Sample records for lycopodium annotinum lycopodium

  1. Phyllotaxis diversity in Lycopodium clavatum L. and Lycopodium annotinum L.

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    Edyta Gola


    Full Text Available In shoots of Lycopodium microphyllous phyllotaxis is extremely diverse. 24 various patterns were found in anisotomous L. clavatum and "only" 11 in isotomous L. annotinum. Spiral patterns expressed by k:(k+1 parastichy numbers were present together with typically whorled k:k patterns. In both species k number was higher in plagiotropic shoots than in orthotropic. It was also higher in L. clavatum than in L. annotinum. In the first species phyllotactic spectrum was wider with many patterns almost equally frequent, whereas narrow spectrum of L. annotinum showed clear dominance of only one pattern. The patterns, which are the most frequent in other plants, such as Fibonacci or Lucas, were uncommon in studied Lycopodium species. Discontinuous phyllotactic transitions occurred typically in two locations on the shoot: just below the dichotomic branching or above the borders, that separate the annual increments of the axis. Transitions were moderately frequent occurring in more than 7% of developmentally independent shoot segments. Dichotomous branching, resulting in variable shoot diameter, seasonal fluctuations of growth as well as a small size of microphylls relative to the shoot circumference are proposed to be the main factors contributing to the high phyllotactic diversity in studied species.

  2. The dynamics of stiff clubmoss Lycopodium annotinum L. patches in clumps of trees left on the clear-cutting in pine forest Leucobryo-Pinetum

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    Bogdanowicz Monika


    Full Text Available Clumps of trees left on the clear-cuttings have an important role in protecting populations of endangered plant species against destruction during silviculture activities. The aim of this study is to describe the changes in the area of the Lycopodium annotinum patches. The area of L. annotinum patch in clump of trees, have been significantly reduced during 5 years after clear-cut. In the first year of the observations, the studied population occupied an area of 69.8 m2 whereas in 2012, it was only 37.5 m2. Most of the shoots were withered away on the south side of the clump. The probable reason was too strong insolation. Shoots that survived were located in the north part of the clump – shielded by young trees and shrubs layer. At this time, the control patch of L. annotinum located inside the forest increased its area. Before the clear-cuttings, the annual growth of vertical shoots of clubmoss was higher in the patch located in future tree clump. After the clear-cutting, growth of shoots in this patch was shorter than in patch located all the time inside the forests. The most effective growth was observed in the third studied patch located in the clear-cutting border. The explanation for this phenomenon could be the higher humidity of habitat on this site. Clumps of trees left after the clear-cutting contribute to the protection of endangered populations, but do not eliminate the significant microhabitat changes. The clubmoss patches located in moist habitats are more likely to survive even if they are partially exposed to the sunlight.

  3. Lycopodium alkaloids from Palhinhaea cernua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Fu-Wei [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Luo, Ji-Feng; Wang, Yue-Hu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Sun, Qian-Yun; Yang, Fu-Mei [Key Laboratory of Chemistry for Natural Products, Guizhou Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Liu, Fang [College of Landscape and Horticulture, Yunnan Agricultural University (China); Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: [College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing, (China)


    Two new Lycopodium alkaloids, acetyllycoposerramine M and palcernine A were isolated from whole plant extracts of Palhinhaea cernua L. together with ten previously identified compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses using the Flack parameter. (author)


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    Héctor A. González


    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para la flora uruguaya a Lycopodium clavatum (Lycopodiaceae, hallada en los departamentos de Durazno y Maldonado. Este nuevo registro extiende su área de distribución, es- tableciendo las localidades situadas en el centro y este del Uruguay como el límite distribucional austral de Lycopodium s. str. Se presenta una descripción diagnóstica, un mapa de distribución en el país, así como la ilustración de la especie y fotografías del hábitat.

  5. Pyrolysis and combustion kinetics of lycopodium particles in thermogravimetric analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seyed Alireza Mostafavi; Sadjad Salavati; Hossein Beidaghy Dizaji; Mehdi Bidabadi


    Biomass is a kind of renewable energy which is used increasingly in different types of combustion systems or in the production of fuels like bio-oil. Lycopodium is a cellulosic particle, with good combustion properties, of which microscopic images show that these particles have spherical shapes with identical diameters of 31 μm. The measured density of these particles is 1.0779 g/cm2. Lycopodium particles contain 64.06% carbon, 25.56% oxygen, 8.55% hydrogen and 1.83% nitrogen, and no sulfur. Thermogravimetric analysis in the nitrogen environment indicates that the maximum of particle mass reduction occurs in the temperature range of 250−550 °C where the maximum mass reduction in the DTG diagrams also occurs in. In the oxygen environment, an additional peak can also be observed in the temperature range of 500−600 °C, which points to solid phase combustion and ignition temperature of lycopodium particles. The kinetics of reactions is determined by curve fitting and minimization of error.

  6. Radiative Structures of Lycopodium-Air Flames in Low Gravity (United States)

    Berlad, A. L.; Tangirala, V.; Ross, H.; Facca, L.


    Initially uniform clouds of fuel particulates in air sustain processes which may lead to particle cloud nonuniformities. In low gravity, flame-induced Kundt's Tube phenomena are observed to form regular patterns of nonuniform particle concentrations. Irregular patterns of particle concentrations also are observed to result from selected nonuniform mixing processes. Low gravity flame propagation for each of these classes of particle cloud flames has been found to depend importantly on the flame-generated infrared radiative fields. The spatial structures of these radiative fields are described. Application is made for the observed clases of lycopodium-air flames.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant capacity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. from Lake Sebu, South Cotabato, Philippines (United States)

    Descallar, Angem L.; Nuñez, Maria Pamela S.; Cabrera, Maria Luisa N.; Martin, Tres Tinna B.; Obemio, Christine Dawn G.; Lañojan, Rhumer S.


    Lycopodium clavatum or locally known as "lumot" is one of the many plants used in the traditional system of medicine here in the Philippines. It has been known that this plant was used for body pains and "facial wipes" recognizing its anti-aging potential by the Obo community in Lake Sebu, South Cotabato. However, there is a lack of sufficient data on its phytochemical components and medicinal properties. Thus, this study is conducted to determine the secondary metabolites present and its antioxidant property of the decoction and ethanolic extracts of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. Free radical scavenging activity of Lycopodium clavatum Linn. was determined by in vitro 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Antioxidant activities were observed which may be due to the presence of alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids in both decoction and ethanolic extracts.

  8. Unified Synthesis of 10-Oxygenated Lycopodium Alkaloids: Impact of C10-Stereochemistry on Reactivity. (United States)

    Saha, Mrinmoy; Li, Xin; Collett, Nathan D; Carter, Rich G


    The pronounced impact of the C10 stereochemistry on the successful construction of a polycyclic Lycopodium alkaloid scaffold has been explored. A wide range of reaction conditions and functionality were investigated to control a keto sulfone Michael addition to construct the C7-C12 linkage. An unexpected, overriding impact of the C10 stereochemistry in stereoselectivity and reaction rate in the Michael addition was observed. Furthermore, divergent reactivity of a conformationally accelerated, intramolecular Mannich cyclization based on the C10 stereochemistry was discovered. The successful execution of this synthetic route resulted in the total synthesis of all three known 10-oxygenated Lycopodium alkaloids: 10-hydroxylycopodine, paniculine, and deacetylpaniculine.

  9. Lycopodium: growth form, morphology, and sustainability of a non-timber forest product (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Nauertz; John C. Zasada


    Several species of Lycopodium or clubmoss belong in the category of non-timber forest products and are often gathered for a variety of traditional uses. It is important to evaluate baseline information for these species, such as abundance and frequency of occurrence, before making any management decision. In addition, understanding the biology of the...

  10. A two-dimensional analytical model of laminar flame in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, Alireza [Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibi, Ashkan [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bidabadi, Mehdi [Combustion Research Laboratory, Narmak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    A two-dimensional analytical model is presented to determine the flame speed and temperature distribution of micro-sized lycopodium dust particles. This model is based on the assumptions that the particle burning rate in the flame front is controlled by the process of oxygen diffusion and the flame structure consists of preheat, reaction and post flame zones. In the first step, the energy conservation equations for fuel-lean condition are expressed in two dimensions, and then these differential equations are solved using the required boundary condition and matching the temperature and heat flux at the interfacial boundaries. Consequently, the obtained flame temperature and flame speed distributions in terms of different particle diameters and equivalence ratio for lean mixture are compared with the corresponding experimental data for lycopodium dust particles. Consequently, it is shown that this two-dimensional model demonstrates better agreement with the experimental results compared to the previous models.

  11. Development of porous ceramics by lycopodium using uniaxial pressing and sintering

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    Rita Serzane


    Full Text Available In this work microporous hydroxyapatite (HAp ceramics were fabricated using lycopodium as a porosifier. The samples were produced by uniaxial pressing and then heating at high temperatures, 1100°C and 1200°C, to burn-out porogens and sintering. The obtained samples had porosity over the variable range of 12 to 45% with different pore size ranging from 0.2 to 25 µm. Chemical and physical characterization was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and bending strength measurements. The bending strength of the prepared samples was in the range of 1.97–21.81 MPa.

  12. Palhicerines A-F, Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Palhinhaea cernua. (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Xiong, Juan; Zou, Yike; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Hu, Jin-Feng


    Four fawcettimine-type (palhicerines A-D, resp.) and two lycopodine-type (palhicerines E and F) Lycopodium alkaloids together with twenty known ones were isolated from the whole plant of Palhinhaea cernua. The structures and absolute configurations of the palhicerines A-F were determined by extensive spectroscopic methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses, chemical transformation, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations or induced electronic circular dichroism (IECD) spectra. Among the isolates, the new C/D-ring of the palhicerines A-C (trans-fused fawcettimine-type alkaloids) are rare, and each possesses a β-oriented C-16 methyl group and a distinctive tertiary methoxy group at C-13. Chemotaxonomy for differentiating species in the genus Palhinhaea is briefly discussed.

