphocyte syndrome type I bare lymphocyte syndrome type I Enable Javascript to view ... boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Bare lymphocyte syndrome type I (BLS I) is an ...

  1. Mobile phone radiofrequency exposure has no effect on DNA double strand breaks (DSB) in human lymphocytes. (United States)

    Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe; Buonocore, Ruggero; Benati, Marco; Bovo, Chiara; Bonaguri, Chiara; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Montagnana, Martina


    The use of mobile phones has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain type of cancer, especially in long term users. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the potential genotoxic effect of mobile phone radiofrequency exposure on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. The study population consisted in 14 healthy volunteers. After collection of two whole blood samples, the former was placed in a plastic rack, 1 cm from the chassis of a commercial mobile phone (900 MHz carrier frequency), which was activated by a 30-min call. The second blood sample was instead maintained far from mobile phones or other RF sources. The influence of mobile phone RF on DNA integrity was assessed by analyzing γ-H2AX foci in lymphocytes using immunofluorescence staining kit on AKLIDES. No measure of γ-H2AX foci was significantly influenced by mobile phone RF exposure, nor mobile phone exposure was associated with significant risk of genetic damages in vitro (odds ratio comprised between 0.27 and 1.00). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that exposure of human lymphocytes to a conventional 900 MHz RF emitted by a commercial mobile phone for 30 min does not significantly impact DNA integrity.

  2. Using population genetic tools to develop a control strategy for feral cats (Felis catus) in Hawai'i (United States)

    Hansen, H.; Hess, S.C.; Cole, D.; Banko, P.C.


    Population genetics can provide information about the demographics and dynamics of invasive species that is beneficial for developing effective control strategies. We studied the population genetics of feral cats on Hawai'i Island by microsatellite analysis to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure, assess gene flow and connectivity among three populations, identify potential source populations, characterise population dynamics, and evaluate sex-biased dispersal. High genetic diversity, low structure, and high number of migrants per generation supported high gene flow that was not limited spatially. Migration rates revealed that most migration occurred out of West Mauna Kea. Effective population size estimates indicated increasing cat populations despite control efforts. Despite high gene flow, relatedness estimates declined significantly with increased geographic distance and Bayesian assignment tests revealed the presence of three population clusters. Genetic structure and relatedness estimates indicated male-biased dispersal, primarily from Mauna Kea, suggesting that this population should be targeted for control. However, recolonisation seems likely, given the great dispersal ability that may not be inhibited by barriers such as lava flows. Genetic monitoring will be necessary to assess the effectiveness of future control efforts. Management of other invasive species may benefit by employing these population genetic tools. ?? CSIRO 2007.

  3. The Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Caspar; Geisler, Christian Hartmann; Enggaard, Lisbeth


    AIM: In 2008, the Danish National Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Registry was founded within the Danish National Hematology Database. The primary aim of the registry is to assure quality of diagnosis and care of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in Denmark. Secondarily, to evaluate...

  4. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH


    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  5. Induction of DNA repair synthesis in human monocytes/B-lymphocytes compared with T-lymphocytes after exposure to N-acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylsulfate in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Ryder, L P; Wassermann, K


    We have explored the induction of DNA repair synthesis in monocyte/B- and T-lymphocyte enriched cell fractions from 12 different human mononuclear blood cell populations. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured in monocyte/B- and T-cells after exposure to the DNA-damaging agents dimethylsulfate (D...

  6. Development of population geography from antropogeography to spatial-analitical approach


    Spasovski Milena; Šantić Danica


    Population geography is a subdiscipline of Human geography and studies the distribution, concentration and density of population over the terestrial surface, as well as differences in population size, changes and characteristics, like structures, migrations, activity etc, among some places present compared to others. Population geography has had a perscientific stage as long as human history. First modern scientific treatis of population in geography was th...

  7. Population Education As Integrated Into Development Programmes: A Non-Formal Approach. Abstract - Bibliography, Series 1: In Seven Parts. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    In many countries in Asia and Oceania, various development programs such as agriculture and health services have included population education components. Presented in this set of abstract-bibliographies are summaries of publications which describe such population education efforts that use the nonformal approach. Documents selected illustrate…

  8. Human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells promote intracellular crawling of lymphocytes during recruitment: A new step in migration. (United States)

    Patten, Daniel A; Wilson, Garrick K; Bailey, Dalan; Shaw, Robert K; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Salmi, Marko; Rot, Antal; Weston, Chris J; Adams, David H; Shetty, Shishir


