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Sample records for ly-alpha forest power

  1. The matter power spectrum from the Ly alpha forest : an optical depth estimate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaroubi, S; Nusser, A; Haehnelt, M; Kim, TS; Viel, M.

    2006-01-01

    We measure the matter power spectrum from 31 Ly alpha spectra spanning the redshift range of 1.6-3.6. The optical depth, tau, for Ly alpha absorption of the intergalactic medium is obtained from the flux using the inversion method of Nusser & Haehnelt. The optical depth is converted to density by

  2. Constraint on neutrino masses from SDSS-III/BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ forest and other cosmological probes

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rossi, Graziano; Borde, Arnaud; Viel, Matteo; Aubourg, Eric; Kirkby, David; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Roe, Natalie; Ross, Nicholas P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Weinberg, David

    2015-02-27

    We present constraints on the parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model in the presence of massive neutrinos, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$ forest power spectrum obtained with the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013), complemented by additional cosmological probes. The interpretation of the measured Ly$\\alpha$ spectrum is done using a second-order Taylor expansion of the simulated power spectrum. BOSS Ly$\\alpha$ data alone provide better bounds than previous Ly$\\alpha$ results, but are still poorly constraining, especially for the sum of neutrino masses $\\sum m_\

  3. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. II. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Using a systematic broadband search technique, we have carried out a survey for large Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} {sup b}lobs{sup )} at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within 8.5 deg{sup 2} of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field, corresponding to a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h {sup -3} {sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}. Here, we present our spectroscopic observations of candidate giant Ly{alpha} nebulae. Of 26 candidates targeted, 5 were confirmed to have Ly{alpha} emission at 1.7 {approx}< z {approx}< 2.7, 4 of which were new discoveries. The confirmed Ly{alpha} nebulae span a range of Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, colors, sizes, and line ratios, and most show spatially extended continuum emission. The remaining candidates did not reveal any strong emission lines, but instead exhibit featureless, diffuse, blue continuum spectra. Their nature remains mysterious, but we speculate that some of these might be Ly{alpha} nebulae lying within the redshift desert (i.e., 1.2 {approx}< z {approx}< 1.6). Our spectroscopic follow-up confirms the power of using deep broadband imaging to search for the bright end of the Ly{alpha} nebula population across enormous comoving volumes.

  4. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T., E-mail: mkpresco@physics.ucsb.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  5. POLARIZED EXTENDED Ly{alpha} EMISSION FROM A z = 2.3 RADIO GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, A. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Vernet, J.; Fosbury, R. A. E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Villar-Martin, M. [Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Carretera de Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Di Serego Alighieri, S. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, L.go E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Cimatti, A., E-mail: andrew.humphrey@astro.up.pt [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-05-01

    We present spatially resolved spectropolarimetric measurements of the 100 kpc scale gaseous environment of the z = 2.34 radio galaxy TXS 0211-122. The polarization level of the narrow Ly{alpha} emission is low centrally (P < 5%), but rises to P = 16.4% {+-} 4.6% in the eastern part of the nebula, indicating that the nebula is at least partly powered by the scattering of Ly{alpha} photons by H I. Not only is this the first detection of polarized Ly{alpha} around a radio-loud active galaxy, it is also the second detection to date for any kind of Ly{alpha} nebula. We also detect a pair of diametrically opposed UV continuum sources along the slit, at the outer edges of the Ly{alpha} nebula, which we suggest may be the limb of a dusty shell, related to the large-scale H I absorbers often associated with high-z radio galaxies.

  6. Ly-alpha polarimeter design for CLASP rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Watanabe, H.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Tsuneta, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Ichimoto, K.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Song, D.

    2011-12-01

    A sounding-rocket program called the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP) is proposed to be launched in the Summer of 2014. CLASP will observe the upper solar chromosphere in Ly-alpha (121.567 nm), aiming to detect the linear polarization signal produced by scattering processes and the Hanle effect for the first time. The CLASP needs a rotating half-waveplate and a polarization analyzer working at the Ly-alpha wavelength to measure the linear polarization signal. We select Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) as a material of the optical components because of its birefringent property and high transparency at UV wavelength. We have confirmed that the reflection at the Brewster's Angle of MgF2 plate is a good polarization analyzer for the Ly-alpha line by deriving its ordinary refractive index and extinction coefficient along the ordinary and extraordinary axes. These optical parameters are calculated with a least-square fitting in such a way that the reflectance and transmittance satisfy the Kramers-Kronig relation. The reflectance and transmittance against oblique incident angles for the s-polarized and the p-polarized light are measured using the synchrotron beamline at the Ultraviolet Synchrotron Orbital Radiation Facility (UVSOR). We have also measured a retardation of a zeroth-order waveplate made of MgF2. The thickness difference of the waveplate is 14.57 um.This waveplate works as a half-waveplate at 121.74 nm. From this measurement, we estimate that a waveplate with the thickness difference of 15.71 um will work as a half-waveplate at the Ly-alpha wavelength. We have developed a rotating waveplate - polarization analyzer system called a prototype of CLASP polarimeter, and input the perfect Stokes Q and U signals. The modulation patterns that are consistent with the theoretical prediction are successfully obtained in both cases.

  7. arXiv Neutrino masses and cosmology with Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Magneville, Christophe; Rossi, Graziano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Borde, Arnaud; Burtin, Etienne; LeGoff, Jean-Marc; Rich, James; Viel, Matteo; Weinberg, David

    2015-11-06

    We present constraints on neutrino masses, the primordial fluctuation spectrum from inflation, and other parameters of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, using the one-dimensional Ly$\\alpha$-forest power spectrum measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2013) from SDSS-III/BOSS, complemented by Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background (CMB) data and other cosmological probes. This paper improves on the previous analysis by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. (2015) by using a more powerful set of calibrating hydrodynamical simulations that reduces uncertainties associated with resolution and box size, by adopting a more flexible set of nuisance parameters for describing the evolution of the intergalactic medium, by including additional freedom to account for systematic uncertainties, and by using Planck 2015 constraints in place of Planck 2013. Fitting Ly$\\alpha$ data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from CMB data, except for a weak tension on the scalar index ...

  8. HI column density distribution function at z=0 : Connection to damped Ly alpha statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, Martin; Verheijen, MAW; Briggs, FH

    We present a measurement of the HI column density distribution function f(N-HI) at the present epoch for column densities > 10(20) cm(-2). These high column densities compare to those measured in damped Ly alpha lines seen in absorption against background quasars. Although observationally rare, it

  9. Anomalous Temporal Behaviour of Broadband Ly Alpha Observations During Solar Flares from SDO/EVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milligan, Ryan O.; Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is the most prominent emission line in the solar spectrum, there has been a notable lack of studies devoted to variations in Lyman-alpha (Ly-alpha) emission during solar flares in recent years. However, the few examples that do exist have shown Ly-alpha emission to be a substantial radiator of the total energy budget of solar flares (of the order of 10 percent). It is also a known driver of fluctuations in the Earth's ionosphere. The EUV (Extreme Ultra-Violet) Variability Experiment (EVE) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) now provides broadband, photometric Ly-alpha data at 10-second cadence with its Multiple EUV Grating Spectrograph-Photometer (MEGS-P) component, and has observed scores of solar flares in the 5 years since it was launched. However, the MEGS-P time profiles appear to display a rise time of tens of minutes around the time of the flare onset. This is in stark contrast to the rapid, impulsive increase observed in other intrinsically chromospheric features (H-alpha, Ly-beta, LyC, C III, etc.). Furthermore, the emission detected by MEGS-P peaks around the time of the peak of thermal soft X-ray emission and not during the impulsive phase when energy deposition in the chromosphere (often assumed to be in the form of non-thermal electrons) is greatest. The time derivative of Ly-alpha lightcurves also appears to resemble that of the time derivative of soft X-rays, reminiscent of the Neupert effect. Given that spectrally-resolved Ly-alpha observations during flares from SORCE / SOLSTICE (Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment / Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment) peak during the impulsive phase as expected, this suggests that the atypical behaviour of MEGS-P data is a manifestation of the broadband nature of the observations. This could imply that other lines andor continuum emission that becomes enhanced during flares could be contributing to the passband. Users are hereby urged to exercise caution when interpreting

  10. A Faraday rotation search for magnetic fields in quasar damped Ly alpha absorption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Abraham L.; Wolfe, Arthur M.

    1995-01-01

    We present the results of a Faraday rotation survey of 61 radio-bright QSOs conducted at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA). The Galactic contribution to the Faraday rotation is estimated and subtracted to determine the extragalactic rotation measure (RRM) for each source. Eleven of these QSOs are known to exhibit damped Ly alpha absorption. The rate of incidence of significant Faraday rotation of these 11 sources is compared to the remaining 50 and is found to be higher at the 99.8% confidence level. However, as this is based upon only two detections of Faraday rotation in the damped Ly alpha sample, the result is only tentative. If the two detections in the damped Ly alpha sample are dug to the absorbing systems, then the inferred rotation measure induced by these systems is roughly 250 rad/sq m. The two detections were for the two lowest redshift absorbers in the sample. We find that a rotation measure of 250 rad/sq m would have gone undetected for any other absorber in the damped Ly alpha sample due to the 1/(1 + 2) squared dilution of the observed RRM with redshift. Thus the data are consistent with, but do not prove, the hypothesis that Faraday rotation is a generic property of damped Ly alpha absorbers. We do not confirm the suggestion that the amplitude of RRMs increases with redshift. Rather, the data are consistent with no redshift evolution. We find that the uncertainty in the estimation of the Galactic rotation measure (GRM) is a more serious problem than previously realized for extra-galactic Faraday rotation studies of QSO absorbers. A careful analysis of current methods for estimating GRM indicate that it can be determined to an accuracy of about 15 - 20 rad/sq m. Previous studies underestimated this uncertainty by more than a factor of 2. Due to this uncertainty, rotation measures such as we suspect are associated with damped Ly alpha absorption systems can only be detected at redshifts less than z approximately

  11. GAS MOTION STUDY OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 2 USING FUV AND OPTICAL SPECTRAL LINES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takuya; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami; Ono, Yoshiaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Rauch, Michael; Janice Lee [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Okamura, Sadanori, E-mail: thashimoto@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Advanced Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Hosei University, 3-7-2 Kajino-cho, Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan)

    2013-03-01

    We present the results of Magellan/MMIRS and Keck/NIRSPEC spectroscopy for five Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z {approx_equal} 2.2 for which high-resolution FUV spectra from Magellan/MagE are available. We detect nebular emission lines including H{alpha} on the individual basis and low-ionization interstellar (LIS) absorption lines in a stacked FUV spectrum, and measure average offset velocities of the Ly{alpha} line, {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}}, and LIS absorption lines, {Delta}v {sub abs}, with respect to the systemic velocity defined by the nebular lines. For a sample of eight z {approx} 2-3 LAEs without active galactic nucleus from our study and the literature, we obtain {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} = 175 {+-} 35 km s{sup -1}, which is significantly smaller than that of Lyman-break Galaxies (LBGs), {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} {approx_equal} 400 km s{sup -1}. The stacked FUV spectrum gives {Delta}v {sub abs} = -179 {+-} 73 km s{sup -1}, comparable to that of LBGs. These positive {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} and negative {Delta}v {sub abs} suggest that LAEs also have outflows. In contrast to LBGs, however, the LAEs' {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} is as small as |{Delta}v {sub abs}|, suggesting low neutral hydrogen column densities. Such a low column density with a small number of resonant scattering may cause the observed strong Ly{alpha} emission of LAEs. We find an anti-correlation between Ly{alpha} equivalent width (EW) and {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} in a compilation of LAE and LBG samples. Although its physical origin is not clear, this anti-correlation result appears to challenge the hypothesis that a strong outflow, by means of a reduced number of resonant scattering, produces a large EW. If LAEs at z > 6 have similarly small {Delta}v {sub Ly{alpha}} values, constraints on the reionization history derived from the Ly{alpha} transmissivity may need to be revised.

  12. High-Velocity Ly(Alpha) Emission from SMR 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Pun, Chu S. J.; Sonneborn, George

    1998-01-01

    The high-velocity Ly(Alpha) emission from SN 1987A observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) evidently comes from a reverse shock formed where the outer envelope of SN 1987A strikes ionized gas inside the inner circumstellar ring. The observations can be explained by a simple kinematic model, in which the Ly(Alpha) emission comes from hydrogen atoms with radial velocity approximately 15,000 km s(exp -1) crossing a reverse shock in the shape of a slightly prolate ellipsoid with equatorial radius 4.8 x 10(exp 17) cm or approximately 80% of the distance to the inner surface of the inner ring. N v double Lambda 1239, 1243 emission, if present, has a net luminosity approximately less than 30% times that of the Ly(Alpha) emission. Future STIS observations should enable us to predict the time of impact with the inner ring and to determine unambiguously whether or not N v emission is present. These observations will offer a unique opportunity to probe the structure of SN 1987A's circumstellar environment and the hydrodynamics and kinetics of very fast shocks.

  13. CONSTRAINING DUST AND MOLECULAR GAS PROPERTIES IN Ly{alpha} BLOBS AT z {approx} 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yujin; Decarli, Roberto; Walter, Fabian; Leipski, Christian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, Heidelberg (Germany); Dannerbauer, Helmut; Le Floc' h, Emeric [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiss, Axel; Menten, Karl M. [Max-Planck-Insitut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Dey, Arjun [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Chapman, Scott C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Prescott, Moire K. M. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, Mail Code 9530, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Neri, Roberto [IRAM-Institut de Radio Astronomie Millimetrique, 300 rue de la Piscine, 38406 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Borys, Colin [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Yamada, Toru [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Hayashino, Tomoki [Research Center for Neutrino Science, Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Tapken, Christian [Leibnitz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, 14482 Potsdam (Germany)

    2012-01-10

    In order to constrain the bolometric luminosities, dust properties, and molecular gas content of giant Ly{alpha} nebulae, the so-called Ly{alpha} blobs, we have carried out a study of dust continuum and CO line emission in two well-studied representatives of this population at z {approx} 3: an Ly{alpha} blob discovered by its strong Spitzer Multiband Infrared Photometer 24 {mu}m detection (LABd05) and the Steidel blob 1 (SSA22-LAB01). We find that the spectral energy distribution of LABd05 is well described by an active-galactic-nucleus-starburst composite template with L{sub FIR} = (4.0 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }, comparable to high-z submillimeter galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. New Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 {mu}m measurements rule out the reported Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array detection of the SSA22-LAB01 (S{sub 850{mu}m} = 16.8 mJy) at the >4{sigma} level. Consistent with this, ultradeep Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations with {approx}2'' spatial resolution also fail to detect any 1.2 mm continuum source down to Almost-Equal-To 0.45 mJy beam{sup -1} (3{sigma}). Combined with the existing (sub)millimeter observations in the literature, we conclude that the FIR luminosity of SSA22-LAB01 remains uncertain. No CO line is detected in either case down to integrated flux limits of S{sub {nu}}{Delta}V {approx}< 0.25-1.0 Jy km s{sup -1}, indicating a modest molecular gas reservoir, M(H{sub 2}) < (1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The non-detections exclude, with high significance (12{sigma}), the previous tentative detection of a CO J = 4-3 line in the SSA22-LAB01. The increased sensitivity afforded by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be critical in studying molecular gas and dust in these interesting systems.

  14. A quadruple quasar coincident with a giant Ly-alpha nebula and a protocluster at z=2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    We propose to observe the only known quadruple AGN system in the Universe, embedded in a giant Ly-alpha nebula at z 2. These active nuclei and the large number of Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at the same redshift are clear indications that this is one of the most overdense protoclusters known z 2. We request a 140 ks Chandra exposure to (a) define the basic X-ray properties of all the AGN and then their bolometric luminosities and Eddington ratios, and compare these with those of "isolated" quasars at similar redshifts/luminosities; (b) detect the hot gas emission in the protocluster. Chandra is unique for this investigation: the close (few arcsec) distance of some of the AGN needs high spatial resolution, and the extended emission requires low background contribution.

