WorldWideScience

Sample records for lyman series

  1. Lyman series profiles: From laser-plasmas to white dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kielkopf, J.F. [University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky 40292 (United States); Allard, N.F. [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, France and Institut d Astrophysique, Paris (France)

    1999-04-01

    The low energy interactions of neutral and ionized hydrogen atoms are fundamental processes which also have important applications to the diagnostics of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Satellites in the far wings of Lyman {alpha} and Lyman {beta} have been identified as ultraviolet absorption features in the spectra of white dwarf and {lambda} Bootis stars, and they are seen in the emission spectra of plasmas produced when a pulsed laser excites a target H{sub 2} gas. The observed Lyman series profiles agree with unified line shape theory which includes variation of the dipole transition moment during the radiative collision. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. An Anomaly in the Inglis-Teller Limits of the C VI Lyman and Balmer Series in Laser-Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, R.; Iglesias, E.; Griem, H.; Weaver, J.; Pien, G.; Mancini, R.

    2002-11-01

    Soft x-ray spectra from thin carbon layers heated by the OMEGA and NIKE lasers have been obtained with both spherical and planar targets, respectively, using a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph equipped with a gated microchannel plate for temporal resolution. In both experiments, late-time (recombining) hydrogenic C VI spectra show an n-to-1 Lyman spectral series blending with the continuum at n=4, contrary to n=9 in the n-to-2 Balmer series. It appears unlikely that plasma inhomogeneities are the sole cause of this anomaly, given the difference in the experimental configurations. Other explanations for the line-to-continuum merging (other than the usual Stark-broadened Inglis-Teller effect) under consideration include non-thermal Doppler broadening, deviations from statistical sublevel population distributions, and opacity effects. Collisional-radiative and hydrodynamic modeling, including cascades, is employed to further understand this phenomenon.

  3. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  4. LYMAN : a new window on the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dopita, M.A.; Tuohy, I.R.; Mathewson, D.S.; Hunstead, R.W.; Waterworth, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    This document is the final Phase A Science Report of the Australian LYMAN Science Working Group, and describes in detail the scientific objectives, technical feasibility, and engineering implementation of the LYMAN mission as developed in the Australian studies. LYMAN represents the next generation, high-orbit, UV space observatory, and is designed to operate over the wavelength range λ 100 - 1900 Angstrom. The prime spectral range is λ 900 - 1250 Angstrom, which will be covered at a resolution of λ/Δ λ = 30000, and the sensitivity of the instrumentation will be orders of magnitude better than previous missions. In this region we find the Lyman series of molecular and atomic hydrogen, as well as a whole host of atomic and ionic lines of great diagnostic power. LYMAN will be able to accomplish uniquely valuable astrophysics as a result, and will be applied to the study of all types of astronomical targets in the fields of cosmology, galactic research, the interstellar medium, stars in all stages of their evolution, and to particular solar system objects. The LYMAN Mission was the subject of a $1M study contract awarded by the Australian Space Office, a section of DITAC, to Auspace Pty. Ltd. The Phase A study was conduced in parallel with the ESA Phase A Study, and with a strong scientific and technical liaison between the two groups. LYMAN is now likely to be launched as a joint ESA/NASA project, but the future Australian role in the mission, as determined by current policy, would be minimal. Australia would therefore be effectively locked out of the very exciting front-line science described in this document, and the valuable university - industry liaison that has been developed over the last eight years will be lost

  5. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  6. Weighing the Low-Redshift Lyman-alpha Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2003-2004, our FUSE research group prepared several major surveys of the amount of baryonic matter in the intergalactic medium (IGM), using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. These surveys include measurements of the Lyman-alpha absorption line of neutral hydrogen (H I), the far-ultraviolet (1032,1038 Angstrom) doublet of highly ionized oxygen ( O VI), the higher Lyman-series lines (Ly-beta, Ly-gamma, etc) of H I, and the 977 Angstrom line of c III. As an overview, our FUSE spectroscopic studies, taken together with data from the Hubble Space Telescope, show that approximately 30% of the normal matter is contained in intergalactic hydrogen gas clouds (the Lyman-alpha forest). Another 5-10% resides in hotter gas at temperatures of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) K, visible in 0 VI and C III absorption. Along with the matter attributed to galaxies, we have now accounted for approximately HALF of all the baryonic matter in the universe. Where is the other half? That matter my exist in even hotter gas, invisible through the ultraviolet absorption lines, but perhaps detectable through X-ray absorption lines of more highly ionized oxygen and neon.

  7. Lyman continuum observations of solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, M. E.; Noyes, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A study is made of Lyman continuum observations of solar flares, using data obtained by the EUV spectroheliometer on the Apollo Telescope Mount. It is found that there are two main types of flare regions: an overall 'mean' flare coincident with the H-alpha flare region, and transient Lyman continuum kernels which can be identified with the H-alpha and X-ray kernels observed by other authors. It is found that the ground level hydrogen population in flares is closer to LTE than in the quiet sun and active regions, and that the level of Lyman continuum formation is lowered in the atmosphere from a mass column density .000005 g/sq cm in the quiet sun to .0003 g/sq cm in the mean flare, and to .001 g/sq cm in kernels. From these results the amount of chromospheric material 'evaporated' into the high temperature region is derived, which is found to be approximately 10 to the 15th g, in agreement with observations of X-ray emission measures.

  8. Lyman alpha SMM/UVSP absolute calibration and geocoronal correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Reichmann, Edwin J.

    1987-01-01

    Lyman alpha observations from the Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft were analyzed and provide instrumental calibration details. Specific values of the instrument quantum efficiency, Lyman alpha absolute intensity, and correction for geocoronal absorption are presented.

  9. Continuous coherent Lyman-alpha excitation of atomic hydrogen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikema, K.S.E.; Waltz, J.; Hänsch, T.

    2001-01-01

    The first near natural linewidth of the 1S-2P transition in atomic hydrogen was reported with a high degree of accuracy. A high yield of continuous Lyman-α radiation based on four wave mixing in mercury was employed. It was shown that laser cooloing and detection with Lyman-α radiation has excellent

  10. Variability of the Lyman alpha flux with solar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lean, J.L.; Skumanich, A.

    1983-01-01

    A three-component model of the solar chromosphere, developed from ground based observations of the Ca II K chromospheric emission, is used to calculate the variability of the Lyman alpha flux between 1969 and 1980. The Lyman alpha flux at solar minimum is required in the model and is taken as 2.32 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s. This value occurred during 1975 as well as in 1976 near the commencement of solar cycle 21. The model predicts that the Lyman alpha flux increases to as much as 5 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 /s at the maximum of the solar cycle. The ratio of the average fluxes for December 1979 (cycle maximum) and July 1976 (cycle minimum) is 1.9. During solar maximum the 27-day solar rotation is shown to cause the Lyman alpha flux to vary by as much as 40% or as little as 5%. The model also shows that the Lyman alpha flux varies over intermediate time periods of 2 to 3 years, as well as over the 11-year sunspot cycle. We conclude that, unlike the sunspot number and the 10.7-cm radio flux, the Lyman alpha flux had a variability that was approximately the same during each of the past three cycles. Lyman alpha fluxes calculated by the model are consistent with measurements of the Lyman alpha flux made by 11 of a total of 14 rocket experiments conducted during the period 1969--1980. The model explains satisfactorily the absolute magnitude, long-term trends, and the cycle variability seen in the Lyman alpha irradiances by the OSO 5 satellite experiment. The 27-day variability observed by the AE-E satellite experiment is well reproduced. However, the magntidue of the AE-E 1 Lyman alpha irradiances are higher than the model calculations by between 40% and 80%. We suggest that the assumed calibration of the AE-E irradiances is in error

  11. Constraining Lyman continuum escape using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Sambit K.; Zackrisson, Erik; Binggeli, Christian; Pelckmans, Kristiaan; Cubo, Rubén; Mellema, Garrelt

    2018-05-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will observe the rest-frame ultraviolet/optical spectra of galaxies from the epoch of reionization (EoR) in unprecedented detail. While escaping into the intergalactic medium, hydrogen-ionizing (Lyman continuum; LyC) photons from the galaxies will contribute to the bluer end of the UV slope and make nebular emission lines less prominent. We present a method to constrain leakage of the LyC photons using the spectra of high redshift (z >~ 6) galaxies. We simulate JWST/NIRSpec observations of galaxies at z =6-9 by matching the fluxes of galaxies observed in the Frontier Fields observations of galaxy cluster MACS-J0416. Our method predicts the escape fraction fesc with a mean absolute error Δfesc ~ 0.14. The method also predicts the redshifts of the galaxies with an error .

  12. Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2018-06-01

    The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.

  13. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 P20 , Lyα radii are larger than those of Hα by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Lyα-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Lyα light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Lyα compared to Hα, ξ Lyα = R Lyα P20 /R Hα P20 , we find ξ Lyα to be uncorrelated with total Lyα luminosity. However, ξ Lyα is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Lyα photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Lyα halo.

  14. Isolating the Lyman alpha forest BAO anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evslin, Jarah, E-mail: jarah@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, NanChangLu 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2017-04-01

    A 2.5-3σ discrepancy has been reported between the baryonic acoustic oscillation peak (BAO) in the Lyman α forest at z ∼ 2.34 and the best fit Planck ΛCDM cosmology. To isolate the origin of the tension, we consider unanchored BAO, in which the standard BAO ruler is not calibrated, eliminating any dependence on cosmology before redshift z ∼ 2.34. We consider BOSS BAO measurements at z ∼ 0.32, 0.57 and 2.34, using the full 2-dimensional constraints on the angular and line of sight BAO scale, as well as isotropic BAO measurements by 6dF and SDSS at z ∼ 0.106 and z ∼ 0.15. We find that the z >0.43 data alone is in 2.9σ of tension with ΛCDM with or without the Planck best fit values of the mass fraction Ω {sub m} and the BAO scale r {sub d} H {sub 0}, indicating that the tension arises not from the ΛCDM parameters but from the dark energy evolution itself at 0.57< z <2.34. This conclusion is supported when the acoustic scale measured by the CMB is included, which further increases the tension and excludes a solution with a constant dark energy equation of state. Including the low z BAO data, which is itself consistent with ΛCDM, reduces the tension to just over 2σ, however in this case a CPL parametrization of the dark energy evolution yields only a modest improvement.

  15. Lyman Limit Absorbers in GALEX Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williger, Gerard M.; Haberzettl, Lutz G.; Ribaudo, Joseph; Kuchner, Marc J.; Burchett, Joseph; Clowes, Roger G.; Lauroesch, James T.; Mills, Brianna; Borden, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    We describe the method and early results for crowdsourcing a search for low-redshift partial and complete Lyman Limit Systems (pLLSs and LLSs) in the GALEX spectral archive. LLSs have been found in large numbers at z>3 and traced to lower redshift through a relatively small number of QSO spectra from spaced-based telescopes. From a sample of 44 pLLSs and 11 LLSs at 0.1 = -0.32 +/- 0.07 and the low-metallicity portion centered at = -1.87 +/- 0.11.The GALEX spectral archive offers a vast dataset potentially containing hundreds of LLSs, which may be leveraged to search for such a bimodality and track its evolution within the unconstrained near-UV gap at 1data coverage and signal-to-noise ratio are highly variable, which hampers an automated search. We have therefore begun crowdsourcing a subset of the GALEX archive for LLSs and pLLSs via a Zooniverse project. Initially, undergraduate physics majors are performing a pilot project before releasing to citizen scientists in the public at large. We will then vet candidate systems and estimate column densities in a follow-up analysis. Upon assessing the accuracy of the physics majors’ identifications, the results will be used to devise a larger program with the help of the general public. The resulting data set would then provide the best available link between the HST-selected far-UV and ground-based pLLS+LLS samples and provide an ideal sample for consequent metallicity determinations.

  16. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schaerer, Daniel [CNRS, IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Herenz, E. Christian [Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  17. Performance Characterization of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) CCD Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, R. K.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A. R.; Champey, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket instrument which is currently being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ). The goal of this instrument is to observe and detect the Hanle effect in the scattered Lyman-Alpha UV (121.6nm) light emitted by the Sun's Chromosphere to make measurements of the magnetic field in this region. In order to make accurate measurements of this effect, the performance characteristics of the three on-board charge-coupled devices (CCDs) must meet certain requirements. These characteristics include: quantum efficiency, gain, dark current, noise, and linearity. Each of these must meet predetermined requirements in order to achieve satisfactory performance for the mission. The cameras must be able to operate with a gain of no greater than 2 e-/DN, a noise level less than 25e-, a dark current level which is less than 10e-/pixel/s, and a residual non-linearity of less than 1%. Determining these characteristics involves performing a series of tests with each of the cameras in a high vacuum environment. Here we present the methods and results of each of these performance tests for the CLASP flight cameras.

  18. Oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-alpha hygrometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van A.; Kohsiek, W.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen sensitivity of krypton and Lyman-¿ hygrometers is studied. Using a dewpoint generator and a controlled nitrogen/oxygen flow the extinction coefficients of five hygrometers associated with the third-order Taylor expansion of the Lambert¿Beer law around reference conditions for oxygen and

  19. Solar minimum Lyman alpha sky background observations from Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer - Solar wind latitude variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajello, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of interplanetary H I Lyman alpha over a large portion of the celestial sphere were made at the recent solar minimum by the Pioneer Venus orbiter ultraviolet spectrometer. These measurements were performed during a series of spacecraft maneuvers conducted to observe Halley's comet in early 1986. Analysis of these data using a model of the passage of interstellar wind hydrogen through the solar system shows that the rate of charge exchange with solar wind protons is 30 percent less over the solar poles than in the ecliptic. This result is in agreement with a similar experiment performed with Mariner 10 at the previous solar minimum.

  20. Chromospheric Lyman-alpha spectro-polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Ryouhei; Bando, Takamasa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Sakao, Taro; Goto, Motoshi; Kato, Yoshiaki; Imada, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Ken; Holloway, Todd; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtain, Jonathan; De Pontieu, Bart; Casini, Roberto; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Štepán, Jiří; Manso Sainz, Rafael; Belluzzi, Luca; Asensio Ramos, Andres; Auchère, Frédéric; Carlsson, Mats

    2012-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges in heliophysics is to decipher the magnetic structure of the solar chromosphere. The importance of measuring the chromospheric magnetic field is due to both the key role the chromosphere plays in energizing and structuring the outer solar atmosphere and the inability of extrapolation of photospheric fields to adequately describe this key boundary region. Over the last few years, significant progress has been made in the spectral line formation of UV lines as well as the MHD modeling of the solar atmosphere. It is found that the Hanle effect in the Lyman-alpha line (121.567 nm) is a most promising diagnostic tool for weaker magnetic fields in the chromosphere and transition region. Based on this groundbreaking research, we propose the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) to NASA as a sounding rocket experiment, for making the first measurement of the linear polarization produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in the Lyman-alpha line (121.567 nm), and making the first exploration of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. The CLASP instrument consists of a Cassegrain telescope, a rotating 1/2-wave plate, a dual-beam spectrograph assembly with a grating working as a beam splitter, and an identical pair of reflective polarization analyzers each equipped with a CCD camera. We propose to launch CLASP in December 2014.

  1. The z~4 Lyman Break Galaxies: Colors and Theoretical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzi, Rafal; Somerville, Rachel; Papovich, Casey; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kretchmer, Claudia; Lotz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We investigate several fundamental properties of z~4 Lyman break galaxies by comparing observations with the predictions of a semianalytic model based on the cold dark matter theory of hierarchical structure formation. We use a sample of B435-dropouts from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and complement the Advanced Camera for Surveys optical B435, V606, i775, and z850 data with the Very Large Telescope Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera J, H, and Ks observations. We extract B435-dropouts from our semianalytic mock catalog using the same color criteria and magnitude limits that were applied to the observed sample. We find that the i775-Ks colors of the model-derived and observed B435-dropouts are in good agreement. However, we find that the i775-z850 colors differ significantly, indicating perhaps that either too little dust or an incorrect extinction curve has been used. Motivated by the reasonably good agreement between the model and observed data, we present predictions for the stellar masses, star formation rates, and ages for the z~4 Lyman break sample. We find that according to our model, the color selection criteria used to select our z~4 sample surveys 67% of all galaxies at this epoch down to z850Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO programmes 168.A-0485, 64.0-0643, 66.A-0572, and 68.A-0544).

  2. Diagnostics of the Solar Wind and Global Heliosphere with Lyman-α Emission Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provornikova, E. P.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Laming, J. M.; Strachan, L.; Wood, B. E.; Katushkina, O. A.; Ko, Y.-K.; Tun Beltran, S.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2018-02-01

    We propose to develop an instrument measuring full sky intensity maps and spectra of interplanetary Lyman-α emission to reveal the global solar wind variability and the nature of the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium.

  3. Discovery of Ubiquitous Fast-Propagating Intensity Disturbances by the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Štěpán, J.; Belluzzi, L.; Manso Sainz, R.; De Pontieu, B.; Ichimoto, K.; Carlsson, M.; Casini, R.; Goto, M.

    2016-12-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Lyα line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s-1, and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  4. A reliable cw Lyman-α laser source for future cooling of antihydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, Daniel; Beczkowiak, Anna; Diehl, Thomas; Koglbauer, Andreas; Sattler, Matthias; Stappel, Matthias; Steinborn, Ruth; Walz, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a reliable continuous-wave (cw) laser source at the 1 S–2 P transition in (anti)hydrogen at 121.56 nm (Lyman-α) based on four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury. A two-photon resonance in the four-wave mixing scheme is essential for a powerful cw Lyman-α source and is well investigated.

  5. A reliable cw Lyman-{alpha} laser source for future cooling of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, Daniel, E-mail: kolbed@uni-mainz.de; Beczkowiak, Anna; Diehl, Thomas; Koglbauer, Andreas; Sattler, Matthias; Stappel, Matthias; Steinborn, Ruth; Walz, Jochen [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate a reliable continuous-wave (cw) laser source at the 1 S-2 P transition in (anti)hydrogen at 121.56 nm (Lyman-{alpha}) based on four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury. A two-photon resonance in the four-wave mixing scheme is essential for a powerful cw Lyman-{alpha} source and is well investigated.

  6. Discovery of a very Lyman-α-luminous quasar at z = 6.62.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptelova, Ekaterina; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan; Yu, Po-Chieh; Chen, Wen-Ping; Guo, Jhen-Kuei

    2017-02-02

    Distant luminous quasars provide important information on the growth of the first supermassive black holes, their host galaxies and the epoch of reionization. The identification of quasars is usually performed through detection of their Lyman-α line redshifted to 0.9 microns at z > 6.5. Here, we report the discovery of a very Lyman-α luminous quasar, PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 at redshift z = 6.618, selected based on its red colour and multi-epoch detection of the Lyman-α emission in a single near-infrared band. The Lyman-α line luminosity of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 is unusually high and estimated to be 0.8 × 10 12 Solar luminosities (about 3% of the total quasar luminosity). The Lyman-α emission of PSO J006.1240 + 39.2219 shows fast variability on timescales of days in the quasar rest frame, which has never been detected in any of the known high-redshift quasars. The high luminosity of the Lyman-α line, its narrow width and fast variability resemble properties of local Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 galaxies which suggests that the quasar is likely at the active phase of the black hole growth accreting close or even beyond the Eddington limit.

  7. Development of Flight Slit-Jaw Optics for Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Masahito; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Hara, Hirohisa; Narukage, Noriyuki; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Kobiki, Toshihiko; hide

    2015-01-01

    In sounding rocket experiment CLASP, I have placed a slit a mirror-finished around the focal point of the telescope. The light reflected by the mirror surface surrounding the slit is then imaged in Slit-jaw optical system, to obtain the alpha-ray Lyman secondary image. This image, not only to use the real-time image in rocket flight rocket oriented direction selection, and also used as a scientific data showing the spatial structure of the Lyman alpha emission line intensity distribution and solar chromosphere around the observation area of the polarimetric spectroscope. Slit-jaw optical system is a two off-axis mirror unit part including a parabolic mirror and folding mirror, Lyman alpha transmission filter, the optical system magnification 1x consisting camera. The camera is supplied from the United States, and the other was carried out fabrication and testing in all the Japanese side. Slit-jaw optical system, it is difficult to access the structure, it is necessary to install the low place clearance. Therefore, influence the optical performance, the fine adjustment is necessary optical elements are collectively in the form of the mirror unit. On the other hand, due to the alignment of the solar sensor in the US launch site, must be removed once the Lyman alpha transmission filter holder including a filter has a different part from the mirror unit. In order to make the structure simple, stray light measures Aru to concentrate around Lyman alpha transmission filter. To overcome the difficulties of performing optical alignment in Lyman alpha wavelength absorbed by the atmosphere, it was planned following four steps in order to reduce standing time alignment me. 1: is measured in advance refractive index at Lyman alpha wavelength of Lyman alpha transmission filter (121.567nm), to prepare a visible light Firuwo having the same optical path length in the visible light (630nm). 2: The mirror structure CLASP before mounting unit standing, dummy slit and camera standing

  8. Absorber Model: the Halo-like model for the Lyman-α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iršič, Vid; McQuinn, Matthew

    2018-04-01

    We present a semi-analytic model for the Lyman-α forest that is inspired by the Halo Model. This model is built on the absorption line decomposition of the forest. Flux correlations are decomposed into those within each absorption line (the 1-absorber term) and those between separate lines (the 2-absorber term), treating the lines as biased tracers of the underlying matter fluctuations. While the nonlinear exponential mapping between optical depth and flux requires an infinite series of moments to calculate any statistic, we show that this series can be re-summed (truncating at the desired order in the linear matter overdensity). We focus on the z=2–3 line-of-sight power spectrum. Our model finds that 1-absorber term dominates the power on all scales, with most of its contribution coming from H I columns of 1014–1015 cm‑2, while the smaller 2-absorber contribution comes from lower columns that trace overdensities of a few. The prominence of the 1-absorber correlations indicates that the line-of-sight power spectrum is shaped principally by the lines' number densities and their absorption profiles, with correlations between lines contributing to a lesser extent. We present intuitive formulae for the effective optical depth as well as the large-scale limits of 1-absorber and 2-absorber terms, which simplify to integrals over the H I column density distribution with different equivalent-width weightings. With minimalist models for the bias of absorption systems and their peculiar velocity broadening, our model predicts values for the density bias and velocity gradient bias that are consistent with those found in simulations.

  9. Continuous emission from the gaseous nebula beyond the Lyman limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgova, G.T.; Khromov, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    Models of spherically-symmetric isothermic hydrogen nebula with an exciting star in the centre are considered. Spectra and energies of diffuse radiation of nebula and of direct radiation of its kernel are calculated in the Lyman continuum for the external boundary of the object. The spectrum of the diffuse radiation is shown to be to a great extent invariant in relation to all parameters of models except for Tsub(e). The total loss in energy of Lsub(c)-radiation of kernel through the external border of the ionized nebula, amounts to 20-30% in the average even at a considerable optical thickness of the object tausub(0). The greater part of this energy is transferred via direct ionizing radiation, though the relative contribution of the diffuse Lsub(c)-radiation of nebula reaches 30% at low temperatures of the exciting star and at large tausub(0). The results of this work may be applied to calculating the energy balance of the star-nebula system, the heating of dust particles and ionization of the neighbouring interstellar medium, and also for determining the conditions of observation of the far ultra-violet radiation of similar objects

  10. The Lyman-alpha signature of the first galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Radiation from the first stars and galaxies initiated the dramatic phase transition marking an end to the cosmic dark ages. The emission and absorption signatures from the Lyman-alpha (Lyα) transition of neutral hydrogen have been indispensable in extending the observational frontier for high-redshift galaxies into the epoch of reionization. Lyα radiative transfer provides clues about the processes leading to Lyα escape from individual galaxies and the subsequent transmission through the intergalactic medium. Cosmological simulations incorporating Lyα radiative transfer enhance our understanding of fundamental physics by supplying the inferred spectra and feedback on the gas. In this talk, I will discuss the dynamical impact of Lyα radiation pressure on galaxy formation throughout cosmic reionization with the first fully coupled Lyα radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. Based on a suite of spherically symmetric models and high-resolution ab initio cosmological simulations we find that Lyα radiation pressure is dynamically important during the assembly of direct collapse black holes (DCBHs), which may be the seeds of the first supermassive black holes in the universe. Finally, I will discuss recent advances in Lyα modeling based on current state-of-the-art simulations and observational insights.

  11. DISCOVERY OF UBIQUITOUS FAST-PROPAGATING INTENSITY DISTURBANCES BY THE CHROMOSPHERIC LYMAN ALPHA SPECTROPOLARIMETER (CLASP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchère, F.; Bueno, J. Trujillo; Ramos, A. Asensio

    2016-01-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Ly α line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s −1 , and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  12. DISCOVERY OF UBIQUITOUS FAST-PROPAGATING INTENSITY DISTURBANCES BY THE CHROMOSPHERIC LYMAN ALPHA SPECTROPOLARIMETER (CLASP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tsuneta, S.; Ishikawa, S.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, ZP 13, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Champey, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, 301 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Auchère, F. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS/Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay (France); Bueno, J. Trujillo; Ramos, A. Asensio, E-mail: masahito.kubo@nao.ac.jp [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); and others

    2016-12-01

    High-cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment known as the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha Spectropolarimeter (CLASP) reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere or the transition region or both at a speed much higher than the speed of sound. The CLASP/SJ instrument provides a time series of two-dimensional images taken with broadband filters centered on the Ly α line at a 0.6 s cadence. The multiple fast-propagating intensity disturbances appear in the quiet Sun and in an active region, and they are clearly detected in at least 20 areas in a field of view of 527″ × 527″ during the 5 minute observing time. The apparent speeds of the intensity disturbances range from 150 to 350 km s{sup −1}, and they are comparable to the local Alfvén speed in the transition region. The intensity disturbances tend to propagate along bright elongated structures away from areas with strong photospheric magnetic fields. This suggests that the observed fast-propagating intensity disturbances are related to the magnetic canopy structures. The maximum distance traveled by the intensity disturbances is about 10″, and the widths are a few arcseconds, which are almost determined by a pixel size of 1.″03. The timescale of each intensity pulse is shorter than 30 s. One possible explanation for the fast-propagating intensity disturbances observed by CLASP is magnetohydrodynamic fast-mode waves.

  13. Haro 11: Where is the Lyman Continuum Source?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keenan, Ryan P.; Oey, M. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 South University Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Jaskot, Anne E. [Department of Astronomy, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States); James, Bethan L. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Identifying the mechanism by which high-energy Lyman continuum (LyC) photons escaped from early galaxies is one of the most pressing questions in cosmic evolution. Haro 11 is the best known local LyC-leaking galaxy, providing an important opportunity to test our understanding of LyC escape. The observed LyC emission in this galaxy presumably originates from one of the three bright, photoionizing knots known as A, B, and C. It is known that Knot C has strong Ly α emission, and Knot B hosts an unusually bright ultraluminous X-ray source, which may be a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus. To clarify the LyC source, we carry out ionization-parameter mapping (IPM) by obtaining narrow-band imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 and ACS cameras to construct spatially resolved ratio maps of [O iii]/[O ii] emission from the galaxy. IPM traces the ionization structure of the interstellar medium and allows us to identify optically thin regions. To optimize the continuum subtraction, we introduce a new method for determining the best continuum scale factor derived from the mode of the continuum-subtracted, image flux distribution. We find no conclusive evidence of LyC escape from Knots B or C, but instead we identify a high-ionization region extending over at least 1 kpc from Knot A. This knot shows evidence of an extremely young age (≲1 Myr), perhaps containing very massive stars (>100 M {sub ⊙}). It is weak in Ly α , so if it is confirmed as the LyC source, our results imply that LyC emission may be independent of Ly α emission.

  14. A Lyman Break Galaxy Candidate at z ~ 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Colbert, James W.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; McCarthy, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of a z ~ 9 Lyman break galaxy candidate, selected from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey as a J-dropout with J110 - H160 = 1.7. Spitzer/IRAC photometry reveals that the galaxy has a blue H160 - 3.6 μm color and a spectral break between 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We interpret this break as the Balmer break and derive a best-fit photometric redshift of z ~ 9. We use Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of this photometric redshift, and we show that there is a 96% probability of z >= 7. We estimate that the lower limit to the comoving number density of such galaxies at z ~ 9 is phi > 3.8 × 10-6 Mpc-3. If the high redshift of this galaxy is confirmed, this will indicate that the luminous end of the rest-frame UV luminosity function has not evolved substantially from z ~ 9 to z ~ 3. Still, some small degeneracy remains between this z ~ 9 model and models at z ~ 2-3 deep optical imaging (reaching IAB ~ 29) can rule out the lower z models. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This work is also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposals 9484, 9865, 10226, and 10899.

  15. Lyman Break Galaxies At z 2 In The GOODS Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberzettl, Lutz; Williger, G.; Lehnert, M.; Nesvadba, N.

    2009-12-01

    Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) have been the benchmarks against which other samples of high redshift galaxies have been compared for the last 2 decades. They are unique in that no other selection mechanism allows us to study galaxies selected in a consistent manner over the span of redshifts from z=0 to 7. An important remaining gap is the redshift range z ˜ 1.5-2.5, which includes near UV (NUV)-band drop-outs. We present first results of a search for LBGs at these redshifts using very sensitive multi-frequency data from the far UV to mid-IR of the GOODS CDF-S and HDF-N. We modelled colors of star-forming galaxies, and found only a small overlap with the BM/BX selection method (Adelberger et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 226). We developed new color selection criteria using GALEX NUV and optical photometry to identify high star formation galaxies, including NUV-dropouts for 2.0methods, we identified a sample of ? z˜ 2 LBG candidates in both the GOODS CDF-S and the HDF-N. A first analysis of the mean SED of our LBG candidate sample shows results consistent with red LBGs at z ˜ 1, indicating massive galaxies with high star formation rates. Nearly 10% of our selected LBG candidates have mid-IR (IRAC+MIPS) colors comparable both to z ˜ 3 IR-luminous LBGs, which are believed to be dusty, vigorously star-forming massive progenitors of modern ellipticals.

  16. Are the brightest Lyman Alpha Emitters at z=5.7 primeval galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Christopher; Jones, Heath; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Pompei, Emanuela; Tapken, Christian; Vanzi, Leonardo; Westra, Eduard

    2008-03-01

    Wide-field, narrow-band surveys have proven to be effective at finding very high redshift galaxies that emit brightly in the Lyman alpha line, the so-called Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs). It was through this technique that the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy, a galaxy at z=6.96, was discovered. Considerable effort is currently being spent on discovering these galaxies at ever higher redshifts by extending this technique into the near-IR. In contrast to this effort, there has been relatively little work on understanding these galaxies. In particular, how do LAEs relate to other high redshift galaxies, such as the galaxies discovered through broad band drop out techniques, and, perhaps, more importantly, what role do LAEs play in re-ionising the universe. We recently discovered two extremely luminous LAEs at z=5.7. These LAEs are among the brightest LAEs ever discovered at this redshift. In a recent paper by Mao et al. the brightest LAEs are associated to the most massive halos. We propose to use the IRAC 3.6 micron imager on Spitzer to measure the rest-frame optical flux of the these LAEs. With additional data from the near-IR (rest-frame UV) and very deep optical spectra around the Lyman alpha line, we propose to make a detailed study of the spectral energy distribution from the Lyman alpha line to the rest frame optical of these exceptional LAEs. These data will enable us to estimate the age and mass of the stellar burst that produces the Lyman alpha line, to estimate the contribution from an older stellar population, if any, and to estimate the fraction of Lyman continuum photons that can escape the galaxy and are thus available to reionise the universe.

  17. Lyman-alpha detector designed for rocket measurements of the direct solar radiation at 121.5 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guineva, V.; Tashev, V.; Witt, G.; Gumbel, J.; Khaplanov, M.

    2007-01-01

    Rocket measurements of the direct Lyman-alpha radiation penetrating in the atmosphere were planned during the HotPay I rocket experiment, June 2006, Project ASLAF (Attenuation of the Solar Lyman-Alpha Flux), Andoya Rocket Range (ARR), Norway. The basic goal of ASLAF project was the study of the processes in the summer mesosphere and thermosphere (up to 110 km), at high latitudes using the Lyman-alpha measurements. The resonance transition 2 P- 2 S of the atomic hydrogen (Lyman-alpha emission) is the strongest and most conspicuous feature in the solar EUV spectrum. Due to the favourable circumstance, that the Lyman-alpha wavelength (121.5 nm) coincides with a minimum of the O 2 absorption spectrum, the direct Lyman-alpha radiation penetrates well in the mesosphere. The Lyman-alpha radiation is the basic agent of the NO molecules ionization, thus generating the ionospheric D-layer, and of the water vapour photolysis, being one of the main H 2 O loss processes. The Lyman-alpha radiation transfer depends on the resonance scattering from the hydrogen atoms in the atmosphere and on the O 2 absorption. Since the Lyman-alpha extinction in the atmosphere is a measure for the column density of the oxygen molecules, the atmospheric temperature profile can be calculated thereof. The detector of solar Lyman-alpha radiation was manufactured in the Stara Zagora Department of the Solar-Terrestrial Influences Laboratory (STIL). Its basic part is an ionization chamber, filled in with NO. A 60 V power supply is applied to the chamber. The produced photoelectric current from the sensor is fed to a 2-channels amplifier, providing an analogue signal. The characteristics of the Lyman-alpha detector were studied. It passed successfully all tests and the results showed that the instrument could be used in rocket experiments to measure the Lyman-alpha flux. From the measurements of the detector, the Lyman-alpha vertical profile can be obtained. The forthcoming scientific data analysis will

  18. Galex Lyman-alpha Emitters: Physical Properties, Luminosity Bimodality, And Morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, Ryan P.

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer spectroscopic survey has uncovered a large statistically significant sample of Lyman-alpha emitters at z sim0.3. ACS imaging of these sources in the COSMOS and AEGIS deep fields reveals that these Lyman-alpha emitters consist of two distinct galaxy morphologies, face on spiral galaxies and compact starburst/merging systems. The morphology bimodality also results in a bimodal distribution of optical luminosity. A comparison between the UV photometry and MIPS 24 micron detections of these sources indicates that they are bluer, and have less dust extinction than similar star forming galaxies that lack Lyman-alpha detection. Our findings show how the global gas and dust distribution of star forming galaxies inhibits Lyman-alpha emission in star forming galaxies. GALEX is a NASA Small Explorer, launched in April 2003. We gratefully acknowledge NASA's support for construction, operation, and science analysis for the GALEX mission, developed in cooperation with the CNES of France and the Korean Ministry of Science and Technology.

  19. Development of a Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope for the Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Long term observations of full-disk Lyman-α irradiance have been made by the instruments on various satellites. In addition, several sounding rockets dating back to the 1950s and up through the present have measured the Lyman-α irradiance. Previous full disk Lyman-α images of the sun have been very interesting and useful scientifically, but have been only five-minute ``snapshots" obtained on sounding rocket flights. All of these observations to date have been snapshots, with no time resolution to observe changes in the chromospheric structure as a result of the evolving magnetic field, and its effect on the Lyman-α intensity. The Lyman-α Imaging Solar Telescope(LIST can provide a unique opportunity for the study of the sun in the Lyman-α region with the high time and spatial resolution for the first time. Up to the 2nd year development, the preliminary design of the optics, mechanical structure and electronics system has been completed. Also the mechanical structure analysis, thermal analysis were performed and the material for the structure was chosen as a result of these analyses. And the test plan and the verification matrix were decided. The operation systems, technical and scientific operation, were studied and finally decided. Those are the technical operation, mechanical working modes for the observation and safety, the scientific operation and the process of the acquired data. The basic techniques acquired through the development of satellite based solar telescope are essential for the construction of space environment forecast system in the future. The techniques which we developed through this study, like mechanical, optical and data processing techniques, could be applied extensively not only to the process of the future production of flight models of this kind, but also to the related industries. Also, we can utilize the scientific achievements which are obtained throughout the project. And these can be utilized to build a high

  20. Lyman alpha emission in nearby star-forming galaxies with the lowest metallicities and the highest [OIII]/[OII] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    The Lyman alpha line of hydrogen is the strongest emission line in galaxies and the tool of predilection for identifying and studying star-forming galaxies over a wide range of redshifts, especially in the early universe. However, it has become clear over the years that not all of the Lyman alpha radiation escapes, due to its resonant scattering on the interstellar and intergalactic medium, and absorption by dust. Although our knowledge of the high-z universe depends crucially on that line, we still do not have a complete understanding of the mechanisms behind the production, radiative transfer and escape of Lyman alpha in galaxies. We wish here to investigate these mechanisms by studying the properties of the ISM in a unique sample of 8 extreme star-forming galaxies (SFGs) that have the highest excitation in the SDSS spectral data base. These dwarf SFGs have considerably lower stellar masses and metallicities, and higher equivalent widths and [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratios compared to all nearby SFGs with Lyman alpha emission studied so far with COS. They are, however, very similar to the dwarf Lyman alpha emitters at redshifts 3-6, which are thought to be the main sources of reionization in the early Universe. By combining the HST/COS UV data with data in the optical range, and using photoionization and radiative transfer codes, we will be able to study the properties of the Lyman alpha in these unique objects, derive column densities of the neutral hydrogen N(HI) and compare them with N(HI) obtained from the HeI emission-line ratios in the optical spectra. We will derive Lyman alpha escape fractions and indirectly Lyman continuum escape fractions.

  1. New constraints on Lyman-α opacity using 92 quasar lines of sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Sarah E. I.; Fan, Xiaohui; Jiang, Linhua; Reed, Sophie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Becker, George; Rorai, Albert

    2018-05-01

    The large scatter in Lyman-α opacity at z > 5.3 has been an ongoing mystery, prompting a flurry of numerical models. A uniform ultra-violet background has been ruled out at those redshifts, but it is unclear whether any proposed models produce sufficient inhomogeneities. In this paper we provide an update on the measurement which first highlighted the issue: Lyman-α effective optical depth along high-z quasar lines of sight. We nearly triple on the previous sample size in such a study thanks to the cooperation of the DES-VHS, SHELLQs, and SDSS collaborations as well as new reductions and spectra. We find that a uniform UVB model is ruled out at 5.1 < z < 5.3, as well as higher redshifts, which is perplexing. We provide the first such measurements at z ~ 6. None of the numerical models we confronted to this data could reproduce the observed scatter.

  2. A Sounding Rocket Experiment for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Kano, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Ichimoto, K.; Goto, M.; Holloway, T.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; De Pontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Auchère, F.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Manso Sainz, R.; Belluzzi, L.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Štěpán, J.; Carlsson, M.

    2014-10-01

    A sounding-rocket experiment called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is presently under development to measure the linear polarization profiles in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) line at 121.567 nm. CLASP is a vacuum-UV (VUV) spectropolarimeter to aim for first detection of the linear polarizations caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in the Lyα line with high accuracy (0.1%). This is a fist step for exploration of magnetic fields in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. Accurate measurements of the linear polarization signals caused by scattering processes and the Hanle effect in strong UV lines like Lyα are essential to explore with future solar telescopes the strength and structures of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun. The CLASP proposal has been accepted by NASA in 2012, and the flight is planned in 2015.

  3. Determination of magnetic field direction in tokamaks from laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1988-04-01

    Resonant laser scattering in the Lyman-α line of hydrogen is investigated as a possible tool for measuring the magnetic field direction in tokamak plasmas. The method is based on the depolarisation-dependence of the scattering process. Limitations arising from depolarising collisions are studied in detail by employing a previously developed theory for the collisional redistribution of light. An error analysis is performed to derive the expected experimental precision under various plasma conditions and for laser energies ranging between 1 micronJ and 10 mJ. This analysis also includes the measurement of neutral hydrogen densities. It is shown that with presently available laser powers application of the method would be restricted to the border regions of the plasma. Application to the central regions would require further developments in laser technology, especially with regard to higher powers at the wavelength of Lyman-α and (or) to fast repetition rates

  4. Are the brightest Lyman Alpha Emitters at zD5.7 primeval galaxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidman, Christopher; Hayes, Matthew; Jones, Heath; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Tapken, Christian; Westra, Eduard

    2009-04-01

    Wide-field, narrow-band surveys have proven to be effective at finding very high redshift galaxies that emit brightly in the Lyman alpha line - the so-called Lyman alpha emitters (LAEs). It was through this technique that the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy, a galaxy at zD6.96 (Iye et al. 2006), was discovered. Considerable effort is currently being spent on discovering these galaxies at ever higher redshifts by extending this technique into the near-IR. In contrast to this effort, there has been relatively little work on understanding these galaxies. In particular, how do LAEs relate to other high redshift galaxies, such as those discovered through drop out techniques, and, more importantly, what role LAEs play in re-ionising the universe, if any. We recently discovered two extremely luminous LAEs at zD5.7. These LAEs are among the brightest LAEs ever discovered at this redshift. In a recent paper by Mao et al. (2007), the brightest LAEs are associated to the most massive halos. One of these targets was successfully observed with the IRAC 3.6 micron imager on Spitzer during cycle 5. These data, when combined with constraints that we derive from our deep ground-based spectroscopic data, indicate that the bulk of the flux at 3.6 microns comes from a stellar population that is considserably older than the stars that dominate the flux in the UV. We propose to complete the project and image the second target. These data will enable us to estimate the age and mass of the stellar burst that produces the Lyman alpha line, to estimate the contribution from an older stellar population and to estimate the fraction of Lyman continuum photons that escape the galaxy and are thus available to re-ionise the universe.

  5. Late Rectal Toxicity on RTOG 94-06: Analysis Using a Mixture Lyman Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, Susan L.; Dong Lei; Bosch, Walter R.; Michalski, Jeff; Winter, Kathryn; Mohan, Radhe; Purdy, James A.; Kuban, Deborah; Lee, Andrew K.; Cheung, M. Rex; Thames, Howard D.; Cox, James D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate the parameters of the Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model using censored time-to-event data for Grade ≥2 late rectal toxicity among patients treated on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06, a dose-escalation trial designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: The Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model was fitted to data from 1,010 of the 1,084 patients accrued on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-06 using an approach that accounts for censored observations. Separate fits were obtained using dose-volume histograms for whole rectum and dose-wall histograms for rectal wall. Results: With a median follow-up of 7.2 years, the crude incidence of Grade ≥2 late rectal toxicity was 15% (n = 148). The parameters of the Lyman model fitted to dose-volume histograms data, with 95% profile-likelihood confidence intervals, were TD 50 = 79.1 Gy (75.3 Gy, 84.3 Gy), m = 0.146 (0.107, 0.225), and n = 0.077 (0.041, 0.156). The fit based on dose-wall histogram data was not significantly different. Patients with cardiovascular disease had a significantly higher incidence of late rectal toxicity (p = 0.015), corresponding to a dose-modifying factor of 5.3%. No significant association with late rectal toxicity was found for diabetes, hypertension, rectal volume, rectal length, neoadjuvant hormone therapy, or prescribed dose per fraction (1.8 Gy vs. 2 Gy). Conclusions: These results, based on a large cohort of patients from a multi-institutional trial, are expected to be widely representative of the ability of the Lyman model to describe the long-term risk of Grade ≥2 late rectal toxicity after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer.

  6. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1 percent in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1 percent polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30 percent) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-alpha line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +/- 0.5 and 1.0 percent residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  7. Small-scale structure and the Lyman-α forest baryon acoustic oscillation feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Christopher M.