    The recruitment of lymphocytes via the hepatic sinusoidal channels and positioning within liver tissue is a critical event in the development and persistence of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. The hepatic sinusoid is a unique vascular bed lined by hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSECs), a functionally and phenotypically distinct subpopulation of endothelial cells. Using flow-based adhesion assays to study the migration of lymphocytes across primary human HSECs, we found that lymphocytes enter into HSECs, confirmed by electron microscopy demonstrating clear intracellular localization of lymphocytes in vitro and by studies in human liver tissues. Stimulation by interferon-γ increased intracellular localization of lymphocytes within HSECs. Furthermore, using confocal imaging and time-lapse recordings, we demonstrated "intracellular crawling" of lymphocytes entering into one endothelial cell from another. This required the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and stabilin-1 and was facilitated by the junctional complexes between HSECs.

  9. Mitochondrial haplogroups modify the risk of developing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a Danish population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Hagen

    Full Text Available Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM is a genetic disorder caused by mutations in genes coding for proteins involved in sarcomere function. The disease is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Evolutionarily developed variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, defining mtDNA haplogroups and haplogroup clusters, is associated with functional differences in mitochondrial function and susceptibility to various diseases, including ischemic cardiomyopathy. We hypothesized that mtDNA haplogroups, in particular H, J and K, might modify disease susceptibility to HCM. Mitochondrial DNA, isolated from blood, was sequenced and haplogroups identified in 91 probands with HCM. The association with HCM was ascertained using two Danish control populations. Haplogroup H was more prevalent in HCM patients, 60% versus 46% (p = 0.006 and 41% (p = 0.003, in the two control populations. Haplogroup J was less prevalent, 3% vs. 12.4% (p = 0.017 and 9.1%, (p = 0.06. Likewise, the UK haplogroup cluster was less prevalent in HCM, 11% vs. 22.1% (p = 0.02 and 22.8% (p = 0.04. These results indicate that haplogroup H constitutes a susceptibility factor and that haplogroup J and haplogroup cluster UK are protective factors in the development of HCM. Thus, constitutive differences in mitochondrial function may influence the occurrence and clinical presentation of HCM. This could explain some of the phenotypic variability in HCM. The fact that haplogroup H and J are also modifying factors in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggests that mtDNA haplotypes may be of significance in determining whether a physiological hypertrophy develops into myopathy. mtDNA haplotypes may have the potential of becoming significant biomarkers in cardiomyopathy.

  10. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)


    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naimi, L.J. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Bi, X.T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Lau, A.K. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation; Emami, M. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Afzal, M [University of New Brunswick


    The population balance model represents a time-dependent formulation of mass conservation for a ground biomass that flows through a set of sieves. The model is suitable for predicting the change in size and distribution of ground biomass while taking into account the flow rate processes of particles through a grinder. This article describes the development and application of this model to a switchgrass grinding operation. The mass conservation formulation of the model contains two parameters: breakage rate and breakage ratio. A laboratory knife mill was modified to act as a batch or flow-through grinder. The ground switchgrass was analyzed over a set of six Tyler sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 mm (top sieve) to 1 mm (bottom sieve). The breakage rate was estimated from the sieving tests. For estimating the breakage ratio, each of the six fractions was further ground and sieved to 11 fractions on a set of sieves with apertures ranging from 5.66 to 0.25 mm (and pan). These data formed a matrix of values for determining the breakage ratio. Using the two estimated parameters, the transient population balance model was solved numerically. Results indicated that the population balance model generally underpredicted the fractions remaining on sieves with 5.66, 4.00, and 2.83 mm apertures and overpredicted fractions remaining on sieves with 2.00, 1.41, and 1.00 mm apertures. These trends were similar for both the batch and flow-through grinder configurations. The root mean square of residuals (RSE), representing the difference between experimental and simulated mass of fractions, was 0.32 g for batch grinding and 0.1 g for flow-through grinding. The breakage rate exhibited a linear function of the logarithm of particle size, with a regression coefficient of 0.99.