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 0.3 FROM UV-TO-FIR MEASUREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oteo, I.; Bongiovanni, A.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Cepa, J.; Pintos-Castro, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ederoclite, A. [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon, Plaza San Juan 1, Planta 2, Teruel, 44001 (Spain); Sanchez-Portal, M.; Altieri, B. [Herschel Science Centre (ESAC), Villafranca del Castillo (Spain); Perez-Martinez, R. [XMM/Newton Science Operations Centre (ESAC), Villafranca del Castillo (Spain); Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Foerster Schreiber, N.; Genzel, R.; Magnelli, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, 85741 Garching (Germany); Andreani, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzchild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aussel, H.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc' h, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA-SAp) Saclay (France); Cimatti, A. [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, 40127 Bologna (Italy); and others

    2012-06-01

    The analysis of the physical properties of low-redshift Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) can provide clues in the study of their high-redshift analogs. At z {approx} 0.3, LAEs are bright enough to be detected over almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum and it is possible to carry out a more precise and complete study than at higher redshifts. In this work, we examine the UV and IR emission, dust attenuation, star formation rate (SFR), and morphology of a sample of 23 GALEX-discovered star-forming LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 with direct UV (GALEX), optical (ACS), and FIR (PACS and MIPS) data. Using the same UV and IR limiting luminosities, we find that LAEs at z {approx} 0.3 tend to be less dusty, have slightly higher total SFRs, have bluer UV continuum slopes, and are much smaller than other galaxies that do not exhibit Ly{alpha} emission in their spectrum (non-LAEs). These results suggest that at z {approx} 0.3, Ly{alpha} photons tend to escape from small galaxies with low dust attenuation. Regarding their morphology, LAEs belong to Irr/merger classes, unlike non-LAEs. Size and morphology represent the most noticeable difference between LAEs and non-LAEs at z {approx} 0.3. Furthermore, the comparison of our results with those obtained at higher redshifts indicates either that the Ly{alpha} technique picks up different kind of galaxies at different redshifts or that the physical properties of LAEs are evolving with redshift.

  16. KECK SPECTROSCOPY OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UV-CONTINUUM AND Ly{alpha} LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS AT z > 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Linhua; Egami, Eiichi; Walth, Gregory [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Matsuda, Yuichi [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Shimasaku, Kazuhiro [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nagao, Tohru [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ota, Kazuaki [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 77-8582 (Japan)

    2011-12-10

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations of z > 6 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates in the Subaru Deep Field (SDF). The candidates were selected as i'-dropout objects down to z' = 27 AB magnitudes from an ultra-deep SDF z'-band image. With the Keck spectroscopy we identified 19 LBGs with prominent Ly{alpha} emission lines at 6 {<=} z {<=} 6.4. The median value of the Ly{alpha} rest-frame equivalent widths (EWs) is {approx}50 A, with four EWs >100 A. This well-defined spectroscopic sample spans a UV-continuum luminosity range of -21.8 {<=} M{sub UV} {<=} -19.5 (0.6 {approx} 5 L*{sub UV}) and a Ly{alpha} luminosity range of (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-3 L*{sub Ly{alpha}}). We derive the UV and Ly{alpha} luminosity functions (LFs) from our sample at (z) {approx} 6.2 after we correct for sample incompleteness. We find that our measurement of the UV LF is consistent with the results of previous studies based on photometric LBG samples at 5 < z < 7. Our Ly{alpha} LF is also generally in agreement with the results of Ly{alpha}-emitter surveys at z {approx} 5.7 and 6.6. This study shows that deep spectroscopic observations of LBGs can provide unique constraints on both the UV and Ly{alpha} LFs at z > 6.

  17. The z = 0.8596 damped Ly-alpha absorbing galaxy toward PKS 0454+039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidel, Charles C.; Bowen, David V.; Blades, J. Chris; Dickenson, Mark

    1995-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and ground-based data on the Z(sub abs) = 0.8596 metal-line absorption system along the line of sight to PKS 0454+0356. The system is a moderate-redshift damped Ly-alpha system, with N(H I) = (5.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm as measured from the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) spectrum. We also present ground-based images which we use to identify the galaxy which most probably gives rise to the damped system; the most likely candidate is relatively underluminous by QSO absorber standards M(sub B) approximately -19.0 for A(sub 0) = 0.5 and H(sub 0) = 50 km/s/Mpc) and lies approximately 8.5/h kpc in projection from the QSO sight line. Ground-based measurements of Zn II, Cr II, and Fe II absorption lines from this system allow us to infer abundances of (Zn/H) = -1.1, (Cr/H) = -1.2, and (Fe/H) = -1.2 indicating overall metallicity similar to damped systems at z is greater than 2, and that the depletion of Cr and Fe onto dust grains may be even less important than in many of the high-redshift systems of comparable metallicity. Limits previously placed on the 21 cm optical depth in the z = 0.8596 system, together with our new N(H I) measurement, suggest a very high spin temperature for the H I, T(sub s) is greater than 580 K.

  18. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF THREE z-DROPOUT GALAXIES AT z = 6.844-7.213: DEMOGRAPHICS OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION IN z {approx} 7 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Kimihiko, E-mail: ono@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Mobasher, Bahram; Nayyeri, Hooshang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S. [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Penner, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Kashikawa, Nobunari [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Spinrad, Hyron [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We present the results of our ultra-deep Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of z-dropout galaxies in the Subaru Deep Field and Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey's northern field. For 3 out of 11 objects, we detect an emission line at {approx}1 {mu}m with a signal-to-noise ratio of {approx}10. The lines show asymmetric profiles with high weighted skewness values, consistent with being Ly{alpha}, yielding redshifts of z = 7.213, 6.965, and 6.844. Specifically, we confirm the z = 7.213 object in two independent DEIMOS runs with different spectroscopic configurations. The z = 6.965 object is a known Ly{alpha} emitter, IOK-1, for which our improved spectrum at a higher resolution yields a robust skewness measurement. The three z-dropouts have Ly{alpha} fluxes of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} and rest-frame equivalent widths EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} = 33-43 A. Based on the largest spectroscopic sample of 43 z-dropouts, which is the combination of our and previous data, we find that the fraction of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies (EW{sup Ly{alpha}}{sub 0} > 25 A) is low at z {approx} 7; 17% {+-} 10% and 24% {+-} 12% for bright (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -21) and faint (M{sub UV} {approx_equal} -19.5) galaxies, respectively. The fractions of Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxies drop from z {approx} 6 to 7 and the amplitude of the drop is larger for faint galaxies than for bright galaxies. These two pieces of evidence would indicate that the neutral hydrogen fraction of the intergalactic medium increases from z {approx} 6 to 7 and that the reionization proceeds from high- to low-density environments, as suggested by an inside-out reionization model.

  19. INFERENCES ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF Ly{alpha} EMISSION OF z {approx} 7 AND z {approx} 8 GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Trenti, Michele [University of Colorado, Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stiavelli, Massimo; Bradley, Larry D., E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Spectroscopic confirmation of galaxies at z {approx} 7 and above has been extremely difficult, owing to a drop in intensity of Ly{alpha} emission in comparison with samples at z {approx} 6. This crucial finding could potentially signal the ending of cosmic reionization. However, it is based on small data sets, often incomplete and heterogeneous in nature. We introduce a flexible Bayesian framework, useful to interpret such evidence. Within this framework, we implement two simple phenomenological models: a smooth one where the distribution of Ly{alpha} is attenuated by a factor {epsilon}{sub s} with respect to z {approx} 6 and a patchy one where a fraction {epsilon}{sub p} is absorbed/non-emitted while the rest is unabsorbed. From a compilation of 39 observed z {approx} 7 galaxies, we find {epsilon}{sub s} = 0.69 {+-} 0.12 and {epsilon}{sub p} = 0.66 {+-} 0.16. The models can be used to compute fractions of emitters above any equivalent width W. For W > 25 A, we find X{sup 25}{sub z=7} = 0.37 {+-} 0.11 (0.14 {+-} 0.06) for galaxies fainter (brighter) than M{sub UV} = -20.25 for the patchy model, consistent with previous work, but with smaller uncertainties by virtue of our full use of the data. At z {approx} 8 we combine new deep (5{sigma} flux limit 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}) Keck/NIRSPEC observations of a bright Y-dropout identified by our Brightest of Reionization Galaxies Survey, with those of three objects from the literature and find that the inference is inconclusive. We compute predictions for future near-infrared spectroscopic surveys and show that it is challenging but feasible to constrain the distribution of Ly{alpha} emitters at z {approx} 8 and distinguish between models.

  20. AVERAGE METALLICITY AND STAR FORMATION RATE OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS PROBED BY A TRIPLE NARROWBAND SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Kimihiko; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Ono, Yoshiaki; Okamura, Sadanori [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ouchi, Masami [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), TODIAS, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Lee, Janice C.; Ly, Chun [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Foucaud, Sebastien [Department of Earth Sciences, National Taiwan Normal University, No. 88, Tingzhou Road, Sec. 4, Taipei 11677, Taiwan (China); Dale, Daniel A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Salim, Samir [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Finn, Rose [Department of Physics, Siena College, Loudonville, NY (United States); Almaini, Omar, E-mail: nakajima@astron.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-20

    We present the average metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) measured from our large-area survey with three narrowband (NB) filters covering the Ly{alpha}, [O II]{lambda}3727, and H{alpha}+[N II] lines of LAEs at z = 2.2. We select 919 z = 2.2 LAEs from Subaru/Suprime-Cam NB data in conjunction with Magellan/IMACS spectroscopy. Of these LAEs, 561 and 105 are observed with KPNO/NEWFIRM near-infrared NB filters whose central wavelengths are matched to redshifted [O II] and H{alpha} nebular lines, respectively. By stacking the near-infrared images of the LAEs, we successfully obtain average nebular-line fluxes of LAEs, the majority of which are too faint to be identified individually by NB imaging or deep spectroscopy. The stacked object has an H{alpha} luminosity of 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} corresponding to an SFR of 14 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. We place, for the first time, a firm lower limit to the average metallicity of LAEs of Z {approx}> 0.09 Z{sub Sun} (2{sigma}) based on the [O II]/(H{alpha}+[N II]) index together with photoionization models and empirical relations. This lower limit of metallicity rules out the hypothesis that LAEs, so far observed at z {approx} 2, are extremely metal-poor (Z < 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} Z{sub Sun }) galaxies at the 4{sigma} level. This limit is higher than a simple extrapolation of the observed mass-metallicity relation of z {approx} 2 UV-selected galaxies toward lower masses (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }), but roughly consistent with a recently proposed fundamental mass-metallicity relation when the LAEs' relatively low SFR is taken into account. The H{alpha} and Ly{alpha} luminosities of our NB-selected LAEs indicate that the escape fraction of Ly{alpha} photons is {approx}12%-30%, much higher than the values derived for other galaxy populations at z {approx} 2.

  1. Spectral Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} line shapes for the H atom in the presence of a magnetic field in a plasma; Profils des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} de l'atome H en presence d'un champ magnetique dans un plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H; Herman, L [Laboratoire de Recherches Physiques, Faculte des sciences, 9 Quai Saint Bernard, 75 - Paris (France); Drawin, H W [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-02-15

    This report contains numerical data of the line shapes of Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, and H{alpha} for the following parameters: 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} where H = magnetic field strength, K = density of plasma ions, T = electron temperature. (authors) [French] Dans ce rapport, on donne les valeurs numeriques des contours des raies spectrales Ly{alpha}, Ly{beta}, et H{alpha} pour les valeurs suivantes des parametres H, N et T 1. 10{sup 2} {<=} H [gauss] {<=} 1.2. 10{sup 5} 1. 10{sup 15}{<=} N [cm{sup -3}] {<=} 1. 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} 1. 10{sup 4} {<=} T [deg. K] {<=} 4. 10{sup 4} ou H intensite du champ magnetique, N = densite des ions, T = temperature electronique. (auteurs)

  2. Wavelet Space-Scale-Decomposition Analysis of QSO's Ly$\\alpha$ Absorption Lines: Spectrum of Density Perturbations

    OpenAIRE

    Pando, Jesus; Fang, Li-Zhi

    1995-01-01

    A method for measuring the spectrum of a density field by a discrete wavelet space-scale decomposition (SSD) has been studied. We show how the power spectrum can effectively be described by the father function coefficients (FFC) of the wavelet SSD. We demonstrate that the features of the spectrum, such as the magnitude, the index of a power law, and the typical scales, can be determined with high precision by the FFC reconstructed spectrum. This method does not require the mean density, which...

  3. Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatyev, V.; Bulavik, I.; Baginsky, V.; Goncharenko, G.; Dvornik, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of radionuclide migration and the prediction of the radionuclide redistribution and accumulation by forest phytocoenoses after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident. The current ecological condition of forest ecosystems is evaluated and scientific aspects of forest management in the conditions of the large-scale radioactive contamination are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2010-07-05

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  5. Rural electrification in Indonesia : the role of micro hydro power in shaping forest conservation behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I Wayan Gede Santika, W.; Midden, C.J.H.; Lemmens, A.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    It is reported that villagers at the villages electrified by micro hydro power (MHP) show more favorable attitudes, intentions, and behaviors toward forest conservation. They initiated a community-based agreement regulating forest cutting, reduced trees chopped from the forests, reduced intention

  6. Credit Risk Evaluation of Power Market Players with Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Yasushi; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new method is proposed for credit risk evaluation in a power market. The credit risk evaluation is to measure the bankruptcy risk of the company. The power system liberalization results in new environment that puts emphasis on the profit maximization and the risk minimization. There is a high probability that the electricity transaction causes a risk between companies. So, power market players are concerned with the risk minimization. As a management strategy, a risk index is requested to evaluate the worth of the business partner. This paper proposes a new method for evaluating the credit risk with Random Forest (RF) that makes ensemble learning for the decision tree. RF is one of efficient data mining technique in clustering data and extracting relationship between input and output data. In addition, the method of generating pseudo-measurements is proposed to improve the performance of RF. The proposed method is successfully applied to real financial data of energy utilities in the power market. A comparison is made between the proposed and the conventional methods.

  7. Value of forestation in absorbing carbon dioxide surrounding a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-08-01

    The dispersion of carbon dioxide emitted from 1000 MW(e) coal fired power plant is investigated. Calculated ground level carbon dioxide concentrations as a function of distance from the power plant stack is validated by the results derived from sulfur dioxide dispersion measurements. Forestation is examined as a means for removal and control of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a distance of 5 to 10 km away from the power plant stack. An equilibrium and a dynamic approach are considered. For an average temperate zone forest growth rate (7.42 mg/dm/sup 2/ h), the overall reduction in forested land area required to remove the equivalent of all of the CO/sub 2/ from a 1000 MW(e) power plant would be less than 3.3% compared to removing the equivalent amount of CO/sub 2/ by planting forests remotely from the plant. If faster growing tropical plants or trees having up to 4 times the temperate plant growth rate were used, there would be a maximum savings of 15% in forested land area compared to a remote planting. This magnitude of reduction in cultivated forest area is insufficient to recommend planting forested areas adjacent to central power stations as a means of controlling CO/sub 2/ emission. Rather it is suggested to provide sufficient increased regional forested areas on a global scale for the purposes of absorbing the equivalent increase in CO/sub 2/ emission due to increased fossil fuel use.

  8. Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  9. U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-01-01

    Case study describes the U.S. Forest Service's Power-IT-Down Program, which strongly encouraged employees to shut off their computers when leaving the office. The U.S. Forest Service first piloted the program on a voluntary basis in one region then implemented it across the agency's 43,000 computers as a joint effort by the Chief Information Office and Sustainable Operations department.

  10. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klose, S.; Wernecke, K.D.; Makeschin, F. [Technical University of Dresden, Tharandt (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of fly ash and SO{sub 2} from lignite-fired power plants strongly affect large forest areas in Germany. The impact of different deposition loads on the microbial biomass and enzyme activities was studied at three forest sites (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) along an emission gradient of 3, 6, and 15 km downwind of a coal-fired power plant, representing high, moderate and low emission rates. An additional site at a distance of 3 km from the power plant was chosen to study the influence of forest type on microbial parameters in coniferous forest soils under fly ash and SO{sub 2} emissions. Soil microbial biomass C and N, CO{sub 2} evolved and activities of L-asparaginase, L-glutaminase, beta-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and arylsulfatase (expressed on dry soil and organic C basis) were determined in the forest floor (L, Of and Oh horizon) and mineral top soil (0-10 cm). It is concluded that chronic fly ash depositions decrease litter decomposition by influencing specific microbial and enzymatic processes in forest soils.

  11. Empirical study on voting power in participatory forest planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainikainen, N; Kangas, A; Kangas, J

    2008-07-01

    Multicriteria decision support systems are applied in natural resource management in order to clarify the planning process for the stakeholders, to make all available information usable and all objectives manageable. Especially when the public is involved in planning, the decision support system should be easy to comprehend, transparent and fair. Social choice theory has recently been applied to group decision-making in natural resources management to accomplish these objectives. Although voting forms the basis of democracy, and is usually taken as a fair method, the influence of voters over the outcome may vary. It is also possible to vote strategically to improve the results from each stakeholder's point of view. This study examines the use of social choice theory in revealing stakeholders' preferences in participatory forest planning, and the influence of different voters on the outcome. The positional voting rules examined were approval voting and Borda count, but both rules were slightly modified for the purposes of this study. The third rule examined, cumulative rule, resembles utilitarian voting rules. The voting rules were tested in a real participatory forest planning situation in eastern Lapland, Finland. All voting rules resulted in a different joint order of importance of the criteria. Yet, the preference orders produced had also a lot in common and the criteria could be divided into three quite distinct groups according to their importance. The influence of individual voters varied between the voting rules, and in each case different voter was the most influential.