  13. In vitro biological activity screening of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll. (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Ozcelik, Berrin; Aslan, Sinem; Kartal, Murat; Karaoglu, Taner; Sener, Bilge; Terzioglu, Salih; Iqbal Choudhary, M


    This article reports the results of selected biological activities, including anticholinesterase, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties, of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts as well as the alkaloid fraction of Lycopodium complanatum L. ssp. chamaecyparissus (A. Br.) Doll (LCC, Lycopodiaceae) growing in Turkey. Anticholinesterase effect of the extracts was tested against both acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at concentrations of 0.2 and 1 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay based on Ellman method. Antioxidant activity of the LCC extracts was evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method at 0.2 mg mL(-1) using microplate-reader assay. Both DNA virus Herpes simplex (HSV) and RNA virus Parainfluenza (PI-3) were employed for antiviral assessment of LCC exracts using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney and Vero cell lines. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extracts were screened against the bacteria: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Acinobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis as well as the fungi: Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis. Only the petroleum ether extract of LCC possessed remarkable activity against both AChE and BChE at 1 mg mL(-1) (76.5 and 69.6%, respectively), whereas LCC extracts showed low free radical-scavenging activity. All of the extracts were found to be more effective against the ATCC strains than isolated ones, particularly S. aureus, while the extracts had moderate antifungal activity. On the other hand, we found that only the petroleum ether extract was active against HSV. In addition, we also analysed the content of the alkaloid fraction of the plant by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and identified lycopodine as the major alkaloid (60.8%).

  14. Determining the absolute abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in recent marine sediments: The Lycopodium marker-grain method put to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, K; Verhoeven; Verleye


    Absolute abundances (concentrations) of dinoflagellate cysts are often determined through the addition of Lycopodium clavatum marker-grains as a spike to a sample before palynological processing. An inter-laboratory calibration exercise was set up in order to test the comparability of results obt...

  15. 石松生物碱化学成分的研究%Study on chemical constituents of Lycopodium alkaloids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧杰; 汪冶


    目的:研究石松Lycopodium japonicu生物碱化学成分.方法:采用硅胶柱色谱,RP-C18反相柱色谱,SephadexLH-20柱色谱,Waters半制备液相色谱等方法分离纯化,根据理化性质和波谱数据鉴定化合物的结构.结果:从石松中分离并鉴定了9个生物碱化学成分,分别为lycodoline(1),lucidioline(2),α-obscurine(3),lycopodine(4),lycoposerramine-L(5),lycoposerramine-M (6),11 α-O-acetyl-lycopodine (7),des-N-methyl-α-obscurine (8),clavolonine(9),其中化合物4~9为首次报道从石松中分离得到.%Objective; To study the alkaloid chemical constituents of Lycopodium japonicum. Method; Compounds were isolated and purified by such methods as silica gel column chromatography, RP-C18 reversed phase column chromatography, Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and Waters semi-preparative liquid chromatogram, and their structures were identified based on physico-chemical property and spectrum data. Result; Nine known alkaloid chemical constituents were isolated and identified, they were ly-codoline(l) ,lucidioline(2) ,α-obscurine(3) ,lycopodine (4) ,lycoposerramine-L(5) ,lycoposerramine-M (6) , 11α-O-acetyl-lycopod-ine (7) , des-N-methyl-a-obscurine (8) , clavolonine (9). Conclusion; Compounds 4-9 were obtained from L. Japonicum for the first time.

  16. Structural analysis of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction obtained from the coenocytic green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Researches on structural chemistry of sulfated polysaccharides (SPs have been mainly focused on red and brown algae. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Chlorophyta contains three SPs fractions (Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and Cc-SP3. Cc-SP1 and Cc-SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic, antinociceptive and/or anti-inflammatory (in vivo effects. However, their structural features have not yet been investigated. This study analyzed the chemical composition, elemental microanalysis and structural features by infrared (IR and nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy of Cc-SPs. Fractionation of SPs by DEAE-cellulose yielded Cc-SP1, Cc-SP2 and CcSP3 containing differences among the relative proportions of sulfate (14.67-26.72%, total sugars (34.92-49.73% and uronic acid (7.15-7.22%. Carbon (21.76-29.62%, sulfate (2.16-4.55%, nitrogen (0.85-1.57% and hydrogen (4.57-5.86% contents were obtained using a CHN equipment. Data from IR indicated occurrence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages. For 1H NMR spectrum of the soluble Cc-SP1 fraction, it was mainly found β-galactopyranose residues and CH3 group. The results showed that Cc-SPs fractions have some structural features similar to others studied Caulerpaceae SPs.

  17. Comparison of 454-ESTs from Huperzia serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus reveals putative genes involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis and developmental regulation

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    Steinmetz André


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants of the Huperziaceae family, which comprise the two genera Huperzia and Phlegmariurus, produce various types of lycopodium alkaloids that are used to treat a number of human ailments, such as contusions, swellings and strains. Huperzine A, which belongs to the lycodine type of lycopodium alkaloids, has been used as an anti-Alzheimer's disease drug candidate. Despite their medical importance, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for the members of this family. We used massive parallel pyrosequencing on the Roche 454-GS FLX Titanium platform to generate a substantial EST dataset for Huperzia serrata (H. serrata and Phlegmariurus carinatus (P. carinatus as representative members of the Huperzia and Phlegmariurus genera, respectively. H. serrata and P. carinatus are important plants for research on the biosynthesis of lycopodium alkaloids. We focused on gene discovery in the areas of bioactive compound biosynthesis and transcriptional regulation as well as genetic marker detection in these species. Results For H. serrata, 36,763 unique putative transcripts were generated from 140,930 reads totaling over 57,028,559 base pairs; for P. carinatus, 31,812 unique putative transcripts were generated from 79,920 reads totaling over 30,498,684 base pairs. Using BLASTX searches of public databases, 16,274 (44.3% unique putative transcripts from H. serrata and 14,070 (44.2% from P. carinatus were assigned to at least one protein. Gene Ontology (GO and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG orthology annotations revealed that the functions of the unique putative transcripts from these two species cover a similarly broad set of molecular functions, biological processes and biochemical pathways. In particular, a total of 20 H. serrata candidate cytochrome P450 genes, which are more abundant in leaves than in roots and might be involved in lycopodium alkaloid biosynthesis, were found based on the comparison of H

  18. Role of phosphate solubilizing Burkholderia spp. for successful colonization and growth promotion of Lycopodium cernuum L. (Lycopodiaceae) in lateritic belt of Birbhum district of West Bengal, India. (United States)

    Ghosh, Ranjan; Barman, Soma; Mukherjee, Rajib; Mandal, Narayan C


    Profuse growth of Lycpodium cernuum L. was found in phosphate deficient red lateritic soil of West Bengal, India. Interaction of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) with Lycopodium rhizoids were described earlier but association of PGPR with their rhizoids were not studied. Three potent phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains (P4, P9 and P10) associated with L. cernuum rhizoids were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA homologies on Ez-Taxon database as Burkholderia tropica, Burkholderia unamae and Burkholderia cepacia respectively. Day wise kinetics of phosphate solubilization against Ca3(PO4)2 suggested P4 (580.56±13.38 μg ml(-1)) as maximum mineral phosphate solubilizer followed by P9 (517.12±17.15 μg ml(-1)) and P10 (485.18±14.23 μg ml(-1)) at 28 °C. Release of bound phosphates by isolated strains from ferric phosphate (FePO4), aluminum phosphate (AlPO4) and four different complex rock phosphates indicated their very good phosphate solubilizng efficacy. Nitrogen independent solubilizition also supports their nitrogen fixing capabilities. Inhibition of P solubilization by calcium salts and induction by EDTA suggested pH dependent chelation of metal cations by all of the isolates. Rhizoidal colonization potentials of Burkholderia spp. were confirmed by in planta experiment and also using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Increases of total phosphate content in Lycopodium plants upon soil treatment with these isolates were also recorded. In addition siderophore production on CAS agar medium, tryptophan dependent IAA production and antifungal activities against pathogenic fungi by rhizospheric isolates deep-rooted that they have definite role in nutrient mobilization for successful colonization of L. cernuum in nutrient deficient lateritic soil.

  19. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of lycopodane-type alkaloids from the Icelandic Lycopodium annotinum ssp. alpestre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Elsa Steinunn; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Olafsdottir, Elin Soffia


    determined. Conformation of acrifoline was characterized using NOESY spectroscopy and molecular modelling. The isolated alkaloids were evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase. Ligand docking studies based on mutated 3D structure of Torpedo...

  20. Structural features and inactivation of coagulation proteases of a sulfated polysaccharidic fraction from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Caulerpaceae, Chlorophyta - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.16709

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Studies on biopolymers from macroalgae suggested sulfated polysaccharides (SPs as research agents to investigate events related to haemostasis. Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium is a marine green alga containing three SPs fractions (SP1, SP2 and SP3. SP2 had anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic (in vivo actions; however, its effect on the coagulation system is not fully understood. This study aimed to determine the infrared (IR spectroscopy, chemical composition (CC, elemental microanalysis (EM, molecular weight (MW and the effect on coagulation proteases of SP2. The presence of sulfate ester, galactose-6-sulfate, uronic acid and glycoside linkages for IR spectrum; contents of sulfate (28%, total sugars (40% and uronic acids (7.18% for CC; and content of carbon (21.98%, sulfate (4.27%, nitrogen (1.3% and hydrogen (4.86% for EM were obtained. The average molecular weights of four different SPs (SP-1, SP-2, SP-3 and SP-4 subfractions from the SP2 ranged from ~ 8 to >100 kDa. SP2 was tested on coagulation proteases (thrombin and factor Xa in the presence of antithrombin (AT and heparin cofactor II (HCII using human plasma, being both thrombin and factor Xa target proteases inhibited, but requiring a concentration of about 2.5-fold higher of HCII than the thrombin inactivation by AT.   