    2018-02-01

    The baryon-acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in the Lyman-α forest is a key probe of the cosmic expansion rate at redshifts z ˜ 2.5, well before dark energy is believed to have become significant. A key advantage of the BAO as a standard ruler is that it is a sharp feature and hence is more robust against broad-band systematic effects than other cosmological probes. However, if the Lyman-α forest transmission is sensitive to the initial streaming velocity of the baryons relative to the dark matter, then the BAO peak position can be shifted. Here we investigate this sensitivity using a suite of hydrodynamic simulations of small regions of the intergalactic medium with a range of box sizes and physics assumptions; each simulation starts from initial conditions at the kinematic decoupling era (z ˜ 1059), undergoes a discrete change from neutral gas to ionized gas thermal evolution at reionization (z ˜ 8), and is finally processed into a Lyman-α forest transmitted flux cube. Streaming velocities suppress small-scale structure, leading to less violent relaxation after reionization. The changes in the gas distribution and temperature-density relation at low redshift are more subtle, due to the convergent temperature evolution in the ionized phase. The change in the BAO scale is estimated to be of the order of 0.12 per cent at z = 2.5; some of the major uncertainties and avenues for future improvement are discussed. The predicted streaming velocity shift would be a subdominant but not negligible effect (of order 0.26σ) for the upcoming DESI Lyman-α forest survey, and exceeds the cosmic variance floor.

  8. Lyman-alpha transit observations of the warm rocky exoplanet GJ1132b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, William; Berta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth; Dittmann, Jason; Bourrier, Vincent; Ehrenreich, David; Kempton, Eliza; Will

    2018-06-01

    GJ1132b is one of the few known Earth-sized planets, and at 12pc away it is also one of the closest known transiting planets. With an equilibrium temperature of 500 K, this planet is too hot to be habitable but we can use it to learn about the presence and volatile content of rocky planet atmospheres around M dwarf stars. Using Hubble STIS spectra obtained during primary transit, we search for a Lyman-α transit. If we were to observe a deep Lyman-α transit, that would indicate the presence of a neutral hydrogen envelope flowing from GJ1132b. On the other hand, ruling out deep absorption from neutral hydrogen may indicate that this planet has either retained its volatiles or lost them very early in the star’s life. We carry out this analysis by extracting 1D spectra from the STIS pipeline, splitting the time-tagged spectra into higher resolution samples, and producing light curves of the red and blue wings of the Lyman-α line. We fit for the baseline stellar flux and transit depths in order to constrain the characteristics of the cloud of neutral hydrogen gas that may surround the planet. We do not conclusively detect a transit but the results provide an upper limit for the transit depth. We also analyze the stellar variability and Lyman-α spectrum of GJ1132, a slowly-rotating 0.18 solar mass M dwarf with previously uncharacterized UV activity. Understanding the role that UV variability plays in planetary atmospheres and volatile retention is crucial to assess atmospheric evolution and the habitability of cooler rocky planets.

  9. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  10. Fragmentation inside atomic cooling haloes exposed to Lyman-Werner radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, John A.; Downes, Turlough P.

    2018-04-01

    Supermassive stars born in pristine environments in the early Universe hold the promise of being the seeds for the supermassive black holes observed as high redshift quasars shortly after the epoch of reionisation. H2 suppression is thought to be crucial in order to negate normal Population III star formation and allow high accretion rates to drive the formation of supermassive stars. Only in the cases where vigorous fragmentation is avoided will a monolithic collapse be successful, giving rise to a single massive central object. We investigate the number of fragmentation sites formed in collapsing atomic cooling haloes subject to various levels of background Lyman-Werner flux. The background Lyman-Werner flux manipulates the chemical properties of the gas in the collapsing halo by destroying H2. We find that only when the collapsing gas cloud shifts from the molecular to the atomic cooling regime is the degree of fragmentation suppressed. In our particular case, we find that this occurs above a critical Lyman-Werner background of J ˜ 10 J21. The important criterion being the transition to the atomic cooling regime rather than the actual value of J, which will vary locally. Once the temperature of the gas exceeds T ≳ 104 K and the gas transitions to atomic line cooling, then vigorous fragmentation is strongly suppressed.

  11. Investigating the Lyman photon escape in local starburst galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph ★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Svea; Leitherer, Claus; Boquien, Médéric; Buat, Véronique; Burgarella, Denis; Calzetti, Daniela; Noll, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    We present a study of 7 star-forming galaxies from the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The galaxies are located at relatively low redshifts, z ˜0.3, with morphologies ranging from extended and disturbed to compact and smooth. To complement the HST observations we also analyze observations taken with the VIMOS spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). In our galaxy sample we identify three objects with double peak Lyman-α profiles similar to those seen in Green Pea compact galaxies and measure peak separations of 655, 374, and 275 km s-1. We measure Lyman-α escape fractions with values ranging between 5-13%. Given the low flux levels in the individual COS exposures we apply a weighted stacking approach to obtain a single spectrum. From this COS combined spectrum we infer upper limits for the absolute and relative Lyman continuum escape fractions of f_abs(LyC) = 0.4^{+10.1}_{-0.4}% and f_res(LyC) = 1.7^{+15.2}_{-1.7}%, respectively. Finally, we find that most of these galaxies have moderate UV and optical SFRs (SFRs ≲ 10 M⊙ yr-1).

  12. Correlations in the three-dimensional Lyman-alpha forest contaminated by high column density absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keir K.; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Pontzen, Andrew; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Leistedt, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Correlations measured in three dimensions in the Lyman-alpha forest are contaminated by the presence of the damping wings of high column density (HCD) absorbing systems of neutral hydrogen (H I; having column densities N(H I) > 1.6 × 10^{17} atoms cm^{-2}), which extend significantly beyond the redshift-space location of the absorber. We measure this effect as a function of the column density of the HCD absorbers and redshift by measuring three-dimensional (3D) flux power spectra in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the Illustris project. Survey pipelines exclude regions containing the largest damping wings. We find that, even after this procedure, there is a scale-dependent correction to the 3D Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from residual contamination. We model this residual using a simple physical model of the HCD absorbers as linearly biased tracers of the matter density distribution, convolved with their Voigt profiles and integrated over the column density distribution function. We recommend the use of this model over existing models used in data analysis, which approximate the damping wings as top-hats and so miss shape information in the extended wings. The simple `linear Voigt model' is statistically consistent with our simulation results for a mock residual contamination up to small scales (|k| account for the effect of the highest column density absorbers on the smallest scales (e.g. |k| > 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} for small damped Lyman-alpha absorbers; HCD absorbers with N(H I) ˜ 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}). However, these systems are in any case preferentially removed from survey data. Our model is appropriate for an accurate analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillations feature. It is additionally essential for reconstructing the full shape of the 3D flux power spectrum.

  13. Lyman-continuum leakage as dominant source of diffuse ionized gas in the Antennae galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, Peter M.; Monreal-Ibero, Ana; Verhamme, Anne; Sandin, Christer; Steinmetz, Matthias; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Krajnović, Davor; Kamann, Sebastian; Roth, Martin M.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Marino, Raffaella Anna; Maseda, Michael V.; Wendt, Martin; Bacon, Roland; Dreizler, Stefan; Richard, Johan; Wisotzki, Lutz

    2018-04-01

    The Antennae galaxy (NGC 4038/39) is the closest major interacting galaxy system and is therefore often studied as a merger prototype. We present the first comprehensive integral field spectroscopic dataset of this system, observed with the MUSE instrument at the ESO VLT. We cover the two regions in this system which exhibit recent star formation: the central galaxy interaction and a region near the tip of the southern tidal tail. In these fields, we detect HII regions and diffuse ionized gas to unprecedented depth. About 15% of the ionized gas was undetected by previous observing campaigns. This newly detected faint ionized gas is visible everywhere around the central merger, and shows filamentary structure. We estimate diffuse gas fractions of about 60% in the central field and 10% in the southern region. We are able to show that the southern region contains a significantly different population of HII regions, showing fainter luminosities. By comparing HII region luminosities with the HST catalog of young star clusters in the central field, we estimate that there is enough Lyman-continuum leakage in the merger to explain the amount of diffuse ionized gas that we detect. We compare the Lyman-continuum escape fraction of each HII region against emission line ratios that are sensitive to the ionization parameter. While we find no systematic trend between these properties, the most extreme line ratios seem to be strong indicators of density bounded ionization. Extrapolating the Lyman-continuum escape fractions to the southern region, we conclude that simply from the comparison of the young stellar populations to the ionized gas there is no need to invoke other ionization mechanisms than Lyman-continuum leaking HII regions for the diffuse ionized gas in the Antennae. FITS images and Table of HII regions are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/611/A95 and at http://muse-vlt.eu/science/antennae/

  14. EFFECT OF HALO BIAS AND LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS ON THE HISTORY OF COSMIC REIONIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurov, Alexander A.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-01-01

    We extend the existing analytical model of reionization by Furlanetto et al. to include the biasing of reionization sources and additional absorption by Lyman limit systems. Both effects enhance the original model in non-trivial ways, but do not change its qualitative features. Our model is, by construction, consistent with the observed evolution of the galaxy luminosity function at z ∼ 6 galaxies, the inadequacy of simulations and/or some of the observational constraints, or indicates an additional source of ionizing radiation at z > 8 remains to be seen.

  15. Analysis of coronal H I Lyman alpha measurements from a rocket flight on 1979 April 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withbroe, G. L.; Kohl, J. L.; Weiser, H.; Noci, G.; Munro, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that measurements of the profiles of resonantly scattered hydrogen Lyman-alpha coronal radiation have been used in determining hydrogen kinetic temperatures from 1.5 to 4 solar radii from sun center in a quiet region of the corona. Proton temperatures derived using the line widths decrease with height from 2.6 x 10 to the 6th K at 1.5 solar radii to 1.2 x 10 to the 6th K at 4 solar radii. These measurements, together with temperatures for lower heights determined from earlier Skylab and eclipse data, suggest that there is a maximum in the quiet coronal proton temperature at about 1.5 solar radii. Comparison of measured Lyman-alpha intensities with those calculated using a representative model for the radial variation of the coronal electron density yields information on the magnitude of the electron temperature gradient and suggests that the solar wind flow was subsonic for distances less than 4 solar radii.

  16. The Sunburst Arc: Direct Lyman α escape observed in the brightest known lensed galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. E.; Dahle, H.; Gronke, M.; Bayliss, M.; Rigby, J. R.; Simcoe, R.; Bordoloi, R.; Turner, M.; Furesz, G.

    2017-11-01

    We present rest-frame ultraviolet and optical spectroscopy of the brightest lensed galaxy yet discovered, at redshift z = 2.4. The source reveals a characteristic triple-peaked Lyman α profile that has been predicted in various theoretical works, but to our knowledge has not been unambiguously observed previously. The feature is well fit by a superposition of two components: a double-peak profile emerging from substantial radiative transfer, and a narrow, central component resulting from directly escaping Lyman α photons, but it is poorly fit by either component alone. We demonstrate that the feature is unlikely to contain contamination from nearby sources, and that the central peak is unaffected by radiative transfer effects except for very slight absorption. The feature is detected at signal-to-noise ratios exceeding 80 per pixel at line center, and bears strong resemblance to synthetic profiles predicted by numerical models. Based on observations obtained at the Magellan-I (Baade) Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  17. GALEX-SELECTED LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 2: COMPARISON WITH OTHER POPULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberzettl, L.; Williger, G.; Lehnert, M. D.; Nesvadba, N.; Davies, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present results of a search for bright Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 1.5 ≤ z ≤ 2.5 in the GOODS-S field using an NUV-dropout technique in combination with color selection. We derived a sample of 73 LBG candidates. We compare our selection efficiencies to BM/BX and BzK methods (techniques solely based on ground-based data sets), and find the NUV data to provide greater efficiency for selecting star-forming galaxies. We estimate LBG candidate ages, masses, star formation rates, and extinction from fitting PEGASE synthesis evolution models. We find that about 20% of our LBG candidates are comparable to infrared-luminous LBGs or submillimeter galaxies which are thought to be precursors of massive elliptical galaxies today. Overall, we can show that although BM/BX and BzK methods do identify star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 2, the sample they provide biases against those star-forming galaxies which are more massive and contain sizeable red stellar populations. A true Lyman break criterion at z ∼ 2 is therefore more directly comparable to the populations found at z ∼ 3, which does contain a red fraction.

  18. Bias of damped Lyman-α systems from their cross-correlation with CMB lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, D.; Colosimo, J.; Font-Ribera, A.; Slosar, A.

    2018-04-01

    We cross-correlate the positions of damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs) and their parent quasar catalog with a convergence map derived from the Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature data. We make consistent measurements of the lensing signal of both samples in both Fourier and configuration space. By interpreting the excess signal present in the DLA catalog with respect to the parent quasar catalog as caused by the large scale structure traced by DLAs, we are able to infer the bias of these objects: bDLA=2.6±0.9. These results are consistent with previous measurements made in cross-correlation with the Lyman-α forest, although the current noise in the lensing data and the low number density of DLAs limits the constraining power of this measurement. We discuss the robustness of the analysis with respect to a number different systematic effects and forecast prospects of carrying out this measurement with data from future experiments.

  19. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  20. Lyman-alpha clouds as a relic of primordial density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Szalay, A.S.; Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    Primordial density fluctuations are studied using a CDM model and primordial clouds some of which are expanding, driven by pressure gradients created when the medium is photionized, and some of which are massive enough to continue collapsing in spite of the pressure. Normalization of CDM models to the clustering properties on large scales are used to predict the parameters of collapsing clouds of subgalactic mass at early epochs. It is shown that the abundance and dimensions of these clouds are comparable to those of the Lyman-alpha systems. The evolutionary history of the clouds is computed, utilizing a spherically symmetric hydrodynamics code with the dark matter treated as a collisionless fluid, and the H I column density distribution is evaluated as a function of N(H I) and redshift. The observed cloud parameters come out naturally in the CDM model and suggest that Lyman-alpha clouds are the missing link between primordial density fluctuations and the formation of galaxies. 31 references

  1. GALEX-SELECTED LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2: COMPARISON WITH OTHER POPULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haberzettl, L.; Williger, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville KY 20492 (United States); Lehnert, M. D. [GEPI, Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8111 du CNRS, 5 Place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon (France); Nesvadba, N. [Institut d' Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Bat. 120-121, 91405 Orsay (France); Davies, L. [Department of Physics, H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-20

    We present results of a search for bright Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5 in the GOODS-S field using an NUV-dropout technique in combination with color selection. We derived a sample of 73 LBG candidates. We compare our selection efficiencies to BM/BX and BzK methods (techniques solely based on ground-based data sets), and find the NUV data to provide greater efficiency for selecting star-forming galaxies. We estimate LBG candidate ages, masses, star formation rates, and extinction from fitting PEGASE synthesis evolution models. We find that about 20% of our LBG candidates are comparable to infrared-luminous LBGs or submillimeter galaxies which are thought to be precursors of massive elliptical galaxies today. Overall, we can show that although BM/BX and BzK methods do identify star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, the sample they provide biases against those star-forming galaxies which are more massive and contain sizeable red stellar populations. A true Lyman break criterion at z {approx} 2 is therefore more directly comparable to the populations found at z {approx} 3, which does contain a red fraction.

  2. Recovering the systemic redshift of galaxies from their Lyman-alpha line profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhamme, A.; Garel, T.; Ventou, E.; Contini, T.; Bouché, N.; Herenz, E. C.; Richard, J.; Bacon, R.; Schmidt, K. B.; Maseda, M.; Marino, R. A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cantalupo, S.; Caruana, J.; Clément, B.; Diener, C.; Drake, A. B.; Hashimoto, T.; Inami, H.; Kerutt, J.; Kollatschny, W.; Leclercq, F.; Patrício, V.; Schaye, J.; Wisotzki, L.; Zabl, J.

    2018-04-01

    The Lyman alpha (Lyα) line of Hydrogen is a prominent feature in the spectra of star-forming galaxies, usually redshifted by a few hundreds of km s-1 compared to the systemic redshift. This large offset hampers follow-up surveys, galaxy pair statistics and correlations with quasar absorption lines when only Lyα is available. We propose diagnostics that can be used to recover the systemic redshift directly from the properties of the Lyα line profile. We use spectroscopic observations of Lyman-Alpha Emitters (LAEs) for which a precise measurement of the systemic redshift is available. Our sample contains 13 sources detected between z ≈ 3 and z ≈ 6 as part of various Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) Guaranteed Time Observations (GTO). We also include a compilation of spectroscopic Lyα data from the literature spanning a wide redshift range (z ≈ 0 - 8). First, restricting our analysis to double-peaked Lyα spectra, we find a tight correlation between the velocity offset of the red peak with respect to the systemic redshift, V_peak^red, and the separation of the peaks. Secondly, we find a correlation between V_peak^red and the full width at half maximum of the Lyα line. Fitting formulas, to estimate systemic redshifts of galaxies with an accuracy of ≤100 km s-1 when only the Lyα emission line is available, are given for the two methods.

  3. Analysis of coronal H I Lyman alpha measurements from a rocket flight on 1979 April 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withbroe, G.L.; Kohl, J.L.; Weiser, H.; Noci, G.; Munro, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of the profiles of resonantly scattered hydrogen Lyman-α coronal radiation have been used to determine hydrogen kinetic temperatures from 1.5 to 4 R/sub sun/ from Sun center in a quiet region of the corona. Proton temperatures derived from the line widths decrease with height from 2.6 x 10 6 K at r = 1.5 R/sub sun/ to 1.2 x 10 6 K at r = 4 R/sub sun/. These measurements combined with temperatures for lower heights determined from earlier Skylab and eclipse data suggest that there is a maximum in the quiet coronal proton temperature at about 1.5 R/sub sun/. Comparison of measured Lyman-α intensities with those calculated using a representative model for the radial variation of the coronal electron density provides information on the magnitude of the electron temperature gradient and suggests that the solar wind flow was subsonic for r<4 R/sub sun/ in the observed region. Comparison of the measured kinetic temperatures to the predictions of a simple two fluid model suggests that there is a small amount of proton heating and/or a nonthermal contribution to the motions of coronal protons between 1.5 and 4 R/sub sun/

  4. The Faint End of the Lyman Alpha Luminosity Function at 2 < z < 3.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Yaswant; Livermore, Rachael; Indahl, Briana; Wold, Isak; Davis, Dustin; Finkelstein, Steven

    2018-01-01

    Most current models predict that our universe is mostly composed of small, dim galaxies. Due to these galaxies being so faint, it is very difficult to study these types of galaxies outside of our local universe. This is particularly an issue for studying how these small galaxies evolved over their lifetimes. With the benefit of gravitational lensing, however, we are able to observe galaxies that are farther and fainter than ever before possible. In this particular study, we focus on Lyman-Alpha emitting galaxies between the redshifts of 2-3.8, so that we may study these galaxies during the epoch of peak star formation in the universe. We use the McDonald Observatory 2.7, Harlan Smith telescope with the VIRUS-P IFU spectrograph to observe several Hubble Frontier Field lensing clusters to spectroscopically discover faint galaxies over this redshift range. In addition to providing insight into the faint-end slope of the Lyman alpha luminosity function, the spectroscopic redshifts will allow us to better constrain the mass models of the foreground clusters, such as Abell 370, so that we may better understand lensing effects for this and future studies.

  5. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew [Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova University Centre, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281 (United States); Teplitz, Harry I. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Haardt, Francesco [DiSAT, Università dellInsubria, via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Siana, Brian [Department of Physics, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f {sub esc} ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f {sub esc} ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f {sub esc} ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  6. Twenty years of research on fungal-plant interactions on Lyman Glacier forefront—lessons learned and questions yet unanswered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari Jumpponen; Shawn P. Brown; James M. Trappe; Efrén Cázares; Rauni. Strömmer

    2012-01-01

    Retreating glaciers and the periglacial areas that they vacate produce a harsh environment of extreme radiation, nutrient limitations and temperature oscillations. They provide a model system for studying mechanisms that drive the establishment and early assembly of communities. Here, we synthesize more than 20 years of research at the Lyman Glacier forefront in the...

  7. Generation of continuous coherent radiation at Lyman-alpha and 1S-2P Spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahl, A.; Fendel, P.; Henrich, B.R.; Walz, J.; Hansch, T.W.; Eikema, K.S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous coherent radiation from wavelengths from 121 to 123 nm in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) was generated by four-wave sum-frequency mixing in mercury vapor. A yield of 20 nW at Lyman-alpha (121.57 nm) was achieved. We describe the experimental setup in detail and present a calculation of the

  8. The Lyman Continuum Escape Fraction of Emission Line-selected z ∼ 2.5 Galaxies Is Less Than 15%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Michael J.; Hayes, Matthew; Scarlata, Claudia; Mehta, Vihang; Henry, Alaina; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Cohen, Seth; Windhorst, Rogier; Teplitz, Harry I.; Haardt, Francesco; Siana, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Recent work suggests that strong emission line, star-forming galaxies (SFGs) may be significant Lyman continuum leakers. We combine archival Hubble Space Telescope broadband ultraviolet and optical imaging (F275W and F606W, respectively) with emission line catalogs derived from WFC3 IR G141 grism spectroscopy to search for escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) emission from homogeneously selected z ∼ 2.5 SFGs. We detect no escaping Lyman continuum from SFGs selected on [O ii] nebular emission ( N = 208) and, within a narrow redshift range, on [O iii]/[O ii]. We measure 1 σ upper limits to the LyC escape fraction relative to the non-ionizing UV continuum from [O ii] emitters, f _e_s_c ≲ 5.6%, and strong [O iii]/[O ii] > 5 ELGs, f _e_s_c ≲ 14.0%. Our observations are not deep enough to detect f _e_s_c ∼ 10% typical of low-redshift Lyman continuum emitters. However, we find that this population represents a small fraction of the star-forming galaxy population at z ∼ 2. Thus, unless the number of extreme emission line galaxies grows substantially to z ≳ 6, such galaxies may be insufficient for reionization. Deeper survey data in the rest-frame ionizing UV will be necessary to determine whether strong line ratios could be useful for pre-selecting LyC leakers at high redshift.

  9. Comparison of Lyman-alpha and LI-COR infrared hygrometers for airborne measurement of turbulent fluctuations of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Astrid; Hartmann, Jörg; Pätzold, Falk; Lobitz, Lennart; Hecker, Peter; Kohnert, Katrin; Larmanou, Eric; Serafimovich, Andrei; Sachs, Torsten

    2018-05-01

    To investigate if the LI-COR humidity sensor can be used as a replacement of the Lyman-alpha sensor for airborne applications, the measurement data of the Lyman-alpha and several LI-COR sensors are analysed in direct intercomparison flights on different airborne platforms. One vibration isolated closed-path and two non-isolated open-path LI-COR sensors were installed on a Dornier 128 twin engine turbo-prop aircraft. The closed-path sensor provided absolute values and fluctuations of the water vapour mixing ratio in good agreement with the Lyman-alpha. The signals of the two open-path sensors showed considerable high-frequency noise, and the absolute value of the mixing ratio was observed to drift with time in this vibrational environment. On the helicopter-towed sensor system Helipod, with very low vibration levels, the open-path LI-COR sensor agreed very well with the Lyman-alpha sensor over the entire frequency range up to 3 Hz. The results show that the LI-COR sensors are well suited for airborne measurements of humidity fluctuations, provided that a vibrationless environment is given, and this turns out to be more important than close sensor spacing.

  10. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  11. Direct method gas-phase oxygen abundances of four Lyman break analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jonathan S.; Croxall, Kevin V.; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We measure the gas-phase oxygen abundances in four Lyman break analogs using auroral emission lines to derive direct abundances. The direct method oxygen abundances of these objects are generally consistent with the empirically derived strong-line method values, confirming that these objects are low oxygen abundance outliers from the mass-metallicity (MZ) relation defined by star forming Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies. We find slightly anomalous excitation conditions (Wolf-Rayet features) that could potentially bias the empirical estimates toward high values if caution is not exercised in the selection of the strong-line calibration. The high rate of star formation and low oxygen abundance of these objects is consistent with the predictions of the fundamental metallicity relation, in which the infall of relatively unenriched gas simultaneously triggers an episode of star formation and dilutes the interstellar medium of the host galaxy.

  12. Resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization of ions by Lyman alpha radiation in gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, S; Letokhov, V

    2001-01-26

    One of the mysteries of nebulae in the vicinity of bright stars is the appearance of bright emission spectral lines of ions, which imply fairly high excitation temperatures. We suggest that an ion formation mechanism, based on resonance-enhanced two-photon ionization (RETPI) by intense H Lyman alpha radiation (wavelength of 1215 angstroms) trapped inside optically thick nebulae, can produce these spectral lines. The rate of such an ionization process is high enough for rarefied gaseous media where the recombination rate of the ions formed can be 10(-6) to 10(-8) per second for an electron density of 10(3) to 10(5) per cubic centimeter in the nebula. Under such conditions, the photo-ions formed may subsequently undergo further RETPI, catalyzed by intense He i and He ii radiation, which also gets enhanced in optically thick nebulae that contain enough helium.

  13. Stationary inverted Lyman population formed from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with certain catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Randell L; Ray, Paresh C; Mayo, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    A new chemically generated plasma source is reported. The presence of gaseous Rb + or K + ions with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a low applied temperature, extremely low voltage plasma called a resonant transfer or rt-plasma having strong vacuum ultraviolet emission. We propose an energetic catalytic reaction involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and Rb + or 2K + since Rb + to Rb 2+ , 2K + to K + K 2+ , and K to K 3+ each provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to the potential energy of atomic hydrogen. Remarkably, a stationary inverted Lyman population was observed; thus, these catalytic reactions may pump a cw HI laser as predicted by a collisional radiative model used to determine that the observed overpopulation was above threshold

  14. Pollen Dispersal by Catapult: Experiments of Lyman J. Briggs on the Flower of Mountain Laurel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, John R.; Hermann, Paula M.; Kirkham, M. B.; Landa, Edward R.

    2014-09-01

    The flower of Kalmia latifolia L. employs a catapult mechanism that flings its pollen to considerable distances. Physicist Lyman J. Briggs investigated this phenomenon in the 1950s after retiring as longtime director of the National Bureau of Standards, attempting to explain how hydromechanical effects inside the flower's stamen could make it possible. Briggs's unfinished manuscript implies that liquid under negative pressure generates stress, which, superimposed on the stress generated from the flower's growth habit, results in force adequate to propel the pollen as observed. With new data and biophysical understanding to supplement Briggs's experimental results and research notes, we show that his postulated negative-pressure mechanism did not play the exclusive and crucial role that he credited to it, though his revisited investigation sheds light on various related processes. Important issues concerning the development and reproductive function of Kalmia flowers remain unresolved, highlighting the need for further biophysical advances.

  15. Stationary inverted Lyman population formed from incandescently heated hydrogen gas with certain catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Randell L; Ray, Paresh C; Mayo, Robert M [BlackLight Power, Inc., 493 Old Trenton Road, Cranbury, NJ 08512 (United States)

    2003-07-07

    A new chemically generated plasma source is reported. The presence of gaseous Rb{sup +} or K{sup +} ions with thermally dissociated hydrogen formed a low applied temperature, extremely low voltage plasma called a resonant transfer or rt-plasma having strong vacuum ultraviolet emission. We propose an energetic catalytic reaction involving a resonant energy transfer between hydrogen atoms and Rb{sup +} or 2K{sup +} since Rb{sup +} to Rb{sup 2+}, 2K{sup +} to K + K{sup 2+}, and K to K{sup 3+} each provide a reaction with a net enthalpy equal to the potential energy of atomic hydrogen. Remarkably, a stationary inverted Lyman population was observed; thus, these catalytic reactions may pump a cw HI laser as predicted by a collisional radiative model used to determine that the observed overpopulation was above threshold.

  16. Diagnostics of MCF plasmas using Lyman-α fluorescence excited by one or two photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voslamber, D.

    1998-11-01

    Laser-induced Lyman-α fluorescence of the hydrogen isotopes is investigated with regard to diagnostic applications in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A formal analysis is presented for two excitation schemes: one-photon and Doppler-free two-photon excitation. The analysis includes estimates of the expected experimental errors arising from the photon noise and from the sensitivity of the observed fluorescence signals to variations of the plasma and laser parameters. Both excitation schemes are suitable primarily for application in the plasma edge, but even in the plasma bulk of large machines they can still be applied in combination with a diagnostic neutral beam. The two-photon excitation scheme is particularly attractive because it involves absorption spectra that are resolved within the Doppler width. This implies a large diagnostic potential and in particular offers a way to measure the deuterium-tritium fuel mix in fusion reactors. (author)

  17. The effect of asymmetric solar wind on the Lyman α sky background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joselyn, J.A.; Holzer, T.E.

    1975-01-01

    The Lyman α (Ly α) sky background arises from the scattering of solar Ly α from a spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen in interplanetary space. This distribution is partially determined by the solar wind proton flux, which provides the principal mechanism of loss by charge exchange of the neutral hydrogen. By generating isophotal maps of scattered Ly α for several choices of interstellar wind direction and solar wind proton flux distributions, the results show that latitudinal variations of the solar wind proton flux can have a significant effect on the observed location and shape of the Ly α intensity maximum. This fact should aid in the interpretation of Ly α maps and also indicates a possible method for inferring values for the average solar wind proton flux out of the ecliptic plane

  18. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide

    2013-01-01

    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.

  19. Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field through Deep U-Band Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, A. M.; Cooke, J.; Chen, H. W.; Armandroff, T. E.; Wirth, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an extremely deep U-band image taken of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), with a one sigma depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2 and a detection limiting magnitude of 28 mag arcsec-2. The observations were carried out on the Keck I telescope using the LRIS-B detector. The U-band image substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of faint galaxies in the HUDF at z=[2.5,3.5]. The U-band for these galaxies is attenuated by lyman limit absorption, allowing for more reliable selections of candidate Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) than from photometric redshifts without U-band. We present a reliable sample of 300 LBGs at z=[2.5,3.5] in the HUDF. Accurate redshifts of faint galaxies at z=[2.5,3.5] are needed to obtain empirical constraints on the star formation efficiency of neutral gas at high redshift. Wolfe & Chen (2006) showed that the star formation rate (SFR) density in damped Ly-alpha absorption systems (DLAs) at z=[2.5,3.5] is significantly lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law for nearby galaxies. One caveat to this result that we wish to test is whether LBGs are embedded in DLAs. If in-situ star formation is occurring in DLAs, we would see it as extended low surface brightness emission around LBGs. We shall use the more accurate photometric redshifts to create a sample of LBGs around which we will look for extended emission in the more sensitive and higher resolution HUDF images. The absence of extended emission would put limits on the SFR density of DLAs associated with LBGs at high redshift. On the other hand, detection of faint emission on scales large compared to the bright LBG cores would indicate the presence of in situ star formation in those DLAs. Such gas would presumably fuel the higher star formation rates present in the LBG cores.

  20. First Constraints on Fuzzy Dark Matter from Lyman-α Forest Data and Hydrodynamical Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iršič, Vid; Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G; Bolton, James S; Becker, George D

    2017-07-21

    We present constraints on the masses of extremely light bosons dubbed fuzzy dark matter (FDM) from Lyman-α forest data. Extremely light bosons with a de Broglie wavelength of ∼1  kpc have been suggested as dark matter candidates that may resolve some of the current small scale problems of the cold dark matter model. For the first time, we use hydrodynamical simulations to model the Lyman-α flux power spectrum in these models and compare it to the observed flux power spectrum from two different data sets: the XQ-100 and HIRES/MIKE quasar spectra samples. After marginalization over nuisance and physical parameters and with conservative assumptions for the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) that allow for jumps in the temperature of up to 5000 K, XQ-100 provides a lower limit of 7.1×10^{-22}  eV, HIRES/MIKE returns a stronger limit of 14.3×10^{-22}  eV, while the combination of both data sets results in a limit of 20×10^{-22}  eV (2σ C.L.). The limits for the analysis of the combined data sets increases to 37.5×10^{-22}  eV (2σ C.L.) when a smoother thermal history is assumed where the temperature of the IGM evolves as a power law in redshift. Light boson masses in the range 1-10×10^{-22}  eV are ruled out at high significance by our analysis, casting strong doubts that FDM helps solve the "small scale crisis" of the cold dark matter models.

  1. Study of interplanetary hydrogen from Lyman alpha emission and absorption determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazes, Serge.

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of the work submitted in this paper is to contribute to the study of interplanetary hydrogen from Lyman alpha emission and absorption measurements, carried out on board the D2A, OSO-8 and Copernicus satellites. This study, which was undertaken from the D2A satellite, moved us to study the interplanetary environment as from observations made from the following experiments placed on board the OSO-8 and Copernicus satellites. The experiment set up on board the OSO-8 satellite made it possible to obtain the profile of the solar alpha Lyman emission. An absorption profile was observed for the first time on these profiles and this made it possible to attribute them to interplanetary hydrogen and enabled us to make a direct and local determination of the solar ionization rate. - The spectrometer set up on board Copernicus made it possible to obtain the emission spectrum of the interplanetary environment at the same time as the geocorona. The overall velocity of the interplanetary environment was deduced from the Doppler shift between the two spectra. In the first part, the principle of the REA and POLAR experiments is recalled but only the REA experiment is described in detail, particularly the problems arising from the construction and calibration of the cell. In the second part, a study of the interplanetary environment made from the D2A determinations is presented in synthesized form. On the other hand, the study to which theses initial results led us is presented in detail. Finally, in the third part, the results obtained by means of the OSO-8 and Copernicus satellites are given [fr

  2. Wandering in the Lyman-alpha forest: a study of dark matter-dark radiation interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krall, Rebecca; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: rkrall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: dvorkin@physics.harvard.edu [Harvard University, Department of Physics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provide no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Indeed, while the addition of dark matter-dark radiation interactions leads to an improvement of 2ΔlnL=12 with respect to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model when only CMB, BAO, and LSS data are considered, the inclusion of Lyman-alpha data reduces the improvement of the fit to 2ΔlnL=6 relative to ΛCDM . We thus conclude that the statistical evidence for new dark matter interactions (largely driven by the Planck SZ dataset) is marginal at best, and likely caused by systematics in the data. We also perform a Fisher forecast analysis for the reach of a future dataset composed of a CMB-S4 experiment combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope galaxy survey. We find that the constraint on the effective number of fluid-like dark radiation species, Δ N {sub fluid}, will be improved by an order of magnitude compared to current bounds.

  3. Wandering in the Lyman-alpha forest: a study of dark matter-dark radiation interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, Rebecca; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora

    2017-01-01

    The amplitude of large-scale matter fluctuations inferred from the observed Sunyaev-Zeldovich (SZ) cluster mass function and from weak gravitational lensing studies, when taken at face value, is in tension with measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO). In this work, we revisit whether this possible discrepancy can be attributed to new interactions in the dark matter sector. Focusing on a cosmological model where dark matter interacts with a dark radiation species until the epoch of matter-radiation equality, we find that measurements of the Lyman-alpha flux power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provide no support to the hypothesis that new dark matter interactions can resolve the possible tension between CMB and large-scale structure (LSS). Indeed, while the addition of dark matter-dark radiation interactions leads to an improvement of 2ΔlnL=12 with respect to the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model when only CMB, BAO, and LSS data are considered, the inclusion of Lyman-alpha data reduces the improvement of the fit to 2ΔlnL=6 relative to ΛCDM . We thus conclude that the statistical evidence for new dark matter interactions (largely driven by the Planck SZ dataset) is marginal at best, and likely caused by systematics in the data. We also perform a Fisher forecast analysis for the reach of a future dataset composed of a CMB-S4 experiment combined with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope galaxy survey. We find that the constraint on the effective number of fluid-like dark radiation species, Δ N fluid , will be improved by an order of magnitude compared to current bounds.

  4. Direct Detection of The Lyman Continuum of Star-forming Galaxies at z~3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasei, Kaveh; Siana, Brian; Shapley, Alice; Alavi, Anahita; Rafelski, Marc

    2018-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are widely believed to be responsible for the reionization of the Universe and much of the ionizing background at z>3. Therefore, there has been much interest in quantifying the escape fraction of the Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of the star-forming galaxies. Yet direct detection of LyC has proven to be exceptionally challenging. Despite numerous efforts only 7 galaxies at z2 have been robustly confirmed as LyC leakers. To avoid these challenges many studies use indirect methods to infer the LyC escape fraction. We tested these indirect methods by attempting to detect escaping LyC with a 10-orbit Hubble near-UV (F275W) image that is just below the Lyman limit at the redshift of the Cosmic Horseshoe (a lensed galaxy at z=2.4). We concluded that the measured escape fraction is lower, by more than a factor of five, than the expected escape fraction based on the indirect methods. This emphasizes that indirect determinations should only be interpreted as upper-limits. We also investigated the deepest near-UV Hubble images of the SSA22 field to detect LyC leakage from a large sample of candidate star-forming galaxies at z~3.1, whose redshift was obtained by deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy and for which Keck narrow-band imaging was showing possible LyC leakage. The high spatial resolution of Hubble images is crucial to confirm our detections are clean from foreground contaminating galaxies, and also to ascertain the escape fraction of our final candidates. We identify five clean LyC emitting star-forming galaxies. The follow up investigation of these galaxies will significantly increase our knowledge of the LyC escape fraction and the mechanisms allowing for LyC escape.

  5. Incorporating Single-nucleotide Polymorphisms Into the Lyman Model to Improve Prediction of Radiation Pneumonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.org [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Li Minghuan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Xu Ting; Gomez, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Yuan Xianglin [Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China); Yu Jinming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu Zhensheng; Yin Ming; Guan Xiaoxiang; Wang Lie; Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Vinogradskiy, Yevgeniy [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Martel, Mary [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with DNA repair, cell cycle, transforming growth factor-{beta}, tumor necrosis factor and receptor, folic acid metabolism, and angiogenesis can significantly improve the fit of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal-tissue complication probability (NTCP) model of radiation pneumonitis (RP) risk among patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Sixteen SNPs from 10 different genes (XRCC1, XRCC3, APEX1, MDM2, TGF{beta}, TNF{alpha}, TNFR, MTHFR, MTRR, and VEGF) were genotyped in 141 NSCLC patients treated with definitive radiation therapy, with or without chemotherapy. The LKB model was used to estimate the risk of severe (grade {>=}3) RP as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with SNPs and patient smoking status incorporated into the model as dose-modifying factors. Multivariate analyses were performed by adding significant factors to the MLD model in a forward stepwise procedure, with significance assessed using the likelihood-ratio test. Bootstrap analyses were used to assess the reproducibility of results under variations in the data. Results: Five SNPs were selected for inclusion in the multivariate NTCP model based on MLD alone. SNPs associated with an increased risk of severe RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, TNF{alpha}, XRCC1 and APEX1. With smoking status included in the multivariate model, the SNPs significantly associated with increased risk of RP were in genes for TGF{beta}, VEGF, and XRCC3. Bootstrap analyses selected a median of 4 SNPs per model fit, with the 6 genes listed above selected most often. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that SNPs can significantly improve the predictive ability of the Lyman MLD model. With a small number of SNPs, it was possible to distinguish cohorts with >50% risk vs <10% risk of RP when they were exposed to high MLDs.

  6. The large-scale cross-correlation of Damped Lyman alpha systems with the Lyman alpha forest: first measurements from BOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Arnau, Eduard [Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (IEEC/UB), Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Carithers, Bill; Ross, Nicholas P.; White, Martin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick; Rollinde, Emmanuel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, Université Paris 6 et CNRS, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Rich, James [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); York, Donald G., E-mail: font@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: miralda@icc.ub.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics and The Fermi Institute, Chicago University, 5640 So. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present the first measurement of the large-scale cross-correlation of Lyα forest absorption and Damped Lyman α systems (DLA), using the 9th Data Release of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). The cross-correlation is clearly detected on scales up to 40h{sup −1}Mpc and is well fitted by the linear theory prediction of the standard Cold Dark Matter model of structure formation with the expected redshift distortions, confirming its origin in the gravitational evolution of structure. The amplitude of the DLA-Lyα cross-correlation depends on only one free parameter, the bias factor of the DLA systems, once the Lyα forest bias factors are known from independent Lyα forest correlation measurements. We measure the DLA bias factor to be b{sub D} = (2.17±0.20)β{sub F}{sup 0.22}, where the Lyα forest redshift distortion parameter β{sub F} is expected to be above unity. This bias factor implies a typical host halo mass for DLAs that is much larger than expected in present DLA models, and is reproduced if the DLA cross section scales with halo mass as M{sub h}{sup α}, with α = 1.1±0.1 for β{sub F} = 1. Matching the observed DLA bias factor and rate of incidence requires that atomic gas remains extended in massive halos over larger areas than predicted in present simulations of galaxy formation, with typical DLA proper sizes larger than 20 kpc in host halos of masses ∼ 10{sup 12}M{sub ☉}. We infer that typical galaxies at z ≅ 2 to 3 are surrounded by systems of atomic clouds that are much more extended than the luminous parts of galaxies and contain ∼ 10% of the baryons in the host halo.

  7. Dark energy and curvature from a future baryonic acoustic oscillation survey using the Lyman-α forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Patrick; Eisenstein, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the requirements for a Lyman-α forest survey designed to measure the angular diameter distance and Hubble parameter at 2 or approx. 250 spectrograph is sufficient to measure both the radial and transverse oscillation scales to 1.4% from the Lyα forest (or better, if fainter magnitudes and possibly Lyman-break galaxies can be used). At fixed integration time and in the sky-noise-dominated limit, a wider, noisier survey is generally more efficient; the only fundamental upper limit on noise being the need to identify a quasar and find a redshift. Because the Lyα forest is much closer to linear and generally better understood than galaxies, systematic errors are even less likely to be a problem

  8. Lenses in the forest: cross correlation of the Lyman-alpha flux with cosmic microwave background lensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallinotto, Alberto; Das, Sudeep; Spergel, David N; Viel, Matteo

    2009-08-28

    We present a theoretical estimate for a new observable: the cross correlation between the Lyman-alpha flux fluctuations in quasar spectra and the convergence of the cosmic microwave background as measured along the same line of sight. As a first step toward the assessment of its detectability, we estimate the signal-to-noise ratio using linear theory. Although the signal-to-noise is small for a single line of sight and peaks at somewhat smaller redshifts than those probed by the Lyman-alpha forest, we estimate a total signal-to-noise of 9 for cross correlating quasar spectra of SDSS-III with Planck and 20 for cross correlating with a future polarization based cosmic microwave background experiment. The detection of this effect would be a direct measure of the neutral hydrogen-matter cross correlation and could provide important information on the growth of structures at large scales in a redshift range which is still poorly probed.

  9. Performance Characterization of UV Science Cameras Developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, Patrick; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtin, Jonathan; Hyde, David; Robertson, Bryan; Beabout, Brent; Beabout, Dyana; Stewart, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-alpha and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-alpha polarization in the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1% in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1% polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. Coating the e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detectors with Lumogen-E coating allows for a relatively high (30%) quantum efficiency at the Lyman-$\\alpha$ line. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with =10 e- /pixel/second dark current, = 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 and =0.1% residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  10. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  11. Detection of 3-Minute Oscillations in Full-Disk Lyman-alpha Emission During A Solar Flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, R. O.; Ireland, J.; Fleck, B.; Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.; Dennis, B. R.