  12. Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDougall, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Short Summary

    Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

    Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

    Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

  13. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  14. Forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, J.

    1997-01-01

    Forests have the capacity to trap and retain radionuclides for a substantial period of time. The dynamic behaviour of nutrients, pollution and radionuclides in forests is complex. The rotation period of a forest stand in the Nordic countries is about 100 years, whilst the time for decomposition of organic material in a forest environment can be several hundred years. This means that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must have an effect for several decades, or be reapplied continuously for long periods of time. To mitigate the detrimental effect of a contaminated forest environment on man, and to minimise the economic loss in trade of contaminated forest products, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms of transfer of radionuclides through the forest environment. It must also be stressed that any countermeasure applied in the forest environment must be evaluated with respect to long, as well as short term, negative effects, before any decision about remedial action is taken. Of the radionuclides studied in forests in the past, radiocaesium has been the main contributor to dose to man. In this document, only radiocaesium will be discussed since data on the impact of other radionuclides on man are too scarce for a proper evaluation. (EG)

  15. Tactical supply chain planning for a forest biomass power plant under supply uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, Nazanin; Sowlati, Taraneh; Ouhimmou, Mustapha; Rönnqvist, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty in biomass supply is a critical issue that needs to be considered in the production planning of bioenergy plants. Incorporating uncertainty in supply chain planning models provides improved and stable solutions. In this paper, we first reformulate a previously developed non-linear programming model for optimization of a forest biomass power plant supply chain into a linear programming model. The developed model is a multi-period tactical-level production planning problem and considers the supply and storage of forest biomass as well as the production of electricity. It has a one-year planning horizon with monthly time steps. Next, in order to incorporate uncertainty in monthly available biomass into the planning, we develop a two-stage stochastic programming model. Finally, to balance the risk and profit, we propose a bi-objective model. The results show that uncertainty in availability of biomass has an additional cost of $0.4 million for the power plant. Using the proposed stochastic optimization model could reduce this cost by half. - Highlights: • Developed a two-stage stochastic optimization model to consider supply uncertainty. • Maximized the profit of a forest biomass power plant value chain. • Minimized two risk measures, variability index and downside risk, to manage risks. • Stochastic optimization model provided feasible solution for all scenarios. • Results showed a trade-off between profit and risk management

  16. The non-linear power spectrum of the Lyman alpha forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Viel, Matteo; Cen, Renyue

    2015-01-01

    The Lyman alpha forest power spectrum has been measured on large scales by the BOSS survey in SDSS-III at z∼ 2.3, has been shown to agree well with linear theory predictions, and has provided the first measurement of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations at this redshift. However, the power at small scales, affected by non-linearities, has not been well examined so far. We present results from a variety of hydrodynamic simulations to predict the redshift space non-linear power spectrum of the Lyα transmission for several models, testing the dependence on resolution and box size. A new fitting formula is introduced to facilitate the comparison of our simulation results with observations and other simulations. The non-linear power spectrum has a generic shape determined by a transition scale from linear to non-linear anisotropy, and a Jeans scale below which the power drops rapidly. In addition, we predict the two linear bias factors of the Lyα forest and provide a better physical interpretation of their values and redshift evolution. The dependence of these bias factors and the non-linear power on the amplitude and slope of the primordial fluctuations power spectrum, the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium, and the mean Lyα transmission, as well as the redshift evolution, is investigated and discussed in detail. A preliminary comparison to the observations shows that the predicted redshift distortion parameter is in good agreement with the recent determination of Blomqvist et al., but the density bias factor is lower than observed. We make all our results publicly available in the form of tables of the non-linear power spectrum that is directly obtained from all our simulations, and parameters of our fitting formula

  17. Input and output budgets of radiocesium concerning the forest floor in the mountain forest of Fukushima released from the TEPCO's Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niizato, Tadafumi; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Watanabe, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Estimations of radiocesium input and output concerning the forest floor within a mountain forest region have been conducted in the north and central part of the Abukuma Mountains of Fukushima, northeast Japan, after a 2–3 year period following the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The radiocesium input and output associated with surface washoff, throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall processes at experimental plots installed on the forest floor of evergreen Japanese cedars and deciduous Konara oaks have been monitored. Despite the high output potential in the mountainous forest of Fukushima, the results at both monitoring locations show the radiocesium input to be 4–50 times higher than the output during the summer monsoon in Fukushima. These results indicate that the radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios (0.05%–0.19%). Thus, the associated fluxes throughout the circulation process are key issues for the projecting the environmental fate of the radiocesium levels, along with the subsequent reconstruction of life emphasized within the setting. - Highlights: • Input and output budgets of radiocesium in the mountainous forest of Fukushima were investigated in 2013 and 2014. • "1"3"7Cs outputs were 4–50 times higher than the "1"3"7Cs outputs during the monsoons. • The proportion of "1"3"7Cs output to radiocesium inventories was in the range of 0.05%–0.19% during the monsoons. • Radiocesium tends to be preserved in the forest ecosystem due to extremely low output ratios. • The forest floor seems to be a sink of radiocesium contamination than a source for the other ecosystems.

  18. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  19. How to estimate the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže

    2018-01-01

    We derive and numerically implement an algorithm for estimating the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux fluctuations. The algorithm exploits the unique geometry of Lyα forest data to efficiently measure the cross-spectrum between lines of sight as a function of parallel wavenumber, transverse separation and redshift. We start by approximating the global covariance matrix as block-diagonal, where only pixels from the same spectrum are correlated. We then compute the eigenvectors of the derivative of the signal covariance with respect to cross-spectrum parameters, and project the inverse-covariance-weighted spectra onto them. This acts much like a radial Fourier transform over redshift windows. The resulting cross-spectrum inference is then converted into our final product, an approximation of the likelihood for the 3D power spectrum expressed as second order Taylor expansion around a fiducial model. We demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithm and comment on possible extensions. Our algorithm will allow efficient analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument dataset.

  20. Effects of radionuclide contamination on forest trees in the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Takano, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    A preliminary survey was performed for forest areas within the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, for radionuclide contamination levels and radiation effects on trees during the first year after the March 2011 accident. Even in the most contaminated forest, approximately 3 km west of the power plant, no externally visible symptoms of radiation damage—including yellowing, malformation, and early withering of leaves—were observed in trees, indicating that massive radiation damage did not occur in the surrounding forests after the accident. Radiosensitive coniferous plants were, however, heavily contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides in reproductive organs such as cones, which could cause the exposure of developing seeds. The level of radionuclides in the cones of Japanese cedar trees changed, depending on the contamination level of the forest, which was approximately given by an ambient dose rate. The dose rate of internal exposure in the cones of the most contaminated forest, which was calculated to include exposure from the radionuclides deposited in the organs, was found to be within the criteria dose rate of 4-40 μGy/h selected for pine trees by the ICRP in Publication 108. This raises the necessity of performing more detailed analyses of the cytogenetic and reproductive damage to forest trees in the area. (author)

  1. Effects of radionuclide contamination on forest trees in the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshito; Kubota, Yoshihisa; Fuma, Shoichi; Yoshida, Satoshi; Ichikawa, San'ei; Kubota, Masahide; Takano, Toshiyuki; Mizoguchi, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary survey was performed for forest areas within the exclusion zone around the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, for radionuclide contamination levels and radiation effects on trees during the first year after the March 2011 accident. Even in the most contaminated forest, approximately 3 km west of the power plant, no externally visible symptoms of radiation damage—including yellowing, malformation, and early withering of leaves—were observed in trees, indicating that massive radiation damage did not occur in the surrounding forests after the accident. Radiosensitive coniferous plants were, however, heavily contaminated by the deposition of radionuclides in reproductive organs such as cones, which could cause the exposure of developing seeds. The level of radionuclides in the cones of Japanese cedar trees changed, depending on the contamination level of the forest, which was approximately given by an ambient dose rate. The dose rate of internal exposure in the cones of the most contaminated forest, which was calculated to include exposure from the radionuclides deposited in the organs, was found to be within the criteria dose rate of 4-40 μGy/h selected for pine trees by the ICRP in Publication 108. This raises the necessity of performing more detailed analyses of the cytogenetic and reproductive damage to forest trees in the area. (author)

  2. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  3. Radiocesium accumulation in the anuran frog, Rana tagoi tagoi, in forest ecosystems after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Teruhiko; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Momo; Oba, Yurika; Nursal, Wim Ikbal; Igawa, Takeshi; Doi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Toshihiro; Okuda, Toshinori

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians are key components in forest food webs. When examining radioactive contamination in anurans, it is important to understand how radiocesium transfer occurs from lower to higher trophic levels in forest ecosystems. We investigated the activity concentration of radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) in Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi tagoi) captured on the forest floor approximately 2.5 years after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. We collected 66 R. tagoi tagoi at different distances from the FNPP. Radiocesium accumulation showed positive correlations with the air radiation dose rate and litter contamination but not with distance from the FNPP. Whole-body radioactivity showed no correlation with body mass or length. Our results suggest that differences in the available food items result in large variability in individual contamination. Contamination level monitoring in terrestrial and aquatic amphibian is necessary for clarifying the processes and mechanisms of radiocesium transfer through forest food webs. - Highlights: • Radiocesium level in Rana tagoi tagoi from forests near Fukushima was assessed. • Radiocesium accumulation was related to air dose rate and litter contamination. • Differences in dietary intake might lead to variability in individual contamination. • Transfer of radiocesium among trophic levels can occur via anurans. - Rana tagoi tagoi accumulates radiocesium in forest floor habitats near Fukushima

  4. Scenarios for power production with biomass in the Finnish forest industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nousiainen, I.K.; Malinen, H.O.; Villa, A.O.

    1997-01-01

    This study presents three scenarios for power production with biomass in Finnish pulp and paper mills. The basic scenario assumes that the production capacity in the forest industry increases as in the past. The green energy scenario assumes that there is a strong demand from the market for sustainable green energy production. The maximum scenario assumes that the production capacity of chemical pulp increases significantly and the use of wood raw material extends to the maximum level. According to the basic scenario the use of biofuels in the pulp and paper mills will increase from starting level, 3.24 Mtoe in 1992, to 5.07 Mtoe by the year 2010. The utilization potential of biofuels will increase to 5.45 Mtoe in green energy and to 6.43 Mtoe in the maximum biofuels scenario. The power production with biomass will increase from the starting level, 572 MW in 1992, to 930 MW in the basic, to 1 100 MW in the green energy and to 1 670 MW in the maximum biofuels scenario by the year 2010. (author)

  5. A statistical power analysis of woody carbon flux from forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall; Mark A. Hatfield

    2013-01-01

    At a national scale, the carbon (C) balance of numerous forest ecosystem C pools can be monitored using a stock change approach based on national forest inventory data. Given the potential influence of disturbance events and/or climate change processes, the statistical detection of changes in forest C stocks is paramount to maintaining the net sequestration status of...

  6. Constraints on neutrino masses from Lyman-alpha forest power spectrum with BOSS and XQ-100

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yèche, Christophe; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Baur, Julien; Bourboux, Hélion du Mas des, E-mail: christophe.yeche@cea.fr, E-mail: nathalie.palanque-delabrouille@cea.fr, E-mail: julien.baur@cea.fr, E-mail: helion.du-mas-des-bourboux@cea.fr [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU/SPP, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2017-06-01

    We present constraints on masses of active and sterile neutrinos in the context of the ΛCDMν and ΛWDM models, respectively. We use the one-dimensional Lyα-forest power spectrum from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-III) measured by Palanque-Delabrouille et al. [1], and from the VLT/XSHOOTER legacy survey (XQ-100). In this paper, we present our own measurement of the publicly released XQ-100 quasar spectra, focusing in particular on an improved determination of the spectrograph resolution that allows us to push to smaller scales than the public release and reach k -modes of 0.070 s km{sup −1}. We compare the obtained 1D Lyα flux power spectrum to the one measured by Irsic et al. [2] to k -modes of 0.057 s km{sup −1}. Fitting Lyα data alone leads to cosmological parameters in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from Planck 2015 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data. Combining BOSS and XQ-100 Lyα power spectra, we constrain the sum of neutrino masses to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.8 eV (95% C.L.) including all identified sources of systematic uncertainties. With the addition of CMB data, this bound is tightened to ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.14 eV (95% C.L.). With their sensitivity to small scales, Lyα data are ideal to constrain ΛWDM models. Using XQ-100 alone, we issue lower bounds on pure dark matter particles: m {sub X} ∼> 2.08 : keV (95% C.L.) for early decoupled thermal relics, and m {sub s} ∼> 10.2 : keV (95% C.L.) for non-resonantly produced right-handed neutrinos. Combining the 1D Lyα-forest power spectrum measured by BOSS and XQ-100, we improve the two bounds to m {sub X} ∼> 4.17 : keV and m {sub s} ∼> 25.0 : keV (95% C.L.), slightly more constraining than what was achieved in Baur et al. 2015 [3] with BOSS data alone. The 3 σ bound shows a more significant improvement, increasing from m {sub X} ∼> 2.74 : keV for BOSS alone to m {sub X} ∼> 3.10 : keV for the combined BOSS

  7. The Transfer and diffusion of Cesium 137 within forest ecosystem in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takahiro; Murakami, Masashi [Community Ecology Lab., Biology Course, Faculty of Science, Chiba University, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Tanoi, Keitaro; Hirose, Atsushi; Ohte, Nobuhito [Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident after the disastrous earthquake and subsequent tsunami of March 2011. Among the variety of radionuclides released from FDNPP, cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the most worrying radionuclide in the environment, with a half-life of 30 years. Since most of the Japanese land area is covered by forest, the distribution and transportation of radioactive materials within forest ecosystems should be conscientiously monitored. In Europe, many studies reported that the {sup 137}Cs deposition caused by the Chernobyl accident has still been distributed in the litter and soil layers and has become a source for the soil-to-plant transfer. Most of these studies emphasize the 'stability' of {sup 137}Cs within forest ecosystems, because {sup 137}Cs are considered to be strongly and immediately fixed in clay minerals. Even though there are many studies of the soil-to-plant transfer of {sup 137}Cs in forest after several years of Chernobyl accident, very initial distribution and transfer of {sup 137}Cs in food web within one to two years after the deposition in forest ecosystems have never been examined. The evaluation of the initial dynamics of {sup 137}Cs in forest ecosystems should be quite important because of the increasing stability of {sup 137}Cs after the deposition. The accumulation and transfer of {sup 137}Cs through food web within forest ecosystems were examined by collecting various organisms at forests in Fukushima. The {sup 137}Cs concentrations, natural Cs and K concentrations, and delta {sup 15}N of the specimens were measured to evaluate the occurrence of bioaccumulation or bio-diffusion of {sup 137}Cs through tropic interaction within forest ecosystem. {sup 137}Cs was highly concentrated on leaf litters which had been deposited in autumn 2010, before the accident. This accumulated {sup 137}Cs had transferred to higher trophic organisms mainly through

  8. Modeling of leachable 137Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loffredo, Nicolas; Onda, Yuichi; Kawamori, Ayumi; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable 137 Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total 137 Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total 137 Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding 137 Cs and 134 Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters. - Highlights: • A double exponential model was used to model leachable cesium loss from canopies. • The model could not reproduce variation observed. • Rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling the variation. • A rainfall parameter was used to develop an improved double exponential model. • The improved model gives a better estimation

  9. 137Cs dynamics in the forest of Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, I.; Ohte, N.; Iseda, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Hirose, A.; Tanoi, K.