  1. In vivo toxicological evaluation of crude sulfated polysaccharide from the green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium in Swiss mice - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i4.15699

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    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Seaweeds are widely consumed as vegetables and medicinal products. The green seaweed Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium sulfated polysaccharides (SPs demonstrated anticoagulant (in vitro and anti- and prothrombotic (in vivo effects. However, their toxicity in vivo has not been fully determined. This study evaluated their toxicity in vivo in male Swiss mice. Animals (20-26 g, six group-1 received crude SP (9 mg kg-1, i.p. or 0.9% saline (0.1 mL 10 g-1, i.p. for 14 consecutive days, and then analyzed the wet weight of animal’s body organs-1 and biochemical/hematological parameters. Histopathological evaluation was also performed related to crude SP treatment. The results showed that crude SP did not cause toxicity and mortality. Regarding the biochemical analyses, crude SP did not lead to hepatic or renal dysfunctions, but affected (p 3 µL-1 compared with the control (969.75 ± 0.51 × 103 µL-1 according to the hematological evaluation. Although histological changes in the liver and kidney have occurred, results suggested reversibility. The increased spleen size (p C. cupressoides could represent safe pharmacological tool in future studies on immunomodulation and thrombosis in vivo.   

  2. Novel analytical model for predicting the combustion characteristics of premixed flame propagation in lycopodium dust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bidabadi, Mehdi; Rahbari, Alireza [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    This paper presents the effects of the temperature difference between gas and particle, different Lewis numbers, and heat loss from the walls in the structure of premixed flames propagation in a combustible system containing uniformly distributed volatile fuel particles in an oxidizing gas mixture. It is assumed that the fuel particles vaporize first to yield a gaseous fuel, which is oxidized in a gas phase. The analysis is performed in the asymptotic limit, where the value of the characteristic Zeldovich number is large. The structure of the flame is composed of a preheat zone, reaction zone, and convection zone. The governing equations and required boundary conditions are applied in each zone, and an analytical method is used for solving these equations. The obtained results illustrate the effects of the above parameters on the variations of the dimensionless temperature, particle mass friction, flame temperature, and burning velocity for gas and particle

  3. Cyclobutane Synthesis and Fragmentation. A Cascade Route to the Lycopodium Alkaloid (-)-Huperzine A. (United States)

    White, James D; Li, Yang; Kim, Jungchul; Terinek, Miroslav


    An asymmetric total synthesis of the nootropic alkaloid (-)-huperzine A was completed using a cascade sequence initiated by an intramolecular aza-Prins reaction and terminated by a stereoelectronically guided fragmentation of a cyclobutylcarbinyl cation as the key step in assembling the bicyclo[3.3.1]nonene core of the natural product. Intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of the crotyl ether of (S)-4-hydroxycyclohex-2-enone afforded a bicyclo[4.2.0]octanone containing an embedded tetrahydrofuran in which the cyclohexanone moiety was converted to a triisopropylsilyl enol ether and functionalized as an allylic azide. The derived primary amine was acylated with α-phenylselenylacrylic acid, and the resulting amide was reacted with trimethylaluminum to give a [2 + 2]-cycloadduct, which underwent retroaldol fission to produce a fused α-phenylselenyl δ-lactam. Periodate oxidation of this lactam led directly to an α-pyridone, which was converted to a fused 2-methoxypyridine. Reductive cleavage of the activated "pyridylic" C-O bond in this tetracycle and elaboration of the resultant hydroxy ketone to a diketone was followed by chemoselective conversion of the methyl ketone in this structure to an endo isopropenyl group. Condensation of the remaining ketone with methyl carbamate in the presence of acid initiated the programmed cascade sequence and furnished a known synthetic precursor to huperzine A. Subsequent demethylation of the carbamate and the methoxypyridine, accompanied by in situ decarboxylation of the intermediate carbamic acid, gave (-)-huperzine A.


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    Liliana Cristina Soare


    Full Text Available In the Vâlsan Valley there are two categories of regions that have been declared protected areas: The Natural Reserve Vâlsan Valley, code 2125 and The protected natural area of community interest Vâlsan Valley, code ROSCI0268. The aim of the research was to identify the species of pteridophytes in the protected areas, a necessary step for the conservation of their diversity. Within the area researched 26 species of pteridophytes were determined. Specific diversity across the genera identified ranges from 5 to 1, thus: Equisetum (5, Asplenium (4, Dryopteris (4, Polystichum (3 and Huperzia, Lycopodium, Selaginella, Botrychium, Polypodium, Phegopteris, Athyrium, Cystopteris, Gymnocarpium, Matteuccia with only one species. Concerning the abundance of the species identified, the pteridoflora in the area researched is made up of frequent (73% and sporadic species (27%, such as Huperzia selago, Lycopodium annotinum, Botrychium multifidum, Asplenium scolopendrium, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Dryopteris expansa, Polystichum braunii.

  5. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh = Extração e atividade anticoagulante dos polissacarídeos sulfatados da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ariévilo Gurgel Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed byfractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl,respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.O baixo padrão de qualidade outrora declarado da heparina (HEP para o uso em cirurgias cardíacas tem levado preocupação nos mercados nacional e internacional. Os polissacarídeos sulfatados (PSs de algasmarinhas têm sido considerados como promissores substitutos para HEP. Objetivou-se a extrair sequencialmente PSs totais (PSTs da clorofícea Caulerpa cupressoides com papaína em tampão acetato de sódio 100 mM (pH 5,0 contendo cisteína 5 mM e EDTA 5 mM, fracionar por cromatografia de troca iônica (DEAE-celulose e avaliar o potencial anticoagulante das frações de PS por meio do tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPA, utilizando plasma humano normal e comparando-se à HEP padrão (193 IU mg-1. As frações obtidas foram caracterizadas quimicamente em composição química e por eletroforese em gel de agarose. O rendimento de PSTs foi 4,61% e os perfis cromatográficos, em DEAE-celulose, indicaram a separação de três frações de PS (F I; F II e F III eluídas nas concentrações 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 M de NaCl, respectivamente, revelando, por eletroforese, diferenças em termos de densidade de cargas e graude resolução. Os PSs foram capazes de modificar o TTPA somente nas frações eluídas com 0,75 M de NaCl, cujas atividades foram 23,37 e 25,76 IU mg-1, respectivamente, quando a densidade de cargas foi pré-requisito para atividade. Portanto, C. cupressoides é uma fonte de PSs com baixos potenciais anticoagulantes comparados à HEP.

  6. Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243 Extraction and anticoagulant activity of sulfated polysaccharides from Caulerpa cupressoides var. lycopodium (Vahl C. Agardh (Chlorophyceae - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.6243

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Maria Barros Benevides


    Full Text Available The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.The reportedly low standard quality of heparin (HEP for use in cardiac surgeries has led to concern in the Brazilian and international markets. Sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from seaweeds have been regarded as promising substitutes for HEP. The aim of this study was to sequentially extract total SPs (TSPs from Caulerpa cupressoides (Chlorophyceae with papain in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0 containing 5 mM cysteine and 5 mM EDTA, followed by fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-cellulose, and then evaluate the anticoagulant potential of SP fractions by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT using normal human plasma and compare it to standard HEP (193 IU mg-1. The obtained fractions were chemically characterized by chemical composition and agarose gel electrophoresis. The yield was 4.61%, and three fractions of SP (F I, F II and F III eluted with 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 M of NaCl, respectively, were observed on chromatography profiles; however, differences in charge densities patterns and degree of resolution among them were revealed by electrophoresis. SPs were capable of modifying APTT only in fractions eluted with 0.75 M of NaCl, whose activities were 23.37 and 25.76 IU mg-1, respectively, and the charge density was prerequisite to activity. Therefore, C. cupressoides is a source of SPs possessing low anticoagulant potential compared to HEP.

  7. Kumar et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2013) 10(6):426 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple ... In the case of powdered drugs the standard methods like ash value, extractive ... Modified Lycopodium spore method is an important analytical technique for powdered drug, especially when other methods of ... Leica DMLS-2 Instrumentation.

  8. UniProt search blastx result: AK287459 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available oroplast (EC 1.6.5.-) (NAD(P)H dehydrogenase subunit I) (NDH subunit I) (NADH-plastoquinone oxidoreductase subunit I) - Huperzia lucidula (Shining clubmoss) (Lycopodium lucidulum) 0 ...

  9. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences - Vol 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long-term effect of Mali phosphate rock on the grain yield of interspecifics and .... of Lycopodium clavatum in reducing induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in ... Analysis of heavy metals in roadside soils and crops along the Obansandjo ...

  10. Evaluation of spray and point inoculation methods for the phenotyping of Puccinia striiformis on wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Chris Khadgi; Thach, Tine; Hovmøller, Mogens Støvring


    flexible application procedure for spray inoculation and it gave highly reproducible results for virulence phenotyping. Six point inoculation methods were compared to find the most suitable for assessment of pathogen aggressiveness. The use of Novec 7100 and dry dilution with Lycopodium spores gave...