    2017-12-01

    We report the detection of chromospheric 3-minute oscillations in disk-integrated EUV irradiance observations during a solar flare. A wavelet analysis of detrended Lyman-alpha (from GOES/EUVS) and Lyman continuum (from SDO/EVE) emission from the 2011 February 15 X-class flare revealed a 3-minute period present during the flare's main phase. The formation temperature of this emission locates this radiation to the flare's chromospheric footpoints, and similar behaviour is found in the SDO/AIA 1600A and 1700A channels, which are dominated by chromospheric continuum. The implication is that the chromosphere responds dynamically at its acoustic cutoff frequency to an impulsive injection of energy. Since the 3-minute period was not found at hard X-ray energies (50-100 keV) in RHESSI data we can state that this 3-minute oscillation does not depend on the rate of energization of, or energy deposition by, non-thermal electrons. However, a second period of 120 s found in both hard X-ray and chromospheric emission is consistent with episodic electron energization on 2-minute timescales. Our finding on the 3-minute oscillation suggests that chromospheric mechanical energy should be included in the flare energy budget, and the fluctuations in the Lyman-alpha line may influence the composition and dynamics of planetary atmospheres during periods of high activity.

  12. Infinite series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a rigorous approach that also emphasizes applications. Encompassing more than the usual amount of material on the problems of computation with series, the treatment offers many applications, including those related to the theory of special functions. Numerous problems appear throughout the book.The first chapter introduces the elementary theory of infinite series, followed by a relatively complete exposition of the basic properties of Taylor series and Fourier series. Additional subjects include series of functions and the app

  13. Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.

  14. The escape of Lyman photons from a young starburst: the case of Haro11†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Leitherer, Claus; Jiménez-Bailón, Elena; Adamo, Angela

    2007-12-01

    Lyman α (Lyα) is one of the dominant tools used to probe the star-forming galaxy population at high redshift (z). However, astrophysical interpretations of data drawn from Lyα alone hinge on the Lyα escape fraction which, due to the complex radiative transport, may vary greatly. Here, we map the Lyα emission from the local luminous blue compact galaxy Haro11, a known emitter of Lyα and the only known candidate for low-z Lyman continuum emission. To aid in the interpretation, we perform a detailed ultraviolet and optical multiwavelength analysis and model the stellar population, dust distribution, ionizing photon budget, and star-cluster population. We use archival X-ray observations to further constrain properties of the starburst and estimate the neutral hydrogen column density. The Lyα morphology is found to be largely symmetric around a single young star-forming knot and is strongly decoupled from other wavelengths. From general surface photometry, only very slight correlation is found between Lyα and Hα, E(B - V), and the age of the stellar population. Only around the central Lyα bright cluster do we find the Lyα/Hα ratio at values predicted by the recombination theory. The total Lyα escape fraction is found to be just 3 per cent. We compute that ~90 per cent of the Lyα photons that escape do so after undergoing multiple resonance scattering events, masking their point of origin. This leads to a largely symmetric distribution and, by increasing the distance that photons must travel to escape, decreases the escape probability significantly. While dust must ultimately be responsible for the destruction of Lyα, it plays a little role in governing the observed morphology, which is regulated more by interstellar medium kinematics and geometry. We find tentative evidence for local Lyα equivalent width in the immediate vicinity of star clusters being a function of cluster age, consistent with hydrodynamic studies. We estimate the intrinsic production

  15. Central powering of the largest Lyman-α nebula is revealed by polarized radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Matthew; Scarlata, Claudia; Siana, Brian

    2011-08-17

    High-redshift Lyman-α (Lyα) blobs are extended, luminous but rare structures that seem to be associated with the highest peaks in the matter density of the Universe. Their energy output and morphology are similar to those of powerful radio galaxies, but the source of the luminosity is unclear. Some blobs are associated with ultraviolet or infrared bright galaxies, suggesting an extreme starburst event or accretion onto a central black hole. Another possibility is gas that is shock-excited by supernovae. But not all blobs are associated with galaxies, and these ones may instead be heated by gas falling into a dark-matter halo. The polarization of the Lyα emission can in principle distinguish between these options, but a previous attempt to detect this signature returned a null detection. Here we report observations of polarized Lyα from the blob LAB1 (ref. 2). Although the central region shows no measurable polarization, the polarized fraction (P) increases to ∼20 per cent at a radius of 45 kiloparsecs, forming an almost complete polarized ring. The detection of polarized radiation is inconsistent with the in situ production of Lyα photons, and we conclude that they must have been produced in the galaxies hosted within the nebula, and re-scattered by neutral hydrogen.

  16. New evidence from the Lyman-alpha forest concerning the formation of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A M

    1986-12-17

    A new type of survey for galaxies with z > 2 is described. The idea is to search for the spectroscopic imprint that the H1 disc of a foreground galaxy leaves on radiation emitted by a background QSO; namely, a Lyman-..cap alpha.. absorption line broadened by radiation damping. A continuing survey has revealed the presence of 15 damped L..cap alpha.. lines with redshifts between 1.8 and 2.8 in the spectra of 68 QSOs. In comparison, no more than three discs with the properties of nearby galaxies should have been detected. Furthermore, the mean column density of the 15 absorbers, = 1.4 x 10/sup 21/cm/sup -2/, is much larger than expected for the outskirts of H1 discs. The statistical and physical evidence accumulated suggests that the damped L..cap alpha.. systems are a distinct population of absorbers with properties reminiscent of H1 discs. It is concluded that the progenitors of the baryon content of nearby galaxies have been detected. The implications for theories of galaxy formations of the discovery of this damped population of absorbers are explained.

  17. Constraining the Intergalactic and Circumgalactic Media with Lyman-Alpha Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorini, Daniele; Onorbe, Jose; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Lukic, Zarija

    2018-01-01

    Lyman-alpha (Ly-a) absorption features detected in quasar spectra in the redshift range 02Mpc, the simulations asymptotically match the observations, because the ΛCDM model successfully describes the ambient IGM. This represents a critical advantage of studying the mean absorption profile. However, significant differences between the simulations, and between simulations and observations are present on scales 20kpc-2Mpc, illustrating the challenges of accurately modeling and resolving galaxy formation physics. It is noteworthy that these differences are observed as far out as ~2Mpc, indicating that the `sphere-of-influence' of galaxies could extend to approximately ~20 times the halo virial radius (~100kpc). Current observations are very precise on these scales and can thus strongly discriminate between different galaxy formation models. I demonstrate that the Ly-a absorption profile is primarily sensitive to the underlying temperature-density relationship of diffuse gas around galaxies, and argue that it thus provides a fundamental test of galaxy formation models. With near-future high-precision observations of Ly-a absorption, the tools developed in my thesis set the stage for even stronger constraints on models of galaxy formation and cosmology.

  18. Investigating the physics and environment of Lyman limit systems in cosmological simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Denis

    2015-07-01

    In this work, I investigate the properties of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) using state-of-the-art zoom-in cosmological galaxy formation simulations with on the fly radiative transfer, which includes both the cosmic UV background (UVB) and local stellar sources. I compare the simulation results to observations of the incidence frequency of LLSs and the H I column density distribution function over the redshift range z = 2-5 and find good agreement. I explore the connection between LLSs and their host haloes and find that LLSs reside in haloes with a wide range of halo masses with a nearly constant covering fraction within a virial radius. Over the range z = 2-5, I find that more than half of the LLSs reside in haloes with M test a simple model which encapsulates many of their properties. I confirm that LLSs have a characteristic absorption length given by the Jeans length and that they are in photoionization equilibrium at low column densities. Finally, I investigate the self-shielding of LLSs to the UVB and explore how the non-sphericity of LLSs affects the photoionization rate at a given N_{H I}. I find that at z ≈ 3, LLSs have an optical depth of unity at a column density of ˜1018 cm-2 and that this is the column density which characterizes the onset of self-shielding.

  19. Non-LTE effects on the strength of the Lyman edge in quasar accretion disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerzer, H.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Allard, F.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated UV/EUV (300 A which is less than or equal to lambda which is less than or equal to 1500 A) continuous energy distributions of accretion disks in the centers of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for disk luminosities in the range 0.1 L(sub Edd) less than or equal to L(sub acc) less than 1.0 L(sub Edd) and central masses ranging from 10(exp 8) solar mass to 10(exp 9) solar mass. The vertical gas pressure structure of the disk and the disk height are obtained analytically; the temperature stratification and the resulting continuum radiation fields are calculated numerically. We have included non-Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) effects of both the ionization equilibrium and the level populations of hydrogen and helium. We show that these non-LTE effects reduce the strength of the Lyman edge when comapred to the LTE case. In non-LTE we find that the edge can be weakly in emission or absorption for disks seen face-on, depending on the disk parameters.

  20. Eight per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons from a compact, star-forming dwarf galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y I; Orlitová, I; Schaerer, D; Thuan, T X; Verhamme, A; Guseva, N G; Worseck, G

    2016-01-14

    One of the key questions in observational cosmology is the identification of the sources responsible for ionization of the Universe after the cosmic 'Dark Ages', when the baryonic matter was neutral. The currently identified distant galaxies are insufficient to fully reionize the Universe by redshift z ≈ 6 (refs 1-3), but low-mass, star-forming galaxies are thought to be responsible for the bulk of the ionizing radiation. As direct observations at high redshift are difficult for a variety of reasons, one solution is to identify local proxies of this galaxy population. Starburst galaxies at low redshifts, however, generally are opaque to Lyman continuum photons. Small escape fractions of about 1 to 3 per cent, insufficient to ionize much surrounding gas, have been detected only in three low-redshift galaxies. Here we report far-ultraviolet observations of the nearby low-mass star-forming galaxy J0925+1403. The galaxy is leaking ionizing radiation with an escape fraction of about 8 per cent. The total number of photons emitted during the starburst phase is sufficient to ionize intergalactic medium material that is about 40 times as massive as the stellar mass of the galaxy.

  1. The environment and host haloes of the brightest z ˜ 6 Lyman-break galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, P. W.; Bowler, R. A. A.; Jarvis, M. J.; Hale, C. L.

    2018-04-01

    By studying the large-scale structure of the bright high-redshift Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) population it is possible to gain an insight into the role of environment in galaxy formation physics in the early Universe. We measure the clustering of a sample of bright (-22.7 model to measure their typical halo masses. We find that the clustering amplitude and corresponding HOD fits suggests that these sources are highly biased (b ˜ 8) objects in the densest regions of the high-redshift Universe. Coupled with the observed rapid evolution of the number density of these objects, our results suggest that the shape of high luminosity end of the luminosity function is related to feedback processes or dust obscuration in the early Universe - as opposed to a scenario where these sources are predominantly rare instances of the much more numerous MUV ˜ -19 population of galaxies caught in a particularly vigorous period of star formation. There is a slight tension between the number densities and clustering measurements, which we interpret this as a signal that a refinement of the model halo bias relation at high redshifts or the incorporation of quasi-linear effects may be needed for future attempts at modelling the clustering and number counts. Finally, the difference in number density between the fields (UltraVISTA has a surface density˜1.8 times greater than UDS) is shown to be consistent with the cosmic variance implied by the clustering measurements.

  2. Emission of Lyman α radiation in H2 + H*(2s) collisions at thermal energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, B.

    1991-01-01

    A previously-published study of the thermal-energy collision between H 2 and metastable H*(2s), which could lead to the emission of Lyman α radiation, is reconsidered to take into account possible polarization effects. The total was function of the system is expanded in terms of the molecular states of the intermediate complex H 2 * , which constitute the minimal basis of the four adiabatic states dissociating into H 2 + H*(n=2) where they are normally degenerate in energy. The results of the calculation show the existence, between three of those states, of average values of the separation distance R (R ≅ 10 atomic units) of long range (ΔR ≅ 2 au) electronic interactions which depend on the geometric form of the H 2 * molecule. From the molecular data the hypothesis of no longer considering H 2 with H*(2s) as a rigid rotator is postulated and justified, after a purely quantum mechanical treatment of the radial equations. The mean ratio of the (oscillating) polarization angular differential cross sections tot he elastic ones is found important (> ∼ 1/10). The inelastic phenomena are anticipated to be more marked in the ortho than in the para hydrogen at a low collision energy (75 meV). (15 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.)

  3. Low-redshift Lyman continuum leaking galaxies with high [O III]/[O II] ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Worseck, G.; Schaerer, D.; Guseva, N. G.; Thuan, T. X.; Fricke, K. J.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, I.

    2018-05-01

    We present observations with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope of five star-forming galaxies at redshifts z in the range 0.2993 - 0.4317 and with high emission-line flux ratios O32 = [O III]λ5007/[O II]λ3727 ˜ 8 - 27 aiming to detect the Lyman continuum (LyC) emission. We detect LyC emission in all galaxies with the escape fractions fesc(LyC) in a range of 2 - 72 per cent. A narrow Lyα emission line with two peaks in four galaxies and with three peaks in one object is seen in medium-resolution COS spectra with a velocity separation between the peaks Vsep varying from ˜153 km s-1 to ˜ 345 km s-1. We find a general increase of the LyC escape fraction with increasing O32 and decreasing stellar mass M⋆, but with a large scatter of fesc(LyC). A tight anti-correlation is found between fesc(LyC) and Vsep making Vsep a good parameter for the indirect determination of the LyC escape fraction. We argue that one possible source driving the escape of ionizing radiation is stellar winds and radiation from hot massive stars.

  4. A Search for Lyman Break Galaxies at z>8 in the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Colbert, James W.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; McCarthy, Patrick; Yan, Lin

    2007-02-01

    We have selected 14 J-dropout Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates with J110-H160>=2.5 from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey. This survey consists of 135 arcmin2 of imaging in 228 independent sight lines, reaching average 5 σ sensitivities of J110=25.8 and H160=25.6 (AB). Distinguishing these candidates from dust-reddened star-forming galaxies at z~2-3 is difficult and will require longer wavelength observations. We consider the likelihood that any J-dropout LBGs exist in this survey and find that if L*z=9.5 is significantly brighter than L*z=6 (a factor of 4), then a few J-dropout LBGs are likely. A similar increase in luminosity has been suggested by Eyles et al. and Yan et al., but the magnitude of this increase is uncertain. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposals 9484, 9865, and 10226.

  5. Optimizing BAO measurements with non-linear transformations of the Lyman-α forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xinkang; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Seljak, Uroš, E-mail: xinkang.wang@berkeley.edu, E-mail: afont@lbl.gov, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, South Hall Rd, Berkeley (United States)

    2015-04-01

    We explore the effect of applying a non-linear transformation to the Lyman-α forest transmitted flux F=e{sup −τ} and the ability of analytic models to predict the resulting clustering amplitude. Both the large-scale bias of the transformed field (signal) and the amplitude of small scale fluctuations (noise) can be arbitrarily modified, but we were unable to find a transformation that increases significantly the signal-to-noise ratio on large scales using Taylor expansion up to the third order. In particular, however, we achieve a 33% improvement in signal to noise for Gaussianized field in transverse direction. On the other hand, we explore an analytic model for the large-scale biasing of the Lyα forest, and present an extension of this model to describe the biasing of the transformed fields. Using hydrodynamic simulations we show that the model works best to describe the biasing with respect to velocity gradients, but is less successful in predicting the biasing with respect to large-scale density fluctuations, especially for very nonlinear transformations.

  6. Characterizing the Lyman-alpha forest flux probability distribution function using Legendre polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Agnieszka; Slosar, Anze

    2018-01-01

    The Lyman-alpha forest has become a powerful cosmological probe at intermediate redshift. It is a highly non-linear field with much information present beyond the power spectrum. The flux probability flux distribution (PDF) in particular has been a successful probe of small scale physics. However, it is also sensitive to pixel noise, spectrum resolution, and continuum fitting, all of which lead to possible biased estimators. Here we argue that measuring the coefficients of the Legendre polynomial expansion of the PDF offers several advantages over measuring the binned values as is commonly done. Since the n-th Legendre coefficient can be expressed as a linear combination of the first n moments of the field, this allows for the coefficients to be measured in the presence of noise and allows for a clear route towards marginalization over the mean flux. Additionally, in the presence of noise, a finite number of these coefficients are well measured with a very sharp transition into noise dominance. This compresses the information into a small amount of well-measured quantities. Finally, we find that measuring fewer quasars with high signal-to-noise produces a higher amount of recoverable information.

  7. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 4-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian [Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ravindranath, Swara, E-mail: kuanghan@pha.jhu.edu [The Inter-University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune University Campus, Pune 411007, Maharashtra (India)

    2013-03-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B {sub 435}-dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF FAINT LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES NEAR REDSHIFT FIVE IN THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Grogin, Norman; Hathi, Nimish; Ryan, Russell; Straughn, Amber; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Pirzkal, Norbert; Xu Chun; Koekemoer, Anton; Panagia, Nino; Dickinson, Mark; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gronwall, Caryl; Kuemmel, Martin; Walsh, Jeremy; Meurer, Gerhardt; Pasquali, Anna; Yan, H.-J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the faintest spectroscopically confirmed sample of z ∼ 5 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to date. The sample is based on slitless grism spectra of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field region from the Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science (GRAPES) and Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) projects, using the G800L grism on the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys. We report here confirmations of 39 galaxies, preselected as candidate LBGs using photometric selection criteria. We compare a 'traditional' V-dropout selection, based on the work of Giavalisco et al., to a more liberal one (with V - i > 0.9), and find that the traditional criteria are about 64% complete and 81% reliable. We also study the Lyα emission properties of our sample. We find that Lyα emission is detected in ∼1/4 of the sample, and that the liberal V-dropout color selection includes ∼55% of previously published line-selected Lyα sources. Finally, we examine our stacked two-dimensional spectra. We demonstrate that strong, spatially extended (∼1'') Lyα emission is not a generic property of these LBGs, but that a modest extension of the Lyα photosphere (compared to the starlight) may be present in those galaxies with prominent Lyα emission.

  9. THE BIVARIATE SIZE-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS FOR LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 4-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Su, Jian; Ferguson, Henry C.; Ravindranath, Swara

    2013-01-01

    We study the bivariate size-luminosity distribution of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at redshifts around 4 and 5 in GOODS and the HUDF fields. We model the size-luminosity distribution as a combination of log-normal distribution (in size) and Schechter function (in luminosity), therefore it enables a more detailed study of the selection effects. We perform extensive simulations to quantify the dropout-selection completenesses and measurement biases and uncertainties in two-dimensional size and magnitude bins, and transform the theoretical size-luminosity distribution to the expected distribution for the observed data. Using maximum-likelihood estimator, we find that the Schechter function parameters for B 435 -dropouts and are consistent with the values in the literature, but the size distributions are wider than expected from the angular momentum distribution of the underlying dark matter halos. The slope of the size-luminosity (RL) relation is similar to those found for local disk galaxies, but considerably shallower than local early-type galaxies.

  10. Detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forests of BOSS quasar spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delubac, Timothee

    2013-01-01

    Baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) form a standard ruler that can be used to constrain different cosmological models. This thesis reports the first measurement of the BAO feature in the correlation function of the transmitted flux fraction in the Lyman-α forests of high redshift quasars. This detection uses 89322 quasar spectra measured by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the third generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III). Redshift of used quasars belong to the range 2.1≤z≤3.5. A peak in the correlation function is seen at 1.043"+"0"."0"2"1_-_0_._0_2_0 times the expected BAO peak position for a concordance ΛCDM model. In addition this thesis presents a new method of quasar selection through their variability. This method is applied to the Stripe 82 region where an important number of multi-epoch photometric data is available. On this region it achieves a quasar density of 30 deg"-"2 to be compared with the 18 deg"-"2 of usual color selections. (author) [fr

  11. Low-redshift Lyman limit systems as diagnostics of cosmological inflows and outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafen, Zachary; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Kereš, Dušan; Feldmann, Robert; Chan, T. K.; Quataert, Eliot; Murray, Norman; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-08-01

    We use cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with stellar feedback from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project to study the physical nature of Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at z ≤ 1. At these low redshifts, LLSs are closely associated with dense gas structures surrounding galaxies, such as galactic winds, dwarf satellites and cool inflows from the intergalactic medium. Our analysis is based on 14 zoom-in simulations covering the halo mass range Mh ≈ 109-1013 M⊙ at z = 0, which we convolve with the dark matter halo mass function to produce cosmological statistics. We find that the majority of cosmologically selected LLSs are associated with haloes in the mass range 1010 ≲ Mh ≲ 1012 M⊙. The incidence and H I column density distribution of simulated absorbers with columns in the range 10^{16.2} ≤ N_{H I} ≤ 2× 10^{20} cm-2 are consistent with observations. High-velocity outflows (with radial velocity exceeding the halo circular velocity by a factor of ≳ 2) tend to have higher metallicities ([X/H] ˜ -0.5) while very low metallicity ([X/H] standard deviation) [X/H] = -0.9 (0.4) and does not show significant evidence for bimodality, in contrast to recent observational studies, but consistent with LLSs arising from haloes with a broad range of masses and metallicities.

  12. How to estimate the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže

    2018-01-01

    We derive and numerically implement an algorithm for estimating the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux fluctuations. The algorithm exploits the unique geometry of Lyα forest data to efficiently measure the cross-spectrum between lines of sight as a function of parallel wavenumber, transverse separation and redshift. We start by approximating the global covariance matrix as block-diagonal, where only pixels from the same spectrum are correlated. We then compute the eigenvectors of the derivative of the signal covariance with respect to cross-spectrum parameters, and project the inverse-covariance-weighted spectra onto them. This acts much like a radial Fourier transform over redshift windows. The resulting cross-spectrum inference is then converted into our final product, an approximation of the likelihood for the 3D power spectrum expressed as second order Taylor expansion around a fiducial model. We demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithm and comment on possible extensions. Our algorithm will allow efficient analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument dataset.

  13. Ultraviolet photometry from the orbiting astronomical observatory. XVI - The stellar Lyman-alpha absorption line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, B. D.; Panek, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The stellar Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A was observed in 29 lightly reddened stars of spectral type B2.5 to B9 by a far-UV spectrophotometer on OAO-2. The equivalent widths obtained range from 15 A at type B2.5 to 65 A at type B8; in the late-B stars, the L-alpha line removes 2 to 3% of the total stellar flux. In this sampling, the strength of the L-alpha line correlates well with measures of the Balmer discontinuity and Balmer line strengths; luminosity classification does not seem to affect the line strength. The observed line widths also agree with the predictions of Mihala's grid of non-LTE model atmospheres. In some cases, the L-alpha line influences the interstellar column densities reported in the interstellar OAO-2 L-alpha survey. Hence, these data toward lightly reddened B2 and B1.5 stars should be regarded as upper limits only.

  14. An intensity monitor for solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha radiation (TAIYO SXU)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshio, Takanori; Masuoka, Toshio; Higashino, Ichiro; Watanabe, Norihiko.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute intensity of hydrogen Lyman-alpha (1216A) from the total solar disk is currently monitored by an ion chamber as a part of the satellite mission of TAIYO. The apparatus consists of an ion chamber with a special input control mask and associated electronics. The ion chamber with an MgF 2 window and filled with NO gas is sensitive to a narrow spectral band including the Lα. The special mask serves to keep the angular response of the detector constant at the elevation angle of the sun relative to the plane perpendicular to the spinning axis of the satellite within an error of the order of one percent, when the angle is within +-30 0 . A flux reducer attenuates the incident radiation upon the detector by a factor of 20 to lengthen the life of detector. The associated electronics measures the output current of the ion chamber, holds the maximum value of the output every four-second period and sends it to the telemeter. From the currently observed data, the absolute intensity of the solar Lα is 3.2 x 10 11 photons/cm 2 sec and constant within +-4.2% during the period from 24 February to 31 May, 1975. (auth.)

  15. Lyman Alpha Camera for Io's SO2 atmosphere and Europa's water plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Alfred S.; Sandel, Bill; Schneider, Nick

    2014-05-01

    The Student Lyman-Alpha Mapper (SLAM) was conceived for the Io Volcano Observer (IVO) mission proposal (McEwen et al., 2014) to determine the spatial and temporal variations in Io's SO2 atmosphere by recording the H Ly-α reflection over the disk (Feldman et al., 2000; Feaga et al., 2009). SO2 absorbs at H Ly-α, thereby modulating the brightness of sunlight reflected by the surface, and measures the density of the SO2 atmosphere and its variability with volcanic activity and time of day. Recently, enhancements at the Ly-α wavelength (121.57 nm) were seen near the limb of Europa and interpreted as active water plumes ~200 km high (Roth et al., 2014). We have a preliminary design for a very simple camera to image in a single bandpass at Ly-α, analogous to a simplified version of IMAGE EUV (Sandel et al. 2000). Our goal is at least 50 resolution elements across Io and/or Europa (~75 km/pixel), ~3x better than HST STIS, to be acquired at a range where the radiation noise is below 1E-4 hits/pixel/s. This goal is achieved with a Cassegrain-like telescope with a 10-cm aperture. The wavelength selection is achieved using a simple self-filtering mirror in combination with a solar-blind photocathode. A photon-counting detector based on a sealed image intensifier preserves the poisson statistics of the incoming photon flux. The intensifier window is coated with a solar-blind photocathode material (CsI). The location of each photon event is recorded by a position-sensitive anode based on crossed delay-line or wedge-and-strip technology. The sensitivity is 0.01 counts/pixel/sec/R, sufficient to estimate SO2 column abundances ranging from 1E15 to 1E17 per cm2 in a 5 min (300 sec) exposure. Sensitivity requirements to search for and image Europa plumes may be similar. Io's Ly-α brightness of ~3 kR exceeds the 0.8 kR brightness of Europa's plume reported by Roth et al. (2014), but the plume brightness is a direct measurement rather than inferring column abundance from

  16. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; O'Meara, John M.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel

    2013-01-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv 90 statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10 8.5-10.9 (r/150 kpc) 2 M ☉ , similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  17. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Meara, John M. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States); Oppenheimer, Benjamin D. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Davé, Romeel, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [University of the Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  18. STAR FORMATION FROM DLA GAS IN THE OUTSKIRTS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ∼ 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Chen, Hsiao-Wen

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence for spatially extended low surface brightness emission around Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) in the V-band image of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, corresponding to the z ∼ 3 rest-frame far-UV (FUV) light, which is a sensitive measure of star formation rates (SFRs). We find that the covering fraction of molecular gas at z ∼ 3 is not adequate to explain the emission in the outskirts of LBGs, while the covering fraction of neutral atomic-dominated hydrogen gas at high redshift is sufficient. We develop a theoretical framework to connect this emission around LBGs to the expected emission from neutral H I gas, i.e., damped Lyα systems (DLAs), using the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation. Working under the hypothesis that the observed FUV emission in the outskirts of LBGs is from in situ star formation in atomic-dominated hydrogen gas, the results suggest that the SFR efficiency in such gas at z ∼ 3 is between factors of 10 and 50 lower than predictions based on the local KS relation. The total SFR density in atomic-dominated gas at z ∼ 3 is constrained to be ∼10% of that observed from the inner regions of LBGs. In addition, the metals produced by in situ star formation in the outskirts of LBGs yield metallicities comparable to those of DLAs, which is a possible solution to the 'Missing Metals' problem for DLAs. Finally, the atomic-dominated gas in the outskirts of galaxies at both high and low redshifts has similar reduced SFR efficiencies and is consistent with the same power law.

  19. Neutral ISM, Ly α , and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes, E-mail: trive@astro.su.se [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2017-03-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly α line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly α , but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.

  20. THE Lyα LINE PROFILES OF ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: FAST WINDS AND LYMAN CONTINUUM LEAKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Crystal L.; Wong, Joseph [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, 93106 (United States); Dijkstra, Mark [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, Postboks 1029, 0858 Oslo (Norway); Henry, Alaina [Astrophysics Science Division, Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Soto, Kurt T. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Danforth, Charles W., E-mail: cmartin@physics.ucsb.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO, 80309 (United States)

    2015-04-10

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-ultraviolet (far-UV) spectroscopy and Keck Echellete optical spectroscopy of 11 ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), a rare population of local galaxies experiencing massive gas inflows, extreme starbursts, and prominent outflows. We detect Lyα emission from eight ULIRGs and the companion to IRAS09583+4714. In contrast to the P Cygni profiles often seen in galaxy spectra, the Lyα profiles exhibit prominent, blueshifted emission out to Doppler shifts exceeding −1000 km s{sup −1} in three H ii-dominated and two AGN-dominated ULIRGs. To better understand the role of resonance scattering in shaping the Lyα line profiles, we directly compare them to non-resonant emission lines in optical spectra. We find that the line wings are already present in the intrinsic nebular spectra, and scattering merely enhances the wings relative to the line core. The Lyα attenuation (as measured in the COS aperture) ranges from that of the far-UV continuum to over 100 times more. A simple radiative transfer model suggests the Lyα photons escape through cavities which have low column densities of neutral hydrogen and become optically thin to the Lyman continuum in the most advanced mergers. We show that the properties of the highly blueshifted line wings on the Lyα and optical emission-line profiles are consistent with emission from clumps of gas condensing out of a fast, hot wind. The luminosity of the Lyα emission increases nonlinearly with the ULIRG bolometric luminosity and represents about 0.1–1% of the radiative cooling from the hot winds in the H ii-dominated ULIRGs.

  1. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamo, Angela [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Schaerer, Daniel [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31000 Toulouse (France); Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofísica, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada (Spain); Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Atek, Hakim [Laboratoire dAstrophysique, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Observatoire, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Kunth, Daniel [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS and UPMC, 98 bis Bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Laursen, Peter [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Herenz, E. Christian, E-mail: matthew@astro.su.se [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2014-02-10

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f{sub esc}{sup Lyα} of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  2. TWO LENSED z ≅ 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE SDSS GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, Benjamin P.; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rigby, J. R.; Dahle, Hakon

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of two strongly lensed z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) discovered as u-band dropouts as part of the SDSS Giant Arcs Survey (SGAS). The first, SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.9233, is lensed by one of several sub-clusters, SDSS J1226+2152, in a complex massive cluster at z = 0.43. Its (g, r, i) magnitudes are (21.14, 20.60, 20.51) which translate to surface brightnesses, μ g,r,i , of (23.78, 23.11, 22.81). The second, SGAS J152745.1+065219, is an LBG at z = 2.7593 lensed by the foreground SDSS J1527+0652 at z = 0.39, with (g, r, z) = (20.90, 20.52, 20.58) and μ g,r,z = (25.15, 24.52, 24.12). Moderate resolution spectroscopy confirms the redshifts suggested by photometric breaks and shows both absorption and emission features typical of LBGs. Lens mass models derived from combined imaging and spectroscopy reveal that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is a highly magnified source (M ≅ 40), while SGAS J152745.1+065219 is magnified by no more than M ≅ 15. Compared with LBG survey results, the luminosities and lensing-corrected magnitudes suggest that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is among the faintest ≅20% of LBGs in that sample. SGAS J152745.1+065219, on the other hand, has an unlensed r-band apparent magnitude similar to that of the 'Cosmic Eye', which places it near the mean of LBG survey results over similar redshifts.

  3. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula

  4. Impact of Lyman alpha pressure on metal-poor dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimm, Taysun; Haehnelt, Martin; Blaizot, Jérémy; Katz, Harley; Michel-Dansac, Léo; Garel, Thibault; Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain

    2018-04-01

    Understanding the origin of strong galactic outflows and the suppression of star formation in dwarf galaxies is a key problem in galaxy formation. Using a set of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of an isolated dwarf galaxy embedded in a 1010 M⊙ halo, we show that the momentum transferred from resonantly scattered Lyman-α (Lyα) photons is an important source of stellar feedback which can shape the evolution of galaxies. We find that Lyα feedback suppresses star formation by a factor of two in metal-poor galaxies by regulating the dynamics of star-forming clouds before the onset of supernova explosions (SNe). This is possible because each Lyα photon resonantly scatters and imparts ˜10-300 times greater momentum than in the single scattering limit. Consequently, the number of star clusters predicted in the simulations is reduced by a factor of ˜5, compared to the model without the early feedback. More importantly, we find that galactic outflows become weaker in the presence of strong Lyα radiation feedback, as star formation and associated SNe become less bursty. We also examine a model in which radiation field is arbitrarily enhanced by a factor of up to 10, and reach the same conclusion. The typical mass-loading factors in our metal-poor dwarf system are estimated to be ˜5-10 near the mid-plane, while it is reduced to ˜1 at larger radii. Finally, we find that the escape of ionizing radiation and hence the reionization history of the Universe is unlikely to be strongly affected by Lyα feedback.

  5. A RESOLVED MAP OF THE INFRARED EXCESS IN A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY AT z = 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koprowski, M. P.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Geach, J. E.; Hine, N. K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Violino, G. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Bremer, M. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Davies, L. J. M. [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hayashino, T. [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Knudsen, K. K. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Kubo, M.; Matsuda, Y. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, 226 Physics Building, 835 West Dickson Street, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Van der Werf, P. P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Yamada, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, 252-5210 Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

    2016-09-10

    We have observed the dust continuum of 10 z = 3.1 Lyman break galaxies with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array at ∼450 mas resolution in Band 7. We detect and resolve the 870 μ m emission in one of the targets with a flux density of S {sub 870} = 192 ± 57 μ Jy, and measure a stacked 3 σ signal of S {sub 870} = 67 ± 23 μ Jy for the remaining nine. The total infrared luminosities are L {sub 8–1000} = (8.4 ± 2.3) × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} for the detection and L {sub 8–1000} = (2.9 ± 0.9) × 10{sup 10} L {sub ⊙} for the stack. With Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys I -band imaging we map the rest-frame UV emission on the same scale as the dust, effectively resolving the “infrared excess” (IRX = L {sub FIR}/ L {sub UV}) in a normal galaxy at z = 3. Integrated over the galaxy we measure IRX = 0.56 ± 0.15, and the galaxy-averaged UV slope is β = −1.25 ± 0.03. This puts the galaxy a factor of ∼10 below the IRX– β relation for local starburst nuclei of Meurer et al. However, IRX varies by more than a factor of 3 across the galaxy, and we conclude that the complex relative morphology of the dust relative to UV emission is largely responsible for the scatter in the IRX– β relation at high- z . A naive application of a Meurer-like dust correction based on the UV slope would dramatically overestimate the total star formation rate, and our results support growing evidence that when integrated over the galaxy, the typical conditions in high- z star-forming galaxies are not analogous to those in the local starburst nuclei used to establish the Meurer relation.

  6. Neutral ISM, Ly α , and Lyman-continuum in the Nearby Starburst Haro 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Thorsen, T. Emil; Östlin, Göran; Hayes, Matthew; Puschnig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies are believed to be a major source of Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation responsible for reionizing the early universe. Direct observations of escaping ionizing radiation have however been sparse and with low escape fractions. In the local universe, only 10 emitters have been observed, with typical escape fractions of a few percent. The mechanisms regulating this escape need to be strongly evolving with redshift in order to account for the epoch of reionization. Gas content and star formation feedback are among the main suspects, known to both regulate neutral gas coverage and evolve with cosmic time. In this paper, we reanalyze Hubble Space Telescope ( HST )-Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) spectrocopy of the first detected local LyC leaker, Haro 11. We examine the connection between LyC leakage and Ly α line shape, and feedback-influenced neutral interstellar medium (ISM) properties like kinematics and gas distribution. We discuss the two extremes of an optically thin, density bounded ISM and a riddled, optically thick, ionization bounded ISM, and how Haro 11 fits into theoretical predictions. We find that the most likely ISM model is a clumpy neutral medium embedded in a highly ionized medium with a combined covering fraction of unity and a residual neutral gas column density in the ionized medium high enough to be optically thick to Ly α , but low enough to be at least partly transparent to LyC and undetected in Si ii. This suggests that star formation feedback and galaxy-scale interaction events play a major role in opening passageways for ionizing radiation through the neutral medium.

  7. The Lyman alpha reference sample. II. Hubble space telescope imaging results, integrated properties, and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Duval, Florent; Sandberg, Andreas; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger; Adamo, Angela; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitová, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Cannon, John M.; Pardy, Stephen; Atek, Hakim; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Herenz, E. Christian

    2014-01-01

    We report new results regarding the Lyα output of galaxies, derived from the Lyman Alpha Reference Sample, and focused on Hubble Space Telescope imaging. For 14 galaxies we present intensity images in Lyα, Hα, and UV, and maps of Hα/Hβ, Lyα equivalent width (EW), and Lyα/Hα. We present Lyα and UV radial light profiles and show they are well-fitted by Sérsic profiles, but Lyα profiles show indices systematically lower than those of the UV (n ≈ 1-2 instead of ≳ 4). This reveals a general lack of the central concentration in Lyα that is ubiquitous in the UV. Photometric growth curves increase more slowly for Lyα than the far ultraviolet, showing that small apertures may underestimate the EW. For most galaxies, however, flux and EW curves flatten by radii ≈10 kpc, suggesting that if placed at high-z only a few of our galaxies would suffer from large flux losses. We compute global properties of the sample in large apertures, and show total Lyα luminosities to be independent of all other quantities. Normalized Lyα throughput, however, shows significant correlations: escape is found to be higher in galaxies of lower star formation rate, dust content, mass, and nebular quantities that suggest harder ionizing continuum and lower metallicity. Six galaxies would be selected as high-z Lyα emitters, based upon their luminosity and EW. We discuss the results in the context of high-z Lyα and UV samples. A few galaxies have EWs above 50 Å, and one shows f esc Lyα of 80%; such objects have not previously been reported at low-z.

  8. [O III] EMISSION AND GAS KINEMATICS IN A LYMAN-ALPHA BLOB AT z {approx} 3.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLinden, Emily M. [McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Hibon, Pascale [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Weijmans, Anne-Marie [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Tilvi, Vithal [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We present spectroscopic measurements of the [O III] emission line from two subregions of strong Ly{alpha} emission in a radio-quiet Lyman-alpha blob (LAB). The blob under study is LAB1 at z {approx} 3.1, and the [O III] detections are from the two Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) embedded in the blob halo. The [O III] measurements were made with LUCIFER on the 8.4 m Large Binocular Telescope and NIRSPEC on 10 m Keck Telescope. Comparing the redshift of the [O III] measurements to Ly{alpha} redshifts from SAURON allows us to take a step toward understanding the kinematics of the gas in the blob. Using both LUCIFER and NIRSPEC we find velocity offsets between the [O III] and Ly{alpha} redshifts that are modestly negative or consistent with 0 km s{sup -1} in both subregions studied (ranging from -72 {+-} 42- + 6 {+-} 33 km s{sup -1}). A negative offset means Ly{alpha} is blueshifted with respect to [O III] a positive offset then implies Ly{alpha} is redshifted with respect to [O III]. These results may imply that outflows are not primarily responsible for Lyman alpha escape in this LAB, since outflows are generally expected to produce a positive velocity offset. In addition, we present an [O III] line flux upper limit on a third region of LAB1, a region that is unassociated with any underlying galaxy. We find that the [O III] upper limit from the galaxy-unassociated region of the blob is at least 1.4-2.5 times fainter than the [O III] flux from one of the LBG-associated regions and has an [O III] to Ly{alpha} ratio measured at least 1.9-3.4 times smaller than the same ratio measured from one of the LBGs.

  9. Constraints on Neutral Hydrogen Outflow from the Warm Rocky Planet GJ1132b using Lyman-alpha Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waalkes, William; Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Charbonneau, David; Irwin, Jonathan; Newton, Elisabeth; Dittmann, Jason; Bourrier, Vincent; Ehrenreich, David; Kempton, Eliza

    2018-01-01

    GJ1132b is one of the few known Earth-sized planets, and at 12 pc away it is also one of the closest known transiting planets. With an equilibrium temperature of 500 K, this planet is too hot to be habitable but we can use it to learn about the presence and volatile content of rocky planet atmospheres around M dwarf stars. Using Hubble STIS spectra during primary transit, we explore the potential for UV transit detections of GJ1132b. If we were to observe a deep Lyman-α transit, that would indicate the presence of a neutral hydrogen envelope flowing from GJ1132b. On the other hand, ruling out deep absorption from neutral hydrogen may indicate that this planet has either retained its volatiles or lost them very early in the star’s life. We carry out this analysis by extracting 1D spectra from the STIS pipeline, splitting the time-tagged spectra into higher resolution samples, and producing light curves of the red and blue wings of the Lyman-α line. We fit for the baseline stellar flux and transit depths in order to constrain the characteristics of the cloud of neutral hydrogen gas that may surround the planet. Our work extends beyond the transit study into an analysis of the stellar variability and Lyman-α spectrum of GJ1132, a slowly-rotating 0.18 MSun M dwarf with previously uncharacterized UV activity. Understanding the role that UV variability plays in planetary atmospheres and volatile retention is crucial to assess atmospheric evolution and the habitability of cooler rocky planets.

  10. Performance characterization of UV science cameras developed for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, D.; Beabout, B.; Stewart, M.

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras will be built and tested for flight with the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The goal of the CLASP mission is to observe the scattering polarization in Lyman-α and to detect the Hanle effect in the line core. Due to the nature of Lyman-α polarizationin the chromosphere, strict measurement sensitivity requirements are imposed on the CLASP polarimeter and spectrograph systems; science requirements for polarization measurements of Q/I and U/I are 0.1% in the line core. CLASP is a dual-beam spectro-polarimeter, which uses a continuously rotating waveplate as a polarization modulator, while the waveplate motor driver outputs trigger pulses to synchronize the exposures. The CCDs are operated in frame-transfer mode; the trigger pulse initiates the frame transfer, effectively ending the ongoing exposure and starting the next. The strict requirement of 0.1% polarization accuracy is met by using frame-transfer cameras to maximize the duty cycle in order to minimize photon noise. The CLASP cameras were designed to operate with ≤ 10 e-/pixel/second dark current, ≤ 25 e- read noise, a gain of 2.0 +- 0.5 and ≤ 1.0% residual non-linearity. We present the results of the performance characterization study performed on the CLASP prototype camera; dark current, read noise, camera gain and residual non-linearity.

  11. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  12. Clasp/SJ Observation of Time Variations of Lyman-Alpha Emissions in a Solar Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, S.; Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding rocket experiment launched on September 3, 2015 to investigate the solar chromosphere, and the slit-jaw (SJ) optical system took Lya images with the high time cadence of 0.6 s. By the CLASP/SJ observation, many time variations in the solar chromosphere with the time scale of region and investigated the short (regions. As the result, we found the regions. On the other hand, the <30 s time variations had no dependency on the temperature of the loop.

  13. The solar ionisation rate deduced from Ulysses measurements and its implications to interplanetary Lyman alpha-intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summanen, T.; Kyroelae, E.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a computer code which can be used to study 3-dimensional and time-dependent effects of the solar cycle on the interplanetary (IP) hydrogen distribution. The code is based on the inverted Monte Carlo simulation. In this work we have modelled the temporal behaviour of the solar ionisation rate. We have assumed that during the most of the time of the solar cycle there is an anisotopic latitudinal structure but right at the solar maximum the anisotropy disappears. The effects of this behaviour will be discussed both in regard to the IP hydrogen distribution and IP Lyman a a-intensity.

  14. Relative Contribution of the Hydrogen 2 s Two-Photon Decay and Lyman- α Escape Channels during the Epoch of Cosmological Recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño-Martin, J. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2018-01-01

    We discuss the evolution of the ratio in number of recombinations due to 2 s two photon escape and due to the escape of Lyman- α photons from the resonance during the epoch of cosmological recombination, within the width of the last scattering surface and near its boundaries. We discuss how this ratio evolves in time, and how it defines the profile of the Lyman- α line in the spectrum of CMB. One of the key reasons for explaining its time dependence is the strong overpopulation of the 2 p level relative to the 2 s level at redshifts z ≲ 750.