    2013-12-01

    The accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the earthquake and Tsunami in March 11th 2011, caused large amount of radioactive Cesium (137Cs) emission into the environment. In the region of Fukushima Prefecture, forest dominates more than 70 % of the land area. River water from the forest area is used for food production and also for drinking water. Thus, it is important to understand the dynamics of 137Cs deposited in the forest to predict how the radioactive Cs diffuse and discharge from the forest catchments. We measured 137Cs concentration of the tree body, litter fall, throughfall, and stemflow, in order to clarify how 137Cs deposited on the above ground biomass of the forest are transported to the forest floor. We set forest site at the upstream part of Kami-Oguni River catchment, northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Three plots (2 deciduous stands and 1 Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) plantation stand) were set in the forest site. Quercus serrata and C. japonica, which are representative tree species, were chosen at each plot and concentration of 137Cs on the bark, sapwood and heartwood were measured every 2 m from the ground to tree top. From each plot, 137Cs concentration of leaf litter was measured among species. Water samples of throughfall and stemflow were filtered and 137Cs concentration in suspended matter was measured. 137Cs was deposited on the bark of Q. serrata at high concentration (9-18 kBq/kg) but there were no clear relationship between tree height and concentration. 137Cs concentration of the sapwood (41 Bq/kg) was relatively higher than that of the heartwood (5 Bq/kg). It was suggested that 137Cs may be absorbed from bark and/or root. The concentration of 137Cs deposited in leaf litter varied from non-detected level to above 30 kBq/kg. The concentration was higher at evergreen tree than deciduous tree. It is considered that the litter of evergreen tree was derived from leaves on the tree canopy at the time of the

  10. Temporal changes in radiocesium deposition in various forest stands following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Hisadome, Keigo; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The 137 Cs content of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantations of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous mixed broad-leaved forest stand (oak with red pine) from July 2011 to December 2012. The forest floor of cedar stands had received higher levels of additional 137 Cs deposition compared with the mixed broad-leaved stand during the sampling period. The cumulative 137 Cs deposition during the study period was 119 kBq m -2 for the mature cedar stand, 105 kBq m -2 for the young cedar stand, and 41.5 kBq m -2 for the broad-leaved stand. The deposition of 137 Cs to the forest floor occurred mainly in throughfall during the first rainy season, from July to September 2011 (<200 d after the initial fallout); thereafter, the transfer of 137 Cs from the canopy to forest floor occurred mainly through litterfall. A double exponential field-loss model, which was used to simulate the removal of 137 Cs from canopies, was the best fit for the temporal changes in the canopy 137 Cs inventory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of Decomposition Powers of L-Band Multi-Polarimetric SAR in Assessing Tree Growth of Industrial Plantation Forests in the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decomposition scheme was applied to ALOS/PALSAR data obtained from a fast-growing tree plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia to extract tree stem information and then estimate the forest stand volume. The scattering power decomposition of the polarimetric SAR data was performed both with and without a rotation matrix and compared to the following field-measured forest biometric parameters: tree diameter, tree height and stand volume. The analytical results involving the rotation matrix correlated better than those without the rotation matrix even for natural scattering surfaces within the forests. Our primary finding was that all of the decomposition powers from the rotated matrix correlated significantly to the forest biometric parameters when divided by the total power. The surface scattering ratio of the total power markedly decreased with the forest growth, whereas the canopy and double-bounce scattering ratios increased. The observations of the decomposition powers were consistent with the tree growth characteristics. Consequently, we found a significant logarithmic relationship between the decomposition powers and the forest biometric parameters that can potentially be used to estimate the forest stand volume.

  12. Economic analysis of a small-sized combined heat and power plant using forest biomass in the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeongwan Seo; Han-Sup Han; Edward M. (Ted) Bilek; Jungkee Choi; Dusong Cha; Jungsoo Lee

    2017-01-01

    Economic analysis was conducted on the feasibility of operating a small-sized (500kW/hour) gasification power plant producing heat and electricity in a rural town surrounded by forests in the Republic of Korea. Cost factors that were considered over the plant’s 20-year life included wood procurement, a wood grab loader, a chipper, a chip dryer, a gasifier, a generator...

  13. 137Cs vertical migration in a deciduous forest soil following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko

    2014-01-01

    The large amount of 137 Cs deposited on the forest floor because of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident represents a major potential long-term source for mobile 137 Cs. To investigate 137 Cs mobility in forest soils, we investigated the vertical migration of 137 Cs through seepage water, using a lysimetric method. The study was conducted in a deciduous forest soil over a period spanning 2 month to 2 y after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Our observations demonstrated that the major part of 137 Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within one year after the accident. On the other hand, the topsoil prevented migration of 137 Cs, and only 2% of 137 Cs in the leachate from litter and humus layer penetrated below a 10 cm depth. The annual migration below a 10 cm depth accounted for 0.1% of the total 137 Cs inventory. Therefore, the migration of 137 Cs by seepage water comprised only a very small part of the total 137 Cs inventory in the mineral soil, which was undetectable from the vertical distribution of 137 Cs in the soil profile. In the present and immediate future, most of the 137 Cs deposited on the forest floor will probably remain in the topsoil successively, although a small but certain amount of bioavailable 137 Cs exists in forest surface soil. -- Highlights: • Lysimeter captured 137 Cs mobility in a forest soil after the Fukushima accident. • Major part of 137 Cs in the litter layer moved into the mineral soil within a year. • Litter-leachate 137 Cs was predominantly adsorbed within the topsoil. • The annual migration below a 10 cm depth was 0.1% of the total 137 Cs inventory

  14. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Jørn; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Fogh, C.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in aBelarussian-American-Danish collaborative project....... Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse healtheffects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results...

  15. Extensive Sampling of Forest Carbon using High Density Power Line Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, H. M.; Chen, Q.; Dye, D. G.; Hungate, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Estimating carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions from forest management, natural processes, and disturbance is of growing interest for mitigating global warming. Ponderosa pine is common at mid-elevations throughout the western United States and is a dominant tree species in southwestern forests. Existing unmanaged "relict" sites and stand reconstructions of southwestern ponderosa pine forests from before European settlement (late 1800s) provide evidence of forests of larger trees of lower density and less vulnerability to severe fires than today's typical conditions of high densities of small trees that have resulted from a century of fire suppression. Forest treatments to improve forest health in the region include tree cutting focused on small-diameter trees (thinning), low-intensity prescribed burning, and monitoring rather than suppressing wildfires. Stimulated by several uncharacteristically-intense fires in the last decade, a collaborative process found strong stakeholder agreement to accelerate forest treatments to reduce fire risk and restore ecological conditions. Land use planning to ramp up management is underway and could benefit from quick and inexpensive techniques to inventory tree-level carbon because existing inventory data are not adequate to capture the range of forest structural conditions. Our approach overcomes these shortcomings by employing recent breakthroughs in estimating aboveground biomass from high resolution light detection and ranging (lidar) remote sensing. Lidar is an active remote sensing technique, analogous to radar, which measures the time required for a transmitted pulse of laser light to return to the sensor after reflection from a target. Lidar data can capture 3-dimensional forest structure with greater detail and broader spatial coverage than is feasible with conventional field measurements. We developed a novel methodology for extensive sampling and field validation of forest carbon, applicable to managed and

  16. Potential for Coal Power Plants to Co-Fire with Woody Biomass in the U. S. North, 2010-2030: A Technical Document Supporting the Northern Forest Futures Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2015-01-01

    Future use of woody biomass to produce electric power in the U.S. North can have an important influence on timber production, carbon storage in forests, and net carbon emissions from producing electric power. The Northern Forest Futures Project (NFFP) has provided regional- and state-level projections of standing forest biomass, land-use change, and timber harvest,...

  17. Wind power in the open countryside, forests, mountains and seas; Vindkraft i oeppet landskap, skog, fjaell och hav

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldo, Aasa [Sociologiska inst,, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Ek, Kristina [Inst. foer Ekonomi, teknik och samhaelle, Luleaa Tekniska Univ., Luleaa (Sweden); Johansson, Maria [Miljoepsykologi, Institutionen foer Arkitektur och byggd miljoe, Lunds Univ., Lund (Sweden); Persson, Lars [Inst. foer Nationalekonomi, Umeaa Univ., Umeaa (Sweden)

    2013-01-15

    There is a support for the development of wind power. Meanwhile, there is uncertainty about how the landscape and the local values will be affected. Of the environments forests, mountains, open countryside and the sea, you can not point to any that would be suitable in particular for wind power. To find the right places, it is necessary to weigh the various factors. The report describes local conditions that are important for anchoring of wind power projects. It is about how people use the environment, what qualities they perceive as valuable, and how wind power project can be coordinated with other interests. It is about how people use the environment, what qualities they perceive as valuable, and how wind power project can be coordinated with other interests. Research also shows that people demand facts about wind power project's benefits and costs, both environmentally and economically. Also the ownership of wind turbines is important for attitude to planned wind power projects. The report is based on surveys and interview studies undertaken by an interdisciplinary research team in the areas of economics, environmental psychology and sociology. These studies underline the importance of dialogue and participation for all who feel concerned by a wind power establishment.

  18. The Use of Fire Radiative Power to Estimate the Biomass Consumption Coefficient for Temperate Grasslands in the Atlantic Forest Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Salvador Cabral da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year, many active fire spots are identified in the satellite images of the southern Brazilian grasslands in the Atlantic Forest biome and Pampa biome. Fire Radiative Power (FRP is a technique that uses remotely sensed data to quantify burned biomass. FRP measures the radiant energy released per time unit by burning vegetation. This study aims to use satellite and field data to estimate the biomass consumption rate and the biomass consumption coefficient for the southern Brazilian grasslands. Three fire points were identified in satellite FRP products. These data were combined with field data, collected through literature review, to calculate the biomass consumption coefficient. The type of vegetation is an important variable in the estimation of the biomass consumption coefficient. The biomass consumption rate was estimated to be 2.237 kg s-1 for the southern Brazilian grasslands in Atlantic Forest biome, and the biomass consumption coefficient was estimated to be 0.242 kg MJ-1.

  19. Constraining Reionization with the z ˜ 5-6 Lyα Forest Power Spectrum: The Outlook after Planck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oñorbe, J.; Hennawi, J. F.; Lukić, Z.; Walther, M.

    2017-09-01

    The latest measurements of cosmic microwave background electron-scattering optical depth reported by Planck significantly reduces the allowed space of {{H}} {{I}} reionization models, pointing toward a later ending and/or less extended phase transition than previously believed. Reionization impulsively heats the intergalactic medium (IGM) to ˜ {10}4 {{K}}, and owing to long cooling and dynamical times in the diffuse gas that are comparable to the Hubble time, memory of reionization heating is retained. Therefore, a late-ending reionization has significant implications for the structure of the z˜ 5{--}6 Lyα forest. Using state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to vary the timing of reionization and its associated heat injection, we argue that extant thermal signatures from reionization can be detected via the Lyα forest power spectrum at 5noise ratio will allow distinguishing between different reionization scenarios.

  20. Contesting State Forests in Post-Suharto Indonesia: Authority Formation, State Forest Land Dispute, and Power in Upland Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Lounela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ongoing conflict over state forest land between the local population and the State Forestry Corporation (SFC in a village in upland Central Java with regard to authority formation. It looks at how different agents draw on different sources of authority in the course of the conflict and its negotiations. The principal questions are to what kind of sources of authority villagers refer to and how the formation of authority informs the relations between the state and society in the land dispute. The article is based on 11 months of ethnographic fieldwork and focuses on the central figure of Pak Wahid who took a leading position in the forest land dispute and in mobilising peasants in the village. The article argues that in post-Suharto Java, leadership in the struggle for state forest land at the village level is embedded in the interaction of Javanese ideas of power and authority as well as administrative authority. Due to political and institutional reforms, new sources of authority could be invoked while there are no real changes in the power relations within the village or between the SFC and the villagers. ----- Dieser Artikel untersucht den anhaltenden Konflikt um staatliche Waldflächen zwischen der lokalen Bevölkerung und der State Forestry Corporation (SFC in einem Dorf im Hochland von Zentral- Java in Bezug auf die Entwicklung von Autorität. Es wird untersucht, wie sich unterschiedliche AkteurInnen im Rahmen des Konflikts und dessen Verhandlung auf unterschiedliche Bezugsquellen von Autorität beziehen. Die zentralen Forschungsfragen in diesem Zusammenhang sind, auf welche Bezugsquellen von Autorität sich DorfbewohnerInnen beziehen und wie die Entwicklung von Autorität die Beziehungen zwischen Staat und Gesellschaft im Rahmen des Landkonflikts beeinflusst. Der Artikel basiert auf einer 11-monatigen ethnografischen Feldforschung und fokussiert auf die Person von Pak Wahid, der eine Schlüsselrolle im Konflikt

  1. Power production from radioactively contaminated biomass and forest litter in Belarus - Phase 1b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, K.G.; Fogh, C.L. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The Chernobyl accident has led to radioactive contamination of vast Belarussian forest areas. A total scheme for remediation of contaminated forest areas and utilisation of the removed biomass in safe energy production is being investigated in a Belarussian-American-Danish collaborative project. Here the total radiological impact of the scheme is considered. This means that not only the dose reductive effect of the forest decontamination is taken into account, but also the possible adverse health effects in connection with the much needed bio-energy production. This report presents the results of an in-country, commercial-scale investigation of the effect of a baghouse filter in retaining contaminants so that they are not released to the atmosphere in the biomass energy production process. Approximately 99,5 % of the activity of a commercially representative, dust-laden boiler flue gas was removed from the stream by using a combination of a cyclone and a baghouse filter. (au)

  2. Three-year monitoring study of radiocesium transfer and ambient dose rate in forest environments affected by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hiroaki; Onda, Yuichi; Loffredo, Nicolas; Kawamori, Ayumi; Hisadome, Keigo

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the transfer of canopy-intercepted radiocesium to the forest floor during 3 years (July 2011~) following the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The cesium-137 (Cs-137) contents of throughfall, stemflow, and litterfall were monitored in two coniferous stands (plantation of Japanese cedar) and a deciduous broad-leaved forest stand (Japanese oak with red pine). We also measured an ambient dose rate at different height in the forest by using a survey meter (TCS-172B, Hitachi-Aloka Medical, LTD.) and a portable Ge gamma-ray detector (Detective-DX-100T, Ortec, Ametek, Inc.). Furthermore, effects of forest decontamination on the reduction of ambient dose rate were assessed quantitatively. Total Cs-137 deposition flux from the canopy to forest floor for the mature cedar, young cedar, and the mixed broad-leaved stands were 157 kBq/m^2, 167 kBq/m^2, and 54 kBq/m^2, respectively. These values correspond to 36%, 39% and 12% of total atmospheric input after the accident. The ambient dose rate showed an exponential decrease with time for all the forest sites, however the decreasing trend differed depending on the forest type. These data suggested that an ambient dose rate in forest environment can be variable in spatially and temporally reflecting the transfer of radiocesium from canopy to forest floor. We presented the analysis results of the relationship between radiocesium deposition flux and ambient dose rate at the forest floor. In addition to that, we reported the effects of forest decontamination (e.g., tree felling, removal of organic materials, woodchip pavement) on the reduction of ambient dose rate in the forest environment.

  3. Assessment of Potential Capacity Increases at Combined Heat and Power Facilities Based on Available Corn Stover and Forest Logging Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald L. Grebner

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Combined Heat and Power (CHP production using renewable energy sources is gaining importance because of its flexibility and high-energy efficiency. Biomass materials, such as corn stover and forestry residues, are potential sources for renewable energy for CHP production. In Mississippi, approximately 4.0 MT dry tons of woody biomass is available annually for energy production. In this study, we collected and analyzed 10 years of corn stover data (2001–2010 and three years of forest logging residue data (1995, 1999, and 2002 in each county in Mississippi to determine the potential of these feed stocks for sustainable CHP energy production. We identified six counties, namely Amite, Copiah, Clarke, Wayne, Wilkinson and Rankin, that have forest logging residue feedstocks to sustain a CHP facility with a range of capacity between 8.0 and 9.8 MW. Using corn stover alone, Yazoo and Washington counties can produce 13.4 MW and 13.5 MW of energy, respectively. Considering both feedstocks and based on a conservative amount of 30% available forest logging residue and 33% corn stover, we found that 20 counties have adequate supply for a CHP facility with a capacity of 8.3 MW to 19.6 MW.

  4. Radiation situation and irradiation level in forest workers in places of timber works in alienation zone of Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashnikova, Z.V.; Karachov, Yi.Yi.; Berezhna, T.Yi.; Kuchma, M.D.

    1997-01-01

    The radiation hygienic situation in the forest plots and dose load of the personnel at timber works in the alienation zone of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Plant was evaluated.It has been revealed that the density of contamination of the forest soil at the areas of timber works was 155.4-447.3 kBq centre dot m 2 . Maximum year equivalent dose on the lungs and total dose of external and internal irradiation in the forest workers in the zone of alienation during the work at the areas were about 40% of the values of the respective dose limits for the population of B category

  5. Global power production scenarios to 2100 and the dual role of forests: accelerated climate damage or regulating and provisioning ecosystem services?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg

    The worlds' electrical power production is depending on the current energy infrastructure, and future investments in new power supply facilities using renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Continued growth in power production in the 21st century will cause global environmental change (GEC......). GEC with climate change as an important driver will affect the environment and the economy in multiple ways that can be summarized as losses of biodiversity and changing ecosystem services (ES), but with very diverse temporal and spatial impacts. In a simple global growth model for power production......, including non-renewable and renewable energy sources, the potential role of forest biomass is investigated. The demands for forest ecosystem services imposed by the global power production are assessed in the present study. Three global power supply scenarios to 2050 with different emphasis...