  11. 蛇足石松中10个新的石松碱型生物碱[英]/Takayama H…//Chem Pharm Bull

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    从石松属植物中分离得到的石松碱型生物碱具有抑制乙酰胆碱酯酶的活性。本次从该属植物蛇足石松(Lycopodium serratum)中分离得到10个具有石松碱相关骨架的生物碱。



    Ionica Deliu; Carmen Bejan; Emilia Vişoiu; Liliana Cristina Soare


    The nature freely offers us many resources for health and beauty. The ferns and their therapeutic properties are less exploit in Romania, except Lycopodium clavatum and Equisetum arvense. Some of the fern properties were demonstrated, like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelmintic properties. Plants are reasonable alternative to synthetic drugs, avoid the side effect and high cost of synthetic drugs production. Also, the drug resistance bacteria can be controlled using plant derive...

  13. Helechos y afines del santuario de fauna y flora de Iguaque, Boyacá. Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo María Teresa


    Full Text Available The altitudinal distribution of 31 genera and 62 species of fems and allied plants has been studied along three transects in the Carrizal, Chaina and San Pedro sections. The transects of the Carrizal and San Pedro sections rise to San Pedro
    de Iguaque lagoon trough westem and eastem slopes of the septentrional zone of Fauna and nora Sanctuary of Iguaque. The genera richest in species are polydium with 11 species, Asplenium, Elaphoglossum y Blechnum with 5 species. The typical genera of paramo are lamesonia, Lycopodium, Huperzia, Blechnum and Isoetes The distribution and number of species was compared in three sections: species number is highest in Carrizal section; in San Pedro section the number is low but there are sorne predominant species: Pleridium sguilinum (L. Kuhn, lycopodium thyodies Willd. and Cheílanthes lendigera (Cav. Sw. Of vegetation of Chaina section is a transition of montane low forests. of higher number in this section is probably due to location in the Iguaque or Cane bed river. Of taxa are concentrated between Andean forest and subparamo zones. Fem species seem limited in their distribution and are considered specífic
    in their ecological requirementa.
    Se reconocen 31 géneros y 62 especies de helechos y afines en tres transectos ubicados en los sectores Carrizal, Chaina y San Pedro. En los sectores Carrizal y San Pedro, los transectos ascienden por los flancos occidental y oriental de la parte septentrional del santuario hasta la laguna de Iguaque. Los géneros mejor representados son Polypodium con 11 especies, Aspleuinum, Elaphoglossum y Blechnum con 5 especies. Se encontraron géneros caracteristicos del páramo: lamesonia, lycopodium, huperzia,  Blechnum e Isoetes compara la distribución y el número de especies en los tres sectores: el mayor número de especies se observa en el sector Carrizal; en el sector San Pedro es menor pero se detecta predominio de las especies Pleridium aquiliun (L

  14. Criptógamos do Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, São Paulo, SP: pteridophyta: 13. Lycopodiaceae e 20. Selaginellaceae


    Prado,Jefferson; Hirai,Regina Yoshie


    Neste trabalho são apresentados os dados referentes ao levantamento florístico das famílias Lycopodiaceae e Selaginellaceae no Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga (PEFI). Lycopodiaceae está representada na área por três gêneros (Huperzia, Lycopodiella e Lycopodium) e seis táxons: duas espécies e uma variedade de Huperzia (H. fontinaloides (Spring) Trevis., H. quadrifariata (Bory) Rothm. e H. reflexa (Lam.) Trevis. var. minor (Spring) B. Øllg.), uma espécie e uma variedade de Lycopodiella (...

  15. A multicentric observational study to evaluate the role of homoeopathic therapy in vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Chakraborty


    Results: The changes in the mean VSS at intervals of every 6 months was found to be statistically significant. Homoeopathic treatment was found to be useful in relieving vitiligo in varying degrees in 126 patients, out of which 4 (2.94% cases showed marked improvement, 15 (11.03% cases showed moderate improvement, 77 (56.62% cases showed mild improvement, and 30 patients although improved, fell in the category of not significant improvement group (below 25% improvement. Ten homoeopathic medicines were found useful in the study of which Sulphur (n = 27, Arsenicum album (n = 19, Phosphorus (n = 19, and Lycopodium clavatum (n = 10 were the most commonly indicated and useful medicines.

  16. Root apical meristem diversity in extant lycophytes and implications for root origins. (United States)

    Fujinami, Rieko; Yamada, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Atsuko; Takagi, Shoko; Idogawa, Ai; Kawakami, Eri; Tsutsumi, Maiko; Imaichi, Ryoko


    Root apical meristem (RAM) organization in lycophytes could be a key to understanding the early evolution of roots, but this topic has been insufficiently explored. We examined the RAM organization of lycophytes in terms of cell division activities and anatomies, and compared RAMs among vascular plants. RAMs of 13 species of lycophytes were semi-thin-sectioned and observed under a light microscope. Furthermore, the frequency of cell division in the RAM of species was analyzed using thymidine analogs. RAMs of lycophytes exhibited four organization types: type I (Lycopodium and Diphasiastrum), II (Huperzia and Lycopodiella), III (Isoetes) and RAM with apical cell (Selaginella). The type I RAM found in Lycopodium had a region with a very low cell division frequency, reminiscent of the quiescent center (QC) in angiosperm roots. This is the first clear indication that a QC-like region is present in nonseed plants. At least four types of RAM are present in extant lycophytes, suggesting that RAM organization is more diverse than expected. Our results support the paleobotanical hypothesis that roots evolved several times in lycophytes, as well as in euphyllophytes. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu


    Full Text Available The nature freely offers us many resources for health and beauty. The ferns and their therapeutic properties are less exploit in Romania, except Lycopodium clavatum and Equisetum arvense. Some of the fern properties were demonstrated, like antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antihelmintic properties. Plants are reasonable alternative to synthetic drugs, avoid the side effect and high cost of synthetic drugs production. Also, the drug resistance bacteria can be controlled using plant derived remedies. In this study the antimicrobial effect of methanolic and ethanolic extracts from three fern species were tested. The extracts were gained from gametophytic stage of ferns obtained in vitro. The most obvious effect was observed for Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum extract. The total polyphenols and flavonoids content were established, too.

  18. New insights into huperzine A for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-yan ZHANG


    Huperzine A,an active Lycopodium alkaloid extracted from traditional Chinese herb,is a potent,selective and reversible acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and has been widely used in China for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).Accordingly,some new mechanisms of action for huperzine A have been discovered over the past decades.In addition to its AChE inhibitory effect,potent multifaceted neuroprotective effect through activating cholinergic system and directly acting on mitochondria have been explored.Moreover,in order to maximize the efficacy and safety of huperzine A therapy,great efforts have been made to optimize drug delivery system.In the present article,an attempt is made to discuss the current progress and future perspective for huperzine A therapy in AD.

  19. Detection and optical imaging of induced convection under the action of static gradient magnetic field in a non-conducting diamagnetic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Morarka, Amit R


    The report elaborates experimental observations of magnetically induced convection in a non- conducting diamagnetic fluid. Suspension of Deionized (DI) water and Lycopodium pollen grains was used as the fluid in a test tube. Permanent magnets having field strength of 0.12T each were used to provide the static gradient magnetic field. The convections were visually observed and recorded using travelling microscope attached with a web camera. Various geometrical configurations of magnets in the vicinity of test tube were used which provided different types of orientation of convective flows in the test tube. Convections were observed over a range of fluid volumes from 0.2ml-10ml. The experimentally observed results provide proof of concept that irrespective of the weak interactions of diamagnetic fluids with magnetic fields, these effects can be easily observed and recorded with the use of low tech laboratory equipments.

  20. Esporogénesis, esporodermo y ornamentaciónde esporas maduras en Lycopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Javier Rincón Baron


    Full Text Available Estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos, morfología y ultraestructura de las esporas de Lycopodiaceae no son abundantes en la literatura científica y constituyen información esencial para apoyar las relaciones taxonómicas y sistemáticas en el grupo. Con el fin de completar la información existente, añadiendo contribuciones nuevas y más amplias sobre estos temas, se realizó un análisis comparado de la ultraestructura de la esporogénesis, con énfasis en aspectos citológicos que tienen que ver con la formación de la cubierta de los esporocitos, el tapete, las meiosis monoplastidial y poliplastidial, la ontogenia del esporodermo y la ornamentación de las esporas maduras en 43 táxones de ocho géneros de Lycopodiaceae: Austrolycopodium, Diphasium, Diphasiastrum, Huperzia (incluyendo Phlegmariurus, Lycopodium, Lycopodiella, Palhinhaea y Pseudolycopodiella que crecen en los Andes de Colombia y el Neotrópico. Para estudios con microscopía electrónica de trasmisión (MET las muestras se recolectaron en los departamentos de Cauca y Valle del Cauca, mientras que la mayoría de las muestras para microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB provienen de material herborizado de colecciones. Para la observación de las muestras con MET y MEB se utilizaron protocolos estándar para el procesamiento de esporas. La cubierta de los esporocitos está formada por pared primaria; los esporocitos invierten gran parte de su actividad metabólica en la producción de esa cubierta, que es mantenida hasta la liberación de las esporas y tiene funciones de protección de las células que harán meiosis. La abundancia de dictiosomas en los esporocitos se relacionó con la formación y desarrollo de la cubierta. Además de la actividad de los microtúbulos, la presencia de sinuosidades y plegamientos asociados con material electro denso en la membrana de los esporocitos determinarían tempranamente los patrones de ornamentación de las esporas. La condici

  1. Statistical method for the determination of the ignition energy of dust cloud - experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, S.; Lebecki, K.; Gillard, P.; Youinou, L.; Baudry, G. [University of Orleans, Bourges (France)