  15. The effect of Lyman α self-absorption on population inversions between quantum states 2 and 3 of hydrogen-like ions in recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallents, G.J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect in recombining plasmas of Lyman α self-absorption on quasi-steady-state population inversions between quantum states n = 2 and 3 of hydrogen-like ions is theoretically investigated. It is shown how the electron density range over which population inversion is possible diminishes as Lyman α self-absorption increases. The highest degree of absorption which can be tolerated and still achieve an inversion is shown to occur when the thermal limit corresponds to n approximately equal to 4. The results of the computations are related to the conditions to be found in the expansion plume of laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  16. The Canada-France deep fields survey-II: Lyman-break galaxies and galaxy clustering at z ~ 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucaud, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Le Fèvre, O.; Arnouts, S.; Brodwin, M.; Lilly, S. J.; Crampton, D.; Mellier, Y.

    2003-10-01

    We present a large sample of z ~ 3 U-band dropout galaxies extracted from the Canada-France deep fields survey (CFDF). Our catalogue covers an effective area of ~ 1700 arcmin2 divided between three large, contiguous fields separated widely on the sky. To IAB=24.5, the survey contains 1294 Lyman-break candidates, in agreement with previous measurements by other authors, after appropriate incompleteness corrections have been applied to our data. Based on comparisons with spectroscopic observations and simulations, we estimate that our sample of Lyman-break galaxies is contaminated by stars and interlopers (lower-redshift galaxies) at no more than { ~ } 30%. We find that omega (theta ) is well fitted by a power-law of fixed slope, gamma =1.8, even at small (theta University of Hawaii, and at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory and Mayall 4-meter Telescopes, divisions of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which are operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  17. A cosmic web filament revealed in Lyman-α emission around a luminous high-redshift quasar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio; Prochaska, J Xavier; Hennawi, Joseph F; Madau, Piero

    2014-02-06

    Simulations of structure formation in the Universe predict that galaxies are embedded in a 'cosmic web', where most baryons reside as rarefied and highly ionized gas. This material has been studied for decades in absorption against background sources, but the sparseness of these inherently one-dimensional probes preclude direct constraints on the three-dimensional morphology of the underlying web. Here we report observations of a cosmic web filament in Lyman-α emission, discovered during a survey for cosmic gas fluorescently illuminated by bright quasars at redshift z ≈ 2.3. With a linear projected size of approximately 460 physical kiloparsecs, the Lyman-α emission surrounding the radio-quiet quasar UM 287 extends well beyond the virial radius of any plausible associated dark-matter halo and therefore traces intergalactic gas. The estimated cold gas mass of the filament from the observed emission-about 10(12.0 ± 0.5)/C(1/2) solar masses, where C is the gas clumping factor-is more than ten times larger than what is typically found in cosmological simulations, suggesting that a population of intergalactic gas clumps with subkiloparsec sizes may be missing in current numerical models.

  18. NO OVERDENSITY OF LYMAN-ALPHA EMITTING GALAXIES AROUND A QUASAR AT z  ∼ 5.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucchelli, C.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Venemans, B. P.; Walter, F.; Overzier, R.

    2017-01-01

    Bright quasars, observed when the universe was less than one billion years old ( z  > 5.5), are known to host massive black holes (∼10 9 M ⊙ ) and are thought to reside in the center of massive dark matter overdensities. In this picture, overdensities of galaxies are expected around high-redshift quasars. However, observations based on the detection of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) around these quasars do not offer a clear picture: this may be due to the uncertain redshift constraints of LBGs, which are solely selected through broadband filters. To circumvent such uncertainties, we here perform a search for Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the field of the quasar PSO J215.1512–16.0417 at z  ∼ 5.73, through narrowband deep imaging with FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope. We study an area of 37 arcmin 2 , i.e., ∼206 comoving Mpc 2 at the redshift of the quasar. We find no evidence of an overdensity of LAEs in the quasar field with respect to blank-field studies. Possible explanations for these findings may be that our survey volume is too small, or that the strong ionizing radiation from the quasar hinders galaxy formation in its immediate proximity. Another possibility is that these quasars are not situated in the dense environments predicted by some simulations.

  19. Optical Alignment of the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter using Sophisticated Methods to Minimize Activities under Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Kano, R.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Bando, T.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is a sounding-rocket instrument developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) as a part of an international collaboration. The in- strument main scientific goal is to achieve polarization measurement of the Lyman-alpha line at 121.56 nm emitted from the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region with an unprecedented 0.1% accuracy. For this purpose, the optics are composed of a Cassegrain telescope coated with a "cold mirror" coating optimized for UV reflection and a dual-channel spectrograph allowing for simultaneous observation of the two orthogonal states of polarization. Although the polarization sensitivity is the most important aspect of the instrument, the spatial and spectral resolutions of the instrument are also crucial to observe the chromospheric features and resolve the Ly- pro les. A precise alignment of the optics is required to ensure the resolutions, but experiments under vacuum conditions are needed since Ly-alpha is absorbed by air, making the alignment experiments difficult. To bypass this issue, we developed methods to align the telescope and the spectrograph separately in visible light. We will explain these methods and present the results for the optical alignment of the CLASP telescope and spectrograph. We will then discuss the combined performances of both parts to derive the expected resolutions of the instrument, and compare them with the flight observations performed on September 3rd 2015.

  20. The Lyman continuum escape fraction of galaxies at z = 3.3 in the VUDS-LBC/COSMOS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Gerbasi, R.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Pentericci, L.; Vanzella, E.; Zamorani, G.; Cassata, P.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Zucca, E.; Amorín, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassarà, L. P.; Castellano, M.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; Durkalec, A.; Giavalisco, M.; Hathi, N. P.; Ilbert, O.; Lemaux, B. C.; Paltani, S.; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Scodeggio, M.; Sommariva, V.; Talia, M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Bonchi, A.; Boutsia, K.; Capak, P.; Charlot, S.; Contini, T.; de la Torre, S.; Dunlop, J.; Fotopoulou, S.; Guaita, L.; Koekemoer, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Mellier, Y.; Merlin, E.; Paris, D.; Pforr, J.; Pilo, S.; Santini, P.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Wang, P. W.

    2016-01-01

    Context. The ionizing Lyman continuum flux escaping from high-redshift galaxies into the intergalactic medium is a fundamental quantity to understand the physical processes involved in the reionization epoch. However, from an observational point of view, direct detections of HI ionizing photons at high redshifts are feasible for galaxies mainly in the interval z ~ 3-4. Aims: We have investigated a sample of star-forming galaxies at z ~ 3.3 to search for possible detections of Lyman continuum ionizing photons escaping from galaxy halos. Methods: We used deep ultraviolet (UV) imaging in the COSMOS field, obtained with the prime focus camera LBC at the LBT telescope, along with a catalogue of spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) to build a sample of 45 galaxies at z ~ 3.3 with L> 0.5 L∗. We obtained deep LBC images of galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 3.27 28%, but a detailed analysis of their properties reveals that, with the exception of two marginal detections (S/N ~ 2) in the U-band, all the other eight galaxies are most likely contaminated by the UV flux of low-redshift interlopers located close (in angular position) to the high-z targets. The average escape fraction derived from the stacking of the cleaned sample was constrained to fescrel Chile, under Large Programme 185.A-0791 and on observations made at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham (Arizona, USA).

  1. NO OVERDENSITY OF LYMAN-ALPHA EMITTING GALAXIES AROUND A QUASAR AT z  ∼ 5.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucchelli, C.; Bañados, E.; Decarli, R.; Farina, E. P.; Venemans, B. P.; Walter, F. [Max Planck Institute für Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Overzier, R. [Observatório Nacional, Rua José Cristino, 77. CEP 20921-400, São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (Brazil)

    2017-01-01

    Bright quasars, observed when the universe was less than one billion years old ( z  > 5.5), are known to host massive black holes (∼10{sup 9} M {sub ⊙}) and are thought to reside in the center of massive dark matter overdensities. In this picture, overdensities of galaxies are expected around high-redshift quasars. However, observations based on the detection of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) around these quasars do not offer a clear picture: this may be due to the uncertain redshift constraints of LBGs, which are solely selected through broadband filters. To circumvent such uncertainties, we here perform a search for Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the field of the quasar PSO J215.1512–16.0417 at z  ∼ 5.73, through narrowband deep imaging with FORS2 at the Very Large Telescope. We study an area of 37 arcmin{sup 2}, i.e., ∼206 comoving Mpc{sup 2} at the redshift of the quasar. We find no evidence of an overdensity of LAEs in the quasar field with respect to blank-field studies. Possible explanations for these findings may be that our survey volume is too small, or that the strong ionizing radiation from the quasar hinders galaxy formation in its immediate proximity. Another possibility is that these quasars are not situated in the dense environments predicted by some simulations.

  2. Star formation rate and extinction in faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    To, Chun-Hao; Wang, Wei-Hao [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Owen, Frazer N. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    We present a statistical detection of 1.5 GHz radio continuum emission from a sample of faint z ∼ 4 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). To constrain their extinction and intrinsic star formation rate (SFR), we combine the latest ultradeep Very Large Array 1.5 GHz radio image and the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) optical images in the GOODS-N. We select a large sample of 1771 z ∼ 4 LBGs from the ACS catalog using B {sub F435W}-dropout color criteria. Our LBG samples have I {sub F775W} ∼ 25-28 (AB), ∼0-3 mag fainter than M{sub UV}{sup ⋆} at z ∼ 4. In our stacked radio images, we find the LBGs to be point-like under our 2'' angular resolution. We measure their mean 1.5 GHz flux by stacking the measurements on the individual objects. We achieve a statistical detection of S {sub 1.5} {sub GHz} = 0.210 ± 0.075 μJy at ∼3σ for the first time on such a faint LBG population at z ∼ 4. The measurement takes into account the effects of source size and blending of multiple objects. The detection is visually confirmed by stacking the radio images of the LBGs, and the uncertainty is quantified with Monte Carlo simulations on the radio image. The stacked radio flux corresponds to an obscured SFR of 16.0 ± 5.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, and implies a rest-frame UV extinction correction factor of 3.8. This extinction correction is in excellent agreement with that derived from the observed UV continuum spectral slope, using the local calibration of Meurer et al. This result supports the use of the local calibration on high-redshift LBGs to derive the extinction correction and SFR, and also disfavors a steep reddening curve such as that of the Small Magellanic Cloud.

  3. Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calciphylaxis is prevention through rigorous control of phosphate and calcium balance. We here present two ... The authors declared no conflict of interest. Introduction. Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious disorder .... were reported to resolve the calciphylaxis lesions in a chronic renal failure patient [20]. In a series of five.

  4. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomials are dense in the class of continuous functions! The body of literature dealing with Fourier series has reached epic proportions over the last two centuries. We have only given the readers an outline of the topic in this article. For the full length episode we refer the reader to the monumental treatise of. A Zygmund.

  5. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    13 oct. 2017 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ... Bifocal leg fractures pose many challenges for the surgeon due to .... Dans notre serie, le taux d'infection est reste dans un.

  6. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theory of Fourier series deals with periodic functions. By a periodic ..... including Dirichlet, Riemann and Cantor occupied themselves with the problem of ... to converge only on a set which is negligible in a certain sense (Le. of measure ...

  7. case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Case report, case series, concept analysis, research design. African Health Sciences 2012; (4): 557 - 562 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v12i4.25. PO Box 17666 .... According to the latest version of the Dictionary of. Epidemiology ...

  8. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  9. Response approach to the squeezed-limit bispectrum: application to the correlation of quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: chi-ting.chiang@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: acieplak@bnl.gov, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The squeezed-limit bispectrum, which is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution as well as inflationary physics, measures the correlation of three wavenumbers, in the configuration where one wavenumber is much smaller than the other two. Since the squeezed-limit bispectrum encodes the impact of a large-scale fluctuation on the small-scale power spectrum, it can be understood as how the small-scale power spectrum ''responds'' to the large-scale fluctuation. Viewed in this way, the squeezed-limit bispectrum can be calculated using the response approach even in the cases which do not submit to perturbative treatment. To illustrate this point, we apply this approach to the cross-correlation between the large-scale quasar density field and small-scale Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. In particular, using separate universe simulations which implement changes in the large-scale density, velocity gradient, and primordial power spectrum amplitude, we measure how the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum responds to the local, long-wavelength quasar overdensity, and equivalently their squeezed-limit bispectrum. We perform a Fisher forecast for the ability of future experiments to constrain local non-Gaussianity using the bispectrum of quasars and the Lyman-α forest. Combining with quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectra to constrain the biases, we find that for DESI the expected 1−σ constraint is err[ f {sub NL}]∼60. Ability for DESI to measure f {sub NL} through this channel is limited primarily by the aliasing and instrumental noise of the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. The combination of response approach and separate universe simulations provides a novel technique to explore the constraints from the squeezed-limit bispectrum between different observables.

  10. Fitting methods for baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forest fluctuations in BOSS data release 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkby, David; Margala, Daniel; Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, 92697 (United States); Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Busca, Nicolás G.; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Delubac, Timothée; Rich, James; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Brownstein, Joel R.; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Croft, Rupert A.C. [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Miralda-Escudé, Jordi [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Nichol, Robert C. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Pâris, Isabelle; Petitjean, Patrick, E-mail: dkirkby@uci.edu [Université Paris 6 et CNRS, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, 98bis blvd. Arago, 75014 Paris (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    We describe fitting methods developed to analyze fluctuations in the Lyman-α forest and measure the parameters of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We apply our methods to BOSS Data Release 9. Our method is based on models of the three-dimensional correlation function in physical coordinate space, and includes the effects of redshift-space distortions, anisotropic non-linear broadening, and broadband distortions. We allow for independent scale factors along and perpendicular to the line of sight to minimize the dependence on our assumed fiducial cosmology and to obtain separate measurements of the BAO angular and relative velocity scales. Our fitting software and the input files needed to reproduce our main BOSS Data Release 9 results are publicly available.

  11. Solar Lyman-Alpha Polarization Observation of the Chromosphere and Transition Region by the Sounding Rocket Experiment CLASP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukage, Noriyuki; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Kubo, Masahito; Katsukawa, Yukio; Ishikawa, Shinnosuke; Hara, Hiroshi; Suematsu, Yoshinori; Giono, Gabriel; hide

    2015-01-01

    We are planning an international rocket experiment Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is (2015 planned) that Lyman a line (Ly(alpha) line) polarization spectroscopic observations from the sun. The purpose of this experiment, detected with high accuracy of the linear polarization of the Ly(alpha) lines to 0.1% by using a Hanle effect is to measure the magnetic field of the chromosphere-transition layer directly. For polarization photometric accuracy achieved that approx. 0.1% required for CLASP, it is necessary to realize the monitoring device with a high throughput. On the other hand, Ly(alpha) line (vacuum ultraviolet rays) have a sensitive characteristics that is absorbed by the material. We therefore set the optical system of the reflection system (transmission only the wavelength plate), each of the mirrors, subjected to high efficiency of the multilayer coating in accordance with the role. Primary mirror diameter of CLASP is about 30 cm, the amount of heat about 30,000 J is about 5 minutes of observation time is coming mainly in the visible light to the telescope. In addition, total flux of the sun visible light overwhelmingly large and about 200 000 times the Ly(alpha) line wavelength region. Therefore, in terms of thermal management and 0.1% of the photometric measurement accuracy achieved telescope, elimination of the visible light is essential. We therefore, has a high reflectivity (> 50%) in Lya line, visible light is a multilayer coating be kept to a low reflectance (Science was achieved a high throughput as a device for a vacuum ultraviolet ray of the entire system less than 5% (CCD of QE is not included).

  12. Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-21

    The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.

  13. Probing HeII Reionization at z>3.5 with Resolved HeII Lyman Alpha Forest Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worseck, Gabor

    2017-08-01

    The advent of GALEX and COS have revolutionized our view of HeII reionization, the final major phase transition of the intergalactic medium. COS spectra of the HeII Lyman alpha forest have confirmed with high confidence the high HeII transmission that signifies the completion of HeII reionization at z 2.7. However, the handful of z>3.5 quasars observed to date show a set of HeII transmission 'spikes' and larger regions with non-zero transmission that suggest HeII reionization was well underway by z=4. This is in striking conflict with predictions from state-of-the-art radiative transfer simulations of a HeII reionization driven by bright quasars. Explaining these measurements may require either faint quasars or more exotic sources of hard photons at z>4, with concomitant implications for HI reionization. However, many of the observed spikes are unresolved in G140L spectra and are significantly impacted by Poisson noise. Current data cannot reliably probe the ionization state of helium at z>3.5.We request 41 orbits to obtain science-grade G130M spectra of the two UV-brightest HeII-transmitting QSOs at z>3.5 to confirm and resolve their HeII transmission spikes as an unequivocal test of early HeII reionization. These spectra are complemented by recently obtained data from 8m telescopes: (1) Echelle spectra of the coeval HI Lya forest to map the underlying density field that modulates the HeII absorption, and (2) Our dedicated survey for foreground QSOs that may source the HeII transmission. Our recent HST programs revealed the only two viable targets to resolve the z>3.5 HeII Lyman alpha forest, and to conclusively solve this riddle.

  14. Lyman NTCP model analysis of radiation-induced liver disease in hypofractionated conformal radiotherapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhiyong; Zhu Yi; Zhao Jiaodong; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify the factors associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD) and to describe the probability of RILD using the Lyman normal tissue complication(NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma(PLC) treated with hypofractionated conformal therapy (CRT). Methods: A total of 109 PLC patients treated with hypofractionated CRT were prospectively followed according to the Child-Pugh classification for liver cirrhosis, 93 patients in class A and 16 in class B. The mean dose of radiation to the isocenter was (53.5±5.5) Gy, fractions of (4.8±0.5) Gy, with interfraction interval of 48 hours and irradiation 3 times per week. Maximal likelihood analysis yielded the best estimates of parameters of the Lyman NTCP model for all patients; Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients, respectively. Results: Of all the patients, 17 developed RILD (17/109), 8 in Child-Pugh A (8/93) and 9 in Child-Pugh B (9/16). By multivariate analysis, only the Child-Pugh Grade of liver cirrhosis was the independent factor (P=0.000) associated with the developing of BILD. The best estimates of the NTCP parameters for all 109 patients were n=1.1, m=0.35 and TD 50 (1)=38.5 Gy. The n, m, TD 50 (1) estimated from patients with Child-Pugh A was 1.1, 0.28, 40.5 Gy, respectively, compared with 0.7, 0.43, 23 Gy respectively, for patients with Child-Pugh B. Conclusions: Primary liver cancer patients who possess Child-Pugh B cirrhosis would present a significantly greater susceptibility to RILD after hypofractionated CRT than patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis. The predominant risk factor for developing RILD is the severity of hepatic cirrhosis in the liver of PLC patients. (authors)

  15. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment.

  16. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  17. The Lyman-α forest in three dimensions: measurements of large scale flux correlations from BOSS 1st-year data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Fac. Ciències, torre C5 parell 2, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Pieri, Matthew M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rich, James; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Charlassier, Romain [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aubourg, Éric; Busca, Nicolas; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Carithers, Bill; Cortês, Marina; Ho, Shirley; McDonald, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Croft, Rupert [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [University of Utah, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan; Lupton, Robert [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Medolin, Bumbarija, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [104-20 Queens Blvd 17A, Forest Hills, NY 11375 (United States); and others

    2011-09-01

    Using a sample of approximately 14,000 z > 2.1 quasars observed in the first year of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), we measure the three-dimensional correlation function of absorption in the Lyman-α forest. The angle-averaged correlation function of transmitted flux (F = e{sup −τ}) is securely detected out to comoving separations of 60 h{sup −1}Mpc, the first detection of flux correlations across widely separated sightlines. A quadrupole distortion of the redshift-space correlation function by peculiar velocities, the signature of the gravitational instability origin of structure in the Lyman-α forest, is also detected at high significance. We obtain a good fit to the data assuming linear theory redshift-space distortion and linear bias of the transmitted flux, relative to the matter fluctuations of a standard ΛCDM cosmological model (inflationary cold dark matter with a cosmological constant). At 95% confidence, we find a linear bias parameter 0.16 < b < 0.24 and redshift-distortion parameter 0.44 < β < 1.20, at central redshift z = 2.25, with a well constrained combination b(1+β) = 0.336±0.012. The errors on β are asymmetric, with β = 0 excluded at over 5σ confidence level. The value of β is somewhat low compared to theoretical predictions, and our tests on synthetic data suggest that it is depressed (relative to expectations for the Lyman-α forest alone) by the presence of high column density systems and metal line absorption. These results set the stage for cosmological parameter determinations from three-dimensional structure in the Lyman-α forest, including anticipated constraints on dark energy from baryon acoustic oscillations.

  18. Interpreting HST observations with simulations of reionization: the ionizing photon budget and the decline of Lyman-alpha emission in z>6 dropouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, HST surveys such as CANDELS, HUDF, BoRG/HIPPIES, ERS, and the Frontier Fields, have made possible the first robust measurements of the rest-frame UV luminosity function of z =6-10 galaxies, spanning much of the redshift range over which reionization likely occurred. These measurements provide an estimate of the galactic ionizing photon output, addressing the critical question of whether these galaxies could have reionized the Universe. In addition, follow-up spectroscopy has measured the fraction of these galaxies that show Lyman-alpha emission. Interestingly, a dramatic decrease in this fraction above z 6 has been observed, and this evolution has (controversially) been interpreted as evidence that much of reionization happened over z=6-8 (as intergalactic neutral gas leads to large damping wings that scatter the Lyman-alpha line). The clumpiness of the IGM and how it self shields to ionizing photons impacts whether the observed population of galaxies can reionize the Universe, as well as the interpretation of the evolving Lyman-alpha emitter fraction. We propose to run fully coupled radiative-hydrodynamics simulations that are the first to resolve the evaporation of small structures by passing ionization fronts and, hence, to accurately assess the level of clumpiness and self-shielding from the IGM. Our study will nail down the clumping factor used to assess whether the observed population of galaxies can drive reionization, and it will address whether neutral self-shielding clumps in recently reionized regions can scatter galaxies' Lyman-alpha lines.

  19. Rocket borne solar eclipse experiment to measure the temperature structure of the solar corona via lyman-α line profile observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, H.V.

    1981-01-01

    A rocket borne experiment to measure the temperature structure of the inner solar corona via the doppler broadening of the resonance hydrogen Lyman-α (lambda1216A) radiation scattered by ambient neutral hydrogen atoms was attempted during the 16 Feb 1980 solar eclipse. Two Nike-Black Brant V sounding rockets carrying instrumented payloads were launched into the path of the advancing eclipse umbra from the San Marco satellite launch platform 3 miles off the east coast of Kenya

  20. Prediction of radiation-induced liver disease by Lyman normal-tissue complication probability model in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for primary liver carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu ZhiYong; Liang Shixiong; Zhu Ji; Zhu Xiaodong; Zhao Jiandong; Lu Haijie; Yang Yunli; Chen Long; Wang Anyu; Fu Xiaolong; Jiang Guoliang

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the probability of RILD by application of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal-tissue complication (NTCP) model for primary liver carcinoma (PLC) treated with hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 109 PLC patients treated by 3D-CRT were followed for RILD. Of these patients, 93 were in liver cirrhosis of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 16 were in Child-Pugh Grade B. The Michigan NTCP model was used to predict the probability of RILD, and then the modified Lyman NTCP model was generated for Child-Pugh A and Child-Pugh B patients by maximum-likelihood analysis. Results: Of all patients, 17 developed RILD in which 8 were of Child-Pugh Grade A, and 9 were of Child-Pugh Grade B. The prediction of RILD by the Michigan model was underestimated for PLC patients. The modified n, m, TD 5 (1) were 1.1, 0.28, and 40.5 Gy and 0.7, 0.43, and 23 Gy for patients with Child-Pugh A and B, respectively, which yielded better estimations of RILD probability. The hepatic tolerable doses (TD 5 ) would be MDTNL of 21 Gy and 6 Gy, respectively, for Child-Pugh A and B patients. Conclusions: The Michigan model was probably not fit to predict RILD in PLC patients. A modified Lyman NTCP model for RILD was recommended

  1. Measurement of baryon acoustic oscillations in the Lyman-α forest fluctuations in BOSS data release 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Iršič, Vid [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kirkby, David; Blomqvist, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bailey, Stephen; Carithers, Bill [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Busca, Nicolás G.; Aubourg, Éric; Bautista, Julian E. [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Delubac, Timothée; Rich, James; Goff, J.-M. Le [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bhardwaj, Vaishali [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 09195 (United States); Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel; Dawson, Kyle S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Bovy, Jo [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Croft, Rupert A.C.; Ho, Shirley [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); and others

    2013-04-01

    We use the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) Data Release 9 (DR9) to detect and measure the position of the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) feature in the three-dimensional correlation function in the Lyman-α flux fluctuations at a redshift z{sub eff} = 2.4. The feature is clearly detected at significance between 3 and 5 sigma (depending on the broadband model and method of error covariance matrix estimation) and is consistent with predictions of the standard ΛCDM model. We assess the biases in our method, stability of the error covariance matrix and possible systematic effects. We fit the resulting correlation function with several models that decouple the broadband and acoustic scale information. For an isotropic dilation factor, we measure 100 × (α{sub iso} − 1) = −1.6{sup +2.0+4.3+7.4}{sub −2.0−4.1−6.8} (stat.) ±1.0 (syst.) (multiple statistical errors denote 1,2 and 3 sigma confidence limits) with respect to the acoustic scale in the fiducial cosmological model (flat ΛCDM with Ω{sub m} = 0.27, h = 0.7). When fitting separately for the radial and transversal dilation factors we find marginalised constraints 100 × (α{sub ||} − 1) = −1.3{sup +3.5+7.6+12.3}{sub −3.3−6.7−10.2} (stat.) ±2.0 (syst.) and 100 × (α{sub p}erpendicular − 1) = −2.2{sup +7.4+17}{sub −7.1−15} (stat.) ±3.0 (syst.). The dilation factor measurements are significantly correlated with cross-correlation coefficient of ∼ −0.55. Errors become significantly non-Gaussian for deviations over 3 standard deviations from best fit value. Because of the data cuts and analysis method, these measurements give tighter constraints than a previous BAO analysis of the BOSS DR9 Lyman-α sample, providing an important consistency test of the standard cosmological model in a new redshift regime.

  2. Physical and morphological properties of z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies: dependence on Lyα line emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Scarlata, C.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Vanzella, E.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: We investigate the physical and morphological properties of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift ~2.5 to ~3.5, to determine if and how they depend on the nature and strength of the Lyα emission. Methods: We selected U-dropout galaxies from the z-detected GOODS-MUSIC catalog by adapting the classical Lyman break criteria on the GOODS filter set. We kept only those galaxies with spectroscopic confirmation, mainly from VIMOS and FORS public observations. Using the full multi-wavelength 14-bands information (U to IRAC), we determined the physical properties of the galaxies through a standard spectral energy distribution fitting procedure with the updated Charlot & Bruzual (2009) templates. We also added other relevant observations of the GOODS field, i.e. the 24 μm observations from Spitzer/MIPS and the 2 MSec Chandra X-ray observations. Finally, using non parametric diagnostics (Gini, Concentration, Asymmetry, M20 and ellipticity), we characterized the rest-frame UV morphologies of the galaxies. We then analyzed how these physical and morphological properties correlate with the presence of the Lyα emission line in the optical spectra. Results: We find that unlike at higher redshift, the dependence of physical properties on the Lyα line is milder: galaxies without Lyα in emission tend to be more massive and dustier than the rest of the sample, but all other parameters, ages, star formation rates (SFR), X-ray emission and UV morphology do not depend strongly on the presence of the Lyα emission. A simple scenario where all LBGs have intrinsically high Lyα emission, but where the dust and neutral hydrogen content (which shapes the final appearance of the Lyα) depend on the mass of the galaxies, is able to reproduce the majority of the observed properties at z˜3. Some modification might be needed to account for the observed evolution of these properties with cosmic epoch, which is also discussed.

  3. Deep Keck u-Band Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A Catalog of z ~ 3 Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2, making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ~50% of the z ~ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ~ 3 and z ~ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ~ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  4. A possible connection between the spin temperature of damped Lyman α absorption systems and star formation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spin temperature/covering factor degeneracy, Tspin/f, in damped Lyman α absorption systems. By normalizing the upper limits and including these via a survival analysis, there is, as previously claimed, an apparent increase in Tspin/f with redshift at zabs ≳ 1. However, when we account for the geometry effects of an expanding Universe, neglected by the previous studies, this increase in Tspin at zabs ≳ 1 is preceded by a decrease at zabs ≲ 1. Using high resolution radio images of the background continuum sources, we can transform the Tspin/f degeneracy to T_spin/d_abs^{ 2}, where dabs is the projected linear size of the absorber. Again, there is no overall increase with redshift, although a dip at zabs ≈ 2 persists. Furthermore, we find d_abs^{ 2}/T_spin to follow a similar variation with redshift as the star formation rate, ψ*. This suggests that, although the total hydrogen column density, N_{H I}, shows little relation to ψ*, the fraction of the cold neutral medium, \\int τ_obs dv/N_{H I}, may. Therefore, further efforts to link the neutral gas with the star formation history should also consider the cool component of the gas.

  5. ROVIBRATIONALLY RESOLVED DIRECT PHOTODISSOCIATION THROUGH THE LYMAN AND WERNER TRANSITIONS OF H2 FOR FUV/X-RAY-IRRADIATED ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, C. D.; Porter, R. L.; Stancil, P. C.; Abel, N. P.; Ferland, G. J.; Shaw, G.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.; Williams, R. J. R.

    2012-01-01

    Using ab initio potential curves and dipole transition moments, cross-section calculations were performed for the direct continuum photodissociation of H 2 through the B 1 Σ + u 1 Σ + g (Lyman) and C 1 Π u 1 Σ + g (Werner) transitions. Partial cross-sections were obtained for wavelengths from 100 Å to the dissociation threshold between the upper electronic state and each of the 301 bound rovibrational levels v''J'' within the ground electronic state. The resulting cross-sections are incorporated into three representative classes of interstellar gas models: diffuse clouds, photon-dominated regions, and X-ray-dominated regions (XDRs). The models, which used the CLOUDY plasma/molecular spectra simulation code, demonstrate that direct photodissociation is comparable to fluorescent dissociation (or spontaneous radiative dissociation, the Solomon process) as an H 2 destruction mechanism in intense far-ultraviolet or X-ray-irradiated gas. In particular, changes in H 2 rotational column densities are found to be as large as 20% in the XDR model with the inclusion of direct photodissociation. The photodestruction rate from some high-lying rovibrational levels can be enhanced by pumping from H Lyβ due to a wavelength coincidence with cross-section resonances resulting from quasi-bound levels of the upper electronic states. Given the relatively large size of the photodissociation data set, a strategy is described to create truncated, but reliable, cross-section data consistent with the wavelength resolving power of typical observations.

  6. Far-UV Spectral Mapping of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering: LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K.; Gladstone, R.; Liu, Y.; Hendrix, A. R.; Hurley, D.; Cahill, J. T.; Stickle, A. M.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Grava, C.; Pryor, W. R.

    2016-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids obtained within the last decade have ushered in a new era of scientific advancement for UV surface investigations. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, and LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. Prospects for future studies are further enabled by a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode enacted during the present LRO mission extension.

  7. Metals and dust in the neutral ISM: the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and damped Lyman-α absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cia, Annalisa

    2018-05-01

    Context. The presence of dust in the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) dramatically changes the metal abundances that we measure. Understanding the metal content in the neutral ISM, and a direct comparison between different environments, has been hampered to date because of the degeneracy to the observed ISM abundances caused by the effects of metallicity, the presence of dust, and nucleosynthesis. Aims: We study the metal and dust content in the neutral ISM consistently in different environments, and assess the universality of recently discovered sequences of relative abundances. We also intend to assess the validity of [Zn/Fe] as a tracer of dust in the ISM. This has recently been cast into doubt based on observations of stellar abundances, and needs to be addressed before we can safely use it to study the ISM. Methods: In this letter we present a simple comparison of relative abundances observed in the neutral ISM in the Galaxy, the Magellanic Clouds, and damped Lyman-α absorbers (DLAs). The main novelty in this comparison is the inclusion of the Magellanic Clouds. Results: The same sequences of relative abundances are valid for the Galaxy, Magellanic Clouds, and DLAs. These sequences are driven by the presence of dust in the ISM and seem "universal". Conclusions: The metal and dust properties in the neutral ISM appear to follow a similar behaviour in different environments. This suggests that a dominant fraction of the dust budget is built up from grain growth in the ISM depending of the physical conditions and regardless of the star formation history of the system. In addition, the DLA gas behaves like the neutral ISM, at least from a chemical point of view. Finally, despite the deviations in [Zn/Fe] observed in stellar abundances, [Zn/Fe] is a robust dust tracer in the ISM of different environments, from the Galaxy to DLAs.

  8. First Results from the Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) Survey: Cosmological Reionization at z ∼ 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zhen-Ya; Jiang, Chunyan [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang, Junxian; Hu, Weida; Kong, Xu [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Rhoads, James; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Gonzalez, Alicia [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Infante, Leopoldo; Galaz, Gaspar; Barrientos, L. Felipe [Institute of Astrophysics and Center for Astroengineering, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago 7820436 (Chile); Walker, Alistair R. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Jiang, Linhua [The Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hibon, Pascale [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Casilla 19001, Santiago (Chile); Zheng, XianZhong, E-mail: zhengzy@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linfante@astro.puc.cl, E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: Sangeeta.Malhotra@asu.edu, E-mail: James.Rhoads@asu.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-06-20

    We present the first results from the ongoing Lyman Alpha Galaxies in the Epoch of Reionization (LAGER) project, which is the largest narrowband survey for z ∼ 7 galaxies to date. Using a specially built narrowband filter NB964 for the superb large-area Dark Energy Camera (DECam) on the NOAO/CTIO 4 m Blanco telescope, LAGER has collected 34 hr NB964 narrowband imaging data in the 3 deg{sup 2} COSMOS field. We have identified 23 Ly α Emitter candidates at z = 6.9 in the central 2-deg{sup 2} region, where DECam and public COSMOS multi-band images exist. The resulting luminosity function (LF) can be described as a Schechter function modified by a significant excess at the bright end (four galaxies with L {sub Lyα∼} 10{sup 43.4±0.2} erg s{sup −1}). The number density at L {sub Ly} {sub α} ∼ 10{sup 43.4±0.2} erg s{sup −1} is little changed from z = 6.6, while at fainter L {sub Lyα} it is substantially reduced. Overall, we see a fourfold reduction in Ly α luminosity density from z = 5.7 to z = 6.9. Combined with a more modest evolution of the continuum UV luminosity density, this suggests a factor of ∼3 suppression of Ly α by radiative transfer through the z ∼ 7 intergalactic medium (IGM). It indicates an IGM neutral fraction of x {sub Hi} ∼ 0.4–0.6 (assuming Ly α velocity offsets of 100–200 km s{sup −1}). The changing shape of the Ly α LF between z ≲ 6.6 and z = 6.9 supports the hypothesis of ionized bubbles in a patchy reionization at z ∼ 7.

  9. Predicting Lung Radiotherapy-Induced Pneumonitis Using a Model Combining Parametric Lyman Probit With Nonparametric Decision Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Shiva K.; Zhou Sumin; Zhang, Junan; Yin, F.-F.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and test a model to predict for lung radiation-induced Grade 2+ pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: The model was built from a database of 234 lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT), of whom 43 were diagnosed with pneumonitis. The model augmented the predictive capability of the parametric dose-based Lyman normal tissue complication probability (LNTCP) metric by combining it with weighted nonparametric decision trees that use dose and nondose inputs. The decision trees were sequentially added to the model using a 'boosting' process that enhances the accuracy of prediction. The model's predictive capability was estimated by 10-fold cross-validation. To facilitate dissemination, the cross-validation result was used to extract a simplified approximation to the complicated model architecture created by boosting. Application of the simplified model is demonstrated in two example cases. Results: The area under the model receiver operating characteristics curve for cross-validation was 0.72, a significant improvement over the LNTCP area of 0.63 (p = 0.005). The simplified model used the following variables to output a measure of injury: LNTCP, gender, histologic type, chemotherapy schedule, and treatment schedule. For a given patient RT plan, injury prediction was highest for the combination of pre-RT chemotherapy, once-daily treatment, female gender and lowest for the combination of no pre-RT chemotherapy and nonsquamous cell histologic type. Application of the simplified model to the example cases revealed that injury prediction for a given treatment plan can range from very low to very high, depending on the settings of the nondose variables. Conclusions: Radiation pneumonitis prediction was significantly enhanced by decision trees that added the influence of nondose factors to the LNTCP formulation

  10. Resonant line transfer in a fog: using Lyman-alpha to probe tiny structures in atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronke, Max; Dijkstra, Mark; McCourt, Michael; Peng Oh, S.

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by observational and theoretical work that suggest very small-scale (≲ 1 pc) structure in the circumgalactic medium of galaxies and in other environments, we study Lyman-α (Lyα) radiative transfer in an extremely clumpy medium with many clouds of neutral gas along the line of sight. While previous studies have typically considered radiative transfer through sightlines intercepting ≲ 10 clumps, we explored the limit of a very large number of clumps per sightline (up to fc 1000). Our main finding is that, for covering factors greater than some critical threshold, a multiphase medium behaves similarly to a homogeneous medium in terms of the emergent Lyα spectrum. The value of this threshold depends on both the clump column density and the movement of the clumps. We estimated this threshold analytically and compare our findings to radiative transfer simulations with a range of covering factors, clump column densities, radii, and motions. Our results suggest that (I) the success in fitting observed Lyα spectra using homogeneous "shell models" (and the corresponding failure of multiphase models) hints at the presence of very small-scale structure in neutral gas, which is in agreement within a number of other observations; and (II) the recurrent problems of reproducing realistic line profiles from hydrodynamical simulations may be due to their inability to resolve small-scale structure, which causes simulations to underestimate the effective covering factor of neutral gas clouds. The movie associated to Fig. B.2 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  11. On the UV compactness and morphologies of typical Lyman α emitters from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Afonso, Ana; Sobral, David; Ribeiro, Bruno; Matthee, Jorryt; Santos, Sérgio; Calhau, João; Forshaw, Alex; Johnson, Andrea; Merrick, Joanna; Pérez, Sara; Sheldon, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the rest-frame UV morphologies of a large sample of Lyman α emitters (LAEs) from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6, selected in a uniform way with 16 different narrow and medium bands over the full COSMOS field. We use 3045 LAEs with Hubble Space Telescope coverage in a stacking analysis and find that they have MUV ˜ -20, below M_UV^\\ast at these redshifts. We also focus our analysis on a subsample of 780 individual galaxies with iAB < 25 for which GALFIT converges for 429 of them. The individual median size (re ˜ 1 kpc), ellipticities [slightly elongated with (b/a) ˜ 0.45], Sérsic index (disc-like with n ≲ 2), and light concentration (comparable to that of disc or irregular galaxies, with C ˜ 2.7) of LAEs show mild evolution from z ˜ 2 to z ˜ 6. LAEs with the highest rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) are the smallest/most compact (re ˜ 0.8 kpc, compared to re ˜ 1.5 kpc for the lower EW LAEs). When stacking our samples in bins of fixed Lyα luminosity and Lyα EW, we find evidence for redshift evolution in n and C, but not in galaxy sizes. The evolution seems to be stronger for LAEs with 25 < EW < 100 Å. When compared to other star-forming galaxies (SFGs), LAEs are found to be smaller at all redshifts. The difference between the two populations changes with redshift, from a factor of ˜1 at z ≳ 5 to SFGs being a factor of ˜2-4 larger than LAEs for z ≲ 2. This means that at the highest redshifts, where typical sizes approach those of LAEs, the fraction of galaxies showing Lyα in emission (and with a high Lyα escape fraction) should be much higher, consistent with observations.

  12. The HDUV Survey: Six Lyman Continuum Emitter Candidates at z ˜ 2 Revealed by HST UV Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, R. P.; Oesch, P. A.; Reddy, N.; Holden, B.; Steidel, C. C.; Montes, M.; Atek, H.; Bouwens, R. J.; Carollo, C. M.; Cibinel, A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Labbé, I.; Magee, D.; Morselli, L.; Nelson, E. J.; van Dokkum, P. G.; Wilkins, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present six galaxies at z˜ 2 that show evidence of Lyman continuum (LyC) emission based on the newly acquired UV imaging of the Hubble Deep UV legacy survey (HDUV) conducted with the WFC3/UVIS camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). At the redshift of these sources, the HDUV F275W images partially probe the ionizing continuum. By exploiting the HST multiwavelength data available in the HDUV/GOODS fields, models of the UV spectral energy distributions, and detailed Monte Carlo simulations of the intergalactic medium absorption, we estimate the absolute ionizing photon escape fractions of these galaxies to be very high—typically > 60 % (> 13 % for all sources at 90% likelihood). Our findings are in broad agreement with previous studies that found only a small fraction of galaxies with high escape fraction. These six galaxies compose the largest sample yet of LyC leaking candidates at z˜ 2 whose inferred LyC flux has been observed at HST resolution. While three of our six candidates show evidence of hosting an active galactic nucleus, two of these are heavily obscured and their LyC emission appears to originate from star-forming regions rather than the central nucleus. Extensive multiwavelength data in the GOODS fields, especially the near-IR grism spectra from the 3D-HST survey, enable us to study the candidates in detail and tentatively test some recently proposed indirect methods to probe LyC leakage. High-resolution spectroscopic follow-up of our candidates will help constrain such indirect methods, which are our only hope of studying f esc at z˜ 5-9 in the JWST era. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  13. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.

    2014-03-01

    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The SED models, which include nebular emission shed new light on the properties of LBGs with numerous important implications. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Linearity Analysis and Efficiency Testing of The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) Science Cameras for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Salma C.; Rachmeler, Laurel; Winebarger, Amy; Champey, Patrick; Bethge, Christian

    2018-01-01

    To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to elucidate the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in Hydrogen Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this emission line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Magnesium II h & k emission lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.

  15. LRO Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) Far-UV Investigations of Lunar Composition, Porosity, and Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, R.; Hendrix, A.; Cahill, J. T.; Liu, Y.; Grava, C.; Hurley, D.; Egan, A.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Raut, U.; Byron, B. D.; Magana, L. O.; Stickle, A. M.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Pryor, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Far ultraviolet reflectance measurements of the Moon, icy satellites, comets, and asteroids have proven surprisingly useful for advancing our understanding of planetary surfaces. This new appreciation for planetary far-UV imaging spectroscopy is provided in large part thanks to nearly a decade of investigations with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP). LAMP has demonstrated an innovative nightside observing technique, putting a new light on permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and other features on the Moon. Dayside far-UV albedo maps complement the nightside data, enabling comparisons of direct and hemispheric (diffuse) illumination derived albedos. We'll discuss the strengths of the far-UV reflectance imaging spectroscopy technique with respect to several new LAMP results. Detections of water frost and hydration signatures near 165 nm, for example, provide constraints on composition that complement infrared spectroscopy, visible imaging, neutron spectroscopy, radar, and other techniques. LRO's polar orbit and high data downlink capabilities enable searches for diurnal variations in spectral signals. At far-UV wavelengths a relatively blue spectral slope is diagnostic of space weathering, which is opposite of the spectral reddening indicator of maturity at wavelengths longward of 180 nm. By utilizing natural diffuse illumination sources on the nightside the far-UV technique is able to identify relative increases in porosity within the PSRs, and provides an additional tool for determining relative surface ages. On October 6, 2016 LAMP enacted a new, more sensitive dayside operating mode that expands its ability to search for diurnally varying hydration signals associated with different regions and features.