  6. Power from the Trees: How Good Forest Governance can Help Reduce Poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, James; Vermeulen, Sonja

    2002-09-15

    Forestry is no magic bullet for poverty eradication any more than any other sector is on its own. But good forestry does offer some high-potential routes out of rural poverty. Forestry can contribute to food security, provide resource safety nets and sometimes enterprise opportunities where little else exists. Forests have also proven to be fertile ground for pioneering good local governance. What is needed is for national and international governance frameworks to take a lead from local initiative and convert laudable intentions into some practical action. It is time to remove the barriers that prevent forests and trees from contributing to the livelihoods of poor people and to support emerging opportunities for sustainable local forestry enterprises.

  7. Evaluation of environmental impacts caused by hydroelectric power plants in native forest areas and mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramalho, Cyro Pinheiro

    1992-01-01

    The following work has the intention of demonstrating the importance of native forest to the human life, not only through its inherent qualities as something to preserve, but also as a source of great resources, and in particular hydroelectric resource that, by today's necessities are bounded to be explored. The negative effects caused by the implementation of a hydroelectric plant are shown together with the necessity of adoption of measures that would soften the environment impact of it. For the adoption of those measures, many forest studies were proposed in the search for its complete characterization. Each of these studies are duly defined and presented in their general and specific goals. The most adequate methodology is finally recommended. (author). 14 refs

  8. Diffusion and export dynamics of 137Cs deposited on the forested area in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive substances, including cesium-137 ( 137 Cs), emitted from the disabled nuclear power plant, has been deposited on the forested areas in the northeastern region of Honshu Island, Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Forests in these regions are particularly important, not only for the forest products industry but also for source areas of drinking water and for residential environments. To clarify the mechanisms of diffusion and export of 137 Cs deposited on the forested ecosystem, we initiated intensive field observations in a small catchment that included forest and farmlands. Specifically, we were interested in the Kami-Oguni River catchment that is located in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The following expected major pathways of 137 Cs export and diffusion were investigated: 1) transportation of dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms via hydrological processes within a forested catchment and export dynamics through the stream, and 2) diffusion through the food web in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of forests. Preliminary findings indicated the following: 1) Most of the 137 Cs was discharged as suspended matter. High water flow generated by storm acted to accelerate the transportation of 137 Cs from the forested catchments. Thus, the estimation of 137 Cs export requires precise evaluation of the high flow acceleration during storm events; 2) Because litter and its detritus may form the biggest pool of 137 Cs in the forested ecosystem, 137 Cs diffusion occurs more rapidly through the detritus food chain than the grazing food chain. Most predators have already ingested 137 Cs, particularly in aquatic environments. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is when and how 137 Cs diffuses through grazing food chains and how rapidly this process occurs. To elucidate or to be able to predict these phenomena, the mechanisms of 137 Cs release from litter and soil's organic matter

  9. Sustaining Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak

    2003-01-01

    The significance of the urban forest resource and the powerful forces for change in the urban environment make sustainability a critical issue in urban forest management. The diversity, connectedness, and dynamics of the urban forest establish the context for management that will determine the sustainability of forest structure, health, functions, and benefits. A...

  10. Response approach to the squeezed-limit bispectrum: application to the correlation of quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chi-Ting [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton, NY 11375 (United States); Schmidt, Fabian, E-mail: chi-ting.chiang@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: acieplak@bnl.gov, E-mail: fabians@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The squeezed-limit bispectrum, which is generated by nonlinear gravitational evolution as well as inflationary physics, measures the correlation of three wavenumbers, in the configuration where one wavenumber is much smaller than the other two. Since the squeezed-limit bispectrum encodes the impact of a large-scale fluctuation on the small-scale power spectrum, it can be understood as how the small-scale power spectrum ''responds'' to the large-scale fluctuation. Viewed in this way, the squeezed-limit bispectrum can be calculated using the response approach even in the cases which do not submit to perturbative treatment. To illustrate this point, we apply this approach to the cross-correlation between the large-scale quasar density field and small-scale Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. In particular, using separate universe simulations which implement changes in the large-scale density, velocity gradient, and primordial power spectrum amplitude, we measure how the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum responds to the local, long-wavelength quasar overdensity, and equivalently their squeezed-limit bispectrum. We perform a Fisher forecast for the ability of future experiments to constrain local non-Gaussianity using the bispectrum of quasars and the Lyman-α forest. Combining with quasar and Lyman-α forest power spectra to constrain the biases, we find that for DESI the expected 1−σ constraint is err[ f {sub NL}]∼60. Ability for DESI to measure f {sub NL} through this channel is limited primarily by the aliasing and instrumental noise of the Lyman-α forest flux power spectrum. The combination of response approach and separate universe simulations provides a novel technique to explore the constraints from the squeezed-limit bispectrum between different observables.

  11. Discovery of Scattering Polarization in the Hydrogen Ly alpha Line of the Solar Disk Radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kano, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Winebarger, A.; Auchere, F.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Kobayashi, K.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Kubo, M.; Ishikawa, S.; Giono, G.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Ichimoto, K.; Goto, M.; Belluzzi, L.; Štěpán, Jiří; Asensio Ramos, A.; Sainz, R.M.; Champey, P.; Cirtain, J.; de Pontieu, B.; Casini, R.; Carlsson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 839, č. 1 (2017), L10/1-L10/6 ISSN 2041-8205 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : vacuum-ultraviolet spectropolarimeter * transition region * chromosphere Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.522, year: 2016

  12. The Ly Alpha Reference Sample. I. Survey Outline and First Results for Markarian 259

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ostlin, G.; Hayes, M.; Duval, F.; Sandberg, A.; Rivera-Thorsen, T.; Marquart, T.; Orlitová, Ivana; Adamo, A.; Melinder, J.; Guaita, L.; Atek, H.; Cannon, J.M.; Gruyters, P.; Herenz, E.Ch.; Kunth, D.; Laursen, P.; Más-Hesse, J. M.; Micheva, G.; Oti-Floranes, H.; Pardy, S.; Roth, M.; Schaerer, D.; Verhamme, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 797, č. 1 (2014), 11/1-11/23 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-20666P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : cosmology: observations * galaxies: evolution * galaxies: individual: Mrk 259 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.993, year: 2014

  13. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...... - I colour than the eastern component, suggesting the presence of at least some dust. We do not detect the host galaxy of GRB 000301C in neither Lyalpha emission nor in U and I broad-band images. The strongest limit comes from combining the narrow and U-band imaging where we infer a limit of U...

  14. Carbon sequestration by mangrove forest: One approach for managing carbon dioxide emission from coal-based power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Raghab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Mangroves are known as natural carbon sinks, taking CO2 out of the atmosphere and store it in their biomass for many years. This study aimed to investigate the capacity of world's largest mangrove, the Sundarbans (Indian part) to sequester anthropogenic CO2 emitted from the proximate coal-based thermal power plant in Kolaghat (∼100 km away from mangrove site). Study also includes Kolkata, one of the largest metropolises of India (∼150 km away from mangrove site) for comparing micrometeorological parameters, biosphere-atmosphere CO2 exchange fluxes and atmospheric pollutants between three distinct environments: mangrove-power plant-metropolis. Hourly sampling of atmospheric CO2 in all three sites (late December 2011 and early January 2012) revealed that CO2 concentrations and emission fluxes were maximum around the power plant (360-621 ppmv, 5.6-56.7 mg m-2s-1 respectively) followed by the metropolis (383-459 ppmv, 3.8-20.4 mg m-2s-1 respectively) and mangroves (277-408 ppmv, -8.9-11.4 mg m-2s-1, respectively). Monthly coal consumption rates (41-57, in 104 ton month-1) were converted to CO2 suggesting that 2.83 Tg C was added to the atmosphere in 2011 for the generation of 7469732 MW energy from the power plant. Indian Sundarbans (4264 km2) sequestered total of 2.79 Tg C which was 0.64% of the annual fossil fuel emission from India in the same time period. Based on these data from 2010 to 2011, it is calculated that about 4328 km2 mangrove forest coverage is needed to sequester all CO2 emitted from the Kolaghat power plant.

  15. 2015 Plan. Project 4: electric power supply, technologies, cost and availability. Sub-project forest biomass. Plano 2015. Projeto 4: oferta de energia eletrica, tecnologia, custos e disponibilidades. Subprojeto biomassa florestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    The potential and the costs of forest biomass utilization for electric power generation in Brazil are evaluated, including a discussion of the technologies and the forecasts in fuel production area (forests management) and in electric power conversion and generation areas. The socio-economics and environmental aspects referring to wood utilization as energetic resource are also described. (C.G.C.).

  16. Numerical simulations of forest fire propagation and smoke transport as an external hazard assessment methodology development for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2016-01-01

    A new method has been developed to assess potential challenges by forest fire smoke on a cooling function of a decay heat removal system (DHRS) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Combinational numerical simulations of a forest fire propagation and a smoke transport were performed to evaluate a cumulative amount of smoke captured on air filters of the DHRS. The forest fire propagation simulations were performed using FARSITE code to evaluate a temporal increase of a forest fire spread area, a frontal fireline location, reaction intensity, and fireline intensity. Peripheral boundary of the forest fire spread area is shaped like an ellipse on the terrain, and the active forest fire area from which smoke is produced as a forest fire product is increased with forest fire spread. The smoke transport simulations were performed using ALOFT-FT code where a spatial distribution of smoke density, especially of particle matter (PM), is evaluated. The snapshot (i.e. at a certain time step) outputs by FARSITE on the reaction intensity and the fireline intensity were utilized as the input data for ALOFT-FT, while it was conservatively assumed that the smoke generated from the active forest fire area along the periphery boundary rises up from the frontal fireline location nearest to a nuclear power plant (NPP) and that prevailing wind transports all smoke to an NPP in the leeward side. The evaluated time-dependent changes of spatial PM density were utilized to calculate a cumulative amount of PM captured on the air filters of the DHRS. Sensitivity analysis was performed on prevailing wind speed to which both the fireline intensity and the smoke transport behavior are sensitive. The total amount of PM on the air filters was conservatively estimated around several hundred grams per m 2 which is well below the utilization limit. (author)

  17. A Hidden Pitfall for REDD: Analysis of Power Relation in Participatory Forest Management on Whether It Is an Obstacle or a Reliever on REDD Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelingis Akwilini Makatta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Power relation among stakeholders is a key concept in collaborative approaches. This study aims to examine the reality of the acclaimed power sharing in Participatory Forest Management (PFM and implication of existing power relation to the national REDD+ programme in Tanzania. The study involved a review of PFM policy and legal supporting documents; meta-analysis of previous studies done at two sites known to have succeeded in PFM; and empirical study at Kolo-Hills forests. Methods used include the meta-analysis of existing literature; Household Questionnaire Survey; Focused Group Discussion; and key person unstructured interviews. Results revealed that a large part of the PFM processes involved power struggle instead of power sharing. REDD+ pilot was perceived to have succeeded in improving PFM only in villages where the majority of the community about 70% experienced higher levels of inclusiveness and power balance with other PFM stakeholders in PFM processes. Power imbalance and power struggle were also noted in the REDD+ project adoption processes. Thus power relations exercised under PFM fall under potential obstacle rather than a reliever to the REDD+ programme. The study recommends reviewing of PFM legal frameworks to strengthen community empowerment for effectiveness of REDD+ on PFM platform.

  18. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Shareef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland–Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  19. Random Forest-Based Approach for Maximum Power Point Tracking of Photovoltaic Systems Operating under Actual Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Hussain; Mutlag, Ammar Hussein; Mohamed, Azah

    2017-01-01

    Many maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms have been developed in recent years to maximize the produced PV energy. These algorithms are not sufficiently robust because of fast-changing environmental conditions, efficiency, accuracy at steady-state value, and dynamics of the tracking algorithm. Thus, this paper proposes a new random forest (RF) model to improve MPPT performance. The RF model has the ability to capture the nonlinear association of patterns between predictors, such as irradiance and temperature, to determine accurate maximum power point. A RF-based tracker is designed for 25 SolarTIFSTF-120P6 PV modules, with the capacity of 3 kW peak using two high-speed sensors. For this purpose, a complete PV system is modeled using 300,000 data samples and simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK package. The proposed RF-based MPPT is then tested under actual environmental conditions for 24 days to validate the accuracy and dynamic response. The response of the RF-based MPPT model is also compared with that of the artificial neural network and adaptive neurofuzzy inference system algorithms for further validation. The results show that the proposed MPPT technique gives significant improvement compared with that of other techniques. In addition, the RF model passes the Bland-Altman test, with more than 95 percent acceptability.

  20. Radioactive Cs-137 discharge from Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, S.; Onda, Y.; Tsujimura, M.; Sakakibara, K.; Konuma, R.

    2015-12-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter such as leaf and branch were monitored. Discharge amount of stream water, suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were measured to investigate the discharge amount of radiocesium and composition of radiocesium discharge form through the headwater stream. Observation were conducted at stream site in four headwater catchments in Yamakiya district, located ~35 km north west of FDNPP from June 2011 (suspended sediment and coarse organic matter: August 2012) to December 2014.The Cs-137 concentration of dissolved water was around 1Bq/l at June 2011. Then declined to 0.1 Bq/l at December 2011. And in December 2014, it declined to 0.01 Bq/l order. Declining trend of Cs-137 concentration in dissolved water was expressed in double exponential model. Also temporary increase was observed in dissolved Cs-137 during the rainfall event. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment and coarse organic matter were 170-49000 Bq/kg and 350-14000 Bq/kg respectably. The Cs-137 concentration of suspended sediment showed good correlation with average deposition density of catchment. The effect of decontamination works appeared in declining of Cs-137 concentration in suspended sediment. Contribution rate of Cs-137 discharge by suspended sediment was 96-99% during a year. Total annual Cs-137 discharge from the catchment were 0.02-0.3% of the deposition.

  1. Effects of local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest contaminated after the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayabe, Yoshiko; Hijii, Naoki; Takenaka, Chisato

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether local-scale decontamination (removal of the litter layer, superficial soil layer, and understory) in a secondary forest contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident reduced 137 Cs contamination of the soil and litter. We also measured 137 Cs concentrations in plants and in the web-building spider Nephila clavata (Nephilidae: Arachnida), as an indicator species, to examine 137 Cs contamination in arthropods. One month after decontamination, the total 137 Cs contamination (soil + litter) was reduced by 20% (100 kBq·m -2 ) relative to that in an adjacent untreated (i.e., contaminated) area, which was however not statistically significant. Four months after decontamination, 137 Cs in the decontaminated area had increased to a level similar to those in the untreated area, and the air radiation dose in the decontaminated area was about 2.1 μSv·h -1 , significantly higher than that in the untreated area (1.9 μSv·h -1 ). This may have been attributed to a torrential rain event. Although no statistically significant reduction was observed, most spiders had a lower 137 Cs contamination than that before the decontamination. This implied that the decontamination may have reduced 137 Cs transfer from soil via litter to N. clavata through the detrital food chains, but may not have reduced the amount of 137 Cs transfer through grazing food chains because the concentration of 137 Cs in living tree leaves was not reduced by the decontamination. In autumn, about 2 kBq·m -2 of 137 Cs was supplied from foliage to the ground by litterfall. The results suggested that removal of the litter and superficial soil layers in a contaminated forest may be ineffective. The present study suggests that the local-scale decontamination in a secondary forest had no effect on the reduction of 137 Cs contamination in the treated area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. ORC power plant for electricity production from forest and agriculture biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, A.; Wiśniewski, S.; Mocarski, S.; Bańkowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass are presented. • Octamethyltrisiloxane, MDM, methanol and H 2 O working fluids was conducted in CHP. • CHP with internal regeneration and “dry” working fluid has the highest electric power. • Power output, drying heat and drying temperature depend on CHP variant and ORC fluid. - Abstract: The paper presents the calculation results for three variants of CHP plant fuelled by sawmill biomass. The plant shall produce electricity and heat for a drying chamber. An analysis of the system efficiency for four different working fluids was conducted: octamethyltrisiloxane, methylcyclohexane, methanol and water. The highest electric power was obtained for the system with internal regeneration and methylcyclohexane applied as the “dry” working fluid, the highest temperature to supply the drying chamber was obtained for the system with external regeneration and octamethyltrisiloxane applied as the working fluid. The results of the analysis indicate that, by proper choice of the working fluid and of the regeneration variant (internal or external), it is possible to “adjust” the work of the system to the needs and expectations of the plant investor (user)