  12. Creating an entire community covering population based injury registration system: a developed country perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turin Nahid Rumana


    Full Text Available "nThe public-health approach to injury prevention and control includes epidemiological assessment, development of prevention strategies, and evaluation of these strategies. Injury-surveillance systems should be capable of providing essential information for each of these elements. The scale of injury problem is not a matter of dispute. The costs of injury mortality and morbidity are immense not only in terms of lost economic opportunity and demands on national health budget but also in terms of personal and social sufferings. Despite this, few countries have comprehensive surveillance system that generates reliable information on the nature and extent of injuries, especially with regards to non-fatal injuries. Without reliable information health care planners are severely handicapped. They are unable to allocate resources efficiently in order to achieve the greatest impact in preventing injuries. This is true for planners at all levels, whether they are concerned with the world wide injury problem or national, regional or local level injury problems. Injury registries are indispensable in determining the incidence and trends in a particular population. A registry complements the cross-sectional studies of the differences in disease rates by longitudinal investigation. The initiation of the simultaneous monitoring of the incidence, mortality, morbidity, risk factor levels, social and behavioral tendency within defined community over a period of years will help in clarify the interrelation between these variables in terms of the dynamics of change in the natural history of injury trend. Information of injury occurrences and risk factors in population is very essential and surveillance provides this essential information that can be used for designing effective prevention strategies, appropriate allocation of health resource, assessment of effectiveness of the health programs, etc. The purpose of this registration is to follow the injury incidence

  13. [A case study of the interrelations among population, health and development. PSD-Mali]. (United States)

    Konate, M K


    The population, health, and development project in Mali (PSD-M) hypothesized that the construction of the Selingue dam would probably improve the income of the populations, cause socio-cultural changes, and degrade the environment. The prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis decreased after construction while the prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis increased. The prevalence of onchocerciasis fell from 3.6% to 0.2% during 1980-1983. PSD-Mali could not adequately follow up on other parasitic diseases. Information on consumption of fish by the fishermen themselves was unavailable. PSD-Mali did learn, however, that fishing for self-consumption was very much lower than commercial fishing. Fish sales comprised the greatest source of income, so fishing contributed somewhat to improvement of living conditions. Fishing has become a microindustry for the indigenous women, practiced with rudimentary means, with the creation of the artificial lake. The Office for Exploitation of Resources of the Upper Niger lends itself to fishing activities which encourages migration of ethnic fishermen to the Selingue zone. Income-related data were not better available after the dam than before, except for some data related to commercialization of fresh fish. Environmental degradation continues as predicted by PSD-M, which is contradictory to rural practices in the zone. In the past, land was left fallow for several years. 1350 hectares downstream from the dam, 68.7% of which is favorable for growing rice, is not irrigable. Construction of access roads as well as the opening of new tracks allowed deforestation, but the selling of wood for heating, of charcoal, and of bamboo has resulted in a comfortable income. These findings show that there is still need for evaluation of different aspects of life of the population concerned.

  14. Population and development in Asia and the Pacific: a demographic analysis. (United States)

    Debavalya, N


    Close examinations of population trends shows that the new trends reflect demographic changes that have occurred in many developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. In East Asia the population growth rate has declined rather rapidly from 1.94% in 1960-65 to 1.38% in 1975-80 and 1.24% in 1980-85. Since nearly 85% of this region's population is accounted for by China, demographic trends there virtually dictate the trends for the region as a whole. The available data suggest that the growth rate in China declined from 2.02% in 1970-75 to 1.4% in 1975-80 and is expected to reach 1.27% during 1980-85. The sharp decline in China's population growth rate is expected to continue. It is anticipated that the population of East Asia will increase to 1.4 billion by the year 2000. In addition, the growth rate has declined significantly in Japan and the Republic of Korea. The growth rate is declining in Eastern South and Middle South Asia as well. Longterm declines have brought growth rates down in Sri Lanka and Singapore. More recently, the rate of growth also has begun to fall in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand, while it remains generally at high levels in Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. In the Oceania region, 79% of which is made up of Australia and New Zealand, the growth rate is also steadily decreasing. Despite the decrease in the growth rate of Asia and the Pacific, especially during 1980-2000, in absolute terms its growth will be the largest in the world during these 29 years; 908 million out of 1687 million of the total growth. Asia and the Pacific will contribute more than 45 million people a year during the final 20 years of this century. For the world as a whole, the new estimates and projections indicate a slow but steady decline of the crude birthrate from 36.3/1000 in 1950-55 to 28.5 in 1975-80, then to 23.9 in 1995-2000, and finally to 17.9 in 2020-2025. China had a birthrate estimated at about 21 in 1975-80; and India and Indonesia

  15. A population genetic database of cat breeds developed in coordination with a domestic cat STR multiplex. (United States)

    Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn; David, Victor A; Weir, Bruce S; O'Brien, Stephen J