  16. THE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES BETWEEN REDSHIFT 4 AND 6: OBSERVING SUCCESSIVE GENERATIONS OF MASSIVE GALAXIES IN FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, Daniel P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Targett, Tom; Benson, Andrew; Bunker, Andrew; Bundy, Kevin; Lacy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present new measurements of the evolution in the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) population between z ≅ 4 and z ≅ 6. By utilizing the extensive multiwavelength data sets available in the GOODS fields, we identify 2443 B, 506 V, and 137 i'-band dropout galaxies likely to be at z ∼ 4, 5, and 6. For the subset of dropouts for which reliable Spitzer IRAC photometry is feasible (roughly 35% of the sample), we estimate luminosity-weighted ages and stellar masses. With the goal of understanding the duration of typical star formation episodes in galaxies at z ∼> 4, we examine the distribution of stellar masses and ages as a function of cosmic time. We find that at a fixed rest-UV luminosity, the average stellar masses and ages of galaxies do not increase significantly between z ≅ 6 and 4. In order to maintain this near equilibrium in the average properties of high-redshift LBGs, we argue that there must be a steady flux of young, newly luminous objects at each successive redshift. When considered along with the short duty cycles inferred from clustering measurements, these results may suggest that galaxies are undergoing star formation episodes lasting only several hundred million years. In contrast to the unchanging relationship between the average stellar mass and rest-UV luminosity, we find that the number density of massive galaxies increases considerably with time over 4 ∼ 11 M sun ) z ≅ 2-3 distant red galaxies (DRGs) were in part assembled in an LBG phase at earlier times. Integrating the growth in the stellar mass function of actively forming LBGs over 4 ∼ 3 LBGs could have contributed significantly to the quiescent DRG population, indicating that the intense star-forming systems probed by submillimeter observations are not the only route toward the assembly of DRGs at z ≅ 2.

  17. PREDOMINANTLY LOW METALLICITIES MEASURED IN A STRATIFIED SAMPLE OF LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS AT Z  = 3.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidden, Ana; Cooper, Thomas J.; Simcoe, Robert A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cooksey, Kathy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, 200 West Kāwili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); O’Meara, John M., E-mail: aglidden@mit.edu, E-mail: tjcooper@mit.edu, E-mail: simcoe@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@hawaii.edu, E-mail: jomeara@smcvt.edu [Department of Physics, Saint Michael’s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We measured metallicities for 33 z = 3.4–4.2 absorption line systems drawn from a sample of H i-selected-Lyman limit systems (LLSs) identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar spectra and stratified based on metal line features. We obtained higher-resolution spectra with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager, selecting targets according to our stratification scheme in an effort to fully sample the LLS population metallicity distribution. We established a plausible range of H i column densities and measured column densities (or limits) for ions of carbon, silicon, and aluminum, finding ionization-corrected metallicities or upper limits. Interestingly, our ionization models were better constrained with enhanced α -to-aluminum abundances, with a median abundance ratio of [ α /Al] = 0.3. Measured metallicities were generally low, ranging from [M/H] = −3 to −1.68, with even lower metallicities likely for some systems with upper limits. Using survival statistics to incorporate limits, we constructed the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for LLS metallicities. Recent models of galaxy evolution propose that galaxies replenish their gas from the low-metallicity intergalactic medium (IGM) via high-density H i “flows” and eject enriched interstellar gas via outflows. Thus, there has been some expectation that LLSs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ≈ 3) might have a bimodal metallicity distribution. We modeled our CDF as a mix of two Gaussian distributions, one reflecting the metallicity of the IGM and the other representative of the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. This bimodal distribution yielded a poor fit. A single Gaussian distribution better represented the sample with a low mean metallicity of [M/H] ≈ −2.5.

  18. Linearity Analysis and Efficiency Testing of The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) Science Cameras for Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, S. C.; Rachmeler, L.; Winebarger, A. R.; Champey, P. R.; Bethge, C.

    2017-12-01

    To unveil the complexity of the solar atmosphere, measurement of the magnetic field in the upper chromosphere and transition region is fundamentally important, as this is where the forces transition from plasma to magnetic field dominated. Measurements of the field are also needed to shed light on the energy transport from the lower atmospheric regions to the corona beyond. Such an advance in heliospheric knowledge became possible with the first flight of the international solar sounding rocket mission, CLASP. For the first time, linear polarization was measured in H Lyman-Alpha at 121.60 nm in September 2015. For linear polarization measurements in this line, high sensitivity is required due to the relatively weak polarization signal compared to the intensity. To achieve this high sensitivity, a low-noise sensor is required with good knowledge of its characterization, including linearity. This work presents further refinement of the linearity characterization of the cameras flown in 2015. We compared the current from a photodiode in the light path to the digital response of the detectors. Pre-flight CCD linearity measurements were taken for all three flight cameras and calculations of the linear fits and residuals were performed. However, the previous calculations included a smearing pattern and a digital saturation region on the detectors which were not properly taken into account. The calculations have been adjusted and were repeated for manually chosen sub-regions on the detectors that were found not to be affected. We present a brief overview of the instrument, the calibration data and procedures, and a comparison of the old and new linearity results. The CLASP cameras will be reused for the successor mission, CLASP2, which will measure the Mg II h & k lines between 279.45 nm and 280.35 nm. The new approach will help to better prepare for and to improve the camera characterization for CLASP2.

  19. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg A. Louchev; Norihito Saito; Yu Oishi; Koji Miyazaki; Kotaro Okamura; Jumpei Nakamura; Masahiko Iwasaki; Satoshi Wada

    2016-01-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by genera...

  20. Lyman continuum escape fraction of faint galaxies at z 3.3 in the CANDELS/GOODS-North, EGS, and COSMOS fields with LBC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Paris, D.; Boutsia, K.; Dickinson, M.; Santini, P.; Windhorst, R. A.; Jansen, R. A.; Cohen, S. H.; Ashcraft, T. A.; Scarlata, C.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Vanzella, E.; Cusano, F.; Cristiani, S.; Giavalisco, M.; Ferguson, H. C.; Koekemoer, A.; Grogin, N. A.; Castellano, M.; Fiore, F.; Fontana, A.; Marchi, F.; Pedichini, F.; Pentericci, L.; Amorín, R.; Barro, G.; Bonchi, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Faber, S. M.; Fumana, M.; Galametz, A.; Guaita, L.; Kocevski, D. D.; Merlin, E.; Nonino, M.; O'Connell, R. W.; Pilo, S.; Ryan, R. E.; Sani, E.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.; Weiner, B.; Yan, H.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The reionization of the Universe is one of the most important topics of present-day astrophysical research. The most plausible candidates for the reionization process are star-forming galaxies, which according to the predictions of the majority of the theoretical and semi-analytical models should dominate the H I ionizing background at z ≳ 3. Aims: We measure the Lyman continuum escape fraction, which is one of the key parameters used to compute the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the UV background. It provides the ratio between the photons produced at λ ≤ 912 Å rest-frame and those that are able to reach the inter-galactic medium, I.e. that are not absorbed by the neutral hydrogen or by the dust of the galaxy's inter-stellar medium. Methods: We used ultra-deep U-band imaging (U = 30.2 mag at 1σ) from Large Binocular Camera at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBC/LBT) in the CANDELS/GOODS-North field and deep imaging in the COSMOS and EGS fields in order to estimate the Lyman continuum escape fraction of 69 star-forming galaxies with secure spectroscopic redshifts at 3.27 ≤ z ≤ 3.40 to faint magnitude limits (L = 0.2L∗, or equivalently M1500 - 19). The narrow redshift range implies that the LBC U-band filter exclusively samples the λ ≤ 912 Å rest-frame wavelengths. Results: We measured through stacks a stringent upper limit (L∗), while for the faint population (L = 0.2L∗) the limit to the escape fraction is ≲ 10%. We computed the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the observed UV background at z 3 and find that it is not sufficient to keep the Universe ionized at these redshifts unless their escape fraction increases significantly (≥ 10%) at low luminosities (M1500 ≥ - 19). Conclusions: We compare our results on the Lyman continuum escape fraction of high-z galaxies with recent estimates in the literature, and discuss future prospects to shed light on the end of the Dark Ages. In the future, strong gravitational

  1. Summation of series

    CERN Document Server

    Jolley, LB W

    2004-01-01

    Over 1,100 common series, all grouped for easy reference. Arranged by category, these series include arithmetical and geometrical progressions, powers and products of natural numbers, figurate and polygonal numbers, inverse natural numbers, exponential and logarithmic series, binomials, simple inverse products, factorials, trigonometrical and hyperbolic expansions, and additional series. 1961 edition.

  2. The effect of stellar evolution uncertainties on the rest-frame ultraviolet stellar lines of C IV and He II in high-redshift Lyman-break galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, John J.; Stanway, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    Young, massive stars dominate the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of star-forming galaxies. At high redshifts (z > 2), these rest-frame UV features are shifted into the observed-frame optical and a combination of gravitational lensing, deep spectroscopy and spectral stacking analysis allows the stellar population characteristics of these sources to be investigated. We use our stellar population synthesis code Binary Population and Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) to fit two strong rest-frame UV spectral features in published Lyman-break galaxy spectra, taking into account the effects of binary evolution on the stellar spectrum. In particular, we consider the effects of quasi-homogeneous evolution (arising from the rotational mixing of rapidly rotating stars), metallicity and the relative abundance of carbon and oxygen on the observed strengths of He IIλ1640 Å and C IVλ1548, 1551 Å spectral lines. We find that Lyman-break galaxy spectra at z ˜ 2-3 are best fitted with moderately sub-solar metallicities, and with a depleted carbon-to-oxygen ratio. We also find that the spectra of the lowest metallicity sources are best fitted with model spectra in which the He II emission line is boosted by the inclusion of the effect of massive stars being spun-up during binary mass transfer so these rapidly rotating stars experience quasi-homogeneous evolution.

  3. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ≅ 1-3 IN THE HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Yan, H.; O'Connell, R. W.; Straughn, A. N.; Kimble, R. A.; Balick, B.; Calzetti, D.; Disney, M. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, D. N. B.; Holtzman, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ≅ 1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 arcmin 2 in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z ≅ 1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high-redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout-selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope β is redder than at high redshift (z > 3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z ≅ 1-3 are massive, dustier, and more highly star forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities (0.1L* ∼ 3, a true Lyman break selection at z ≅ 2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys, both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties and their evolution.

  4. SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS ∼4, 5, AND 6 IN THE GOODS-SOUTH FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Giavalisco, M.; Dickinson, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Popesso, P.; Rosati, P.; Cesarsky, C.; Renzini, A.; Stern, D.; Ferguson, H. C.

    2009-01-01

    We report on observations of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey at mean redshifts z ∼ 4, 5, and 6 (B 435 -, V 606 -, and i 775 -band dropouts, respectively), obtained with the red-sensitive FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO VLT. This program has yielded spectroscopic identifications for 114 galaxies (∼60% of the targeted sample), of which 51 are at z ∼ 4, 31 at z ∼ 5, and 32 at z ∼ 6. We demonstrate that the adopted selection criteria are effective, identifying galaxies at the expected redshift with minimal foreground contamination. Of the 10% interlopers, 83% turn out to be Galactic stars. Once selection effects are properly accounted for, the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the higher redshift LBGs appear to be similar to their counterparts at z ∼ 3. As at z ∼ 3, LBGs at z ∼ 4 and z ∼ 5 are observed with Lyα both in emission and in absorption; when in absorption, strong interstellar lines are also observed in the spectra. The stacked spectra of Lyα absorbers and emitters also show that the former have redder UV spectra and stronger but narrower interstellar lines, a fact also observed at z ∼ 2 and 3. At z ∼ 6, sensitivity issues bias our sample toward galaxies with Lyα in emission; nevertheless, these spectra appear to be similar to their lower redshift counterparts. As in other studies at similar redshifts, we find clear evidence that brighter LBGs tend to have weaker Lyα emission lines. At fixed rest-frame UV luminosity, the equivalent width of the Lyα emission line is larger at higher redshifts. At all redshifts where the measurements can be reliably made, the redshift of the Lyα emission line turns out to be larger than that of the interstellar absorption lines (ISLs), with a median velocity difference ΔV ∼ 400 km s -1 at z ∼ 4 and 5, consistent with results at lower redshifts. This shows that powerful, large-scale winds are common at high redshift. In general, there is no

  5. Deep R-band counts of z ≈ 3 Lyman-break galaxy candidates with the LBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsia, K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Castellano, M.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Fiore, F.; Gallozzi, S.; Cusano, F.; Paris, D.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: We present a deep multiwavelength imaging survey (UGR) in 3 different fields, Q0933, Q1623, and COSMOS, for a total area of ~1500 arcmin2. The data were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Methods: To select our Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates, we adopted the well established and widely used color-selection criterion (U - G vs. G - R). One of the main advantages of our survey is that it has a wider dynamic color range for U-dropout selection than in previous studies. This allows us to fully exploit the depth of our R-band images, obtaining a robust sample with few interlopers. In addition, for 2 of our fields we have spectroscopic redshift information that is needed to better estimate the completeness of our sample and interloper fraction. Results: Our limiting magnitudes reach 27.0(AB) in the R band (5σ) and 28.6(AB) in the U band (1σ). This dataset was used to derive LBG candidates at z ≈ 3. We obtained a catalog with a total of 12 264 sources down to the 50% completeness magnitude limit in the R band for each field. We find a surface density of ~3 LBG candidates arcmin-2 down to R = 25.5, where completeness is ≥95% for all 3 fields. This number is higher than the original studies, but consistent with more recent samples. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mt. Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.Full Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF z {approx} 7 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES: PROBING THE EARLIEST GALAXIES AND THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Boutsia, K.; Giallongo, E.; Maiolino, R.; Paris, D.; Santini, P. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33,00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Dijkstra, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Giavalisco, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Moorwood, A., E-mail: laura.pentericci@oa-roma.inaf.it [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-12-20

    We present the final results from our ultra-deep spectroscopic campaign with FORS2 at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) for the confirmation of z {approx_equal} 7 'z-band dropout' candidates selected from our VLT/Hawk-I imaging survey over three independent fields. In particular, we report on two newly discovered galaxies at redshift {approx}6.7 in the New Technology Telescope Deep Field. Both galaxies show an Ly{alpha} emission line with rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) of the order of 15-20 A and luminosities of (2-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. We also present the results of ultra-deep observations of a sample of i-dropout galaxies, from which we set a solid upper limit on the fraction of interlopers. Out of the 20 z-dropouts observed we confirm 5 galaxies at 6.6 < z < 7.1. This is systematically below the expectations drawn on the basis of lower redshift observations: in particular, there is a significant lack of objects with intermediate Ly{alpha} EWs (between 20 and 55 A). We conclude that the observed trend for the rising fraction of Ly{alpha} emission in Lyman break galaxies from z {approx} 3 to z {approx} 6 is most probably reversed from z {approx} 6 to z {approx} 7. Explaining the observed rapid change in the Ly{alpha} emitter fraction among the dropout population with reionization requires a fast evolution of the neutral fraction of hydrogen in the universe. Assuming that the universe is completely ionized at z = 6 and adopting a set of semi-analytical models, we find that our data require a change of the neutral hydrogen fraction of the order of {Delta}{chi}{sub H{sub i}}{approx}0.6 in a time {Delta}z {approx} 1, provided that the escape fraction does not increase dramatically over the same redshift interval.

  7. Fluorescence Lyman-Alpha Stratospheric Hygrometer (FLASH): application on meteorological balloons, long duration balloons and unmanned aerial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykov, Alexey; Khaykin, Sergey; Yushkov, Vladimir; Efremov, Denis; Formanyuk, Ivan; Astakhov, Valeriy

    The FLASH instrument is based on the fluorescent method, which uses H2O molecules photodissociation at a wavelength lambda=121.6 nm (Lalpha - hydrogen emission) followed by the measurement of the fluorescence of excited OH radicals. The source of Lyman-alpha radiation is a hydrogen discharge lamp while the detector of OH fluorescence at 308 -316 nm is a photomultiplier run in photon counting mode. The intensity of the fluorescent light as well as the instrument readings is directly proportional to the water vapor mixing ratio under stratospheric conditions with negligible oxygen absorption. Initially designed for rocket-borne application, FLASH has evolved into a light-weight balloon sonde (FLASH-B) for measurements in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on board meteorological and small plastic balloons. This configuration has been used in over 100 soundings at numerous tropical mid-latitude and polar locations within various international field campaigns. An airborne version of FLASH instrument is successfully utilized onboard stratospheric M55-Geophysica aircraft and tropospheric airborne laboratory YAK42-Roshydromet. The hygrometer was modified for application onboard stratospheric long-duration balloons (FLASH-LDB version). This version was successfully used onboard CNES super-pressure balloon launched from SSC Esrange in March 2007 and flown during 10 days. Special design for polar long duration balloon PoGOLite was created for testing work during polar day in June 2013. Installation and measurement peculiarities as well as observational results are presented. Observations of water vapour using FLASH-B instrument, being of high quality are rather costly as the payload recovery is often complicated and most of the time impossible. Following the goal to find a cost-efficient solution, FLASH was adapted for use onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). This solution was only possible thanks to compactness and light-weight (0.5 kg) of FLASH instrument. The

  8. Geometric Series via Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  9. On the series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/115/04/0371-0381. Keywords. Inverse binomial series; hypergeometric series; polylogarithms; integral representations. Abstract. In this paper we investigate the series ∑ k = 1 ∞ ( 3 k k ) − 1 k − n x k . Obtaining some integral representations of them, we evaluated the ...

  10. DETECTIONS OF LYMAN CONTINUUM FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z ∼ 3 THROUGH SUBARU/SUPRIME-CAM NARROW-BAND IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, I.; Inoue, A. K.; Matsuda, Y.; Furusawa, H.; Akiyama, M.; Hayashino, T.; Kousai, K.; Yamada, T.; Burgarella, D.; Deharveng, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    Knowing the amount of ionizing photons from young star-forming galaxies is of particular importance to understanding the reionization process. Here we report initial results of a Subaru/Suprime-Cam deep imaging observation of the SSA22 proto-cluster region at z = 3.09, using a special narrow-band filter to optimally trace ionizing radiation from galaxies at z ∼ 3. The unique wide field-of-view of Suprime-Cam enabled us to search for ionizing photons from 198 galaxies (73 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 125 Lyα emitters (LAEs)) with spectroscopically measured redshifts z ≅ 3.1. We detected ionizing radiation from 7 LBGs, as well as from 10 LAE candidates. Some of the detected galaxies show significant spatial offsets of ionizing radiation from nonionizing UV emission. For some LBGs the observed nonionizing UV to Lyman continuum flux density ratios are smaller than values expected from population synthesis models with a standard Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) with moderate dust attenuation (which is suggested from the observed UV slopes), even if we assume very transparent intergalactic medium along the sightlines of these objects. This implies an intrinsically bluer spectral energy distribution, e.g., that produced by a top-heavy IMF, for these LBGs. The observed flux density ratios of nonionizing UV to ionizing radiation of 7 detected LBGs range from 2.4 to 23.8 and the median is 6.6. The observed flux density ratios of the detected LAEs are even smaller than LBGs, if they are truly at z ≅ 3.1. We find that the median value of the flux density ratio for the detected LBGs suggests that their escape fractions are likely to be higher than 4%, if the Lyman continuum escape is isotropic. The results imply that some of the LBGs in the proto-cluster at z ∼ 3 have escape fraction significantly higher than that of galaxies (in a general field) at z ∼ 1 studied previously.

  11. Spectroscopic Observations of Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshifts ~4, 5, and 6 in the Goods-South Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Dickinson, M.; Cristiani, S.; Nonino, M.; Kuntschner, H.; Popesso, P.; Rosati, P.; Renzini, A.; Stern, D.; Cesarsky, C.; Ferguson, H. C.; Fosbury, R. A. E.

    2009-04-01

    We report on observations of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey at mean redshifts z ~ 4, 5, and 6 (B 435-, V 606-, and i 775-band dropouts, respectively), obtained with the red-sensitive FORS2 spectrograph at the ESO VLT. This program has yielded spectroscopic identifications for 114 galaxies (~60% of the targeted sample), of which 51 are at z ~ 4, 31 at z ~ 5, and 32 at z ~ 6. We demonstrate that the adopted selection criteria are effective, identifying galaxies at the expected redshift with minimal foreground contamination. Of the 10% interlopers, 83% turn out to be Galactic stars. Once selection effects are properly accounted for, the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the higher redshift LBGs appear to be similar to their counterparts at z ~ 3. As at z ~ 3, LBGs at z ~ 4 and z ~ 5 are observed with Lyα both in emission and in absorption; when in absorption, strong interstellar lines are also observed in the spectra. The stacked spectra of Lyα absorbers and emitters also show that the former have redder UV spectra and stronger but narrower interstellar lines, a fact also observed at z ~ 2 and 3. At z ~ 6, sensitivity issues bias our sample toward galaxies with Lyα in emission; nevertheless, these spectra appear to be similar to their lower redshift counterparts. As in other studies at similar redshifts, we find clear evidence that brighter LBGs tend to have weaker Lyα emission lines. At fixed rest-frame UV luminosity, the equivalent width of the Lyα emission line is larger at higher redshifts. At all redshifts where the measurements can be reliably made, the redshift of the Lyα emission line turns out to be larger than that of the interstellar absorption lines (ISLs), with a median velocity difference ΔV ~ 400 km s-1 at z ~ 4 and 5, consistent with results at lower redshifts. This shows that powerful, large-scale winds are common at high redshift. In general, there is no strong correlation between the

  12. Absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band of N2 as determined by high energy electron impact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.C.; Lee, J.S.; Wellenstein, H.F.; Bonham, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strength for the dipole forbidden quadrupole allowed Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band a 1 Pi/subg/ reverse arrow X 1 Σ + /subg/ in molecular nitrogen at an energy loss of 9.35 eV is observed by electron impact spectroscopy using 25 keV electrons over the momentum transfer range 0.04less than or equal toK 2 less than or equal to10 a.u. The results agree in the zero angle (zero momentum transfer) limit with the previous observations of Skerbele and Lassettre, but are in disagreement with previous theoretical and experimental results for K 2 >0.5. (auth)

  13. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  14. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  15. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  16. Visualizing the Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)

  17. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  18. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  19. Divergent Perturbation Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed

  20. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  1. Multivariate Time Series Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  2. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  3. Long time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisdal, H.; Holmqvist, E.; Hyvärinen, V.

    Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the......Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the...

  4. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx_equal} 1-3 IN THE HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yan, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Straughn, A. N.; Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: nhathi@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2013-03-10

    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx_equal} 1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 arcmin{sup 2} in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z {approx_equal} 1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high-redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout-selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope {beta} is redder than at high redshift (z > 3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z {approx_equal} 1-3 are massive, dustier, and more highly star forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities (0.1L* {approx}< L {approx}< 2.5L*), though their median values are similar within 1{sigma} uncertainties. This could imply that identical dropout selection technique, at all redshifts, finds physically similar galaxies; and (4) the stellar masses of these LBGs are directly proportional to their UV luminosities with a logarithmic slope of {approx}0.46, and star formation rates are proportional to their stellar masses with a logarithmic slope of {approx}0.90. These relations hold true-within luminosities probed in this study-for LBGs from z {approx_equal} 1.5 to 5. The star-forming galaxies selected using other color-based techniques show similar correlations at z {approx_equal} 2, but to avoid any selection biases, and for direct comparison with LBGs at z > 3, a true Lyman break selection at z {approx_equal} 2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys, both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties and their evolution.

  5. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  6. Predictions for measuring the cross power spectrum of the HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using OWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjan Kumar; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the possibility of measuring the cross-correlation of the redshifted HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using an upcoming radio-interferometric array OWFA and an spectroscopic observation like SDSS-IV. Our results shows that it is possible to have a 6 σ detection of the cross-correlation signal with OWFA PII using an observing time of 200 hrs each in Np = 25 independent fields-of-view. However, not much can be done beyond this using the cross-correlation signal for zc = 3.35 and B = 30 MHz. Apart from this, we have also envisaged a situation where observations are carried out at zc = 3.05 and 2.55 which lie closer to the peak of the quasar distribution at z = 2.25 and with a larger bandwidth of B = 60 MHz. We see that the SNR of the cross-correlation detection can be significantly enhanced to ~ 17 for zc = 2.55 and B = 60 MHz. It is then possible to measure βT and βF individually with an SNR >= 5 by combining the cross-correlation with the HI 21-cm auto-correlation measurements. We further find that a measurement of the binned cross-correlation power spectrum with SNR >= 5 is also possible in several bins at k <= 0.3 Mpc‑1.

  7. DEEP KECK u-BAND IMAGING OF THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: A CATALOG OF z ∼ 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, H.-W.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec -2 , making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ∼50% of the z ∼ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ∼ 3 and z ∼ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ∼ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  8. On the feasibility of studying the exospheres of Earth-like exoplanets by Lyman- α monitoring. Detectability constraints for nearby M stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ana I. Gómez de; Beitia-Antero, Leire; Ustamujic, Sabina

    2018-04-01

    Observations of the Earth's exosphere have unveiled an extended envelope of hydrogen reaching further than 10 Earth radii composed of atoms orbiting around the Earth. This large envelope increases significantly the opacity of the Earth to Lyman α (Ly α) photons coming from the Sun, to the point of making feasible the detection of the Earth's transit signature from 1.35 pc if pointing with an 8 meter primary mirror space telescope through a clean line of sight ( N H flux variability. We show that, in spite of the interstellar, heliospheric and astrospheric absorption, the transit signature in M5 V type stars would be detectable with a dedicated Ly α flux monitor implemented in a 4-8 m class space telescope. Such monitoring programs would enable measuring the robustness of planetary atmospheres under heavy space weather conditions like those produced by M-type stars. A 2-m class telescope, such as the World Space Observatory, would suffice to detect an Earth-like planet orbiting around Proxima Centauri, if there was such a planet or nearby M5 type stars.

  9. Measurement of the Antiprotonic Lyman- and Balmer X-rays of $\\overline{p}H$ and $\\overline{p}D$ Atoms at Very Low Target Pressures

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to measure the energies and intensities of the n @A 1 (Lyman) and n @A 2 (Balmer) tansitions with high accuracy in both @*H and @*D, from which the strong interaction effects of the 1s- and 2p-level can be extracted. These observables may be related to the antiproton-proton and antiproton-neutron scattering length. \\\\ \\\\ Since in these targets collisional Stark effect occurs, we will stop the antiprotons in extreme thin gaseous targets (pressure as low as 10 Torr), where no Stark effect occurs and the 2-1 transition is favoured. In order to use antiprotons with high efficiency despite of the low target density, we will trap antiprotons of a momentum of 100 MeV/c in a magnetic field of cyclotron characteristics. The antiprotons are decelerated by their energy loss in the target gas. The focusing properties of the magnetic field serve to compensate the multiple scattering and we will end up with a concentrated stopping distribution at the centre. Due to the long orbiting time, back...

  10. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg A. Louchev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i multi-photon ionization, (ii step-wise (2+1-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  11. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Lyα LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Tohru; Ota, Kazuaki; Ouchi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Lyα emission lines at 6 ≤ z ≤ 6.4. The median value of the Lyα rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is ∼50 Å, with four EWs >100 Å. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of –21.8 ≤ M UV ≤ –19.5 (0.6 ∼ 5 L* UV ) and a Lyα luminosity range of (0.3-3) × 10 43 erg s –1 (0.3-3 L* Lyα ). We derive the UV and Lyα luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) ∼ 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 6.

  12. Star Formation Rates in Lyman Break Galaxies: Radio Stacking of LBGs in the COSMOS Field and the Sub-μJy Radio Source Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Lee, Nicholas; Capak, P.; Schinnerer, E.; Lee, K.-S.; McCraken, H.; Yun, M. S.; Scoville, N.; Smolčić, V.; Giavalisco, M.; Datta, A.; Taniguchi, Y.; Urry, C. Megan

    2008-12-01

    We present an analysis of the radio properties of large samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ~ 3, 4, and 5 from the COSMOS field. The median stacking analysis yields a statistical detection of the z ~ 3 LBGs (U-band dropouts), with a 1.4 GHz flux density of 0.90 +/- 0.21 μJy. The stacked emission is unresolved, with a size = 3 is smaller than at lower redshifts. Conversely, the radio luminosity for a given star formation rate may be systematically lower at very high redshift. Two possible causes for a suppressed radio luminosity are (1) increased inverse Compton cooling of the relativistic electron population due to scattering off the increasing CMB at high redshift or (2) cosmic-ray diffusion from systematically smaller galaxies. The radio detections of individual sources are consistent with a radio-loud AGN fraction of 0.3%. One source is identified as a very dusty, extreme starburst galaxy (a "submillimeter galaxy"). Based on observations in the COSMOS Legacy Survey including those taken on the HST, Keck, NRAO-VLA, Subaru, KPNO 4 m, CTIO 4 m, and CFHT 3.6 m. The Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  13. Photoionization pathways and thresholds in generation of Lyman-α radiation by resonant four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-09-01

    We develop a set of analytical approximations for the estimation of the combined effect of various photoionization processes involved in the resonant four-wave mixing generation of ns pulsed Lyman-α (L-α ) radiation by using 212.556 nm and 820-845 nm laser radiation pulses in Kr-Ar mixture: (i) multi-photon ionization, (ii) step-wise (2+1)-photon ionization via the resonant 2-photon excitation of Kr followed by 1-photon ionization and (iii) laser-induced avalanche ionization produced by generated free electrons. Developed expressions validated by order of magnitude estimations and available experimental data allow us to identify the area for the operation under high input laser intensities avoiding the onset of full-scale discharge, loss of efficiency and inhibition of generated L-α radiation. Calculations made reveal an opportunity for scaling up the output energy of the experimentally generated pulsed L-α radiation without significant enhancement of photoionization.

  14. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-α-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Bakule, Pavel; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Koji; Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko

    2011-09-01

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-α (Ly-α) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-α generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-α radiation generation can achieve a value of ˜5×10-4 which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  15. High-efficiency generation of pulsed Lyman-α radiation by resonant laser wave mixing in low pressure Kr-Ar mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Norihito; Oishi, Yu; Miyazaki, Koji; Okamura, Kotaro; Nakamura, Jumpei; Louchev, Oleg A; Iwasaki, Masahiko; Wada, Satoshi

    2016-04-04

    We report an experimental generation of ns pulsed 121.568 nm Lyman-α radiation by the resonant nonlinear four-wave mixing of 212.556 nm and 845.015 nm radiation pulses providing a high conversion efficiency 1.7x10-3 with the output pulse energy 3.6 μJ achieved using a low pressure Kr-Ar mixture. Theoretical analysis shows that this efficiency is achieved due to the advantage of using (i) the high input laser intensities in combination with (ii) the low gas pressure allowing us to avoid the onset of full-scale discharge in the laser focus. In particular, under our experimental conditions the main mechanism of photoionization caused by the resonant 2-photon 212.556 nm radiation excitation of Kr atoms followed by the 1-photon ionization leads to ≈17% loss of Kr atoms and efficiency loss only by the end of the pulse. The energy of free electrons, generated by 212.556 nm radiation via (2 + 1)-photon ionization and accelerated mainly by 845.015 nm radiation, remains during the pulse below the level sufficient for the onset of full-scale discharge by the electron avalanche. Our analysis also suggests that ≈30-fold increase of 845.015 nm pulse energy can allow one to scale up the L-α radiation pulse energy towards the level of ≈100 μJ.

  16. Mechanism and computational model for Lyman-{alpha}-radiation generation by high-intensity-laser four-wave mixing in Kr-Ar gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Saito, Norihito; Wada, Satoshi [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Bakule, Pavel [STFC, ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Yokoyama, Koji [Advanced Science Institute, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama, 351-0198 (Japan); Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ishida, Katsuhiko; Iwasaki, Masahiko [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    We present a theoretical model combined with a computational study of a laser four-wave mixing process under optical discharge in which the non-steady-state four-wave amplitude equations are integrated with the kinetic equations of initial optical discharge and electron avalanche ionization in Kr-Ar gas. The model is validated by earlier experimental data showing strong inhibition of the generation of pulsed, tunable Lyman-{alpha} (Ly-{alpha}) radiation when using sum-difference frequency mixing of 212.6 nm and tunable infrared radiation (820-850 nm). The rigorous computational approach to the problem reveals the possibility and mechanism of strong auto-oscillations in sum-difference resonant Ly-{alpha} generation due to the combined effect of (i) 212.6-nm (2+1)-photon ionization producing initial electrons, followed by (ii) the electron avalanche dominated by 843-nm radiation, and (iii) the final breakdown of the phase matching condition. The model shows that the final efficiency of Ly-{alpha} radiation generation can achieve a value of {approx}5x10{sup -4} which is restricted by the total combined absorption of the fundamental and generated radiation.

  17. Visual time series analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a platform which supplies an easy-to-handle, interactive, extendable, and fast analysis tool for time series analysis. In contrast to other software suits like Maple, Matlab, or R, which use a command-line-like interface and where the user has to memorize/look-up the appropriate...... commands, our application is select-and-click-driven. It allows to derive many different sequences of deviations for a given time series and to visualize them in different ways in order to judge their expressive power and to reuse the procedure found. For many transformations or model-ts, the user may...... choose between manual and automated parameter selection. The user can dene new transformations and add them to the system. The application contains efficient implementations of advanced and recent techniques for time series analysis including techniques related to extreme value analysis and filtering...

  18. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  20. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    We document significant “time series momentum” in equity index, currency, commodity, and bond futures for each of the 58 liquid instruments we consider. We find persistence in returns for one to 12 months that partially reverses over longer horizons, consistent with sentiment theories of initial...... under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...

  1. Applied time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    ""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…

  2. Predicting chaotic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.D.; Sidorowich, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    We present a forecasting technique for chaotic data. After embedding a time series in a state space using delay coordinates, we ''learn'' the induced nonlinear mapping using local approximation. This allows us to make short-term predictions of the future behavior of a time series, using information based only on past values. We present an error estimate for this technique, and demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to several examples, including data from the Mackey-Glass delay differential equation, Rayleigh-Benard convection, and Taylor-Couette flow

  3. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  4. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  5. Series, Prof. George William

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1984 Honorary. Series, Prof. George William. Date of birth: 22 February 1920. Date of death: 2 January 1995. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  6. On the series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. On the Series ∑ k = 1 ∞ ( 3 k k ) − 1 k − n x k. Necdet Batir. Volume 115 Issue 4 November 2005 pp 371- ... Author Affiliations. Necdet Batir1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Yüzüncü Yil University, 65080 Van, Turkey ...

  7. Simple Hofmeister series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hofmeister, or lyotropic, series date back to 1888, when the founder arranged a large number of electrolytes in sequences with respect to their effectiveness salting out egg white. Since then the name has been applied to various phenomena involving ion specificity. In order to isolate effects

  8. Lyα-Lyman continuum connection in 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 4.3 star-forming galaxies from the VUDS survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, F.; Pentericci, L.; Guaita, L.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.; Castellano, M.; Ribeiro, B.; Garilli, B.; Fèvre, O. Le; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Cassata, P.; Durkalec, A.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Lemaux, B. C.; Maccagni, D.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.

    2018-06-01

    Context. To identify the galaxies responsible for the reionization of the Universe, we must rely on the investigation of the Lyman continuum (LyC) properties of z ≲ 5 star-forming galaxies, where we can still directly observe their ionizing radiation. Aims: The aim of this work is to explore the correlation between the LyC emission and some of the proposed indirect indicators of LyC radiation at z 4 such as a bright Lyα emission and a compact UV continuum size. Methods: We selected a sample of 201 star-forming galaxies from the Vimos Ultra Deep Survey (VUDS) at 3.5 ≤ z ≤ 4.3 in the COSMOS, ECDFS, and VVDS-2h fields, including only those with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, a clean spectrum in the LyC range and clearly not contaminated by bright nearby sources in the same slit. For all galaxies we measured the Lyα EW, the Lyα velocity shift with respect to the systemic redshift, the Lyα spatial extension and the UV continuum effective radius. We then selected different sub-samples according to the properties predicted to be good LyC emission indicators: in particular we created sub-samples of galaxies with EW(Lyα) ≥ 70 Å, Lyαext ≤ 5.7 kpc, rUV ≤ 0.30 kpc and |ΔvLyα|≤ 200 km s-1. We stacked all the galaxies in each sub-sample and measured the flux density ratio (fλ(895)/fλ(1470)), that we considered to be a proxy for LyC emission. We then compared these ratios to those obtained for the complementary samples. Finally, to estimate the statistical contamination from lower redshift inter-lopers in our samples, we performed dedicated Monte Carlo simulations using an ultradeep U-band image of the ECDFS field. Results: We find that the stacks of galaxies which are UV compact (rUV ≤ 0.30 kpc) and have bright Lyα emission (EW(Lyα) ≥ 70 Å), have much higher LyC fluxes compared to the rest of the galaxy population. These parameters appear to be good indicators of LyC radiation in agreement with theoretical studies and previous observational

  9. SU-F-T-103: Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using the Lyman NTCP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z; Li, B; Huang, W; Li, H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in analyzing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving conformal radiotherapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Between June 2009 and June 2012, 108 HBV-related HCC patients (90 were specifically selected and 18 patients were excluded) treated with conformal RT at three centers were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were all diagnosed as HCC by pathology or cytology. All 90 patients were followed up to September 2013 with a median follow-up time of 25.2 months. The parameters (TD50 (1), n, and m) of the modified LKB NTCP model were derived using maximum likelihood estimation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out were employed to test the generalizability of the results for use in a general population. Results: The incidences of complications in the study population were as follows: radiation-induced liver diseases (RILD) were 17.6%, HBV reactivation was 24.8%, and HBV reactivation-induced hepatitis was 22.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the NTCP (p<0.001), and V20 were associated with HBV reactivation. TD50 (1), m and n were 42.9Gy (95% CI) (38.2–46.8), 0.14 (0.12–0.15) and 0.30 (0.2–0.33), respectively, for HBV reactivation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out results showed that the HBV parameter fits were extremely robust. Conclusion: A modified LKB NTCP model has been established to predict HBV reactivation for patients with HCC receiving conformal RT. The finding derives parameters set to predict potential endpoints of HBV reactivation.

  10. SPITZER ULTRA FAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-DETECTED LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 BEHIND STRONG-LENSING CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: astrokuang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  11. SU-F-T-103: Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation After Conformal Radiotherapy in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using the Lyman NTCP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z; Li, B [Laboratory of Image Science and Technology, Southeast University (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences (China); Huang, W; Li, H [Department of Radiation Oncology, Shandong Cancer Hospital, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this research was to investigate the feasibility of Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in analyzing hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients receiving conformal radiotherapy for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Between June 2009 and June 2012, 108 HBV-related HCC patients (90 were specifically selected and 18 patients were excluded) treated with conformal RT at three centers were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were all diagnosed as HCC by pathology or cytology. All 90 patients were followed up to September 2013 with a median follow-up time of 25.2 months. The parameters (TD50 (1), n, and m) of the modified LKB NTCP model were derived using maximum likelihood estimation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out were employed to test the generalizability of the results for use in a general population. Results: The incidences of complications in the study population were as follows: radiation-induced liver diseases (RILD) were 17.6%, HBV reactivation was 24.8%, and HBV reactivation-induced hepatitis was 22.7%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, the NTCP (p<0.001), and V20 were associated with HBV reactivation. TD50 (1), m and n were 42.9Gy (95% CI) (38.2–46.8), 0.14 (0.12–0.15) and 0.30 (0.2–0.33), respectively, for HBV reactivation. Bootstrap and leave-one-out results showed that the HBV parameter fits were extremely robust. Conclusion: A modified LKB NTCP model has been established to predict HBV reactivation for patients with HCC receiving conformal RT. The finding derives parameters set to predict potential endpoints of HBV reactivation.

  12. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagao, Tohru [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ota, Kazuaki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 77-8582 (Japan)

    2011-12-10

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly{alpha} emission lines at 6 {<=} z {<=} 6.4. The median value of the Ly{alpha} rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is {approx}50 A, with four EWs >100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8 {<=} M{sub UV} {<=} -19.5 (0.6 {approx} 5 L*{sub UV}) and a Ly{alpha} luminosity range of (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-3 L*{sub Ly{alpha}}). We derive the UV and Ly{alpha} luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) {approx} 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 < z < 7. Our Ly{alpha} LF is also generally in agreement with the results of Ly{alpha}-emitter surveys at z {approx} 5.7 and 6.6. This study shows that deep spectroscopic observations of LBGs can provide unique constraints on both the UV and Ly{alpha} LFs at z > 6.

  13. Discovery of a transient U-band dropout in a lyman break survey: A tidally disrupted star at z=3.3?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Daniel; van Dokkum, P.G.; Nugent, Peter; Sand, D.J.; Ellis, R.S.; Sullivan, Mark; Bloom, J.S.; Frail, D.A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; Treu, Tommaso

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of a transient source in the central regions of galaxy cluster A267. The object, which we call ''PALS-1'', was found in a survey aimed at identifying highly magnified Lyman break galaxies in the fields of intervening rich clusters. At discovery, the source had Un>24:7 (2 ; AB), g 1/4 21:96 0:12, and very blue g r and ri colors; i.e., PALS-1 was a ''U-band dropout'', characteristic of star-forming galaxies and quasars at z 3. However, 3 months later the source had faded by more than 3 mag. Further observations showed a continued decline in luminosity, to R>26:4 at 7 months after discovery. Although the apparent brightness suggests a supernova at roughly the cluster redshift, we show that the photometry and light curve argue against any known type of supernova at any redshift. The spectral energy distribution and location near the center of a galaxy cluster are consistent with the hypothesis that PALS-1 is a gravitationally lensed transient at z 3:3. If this interpretation is correct, the source is magnified by a factor of 4 7, and two counter images are predicted. Our lens model predicts that there are time delays between the three images of 110 yr and that we have witnessed the final occurrence of the transient. The intense luminosity (MAB 23:5 after correcting for lensing) and blue UV continuum (implying T k50; 000 K) argue that the source may have been a flare resulting from the tidal disruption of a star by a 106108 M black hole. Regardless of its physical nature, PALS-1 highlights the importance of monitoring regions of high magnification in galaxy clusters for distant time-varying phenomena

  14. J1154+2443: a low-redshift compact star-forming galaxy with a 46 per cent leakage of Lyman continuum photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, Y. I.; Schaerer, D.; Worseck, G.; Guseva, N. G.; Thuan, T. X.; Verhamme, A.; Orlitová, I.; Fricke, K. J.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of the Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation of the compact star-forming galaxy (SFG) J1154+2443 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. This galaxy, at a redshift of z = 0.3690, is characterized by a high emission-line flux ratio O32 = [O III] λ5007/[O II] λ3727 = 11.5. The escape fraction of the LyC radiation fesc(LyC) in this galaxy is 46 per cent, the highest value found so far in low-redshift SFGs and one of the highest values found in galaxies at any redshift. The narrow double-peaked Ly α emission line is detected in the spectrum of J1154+2443 with a separation between the peaks Vsep of 199 km s-1, one of the lowest known for Ly α-emitting galaxies, implying a high fesc(Ly α). Comparing the extinction-corrected Ly α/H β flux ratio with the case B value, we find fesc(Ly α) = 98 per cent. Our observations, combined with previous detections in the literature, reveal an increase of O32 with increasing fesc(LyC). We also find a tight anticorrelation between fesc(LyC) and Vsep. The surface brightness profile derived from the COS acquisition image reveals a bright star-forming region in the centre and an exponential disc in the outskirts with a disc scale length α = 1.09 kpc. J1154+2443, compared to other known low-redshift LyC leakers, is characterized by the lowest metallicity, 12+log O/H = 7.65 ± 0.01, the lowest stellar mass M⋆ = 108.20 M⊙, a similar star formation rate SFR = 18.9 M⊙ yr-1, and a high specific SFR of 1.2 × 10-7 yr-1.