  3. Diffusion and export dynamics of "1"3"7Cs deposited on the forested area in Fukushima after the nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Nobuhito; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro; Murakami, Masashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Ishii, Nobuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    A massive amount of radioactive substances, including cesium-137 ("1"3"7Cs), emitted from the disabled nuclear power plant, has been deposited on the forested areas in the northeastern region of Honshu Island, Japan after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. Forests in these regions are particularly important, not only for the forest products industry but also for source areas of drinking water and for residential environments. To clarify the mechanisms of diffusion and export of "1"3"7Cs deposited on the forested ecosystem, we initiated intensive field observations in a small catchment that included forest and farmlands. Specifically, we were interested in the Kami-Oguni River catchment that is located in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. The following expected major pathways of "1"3"7Cs export and diffusion were investigated: 1) transportation of dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms via hydrological processes within a forested catchment and export dynamics through the stream, and 2) diffusion through the food web in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of forests. Preliminary findings indicated the following: 1) Most of the "1"3"7Cs was discharged as suspended matter. High water flow generated by storm acted to accelerate the transportation of "1"3"7Cs from the forested catchments. Thus, the estimation of "1"3"7Cs export requires precise evaluation of the high flow acceleration during storm events; 2) Because litter and its detritus may form the biggest pool of "1"3"7Cs in the forested ecosystem, "1"3"7Cs diffusion occurs more rapidly through the detritus food chain than the grazing food chain. Most predators have already ingested "1"3"7Cs, particularly in aquatic environments. An urgent question that needs to be addressed is when and how "1"3"7Cs diffuses through grazing food chains and how rapidly this process occurs. To elucidate or to be able to predict these phenomena, the mechanisms of "1"3"7Cs release from litter and soil

  4. Modeling of leachable {sup 137}Cs in throughfall and stemflow for Japanese forest canopies after Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loffredo, Nicolas, E-mail: wataiso@free.fr [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Kawamori, Ayumi [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    The Fukushima accident dispersed significant amounts of radioactive cesium (Cs) in the landscape. Our research investigated, from June 2011 to November 2013, the mobility of leachable Cs in forests canopies. In particular, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs activity concentrations were measured in rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow in broad-leaf and cedar forests in an area located 40 km from the power plant. Leachable {sup 137}Cs loss was modeled by a double exponential (DE) model. This model could not reproduce the variation in activity concentration observed. In order to refine the DE model, the main physical measurable parameters (rainfall intensity, wind velocity, and snowfall occurrence) were assessed, and rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling observed variation. A corrective factor was then developed to incorporate rainfall intensity in an improved DE model. With the original DE model, we estimated total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching from canopies to be 72 ± 4%, 67 ± 4%, and 48 ± 2% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. In contrast, with the improved DE model, the total {sup 137}Cs loss by leaching was estimated to be 34 ± 2%, 34 ± 2%, and 16 ± 1% of the total plume deposition under mature cedar, young cedar, and broad-leaf forests, respectively. The improved DE model corresponds better to observed data in literature. Understanding {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs forest dynamics is important for forecasting future contamination of forest soils around the FDNPP. It also provides a basis for understanding forest transfers in future potential nuclear disasters. - Highlights: • A double exponential model was used to model leachable cesium loss from canopies. • The model could not reproduce variation observed. • Rainfall was identified as the dominant factor controlling the variation. • A rainfall parameter was used to develop an improved double exponential model. • The

  5. Externalities assessment of a coal power plant in the forest ecosystems in Valdecaballeros Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laforga, P.; Planas, B.

    1995-01-01

    The book is divided in two parts. The first one analyzes the critical load and level concepts, and the methodological framework for Environmental Impact Statement (E.L.S.). In line with this, critical loads and levels represent the system vulnerability and excedances of critical values identify zones where impacts could occur. These are evaluated according to a set of criteria, talking into account present and future land use, their socio cultural interest, economic value of their natural resources and ecological quality of the whole system. In addition to Environment Impact Statement of air pollutants, the proposed formalism allows assessing the external cost of gaseous emission. The second part applies the developed ideas to a practical case: a hypothetical coal power plant on Valdecaballeros (Badajoz, Spain). Environmental impact on forestry ecosystems is studied on a 70 km radius area around the plant. The assessment of the external costs rely on yield losses associated with gaseous emission of the hypothetical plant. (Author) 100 refs

  6. Dynamics of 137Cs in the forests of the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamikhin, S.V.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of the 137 Cs content in the components of the forests in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) in 1986-1994 are associated mainly with such factors as the size of radioactive particles in the fallout, ecosystem humidification and soil type, tree age. The influence of particle size was especially noticeable between 1986-1987 and was displayed by low biological availability of radionuclides in the near part of the zone (within the 10-km radius circle around the NPP) in comparison with more distant regions (within the 30-km radius circle). Later, the expression of this influence decreased and transfer factor (the ratio of 137 Cs content in overground phytomass to the soil contamination density) became approximately the same for all plots with similar ecological and fallout characteristics. Humidity of landscape and soil type determined the velocity of radionuclide vertical migration in the soil and 137 Cs biological availability. These parameters were maximum for the hydromorphic soils of wet landscapes enriched in organic substance and poor clayey minerals. Differences of 137 Cs accumulation in overground phytomass of trees caused by tree age are displayed in the higher 137 Cs concentration in structural parts of young trees as compared with old ones

  7. Sulphur isotopes as tracers of the influence of a coal-fired power plant on a Scots pine forest in Catalonia (NE Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, R.; Àvila, A.; Soler, A.

    Stable sulphur isotopes and major ionic composition were analysed in precipitation and throughfall samples from a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris, L.) forest near the Cercs coal-fired power plant (Catalonia, NE Spain). The purpose of the study was to determine the main sources of sulphur deposition on this pine forest. Sulphur isotope measurements from the SO 2 power plant stack emissions were used to identify the isotopic signature of this source. Net throughfall fluxes of sulphur (26.1 kg S ha 1 yr -1) and nitrogen (16.3 kg N ha -1 yr -1) were higher—5-25 times higher for S and 5-15 times for N—at this site than in other forests in Catalonia. Sulphur isotope analysis confirmed that the net throughfall fluxes of sulphur were mostly due to the dry deposition of the SO 2 power plant emissions onto the pine canopies. Two potential atmospheric end-members were distinguished: regional background rainwater (δ 34S=+7.2‰) and power plant emissions (δ 34S=-2.8‰). By applying a two-component sulphur isotope mixing model, we found that during periods of low power plant activity (⩽10 emission h day -1), 62% of the throughfall sulphate could be attributed to the power plant emissions. At higher activity periods (⩾14 emission h day -1), this contribution rose to 73%. Although power plant contribution to bulk deposition was lower in both cases (34% and 45%), the possible influence of sulphate coming with long-range transport events from the polluted areas in the Mediterranean basin (δ 34S≈0‰) was not discarded.

  8. 75 FR 21577 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Plan, page C-39). Specifically for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales project, Needs include: Improvement of... District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber Sales AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent... Forest's Probable Sale Quantity. The planning area is located approximately four (4) air miles southeast...

  9. Interpreting the deposition and vertical migration characteristics of 137Cs in forest soil after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seongjoo; Yoneda, Minoru; Shimada, Yoko; Satta, Naoya; Fujita, Yasutaka; Shin, In Hwan

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the deposition and depth distributions of radiocesium in the Takizawa Research Forest, Iwate Prefecture, in order to understand the behavior of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The deposition distribution and vertical depth distribution of radiocesium in the soil were compared between topographically distinct parts of the forest where two different tree species grow. The results for all investigated locations show that almost 85% of the radiocesium has accumulated in the region of soil from the topmost organic layer to a soil depth of 0-4 cm. However, no activity was detected at depths greater than 20 cm. Analysis of the radiocesium deposition patterns in forest locations dominated by either coniferous or deciduous tree species suggests that radiocesium was sequestered and retained in higher concentrations in coniferous areas. The deposition data showed large spatial variability, reflecting the differences in tree species and topography. The variations in the measured 137 Cs concentrations reflected the variability in the characteristics of the forest floor environment and the heterogeneity of the initial ground-deposition of the Fukushima fallout. Sequential extraction experiments showed that most of the 137 Cs was present in an un-exchangeable form with weak mobility. Nevertheless, the post-vertical distribution of 137 Cs is expected to be governed by the percentage of exchangeable 137 Cs in the organic layer and the organic-rich upper soil horizons.

  10. Ecosystem monitoring of radiocesium redistribution dynamics in a forested catchment in Fukushima after the nuclear power station accident in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohte, N.; Endo, I.; Ohashi, M.; Murakami, M.; Oda, T.; Hotta, N.; Yamanishi, R.; Sugiyama, Y.; Tanoi, K.; Kobayashi, N. I.; Ishii, N.

    2016-12-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) in March 2011 emitted 1.2 × 1016 Bq of cesium-137 (137Cs) into the surrounding environment. Radioactive substances, including 137Cs, were deposited onto forested areas in the northeastern region of Japan. To clarify the mechanisms of dispersion and export of 137Cs, within and from a forest ecosystem, we have conducted intensive field observations on hydrological processes and the 137Cs movement and storage in a forested headwater catchment in an area 50 km from F1NNS. Two major pathways of 137Cs transport were focused: 1) through the hydrological processes with dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms, and 2) by dispersion through the food web in the forest-stream ecological continuum. The 137Cs concentrations of stream waters were monitored. Various aquatic and terrestrial organisms were periodically sampled to measure their 137Cs concentrations. The results indicate that the major form of exported 137Cs is via suspended solid in the streamflow. Thus, high flows generated by a storm event accelerated strongly the transportation of 137Cs from the forested catchments. Estimation of 137Cs export from the forested catchments requires precise evaluation of the high water flow during storm events. On the other hand, dissolved form, especially mineral ion form of 137Cs were dominant in througfall and stemflow. Because the biggest pool of 137Cs in the forested ecosystem was the accumulated litters and detritus on the forest floor, 137Cs dispersion through food web was quicker through the detritus food chain than through the grazing food chain. 137Cs concentration of leaves (1.1k Bq/kg), barks (4.4-22.5 kBq/kg) woods (0.1-0.6 kBq/kg) and litters (1.3 kBq/kg) of a dominant deciduous tree (Quercus serrata) suggested that internal cyccling of 137Cs have aready occurred between surface soils including litter layer and plants.

  11. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium and iodine released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in different agricultural fields and forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Oda, Kazumasa; Inagawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Hiromu; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Toyama, Chiaki; Miura, Yoshinori; Sato, Mutsuto

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the depth distributions of radiocesium and radioiodine were investigated in a wheat field, a rice paddy, an orchard, and a cedar forest in Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Our results demonstrate that, following the nuclear power plant disaster, more than 90% of the radionuclides were distributed in the upper 6 cm of the soil column in the wheat field and within 4 cm of the surface in the rice paddy, orchard, and cedar forest. According to the measurement of radionuclides in the three adjacent agricultural fields, the variation of deposition densities in the wheat field was smaller than that of the orchard and rice paddy, suggesting that the low permeability of the orchard and paddy soils may cause horizontal migration of radionuclides during the initial deposition. This result indicates that the deposition densities in the wheat field should be appropriate for estimating the amount of fallout in the area. The deposition densities of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 131 I in this area were estimated to be 512 ± 76 (SD, n = 5), 522 ± 80 (SD, n = 5), and 608 ± 79 (SD, n = 5) kBq/m 2 (decay corrected to April 1, 2011), respectively. A comparison of the deposition density between the wheat field and the cedar forest suggests that more than half of the radionuclides are distributed in the tree canopies of the evergreen forestland. (author)

  12. Hazard curve evaluation method development for a forest fire as an external hazard on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Yasushi; Yamano, Hidemasa

    2016-01-01

    A method to obtain a hazard curve of a forest fire was developed. The method has four steps: a logic tree formulation, a response surface evaluation, a Monte Carlo simulation, and an annual exceedance frequency calculation. The logic tree consists domains of 'forest fire breakout and spread conditions', 'weather conditions', 'vegetation conditions', and 'forest fire simulation conditions.' Condition parameters of the logic boxes are static if stable during a forest fire or not sensitive to a forest fire intensity, and non-static parameters are variables whose frequency/probability is given based on existing databases or evaluations. Response surfaces of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity were prepared by interpolating outputs from a number of forest fire propagation simulations by fire area simulator (FARSITE). The Monte Carlo simulation was performed where one sample represented a set of variable parameters of the logic boxes and a corresponding intensity was evaluated from the response surface. The hazard curve, i.e. an annual exceedance frequency of the intensity, was therefore calculated from the histogram of the Monte Carlo simulation outputs. The new method was applied to evaluate hazard curves of a reaction intensity and a fireline intensity for a typical location around a sodium-cooled fast reactor in Japan. (author)

  13. A New Precision Measurement of the Small-scale Line-of-sight Power Spectrum of the Lyα Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Michael; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Hiss, Hector; Oñorbe, Jose; Lee, Khee-Gan; Rorai, Alberto; O’Meara, John

    2018-01-01

    We present a new measurement of the Lyα forest power spectrum at 1.8 masking missing data, damped Lyα absorption systems, and metal absorption lines. Our measurement results in unprecedented precision on the small-scale modes k> 0.02 {{s}} {{km}}-1, inaccessible to previous SDSS/BOSS analyses. It is well known that these high-k modes are highly sensitive to the thermal state of the intergalactic medium, but contamination by narrow metal lines is a significant concern. We quantify the effect of metals on the small-scale power and find a modest effect on modes with kmasking metals and restricting to kmasking as our data are generated from Lyα forest simulations. These mock spectra are used to build a custom emulator, enabling us to interpolate between a sparse grid of models and perform Markov chain Monte Carlo fits. Our results agree well with BOSS on scales kdata set for precisely constraining the thermal history of the intergalactic medium, cosmological parameters, and the nature of dark matter. The power spectra and their covariance matrices are provided as electronic tables.

  14. Ultra-Short-Term Wind-Power Forecasting Based on the Weighted Random Forest Optimized by the Niche Immune Lion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Niu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in energy consumption has made the potential of wind-power generation tremendous. However, the obvious intermittency and randomness of wind speed results in the fluctuation of the output power in a wind farm, seriously affecting the power quality. Therefore, the accurate prediction of wind power in advance can improve the ability of wind-power integration and enhance the reliability of the power system. In this paper, a model of wavelet decomposition (WD and weighted random forest (WRF optimized by the niche immune lion algorithm (NILA-WRF is presented for ultra-short-term wind power prediction. Firstly, the original serials of wind speed and power are decomposed into several sub-serials by WD because the original serials have no obvious day characteristics. Then, the model parameters are set and the model trained with the sub-serials of wind speed and wind power decomposed. Finally, the WD-NILA-WRF model is used to predict the wind power of the relative sub-serials and the result is reconstructed to obtain the final prediction result. The WD-NILA-WRF model combines the advantage of each single model, which uses WD for signal de-noising, and uses the niche immune lion algorithm (NILA to improve the model’s optimization efficiency. In this paper, two empirical analyses are carried out to prove the accuracy of the model, and the experimental results verify the proposed model’s validity and superiority compared with the back propagation neural network (BP neural network, support vector machine (SVM, RF and NILA-RF, indicating that the proposed method is superior in cases influenced by noise and unstable factors, and possesses an excellent generalization ability and robustness.

  15. Year-round variations in the fluvial transport load of particulate 137Cs in a forested catchment affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Matsunaga; Takahiro Nakanishi; Mariko Atarashi-Andoh; Erina Takeuchi; Kotomi Muto; Katsunori Tsuduki; Syusaku Nishimura; Jun Koarashi; Shigeyoshi Otosaka; Tsutomu Sato

    2016-01-01

    Particulate 137 Cs was collected from stream water for 2 years to assess the long-term trend of 137 Cs discharge from a forest after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. A seasonal increase in the fluvial transport load of particulate 137 Cs in suspended solids (SS) was observed in July-October when rainfall was abundant. The 137 Cs load was controlled by the SS load. This control was attributed to cesium affinity for phyllosilicate clay minerals as verified by the low extractability of particulate 137 Cs. These findings indicate the fluvial particulate 137 Cs load is significantly related to the climate and geomorphological features of Japan. (author)

  16. The Roll of Canopy on Interception and Redistribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Derived from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Coniferous Forest Plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, H.; Onda, Y.; Kawaguchi, S.; Gomi, T.