    Powdery materials such as metallic or polymer powders play a considerable role in many industrial processes. Their use requires the introduction of preventive safeguard to control the plants safety. The mitigation of an explosion hazard, according to the ATEX 137 Directive (1999/92/EU), requires the assessment of the dust ignition sensitivity. PRISME laboratory (University of Orleans) has developed an experimental set-up and methodology, using the Langlie test, for the quick determination of the explosion sensitivity of dusts. This method requires only 20 shots and ignition sensitivity is evaluated through the E{sub 50} (energy with an ignition probability of 0.5) A Hartmann tube, with a volume of 1.3l, was designed and built. Many results on the energy ignition thresholds of partially oxidised aluminium were obtained using this experimental device and compared to literature. E-50 evolution is the same as MIE but their respective values are different and MIE is lower than E{sub 50} however the link between E{sub 50} and MIE has not been elucidated In this paper, the Langlie method is explained in detail for the determination of the parameters (mean value E{sub 50} and standard deviation {sigma}) of the associated statistic law. The ignition probability versus applied energy is firstly measured for Lycopodium in order to validate the method A comparison between the normal and the lognormal law was achieved and the best fit was obtained with the lognormal law. In a second part, the Langlie test was performed on different dusts such as aluminium, cornstarch, lycopodium, coal, and PA12 in order to determine E-50 and {sigma} for each dust. The energies E{sub 05} and E{sub 10} corresponding respectively to an ignition probability of 0.05 and 0.1 are determined with the lognormal law and compared to MIE find in literature. E{sub 05} and E{sub 10} values of ignition energy were found to be very close and were in good agreement with MIE in the literature.

  2. Eco-friendly streamlined process for sporopollenin exine capsule extraction (United States)

    Mundargi, Raghavendra C.; Potroz, Michael G.; Park, Jae Hyeon; Seo, Jeongeun; Tan, Ee-Lin; Lee, Jae Ho; Cho, Nam-Joon


    Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) extracted from Lycopodium clavatum spores are an attractive biomaterial possessing a highly robust structure suitable for microencapsulation strategies. Despite several decades of research into SEC extraction methods, the protocols commonly used for L. clavatum still entail processing with both alkaline and acidolysis steps at temperatures up to 180 °C and lasting up to 7 days. Herein, we demonstrate a significantly streamlined processing regimen, which indicates that much lower temperatures and processing durations can be used without alkaline lysis. By employing CHN elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and dynamic image particle analysis (DIPA), the optimum conditions for L. clavatum SEC processing were determined to include 30 hours acidolysis at 70 °C without alkaline lysis. Extending these findings to proof-of-concept encapsulation studies, we further demonstrate that our SECs are able to achieve a loading of 0.170 ± 0.01 g BSA per 1 g SECs by vacuum-assisted loading. Taken together, our streamlined processing method and corresponding characterization of SECs provides important insights for the development of applications including drug delivery, cosmetics, personal care products, and foods.

  3. Simultaneously preparative purification of Huperzine A and Huperzine B from Huperzia serrata by macroporous resin and preparative high performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Zhang, Hongchao; Liang, Hao; Kuang, Pengqun; Yuan, Qipeng; Wang, Yan


    Huperzine A (HupA) and Huperzine B (HupB) are natural alkaloids existed in Lycopodium plants. They both have potential clinical application for treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD). For the purpose of better utilizing the limited plant resources, a quick and low cost method to separate and purify HupA and HupB from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) was established in this paper. Low polarity macroporous resin SP850 was selected from eight kinds of resins during initial purification. Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) was proved to be the best acid modifier reagent among all acids used in our experiment for improving separation. HupA and HupB were baseline separated on a C18 column by preparative high performance liquid chromatography (Preparative HPLC), the optimal gradient mobile phase system contained methanol increasing from 15% (v/v) to 35% (v/v) and 0.1% (v/v) TFA within the water. The purity of HupA and HupB obtained was 99.1% and 98.6%, respectively, and the total recovery for them was 83.0% and 81.8%, respectively.

  4. [Acute otitis media in children. Comparison between conventional and homeopathic therapy]. (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Moeller, H


    Within a prospective group study of five practicing otorhinolaryngologists, conventional therapy of acute otitis media in children was compared with homeopathic treatments. Group A (103 children) was primarily treated with homeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea). Group B (28 children) was treated by decongestant nose-drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. Comparisons were done by symptoms, physical findings, duration of therapy and number of relapses. The children of the study were between 1 and 11 years of age. The difference in numbers was explained by the children with otitis media being primarily treated by pediatricians using conventional methods. The median duration of pain in group A was 2 days and in group B 3 days. Median therapy in group A lasted 4 days and in group B 10 days. Antibiotics were given over a period of 8-10 days, while homeopathic treatments were stopped after healing. In group A 70.7% of the patients were free of relapses within 1 years and 29.3% had a maximum of three relapses. Group B had 56.5% without relapses and 43.5% a maximum of six relapses. Five children in group A were given antibiotics and 98 responded solely to homeopathic treatments. No side effects of treatment were found in either group.

  5. Evaluation of micro-energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and histochemical tests for aluminium detection in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, Southeast Brazil. (United States)

    Campos, Naiara V; Pereira, Tiago A R; Machado, Mariana F; Guerra, Marcelo B B; Tolentino, Gláucia S; Araújo, Josiane S; Rezende, Maíra Q; Silva, Maria Carolina N A da; Schaefer, Carlos E G R


    The soils developed under High Altitude Rocky Complexes in Brazil are generally of very low chemical fertility, with low base saturation and high exchangeable aluminium concentration. This stressful condition imposes evolutionary pressures that lead to ecological success of plant species that are able to tolerate or accumulate high amounts of aluminium. Several analytical methods are currently available for elemental mapping of biological structures, such as micro-X-ray fluorescence (μ-EDX) and histochemical tests. The aim of this study was to combine μ-EDX analysis and histochemical tests to quantify aluminium in plants from High Altitude Rocky Complexes, identifying the main sites for Al-accumulation. Among the studied species, five showed total Al concentration higher than 1000 mg kg-1. The main Al-hyperaccumulator plants, Lavoisiera pectinata, Lycopodium clavatum and Trembleya parviflora presented positive reactions in the histochemical tests using Chrome Azurol and Aluminon. Strong positive correlations were observed between the total Al concentrations and data obtained by μ-EDX analysis. The μ-EDX analysis is a potential tool to map and quantify Al in hyperaccumulator species, and a valuable technique due to its non-destructive capacity. Histochemical tests can be helpful to indicate the accumulation pattern of samples before they are submitted for further μ-EDX scrutiny.

  6. The impact of oxidation on spore and pollen chemistry: an experimental study (United States)

    Jardine, Phillip; Fraser, Wesley; Lomax, Barry; Gosling, William


    Sporomorphs (pollen and spores) form a major component of the land plant fossil record. Sporomorphs have an outer wall composed of sporopollenin, a highly durable biopolymer, the chemistry of which contains both a signature of ambient ultraviolet-B flux and taxonomic information. Despite the high preservation potential of sporopollenin in the geological record, it is currently unknown how sensitive its chemical signature is to standard palynological processing techniques. Oxidation in particular is known to cause physical degradation to sporomorphs, and it is expected that this should have a concordant impact on sporopollenin chemistry. Here, we test this by experimentally oxidizing Lycopodium (clubmoss) spores using two common oxidation techniques: acetolysis and nitric acid. We also carry out acetolysis on eight angiosperm (flowering plant) taxa to test the generality of our results. Using Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, we find that acetolysis removes labile, non-fossilizable components of sporomorphs, but has a limited impact upon the chemistry of sporopollenin under normal processing durations. Nitric acid is more aggressive and does break down sporopollenin and reorganize its chemical structure, but when limited to short treatments (i.e. ≤10 min) at room temperature sporomorphs still contain most of the original chemical signal. These findings suggest that when used carefully oxidation does not adversely affect sporopollenin chemistry, and that palaeoclimatic and taxonomic signatures contained within the sporomorph wall are recoverable from standard palynological preparations.

  7. Green Route for Efficient Synthesis of Novel Amino Acid Schiff Bases as Potent Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents and Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshita Sachdeva


    Full Text Available Green chemical one-pot multicomponent condensation reaction of substituted 1H-indole-2,3-diones (1, various amino acids (2, and thiosemicarbazide (3 is found to be catalyzed by lemon juice as natural acid using water as a green solvent to give the corresponding Schiff bases (4 in good to excellent yields. This method is experimentally simple, clean, high yielding, and green, with reduced reaction times. The product is purified by simple filtration followed by washing with water and drying process. The synthesized compounds are characterized by FT-IR, 13CNMR, and 1HNMR spectroscopy and are screened for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria brassicicola, Chaetomium orium, and Lycopodium sp. and antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus, and Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. Compounds have also been evaluated for cytotoxic effects against human colon cancer cell line Colo205.

  8. Structures of xyloglucans in primary cell walls of gymnosperms, monilophytes (ferns sensu lato) and lycophytes. (United States)

    Hsieh, Yves S Y; Harris, Philip J


    Little is known about the structures of the xyloglucans in the primary cell walls of vascular plants (tracheophytes) other than angiosperms. Xyloglucan structures were examined in 13 species of gymnosperms, 13 species of monilophytes (ferns sensu lato), and two species of lycophytes. Wall preparations were obtained, extracted with 6 M sodium hydroxide, and the extracts treated with a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1→4)-β-glucanase preparation. The oligosaccharides released were analysed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles from the gymnosperm walls were similar to those from the walls of most eudicotyledons and non-commelinid monocotyledons, indicating that the xyloglucans were fucogalactoxyloglucans, containing the fucosylated units XXFG and XLFG. The xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles for six of the monilophyte species were similar to those of the gymnosperms, indicating they were also fucogalactoxyloglucans. Phylogenetically, these monilophyte species were from both basal and more derived orders. However, the profiles for the other monilophyte species showed various significant differences, including additional oligosaccharides. In three of the species, these additional oligosaccharides contained arabinosyl residues which were most abundant in the profile of Equisetum hyemale. The two species of lycophytes examined, Selaginella kraussiana and Lycopodium cernuum, had quite different xyloglucan oligosaccharide profiles, but neither were fucogalactoxyloglucans. The S. kraussiana profile had abundant oligosaccharides containing arabinosyl residues. The L. cernuum profile indicated the xyloglucan had a very complex structure.