  15. Historia de las series

    OpenAIRE

    Cascajosa Virino, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Reseña: Historia de las series de Toni de la Torre: la gran impostura Durante mucho tiempo los profesores de cine en España se han quejado (amargamente y en privado) de la recurrencia en la bibliografía de los trabajos de sus estudiantes de los libros de un autor conocido por la escasa calidad de sus textos, cuyos vistosos títulos garantizan que acaben en las estanterías de las bibliotecas universitarias. Es muy propio de la cultura española hacer duras aseveraciones en foros irrelevantes y, ...

  16. Infinite sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Konrad

    1956-01-01

    One of the finest expositors in the field of modern mathematics, Dr. Konrad Knopp here concentrates on a topic that is of particular interest to 20th-century mathematicians and students. He develops the theory of infinite sequences and series from its beginnings to a point where the reader will be in a position to investigate more advanced stages on his own. The foundations of the theory are therefore presented with special care, while the developmental aspects are limited by the scope and purpose of the book. All definitions are clearly stated; all theorems are proved with enough detail to ma

  17. Tattoo reaction: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. In this series we present three cases of tattoo reaction.

  18. Murderers: a personal series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, N

    1979-01-27

    One hundred people who were accused either of murder (70 persons) or of attempted murder (30 persons) in Queensland were personally examined by the writer. The methods, motives, and ways of prevention of homicide are discussed. A considerable preportion of murderers in this series were either mentally ill or severely emotionally disturbed at the time the crime was committed, and at least one in 10 of these murders could have been prevented. It is recommended that the treatment and assessment of potentially violent psychotic patients should be undertaken more carefully, and that the antipsychiatrist campaigns for the freedom of the individual should be tempered with a consideration for public safety.

  19. Square summable power series

    CERN Document Server

    de Branges, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students introduces Hilbert space and analytic function theory, which is centered around the invariant subspace concept. The book's principal feature is the extensive use of formal power series methods to obtain and sometimes reformulate results of analytic function theory. The presentation is elementary in that it requires little previous knowledge of analysis, but it is designed to lead students to an advanced level of performance. This is achieved chiefly through the use of problems, many of which were proposed by former students. The book's

  20. Introduction to Time Series Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, Genshiro

    2010-01-01

    In time series modeling, the behavior of a certain phenomenon is expressed in relation to the past values of itself and other covariates. Since many important phenomena in statistical analysis are actually time series and the identification of conditional distribution of the phenomenon is an essential part of the statistical modeling, it is very important and useful to learn fundamental methods of time series modeling. Illustrating how to build models for time series using basic methods, "Introduction to Time Series Modeling" covers numerous time series models and the various tools f

  1. Antiderivative Series for Differentiable Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Roy M.

    2004-01-01

    A series defining the antiderivative of an n th order differentiable function is defined. This series provides an explicit expression for the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and can facilitate the establishment of new antiderivative functions.

  2. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  3. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  4. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  5. Globe: Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The LHC: an accelerator of science This series of lectures is all about understanding the scientific and technological challenges of the phenomenal LHC project and assessing its innovations through their everyday applications. Come and take a sneak preview of the LHC! Communicate: the Grid, a computer of global dimensions François Grey, head of communication in CERN’s Information Technology Department How will it be possible for the 15 million billion bytes of data generated by the LHC every year to be handled and stored by a computer that doesn’t have to be the size of a skyscraper? The computer scientists have the answer: the Grid, which will harness the power of tens of thousands of computers all over the world by creating a network of computers and making them operate as one. >>> Lectures are free and require no specialist knowledge. In french. 
 >>> By reservation only: tel. +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  6. STELLAR MASSES OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES, Lyα EMITTERS, AND RADIO GALAXIES IN OVERDENSE REGIONS AT z = 4-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overzier, Roderik A.; Shu Xinwen; Zheng Wei; Rettura, Alessandro; Zirm, Andrew; Ford, Holland; Bouwens, Rychard J.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Miley, George K.; Venemans, Bram; White, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    We present new information on galaxies in the vicinity of luminous radio galaxies (RGs) and quasars at z≅4, 5, and 6. These fields were previously found to contain overdensities of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) or spectroscopic Lyα emitters, which were interpreted as evidence for clusters-in-formation ('protoclusters'). We use Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer data to infer stellar masses from stellar synthesis models calibrated against the Millennium Run simulations, and contrast our results with large samples of LBGs in more average environments as probed by the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). The following results were obtained. First, LBGs in both overdense regions and in the field at z = 4-5 lie on a very similar sequence in a z'-[3.6] versus 3.6 μm color-magnitude diagram. This is interpreted as a sequence in stellar mass (M * ∼ 10 9 -10 11 M sun ) in which galaxies become increasingly red due to dust and age as their star formation rate (SFR) increases, while their specific SFR stays constant. Second, the two RGs are among the most massive objects (M * ∼ 10 11 M sun ) known to exist at z ≅ 4-5, and are extremely rare based on the low number density of such objects as estimated from the ∼25x larger area GOODS survey. We suggest that the presence of the massive (radio) galaxies and associated supermassive black holes has been boosted through rapid accretion of gas or merging inside overdense regions. Third, the total stellar mass found in the z = 4 protocluster TN1338 accounts for 4, based on a comparison with the massive X-ray cluster Cl1252 at z = 1.2. Although future near-infrared observations should determine whether any massive galaxies are currently being missed by our UV/Lyα selections, one possible explanation for this mass difference is that TN1338 evolves into a smaller cluster than Cl1252. This raises the interesting question of whether the most massive protocluster regions at z > 4 remain yet to be discovered.

  7. Discovery of a Transient U-Band Dropout in a Lyman Break Survey: A Tidally Disrupted Star at z=3.3?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Daniel; van Dokkum, P. G.; Nugent, Peter; Sand, D. J.; Ellis, R. S.; Sullivan, Mark; Bloom, J. S.; Frail, D. A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Treu, Tommaso

    2004-09-01

    We report the discovery of a transient source in the central regions of galaxy cluster A267. The object, which we call ``PALS-1,'' was found in a survey aimed at identifying highly magnified Lyman break galaxies in the fields of intervening rich clusters. At discovery, the source had Un>24.7 (2 σ AB), g=21.96+/-0.12, and very blue g-r and r-i colors; i.e., PALS-1 was a ``U-band dropout,'' characteristic of star-forming galaxies and quasars at z~3. However, 3 months later the source had faded by more than 3 mag. Further observations showed a continued decline in luminosity, to R>26.4 at 7 months after discovery. Although the apparent brightness suggests a supernova at roughly the cluster redshift, we show that the photometry and light curve argue against any known type of supernova at any redshift. The spectral energy distribution and location near the center of a galaxy cluster are consistent with the hypothesis that PALS-1 is a gravitationally lensed transient at z~3.3. If this interpretation is correct, the source is magnified by a factor of 4-7, and two counterimages are predicted. Our lens model predicts that there are time delays between the three images of 1-10 yr and that we have witnessed the final occurrence of the transient. The intense luminosity (MAB~-23.5 after correcting for lensing) and blue UV continuum (implying T>~50,000 K) argue that the source may have been a flare resulting from the tidal disruption of a star by a 106-108 Msolar black hole. Regardless of its physical nature, PALS-1 highlights the importance of monitoring regions of high magnification in galaxy clusters for distant time-varying phenomena. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated jointly by the California Institute of Technology and the University of California.

  8. Normal Tissue Complication Probability Estimation by the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman Method Does Not Accurately Predict Spinal Cord Tolerance to Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Megan E.; Luxton, Gary; Choi, Clara Y.H.; Gibbs, Iris C.; Chang, Steven D.; Adler, John R.; Soltys, Scott G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) analyses of the human spinal cord by use of the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model, supplemented by linear–quadratic modeling to account for the effect of fractionation, predict the risk of myelopathy from stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: From November 2001 to July 2008, 24 spinal hemangioblastomas in 17 patients were treated with SRS. Of the tumors, 17 received 1 fraction with a median dose of 20 Gy (range, 18–30 Gy) and 7 received 20 to 25 Gy in 2 or 3 sessions, with cord maximum doses of 22.7 Gy (range, 17.8–30.9 Gy) and 22.0 Gy (range, 20.2–26.6 Gy), respectively. By use of conventional values for α/β, volume parameter n, 50% complication probability dose TD 50 , and inverse slope parameter m, a computationally simplified implementation of the LKB model was used to calculate the biologically equivalent uniform dose and NTCP for each treatment. Exploratory calculations were performed with alternate values of α/β and n. Results: In this study 1 case (4%) of myelopathy occurred. The LKB model using radiobiological parameters from Emami and the logistic model with parameters from Schultheiss overestimated complication rates, predicting 13 complications (54%) and 18 complications (75%), respectively. An increase in the volume parameter (n), to assume greater parallel organization, improved the predictive value of the models. Maximum-likelihood LKB fitting of α/β and n yielded better predictions (0.7 complications), with n = 0.023 and α/β = 17.8 Gy. Conclusions: The spinal cord tolerance to the dosimetry of SRS is higher than predicted by the LKB model using any set of accepted parameters. Only a high α/β value in the LKB model and only a large volume effect in the logistic model with Schultheiss data could explain the low number of complications observed. This finding emphasizes that radiobiological models traditionally used to estimate spinal cord NTCP

  9. From Networks to Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Shigehara, Takaomi

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose a framework to transform a complex network to a time series. The transformation from complex networks to time series is realized by the classical multidimensional scaling. Applying the transformation method to a model proposed by Watts and Strogatz [Nature (London) 393, 440 (1998)], we show that ring lattices are transformed to periodic time series, small-world networks to noisy periodic time series, and random networks to random time series. We also show that these relationships are analytically held by using the circulant-matrix theory and the perturbation theory of linear operators. The results are generalized to several high-dimensional lattices.

  10. The Surtsey Magma Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, C Ian; Jakobsson, Sveinn P; White, James D L; Michael Palin, J; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-06-26

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50(th) anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption's four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume.

  11. Modelling bursty time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajna, Szabolcs; Kertész, János; Tóth, Bálint

    2013-01-01

    Many human-related activities show power-law decaying interevent time distribution with exponents usually varying between 1 and 2. We study a simple task-queuing model, which produces bursty time series due to the non-trivial dynamics of the task list. The model is characterized by a priority distribution as an input parameter, which describes the choice procedure from the list. We give exact results on the asymptotic behaviour of the model and we show that the interevent time distribution is power-law decaying for any kind of input distributions that remain normalizable in the infinite list limit, with exponents tunable between 1 and 2. The model satisfies a scaling law between the exponents of interevent time distribution (β) and autocorrelation function (α): α + β = 2. This law is general for renewal processes with power-law decaying interevent time distribution. We conclude that slowly decaying autocorrelation function indicates long-range dependence only if the scaling law is violated. (paper)

  12. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions on this such ......The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...

  14. Time Series with Long Memory

    OpenAIRE

    西埜, 晴久

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates an application of long-memory processes to economic time series. We show properties of long-memory processes, which are motivated to model a long-memory phenomenon in economic time series. An FARIMA model is described as an example of long-memory model in statistical terms. The paper explains basic limit theorems and estimation methods for long-memory processes in order to apply long-memory models to economic time series.

  15. The Development of Replicated Optical Integral Field Spectrographs and their Application to the Study of Lyman-alpha Emission at Moderate Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonis, Taylor Steven

    In the upcoming era of extremely large ground-based astronomical telescopes, the design of wide-field spectroscopic survey instrumentation has become increasingly complex due to the linear growth of instrument pupil size with telescope diameter for a constant spectral resolving power. The upcoming Visible Integral field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS), a baseline array of 150 copies of a simple integral field spectrograph that will be fed by 3:36 x 104 optical fibers on the upgraded Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) at McDonald Observatory, represents one of the first uses of large-scale replication to break the relationship between instrument pupil size and telescope diameter. By dividing the telescope's field of view between a large number of smaller and more manageable instruments, the total information grasp of a traditional monolithic survey spectrograph can be achieved at a fraction of the cost and engineering complexity. To highlight the power of this method, VIRUS will execute the HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) and survey & 420 degrees2 of sky to an emission line flux limit of ˜ 10-17 erg s-1 cm -2 to detect ˜ 106 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) as probes of large-scale structure at redshifts of 1:9 production of the suite of volume phase holographic (VPH) diffraction gratings for VIRUS is presented, which highlights the challenge and success associated with producing of a very large number of highly customized optical elements whose performance is crucial to meeting the efficiency requirements of the spectrograph system. To accommodate VIRUS, the HET is undergoing a substantial wide-field upgrade to increase its field of view to 22' in diameter. The previous HET facility Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS), which was directly fed by the telescope's previous spherical aberration corrector, must be removed from the prime focus instrument package as a result of the telescope upgrades and instead be fiber-coupled to the telescope focal plane. For a

  16. Classroom Issues with Series Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell

    2005-01-01

    We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

  17. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  18. Forecasting Cryptocurrencies Financial Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Leopoldo; Grassi, Stefano; Ravazzolo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the predictability of cryptocurrencies time series. We compare several alternative univariate and multivariate models in point and density forecasting of four of the most capitalized series: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple and Ethereum. We apply a set of crypto–predictors and rely...

  19. Time series analysis time series analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Tata Subba; Rao, C R

    2012-01-01

    The field of statistics not only affects all areas of scientific activity, but also many other matters such as public policy. It is branching rapidly into so many different subjects that a series of handbooks is the only way of comprehensively presenting the various aspects of statistical methodology, applications, and recent developments. The Handbook of Statistics is a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics, with Volume 30 dealing with time series. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. Comprehensively presents the various aspects of statistical methodology Discusses a wide variety of diverse applications and recent developments Contributors are internationally renowened experts in their respect...

  20. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  1. Fourier series and orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Dunham

    2004-01-01

    This text for undergraduate and graduate students illustrates the fundamental simplicity of the properties of orthogonal functions and their developments in related series. Starting with a definition and explanation of the elements of Fourier series, the text follows with examinations of Legendre polynomials and Bessel functions. Boundary value problems consider Fourier series in conjunction with Laplace's equation in an infinite strip and in a rectangle, with a vibrating string, in three dimensions, in a sphere, and in other circumstances. An overview of Pearson frequency functions is followe

  2. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  3. Models for dependent time series

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnicliffe Wilson, Granville; Haywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Models for Dependent Time Series addresses the issues that arise and the methodology that can be applied when the dependence between time series is described and modeled. Whether you work in the economic, physical, or life sciences, the book shows you how to draw meaningful, applicable, and statistically valid conclusions from multivariate (or vector) time series data.The first four chapters discuss the two main pillars of the subject that have been developed over the last 60 years: vector autoregressive modeling and multivariate spectral analysis. These chapters provide the foundational mater

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and what other conditions are associated with RA. Learning more about your condition will allow you to ... Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic Arthritis 101 2010 E.S.C.A.P.E. Study Patient Update Transitioning ...

  5. Clustering of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Pierpaolo; Cappelli, Carmela; Di Lallo, Dario; Massari, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the topic of classifying financial time series in a fuzzy framework proposing two fuzzy clustering models both based on GARCH models. In general clustering of financial time series, due to their peculiar features, needs the definition of suitable distance measures. At this aim, the first fuzzy clustering model exploits the autoregressive representation of GARCH models and employs, in the framework of a partitioning around medoids algorithm, the classical autoregressive metric. The second fuzzy clustering model, also based on partitioning around medoids algorithm, uses the Caiado distance, a Mahalanobis-like distance, based on estimated GARCH parameters and covariances that takes into account the information about the volatility structure of time series. In order to illustrate the merits of the proposed fuzzy approaches an application to the problem of classifying 29 time series of Euro exchange rates against international currencies is presented and discussed, also comparing the fuzzy models with their crisp version.

  6. "Feeling" Series and Parallel Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Equipped with drinking straws and stirring straws, a teacher can help students understand how resistances in electric circuits combine in series and in parallel. Follow-up suggestions are provided. (ZWH)

  7. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic Arthritis 101 ... Patient to an Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of ...

  8. RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Joachim; Fröndhoff, Dario; Munoz Ardila, Andrea; Orlina, Maria Monina; Rueda Morales, Máryeluz; Schaldach, Ruth; Schaldach, Ruth; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    RUVIVAL Publication Series is a compilation of literature reviews on topics concerned with the revitalisation of rural areas. RUVIVAL Publication Series is part of the e-learning project RUVIVAL and each of the three contributions in this publication is connected to further interactive multimedia material, which can be reached under www.ruvival.de. The first literature review is concerned with urine utilisation as a fertiliser in agriculture. Urine contains four important nutrients for pla...

  9. Omega test series - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has supported a series of high explosive calibration experiments that were conducted in the Degelen Mountain area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (ROK). This paper will provide an overview of the second and third tests of this series which have been designated Omega-2 and Omega-3. Omega-2 was conducted on Saturday, September 25, 1999 and Omega-3 on Saturday, July 29, 2000. (author)

  10. Forecasting Cryptocurrencies Financial Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, Leopoldo; Grassi, Stefano; Ravazzolo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the predictability of cryptocurrencies time series. We compare several alternative univariate and multivariate models in point and density forecasting of four of the most capitalized series: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple and Ethereum. We apply a set of crypto–predictors and rely on Dynamic Model Averaging to combine a large set of univariate Dynamic Linear Models and several multivariate Vector Autoregressive models with different forms of time variation. We find statistical si...

  11. Stochastic models for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Doukhan, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This book presents essential tools for modelling non-linear time series. The first part of the book describes the main standard tools of probability and statistics that directly apply to the time series context to obtain a wide range of modelling possibilities. Functional estimation and bootstrap are discussed, and stationarity is reviewed. The second part describes a number of tools from Gaussian chaos and proposes a tour of linear time series models. It goes on to address nonlinearity from polynomial or chaotic models for which explicit expansions are available, then turns to Markov and non-Markov linear models and discusses Bernoulli shifts time series models. Finally, the volume focuses on the limit theory, starting with the ergodic theorem, which is seen as the first step for statistics of time series. It defines the distributional range to obtain generic tools for limit theory under long or short-range dependences (LRD/SRD) and explains examples of LRD behaviours. More general techniques (central limit ...

  12. Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    (American) English two years later (Wollman and Jacob. 1961). The emergence of ... Words have an important role in scientific knowledge. According to the ... we lack the right words to describe them” (quoted in Jacob et al. 1953). There is a ...

  13. Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    2006-07-31

    Jul 31, 2006 ... By comparison, the fall in temperature with depth (and ... gases and of ballast and buoyancy control. ... to an old-fashioned diving bell, with air that it carries down ..... Working in Ghana, Stride (1955) noticed that adults of.

  14. Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...

  15. Volterra Series Based Distortion Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2010-01-01

    A large part of the characteristic sound of the electric guitar comes from nonlinearities in the signal path. Such nonlinearities may come from the input- or output-stage of the amplier, which is often equipped with vacuum tubes or a dedicated distortion pedal. In this paper the Volterra series...... expansion for non linear systems is investigated with respect to generating good distortion. The Volterra series allows for unlimited adjustment of the level and frequency dependency of each distortion component. Subjectively relevant ways of linking the dierent orders are discussed....

  16. Connected to TV series: Quantifying series watching engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth-Király, István; Bőthe, Beáta; Tóth-Fáber, Eszter; Hága, Győző; Orosz, Gábor

    2017-12-01

    Background and aims Television series watching stepped into a new golden age with the appearance of online series. Being highly involved in series could potentially lead to negative outcomes, but the distinction between highly engaged and problematic viewers should be distinguished. As no appropriate measure is available for identifying such differences, a short and valid measure was constructed in a multistudy investigation: the Series Watching Engagement Scale (SWES). Methods In Study 1 (N Sample1  = 740 and N Sample2  = 740), exploratory structural equation modeling and confirmatory factor analysis were used to identify the most important facets of series watching engagement. In Study 2 (N = 944), measurement invariance of the SWES was investigated between males and females. In Study 3 (N = 1,520), latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted to identify subgroups of viewers. Results Five factors of engagement were identified in Study 1 that are of major relevance: persistence, identification, social interaction, overuse, and self-development. Study 2 supported the high levels of equivalence between males and females. In Study 3, three groups of viewers (low-, medium-, and high-engagement viewers) were identified. The highly engaged at-risk group can be differentiated from the other two along key variables of watching time and personality. Discussion The present findings support the overall validity, reliability, and usefulness of the SWES and the results of the LPA showed that it might be useful to identify at-risk viewers before the development of problematic use.

  17. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patients from Johns Hopkins Stategies to Increase your Level of Physical Activity Role of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic Arthritis 101 2010 E.S.C.A.P.E. Study Patient Update Transitioning the JRA ...

  18. FOURIER SERIES MODELS THROUGH TRANSFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEPT

    monthly temperature data (1996 – 2005) collected from the National Root ... KEY WORDS: Fourier series, square transformation, multiplicative model, ... fluctuations or movements are often periodic(Ekpeyong,2005). .... significant trend or not, if the trend is not significant, the grand mean may be used as an estimate of trend.

  19. Integer-valued time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, R.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis adresses statistical problems in econometrics. The first part contributes statistical methodology for nonnegative integer-valued time series. The second part of this thesis discusses semiparametric estimation in copula models and develops semiparametric lower bounds for a large class of

  20. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  1. Bell numbers, determinants and series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...

  2. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sums of Generalized Harmonic Series: For Kids from Five to Fifteen. Zurab Silagadze. General Article Volume 20 Issue 9 September 2015 pp 822-843. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  3. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  4. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  5. Interracial America. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Bonnie, Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The varied opinions in each book examine different aspects of a single issue. The topics covered in this volume explore the racial and ethnic tensions that concern many Americans today. The racial divide…

  6. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  7. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor; Valenzuela, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This volume of selected and peer-reviewed contributions on the latest developments in time series analysis and forecasting updates the reader on topics such as analysis of irregularly sampled time series, multi-scale analysis of univariate and multivariate time series, linear and non-linear time series models, advanced time series forecasting methods, applications in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series and high-dimensional and complex/big data time series. The contributions were originally presented at the International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2016, held in Granada, Spain, June 27-29, 2016. The series of ITISE conferences provides a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting.  It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary rese arch encompassing the disciplines of comput...

  8. Analysis of series resonant converter with series-parallel connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren; Huang, Chien-Lan

    2011-02-01

    In this study, a parallel inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) resonant converter series-connected on the primary side and parallel-connected on the secondary side is presented for server power supply systems. Based on series resonant behaviour, the power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors are turned on at zero voltage switching and the rectifier diodes are turned off at zero current switching. Thus, the switching losses on the power semiconductors are reduced. In the proposed converter, the primary windings of the two LLC converters are connected in series. Thus, the two converters have the same primary currents to ensure that they can supply the balance load current. On the output side, two LLC converters are connected in parallel to share the load current and to reduce the current stress on the secondary windings and the rectifier diodes. In this article, the principle of operation, steady-state analysis and design considerations of the proposed converter are provided and discussed. Experiments with a laboratory prototype with a 24 V/21 A output for server power supply were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  9. Summability of alterations of convergent series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Keagy

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of splitting, rearrangement, and grouping series alterations on the summability of a convergent series by ℓ−ℓ and cs−cs matrix methods is studied. Conditions are determined that guarantee the existence of alterations that are transformed into divergent series and into series with preassigned sums.

  10. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  11. Heat recovery system series arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Justin P.; Welch, Andrew M.; Dawson, Gregory R.; Minor, Eric N.

    2017-11-14

    The present disclosure is directed to heat recovery systems that employ two or more organic Rankine cycle (ORC) units disposed in series. According to certain embodiments, each ORC unit includes an evaporator that heats an organic working fluid, a turbine generator set that expands the working fluid to generate electricity, a condenser that cools the working fluid, and a pump that returns the working fluid to the evaporator. The heating fluid is directed through each evaporator to heat the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit, and the cooling fluid is directed through each condenser to cool the working fluid circulating within each ORC unit. The heating fluid and the cooling fluid flow through the ORC units in series in the same or opposite directions.

  12. Ramanujan summation of divergent series

    CERN Document Server

    Candelpergher, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this monograph is to give a detailed exposition of the summation method that Ramanujan uses in Chapter VI of his second Notebook. This method, presented by Ramanujan as an application of the Euler-MacLaurin formula, is here extended using a difference equation in a space of analytic functions. This provides simple proofs of theorems on the summation of some divergent series. Several examples and applications are given. For numerical evaluation, a formula in terms of convergent series is provided by the use of Newton interpolation. The relation with other summation processes such as those of Borel and Euler is also studied. Finally, in the last chapter, a purely algebraic theory is developed that unifies all these summation processes. This monograph is aimed at graduate students and researchers who have a basic knowledge of analytic function theory.

  13. Generating series for GUE correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovin, Boris; Yang, Di

    2017-11-01

    We extend to the Toda lattice hierarchy the approach of Bertola et al. (Phys D Nonlinear Phenom 327:30-57, 2016; IMRN, 2016) to computation of logarithmic derivatives of tau-functions in terms of the so-called matrix resolvents of the corresponding difference Lax operator. As a particular application we obtain explicit generating series for connected GUE correlators. On this basis an efficient recursive procedure for computing the correlators in full genera is developed.

  14. Chernobyl: A series of mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, E.; Janssen, K.H.; Sontheimer, M.

    1986-01-01

    Chernobyl - does it mark the beginning of the end of nuclear energy. Or is it just a spectacular accident as the one at Harrisburg in 1979. Six months after the disaster in the Ukraine released the terrible radiation clouds, the article in hand starts a series intended to draw a balance: deadly experiments in an April night - damage all over Europe that sums up to billions - the Brokdorf nuclear power plant said to be the safest in the world. (orig.) [de

  15. Eisenstein series and string thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obers, N.A.; Pioline, B.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the relevance of Eisenstein series for representing certain G(Z)-invariant string theory amplitudes which receive corrections from BPS states only. G(Z) may stand for any of the mapping class, T-duality and U-duality groups Sl(d,Z), SO(d,d,Z) or E d+1(d+1) (Z) respectively. Using G(Z)-invariant mass formulae, we construct invariant modular functions on the symmetric space K backslash G(R) of non-compact type, with K the maximal compact subgroup of G(R), that generalize the standard non-holomorphic Eisenstein series arising in harmonic analysis on the fundamental domain of the Poincare upper half-plane. Comparing the asymptotics and eigenvalues of the Eisenstein series under second order differential operators with quantities arising in one- and g-loop string amplitudes, we obtain a manifestly T-duality invariant representation of the latter, conjecture their non-perturbative U-duality invariant extension, and analyze the resulting non-perturbative effects. This includes the R 4 and R 4 H -4 g -4 couplings in toroidal compactifications of M-theory to any dimension D≥4 and D≥6 respectively. (orig.)

  16. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  17. Linking the Negative Binomial and Logarithmic Series Distributions via their Associated Series

    OpenAIRE

    SADINLE, MAURICIO

    2008-01-01

    The negative binomial distribution is associated to the series obtained by taking derivatives of the logarithmic series. Conversely, the logarithmic series distribution is associated to the series found by integrating the series associated to the negative binomial distribution. The parameter of the number of failures of the negative binomial distribution is the number of derivatives needed to obtain the negative binomial series from the logarithmic series. The reasoning in this article could ...

  18. Molecular series-tunneling junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M

    2015-05-13

    Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.

  19. Application examples of EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Yasunori; Aoki, Makoto; Yamahata, Noboru

    1989-01-01

    This paper introduces some application examples of picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series which achieves efficient management of a volume of image data generated in a hospital, and powerfully support image diagnosis using multi-modality. EFPACS can be applied to various objectives of system installation, and can meet the scale of a hospital and the way of image filing. EFPACS has been installed in a middle-scale hospital for image conference, in a general hospital for long-term archiving of MRI data and for referring in the outpatient clinic, in a dental hospital for dental image processing, and so on. (author)

  20. A Course in Time Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Daniel; Tsay, Ruey S

    2011-01-01

    New statistical methods and future directions of research in time series A Course in Time Series Analysis demonstrates how to build time series models for univariate and multivariate time series data. It brings together material previously available only in the professional literature and presents a unified view of the most advanced procedures available for time series model building. The authors begin with basic concepts in univariate time series, providing an up-to-date presentation of ARIMA models, including the Kalman filter, outlier analysis, automatic methods for building ARIMA models, a

  1. Pointwise convergence of Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Arias de Reyna, Juan

    2002-01-01

    This book contains a detailed exposition of Carleson-Hunt theorem following the proof of Carleson: to this day this is the only one giving better bounds. It points out the motivation of every step in the proof. Thus the Carleson-Hunt theorem becomes accessible to any analyst.The book also contains the first detailed exposition of the fine results of Hunt, Sjölin, Soria, etc on the convergence of Fourier Series. Its final chapters present original material. With both Fefferman's proof and the recent one of Lacey and Thiele in print, it becomes more important than ever to understand and compare these two related proofs with that of Carleson and Hunt. These alternative proofs do not yield all the results of the Carleson-Hunt proof. The intention of this monograph is to make Carleson's proof accessible to a wider audience, and to explain its consequences for the pointwise convergence of Fourier series for functions in spaces near $äcal Lü^1$, filling a well-known gap in the literature.

  2. Sequential series for nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Ko

    1975-01-01

    A new time-dependent treatment of nuclear reactions is given, in which the wave function of compound nucleus is expanded by a sequential series of the reaction processes. The wave functions of the sequential series form another complete set of compound nucleus at the limit Δt→0. It is pointed out that the wave function is characterized by the quantities: the number of degrees of freedom of motion n, the period of the motion (Poincare cycle) tsub(n), the delay time t sub(nμ) and the relaxation time tausub(n) to the equilibrium of compound nucleus, instead of the usual quantum number lambda, the energy eigenvalue Esub(lambda) and the total width GAMMAsub(lambda) of resonance levels, respectively. The transition matrix elements and the yields of nuclear reactions also become the functions of time given by the Fourier transform of the usual ones. The Poincare cycles of compound nuclei are compared with the observed correlations among resonance levels, which are about 10 -17 --10 -16 sec for medium and heavy nuclei and about 10 -20 sec for the intermediate resonances. (auth.)

  3. A Time Series Forecasting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhao-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel time series forecasting method based on a weighted self-constructing clustering technique. The weighted self-constructing clustering processes all the data patterns incrementally. If a data pattern is not similar enough to an existing cluster, it forms a new cluster of its own. However, if a data pattern is similar enough to an existing cluster, it is removed from the cluster it currently belongs to and added to the most similar cluster. During the clustering process, weights are learned for each cluster. Given a series of time-stamped data up to time t, we divide it into a set of training patterns. By using the weighted self-constructing clustering, the training patterns are grouped into a set of clusters. To estimate the value at time t + 1, we find the k nearest neighbors of the input pattern and use these k neighbors to decide the estimation. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  4. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  5. A Power Series Expansion and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2006-01-01

    Using the power series solution of a differential equation and the computation of a parametric integral, two elementary proofs are given for the power series expansion of (arcsin x)[squared], as well as some applications of this expansion.

  6. The analysis of time series: an introduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chatfield, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    .... A variety of practical examples are given to support the theory. The book covers a wide range of time-series topics, including probability models for time series, Box-Jenkins forecasting, spectral analysis, linear systems and system identification...

  7. Prediction and Geometry of Chaotic Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leonardi, Mary

    1997-01-01

    This thesis examines the topic of chaotic time series. An overview of chaos, dynamical systems, and traditional approaches to time series analysis is provided, followed by an examination of state space reconstruction...

  8. Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Population Density Grid Time Series Estimates provide a back-cast time series of population density grids based on the year 2000 population grid from SEDAC's...

  9. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  10. Brand placements in fashion TV series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fakkert, M.-S.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Banks, I.B.; De Pelsmacker, P.; Okazaki, S.

    2015-01-01

    Recently Fashion TV series have gained more and more popularity among young women worldwide (Dehnart 2008; Seidman 2010). Fashion TV series are an immensely popular TV genre portraying the world of fashion and the accompanying glamorous lifestyle.

  11. HST-COS OBSERVATIONS OF AGNs. III. SPECTRAL CONSTRAINTS IN THE LYMAN CONTINUUM FROM COMPOSITE COS/G140L DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilton, Evan M.; Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stevans, Matthew L., E-mail: evan.tilton@colorado.edu, E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu, E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu, E-mail: stevans@astro.as.utexas.edu [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are important diagnostics of both accretion disk physics and their contribution to the metagalactic ionizing UV background. Though the mean AGN spectrum is well characterized with composite spectra at wavelengths greater than 912 Å, the shorter-wavelength extreme-UV (EUV) remains poorly studied. In this third paper in a series on the spectra of AGNs, we combine 11 new spectra taken with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope with archival spectra to characterize the typical EUV spectral slope of AGNs from λ{sub rest} ∼ 850 Å down to λ{sub rest} ∼ 425 Å. Parameterizing this slope as a power law, we obtain F{sub ν} ∝ ν{sup −0.72±0.26}, but we also discuss the limitations and systematic uncertainties of this model. We identify broad emission features in this spectral region, including emission due to ions of O, Ne, Mg, and other species, and we limit the intrinsic He i 504 Å photoelectric absorption edge opacity to τ{sub He} {sub i} < 0.047.

  12. Effective Feature Preprocessing for Time Series Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhaoyang; Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Time series forecasting is an important area in data mining research. Feature preprocessing techniques have significant influence on forecasting accuracy, therefore are essential in a forecasting model. Although several feature preprocessing techniques have been applied in time series forecasting...... performance in time series forecasting. It is demonstrated in our experiment that, effective feature preprocessing can significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. This research can be a useful guidance for researchers on effectively selecting feature preprocessing techniques and integrating them with time...... series forecasting models....

  13. Women's series: by women, for women?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.

  14. Improving the Instruction of Infinite Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindaman, Brian; Gay, A. Susan

    2012-01-01

    Calculus instructors struggle to teach infinite series, and students have difficulty understanding series and related concepts. Four instructional strategies, prominently used during the calculus reform movement, were implemented during a 3-week unit on infinite series in one class of second-semester calculus students. A description of each…

  15. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  16. The Harmonic Series Diverges Again and Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kifowit, Steven J.; Stamps, Terra A.

    2006-01-01

    The harmonic series is one of the most celebrated infinite series of mathematics. A quick glance at a variety of modern calculus textbooks reveals that there are two very popular proofs of the divergence of the harmonic series. In this article, the authors survey these popular proofs along with many other proofs that are equally simple and…

  17. Production of H(2s) fast metastable atoms (0.25-3 keV) on a Cs target. Detection of the α Lyman radiation induced by Stark effect: polarisation. Destruction of H(2s) atoms on an IH target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valance, Antoine.

    1974-01-01

    The production, detection and destruction of the 2S1/2 metastable state of the hydrogen atom were studied. The quasi-resonant charge exchange processes between fast protons and cesium target, in the total cross sections for production of metastable H(2s) atoms and radiative H(2p) atoms showed structures hitherto unobserved. The theoretical study is based on calculation of the adiabatic molecular potential terms of the ionic quasi-molecule (CsH) + , taking a Helmann type pseudopotential to describe the electron with respect to the core of the cesium ion. The probabilities of transition towards the output channels are calculated using a stationary state perturbation method. From the data obtained the interferece phenomena of excited quasi-molecular states can be interpreted coherently in slow collision. The probability of transition along the inelastic output channels displays characteristics of a harmonic oscillatory function inversely proportional to the speed of approach of the particles. The frequency of these oscillations depends very slightly on the impact parameter. The theory proposed involves three Σ states. During detection of the metastable ions the Lyman-α radiation induced in the de-excitation electric field by Stark effect present anisotropic features. The degree of polarization measured as a function of the field strength oscillates around a slow decay toward a limit-1 at strong electric field. A theory not accounting for the hyperfine structure of states mixed by Stark effect showed a double oscillatory structure containing the two frequencies correlated to the 2P1/2 and 2P3/2 states from the 2S1/2 state. Finally the results on the electron detachment reaction between fast metastable atoms and hydroiodic acid target have contributed towards research on polarized proton sources [fr

  18. Seminar series on Safety matters

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE

    2010-01-01

    The HSE - Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection - Unit is starting a seminar series on Safety matters. The aim is to invite colleagues from Universities, Industries or Government Agencies to share their experience. The seminars will take place in intervals of several months. Part of the Seminars will be held in the form of a Forum where participants can discuss and share views with persons who manage, teach or research Safety matters elsewhere. You are invited to the first Safety Seminar on 22nd September 2010 at 10h00 in building 40 S2 A1 "Salle Andersson" L’Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) will present the way safety is managed in their research institution. Some aspects of research in physics and chemical laboratories will also be presented. The seminar will be given by Dr Thierry Meyer, Head of OHS at FSB-EPFL and Dr Amela Groso, responsible for the safety of the physics institutes

  19. BWR series pump recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillmann, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a recirculation system for driving reactor coolant water contained in an annular downcomer defined between a boiling water reactor vessel and a reactor core spaced radially inwardly therefrom. It comprises a plurality of circumferentially spaced second pumps disposed in the downcomer, each including an inlet for receiving from the downcomer a portion of the coolant water as pump inlet flow, and an outlet for discharging the pump inlet flow pressurized in the second pump as pump outlet flow; and means for increasing pressure of the pump inlet flow at the pump inlet including a first pump disposed in series flow with the second pump for first receiving the pump inlet flow from the downcomer and discharging to the second pump inlet flow pressurized in the first pump

  20. La scienza delle serie tv

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Un professore di chimica potrebbe davvero fabbricare droga come Walter White in "Breaking Bad"? Tra quanto avremo il teletrasporto di "Star Trek"? E qual è il modo migliore di reagire a un'epidemia zombie come quella di "The Walking Dead"? Si può parlare di scienza anche stando comodamente in poltrona di fronte alla televisione. Le serie tv sono diventate prodotti di culto, e le più celebri sono proprio quelle fantascientifiche, mediche o di investigazione, che al loro interno raccontano molta scienza. Cosa c'è di vero in ciò che mostrano? Dalla nascita del cosmo in "The Big Bang Theory", passando per le fantadiagnosi del "Dr. House", i complotti alieni di "X-Files" e la natura del tempo in "True Detective", Andrea Gentile svela il lato nascosto dei nostri show preferiti, con un linguaggio semplice e spiegazioni alla portata di tutti.

  1. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, I; Tautz, R C

    2008-01-01

    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew

  2. Cuspidal discrete series for projective hyperbolic spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. We have in [1] proposed a definition of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces G/H, involving the notion of a Radon transform and a related Abel transform. For the real non-Riemannian hyperbolic spaces, we showed that there exists an infinite number of cuspidal discrete series......, and at most finitely many non-cuspidal discrete series, including in particular the spherical discrete series. For the projective spaces, the spherical discrete series are the only non-cuspidal discrete series. Below, we extend these results to the other hyperbolic spaces, and we also study the question...

  3. Special values of the hypergeometric series

    CERN Document Server

    Ebisu, Akihito

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a new method for finding identities for hypergeoemtric series, such as the (Gauss) hypergeometric series, the generalized hypergeometric series and the Appell-Lauricella hypergeometric series. Furthermore, using this method, the author gets identities for the hypergeometric series F(a,b;c;x) and shows that values of F(a,b;c;x) at some points x can be expressed in terms of gamma functions, together with certain elementary functions. The author tabulates the values of F(a,b;c;x) that can be obtained with this method and finds that this set includes almost all previously known values and many previously unknown values.

  4. Kolmogorov Space in Time Series Data

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjamapornkul, K.; Pinčák, R.

    2016-01-01

    We provide the proof that the space of time series data is a Kolmogorov space with $T_{0}$-separation axiom using the loop space of time series data. In our approach we define a cyclic coordinate of intrinsic time scale of time series data after empirical mode decomposition. A spinor field of time series data comes from the rotation of data around price and time axis by defining a new extradimension to time series data. We show that there exist hidden eight dimensions in Kolmogorov space for ...

  5. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example

    CERN Document Server

    Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    An intuition-based approach enables you to master time series analysis with ease Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example provides the fundamental techniques in time series analysis using various examples. By introducing necessary theory through examples that showcase the discussed topics, the authors successfully help readers develop an intuitive understanding of seemingly complicated time series models and their implications. The book presents methodologies for time series analysis in a simplified, example-based approach. Using graphics, the authors discuss each presented example in

  6. Duality between Time Series and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanharo, Andriana S. L. O.; Sirer, M. Irmak; Malmgren, R. Dean; Ramos, Fernando M.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes.

    2011-01-01

    Studying the interaction between a system's components and the temporal evolution of the system are two common ways to uncover and characterize its internal workings. Recently, several maps from a time series to a network have been proposed with the intent of using network metrics to characterize time series. Although these maps demonstrate that different time series result in networks with distinct topological properties, it remains unclear how these topological properties relate to the original time series. Here, we propose a map from a time series to a network with an approximate inverse operation, making it possible to use network statistics to characterize time series and time series statistics to characterize networks. As a proof of concept, we generate an ensemble of time series ranging from periodic to random and confirm that application of the proposed map retains much of the information encoded in the original time series (or networks) after application of the map (or its inverse). Our results suggest that network analysis can be used to distinguish different dynamic regimes in time series and, perhaps more importantly, time series analysis can provide a powerful set of tools that augment the traditional network analysis toolkit to quantify networks in new and useful ways. PMID:21858093

  7. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedjamal Zolhavarieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  8. Methods for summing general Kapteyn series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautz, R C [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Lerche, I [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet III, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Dominici, D, E-mail: rct@gmx.eu, E-mail: lercheian@yahoo.com, E-mail: dominicd@newpaltz.edu [Department of Mathematics, State University of New York at New Paltz, 1 Hawk Dr, New Paltz, NY 12561-2443 (United States)

    2011-09-23

    The general features and characteristics of Kapteyn series, which are a special type of series involving the Bessel function, are investigated. For many applications in physics, astrophysics and mathematics, it is crucial to have closed-form expressions in order to determine their functional structure and parametric behavior. The closed-form expressions of Kapteyn series have mostly been limited to special cases, even though there are often similarities in the approaches used to reduce the series to analytically tractable forms. The goal of this paper is to review the previous work in the area and to show that Kapteyn series can be expressed as trigonometric or gamma function series, which can be evaluated in a closed form for specific parameters. Two examples with a similar structure are given, showing the complexity of Kapteyn series. (paper)

  9. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  10. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  11. Triple products of Eisenstein series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Anil

    In this thesis, we construct a Massey triple product on the Deligne cohomology of the modular curve with coefficients in symmetric powers of the standard representation of the modular group. This result is obtained by constructing a Massey triple product on the extension groups in the category of admissible variations of mixed Hodge structure over the modular curve, which induces the desired construction on Deligne cohomology. The result extends Brown's construction of the cup product on Deligne cohomology to a higher cohomological product. Massey triple products on Deligne cohomology have been previously investigated by Deninger, who considered Deligne cohomology with trivial real coefficients. By working over the reals, Deninger was able to compute cohomology exclusively with differential forms. In this work, Deligne cohomology is studied over the rationals, which introduces an obstruction to applying Deninger's results. The obstruction arises from the fact that the integration map from the de Rham complex to the Eilenberg-MacLane complex of the modular group is not an algebra homomorphism. We compute the correction terms of the integration map as regularized iterated integrals of Eisenstein series, and show that these integrals arise in the cup product and Massey triple product on Deligne cohomology.