    2011-12-01

    Soil, vegetation and other ecological compartments are expected to be highly contaminated by the deposited radionuclides after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) accident triggered by a magnitude 9.1 earthquake and the resulting tsunami on Marchi 11, 2011. A large proportion of radionuclides which deposited on forest area are trapped by canopies, throughfall and stemflow are the most important pathways for the input of radionuclides into the soil of forest floor. In this study, to investigate the roll of forest canopy on interception and redistribution of the deposited radionuclides, a series of field monitoring experiment of throughfall and stemflow were conducted in coniferous forest plantations in Tochigi prefecture, 170 km southwest from the NPP. A set of 20 throughfall collectors with latticelike distribution and 5 stemflow collectors were located in the 10m × 10m interception plot, and the activities of caesium (137Cs, 134Cs) and radioiodine (131I) in throughfall and stemflow were quantified by using a high purity n-type germanium coaxial gamma ray detectors. Rainfall, throughfall, and stemflow samples were collected from 10 rainfall events, which includes first rainfall event after the NPP accident. The cumulative fallout of radionuclides in the study site was 3400 Bq m-2 for 137Cs, 3300 Bq m-2 for 134Cs, and 26000 Bq m-2 for 131I, respectively. The 137Cs in rainfall decreased exponentially with time since the NPP accident. For the rainfall event of 28 March, which is first rainfall event after the NPP accident, both the amount and concentration of caesium clearly increased with throughfall, whereas the concentration of radioiodine decreased with throughfall. For the subsequent rainfall events, the concentration of caesium decreased with throughfall, whereas radioiodine was not detected as a result of decay due to short half-life. At the end of May, approximately 30% and 60% of total caesium deposited after the NPP accident remained on the

  17. 77 FR 2508 - Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest, Powers Ranger District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... Plan, page C-39). Specifically for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales project, Needs include: Improvement of... District, Coos County, OR; Eden Ridge Timber Sales AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare an environmental impact statement for the Eden Ridge Timber Sales. The original...

  18. Characteristics of initial deposition and behavior of radiocesium in forest ecosystems of different locations and species affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masabumi; Kaneko, Shinji; Ohashi, Shinta; Kuroda, Katsushi; Sano, Tetsuya; Ikeda, Shigeto; Saito, Satoshi; Kiyono, Yoshiyuki; Tonosaki, Mario; Miura, Satoru; Akama, Akio; Kajimoto, Takuya; Takahashi, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, information about stand-level spatial patterns of radiocesium initially deposited in the surrounding forests was essential for predicting the future dynamics of radiocesium and suggesting a management plan for contaminated forests. In the first summer (approximately 6 months after the accident), we separately estimated the amounts of radiocesium ("1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs; Bq m"−"2) in the major components (trees, organic layers, and soils) in forests of three sites with different contamination levels. For a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest studied at each of the three sites, the radiocesium concentration greatly differed among the components, with the needle and organic layer having the highest concentrations. For these cedar forests, the proportion of the "1"3"7Cs stock in the aboveground tree biomass varied from 22% to 44% of the total "1"3"7Cs stock; it was 44% in highly contaminated sites (7.0 × 10"5 Bq m"−"2) but reduced to 22% in less contaminated sites (1.1 × 10"4 Bq m"−"2). In the intermediate contaminated site (5.0–5.8 × 10"4 Bq m"−"2), 34% of radiocesium was observed in the aboveground tree biomass of the Japanese cedar stand. However, this proportion was considerably smaller (18–19%) in the nearby mixed forests of the Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora) and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Non-negligible amounts of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs were detected in both the sapwood and heartwood of all the studied tree species. This finding suggested that the uptake or translocation of radiocesium had already started within 6 months after the accident. The belowground compartments were mostly present in the organic layer and the uppermost (0–5 cm deep) mineral soil layer at all the study sites. We discussed the initial transfer process of radiocesium deposited in the forest and inferred that the type of initial deposition (i.e., dry versus wet radiocesium deposition

  19. Pollutant deposition in forest ecosystems and characteristics of chemical properties of soils in the environs of the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochman, V.; Bucek, J.; Biba, M.

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes the results of investigations of the chemistry of precipitation water and soil water in 1991-1992 on research plots in the nearer and farther environs of the building site of the Temelin nuclear power plant (about 25 km north of Ceske Budejovice). Research plots lie in spruce and beech stands. When the installations on research plots were built (1990 and 1991), soil samples were taken to determine the supply of biogenic elements in humus and soil. The objective of the program was to determine the current level of element deposition in forest ecosystems, dynamics of soil elements and chemistry; the program is a part of more extensive research into forest environment and stand condition. The research of investigation provide data for a forecast of the effect of the projected operation of the nuclear power plant on forest environment, basic factor of growth and stabilization and for fulfilment of their functions. They can be a basis for evaluation of the rate of changes in forest ecosystems after the nuclear power plant has been launched into operation. The results of research are currently applied to supply data to the network of plots with monitoring of pollutant loads in the forest ecosystem in Southern Bohemia. Two research plots in spruce stand (Hnevkovice and Strouha) and a plot in beech stand (Vsetec) were laid out at a distance of several kilometers from the built-up premises of the Temelin nuclear power plant. The soils on these plots are medium deep brown forest soils (Cambisol) with a large amount of mother rock skeleton (biotitic paragneiss). Moder is a soil humus form in the spruce and beech stands. To monitor pollutant deposition in the forest ecosystems and their effect of the soil properties Vojirov plots were laid out which lie in spruce stand and in a mixed stand of beech and spruce in the Jindrichuv Hradec forest district, near the frontier with Austria. Humus podzols with moder and mor forms were developed on eolian sand between

  20. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  1. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukšienė, B.; Marčiulionienė, D.; Gudelienė, I.; Schönhofer, F.

    2013-01-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on 137 Cs and 90 Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996–2008 the mean contamination of plants with 137 Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with 90 Sr – from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured 137 Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0–1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the 137 Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. 90 Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2–1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for 90 Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between 137 Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. - Highlights: ► The state of the forest ecosystem prior to decommissioning of the NPP was analysed. ► Results indicate the higher 90 Sr bioavailability than that of 137 Cs. ► Contribution of 137 Cs of different origin in plants was calculated.

  2. You focus on the forest when you’re in charge of the trees: Power priming and abstract information processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, P.K.; Trope, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated power increases the psychological distance one feels from others, and this distance, according to construal level theory, should lead to more abstract information processing. Thus, high power should be associated with more abstract thinking-focusing on primary aspects of stimuli and

  3. Study of the radioactivity of forest ecosystems in some places of southern Bohemia following the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konecny, J.; Vlcek, A.; Landa, M.; Obdrzalek, M.; Hofmannova, V.

    1989-01-01

    Following passage of the radioactive cloud, samples of forest ecocystems were analyzed and the data obtained were used in assessing the effect of radionuclides on the systems. Branches, bark, needles, leaves, mushrooms and soil were sampled. Dried and ground samples were measured using a scintillation detector linked to a gamma spectrometry system. The activities were assessed of 134 Cs, 137 Cs and also, informatively, of 40 K. High cesium concentrations were found in samples from 1987 when part of cesium was transformed into a soluble form and became thus accessible to plants. Pine needles were found to be most sensitive to concentration changes. The highest activities were observed in spruce needles, whereas birch showed very low cesium activites. High variations with the species and altitude above sea level were observed in mushrooms. (M.D.). 2 tabs., 10 refs

  4. Urban Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak

    2016-01-01

    Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...

  5. Model Insensitive and Calibration Independent Method for Determination of the Downstream Neutral Hydrogen Density Through Ly-alpha Glow Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangopadhyay, P.; Judge, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Our knowledge of the various heliospheric phenomena (location of the solar wind termination shock, heliopause configuration and very local interstellar medium parameters) is limited by uncertainties in the available heliospheric plasma models and by calibration uncertainties in the observing instruments. There is, thus, a strong motivation to develop model insensitive and calibration independent methods to reduce the uncertainties in the relevant heliospheric parameters. We have developed such a method to constrain the downstream neutral hydrogen density inside the heliospheric tail. In our approach we have taken advantage of the relative insensitivity of the downstream neutral hydrogen density profile to the specific plasma model adopted. We have also used the fact that the presence of an asymmetric neutral hydrogen cavity surrounding the sun, characteristic of all neutral densities models, results in a higher multiple scattering contribution to the observed glow in the downstream region than in the upstream region. This allows us to approximate the actual density profile with one which is spatially uniform for the purpose of calculating the downstream backscattered glow. Using different spatially constant density profiles, radiative transfer calculations are performed, and the radial dependence of the predicted glow is compared with the observed I/R dependence of Pioneer 10 UV data. Such a comparison bounds the large distance heliospheric neutral hydrogen density in the downstream direction to a value between 0.05 and 0.1/cc.

  6. Forest rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balooni, Kulbhushan; Lund, Jens Friis

    2014-01-01

    One of the proposed strategies for implementation of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation plus (REDD+) is to incentivize conservation of forests managed by communities under decentralized forest management. Yet, we argue that this is a challenging road to REDD+ because...... conservation of forests under existing decentralized management arrangements toward a push for extending the coverage of forests under decentralized management, making forest rights the hard currency of REDD+....

  7. Photochemistry in Power Plant and Urban Plumes over Forested and Agricultural Regions during SOS (1990s) and SENEX (2013) field intensives (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Kim, S.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Flocke, F. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Nowak, J. B.; Nenes, A.; Warneke, C.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W.; Atlas, E. L.; Hanisco, T. F.; Wolfe, G. M.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kaiser, J.; Lee, Y.; Brock, C. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Liao, J.; Welti, A.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Extensive forested regions of the southeastern United States show high emissions of biogenic reactive hydrocarbons such as isoprene, while emissions of these compounds are typically much lower from agricultural areas. The Southern Oxidant Study (SOS) field intensives during the 1990s contributed to an improved understanding of ozone (O3) formation resulting from nitrogen oxides (NOx) emitted from urban areas and power plants in the presence and absence of the biogenic hydrocarbons. Decreases in NOx emissions from power plants and urban areas have contributed to the widespread reduction of ambient O3 over the southeastern US during the past two decades. Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), NOx, and their reaction products made at successive distances downwind of emission sources during the SOS (1999) and the Southeast Nexus (SENEX, 2013) campaigns reflect the modulation of the photochemical processing of biogenic VOCs by ambient NOx concentrations. The results constrain the ambient levels of HOx radicals as a function of NOx, and they reflect the mechanisms of the coupling between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions that form species such as ozone, formaldehyde, PeroxyAcetic Nitric anhydride (PAN), nitric acid, as well as, inorganic and organic aerosols.

  8. Accumulation and transfer of 137Cs and 90Sr in the plants of the forest ecosystem near the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšienė, B; Marčiulionienė, D; Gudelienė, I; Schönhofer, F

    2013-02-01

    The radioecological state of the forest ecosystem in the vicinity of the Ignalina Power Plant prior to decommissioning was analysed with specific emphasis on (137)Cs and (90)Sr activity concentrations in plant species growing in two reference sampling sites (Tilze and Grikiniskes). In the period of 1996-2008 the mean contamination of plants with (137)Cs was from 45 to 119 Bq/kg and with (90)Sr - from 3 to 42 Bq/kg. Measured (137)Cs TF values for soil-root transfer mainly ranged between 1.0-1.4, except for Calamagrostis arundinacea which had a TF value of 0.1. On average, the (137)Cs TF value from root to shoot was 1.7 fold higher than for soil to root transfer. (90)Sr TF values (soil-root) were in the range of 1.2-1.8 but for Calluna vulgaris it was 0.2. The mean root to shoot TF value for (90)Sr was 7.7 fold higher. These results indicate the higher (90)Sr bioavailability than that of (137)Cs in the forested area. The Grikiniskes reference site is located nearby the Ignalina NPP, specifically the heated water outlet channel, which results in altered microclimatic conditions. These specific microclimatic conditions result in relationships between (137)Cs TF (soil-root) values and pH, moisture and organic matter content in the soil at Grikiniskes which appear to be different to those at the Tilze reference sampling site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Air pollution effects on forest vegetation: Effects of Vado Ligure (Italy) power plant on soil acidification (evaluation method validation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naviglio, L.; Angelone, M.; Velletti, A.R.

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this work was to verify possible soil acidification due to atmospheric pollution caused by the emission of a thermoelectric power plant (coal and fuel oil fired) at Vado Ligure (Savona, Liguria) with a method used in many European stations by Prof. R. Wittig and other authors. The obtained data did not show high differences between the more and lesser exposed stations. This can be due to many reasons: no real difference of air quality between the two localities, the stations are still too close to the power plants and emissions have no sufficient time to be chemically transformed to produce acid effects; the method is not available in those soil types. More experiments in other localities will be carried out to better understand the observed data

  10. RESULTS OF THE TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR A NOVEL BIOMASS GASIFICATION-BASED POWER GENERATION SYSTEM FOR THE FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce Bryan; Joseph Rabovitser; Sunil Ghose; Jim Patel

    2003-11-01

    In 2001, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT41108 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for an Agenda 2020 project to develop an advanced biomass gasification-based power generation system for near-term deployment in the Forest Products Industry (FPI). The advanced power system combines three advanced components, including biomass gasification, 3-stage stoker-fired combustion for biomass conversion, and externally recuperated gas turbines (ERGTs) for power generation. The primary performance goals for the advanced power system are to provide increased self-generated power production for the mill and to increase wastewood utilization while decreasing fossil fuel use. Additional goals are to reduce boiler NOx and CO{sub 2} emissions. The current study was conducted to determine the technical and economic feasibility of an Advanced Power Generation System capable of meeting these goals so that a capital investment decision can be made regarding its implementation at a paper mill demonstration site in DeRidder, LA. Preliminary designs and cost estimates were developed for all major equipment, boiler modifications and balance of plant requirements including all utilities required for the project. A three-step implementation plan was developed to reduce technology risk. The plant design was found to meet the primary objectives of the project for increased bark utilization, decreased fossil fuel use, and increased self-generated power in the mill. Bark utilization for the modified plant is significantly higher (90-130%) than current operation compared to the 50% design goal. For equivalent steam production, the total gas usage for the fully implemented plant is 29% lower than current operation. While the current average steam production from No.2 Boiler is about 213,000 lb/h, the total steam production from the modified plant is 379,000 lb/h. This steam production increase will be accomplished at a grate heat release rate

  11. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  12. Forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Devendra Amatya; Steve McNulty

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology studies the distribution, storage, movement, and quality of water and the hydrological processes in forest-dominated ecosystems. Forest hydrological science is regarded as the foundation of modern integrated water¬shed management. This chapter provides an overview of the history of forest hydrology and basic principles of this unique branch of...

  13. Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hummel; K. L. O' Hara

    2008-01-01

    Global variation in forests and in human cultures means that a single method for managing forests is not possible. However, forest management everywhere shares some common principles because it is rooted in physical and biological sciences like chemistry and genetics. Ecological forest management is an approach that combines an understanding of universal processes with...

  14. GIS Methodology for Location of Biomass Power Plants Via Multi -Criteria Evaluation and Network Analysis. Location-Allocation Models for Forest Biomass Use; Metodologia SIG para la Localizacion de Centrales de Biomasa mediante Evaluacion Multicriterio y Analisis de Redes. Modelos de Localizacion-Asignacion para el Aprovechamiento de Biomasa Forestal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, C de la; Dominguez, J; Perez, M E

    2013-02-01

    The main purpose of this study is to find optimal areas for the installation of Biomass Plants for electric generation and grid connected. In order to achieve this goal, a methodology based on Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) and implemented by means a Geographic Information System (GIS) has been developed. Factors and restrictions for biomass resource and power plants location of biomass have been obtained through the dataset. The methodology output includes maps of greater aptitude areas for resource use (forest biomass available), as well as suitable locations for the placement of Forest Biomass facilities. Both cartographic products have been related by means Network Analysis. It generates Location-Allocation Models which allows locating Forest Biomass Facilities according with an optimization of the supply chain from the resource areas. (Author)

  15. Predictions for measuring the cross power spectrum of the HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using OWFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Anjan Kumar; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the possibility of measuring the cross-correlation of the redshifted HI 21-cm signal and the Lyman-α forest using an upcoming radio-interferometric array OWFA and an spectroscopic observation like SDSS-IV. Our results shows that it is possible to have a 6 σ detection of the cross-correlation signal with OWFA PII using an observing time of 200 hrs each in Np = 25 independent fields-of-view. However, not much can be done beyond this using the cross-correlation signal for zc = 3.35 and B = 30 MHz. Apart from this, we have also envisaged a situation where observations are carried out at zc = 3.05 and 2.55 which lie closer to the peak of the quasar distribution at z = 2.25 and with a larger bandwidth of B = 60 MHz. We see that the SNR of the cross-correlation detection can be significantly enhanced to ~ 17 for zc = 2.55 and B = 60 MHz. It is then possible to measure βT and βF individually with an SNR >= 5 by combining the cross-correlation with the HI 21-cm auto-correlation measurements. We further find that a measurement of the binned cross-correlation power spectrum with SNR >= 5 is also possible in several bins at k <= 0.3 Mpc‑1.