    A simple tandem repeat (STR) PCR-based typing system developed for the genetic individualization of domestic cat samples has been used to generate a population genetic database of domestic cat breeds. A panel of 10 tetranucleotide STR loci and a gender-identifying sequence tagged site (STS) were co-amplified in genomic DNA of 1043 individuals representing 38 cat breeds. The STR panel exhibits relatively high heterozygosity in cat breeds, with an average 10-locus heterozygosity of 0.71, which represents an average of 38 breed-specific heterozygosities for the 10-member panel. When the entire set of breed individuals was analyzed as a single population, a heterozygosity of 0.87 was observed. Heterozygosities obtained for the 10 loci range from 0.72 to 0.96. The power for genetic individualization of domestic cat samples of the multiplex is high, with a probability of match (p(m)) of 6.2E-14, using a conservative θ = 0.05.

  16. Social environment elicits lateralized navigational paths in two populations of typically developing children. (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian S; Crawley, Molly; Palmer, Casey


    The current study provides the first evidence of human lateralized navigation of a social space within a naturalistic environment. We employed a quantitative, observational approach and report on a detailed set of nearly 700 independent navigational routes from two separate child populations consisting of over 300 typically developing children, aged five to fourteen years. The navigational path was considered across the sagittal plane (left, right) around three distinct target types (peer, adult and object). Both child populations expressed a significant bias for choosing a rightward navigational path around a human target (e.g., peer, adult) and no lateral preference for navigation around fixed, inanimate objects. A rightward navigational path provides an advantage for the left visual field and the right hemisphere, facilitating both the production and perception of social-emotion stimuli. The findings are consistent with evidence from studies of non-human animal species demonstrating that the social environment elicits predictable lateralized behavior, and support an early evolutionary delineation of functional processing by the two hemispheres.

  17. Lenalidomide and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pilar González-Rodríguez


    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug used in multiple myeloma and myelodysplastic syndrome and most recently it has shown to be effective in the treatment of various lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The mechanism of action of lenalidomide varies depending on the pathology, and in the case of CLL, it appears to primarily act by restoring the damaged mechanisms of tumour immunosurveillance. This review discusses the potential mechanism of action and efficacy of lenalidomide, alone or in combination, in treatment of CLL and its toxic effects such as tumor lysis syndrome (TLS and tumor flare reaction (TFR, that make its management different from other hematologic malignancies.

  18. Agricultural population of Belgrade city territory: Basic tendencies in the demographic development, problems and possibilities of its revitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jasmina


    Full Text Available The territory of Belgrade city after the Second World War, has been characterized by the intensive processes of qualitative transformation concerning settling and arrangement of population, territorial organization of production and other activities. The facts that mostly influenced these processes are migrations, caused by economic movements and development. There has been a sudden transfer of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities. Participation of agricultural population in total population of Belgrade city has decreased from 29,7% in 1953 to 12,6% in 1971, and to 2,2% in 2002. Participation of active agricultural population in total active population in Belgrade city has decreased from 34,5% in 1953 to 16,3% in 1971, and to 4,1% in 2002. The decrease of the total and active agricultural population is the result of the weakened influence of demographic factors (changes in number and structure of the total and active population, as well as the greater influence of socio-economic factors. The basic tendencies of the future demographic development of agricultural population are influenced by the possibilities of its revitalization, because demographic reserves to from new working powers in agriculture are endangered.

  19. Hippocampal shape is predictive for the development of dementia in a normal, elderly population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achterberg, Hakim C.; van der Lijn, Fedde; den Heijer, Tom


    were, respectively, 0.724, 0.743, and 0.766. A logistic regression model showed that adding shape to a model using volume corrected for age and gender increased the global model-fit significantly (P = 0.0063). We conclude that hippocampal shape derived from MRI scans is predictive for dementia before...... assessed whether hippocampal shape provides additional predictive value independent of hippocampal volume. Five hundred eleven brain MRI scans from elderly nondemented participants of a prospective population-based imaging study were used. During the 10-year follow-up period, 52 of these subjects developed...... dementia. For training and evaluation independent of age and gender, a subset of 50 cases and 150 matched controls was selected. The hippocampus was segmented using an automated method. From the segmentation, the volume was determined and a statistical shape model was constructed. We trained a classifier...