  12. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  13. [Scimitar syndrome: a case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Carlos; Karam Bechara, José; Sáenz Gómez, Jessica; Siegert Olivares, Augusto; Jamaica Balderas, Lourdes

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare and complex congenital anomaly of the lung with multiple variables and is named for its resemblance to the classical radiological crooked sword. Its defining feature is the anomalous pulmonary drainage. It is associated with various cardiothoracic malformations and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Nine patients diagnosed with scimitar syndrome found in the database of Hospital Infantil de México between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Demographic records, clinical status and hemodynamic parameters reported were collected. This case series called attention to certain differences between our group of patients and those reported in the international literature. Patients were predominantly female and were diagnosed between 1 and 20 months of life. All were asymptomatic at the time of the study. Half of the patients had a history of respiratory disease and all patients had with pulmonary hypertension. Surgical management was required in on-third of the patient group. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy: initial series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrour, Walid; Andonian, Sero

    2010-12-01

    To assess the safety and feasibility of ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). PCNL is the gold standard for the management of large renal stones. Although tubeless PCNL has been previously described, no case series have been published of ambulatory PCNL. The criteria for ambulatory PCNL were: single tract, stone-free status documented by flexible nephroscopy, adequate pain control, and satisfactory postoperative hematocrit level and chest radiographic findings. Patient information, including operating room and fluoroscopy times, stone size and Hounsfield units, and number of needle punctures, were collected prospectively. The time spent in the recovery room, in addition to the amount of narcotics used in the recovery room and at home, was documented. Of 10 patients, 8 had nephrostomy tracts established intraoperatively by the urologist and 2 had preoperative nephrostomy tubes placed. The median operating and fluoroscopy time was 83.5 and 4.45 minutes, respectively. The median stone diameter was 20 mm (800 Hounsfield units) in addition to a patient with a staghorn calculus. The patients spent a median of 240 minutes in the recovery room and had received a median of 19.25 mg of morphine equivalents. Only 3 patients (30%) used narcotics at home. No intraoperative complications occurred, and none of the patients required transfusions. Two postoperative complications developed: a deep vein thrombosis requiring outpatient anticoagulation and multiresistant Escherichia coli infection requiring intravenous antibiotics. In highly selected patients, ambulatory PCNL is safe and feasible. More patients are needed to verify the criteria for patients undergoing the ambulatory approach. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Heavy-Tailed Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Xiaolei

    This thesis is about analysis of heavy-tailed time series. We discuss tail properties of real-world equity return series and investigate the possibility that a single tail index is shared by all return series of actively traded equities in a market. Conditions for this hypothesis to be true...... are identified. We study the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of sample covariance and sample auto-covariance matrices of multivariate heavy-tailed time series, and particularly for time series with very high dimensions. Asymptotic approximations of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such matrices are found...... and expressed in terms of the parameters of the dependence structure, among others. Furthermore, we study an importance sampling method for estimating rare-event probabilities of multivariate heavy-tailed time series generated by matrix recursion. We show that the proposed algorithm is efficient in the sense...

  16. Visibility graph approach to exchange rate series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Wang, Jianbo; Yang, Huijie; Mang, Jingshi

    2009-10-01

    By means of a visibility graph, we investigate six important exchange rate series. It is found that the series convert into scale-free and hierarchically structured networks. The relationship between the scaling exponents of the degree distributions and the Hurst exponents obeys the analytical prediction for fractal Brownian motions. The visibility graph can be used to obtain reliable values of Hurst exponents of the series. The characteristics are explained by using the multifractal structures of the series. The exchange rate of EURO to Japanese Yen is widely used to evaluate risk and to estimate trends in speculative investments. Interestingly, the hierarchies of the visibility graphs for the exchange rate series of these two currencies are significantly weak compared with that of the other series.

  17. Correlation and multifractality in climatological time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedron, I T

    2010-01-01

    Climate can be described by statistical analysis of mean values of atmospheric variables over a period. It is possible to detect correlations in climatological time series and to classify its behavior. In this work the Hurst exponent, which can characterize correlation and persistence in time series, is obtained by using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. Data series of temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, maximum squall, atmospheric pressure and randomic series are studied. Furthermore, the multifractality of such series is analyzed applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The results indicate presence of correlation (persistent character) in all climatological series and multifractality as well. A larger set of data, and longer, could provide better results indicating the universality of the exponents.

  18. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from The International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2015, held in Granada, Spain, July 1-3, 2015. It discusses topics in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series, high-dimensional and complex/big data time series as well as forecasting in real problems. The International Work-Conferences on Time Series (ITISE) provide a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting. It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research encompassing the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, statistics and econometrics.

  19. Algorithms for Calculating Alternating Infinite Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Hector Luna; Garcia, Luz Maria

    2015-01-01

    This paper are presented novel algorithms for exact limits of a broad class of infinite alternating series. Many of these series are found in physics and other branches of science and their exact values found for us are in complete agreement with the values obtained by other authors. Finally, these simple methods are very powerful in calculating the limits of many series as shown by the examples

  20. Exponential Hilbert series of equivariant embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Wayne A.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we study properties of the exponential Hilbert series of a $G$-equivariant projective variety, where $G$ is a semisimple, simply-connected complex linear algebraic group. We prove a relationship between the exponential Hilbert series and the degree and dimension of the variety. We then prove a combinatorial identity for the coefficients of the polynomial representing the exponential Hilbert series. This formula is used in examples to prove further combinatorial identities inv...

  1. BRITS: Bidirectional Recurrent Imputation for Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Wei; Wang, Dong; Li, Jian; Zhou, Hao; Li, Lei; Li, Yitan

    2018-01-01

    Time series are widely used as signals in many classification/regression tasks. It is ubiquitous that time series contains many missing values. Given multiple correlated time series data, how to fill in missing values and to predict their class labels? Existing imputation methods often impose strong assumptions of the underlying data generating process, such as linear dynamics in the state space. In this paper, we propose BRITS, a novel method based on recurrent neural networks for missing va...

  2. Geometric noise reduction for multivariate time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mera, M Eugenia; Morán, Manuel

    2006-03-01

    We propose an algorithm for the reduction of observational noise in chaotic multivariate time series. The algorithm is based on a maximum likelihood criterion, and its goal is to reduce the mean distance of the points of the cleaned time series to the attractor. We give evidence of the convergence of the empirical measure associated with the cleaned time series to the underlying invariant measure, implying the possibility to predict the long run behavior of the true dynamics.

  3. Decoding divergent series in nonparaxial optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Riccardo; Gori, Franco; Guattari, Giorgio; Santarsiero, Massimo

    2011-03-15

    A theoretical analysis aimed at investigating the divergent character of perturbative series involved in the study of free-space nonparaxial propagation of vectorial optical beams is proposed. Our analysis predicts a factorial divergence for such series and provides a theoretical framework within which the results of recently published numerical experiments concerning nonparaxial propagation of vectorial Gaussian beams find a meaningful interpretation in terms of the decoding operated on such series by the Weniger transformation.

  4. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, S.; McAleer, M.J.; Tong, H.

    2015-01-01

    __Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time series analysis. The purpose of this special issue of the journal on “Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics” is to highlight several areas of research by leading academics in which novel methods have contrib...

  5. Neural Network Models for Time Series Forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Hill; Marcus O'Connor; William Remus

    1996-01-01

    Neural networks have been advocated as an alternative to traditional statistical forecasting methods. In the present experiment, time series forecasts produced by neural networks are compared with forecasts from six statistical time series methods generated in a major forecasting competition (Makridakis et al. [Makridakis, S., A. Anderson, R. Carbone, R. Fildes, M. Hibon, R. Lewandowski, J. Newton, E. Parzen, R. Winkler. 1982. The accuracy of extrapolation (time series) methods: Results of a ...

  6. Data mining in time series databases

    CERN Document Server

    Kandel, Abraham; Bunke, Horst

    2004-01-01

    Adding the time dimension to real-world databases produces Time SeriesDatabases (TSDB) and introduces new aspects and difficulties to datamining and knowledge discovery. This book covers the state-of-the-artmethodology for mining time series databases. The novel data miningmethods presented in the book include techniques for efficientsegmentation, indexing, and classification of noisy and dynamic timeseries. A graph-based method for anomaly detection in time series isdescribed and the book also studies the implications of a novel andpotentially useful representation of time series as strings. Theproblem of detecting changes in data mining models that are inducedfrom temporal databases is additionally discussed.

  7. Hubble Space Telescope  Wide Field Camera 3 Observations of Escaping Lyman Continuum Radiation from Galaxies and Weak AGN at Redshifts z ∼ 2.3–4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brent M.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Jansen, Rolf A.; Cohen, Seth H.; Jiang, Linhua; Dijkstra, Mark; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Bielby, Richard; Inoue, Akio K.; MacKenty, John W.; O’Connell, Robert W.; Silk, Joseph I.

    2018-02-01

    We present observations of escaping Lyman Continuum (LyC) radiation from 34 massive star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and 12 weak AGN with reliably measured spectroscopic redshifts at z≃ 2.3{--}4.1. We analyzed Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) mosaics of the Early Release Science (ERS) field in three UVIS filters to sample the rest-frame LyC over this redshift range. With our best current assessment of the WFC3 systematics, we provide 1σ upper limits for the average LyC emission of galaxies at = 2.35, 2.75, and 3.60 to ∼28.5, 28.1, and 30.7 mag in image stacks of 11–15 galaxies in the WFC3/UVIS F225W, F275W, and F336W, respectively. The LyC flux of weak AGN at = 2.62 and 3.32 are detected at 28.3 and 27.4 mag with S/Ns of ∼2.7 and 2.5 in F275W and F336W for stacks of 7 and 3 AGN, respectively, while AGN at = 2.37 are constrained to ≳27.9 mag at 1σ in a stack of 2 AGN. The stacked AGN LyC light profiles are flatter than their corresponding non-ionizing UV continuum profiles out to radii of r≲ 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 9, which may indicate a radial dependence of porosity in the ISM. With synthetic stellar SEDs fit to UV continuum measurements longward of {{Ly}}α and IGM transmission models, we constrain the absolute LyC escape fractions to {f}{esc}{abs}≃ {22}-22+44% at = 2.35 and ≲55% at = 2.75 and 3.60, respectively. All available data for galaxies, including published work, suggests a more sudden increase of {f}{esc} with redshift at z≃ 2. Dust accumulating in (massive) galaxies over cosmic time correlates with increased H I column density, which may lead to reducing {f}{esc} more suddenly at z≲ 2. This may suggest that SFGs collectively contributed to maintaining cosmic reionization at redshifts z≳ 2{--}4, while AGN likely dominated reionization at z≲ 2.

  8. Osseous genioplasty: A case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sanjeev N.; Munoli, Amarnath V.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The chin (mentum) is vital to the human facial morphology as it contributes to the facial aesthetics and harmony both on frontal and lateral views. Osseous genioplasty, the alteration of the chin through skeletal modification, can lead to significant enhancement of the overall facial profile. Aim and Study Design: A case series was designed to study the long-term results of osseous genioplasty in Indian patients with regard to patient satisfaction, complications, and long-term stability. Materials and Methods: All subjects who underwent osseous genioplasty either alone or as a component of orthognathic surgery between January 1992 and December 2010, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were included. The genioplasty was performed using standard protocols of assessment and execution. Post-operative evaluation included patient satisfaction, complications and radiological evidence of long-term stability. A comprehensive score was formulated for the purpose of the study. Results: Thirty-seven subjects underwent osseous genioplasty with at least 2 years of follow-up in the study period. This included 17 male and 20 female subjects, with a mean age of 22.8 years (15-52 years) and a mean follow-up of 3 years 4 months (2 years to 4 years and 11 months). Nineteen subjects underwent isolated genioplasty while 18 underwent genioplasty as a part of orthognathic surgery. The procedures included advancement (22), pushback (9), side-to-side (4) and vertical reduction (2) genioplasty. Thirty-six subjects (97.3%) were extremely pleased with the results with only one subject expressing reservations, without, however, demanding any further procedure. There were no significant complications. The osteotomised segment was well maintained in its new position with good bony union and minimal resorption. Overall, 35 (94.6%) cases had excellent results and 2 (4.4%) cases had good results, according to the comprehensive score. Conclusions: Osseous genioplasty is a safe and

  9. Osseous genioplasty: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev N Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The chin (mentum is vital to the human facial morphology as it contributes to the facial aesthetics and harmony both on frontal and lateral views. Osseous genioplasty, the alteration of the chin through skeletal modification, can lead to significant enhancement of the overall facial profile. Aim and Study Design: A case series was designed to study the long-term results of osseous genioplasty in Indian patients with regard to patient satisfaction, complications, and long-term stability. Materials and Methods: All subjects who underwent osseous genioplasty either alone or as a component of orthognathic surgery between January 1992 and December 2010, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were included. The genioplasty was performed using standard protocols of assessment and execution. Post-operative evaluation included patient satisfaction, complications and radiological evidence of long-term stability. A comprehensive score was formulated for the purpose of the study. Results: Thirty-seven subjects underwent osseous genioplasty with at least 2 years of follow-up in the study period. This included 17 male and 20 female subjects, with a mean age of 22.8 years (15-52 years and a mean follow-up of 3 years 4 months (2 years to 4 years and 11 months. Nineteen subjects underwent isolated genioplasty while 18 underwent genioplasty as a part of orthognathic surgery. The procedures included advancement (22, pushback (9, side-to-side (4 and vertical reduction (2 genioplasty.Thirty-six subjects (97.3% were extremely pleased with the results with only one subject expressing reservations, without, however, demanding any further procedure. There were no significant complications. The osteotomised segment was well maintained in its new position with good bony union and minimal resorption. Overall, 35 (94.6% cases had excellent results and 2 (4.4% cases had good results, according to the comprehensive score. Conclusions: Osseous genioplasty is a safe

  10. Arctic Visiting Speakers Series (AVS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Griswold, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers (AVS) Series funds researchers and other arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic research topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Host applications are accepted on an on-going basis, depending on funding availability. Applications need to be submitted at least 1 month prior to the expected tour dates. Interested hosts can choose speakers from an online Speakers Bureau or invite a speaker of their choice. Preference is given to individuals and organizations to host speakers that reach a broad audience and the general public. AVS tours are encouraged to span several days, allowing ample time for interactions with faculty, students, local media, and community members. Applications for both domestic and international visits will be considered. Applications for international visits should involve participation of more than one host organization and must include either a US-based speaker or a US-based organization. This is a small but important program that educates the public about Arctic issues. There have been 27 tours since 2007 that have impacted communities across the globe including: Gatineau, Quebec Canada; St. Petersburg, Russia; Piscataway, New Jersey; Cordova, Alaska; Nuuk, Greenland; Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania; Oslo, Norway; Inari, Finland; Borgarnes, Iceland; San Francisco, California and Wolcott, Vermont to name a few. Tours have included lectures to K-12 schools, college and university students, tribal organizations, Boy Scout troops, science center and museum patrons, and the general public. There are approximately 300 attendees enjoying each AVS tour, roughly 4100 people have been reached since 2007. The expectations for each tour are extremely manageable. Hosts must submit a schedule of events and a tour summary to be posted online

  11. On the analyticity of Laguerre series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weniger, Ernst Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The transformation of a Laguerre series f(z) = Σ ∞ n=0 λ (α) n L (α) n (z) to a power series f(z) = Σ ∞ n=0 γ n z n is discussed. Since many nonanalytic functions can be expanded in terms of generalized Laguerre polynomials, success is not guaranteed and such a transformation can easily lead to a mathematically meaningless expansion containing power series coefficients that are infinite in magnitude. Simple sufficient conditions based on the decay rates and sign patterns of the Laguerre series coefficients λ (α) n as n → ∞ can be formulated which guarantee that the resulting power series represents an analytic function. The transformation produces a mathematically meaningful result if the coefficients λ (α) n either decay exponentially or factorially as n → ∞. The situation is much more complicated-but also much more interesting-if the λ (α) n decay only algebraically as n → ∞. If the λ (α) n ultimately have the same sign, the series expansions for the power series coefficients diverge, and the corresponding function is not analytic at the origin. If the λ (α) n ultimately have strictly alternating signs, the series expansions for the power series coefficients still diverge, but are summable to something finite, and the resulting power series represents an analytic function. If algebraically decaying and ultimately alternating Laguerre series coefficients λ (α) n possess sufficiently simple explicit analytical expressions, the summation of the divergent series for the power series coefficients can often be accomplished with the help of analytic continuation formulae for hypergeometric series p+1 F p , but if the λ (α) n have a complicated structure or if only their numerical values are available, numerical summation techniques have to be employed. It is shown that certain nonlinear sequence transformations-in particular the so-called delta transformation (Weniger 1989 Comput. Phys. Rep. 10 189-371 (equation (8.4-4)))-are able to

  12. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  13. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazak, A.E.; Bosch, J.; Klonoff, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and

  14. Two Classes of Power Series and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei

    2002-01-01

    In this note, using the method of undetermined coefficients, we obtain the power series for exp ( f ( x )) and ln ( f ( x )) by means of a simple recursion. As applications, we show how those power series can be used to reproduce and improve some well-known results in analysis. These results may be used as enrichment material in an advanced…

  15. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  16. SERI Biomass Program. FY 1983 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.; McIntosh, R.P.

    1984-02-01

    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1983. The SERI Biomass Program consists of three elements: Aquatic Species, Anaerobic Digestion, and Photo/Biological Hydrogen. Each element has been indexed separately. 2 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.

  17. Modelling conditional heteroscedasticity in nonstationary series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cizek, P.; Cizek, P.; Härdle, W.K.; Weron, R.

    2011-01-01

    A vast amount of econometrical and statistical research deals with modeling financial time series and their volatility, which measures the dispersion of a series at a point in time (i.e., conditional variance). Although financial markets have been experiencing many shorter and longer periods of

  18. The foundations of modern time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Terence C

    2011-01-01

    This book develops the analysis of Time Series from its formal beginnings in the 1890s through to the publication of Box and Jenkins' watershed publication in 1970, showing how these methods laid the foundations for the modern techniques of Time Series analysis that are in use today.

  19. Forecasting Enrollments with Fuzzy Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Chissom, Brad S.

    The concept of fuzzy time series is introduced and used to forecast the enrollment of a university. Fuzzy time series, an aspect of fuzzy set theory, forecasts enrollment using a first-order time-invariant model. To evaluate the model, the conventional linear regression technique is applied and the predicted values obtained are compared to the…

  20. Reprint Series: Geometric Constructions. RS-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, William L., Ed.

    This is one in a series of SMSG supplementary and enrichment pamphlets for high school students. The series makes available expository articles which appeared in a variety of mathematical periodicals. Topics covered include: (1) Euclidean constructions; (2) the geometry of the fixed compass; (3) certain topics related to constructions with…

  1. Power Series Solution to the Pendulum Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This note gives a power series solution to the pendulum equation that enables to investigate the system in an analytical way only, i.e. to avoid numeric methods. A method of determining the number of the terms for getting a required relative error is presented that uses bigger and lesser geometric series. The solution is suitable for modelling the…

  2. Modeling Time Series Data for Supervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydogan, Mustafa Gokce

    2012-01-01

    Temporal data are increasingly prevalent and important in analytics. Time series (TS) data are chronological sequences of observations and an important class of temporal data. Fields such as medicine, finance, learning science and multimedia naturally generate TS data. Each series provide a high-dimensional data vector that challenges the learning…

  3. Lag space estimation in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate some techniques for finding the relevant lag-space, i.e. input information, for time series modelling. This is an important aspect of time series modelling, as it conditions the design of the model through the regressor vector a.k.a. the input layer...

  4. Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2012-01-01

    Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....

  5. Series expansion of the modified Einstein Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema Chandrakant Shah-Fairbank

    2009-01-01

    This study examines calculating total sediment discharge based on the Modified Einstein Procedure (MEP). A new procedure based on the Series Expansion of the Modified Einstein Procedure (SEMEP) has been developed. This procedure contains four main modifications to MEP. First, SEMEP solves the Einstein integrals quickly and accurately based on a series expansion. Next,...

  6. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2010-10-01

    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  7. Homogenising time series: beliefs, dogmas and facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domonkos, P.

    2011-06-01

    In the recent decades various homogenisation methods have been developed, but the real effects of their application on time series are still not known sufficiently. The ongoing COST action HOME (COST ES0601) is devoted to reveal the real impacts of homogenisation methods more detailed and with higher confidence than earlier. As a part of the COST activity, a benchmark dataset was built whose characteristics approach well the characteristics of real networks of observed time series. This dataset offers much better opportunity than ever before to test the wide variety of homogenisation methods, and analyse the real effects of selected theoretical recommendations. Empirical results show that real observed time series usually include several inhomogeneities of different sizes. Small inhomogeneities often have similar statistical characteristics than natural changes caused by climatic variability, thus the pure application of the classic theory that change-points of observed time series can be found and corrected one-by-one is impossible. However, after homogenisation the linear trends, seasonal changes and long-term fluctuations of time series are usually much closer to the reality than in raw time series. Some problems around detecting multiple structures of inhomogeneities, as well as that of time series comparisons within homogenisation procedures are discussed briefly in the study.

  8. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Mutua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq) and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.

  9. Network structure of multivariate time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Lucas; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-10-21

    Our understanding of a variety of phenomena in physics, biology and economics crucially depends on the analysis of multivariate time series. While a wide range tools and techniques for time series analysis already exist, the increasing availability of massive data structures calls for new approaches for multidimensional signal processing. We present here a non-parametric method to analyse multivariate time series, based on the mapping of a multidimensional time series into a multilayer network, which allows to extract information on a high dimensional dynamical system through the analysis of the structure of the associated multiplex network. The method is simple to implement, general, scalable, does not require ad hoc phase space partitioning, and is thus suitable for the analysis of large, heterogeneous and non-stationary time series. We show that simple structural descriptors of the associated multiplex networks allow to extract and quantify nontrivial properties of coupled chaotic maps, including the transition between different dynamical phases and the onset of various types of synchronization. As a concrete example we then study financial time series, showing that a multiplex network analysis can efficiently discriminate crises from periods of financial stability, where standard methods based on time-series symbolization often fail.

  10. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Stephen

    Full Text Available Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it's microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks.

  11. Allan deviation analysis of financial return series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, R.

    2012-05-01

    We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.

  12. Quantum Dilogarithms and Partition q-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akishi; Terashima, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work (Kato and Terashima, Commun Math Phys. arXiv:1403.6569, 2014), we introduced the partition q-series for mutation loop γ—a loop in exchange quiver. In this paper, we show that for a certain class of mutation sequences, called reddening sequences, the graded version of partition q-series essentially coincides with the ordered product of quantum dilogarithm associated with each mutation; the partition q-series provides a state-sum description of combinatorial Donaldson-Thomas invariants introduced by Keller.

  13. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are expressed as computational models and for addressing questions about neuroanatomy. It is concluded that case series methods usefully complement single-subject techniques. PMID:21714756

  14. Time series modeling, computation, and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically develop a state-of-the-art analysis and modeling of time series. … this book is well organized and well written. The authors present various statistical models for engineers to solve problems in time series analysis. Readers no doubt will learn state-of-the-art techniques from this book.-Hsun-Hsien Chang, Computing Reviews, March 2012My favorite chapters were on dynamic linear models and vector AR and vector ARMA models.-William Seaver, Technometrics, August 2011… a very modern entry to the field of time-series modelling, with a rich reference list of the current lit

  15. Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C

    2011-01-01

    A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

  16. Discrete diffusion Lyman α radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron; Tsang, Benny T.-H.; Bromm, Volker; Milosavljević, Miloš

    2018-06-01

    Due to its accuracy and generality, Monte Carlo radiative transfer (MCRT) has emerged as the prevalent method for Lyα radiative transfer in arbitrary geometries. The standard MCRT encounters a significant efficiency barrier in the high optical depth, diffusion regime. Multiple acceleration schemes have been developed to improve the efficiency of MCRT but the noise from photon packet discretization remains a challenge. The discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC) scheme has been successfully applied in state-of-the-art radiation hydrodynamics (RHD) simulations. Still, the established framework is not optimal for resonant line transfer. Inspired by the DDMC paradigm, we present a novel extension to resonant DDMC (rDDMC) in which diffusion in space and frequency are treated on equal footing. We explore the robustness of our new method and demonstrate a level of performance that justifies incorporating the method into existing Lyα codes. We present computational speedups of ˜102-106 relative to contemporary MCRT implementations with schemes that skip scattering in the core of the line profile. This is because the rDDMC runtime scales with the spatial and frequency resolution rather than the number of scatterings—the latter is typically ∝τ0 for static media, or ∝(aτ0)2/3 with core-skipping. We anticipate new frontiers in which on-the-fly Lyα radiative transfer calculations are feasible in 3D RHD. More generally, rDDMC is transferable to any computationally demanding problem amenable to a Fokker-Planck approximation of frequency redistribution.

  17. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    His postdoctoral stay was in Harvard observatory, which was presi- ded over by H Shapley, ... three of his books – Diffuse matter in space, Searching between the stars, and .... surroundings. In its frame of reference, it sees an almost parallel.

  18. Lyman Spitzer: Life, Times, and Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018. Home · Volumes & Issues · Categories · Special Issues · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  19. High Redshift Lyman-α Hunt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kochiashvili, Ia

    Galaxy formation and evolution has been intensively studied in the past two decades. Resultsand discoveries revolutionized the field and we now have much better understandingof how these huge conglomerates of baryonic and dark matter evolve.In the framework of two different projects, which...

  20. Lyman Alpha Searches at Redshift Z>7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Jon

    2007-05-01

    The ZEN survey is a narrow J-band survey for Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at z > 7. I will briefly review the pros and cons of narrow band observations before summarising the ZEN1 and ZEN2 searches based upon deep ISAAC pointings. I will then present ZEN3, consisting of wide field, narrow band observations of two fields using the CFHT WIRCam facility. I will conclude by reviewing the current sample of candidates and what we have learned about the z > 7 Ly-alpha emitting population.

  1. App. 1. Fourier series and Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Definitions, formulas and practical properties in quantum mechanics are presented: Fourier series (development of periodic function, Bessel-Parseval equality); Fourier transform (Parseval-Plancherel formula, Fourier transform in three-dimensional space) [fr

  2. Detecting nonlinear structure in time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiler, J.

    1991-01-01

    We describe an approach for evaluating the statistical significance of evidence for nonlinearity in a time series. The formal application of our method requires the careful statement of a null hypothesis which characterizes a candidate linear process, the generation of an ensemble of ''surrogate'' data sets which are similar to the original time series but consistent with the null hypothesis, and the computation of a discriminating statistic for the original and for each of the surrogate data sets. The idea is to test the original time series against the null hypothesis by checking whether the discriminating statistic computed for the original time series differs significantly from the statistics computed for each of the surrogate sets. While some data sets very cleanly exhibit low-dimensional chaos, there are many cases where the evidence is sketchy and difficult to evaluate. We hope to provide a framework within which such claims of nonlinearity can be evaluated. 5 refs., 4 figs

  3. Nonparametric factor analysis of time series

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Poo, Juan M.; Linton, Oliver Bruce

    1998-01-01

    We introduce a nonparametric smoothing procedure for nonparametric factor analaysis of multivariate time series. The asymptotic properties of the proposed procedures are derived. We present an application based on the residuals from the Fair macromodel.

  4. WDM Research Series: Working Paper No. 2

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    The other three papers of the Series focus on the issues of institutional structures ... Any approach that relates WDM to poverty and equity requires a set of working ..... If local irrigation system operation and maintenance investments and.

  5. Applied time series analysis and innovative computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong

    2010-01-01

    This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.

  6. Normed algebras and the geometric series test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kantrowitz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to survey a class of normed algebras that share many central features of Banach algebras, save for completeness. The likeness of these algebras to Banach algebras derives from the fact that the geometric series test is valid, whereas the lack of completeness points to the failure of the absolute convergence test for series in the algebra. Our main result is a compendium of conditions that are all equivalent to the validity of the geometric series test for commutative unital normed algebras. Several examples in the final section showcase some incomplete normed algebras for which the geometric series test is valid, and still others for which it is not.

  7. Measuring multiscaling in financial time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonocore, R.J.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the origin of multiscaling in financial time-series and investigate how to best quantify it. Our methodology consists in separating the different sources of measured multifractality by analyzing the multi/uni-scaling behavior of synthetic time-series with known properties. We use the results from the synthetic time-series to interpret the measure of multifractality of real log-returns time-series. The main finding is that the aggregation horizon of the returns can introduce a strong bias effect on the measure of multifractality. This effect can become especially important when returns distributions have power law tails with exponents in the range (2, 5). We discuss the right aggregation horizon to mitigate this bias.

  8. Data Mining Smart Energy Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of smart metering technology the amount of energy data will increase significantly and utilities industry will have to face another big challenge - to find relationships within time-series data and even more - to analyze such huge numbers of time series to find useful patterns and trends with fast or even real-time response. This study makes a small review of the literature in the field, trying to demonstrate how essential is the application of data mining techniques in the time series to make the best use of this large quantity of data, despite all the difficulties. Also, the most important Time Series Data Mining techniques are presented, highlighting their applicability in the energy domain.

  9. Complex network approach to fractional time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manshour, Pouya [Physics Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75169 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In order to extract correlation information inherited in stochastic time series, the visibility graph algorithm has been recently proposed, by which a time series can be mapped onto a complex network. We demonstrate that the visibility algorithm is not an appropriate one to study the correlation aspects of a time series. We then employ the horizontal visibility algorithm, as a much simpler one, to map fractional processes onto complex networks. The degree distributions are shown to have parabolic exponential forms with Hurst dependent fitting parameter. Further, we take into account other topological properties such as maximum eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix and the degree assortativity, and show that such topological quantities can also be used to predict the Hurst exponent, with an exception for anti-persistent fractional Gaussian noises. To solve this problem, we take into account the Spearman correlation coefficient between nodes' degrees and their corresponding data values in the original time series.

  10. An introduction to Fourier series and integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Seeley, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    This compact guide emphasizes the relationship between physics and mathematics, introducing Fourier series in the way that Fourier himself used them: as solutions of the heat equation in a disk. 1966 edition.

  11. Entropic Analysis of Electromyography Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Sung, Paul

    2005-03-01

    We are in the process of assessing the effectiveness of fractal and entropic measures for the diagnostic of low back pain from surface electromyography (EMG) time series. Surface electromyography (EMG) is used to assess patients with low back pain. In a typical EMG measurement, the voltage is measured every millisecond. We observed back muscle fatiguing during one minute, which results in a time series with 60,000 entries. We characterize the complexity of time series by computing the Shannon entropy time dependence. The analysis of the time series from different relevant muscles from healthy and low back pain (LBP) individuals provides evidence that the level of variability of back muscle activities is much larger for healthy individuals than for individuals with LBP. In general the time dependence of the entropy shows a crossover from a diffusive regime to a regime characterized by long time correlations (self organization) at about 0.01s.

  12. Time series prediction: statistical and neural techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahirniak, Daniel R.; DeSimio, Martin P.

    1996-03-01

    In this paper we compare the performance of nonlinear neural network techniques to those of linear filtering techniques in the prediction of time series. Specifically, we compare the results of using the nonlinear systems, known as multilayer perceptron and radial basis function neural networks, with the results obtained using the conventional linear Wiener filter, Kalman filter and Widrow-Hoff adaptive filter in predicting future values of stationary and non- stationary time series. Our results indicate the performance of each type of system is heavily dependent upon the form of the time series being predicted and the size of the system used. In particular, the linear filters perform adequately for linear or near linear processes while the nonlinear systems perform better for nonlinear processes. Since the linear systems take much less time to be developed, they should be tried prior to using the nonlinear systems when the linearity properties of the time series process are unknown.

  13. Public invited to Appalachian Studies Film Series

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2004-01-01

    The Appalachian Studies Program at Virginia Tech is hosting a series of notable artistic and documentary films. The films deal with themes or issues covered in Appalachian Studies courses and are organized historically, touching upon issues common to all Appalachians.

  14. Turbulencelike Behavior of Seismic Time Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manshour, P.; Saberi, S.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Peinke, J.; Pacheco, Amalio F.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza

    2009-01-01

    We report on a stochastic analysis of Earth's vertical velocity time series by using methods originally developed for complex hierarchical systems and, in particular, for turbulent flows. Analysis of the fluctuations of the detrended increments of the series reveals a pronounced transition in their probability density function from Gaussian to non-Gaussian. The transition occurs 5-10 hours prior to a moderate or large earthquake, hence representing a new and reliable precursor for detecting such earthquakes

  15. Posn(R) and Eisenstein series

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgenson, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Posn(R) and Eisenstein Series provides an introduction, requiring minimal prerequisites, to the analysis on symmetric spaces of positive definite real matrices as well as quotients of this space by the unimodular group of integral matrices. The approach is presented in very classical terms and includes material on special functions, notably gamma and Bessel functions, and focuses on certain mathematical aspects of Eisenstein series.

  16. Genealogical series method. Hyperpolar points screen effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The fundamental values of the genealogical series method -the genealogical integrals (sandwiches) have been investigated. The hyperpolar points screen effect has been found. It allows one to calculate the sandwiches for the Fermion systems with large number of particles and to ascertain the validity of the iterated-potential method as well. For the first time the genealogical-series method has been realized numerically for the central spin-independent potential

  17. Index to the Understanding the Atom Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission publishes the Understanding the Atom Series of educational booklets for high school science students and their teachers. This series explains many aspects of nuclear science including its history and applications. Because these 51 booklets cover such a variety of scientific fields, this index was prepared to help the reader find quickly those booklets that contain the information he needs.

  18. Global impact of Danish drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2016-01-01

    In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama.......In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama....

  19. Harry Potter book series - trivial or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Pavšič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores  the extcnt to which the features  of trivial literature appear in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling.This is done in comparison with another popular children's series, The Famous Five by Enid Blyton, which was analysed  by Igor Saksida. The main focus of the analysis is on the schematic representation of plot, characters and the exotic nature of the setting and time of the stories.

  20. Multivariate Time Series Decomposition into Oscillation Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Takeru; Komaki, Fumiyasu

    2017-08-01

    Many time series are considered to be a superposition of several oscillation components. We have proposed a method for decomposing univariate time series into oscillation components and estimating their phases (Matsuda & Komaki, 2017 ). In this study, we extend that method to multivariate time series. We assume that several oscillators underlie the given multivariate time series and that each variable corresponds to a superposition of the projections of the oscillators. Thus, the oscillators superpose on each variable with amplitude and phase modulation. Based on this idea, we develop gaussian linear state-space models and use them to decompose the given multivariate time series. The model parameters are estimated from data using the empirical Bayes method, and the number of oscillators is determined using the Akaike information criterion. Therefore, the proposed method extracts underlying oscillators in a data-driven manner and enables investigation of phase dynamics in a given multivariate time series. Numerical results show the effectiveness of the proposed method. From monthly mean north-south sunspot number data, the proposed method reveals an interesting phase relationship.

  1. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    The portrayal of neurological disability and deficiency on television has not always been approached in the same way, but has instead tended to reflect the standpoint taken by society with regard to these issues and how they are dealt with according to the prevailing conceptions and values at each particular time. To address the appearance of neurological pathologies in television series and to ponder on the image they have in such contexts. Deficiency and disability of neurological origin have often been depicted on television in series, telefilms and documentaries, and in a wide variety of ways. Here we examine different television series and how they have dealt with neurological pathology, its diagnosis and its treatment, as well as the figure of the healthcare professional and social-familial adaptation. Examples cited include series such as House MD, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland or Game of Thrones. Television series are a useful tool for making some neurological pathologies better known to the public and for dispelling the myths surrounding others, provided that the pathologies are dealt with in a realistic manner, which is not always the case. More care should be taken with regard to the way in which health professionals are portrayed in television series, as it is not always done correctly and may mislead viewers, who take what they see on the TV as being real.

  2. Fragrance series testing in eyelid dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenk, Kurt S; Ehrlich, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is considered one of the most common causes of eyelid dermatitis. In addition to metals and topical antibiotics, fragrances have emerged as a leading source of contact allergy for individuals with this condition. The objective of this study was to determine the added benefit of including a fragrance tray when patch testing patients presenting with eyelid dermatitis. During a 4.5-year period, all patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis involving the eyelids were patch tested with both standard and fragrance trays. One hundred consecutive patients with eyelid dermatitis were patch tested. Of these patients, 42 (42%) tested positive for 1 or more allergens within the fragrance series. Of these patients, 15 (36%) had no fragrance markers detected on the standard series, and these allergens would therefore have been missed had fragrance series testing not been performed. Overall, fragrance markers within the standard series detected 73.2% (41/56) of cases of fragrance allergy. Our results suggest that there may be a significant benefit to fragrance series testing in patients with eyelid dermatitis. Fragrance tray inclusion in this population may identify additional cases of fragrance allergy that are missed by the standard series.

  3. Detecting chaos in irregularly sampled time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulp, C W

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Wiebe and Virgin [Chaos 22, 013136 (2012)] developed an algorithm which detects chaos by analyzing a time series' power spectrum which is computed using the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT). Their algorithm, like other time series characterization algorithms, requires that the time series be regularly sampled. Real-world data, however, are often irregularly sampled, thus, making the detection of chaotic behavior difficult or impossible with those methods. In this paper, a characterization algorithm is presented, which effectively detects chaos in irregularly sampled time series. The work presented here is a modification of Wiebe and Virgin's algorithm and uses the Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) to compute a series' power spectrum instead of the DFT. The DFT is not appropriate for irregularly sampled time series. However, the LSP is capable of computing the frequency content of irregularly sampled data. Furthermore, a new method of analyzing the power spectrum is developed, which can be useful for differentiating between chaotic and non-chaotic behavior. The new characterization algorithm is successfully applied to irregularly sampled data generated by a model as well as data consisting of observations of variable stars.

  4. Highly comparative time-series analysis: the empirical structure of time series and their methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Ben D; Little, Max A; Jones, Nick S

    2013-06-06

    The process of collecting and organizing sets of observations represents a common theme throughout the history of science. However, despite the ubiquity of scientists measuring, recording and analysing the dynamics of different processes, an extensive organization of scientific time-series data and analysis methods has never been performed. Addressing this, annotated collections of over 35 000 real-world and model-generated time series, and over 9000 time-series analysis algorithms are analysed in this work. We introduce reduced representations of both time series, in terms of their properties measured by diverse scientific methods, and of time-series analysis methods, in terms of their behaviour on empirical time series, and use them to organize these interdisciplinary resources. This new approach to comparing across diverse scientific data and methods allows us to organize time-series datasets automatically according to their properties, retrieve alternatives to particular analysis methods developed in other scientific disciplines and automate the selection of useful methods for time-series classification and regression tasks. The broad scientific utility of these tools is demonstrated on datasets of electroencephalograms, self-affine time series, heartbeat intervals, speech signals and others, in each case contributing novel analysis techniques to the existing literature. Highly comparative techniques that compare across an interdisciplinary literature can thus be used to guide more focused research in time-series analysis for applications across the scientific disciplines.

  5. Finding Sums for an Infinite Class of Alternating Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhibo; Wei, Sheng; Xiao, Xuerong

    2012-01-01

    Calculus II students know that many alternating series are convergent by the Alternating Series Test. However, they know few alternating series (except geometric series and some trivial ones) for which they can find the sum. In this article, we present a method that enables the students to find sums for infinitely many alternating series in the…

  6. From divergent power series to analytic functions theory and application of multisummable power series

    CERN Document Server

    Balser, Werner

    1994-01-01

    Multisummability is a method which, for certain formal power series with radius of convergence equal to zero, produces an analytic function having the formal series as its asymptotic expansion. This book presents the theory of multisummabi- lity, and as an application, contains a proof of the fact that all formal power series solutions of non-linear meromorphic ODE are multisummable. It will be of use to graduate students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics, and especially to those who encounter formal power series to (physical) equations with rapidly, but regularly, growing coefficients.

  7. Layered Ensemble Architecture for Time Series Forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Islam, Md Monirul; Murase, Kazuyuki; Yao, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Time series forecasting (TSF) has been widely used in many application areas such as science, engineering, and finance. The phenomena generating time series are usually unknown and information available for forecasting is only limited to the past values of the series. It is, therefore, necessary to use an appropriate number of past values, termed lag, for forecasting. This paper proposes a layered ensemble architecture (LEA) for TSF problems. Our LEA consists of two layers, each of which uses an ensemble of multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks. While the first ensemble layer tries to find an appropriate lag, the second ensemble layer employs the obtained lag for forecasting. Unlike most previous work on TSF, the proposed architecture considers both accuracy and diversity of the individual networks in constructing an ensemble. LEA trains different networks in the ensemble by using different training sets with an aim of maintaining diversity among the networks. However, it uses the appropriate lag and combines the best trained networks to construct the ensemble. This indicates LEAs emphasis on accuracy of the networks. The proposed architecture has been tested extensively on time series data of neural network (NN)3 and NN5 competitions. It has also been tested on several standard benchmark time series data. In terms of forecasting accuracy, our experimental results have revealed clearly that LEA is better than other ensemble and nonensemble methods.

  8. Time series modeling in traffic safety research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenz, Steven M; Vlahogianni, Eleni I; Gkritza, Konstantina; Ke, Yue

    2018-08-01

    The use of statistical models for analyzing traffic safety (crash) data has been well-established. However, time series techniques have traditionally been underrepresented in the corresponding literature, due to challenges in data collection, along with a limited knowledge of proper methodology. In recent years, new types of high-resolution traffic safety data, especially in measuring driver behavior, have made time series modeling techniques an increasingly salient topic of study. Yet there remains a dearth of information to guide analysts in their use. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in using time series models in traffic safety research, and discusses some of the fundamental techniques and considerations in classic time series modeling. It also presents ongoing and future opportunities for expanding the use of time series models, and explores newer modeling techniques, including computational intelligence models, which hold promise in effectively handling ever-larger data sets. The information contained herein is meant to guide safety researchers in understanding this broad area of transportation data analysis, and provide a framework for understanding safety trends that can influence policy-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 2/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Series-series and series-parallel topologies are the most favored topologies for design of wireless power transfer system for vehicle applications. The series-series topology has the advantage of reflecting only the resistive part on the primary side. On the other hand, the current source output...... characteristics of the series-parallel topology are more suited for the battery of the vehicle. This paper compares the two topologies in terms of magnetic emissions to the surroundings for the same input power, primary current, quality factor and inductors. Theoretical and simulation results show that the series...

  10. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Fu Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, on the other hand, may alter the original time series. In this study, we propose a novel forecasting method based on least squares support vector machine (LSSVM. We employ the input patterns with the temporal information which is defined as local time index (LTI. Time series data as well as local time indexes are fed to LSSVM for doing forecasting without imputation. We compare the forecasting performance of our method with other imputation methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method is promising and is worth further investigations.