  9. Experimental investigation on the minimum ignition temperature of hybrid mixtures of dusts and gases or solvents. (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich


    Investigations on the minimum ignition temperatures (MIT) of hybrid mixtures of dusts with gases or solvents were performed in the modified Godbert-Greenwald (GG) furnace. Five combustible dusts and six flammable gases (three ideal and three real) were used. The test protocol was according to EN 50281-2-1 for dust-air mixtures whereas in the case of gases, solvents and hybrid mixtures this standard was used with slight modification. The experimental results demonstrated a significant decrease of the MIT of gas, solvent or dust and an increase in the likelihood of explosion when a small amount of dust, which was either below the minimum explosion concentration or not ignitable by itself, was mixed with gas and vice versa. For example, the MIT of toluene decreased from 540°C to 455°C when small amount of lycopodium was added. It was also confirmed that a hybrid mixture explosion is possible even when both dust and vapour or gas concentrations are respectively lower than their minimum explosion concentration (MEC) and lower explosion limit (LEL). Another example is CN4, the MEC of which of 304 g/m(3) decreased to 37 g/m(3) when propane was added, even though the concentrations of the gas was below its LEL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alumina ceramics prepared with new pore-forming agents

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    Zuzana Živcová


    Full Text Available Porous ceramics have a wide range of applications at all length scales, ranging from fi ltration membranes and catalyst supports to biomaterials (scaffolds for bone ingrowths and thermally or acoustically insulating bulk materials or coating layers. Organic pore-forming agents (PFAs of biological origin can be used to control porosity, pore size and pore shape. This work concerns the characterization and testing of several less common pore-forming agents (lycopodium, coffee, fl our and semolina, poppy seed, which are of potential interest from the viewpoint of size, shape or availability. The performance of these new PFAs is compared to that of starch, which has become a rather popular PFA for ceramics during the last decade. The PFAs investigated in this work are in the size range from 5 μm (rice starch to approximately 1 mm (poppy seed, all with more or less isometric shape. The burnout behavior of PFAs is studied by thermal analysis, i.e. thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. For the preparation of porous alumina ceramics from alumina suspensions containing PFAs traditional slip casting (into plaster molds and starch consolidation casting (using metal molds are used in this work. The resulting microstructures are investigated using optical microscopy, combined with image analysis, as well as other methods (Archimedes method of double-weighing in water, mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  11. Homoeopathic management of Schizophrenia: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study

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    Praveen Oberai


    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the usefulness of homoeopathic intervention in Schizophrenia, in untreated cases and antipsychotic treatment resistant cases, to verify indications of medicines, and to assess relapse, if any. Materials and Methods: A prospective, non-comparative, open-label observational study was carried out from October 2005-September 2010 by CCRH at Central Research Institute (H, Kottayam, Kerala, India. Patients between 20 and 60 years of age, presenting with symptoms of Schizophrenia were screened for inclusion and exclusion criteria. The patients who were on antipsychotic drugs were allowed to continue the same along with homoeopathic medicine, the dose of antipsychotics was monitored by the Psychiatrist. The symptoms of each patient were repertorized, and medicine was initially prescribed in 30C potency after consulting Materia Medica. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Outcome of treatment was assessed with Brief Psychiatric Rating Scales (BPRS. Analysis was done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences  SPSS Version 20.0. Results: Out of 188 enrolled patients, 17 cases did not complete the baseline information. Total 171 patients were analysed as per modified Intention to Treat Principle. Significant difference (P = 0.0001, P < 0.05 in the mean scores of BPRS, using paired t test was observed at end of the study. Sulphur, Lycopodium, Natrum muriaticum, Pulsatilla and Phosphorus were found to be the most useful medicines in treating schizophrenic patients. Conclusion: The study reflects the positive role of homoeopathic medicines in the management of patients suffering from schizophrenia as measured by BPRS.

  12. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy. (United States)

    Friese, K H; Kruse, S; Lüdtke, R; Moeller, H


    In a prospective observational study carried out by 1 homoeopathic and 4 conventional ENT practitioners, the 2 methods of treating acute pediatric otitis media were compared. Group A received treatment with homoeopathic single remedies (Aconitum napellus, Apis mellifica, Belladonna, Capsicum, Chamomilla, Kalium bichromicum, Lachesis, Lycopodium, Mercurius solubilis, Okoubaka, Pulsatilla, Silicea), whereas group B received nasal drops, antibiotics, secretolytics and/or antipyretics. The main outcome measures were duration of pain, duration of fever, and the number of recurrences after 1 year, whereby alpha < 0.05 was taken as significance level. The secondary measures were improvement after 3 hours, results of audiometry and tympanometry, and necessity for additional therapy. These parameters were only considered descriptively. The study involved 103 children in group A and 28 children in group B, aged between 6 months and 11 years in both groups. For duration of pain, the median was 2 days in group A and 3 days in group B. For duration of therapy, the median was 4 days in group A and 10 days in group B: this is due to the fact that antibiotics are usually administered over a period of 8-10 days, whereas homoeopathics can be discontinued at an earlier stage once healing has started. Of the children treated, 70.7% were free of recurrence within a year in group A and 29.3% were found to have a maximum of 3 recurrences. In group B, 56.5% were free of recurrence, and 43.5% had a maximum of 6 recurrences. Out of the 103 children in group A, 5 subsequently received antibiotics, though homoeopathic treatment was carried through to the healing stage in the remaining 98. No permanent sequels were observed in either group.

  13. HPLC-UV Analysis Coupled with Chemometry to Identify Phenolic Biomarkers from Medicinal Plants, used as Ingredients in Two Food Supplement Formulas

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    Raluca Maria Pop


    Full Text Available . High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with UV detection is nowadays the reference method to identify and quantify the biomarkers of quality and authenticity of plants and food supplements. Seven medicinal plants were collected from wild flora: Taraxacum officinalis (1, Cynara scolimus (2, Silybum marianum (3, Hypericum perforatum (4,  Chelidonium majus (5, Lycopodium clavatum (6 and  Hippophae rhamnoides (7  leaves and fruits.  Two products (A and B were obtained by mixing individual plant powders. Therefore product A was obtained by mixing dandelion, artichoke and milk thistle, 1:1:1 while product B by mixing St John’s wort, Celandine and Wolf’s claw, 1:1:1. The methanolic extracts of individual plants as well as three different extracts of products A and B (using acidulated water, neutral water and acidulated methanol were analyzed using HPLC-UV for their phenolics’ fingerprint and composition. The qualitative (untargeted analysis and quantitative (targeted analysis results were further compared using Principal Component Analysis (PCA in order to identify their specific biomarkers. Thus, quantitative evaluation of individual phenolics in case of individual plants and products A and B extracts, showed specific and significant differences of composition. Both products A and B contained elagic acid as major compound. For product A, good biomarkers were trans-cinnamic, chlorogenic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids, as well silymarin and silibine originating from milk thistle. For product B, good biomarkers were quercetin and kaempherol, gallic and protocatecuic acids, this product being rich in flavonoids. In conclusion, HPLC-UV coupled with PCA analysis proved to be a rapid and useful way to identify the main biomarkers of plants’ authentication, as well of final products’ quality and safety.

  14. Fingerprinting Food Supplements and Their Botanical Ingredients by Coupled UV/Vis/FTIR Spectrometry

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    Anca Baciu


    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are used as ingredients for a large variety of herbal supplements. Their quality and safety versus efficacy, according to present legal requirements, need to meet the minimum quality criteria to support their use. Specific biomarkers to evaluate and screen their authenticity are phenolic derivatives, phtosterols, lipids or alkaloids. We report here the data obtained  for  two herbal food supplements (A and B obtained from  different mixtures of plants: Taraxacum officinalis, Cynara scolimus Silybum marianum as ingredients for product A  and Hypericum perforatum, Chelidonium majus and Lycopodium clavatum as ingredients for product B. The combination of UV-Vis and FTIR spectrometry allowed a specific fingerprint of biomarkers in individual plants and derived supplements ( A and B, by discriminating the specific areas and peaks of individual plants and  mixtures, the significant differences between the methanolic and water extracts. The data were compared using chemometry ( PCA and Cluster analysis. Using Vis spectrometry combined with FTIR  peak intensities at 1732 cm-1 and calibration with gallic acid,  the total phenolics concentrations ranged from 5.31 to 9.58 mg gallic acid eq/ml methanol, with a positive and significant correlation between the two methods (R2= 0.979. The phenolics’ concentration were 2.5 to 4 times lower in water extracts comparing with methanol extracts of  products A and B.  Finally, we assume that herbal supplements can be adequately characterized for their quality and safety by combined UV-Vis spectrometry/FTIR spectrometry, with good, fast and cheap informations about the main biomarkers of authenticity.