  20. Development of a Dynamic Population Balance Plant Simulator for Mineral Processing Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Khoshnam


    Full Text Available Operational variables of a mineral processing circuit are subjected to different variations. Steady-statesimulation of processes provides an estimate of their ideal stable performance whereas their dynamicsimulation predicts the effects of the variations on the processes or their subsequent processes. In thispaper, a dynamic simulator containing some of the major equipment of mineral processing circuits(i.e. ball mill, cone crusher, screen, hydrocyclone, mechanical flotation cell, tank leaching andconveyor belt was developed. The dynamic simulator of each mentioned unit was also developedaccording to population balance models with the help of MATLAB/Simulink environment and wasverified against the data from the literature. Comminution and separation sections were linked usingempirical models which correlate the separation and extraction kinetics to particle size. Applying thedeveloped simulator, the dynamic behavior of a grinding-leaching circuit was analyzed and the resultsshowed that such simulations are required for both designing and controlling the circuits.

  1. Developing Staffing Models to Support Population Health Management And Quality Oucomes in Ambulatory Care Settings. (United States)

    Haas, Sheila A; Vlasses, Frances; Havey, Julia


    There are multiple demands and challenges inherent in establishing staffing models in ambulatory heath care settings today. If health care administrators establish a supportive physical and interpersonal health care environment, and develop high-performing interprofessional teams and staffing models and electronic documentation systems that track performance, patients will have more opportunities to receive safe, high-quality evidence-based care that encourages patient participation in decision making, as well as provision of their care. The health care organization must be aligned and responsive to the community within which it resides, fully invested in population health management, and continuously scanning the environment for competitive, regulatory, and external environmental risks. All of these challenges require highly competent providers willing to change attitudes and culture such as movement toward collaborative practice among the interprofessional team including the patient.

  2. Functional impairment of Tax-specific but not cytomegalovirus-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in a minor population of asymptomatic human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamori Ayako


    -cells that possessed functions upon CMV pp65 peptide stimulation. We further examined additional samples of two smoldering type ATL patients and found that they also showed dysfunctions of Tax-specific but not CMV-specific CD8+ T-cells. Conclusions These findings indicated that Tax-specific CD8+ T-cells were scarce and dysfunctional not only in ATL patients but also in a limited AC population, and that the dysfunction was selective for HTLV-1-specifc CD8+ T-cells in early stages.

  3. Utility of DF-1 for Radioprotection in Lymphocytes (United States)

    Reynolds, Julia; Casey, Rachael; Wu, Honglu; Huff, Janice; Emami, Kamal; Moore, Valerie; Jeevarajan, Antony


    The development of degenerative changes in the vasculature, such as atherosclerosis, is a known consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation, and is thus a concern for astronaut health following long duration space flight. Cellular damage caused by radiation is due to free radical generation and DNA damage. The goal of this project was to assess the ability of a C60-derivative, DF-1, to mitigate cellular damage resulting from radiation exposure in primary human lymphocytes. DF-1 is a water-soluble C60 fullerene encapsulated in dendrimeric functional groups that is proposed to exhibit antioxidant properties. Human lymphocytes are radiosensitive and travel throughout the body potentially causing bystander effects in any tissues they contact. These cells were subjected to varying doses of gamma radiation in the presence or absence of DF-1. Cells were collected at 48 hours post-irradiation for chromosomal aberration studies and at 72 hours post-irradiation for micronuclei studies. These studies showed that the irradiated cells contained more chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei than the control cells. Addition of the DF-1 reduced the amount of observed DNA damage in the irradiated cells. Growth curves were measured for the lymphocytes exposed to 0 and 4 Gray gamma irradiations, and we observed less growth in the cells irradiated at 4 Gy. 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate was used to detect reactive oxygen species production, and increased production of ROS was observed in the irradiated lymphocytes. Human lymphocytes were subjected to varying doses of gamma or photon radiation in the presence and absence of DF-1 and a known radioprotectant, amifostine. After irradiation, the production of reactive oxygen species, growth curves and cell viability were measured. These cells were also collected to quantify chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei formation. We predict that irradiated cells will show the most damage and that DF-1 will provide protective effects similar

  4. Development and Validation of the Body Size Scale for Assessing Body Weight Perception in African Populations (United States)

    Cohen, Emmanuel; Bernard, Jonathan Y.; Ponty, Amandine; Ndao, Amadou; Amougou, Norbert; Saïd-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pasquet, Patrick