  11. Laboratory-scale thyristor controlled series capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuki, J.; Ikeda, K.; Abe, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1996-10-20

    This paper describes the results of an experimental study on the characteristics of a thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC). At present, there are two major thyristor controlled series compensation projects in the U.S.: the Kayenta ASC and the Slatt TCSC. However, there has been little operating experience and thus further understanding of the characteristics of TCSC is still to be sought. Therefore, a laboratory-scale TCSC was produced and installed in a laboratory power system. The impedance characteristics, waveshapes of voltages and currents in the TCSC circuit, and harmonics, for various thyristor firing angles, and insertion responses were measured and analyzed. In particular, effects of the size of the circuit components, i.e., parasitic resistance, additional damping resistance and series reactor, on the overall TCSC performances were investigated. The results were compared with EMTP simulations. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Efficient Approximate OLAP Querying Over Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perera, Kasun Baruhupolage Don Kasun Sanjeewa; Hahmann, Martin; Lehner, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing trend for data gathering not only produces larger volumes of data, but also increases the variety of recorded data types. Out of these, especially time series, e.g. various sensor readings, have attracted attention in the domains of business intelligence and decision making. As OLAP...... queries play a major role in these domains, it is desirable to also execute them on time series data. While this is not a problem on the conceptual level, it can become a bottleneck with regards to query run-time. In general, processing OLAP queries gets more computationally intensive as the volume...... of data grows. This is a particular problem when querying time series data, which generally contains multiple measures recorded at fine time granularities. Usually, this issue is addressed either by scaling up hardware or by employing workload based query optimization techniques. However, these solutions...

  13. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Douglas C; Kulahci, Murat

    2008-01-01

    An accessible introduction to the most current thinking in and practicality of forecasting techniques in the context of time-oriented data. Analyzing time-oriented data and forecasting are among the most important problems that analysts face across many fields, ranging from finance and economics to production operations and the natural sciences. As a result, there is a widespread need for large groups of people in a variety of fields to understand the basic concepts of time series analysis and forecasting. Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting presents the time series analysis branch of applied statistics as the underlying methodology for developing practical forecasts, and it also bridges the gap between theory and practice by equipping readers with the tools needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct useful, short- to medium-term, statistically based forecasts.

  14. Time series clustering in large data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fejfar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clustering of time series is a widely researched area. There are many methods for dealing with this task. We are actually using the Self-organizing map (SOM with the unsupervised learning algorithm for clustering of time series. After the first experiment (Fejfar, Weinlichová, Šťastný, 2009 it seems that the whole concept of the clustering algorithm is correct but that we have to perform time series clustering on much larger dataset to obtain more accurate results and to find the correlation between configured parameters and results more precisely. The second requirement arose in a need for a well-defined evaluation of results. It seems useful to use sound recordings as instances of time series again. There are many recordings to use in digital libraries, many interesting features and patterns can be found in this area. We are searching for recordings with the similar development of information density in this experiment. It can be used for musical form investigation, cover songs detection and many others applications.The objective of the presented paper is to compare clustering results made with different parameters of feature vectors and the SOM itself. We are describing time series in a simplistic way evaluating standard deviations for separated parts of recordings. The resulting feature vectors are clustered with the SOM in batch training mode with different topologies varying from few neurons to large maps.There are other algorithms discussed, usable for finding similarities between time series and finally conclusions for further research are presented. We also present an overview of the related actual literature and projects.

  15. Eta Products and Theta Series Identities

    CERN Document Server

    Kohler, Gunter

    2011-01-01

    This monograph deals with products of Dedekind's eta function, with Hecke theta series on quadratic number fields, and with "Eisenstein series." The author brings to the public the large number of identities that have been discovered over the past 20 years, the majority of which have not been published elsewhere. This book will be of interest to graduate students and scholars in the field of number theory and, in particular, modular forms. It is not an introductory text in this field. Nevertheless, some theoretical background material is presented that is important for understanding

  16. Clinical and epidemiological rounds. Time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León-Álvarez, Alba Luz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of time series is a technique that implicates the study of individuals or groups observed in successive moments in time. This type of analysis allows the study of potential causal relationships between different variables that change over time and relate to each other. It is the most important technique to make inferences about the future, predicting, on the basis or what has happened in the past and it is applied in different disciplines of knowledge. Here we discuss different components of time series, the analysis technique and specific examples in health research.

  17. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Douglas C; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""…[t]he book is great for readers who need to apply the methods and models presented but have little background in mathematics and statistics."" -MAA Reviews Thoroughly updated throughout, Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition presents the underlying theories of time series analysis that are needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct real-world short- to medium-term statistical forecasts.    Authored by highly-experienced academics and professionals in engineering statistics, the Second Edition features discussions on both

  18. Building Chaotic Model From Incomplete Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siek, Michael; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a number of novel techniques for building a predictive chaotic model from incomplete time series. A predictive chaotic model is built by reconstructing the time-delayed phase space from observed time series and the prediction is made by a global model or adaptive local models based on the dynamical neighbors found in the reconstructed phase space. In general, the building of any data-driven models depends on the completeness and quality of the data itself. However, the completeness of the data availability can not always be guaranteed since the measurement or data transmission is intermittently not working properly due to some reasons. We propose two main solutions dealing with incomplete time series: using imputing and non-imputing methods. For imputing methods, we utilized the interpolation methods (weighted sum of linear interpolations, Bayesian principle component analysis and cubic spline interpolation) and predictive models (neural network, kernel machine, chaotic model) for estimating the missing values. After imputing the missing values, the phase space reconstruction and chaotic model prediction are executed as a standard procedure. For non-imputing methods, we reconstructed the time-delayed phase space from observed time series with missing values. This reconstruction results in non-continuous trajectories. However, the local model prediction can still be made from the other dynamical neighbors reconstructed from non-missing values. We implemented and tested these methods to construct a chaotic model for predicting storm surges at Hoek van Holland as the entrance of Rotterdam Port. The hourly surge time series is available for duration of 1990-1996. For measuring the performance of the proposed methods, a synthetic time series with missing values generated by a particular random variable to the original (complete) time series is utilized. There exist two main performance measures used in this work: (1) error measures between the actual

  19. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)

  20. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xian-Zhi

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  1. Kayenta advanced series compensation operational experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The world's first three-phase, thyristor-controlled series compensation scheme with continuously variable impedance has been introduced into a transmission system. Energized and dedicated in September 1992, the installation was placed into commercial operation in January 1993 and has provided over one year of operating experience. This paper describes the 230 kV, 330 MVAr (60 Hz) advanced series compensation (ASC) project, located in north-eastern Arizona at Kayenta Substation on the 320 km Glen Canyon-Shiprock transmission line. The paper describes operating experiences, coordination with phase shifting transformer, phase shifter failure, platform power, system disturbances, and future plans.

  2. The Statistical Analysis of Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, T W

    2011-01-01

    The Wiley Classics Library consists of selected books that have become recognized classics in their respective fields. With these new unabridged and inexpensive editions, Wiley hopes to extend the life of these important works by making them available to future generations of mathematicians and scientists. Currently available in the Series: T. W. Anderson Statistical Analysis of Time Series T. S. Arthanari & Yadolah Dodge Mathematical Programming in Statistics Emil Artin Geometric Algebra Norman T. J. Bailey The Elements of Stochastic Processes with Applications to the Natural Sciences George

  3. Patch testing with Indian standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra G

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hundred patients (61 males, 39 females suspected to have allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested with Indian standard series (ISS. Forty four showed one or more positive reactions. The frequent sensitizers observed were nickel sulphate-12 (15%, potassium dichromate-11 (13.75%, cobalt chloride and colophony-7 (8.75% each, fragrance mix and thiuram mix-6 (7.5% each. The ISS differs from the European Standard Series by inclusion of propylene glycol, nitrofurazone, gentamicin, chlorocresol, PEG-400 and ethylenediamine chloride where assesquiterpene lactone mix and primin allergens are excluded.

  4. What marketing scholars should know about time series analysis : time series applications in marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Csilla; Kornelis, Marcel; Leeflang, Peter S.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this review, we give a comprehensive summary of time series techniques in marketing, and discuss a variety of time series analysis (TSA) techniques and models. We classify them in the sets (i) univariate TSA, (ii) multivariate TSA, and (iii) multiple TSA. We provide relevant marketing

  5. On a General Class of Trigonometric Functions and Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; Capelas de Oliveira, E.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a general class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series can be used to calculate several interesting numerical series. Particular cases are presented. (Contains 4 notes.)

  6. Complex dynamic in ecological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin; Andrew D. Taylor

    1992-01-01

    Although the possibility of complex dynamical behaviors-limit cycles, quasiperiodic oscillations, and aperiodic chaos-has been recognized theoretically, most ecologists are skeptical of their importance in nature. In this paper we develop a methodology for reconstructing endogenous (or deterministic) dynamics from ecological time series. Our method consists of fitting...

  7. Hilbert's Grand Hotel with a series twist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Chanakya; Mamolo, Ami; Zazkis, Rina

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a new twist on a familiar paradox, linking seemingly disparate ideas under one roof. Hilbert's Grand Hotel, a paradox which addresses infinite set comparisons is adapted and extended to incorporate ideas from calculus - namely infinite series. We present and resolve several variations, and invite the reader to explore his or her own variations.

  8. Trade (Marketing): Occupational Cluster Series-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H., Comp.; Moore, Allen B., Comp.

    This compilation of ERIC abstracts dealing with trade is the sixth in a series that identifies research and instructional materials in selected occupational clusters. Fifty-seven documents were identified by means of computer searches of "Research in Education" from 1967 to December 1972. Instructions on how to use ERIC reference…

  9. Inferring interdependencies from short time series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Complex networks provide an invaluable framework for the study of interlinked dynamical systems. In many cases, such networks are constructed from observed time series by first estimating the ...... does not quantify causal relations (unlike IOTA, or .... Africa_map_regions.svg, which is under public domain.

  10. Music! Young Discovery Library Series: 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Genevieve

    Part of an international series of amply illustrated, colorful, small size books for children ages 5 to 10, this volume presents stories about different aspects of music. The text explains how to listen to music, the main families of musical instruments, the importance of musical instruments in other cultures, and how a violin is constructed. Each…

  11. Classroom Management. TESOL Classroom Practice Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Thomas S. C., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This series captures the dynamics of the contemporary ESOL classroom. It showcases state-of-the-art curricula, materials, tasks, and activities reflecting emerging trends in language education and seeks to build localized language teaching and learning theories based on teachers' and students' unique experiences in and beyond the classroom. Each…

  12. 5. CASE SERIES OF MANIA SECONDARY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    meeting the criteria for DSM IV- TR is increasing. What is not clear with this increase is whether it is primary mania or secondary mania linked with HIV. METHODS. This study design was a case series in which patients with acute manic episodes were admitted to. Chainama Hills College Hospital and University. Teaching ...

  13. Children's Perceived Realism of Family Television Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Beth E.; And Others

    This study examined the influence of grade level, program content, and ethnic match between viewer and television characters on children's perceptions of the realism of families portrayed in television series. In the 1986-87 school year, a sample of 1,692 children in 2nd, 5th, and 10th grades completed a 13-item questionnaire measuring their…

  14. Tourism. Leonardo da Vinci Series: Good Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This brochure, part of a series about good practices in vocational training in the European Union, describes 10 projects that have promoted investment in human resources through training in the tourism sector to promote sustainable, or responsible, tourism. The projects and their countries of origin are as follows: (1) BEEFT, training of mobility…

  15. Computation of solar perturbations with Poisson series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broucke, R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of a project for computing first-order perturbations of natural or artificial satellites by integrating the equations of motion on a computer with automatic Poisson series expansions. A basic feature of the method of solution is that the classical variation-of-parameters formulation is used rather than rectangular coordinates. However, the variation-of-parameters formulation uses the three rectangular components of the disturbing force rather than the classical disturbing function, so that there is no problem in expanding the disturbing function in series. Another characteristic of the variation-of-parameters formulation employed is that six rather unusual variables are used in order to avoid singularities at the zero eccentricity and zero (or 90 deg) inclination. The integration process starts by assuming that all the orbit elements present on the right-hand sides of the equations of motion are constants. These right-hand sides are then simple Poisson series which can be obtained with the use of the Bessel expansions of the two-body problem in conjunction with certain interation methods. These Poisson series can then be integrated term by term, and a first-order solution is obtained.

  16. The Vietnamese in America. In America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Paul

    The history of Vietnamese immigration to the United States is traced, and contributions Vietnamese immigrants have made to the United States are reviewed in this book which is part of a series for children. Most Vietnamese immigrants came in the wake of the Vietnam War, making them among the recent immigrants to the United States. Determination,…

  17. On modeling panels of time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews research issues in modeling panels of time series. Examples of this type of data are annually observed macroeconomic indicators for all countries in the world, daily returns on the individual stocks listed in the S&P500, and the sales records of all items in a

  18. 25 years of time series forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Hyndman, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We review the past 25 years of research into time series forecasting. In this silver jubilee issue, we naturally highlight results published in journals managed by the International Institute of Forecasters (Journal of Forecasting 1982-1985 and International Journal of Forecasting 1985-2005). During

  19. Unilateral nodular adrenal hyperplasia: Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A.F. Kotb

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: Nodular adrenal hyperplasia is one of rare causes of adrenocortical hyperplasia. The disease usually presents bilaterally. Few publications discussed the possibility of unilateral disease, in association with hyperaldosteronism or Cushing syndrome. Case series: We are reporting 3 ...

  20. Effetti di serie: semiotica della dipendenza televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Pisanty

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nelle conversazioni quotidiane e in rete si discute molto della dipendenza da serie televisive, con particolare riferimento alle serie continue di ultima generazione (tra cui Game of Thrones, Homeland, House of Cards e simili, le quali sembrano incoraggiare il cosiddetto binge-watching più di qualsiasi altra fiction precedente. Molti commentatori paragonano questo fenomeno alla tossicodipendenza, e una recente ricerca psicologica (Hoon Hi Sung, Eun Yeon Kang, Wei-Na Lee 2015 collega la dipendenza da serie alla depressione. Ma quanto è accurato (o invece metaforico l’accostamento della compulsione seriale alle forme più tradizionali di intossicazione? Questo articolo analizza la vasta fenomenologia delle dipendenze da serie da un prospettiva semiotica, con il proposito di distinguere tra diversi stili di fruizione immersiva: dalle maratone solitarie e onnivore che effettivamente possono suscitare sentimenti individuali di frustrazione e di inadeguatezza, all’intensa attività sociale che viceversa circonda alcuni specifici culti televisivi. Sino a che punto è possibile ascrivere una simile gamma di atteggiamenti interpretativi alle strutture stesse dei testi, per esempio in rapporto alle trame, all’architettura dei mondi narrativi e alla costruzione di personaggi con cui gli spettatori possono identificarsi? E quali effetti producono le frequenti e prolungate immersioni nei mondi seriali sulla percezione collettiva del mondo reale?

  1. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole

    1998-01-01

    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes ...

  2. Pyogenic Tenosynovitis in Infants: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lironi, Céline; Steiger, Christina; Juchler, Céline; Spyropoulou, Vasiliki; Samara, Eleftheria; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2017-11-01

    Pyogenic tenosynovitis is an uncommon condition in children, and there are few published case reports. We present a series of 11 cases who were treated in the Geneva Children Hospital in the last 10 years. Kingella kingae was the main pathogen, and the characteristics of infection (inflammatory indices, clinical findings and severity) are similar to other osteoarticular K. kingae infections in infants.

  3. Multi-frac test series. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R A; Warpinski, N R; Finley, S J; Shear, R C

    1981-11-01

    This paper describes a series of five full-scale tests performed to evaluate various multi-frac concepts. The tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site in horizontal boreholes drilled in ash-fall tuff from a tunnel under 1300 ft of overburden.

  4. A method for summing nonalternating asymptotic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.

    1980-01-01

    A method for reconstructing a function from its nonalternating asymptotic series is proposed. It can also be applied when only a limited number of coefficients and their high order asymptotic behaviour are known. The method is illustrated by examples of the ordinary simple integral simulating a functional integral in a theory with degenerate minimum and of the double-well unharmonic oscillator

  5. Introduction to time series and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Brockwell, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at the reader who wishes to gain a working knowledge of time series and forecasting methods as applied to economics, engineering and the natural and social sciences. It assumes knowledge only of basic calculus, matrix algebra and elementary statistics. This third edition contains detailed instructions for the use of the professional version of the Windows-based computer package ITSM2000, now available as a free download from the Springer Extras website. The logic and tools of time series model-building are developed in detail. Numerous exercises are included and the software can be used to analyze and forecast data sets of the user's own choosing. The book can also be used in conjunction with other time series packages such as those included in R. The programs in ITSM2000 however are menu-driven and can be used with minimal investment of time in the computational details. The core of the book covers stationary processes, ARMA and ARIMA processes, multivariate time series and state-space mod...

  6. Geometric Series and Computers--An Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNerney, Charles R.

    1983-01-01

    This article considers the sum of a finite geometric series as applied to numeric data storage in the memory of an electronic digital computer. The presentation is viewed as relevant to programing in several languages and removes some of the mystique associated with syntax constraints that any language imposes. (MP)

  7. Nonlinear Time Series Analysis via Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volná, Eva; Janošek, Michal; Kocian, Václav; Kotyrba, Martin

    This article deals with a time series analysis based on neural networks in order to make an effective forex market [Moore and Roche, J. Int. Econ. 58, 387-411 (2002)] pattern recognition. Our goal is to find and recognize important patterns which repeatedly appear in the market history to adapt our trading system behaviour based on them.

  8. Distributed series resistance effects in solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Drud

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical treatment is presented of the effects of one-dimensional distributed series resistance in solar cells. A general perturbation theory is developed, including consistently the induced spatial variation of diode current density and leading to a first-order equivalent lumped resistance...

  9. Markov Trends in Macroeconomic Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractMany macroeconomic time series are characterised by long periods of positive growth, expansion periods, and short periods of negative growth, recessions. A popular model to describe this phenomenon is the Markov trend, which is a stochastic segmented trend where the slope depends on the

  10. Coastal Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    Background information, legends, games, illustrations, and art projects are provided in this booklet introducing elementary students to the history and culture of Indian tribes of the North Pacific Coast and Pacific Northwest. One in a series of Native American instructional materials, the booklet provides an overview of the coastal culture area,…

  11. Modeling vector nonlinear time series using POLYMARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Ray, B.K.

    2003-01-01

    A modified multivariate adaptive regression splines method for modeling vector nonlinear time series is investigated. The method results in models that can capture certain types of vector self-exciting threshold autoregressive behavior, as well as provide good predictions for more general vector

  12. Modeling seasonality in bimonthly time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA recurring issue in modeling seasonal time series variables is the choice of the most adequate model for the seasonal movements. One selection method for quarterly data is proposed in Hylleberg et al. (1990). Market response models are often constructed for bimonthly variables, and

  13. Time Series Modelling using Proc Varmax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it will be demonstrated how various time series problems could be met using Proc Varmax. The procedure is rather new and hence new features like cointegration, testing for Granger causality are included, but it also means that more traditional ARIMA modelling as outlined by Box...

  14. On clustering fMRI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril; Toft, Peter Aundal; Rostrup, E.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of fMRI time series is often performed by extracting one or more parameters for the individual voxels. Methods based, e.g., on various statistical tests are then used to yield parameters corresponding to probability of activation or activation strength. However, these methods do...

  15. Forecasting autoregressive time series under changing persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Robinson

    Changing persistence in time series models means that a structural change from nonstationarity to stationarity or vice versa occurs over time. Such a change has important implications for forecasting, as negligence may lead to inaccurate model predictions. This paper derives generally applicable...

  16. Mahler Measure, Eisenstein Series and Dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, J.

    2007-01-01

    This note reveals a mysterious link between the partition function of certain dimer models on 2-dimensional tori and the L-function of their spectral curves. It also relates the partition function in certain families of dimer models to Eisenstein series. http://www.arxiv.org/abs/math.NT/0502197

  17. Robust Control Charts for Time Series Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croux, C.; Gelper, S.; Mahieu, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a control chart for time series data, based on the one-step- ahead forecast errors of the Holt-Winters forecasting method. We use robust techniques to prevent that outliers affect the estimation of the control limits of the chart. Moreover, robustness is important to maintain

  18. The Audit Committee. AGB Effective Committee Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staisloff, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    This publication is part of an Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) series devoted to strengthening the role of key standing committees of governing boards. While there is no optimum committee system for institutions of higher education, certain principles, practices, and procedures prevail. The best practices…

  19. Optimal transformations for categorical autoregressive time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a method for finding optimal transformations for analyzing time series by autoregressive models. 'Optimal' implies that the agreement between the autoregressive model and the transformed data is maximal. Such transformations help 1) to increase the model fit, and 2) to analyze

  20. Bernoulli Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2013-01-01

    Fourier series for Bernoulli polynomials are used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent...

  1. Fourier Series, the DFT and Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund, Karl

    2004-01-01

    This report provides an introduction to Fourier series, the discrete Fourier transform, complex geometry and Fourier descriptors for shape analysis. The content is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students who wish to learn about Fourier analysis in general, as well as its application to shape...

  2. Lecture notes for Advanced Time Series Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Holst, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A first version of this notes was used at the lectures in Grenoble, and they are now extended and improved (together with Jan Holst), and used in Ph.D. courses on Advanced Time Series Analysis at IMM and at the Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of Lund, 1994, 1997, ...

  3. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 49 (2008), 494218/1-494218/4 ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : lyzozyme * water * protein association * Hofmeister series Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.900, year: 2008

  4. Some Characteristics Of the Financial Data Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to delineate from a theoretical of view the financial data series relative to other statistical data, starting from the financial econometrics’ models and from the resulting features of the specific descriptive statistics’ analysis of these characteristic series. From the analysis of these financial data during either very short and short or medium periods of time or from the information provided by the website of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB, the trend of great values of kurtosis or eccentricity and skewness or asymmetry of series appears as a characteristic tendency. During a long period of time, between 1920 and 2008, this tendency seems to be more relevant, being confirmed by an excerpt from the author’s earlier paper written in 2009, concerning the statistical Dow Jones Industrial Average Index (DJIA Index. The skewness, kurtosis and normality of data distribution analysis, using Jarque Bera test, along with the identification of residual autocorrelation or serial correlation in the presence of significant residual values and heteroskedasticity are the major evaluated aspects. Finally, the author investigates the optimal way to ensure statistical comparability inflationary and deflationary method for financial series of data, and offers a solution to the selection of the appropriate indicator from the categories of the absolute values, absolute variation of the absolute values and the relative variation of the absolute values, expressed by percentages, with the finding of the latter alternative as the best alternative in the world of financial modelling of the economic and financial processes and phenomena.

  5. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  6. Forecasting with periodic autoregressive time series models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper is concerned with forecasting univariate seasonal time series data using periodic autoregressive models. We show how one should account for unit roots and deterministic terms when generating out-of-sample forecasts. We illustrate the models for various quarterly UK consumption

  7. Golden Mountain Reading Series. Level 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Robert

    This reading series was developed as a means to educate Chinese-American elementary school children in Chinese reading, writing, and culture. The text covers the following topics: Chinese literature, Chinese and American history, famous people, general knowledge, Chinese letter writing, the four seasons, and the major Chinese and American…

  8. The Elusive Neutrino, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. The discovery of the neutrino and the research involving this important elementary particle of matter is discussed. The introductory section reviews topics basic…

  9. Technical Manual: 2002 Series GED Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelle, Carol; Setzer, J. Carl

    2009-01-01

    This manual was written to provide technical information regarding the 2002 Series GED (General Educational Development) Tests. Throughout this manual, documentation is provided regarding the development of the GED Tests, data collection activities, as well as reliability and validity evidence. The purpose of this manual is to provide evidence…

  10. On the Use of Running Trends as Summary Statistics for Univariate Time Series and Time Series Association

    OpenAIRE

    Trottini, Mario; Vigo, Isabel; Belda, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Given a time series, running trends analysis (RTA) involves evaluating least squares trends over overlapping time windows of L consecutive time points, with overlap by all but one observation. This produces a new series called the “running trends series,” which is used as summary statistics of the original series for further analysis. In recent years, RTA has been widely used in climate applied research as summary statistics for time series and time series association. There is no doubt that ...

  11. Algorithm for Compressing Time-Series Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S. Edward, III; Darlington, Edward Hugo

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Chebyshev polynomials effects lossy compression of time-series data or other one-dimensional data streams (e.g., spectral data) that are arranged in blocks for sequential transmission. The algorithm was developed for use in transmitting data from spacecraft scientific instruments to Earth stations. In spite of its lossy nature, the algorithm preserves the information needed for scientific analysis. The algorithm is computationally simple, yet compresses data streams by factors much greater than two. The algorithm is not restricted to spacecraft or scientific uses: it is applicable to time-series data in general. The algorithm can also be applied to general multidimensional data that have been converted to time-series data, a typical example being image data acquired by raster scanning. However, unlike most prior image-data-compression algorithms, this algorithm neither depends on nor exploits the two-dimensional spatial correlations that are generally present in images. In order to understand the essence of this compression algorithm, it is necessary to understand that the net effect of this algorithm and the associated decompression algorithm is to approximate the original stream of data as a sequence of finite series of Chebyshev polynomials. For the purpose of this algorithm, a block of data or interval of time for which a Chebyshev polynomial series is fitted to the original data is denoted a fitting interval. Chebyshev approximation has two properties that make it particularly effective for compressing serial data streams with minimal loss of scientific information: The errors associated with a Chebyshev approximation are nearly uniformly distributed over the fitting interval (this is known in the art as the "equal error property"); and the maximum deviations of the fitted Chebyshev polynomial from the original data have the smallest possible values (this is known in the art as the "min-max property").

  12. Convergence of the Distorted Wave Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMillan, D.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to begin to understand the idea of reaction mechanisms in nonrelativistic scattering systems. If we have a complete reaction theory of a particular scattering system, then we claim that the theory itself must contain information about important reaction mechanisms in the system. This information can be used to decide what reaction mechanisms should be included in an approximate calculation. To investigate this claim, we studied several solvable models. The primary concept employed in studying our models is the convergence of the multistep series generated by iterating the corresponding scattering integral equation. We known that the eigenvalues of the kernel of the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for potential scattering determine the rate of convergence of the Born series. The Born series will converge only if these eigenvalues all life within the unit circle. We extend these results to a study of the distorted wave Born series for inelastic scattering. The convergence criterion tells us when approximations are valid. We learn how the convergence of the distorted wave series depends upon energy, coupling constants, angular momentum, and angular momentum transfer. In one of our models, we look at several possible distorting potentials to see which one gives the best convergence. We have also applied our results to several actual DWBA or coupled channel calculations in the literature. In addition to the study of models of two-body scattering systems, we have considered the case of rearrangement scattering. We have discussed the formulation of (N greater than or equal to 3)-body distorted wave equations in which the interior dynamics have been redistributed by introducing compact N-body distortion potentials

  13. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Resonant circuits of wireless power transfer system can be designed in four possible ways by placing the primary and secondary capacitor in a series or parallel order with respect to the corresponding inductor. The two topologies series-parallel and series-series under investigation have been...... already compared in terms of their output behavior (current or voltage source) and reflection of the secondary impedance on the primary side. In this paper it is shown that for the same power rating series-parallel topology emits lesser magnetic fields to the surroundings than its series...

  14. Scaling properties of Polish rain series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licznar, P.

    2009-04-01

    Scaling properties as well as multifractal nature of precipitation time series have not been studied for local Polish conditions until recently due to lack of long series of high-resolution data. The first Polish study of precipitation time series scaling phenomena was made on the base of pluviograph data from the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences meteorological station located at the south-western part of the country. The 38 annual rainfall records from years 1962-2004 were converted into digital format and transformed into a standard format of 5-minute time series. The scaling properties and multifractal character of this material were studied by means of several different techniques: power spectral density analysis, functional box-counting, probability distribution/multiple scaling and trace moment methods. The result proved the general scaling character of time series at the range of time scales ranging form 5 minutes up to at least 24 hours. At the same time some characteristic breaks at scaling behavior were recognized. It is believed that the breaks were artificial and arising from the pluviograph rain gauge measuring precision limitations. Especially strong limitations at the precision of low-intensity precipitations recording by pluviograph rain gauge were found to be the main reason for artificial break at energy spectra, as was reported by other authors before. The analysis of co-dimension and moments scaling functions showed the signs of the first-order multifractal phase transition. Such behavior is typical for dressed multifractal processes that are observed by spatial or temporal averaging on scales larger than the inner-scale of those processes. The fractal dimension of rainfall process support derived from codimension and moments scaling functions geometry analysis was found to be 0.45. The same fractal dimension estimated by means of the functional box-counting method was equal to 0.58. At the final part of the study

  15. Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.

  16. Identifying secondary series for stepwise common singular spectrum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Common singular spectrum analysis is a technique which can be used to forecast a pri- mary time series by using the information from a secondary series. Not all secondary series, however, provide useful information. A first contribution in this paper is to point out the properties which a secondary series should ...

  17. Visibility graphlet approach to chaotic time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutua, Stephen [Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China); Computer Science Department, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, P.O. Box 190-50100, Kakamega (Kenya); Gu, Changgui, E-mail: gu-changgui@163.com, E-mail: hjyang@ustc.edu.cn; Yang, Huijie, E-mail: gu-changgui@163.com, E-mail: hjyang@ustc.edu.cn [Business School, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Shanghai 200093 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Many novel methods have been proposed for mapping time series into complex networks. Although some dynamical behaviors can be effectively captured by existing approaches, the preservation and tracking of the temporal behaviors of a chaotic system remains an open problem. In this work, we extended the visibility graphlet approach to investigate both discrete and continuous chaotic time series. We applied visibility graphlets to capture the reconstructed local states, so that each is treated as a node and tracked downstream to create a temporal chain link. Our empirical findings show that the approach accurately captures the dynamical properties of chaotic systems. Networks constructed from periodic dynamic phases all converge to regular networks and to unique network structures for each model in the chaotic zones. Furthermore, our results show that the characterization of chaotic and non-chaotic zones in the Lorenz system corresponds to the maximal Lyapunov exponent, thus providing a simple and straightforward way to analyze chaotic systems.

  18. Kinetic Titration Series with Biolayer Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Daniel; Willbold, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Biolayer interferometry is a method to analyze protein interactions in real-time. In this study, we illustrate the usefulness to quantitatively analyze high affinity protein ligand interactions employing a kinetic titration series for characterizing the interactions between two pairs of interaction patterns, in particular immunoglobulin G and protein G B1 as well as scFv IC16 and amyloid beta (1–42). Kinetic titration series are commonly used in surface plasmon resonance and involve sequential injections of analyte over a desired concentration range on a single ligand coated sensor chip without waiting for complete dissociation between the injections. We show that applying this method to biolayer interferometry is straightforward and i) circumvents problems in data evaluation caused by unavoidable sensor differences, ii) saves resources and iii) increases throughput if screening a multitude of different analyte/ligand combinations. PMID:25229647

  19. Data report on series 6 reflood experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tadashi; Murao, Yoshio; Sudoh, Takashi; Sudo, Yukio; Sugimoto, Jun

    1979-03-01

    Series 6 reflood experiments (experiment with 4 x 4 indirectly heated rods) were carried out from March to June 1978. The purpose of the experiments was: 1) to observe overall reflood phenomena in a 4 x 4 indirectly heated heater rod bundle with thermocouples inbedded completely in the cladding, 2) to examine the quench characteristics at low flooding rate, 3) to measure steady-state differential pressures in the core, 4) to investigate the heat transfer coefficients before quenching, 5) to investigate the water effluence behavior at outlet of the core, 6) to investigate the effect of a non-heated rod, and 7) to examine the response characteristics of the system at forced oscillating flooding rate. Described are the experimental conditions and the results (cladding temperatures, pressure differences and flow rates) in the constant flooding rate experiments in series 6 experiment. (author)

  20. Time-Series Analysis: A Cautionary Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Time-series analysis has often been a useful tool in atmospheric science for deriving long-term trends in various atmospherically important parameters (e.g., temperature or the concentration of trace gas species). In particular, time-series analysis has been repeatedly applied to satellite datasets in order to derive the long-term trends in stratospheric ozone, which is a critical atmospheric constituent. However, many of the potential pitfalls relating to the non-uniform sampling of the datasets were often ignored and the results presented by the scientific community have been unknowingly biased. A newly developed and more robust application of this technique is applied to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II version 7.0 ozone dataset and the previous biases and newly derived trends are presented.

  1. Time Series Analysis Using Geometric Template Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jordan; Mannor, Shie; Pineau, Joelle; Precup, Doina

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel framework for analyzing univariate time series data. At the heart of the approach is a versatile algorithm for measuring the similarity of two segments of time series called geometric template matching (GeTeM). First, we use GeTeM to compute a similarity measure for clustering and nearest-neighbor classification. Next, we present a semi-supervised learning algorithm that uses the similarity measure with hierarchical clustering in order to improve classification performance when unlabeled training data are available. Finally, we present a boosting framework called TDEBOOST, which uses an ensemble of GeTeM classifiers. TDEBOOST augments the traditional boosting approach with an additional step in which the features used as inputs to the classifier are adapted at each step to improve the training error. We empirically evaluate the proposed approaches on several datasets, such as accelerometer data collected from wearable sensors and ECG data.

  2. Indefinite theta series and generalized error functions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergei; Manschot, Jan; Pioline, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Theta series for lattices with indefinite signature $(n_+,n_-)$ arise in many areas of mathematics including representation theory and enumerative algebraic geometry. Their modular properties are well understood in the Lorentzian case ($n_+=1$), but have remained obscure when $n_+\\geq 2$. Using a higher-dimensional generalization of the usual (complementary) error function, discovered in an independent physics project, we construct the modular completion of a class of `conformal' holomorphic theta series ($n_+=2$). As an application, we determine the modular properties of a generalized Appell-Lerch sum attached to the lattice ${\\operatorname A}_2$, which arose in the study of rank 3 vector bundles on $\\mathbb{P}^2$. The extension of our method to $n_+>2$ is outlined.

  3. Forecasting with nonlinear time series models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl; Teräsvirta, Timo

    In this paper, nonlinear models are restricted to mean nonlinear parametric models. Several such models popular in time series econo- metrics are presented and some of their properties discussed. This in- cludes two models based on universal approximators: the Kolmogorov- Gabor polynomial model...... applied to economic fore- casting problems, is briefly highlighted. A number of large published studies comparing macroeconomic forecasts obtained using different time series models are discussed, and the paper also contains a small simulation study comparing recursive and direct forecasts in a partic...... and two versions of a simple artificial neural network model. Techniques for generating multi-period forecasts from nonlinear models recursively are considered, and the direct (non-recursive) method for this purpose is mentioned as well. Forecasting with com- plex dynamic systems, albeit less frequently...

  4. Outlier Detection in Structural Time Series Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marczak, Martyna; Proietti, Tommaso

    investigate via Monte Carlo simulations how this approach performs for detecting additive outliers and level shifts in the analysis of nonstationary seasonal time series. The reference model is the basic structural model, featuring a local linear trend, possibly integrated of order two, stochastic seasonality......Structural change affects the estimation of economic signals, like the underlying growth rate or the seasonally adjusted series. An important issue, which has attracted a great deal of attention also in the seasonal adjustment literature, is its detection by an expert procedure. The general......–to–specific approach to the detection of structural change, currently implemented in Autometrics via indicator saturation, has proven to be both practical and effective in the context of stationary dynamic regression models and unit–root autoregressions. By focusing on impulse– and step–indicator saturation, we...

  5. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J, E-mail: joern.beyer@ptb.d [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestrasse 2-12, D-10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  6. Patchy proteins, anions and the Hofmeister series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, Mikael; Jungwirth, Pavel [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Center for Complex Molecular Systems and Biomolecules, Flemingovo namesti 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: mikael.lund@uochb.cas.cz

    2008-12-10

    We investigate specific anion binding to a range of patchy protein models and use our results to probe protein-protein interactions for aqueous lysozyme solutions. Our molecular simulation studies show that the ion-protein interaction mechanism and strength largely depend on the nature of the interfacial amino acid residues. Via direct ion pairing, small anions interact with charged side-chains while larger anions are attracted to non-polar residues due to several solvent assisted mechanisms. Incorporating ion and surface specificity into a mesoscopic model for protein-protein interactions we calculate the free energy of interaction between lysozyme molecules in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride and sodium iodide. In agreement with experiment, our finding is that 'salting out' follows the reverse Hofmeister series for pH below the iso-electric point and the direct series for pH above pI.

  7. Nonlinear time series analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Huffaker, Ray; Rosa, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    In the process of data analysis, the investigator is often facing highly-volatile and random-appearing observed data. A vast body of literature shows that the assumption of underlying stochastic processes was not necessarily representing the nature of the processes under investigation and, when other tools were used, deterministic features emerged. Non Linear Time Series Analysis (NLTS) allows researchers to test whether observed volatility conceals systematic non linear behavior, and to rigorously characterize governing dynamics. Behavioral patterns detected by non linear time series analysis, along with scientific principles and other expert information, guide the specification of mechanistic models that serve to explain real-world behavior rather than merely reproducing it. Often there is a misconception regarding the complexity of the level of mathematics needed to understand and utilize the tools of NLTS (for instance Chaos theory). However, mathematics used in NLTS is much simpler than many other subjec...

  8. Reconstruction of tritium time series in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celle-Jeanton, H.; Gourcy, L.; Aggarwal, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Tritium is commonly used in groundwaters studies to calculate the recharge rate and to identify the presence of a modern recharge. The knowledge of 3 H precipitation time series is then very important for the study of groundwater recharge. Rozanski and Araguas provided good information on precipitation tritium content in 180 stations of the GNIP network to the end of 1987, but it shows some lacks of measurements either within one chronicle or within one region (the Southern hemisphere for instance). Therefore, it seems to be essential to find a method to recalculate data for a region where no measurement is available.To solve this problem, we propose another method which is based on triangulation. It needs the knowledge of 3 H time series of 3 stations surrounding geographically the 4-th station for which tritium input curve has to be reconstructed

  9. Rigid cohomology over Laurent series fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazda, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors develop a new theory of p-adic cohomology for varieties over Laurent series fields in positive characteristic, based on Berthelot's theory of rigid cohomology. Many major fundamental properties of these cohomology groups are proven, such as finite dimensionality and cohomological descent, as well as interpretations in terms of Monsky-Washnitzer cohomology and Le Stum's overconvergent site. Applications of this new theory to arithmetic questions, such as l-independence and the weight monodromy conjecture, are also discussed. The construction of these cohomology groups, analogous to the Galois representations associated to varieties over local fields in mixed characteristic, fills a major gap in the study of arithmetic cohomology theories over function fields. By extending the scope of existing methods, the results presented here also serve as a first step towards a more general theory of p-adic cohomology over non-perfect ground fields. Rigid Cohomology over Laurent Series Fields...

  10. Transition edge sensor series array bolometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyer, J

    2010-01-01

    A transition edge sensor series array (TES-SA) is an array of identical TESs that are connected in series by low-inductance superconducting wiring. The array elements are equally and well thermally coupled to the absorber and respond to changes in the absorber temperature in synchronization. The TES-SA total resistance increases compared to a single TES while the shape of the superconducting transition is preserved. We are developing a TES-SA with a large number, hundreds to thousands, of array elements with the goal of enabling the readout of a TES-based bolometer operated at 4.2 K with a semiconductor-based amplifier located at room temperature. The noise and dynamic performance of a TES-SA bolometer based on a niobium/aluminum bilayer is analyzed. It is shown that stable readout of the bolometer with a low-noise transimpedance amplifier is feasible.

  11. USING SURVEY OF SERIES IN AUDIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OFILEANU DIMI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of financial audit within an entity can be made by applying sampling statistical techniques. International auditing standards offer the possibility to test only part of financial information of an entity by means of different sampling techniques. The article is a rhetorical and practical speculation regarding the methodology and the possibility to apply a statistical survey of series in the research of documents and accounting records.

  12. Transvestism as a Symptom: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Anupama, M.; Gangadhar, K. H.; Shetty, Vandana B.; Dip, P. Bhadja

    2016-01-01

    Transvestism, commonly termed as cross-dressing, means to dress in the clothing of opposite sex. We describe a series of three cases with transvestism as one of their primary complaints. The discussion sheds light on the various ways in which transvestism as a symptom can present in Psychiatry. In the first two cases, there was lower intelligence. In first and third case, there were other paraphilia along with transvestism. Second case had co-morbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and had...

  13. Time Series Forecasting with Missing Values

    OpenAIRE

    Shin-Fu Wu; Chia-Yung Chang; Shie-Jue Lee

    2015-01-01

    Time series prediction has become more popular in various kinds of applications such as weather prediction, control engineering, financial analysis, industrial monitoring, etc. To deal with real-world problems, we are often faced with missing values in the data due to sensor malfunctions or human errors. Traditionally, the missing values are simply omitted or replaced by means of imputation methods. However, omitting those missing values may cause temporal discontinuity. Imputation methods, o...

  14. Strong coupling analogue of the Born series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1989-10-01

    In a given partial wave, the strength of the centrifugal term to be incorporated into the WKBA solutions in different spatial regions can be adjusted so as to make the first order wave functions everywhere smooth and, in strong coupling, exactly reproduce Quantum Mechanics throughout the space. The relevant higher order approximations supply an absolute convergent series expansion of the exact scattering state. (author) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. Adult intussusception: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify factors differentiating pathologic adult intussusception (AI) from benign causes and the need for an operative intervention. Current evidence available from the literature is discussed. METHODS This is a case series of eleven patients over the age of 18 and a surgical consultation for ?Intussusception? at a single veteran?s hospital over a five-year period (2011-2016). AI was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan and or flexible endoscopy (colonoscopy). Surgical referrals...

  16. On the formal series Witt transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moree, P.

    2005-01-01

    Given a formal power series f(z)∈C〚z〛f(z)∈C〚z〛 we define, for any positive integer r, its r th Witt transform, Wf(r), by Wf(r)(z)=1r∑d|rμ(d)f(zd)r/d, where μμ denotes the Möbius function. The Witt transform generalizes the necklace polynomials, M(α;n)M(α;n), that occur in the cyclotomic identity

  17. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-10-17

    This series is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. Essays contained in this document include: Key issues on NPT renewal and extension, Africa and nuclear nonproliferation, Kenya`s views on the NPT, Prospects for establishing a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the middle east, effects of a special nuclear weapon materials cut-off convention, and The UK view of NPT renewal.

  18. A taylor series approach to survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, J.B.; Groer, P.G.

    1984-09-01

    A method of survival analysis using hazard functions is developed. The method uses the well known mathematical theory for Taylor Series. Hypothesis tests of the adequacy of many statistical models, including proportional hazards and linear and/or quadratic dose responses, are obtained. A partial analysis of leukemia mortality in the Life Span Study cohort is used as an example. Furthermore, a relatively robust estimation procedure for the proportional hazards model is proposed. (author)

  19. Time series analysis of barometric pressure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Riggi, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    Time series of atmospheric pressure data, collected over a period of several years, were analysed to provide undergraduate students with educational examples of application of simple statistical methods of analysis. In addition to basic methods for the analysis of periodicities, a comparison of two forecast models, one based on autoregression algorithms, and the other making use of an artificial neural network, was made. Results show that the application of artificial neural networks may give slightly better results compared to traditional methods.

  20. A CASE SERIES ON FISH BILE TOXICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwijen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A case series of 3 cases of fish bile poisoning are reported. After ingestion of gall bladder of Labeo rohita for alleged vision improvement, generally presented with gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping pain abdomen, nausea and vomiting within 12 hours after ingestion. Subsequently rena l and hepatic dysfunctions were found in all the three cases. The patient recovered fully with conservative treatment and supportive haemodialysis.