  15. Simple Indolizidine and Quinolizidine Alkaloids. (United States)

    Michael, Joseph P


    This review of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids (i.e., those in which the parent bicyclic systems are in general not embedded in polycyclic arrays) is an update of the previous coverage in Volume 55 of this series (2001). The present survey covers the literature from mid-1999 to the end of 2013; and in addition to aspects of the isolation, characterization, and biological activity of the alkaloids, much emphasis is placed on their total synthesis. A brief introduction to the topic is followed by an overview of relevant alkaloids from fungal and microbial sources, among them slaframine, cyclizidine, Steptomyces metabolites, and the pantocins. The important iminosugar alkaloids lentiginosine, steviamine, swainsonine, castanospermine, and related hydroxyindolizidines are dealt with in the subsequent section. The fourth and fifth sections cover metabolites from terrestrial plants. Pertinent plant alkaloids bearing alkyl, functionalized alkyl or alkenyl substituents include dendroprimine, anibamine, simple alkaloids belonging to the genera Prosopis, Elaeocarpus, Lycopodium, and Poranthera, and bicyclic alkaloids of the lupin family. Plant alkaloids bearing aryl or heteroaryl substituents include ipalbidine and analogs, secophenanthroindolizidine and secophenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (among them septicine, julandine, and analogs), ficuseptine, lasubines, and other simple quinolizidines of the Lythraceae, the simple furyl-substituted Nuphar alkaloids, and a mixed quinolizidine-quinazoline alkaloid. The penultimate section of the review deals with the sizable group of simple indolizidine and quinolizidine alkaloids isolated from, or detected in, ants, mites, and terrestrial amphibians, and includes an overview of the "dietary hypothesis" for the origin of the amphibian metabolites. The final section surveys relevant alkaloids from marine sources, and includes clathryimines and analogs, stellettamides, the clavepictines and pictamine, and bis

  16. Investigating Premature Ignition of Thruster Pressure Cartridges by Vibration-Induced Electrostatic Discharge (United States)

    Woods, Stephen S.; Saulsberry, Regor


    Pyrotechnic thruster pressure cartridges (TPCs) are used for aeroshell separation on a new NASA crew launch vehicle. Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) during TPC acceptance testing indicated that internal assemblies moved during shock and vibration testing due to an internal bond anomaly. This caused concerns that the launch environment might produce the same movement and release propellant grains that might be prematurely ignited through impact or through electrostatic discharge (ESD) as grains vibrated against internal surfaces. Since a new lot could not be fabricated in time, a determination had to be made as to whether the lot was acceptable to fly. This paper discusses the ESD evaluation and a separate paper addresses the impact problem. A challenge to straight forward assessment existed due to the unavailability of triboelectric data characterizing the static charging characteristics of the propellants within the TPC. The approach examined the physical limitations for charge buildup within the TPC system geometry and evaluated it for discharge under simulated vibrations used to qualify components for launch. A facsimile TPC was fabricated using SS 301 for the case and surrogate worst case materials for the propellants based on triboelectric data. System discharge behavior was evaluated by applying high voltage to the point of discharge in air and by placing worst case charge accumulations within the facsimile TPC and forcing discharge. The facsimile TPC contained simulated propellant grains and lycopodium, a well characterized indicator for static discharge in dust explosions, and was subjected to accelerations equivalent to the maximum accelerations possible during launch. The magnitude of charge generated within the facsimile TPC system was demonstrated to lie in a range of 100 to 10,000 times smaller than the spark energies measured to ignite propellant grains in industry standard discharge tests. The test apparatus, methodology, and results are described in

  17. A randomized comparative trial in the management of Alcohol Dependence: Individualized Homoeopathy versus standard Allopathic Treatment

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    Raj K Manchanda


    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to compare the effects of IH with standard allopathic (SA treatment. Methods: A randomized controlled, open-label, comparative trial, was conducted, in which alcohol dependents were screened verbally using the CAGE scale. The participants 80 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were randomized either IH (n=40 or SA (n=40 and treated cum followed up for 12 months. The primary outcome was more than 50% reduction in the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire [SADQ] rating scale at 12 th month. Data analysis was done for both intention-to-treat (ITT and per-protocol (PP populations. Results: ITT analysis reflected 80% (n = 32 of the patients in IH and 37.5% (n = 15 of the patients in the SA responding to CI before 2.4 treatment with absolute difference was 42.5% (42.5 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 23.0, 61.6] and estimated effect: 6.6 (95% C.I: 2.4, 18.2, P = 0.0002. A significant difference favoring IH was also observed in three out of four domains of WHO QOL-BREF. Statistically significant difference was found in the number of drinking days (median difference: −24.00; CI: −39.0-−8.0; P = 0.001 and number of drinks per drinking day (median difference: −6.3 [95% CI: −11.3-−1.9]; P = 0.004, favoring IH. The results showed a similar trend in PP analysis. Medicines found useful were Sulphur, Lycopodium clavatum, Arsenicum album, Nux vomica, Phosphorus, and Lachesis. Conclusion: The results conclude that IH is not inferior to SA in the management of AD patients. More rigorous studies with large sample size are however desirable.

  18. Herbal infusions used for induced abortion. (United States)

    Ciganda, Carmen; Laborde, Amalia


    Plants and herbs have been used to induce abortions but there is very little published information describing the commonly used ones. The purpose of this report is to describe the herbal products used to induce abortions, and to enhance awareness and understanding of their toxic effects. A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between 1986 and 1999 concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent. A total of 86 cases involving 30 different plant species were identified. The species most frequently involved were ruda (Ruta chalepensis/graveolens), cola de quirquincho (Lycopodium saururus), parsley (Petroselinum hortense), and an over-the-counter herbal product named Carachipita. The components of Carachipita are pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium), yerba de la perdiz (Margiricarpus pinnatus), oregano (Origanum vulgare), and guaycuri (Statice brasiliensis). Abortion occurred in 23 cases after the ingestion of parsley, ruda, Carachipita, celery, Cedron, francisco alvarez, floripon, espina colorada. Out of the 23 cases, 15 involved the only the ingestion of plants, 4 cases used injected drugs (presumably hormones), and in 4 cases there was associated self-inflicted instrumental manipulation. Multiple organ system failure occurred in those patients who had ingested ruda (alone or in combination with parsley or fennel), Carachipita, arnica, or bardana. Deaths occurred in one case of Carachipita ingestion and in 4 cases of ruda ingestion (2 cases of ruda alone, 2 cases of ruda with parsley and fennel). Self-inflicted instrumental manipulations were found in 4 of the patients with multiple organ system failure and in one of those who died. The results of this report are not conclusive, but it appears that the ingestion of plants to induce abortion involves the risk of severe morbidity and mortality.

  19. Studies in Neotropical Paleobotany. XV. A Mio-Pliocene palynoflora from the Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia: implications for the uplift history of the Central Andes. (United States)

    Graham, A; Gregory-Wodzicki, K M; Wright, K L


    An assemblage of 33 fossil pollen and spores, recovered from the 3600-m high Pislepampa locality of E. W. Berry, Eastern Cordillera, Bolivia, adds considerably to our knowledge of three aspects of the region in late Neogene time: (1) the paleovegetation, (2) the paleoclimate, and (3) the paleoelevation of the Central Andes. The plant microfossils recognized are Isoetes, Lycopodium (three types), Cnemidaria, Cyathea (three types), Grammitis, Hymenophyllum, Pteris, trilete fern spores (two types), Danaea, monolete fern spores (four types), Podocarpus, Gramineae, Palmae, Ilex, cf. Oreopanax, Cavanillesia, cf. Pereskia, Compositae (three types), Ericaceae, Tetrorchidium, and unknowns (three types). The diversity of the Compositae suggest that this flora has a maximum age around the Miocene-Pliocene boundary, that is, 6-7 million years. All members of the paleocommunity presently grow in the bosque montano húmedo (cloud forest) along the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Bolivia, which occurs between MATs (mean annual temperatures) of ∼10° and 20°C. The Pislepampa flora probably represents the lower limits of this forest because the fossil leaves collected by Berry from the same locality all have entire margins, suggesting that the flora grew near the cloud forest-tropical forest transition. Presently, the lower limit of the cloud forest forest has MATs of ∼20°C, a mean annual precipitation between 1000 and 1500 mm, and that part containing most of the identified genera of fossil pollen is found at elevations ∼1200-1400 m. These conditions are thus inferred for the Pislepampa flora; however, because of the uncertainty of the magnitude of global climate change and of possible changes in the ecological range of plant genera, we estimate an error of at least ±1000 m for the paleoelevation estimate. When the total uplift is corrected for probable amounts of erosionally driven isostatic rebound, the paleoelevation estimate suggests that from one-third to one

  20. A New Late Glacial Site in the Central Appalachians of Virginia. Preliminary Findings From Paleobotany, Palynology, and Geomorphology (United States)

    Schwartz, B. F.; Upchurch, G. R.; Willard, D. A.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Valella, P. A.