    Background The social valorisation of overweight in African populations could promote high-risk eating behaviours and therefore become a risk factor of obesity. However, existing scales to assess body image are usually not accurate enough to allow comparative studies of body weight perception in different African populations. This study aimed to develop and validate the Body Size Scale (BSS) to estimate African body weight perception. Methods Anthropometric measures of 80 Cameroonians and 81 Senegalese were used to evaluate three criteria of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), overall percentage of fat, and endomorphy (fat component of the somatotype). To develop the BSS, the participants were photographed in full face and profile positions. Models were selected for their representativeness of the wide variability in adiposity with a progressive increase along the scale. Then, for the validation protocol, participants self-administered the BSS to assess self-perceived current body size (CBS), desired body size (DBS) and provide a “body self-satisfaction index.” This protocol included construct validity, test-retest reliability and convergent validity and was carried out with three independent samples of respectively 201, 103 and 1115 Cameroonians. Results The BSS comprises two sex-specific scales of photos of 9 models each, and ordered by increasing adiposity. Most participants were able to correctly order the BSS by increasing adiposity, using three different words to define body size. Test-retest reliability was consistent in estimating CBS, DBS and the “body self-satisfaction index.” The CBS was highly correlated to the objective BMI, and two different indexes assessed with the BSS were consistent with declarations obtained in interviews. Conclusion The BSS is the first scale with photos of real African models taken in both full face and profile and representing a wide and representative variability in adiposity. The validation protocol proved its

  5. Circulating Osteopontin and Prediction of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Development in a Large European Population. (United States)

    Duarte-Salles, Talita; Misra, Sandeep; Stepien, Magdalena; Plymoth, Amelie; Muller, David; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Baglietto, Laura; Severi, Gianluca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Turzanski-Fortner, Renee; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Bamia, Christina; Pala, Valeria; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tumino, Rosario; Naccarati, Alessio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Ardanaz, Eva; Gavrila, Diana; Dorronsoro, Miren; Werner, Mårten; Hemmingsson, Oskar; Ohlsson, Bodil; Sjöberg, Klas; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Gunter, Marc J; Cross, Amanda J; Riboli, Elio; Jenab, Mazda; Hainaut, Pierre; Beretta, Laura


    We previously identified osteopontin (OPN) as a promising marker for the early detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the association between prediagnostic circulating OPN levels and HCC incidence in a large population-based cohort. A nested case-control study was conducted within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. During a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 100 HCC cases were identified. Each case was matched to two controls and OPN levels were measured in baseline plasma samples. Viral hepatitis, liver function, and α-fetoprotein (AFP) tests were also conducted. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate multivariable odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for OPN levels in relation to HCC. Receiver operating characteristics curves were constructed to determine the discriminatory accuracy of OPN alone or in combination with other liver biomarkers in the prediction of HCC. OPN levels were positively associated with HCC risk (per 10% increment, ORmultivariable = 1.30; 95% CI, 1.14-1.48). The association was stronger among cases diagnosed within 2 years of follow-up. Adding liver function tests to OPN improved the discriminatory performance for subjects who developed HCC (AUC = 0.86). For cases diagnosed within 2 years, the combination of OPN and AFP was best able to predict HCC risk (AUC = 0.88). The best predictive model for HCC in this low-risk population is OPN in combination with liver function tests. Within 2 years of diagnosis, the combination of OPN and AFP best predicted HCC development, suggesting that measuring OPN and AFP could identify high-risk groups independently of a liver disease diagnosis. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 758-65. ©2016 AACR.

  6. Development of a compact cold-atom atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (United States)

    Blanshan, Eric M.

    Field-grade atomic clocks capable of primary standard performance in compact physics packages would be of significant value in a variety of applications ranging from network synchronization and secure communications to GPS hold-over and inertial navigation. A cold-atom coherent population trapping (CACPT) clock featuring laser-cooled atoms and pulsed Ramsey interrogation is a strong candidate for this technology if the principal frequency shifts can be controlled and the performance degradation associated with miniaturization can be overcome. In this thesis, research focused on the development of this type of compact atomic clock is presented. To address the low atom numbers obtained in small cold-atom sources, experiments were performed in which an atomic beam was decelerated with bichromatic stimulated laser forces and loaded into a mm-scale magneto-optical trap, increasing the atom number by a factor of 12.5. A CACPT clock using the high-contrast lin||lin optical interrogation technique was developed and achieved a stability of 7 x 10-13 after one hour of integration. Doppler shifts in the clock are explained using a simple kinematic model and canceled by interrogating the atoms with a counter-propagating CPT configuration. Finally, a thorough characterization of the AC-stark effect in lin||lin CPT was performed. Observed shifts are explained in terms of contributions from coherent CPT-generating couplings and population transfer effects caused by optical pumping from incoherent light. Measurements are compared with existing and new theoretical treatments, and a laser configuration is identified that reduces clock drift from light shifts to less than 10-14 for the current system.