    Thick clay deposits in a recently identified paleo-lake bed in a central Appalachian karst system in Highland County, Virginia have yielded well-preserved pollen and macroflora that provide the opportunity to refine the understanding of Pleistocene climate, vegetation dynamics, and erosion in the region. A radiocarbon date of 22,000 14C yr B.P. on wood fragments near the top of the sequence establishes the age of the sediments. Pollen and plant macrofloras characteristic of modern boreal forests are present in sediments at this site. Pollen assemblages show a dominance of conifers, mostly Pinus banksiana and Picea, with Lycopodium as important ground cover. Leaf fossils sieved from the clay show a dominance of Picea needles and common dicot leaf fragments, suggesting that Pinus is either over-represented in the pollen flora or more distal to the paleo-lake. Macrofossil assemblages sieved from the clay contain a variety of non-leaf remains, including fruits, seeds, mosses, insects, feathers, and fungi. Test augering and geophysical results indicate that these clay deposits are at least 9m and perhaps as much as 15m thick. The amount and temporal distribution of sediment loads to the paleo-lake (a depositional environment) from the surrounding landscape (an erosional environment) will be modeled using analysis of sediment facies in and above (>12m) these clays, combined with sediment volume calculations and drainage basin analysis, and constrained by dates from the sediments themselves. Due to the rare occurrence of still-water depositional environments in the Appalachians, this site provides paleo-climate and sedimentological data that will refine regional models of landscape evolution and incision. This work also has implications for the development and modification of a significant karst system that surrounds and underlies the paleo-lake bed. The same karst system is responsible both for the formation of the paleo-lake (after the drain in a blind valley became

  1. Fungal Planet description sheets: 154-213. (United States)

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Guarro, J; Cheewangkoon, R; van der Bank, M; Swart, W J; Stchigel, A M; Cano-Lira, J F; Roux, J; Madrid, H; Damm, U; Wood, A R; Shuttleworth, L A; Hodges, C S; Munster, M; de Jesús Yáñez-Morales, M; Zúñiga-Estrada, L; Cruywagen, E M; de Hoog, G S; Silvera, C; Najafzadeh, J; Davison, E M; Davison, P J N; Barrett, M D; Barrett, R L; Manamgoda, D S; Minnis, A M; Kleczewski, N M; Flory, S L; Castlebury, L A; Clay, K; Hyde, K D; Maússe-Sitoe, S N D; Chen, Shuaifei; Lechat, C; Hairaud, M; Lesage-Meessen, L; Pawłowska, J; Wilk, M; Sliwińska-Wyrzychowska, A; Mętrak, M; Wrzosek, M; Pavlic-Zupanc, D; Maleme, H M; Slippers, B; Mac Cormack, W P; Archuby, D I; Grünwald, N J; Tellería, M T; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P; Marincowitz, S; de Beer, Z W; Perez, C A; Gené, J; Marin-Felix, Y; Groenewald, J Z


    Novel species of microfungi described in the present study include the following from South Africa: Camarosporium aloes, Phaeococcomyces aloes and Phoma aloes from Aloe, C. psoraleae, Diaporthe psoraleae and D. psoraleae-pinnatae from Psoralea, Colletotrichum euphorbiae from Euphorbia, Coniothyrium prosopidis and Peyronellaea prosopidis from Prosopis, Diaporthe cassines from Cassine, D. diospyricola from Diospyros, Diaporthe maytenicola from Maytenus, Harknessia proteae from Protea, Neofusicoccum ursorum and N. cryptoaustrale from Eucalyptus, Ochrocladosporium adansoniae from Adansonia, Pilidium pseudoconcavum from Greyia radlkoferi, Stagonospora pseudopaludosa from Phragmites and Toxicocladosporium ficiniae from Ficinia. Several species were also described from Thailand, namely: Chaetopsina pini and C. pinicola from Pinus spp., Myrmecridium thailandicum from reed litter, Passalora pseudotithoniae from Tithonia, Pallidocercospora ventilago from Ventilago, Pyricularia bothriochloae from Bothriochloa and Sphaerulina rhododendricola from Rhododendron. Novelties from Spain include Cladophialophora multiseptata, Knufia tsunedae and Pleuroascus rectipilus from soil and Cyphellophora catalaunica from river sediments. Species from the USA include Bipolaris drechsleri from Microstegium, Calonectria blephiliae from Blephilia, Kellermania macrospora (epitype) and K. pseudoyuccigena from Yucca. Three new species are described from Mexico, namely Neophaeosphaeria agaves and K. agaves from Agave and Phytophthora ipomoeae from Ipomoea. Other African species include Calonectria mossambicensis from Eucalyptus (Mozambique), Harzia cameroonensis from an unknown creeper (Cameroon), Mastigosporella anisophylleae from Anisophyllea (Zambia) and Teratosphaeria terminaliae from Terminalia (Zimbabwe). Species from Europe include Auxarthron longisporum from forest soil (Portugal), Discosia pseudoartocreas from Tilia (Austria), Paraconiothyrium polonense and P. lycopodinum from Lycopodium

  2. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.


    ) *P (Precipitation). In this way it is possible to estimate the natural grade of groundwater protection (O factor), determined by both soils properties and vadose zone lithology, and then evaluate how this protection could be modified by infiltration processes (diffused or concentrated, C factor) and climatic conditions (P factor). Factor elaborations have been calculated by study area discretization by means of raster grid with square cells, 100 m large, yielding the values distribution of sub-factor for each factor, and then the spatial distribution of intrinsic vulnerability, as result of geoprocessing and map analysis raster techniques in software ESRI ArcInfo® 9.1. Results shows in the study area: 1) Medium and high values of vulnerability classes; 2) Areas with high vulnerability located in zones with low O protection index and moderate protection reduction; 3) C factor contributes to the high vulnerability where superficial cover supports more the infiltration than the run-off (slope between 8 and 31%); 4) Low vulnerability grade areas are either inside unproductive hydrogeological units, or with thick superficial covers. Comparing these results with previous study, the distribution obtained by COP methodology shows larger variations between very high and high vulnerability area distribution. Most of the first areas are located in the central part of hydrogeological system, near to the main spring, and also in northern areas, where there is a swallow hole. This result yields a more precautionary scenario for particularly sensitive are characterized by high anthropogenic activity (marble quarry). Moreover, the vulnerability of such area is confirmed by both natural tracers (Lycopodium clavatum; Baldi, 2004) and environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O; Doveri, 2005). This methodology allowed adding further information about intrinsic vulnerability of a hydrological contest very sensitive to anthropogenic pressures, and it is important for water resource as well

  3. Ontogenia del esporangio y esporogénesis del licopodio Huperzia brevifolia (Lycopodiaceae de las altas montañas de Colombia

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    Edgar Javier Rincón Barón


    Full Text Available Se describe la ontogenia y la esporogénesis en H. brevifolia, en material recolectado en el Parque Nacional Natural El Cocuy (Boyacá-Colombia a 4200m de altitud. Los esporangios se desarrollan de forma basípeta sobre el eje caulinar: los iniciales y juveniles se localizan en el ápice y los adultos a maduros, en la base. El desarrollo se inicia a partir de un grupo de células epidérmicas localizadas en las axilas que forman los microfilos con el eje caulinar. Estas células se dividen activamente por mitosis formando una masa celular externa y otra interna. La primera da origen a la pared del esporangio, de varios estratos celulares; de éstos, el estrato externo desarrolla engrosamientos en las paredes anticlinales y en la periclinal interna. El estrato celular interno se diferencia para formar el tapete secretor. Los demás estratos celulares de la pared se degradan durante la maduración del esporangio. La masa celular interna da origen al tejido esporógeno que forma los esporocitos, que experimentan la meiosis I hasta la etapa de díada. La meiosis II concluye con la formación de tétradas, constituidas por esporas en disposición tetraédrica. Las esporas son foveoladas con abertura trilete y son liberadas del esporangio a través de la dehiscencia.Sporangia ontogeny and sporogenesis of the lycopodium Huperzia brevifolia (Lycopodiaceae from the high mountains of Colombia. Huperzia brevifolia is one of the dominant species of the genus Huperzia living in paramos and superparamos from the Colombian Andes. A detailed study of the sporangium’s ontogeny and sporogenesis was carried out using specimens collected at 4200m above sea level, in Parque Natural Nacional El Cocuy, Colombia. Small pieces of caulinar axis bearing sporangia were fixed, dehydrated, paraffin embedded, sectioned in a rotatory microtome, and stained using the common Safranin O-Fast Green technique; handmade cross sections were also made, stained with aqueous Toluidine

  4. Ontogenia de los esporangios, formación y citoquímica de esporas en licopodios (Lycopodiaceae colombianos

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    Edgar Javier Rincón Baron


    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre aspectos reproductivos no son muy abundantes en la literatura científica sobre los taxones de Lycopodiaceae y constituyen información esencial para apoyar la taxonomía y relaciones sistemáticas en el grupo. Por lo tanto, se presenta aquí un análisis detallado de la ontogenia de los esporangios y esporogénesis, así como determinaciones químicas de varios compuestos generados durante la formación de las esporas. Los análisis se llevaron a cabo en 14 taxones de seis géneros de la familia: Diphasiastrum, Diphasium, Huperzia (un género que se trata aquí, incluyendo Phlegmariurus, Lycopodiella, Lycopodium y Palhinhaea. Las muestras fueron recolectadas en tres departamentos de los Andes de Colombia entre 1 454-3 677m de altitud. La ontogenia se estudió en trozos de estróbilos y ejes, de 1cm de largo, que se fijaron en glutaraldehido o FAA, se deshidrataron en alcohol, se incluyeron en LR White, se seccionaron en cortes de 0.2-0.5μm y se colorearon con azul de toluidina (TBO, un colorante metacromático que permite detectar tanto esporopolenina como lignina o sus precursores. Para estudios adicionales, secciones de 3-5μm de material incluido en paraplast plus se colorearon con safranina-verde rápido y azul alciánhematoxilina. Las pruebas químicas se llevaron a cabo en secciones de esporangios sin fijar en diferentes etapas de madurez utilizando azul alcián (mucopolisacáridos, solución de Lugol (almidón, Sudán III (lípidos, fluoroglucinol (lignina y orceína (cromosomas. Las observaciones se efectuaron con microscopio fotónico equipado con contraste diferencial de interferencia (DIC y microscopía de fluorescencia (para esporas y pared de los esporangios sin colorear. Para observaciones con microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB, los estróbilos y esporangios se deshidrataron con 2,2 dimetoxipropano, se desecaron a punto crítico y se metalizaron con oro. Los resultados indican que la ontogenia de los