  16. Transport behavior of radioactive caesium from forests contaminated by the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident through river water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iijima, K.; Funaki, H.; Ohyama, T.; Niizato, T.; Sato, H.; Yui, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has carried out 'the project on the Long-term Assessment of Transport of Radioactive Contaminant in the Environment of Fukushima (F-TRACE project)' since the end of 2012. Radioactive caesium (Cs) has been distributed by the fallout by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (1F-NPP) accident, and forests in mountain areas have large amount of inventory of radioactive Cs and cover relatively large part of contaminated area of Fukushima. In this project, the transport behavior of radioactive Cs from the forests to biosphere and sea is evaluated by computer simulation based on the results of field observation and laboratory experiments. The results are used to predict evolution of effective dose of the residents in the affected area due to the transport, specify the dominant pathway of Cs, and propose effective methodology to constrain the transport along the pathway. This study reports the specific transport behavior of Cs observed in the basins of five rivers by means of the field investigation and laboratory experiments during the first year of the project. Radioactive Cs located at the crown was considered to be transported to the soil surface by litter fall, stem flow and canopy drip in the Japanese cedar tree forests. Even after two years since the accident, more than 90% of radioactive Cs was still been remained within 5 cm depth from the top of the soil, indicating that the distribution coefficient of radioactive Cs onto the specific minerals such as clay was significantly high. In the river, relatively higher dose rate was observed at the flood channel where fine-grained soil particles were trapped by growing vegetation, while low dose rate was observed beside the river channel where coarse sand or gravel accumulated. The results suggested that fine-grained soil particles containing minerals adsorbing large amount of radioactive Cs were transported in high water level and trapped by the vegetation. In the dam

  17. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  18. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  19. Ecosystem monitoring on dispersion and export dynamics of ¹³⁷Cs deposited on the forested area in Fukushima after the nuclear power stations accident in March 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohte, Nobuhito; Endo, Izuki; Iseda, Kohei; Tanoi, Keitaro [University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657 (Japan); Murakami, Masashi [Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8522 (Japan); Ishii, Nobuyoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Stations in March 2011 emitted 1.5x10¹⁷ Bq of ¹³¹I, 1.2x10¹⁶ Bq of ¹³⁷Cs into the surrounding environment. Those radioactive substances including ¹³⁷Cs deposited onto the forest areas of the northeastern region of the Honshu Island, Japan. Forests of these regions are especially important for the people not only for their forest production industry, but also for the source areas of drinking water. The first phase of the governmental survey and investigations showed that major portion of deposited ¹³⁷Cs is trapped on the canopies and litter layers of soil surface. As ¹³⁷Cs is easily adsorbed onto clay minerals in soil, major portion of those can be transported by eroded soils and particulate organic matters through the hydrological pathways. Dissolved ¹³⁷Cs which is relatively free from soil adsorption can be taken up by microbes, algae and plants in soil and aquatic systems. Then, those ¹³⁷Cs are eventually introduced into soil insects, worms, aquatic insects, fishes and birds through the food web. To clarify the mechanisms of dispersion and export of ¹³⁷Cs within and from a forested ecosystem, we started intensive field observations and samplings in a small catchment including forests and farmlands in the area ~50 km distant from the Nuclear Power Station. The study is conducted at the Kami-Oguni River catchment in the northern part of Fukushima Prefecture. Major land uses of the catchment are forests and paddy fields. Expected two major pathways of ¹³⁷Cs diffusion and export are investigated; 1) transportation by water movement with dissolved and particulate or colloidal forms through the hydrological processes, 2) dispersion through the food web including both detritus food chains based upon plant litters and grazing food chains based upon living plant leaves in the forest-stream ecological continuum. The ¹³⁷Cs concentrations of stream waters at several sampling

  20. Application of molecular genetic tools for forest pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee-Sook Kim; John Hanna; Amy Ross-Davis; Ned Klopfenstein

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular genetics have provided powerful tools to address critical issues in forest pathology to help promote resilient forests. Although molecular genetic tools are initially applied to understand individual components of forest pathosystems, forest pathosystems involve dynamic interactions among biotic and abiotic components of the...

  1. Structure of a tropical island forest area directly affected by the hydroelectric power station of Pilar, Guaraciaba County, Minas Gerais; Estrutura de uma floresta estacional semidecidual insular em area diretamente afetada pela Usina Hidreletrica de Pilar, Guaraciaba, Zona da Mata de Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meira-Neto, Joao Augusto Alves; Silva, Alexandre Francisco da [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Vegetal; Souza, Agostinho Lopes de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Florestal; Paula, Alessandro de [Vicosa Univ., MG (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Botanica

    1998-12-31

    Electrical energy consumption in Brazil is increasing and new hydroelectric power stations are required. This work was carried out at a semi deciduous tropical island forest in Guaraciaba, MG to look for composition peculiarities and to provide a structural model which could be applied to reduce environmental damages caused by Pilar HPS. The point-centered quarter method was applied totalizing 50 sample units. Fifty five species were sampled and a Shannon diversity index (H) of 3.429 nats/individual found. The most important species were longiracemosus, Tapirira guianensis, Pera glabrata, Copaifera langsdorffii, Callophyllum brasiliensis and Guapira opposita. The Guaraciaba island forest presented the peculiarity of Podocarpus sellowii occurrence sellowii occurrence, a rare gymnosperm species that does not occur at nearby forests. The Guaraciaba island forest is probably representative of an original alluvial forest at Piranga valley. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Texas' forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Consuelo Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna Randolph

    2014-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resources of the State of Texas at the time of the 2008 forest inventory. This bulletin addresses forest area, volume, growth, removals, mortality, forest health, timber product output, and the economy of the forest sector.

  3. Forest resources of the Lincoln National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Shaw

    2006-01-01

    The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Lincoln National Forest 1997 inventory...

  4. Assessment of forest biomass for use as energy. GIS-based analysis of geographical availability and locations of wood-fired power plants in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Viana; Warren B. Cohen; D. Lopes; J. Aranha

    2010-01-01

    Following the European Union strategy concerning renewable energy (RE), Portugal established in their national policy programmes that the production of electrical energy from RE should reach 45% of the total supply by 2010. Since Portugal has large forest biomass resources, a significant part of this energy will be obtained from this source. In addition to the two...

  5. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point

    OpenAIRE

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. For...

  6. Boreal forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essen, P.A.; Ericson, L.; Ehnstroem, B.; Sjoeberg, K.

    1997-01-01

    We review patterns and processes important for biodiversity in the Fennoscandian boreal forest, describe man's past and present impact and outline a strategy for conservation. Natural disturbances, particularly forest fire and gap formation, create much of the structural and functional diversity in forest ecosystems. Several boreal plants and animals are adapted to fire regimes. In contrast, many organisms (epiphytic lichens, fungi, invertebrates) require stable conditions with long continuity in canopy cover. The highly mechanized and efficient Fennoscandian forest industry has developed during the last century. The result is that most natural forest has been lost and that several hundreds of species, mainly cryptograms and invertebrates, are threatened. The forestry is now in a transition from exploitation to sustainable production and has recently incorporated some measures to protect the environment. Programmes for maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest should include at least three parts. First, the system of forest reserves must be significantly improved through protection of large representative ecosystems and key biotopes that host threatened species. Second, we must restore ecosystem properties that have been lost or altered. Natural disturbance regimes must be allowed to operate or be imitated, for example by artificial fire management. Stand-level management should particularly increase the amount of coarse woody debris, the number of old deciduous trees and large, old conifers, by using partial cutting. Third, natural variation should also be mimicked at the landscape level, for example, by reducing fragmentation and increasing links between landscape elements. Long-term experiments are required to evaluate the success of different management methods in maintaining biodiversity in the boreal forest. (au) 260 refs

  7. Low redshift Lyman alpha absorption lines and the dark matter halos of disk galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Philip

    1993-01-01

    Recent observations using the Hubble Space Telescope of the z = 0.156 QSO 3C 273 have discovered a surprisingly large number of Ly-alpha absorption lines. In particular, Morris et al. found 9 certain and 7 possible Ly-alpha lines with equivalent widths above 25 mA. This is much larger (by a factor of 5-10) than the number expected from extrapolation of the high-redshift behavior of the Ly-alpha forest. Within the context of pressure-confined models for the Ly-alpha clouds, this behavior can be understood if the ionizing background declines sharply between z is approximately 2 and z is approximately 0. However, this requires that the ionizing photon flux drop as rapidly as the QSO volume emissivity; moreover, the absorbers must have a space density n(sub O) is approximately 2.6(N/10)h/((D/100 kpc)(sup 2)) Mpc(sup -3) where D is the present-day diameter of the absorbers. It is somewhat surprising that such necessarily fragile objects could have survived in such numbers to the present day. It is shown that it is plausible that the atomic hydrogen extents of spiral and irregular galaxies are large enough to produce the observed number of Ly-alpha absorption lines toward 3C 273, and that the neutral column densities and doppler b-values expected under these conditions fall in the range found by Morris et al. (1991).

  8. Illinois' Forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; David E. Haugen; Dick C. Little; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Illinois' forests reports more than 4.5 million acres of forest land with an average of 459 trees per acre. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types, which occupy 65 percent of total forest land area. Seventy-two percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 20 percent contains poletimber, and 8 percent contains...

  9. Minnesota's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick D. Miles; David Heinzen; Manfred E. Mielke; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Ron J. Piva; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Dale D. Gormanson; Charles J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Minnesota's forests reports 17 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the aspen forest type, which occupies nearly 30 percent of the total forest land area. Twenty-eight percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 35 percent poletimber, 35 percent...

  10. Forest insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis T. Williams

    1949-01-01

    Standing timber is one of the few important kinds of property that are not generally covered by insurance. Studies made by the Forest Service and other agencies have indicated that the risks involved in the insurance of timber are not unduly great, provided they can be properly distributed. Such studies, however, have thus far failed to induce any notable development...

  11. Forest Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    NASA's Technology Applications Center, with other government and academic agencies, provided technology for improved resources management to the Cibola National Forest. Landsat satellite images enabled vegetation over a large area to be classified for purposes of timber analysis, wildlife habitat, range measurement and development of general vegetation maps.

  12. Combating Forest Corruption: the Forest Integrity Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.; Siebert, U.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the strategies and activities of the Forest Integrity Network. One of the most important underlying causes of forest degradation is corruption and related illegal logging. The Forest Integrity Network is a timely new initiative to combat forest corruption. Its approach is to

  13. Forest ownership dynamics of southern forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; David N. Wear

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsPrivate landowners hold 86 percent of the forest area in the South; two-thirds of this area is owned by families or individuals.Fifty-nine percent of family forest owners own between 1 and 9 acres of forest land, but 60 percent of family-owned forests are in holdings of 100 acres or more.Two-...

  14. Implementation of Participatory Forest Management in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, S. H.; Løber, Trine; Skensved, E.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the distribution of powers before and after the implementation of participatory forest management (PFM) in Kenya. The paper is a case study of the Karima forest in the Central Highlands of Kenya. The study relies primarily on 34 semi-structured interviews with key actors...... of the forest communities and weak downward accountability relations. Finally, it illustrates a planning process, which has weaknesses in participation and inclusiveness. Consequently, the paper suggests three areas for PFM policy reform in Kenya: (i) the role (powers) and function of CFAs; (ii) benefit sharing...

  15. The z=0.0912 and z=0.2212 damped Ly alpha galaxies along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnshek, DA; Rao, S; Nestor, D; Lane, W; Monier, E; Bergeron, J; Smette, A

    2001-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations along the sight line toward the quasar OI 363 (0738+313) are presented and discussed. Excluding quasars selectively observed because they were known to be located behind gas-rich galaxies and systems which lack confirming UV spectroscopic observations of the

  16. Indication of the Hanle Effect by Comparing the Scattering Polarization Observed by CLASP in the Ly alpha and Si III 120.65. nm Lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ishikawa, R.; Trujillo Bueno, J.; Uitenbroek, H.; Kubo, M.; Tsuneta, S.; Goto, M.; Kano, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, S.; Giono, G.; Suematsu, Y.; Hara, H.; Shimizu, T.; Sakao, T.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Cirtain, J.; Champey, P.; Auchere, F.; Štěpán, Jiří; Belluzzi, L.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Sainz, R.M.; de Pontieu, B.; Ichimoto, K.; Carlsson, M.; Casini, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 841, č. 1 (2017), 31/1-31/17 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-16861S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar optical telescope * vacuum-ultraviolet spectropolarimeter * dynamics-observatory sdo Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  17. Evolution in the Continuum Morphological Properties of Ly alpha-Emitting Galaxies from Z=3.1 to Z=2.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Padilla, Nelson; Gronwall, Chile Caryl; Ciardullo, Robin; Lai, Kamson

    2011-01-01

    We present a rest-frame ultraviolet morphological analysis of 108 z = 2.1 Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) and compare it to a similar sample of 171 LAEs at z = 3.1 . Using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images taken as part of the Galaxy Evolution From Morphology and SEDs survey, Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey, and Hubble Ultradeep Field surveys, we measure the size and photometric component distributions, where photo- metric components are defined as distinct clumps of UV-continuum emission. At both redshifts, the majority of LAEs have observed half-light radii physical properties derived from its SED. LAEs are found to be larger for galaxies with larger stellar mass, larger star formation rate, and larger dust obscuration, but there is no evidence for a trend between equivalent width and half-light radius at either redshift. The presence of these correlations suggests that a wide range of objects are being selected by LAE surveys at that redshift, including a significant fraction of objects for which a massive and moderately extended population of old stars underlies the young starburst giving rise to the Lya emission.

  18. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  19. Dispersal of forest insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmanus, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Dispersal flights of selected species of forest insects which are associated with periodic outbreaks of pests that occur over large contiguous forested areas are discussed. Gypsy moths, spruce budworms, and forest tent caterpillars were studied for their massive migrations in forested areas. Results indicate that large dispersals into forested areas are due to the females, except in the case of the gypsy moth.

  20. South Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; W. Keith Moser; Douglas D. Haugan; Gregory J. Josten; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark H. Hansen; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of South Dakota's forests reports almost 1.7 million acres of forest land. Softwood forests make up 74 percent of the total forest land area; the ponderosa pine forest type by itself accounts for 69 percent of the total.

  1. Forest report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  2. Mapping Forest Inventory and Analysis forest land use: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; John Vissage

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program produces area estimates of forest land use within three subcategories: timberland, reserved forest land, and other forest land. Mapping these subcategories of forest land requires the ability to spatially distinguish productive from unproductive land, and reserved from nonreserved land. FIA field data were spatially...

  3. Powerful relations: the role of actor-empowerment in the management of natural resource conflicts : a case of forest conflicts in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marfo, E.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: natural resource conflict, power, actor-empowerment,Ghana

    Increasingly, conflicts over natural resource (NR) use

  4. Forests and Forest Cover - MDC_NaturalForestCommunity

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — A point feature class of NFCs - Natural Forest Communities. Natural Forest Community shall mean all stands of trees (including their associated understory) which...

  5. Forest litter stocks in Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the southern Sikhote Alin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the data on the forest litter of the Korean pine-broad-leaved forests of the South of Primorsky krai. The focus of the research is plantations dominated by Korean pine; areas of the main tree species with ages of 50, 80, 130 and 200 years were selected. The dynamics of the forest litter stock in the pine and broadleaved forests of different ages according to the measurement results for the season in 2014 is stated. In the studied plantation, the forest litter stock varies between 9.7–20.3 t ha-1. The greatest value of the forest litter stock is recorded in old-growth cedar forest (200 years. Relatively high power and the stock of litter are typical for young Korean pine forest that can explain the lower speed of the litter properties change against the dynamics of taxation indicators of the forest stand. The difference between the amount of the litter in the 200-year-old and remaining pine trees are statistically significant at p = 0.05. The dependence of the litter power on the age is not revealed. The coefficient of the forest litter decomposition ranges from 2.55–10.60 that characterizes the high speed of its rotting. The highest coefficient of the litter decomposition has an old-growing pine forest. The schedule of seasonal humidity fluctuations of the forest litter on the chosen plot is made; with increasing cedar forest age, the volumetric moisture content of the forest litter increases; volumetric moisture content on the plots remain relatively unchanged during the season. The area of the Korean pine forests of Primorsky State Academy of Agriculture is 6835 ha. The amount of carbon stock in the forest litter is 38.7 thousand tons C. in this area, while the system of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance estimates this index as 24.3 tons С. The data obtained can be used to adjust the coefficients of regional assessment of the forest carbon balance for cedar forests of Primorsky krai.

  6. dwindling ethiopian forests

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    1999-05-26

    May 26, 1999 ... Shelter for animals: Forests are natural “habitats for many wild animals. .... nificance of forest conservation and development in Ethiopia's combat ...... of forests are not, unfortunately, analogues to traffic lights where the impact.

  7. Tenure and forest income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagger, Pamela; Luckert, Martin K.; Duchelle, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the relationship between tenure and forest income in 271 villages throughout the tropics. We find that state-owned forests generate more forest income than private and community-owned forests both per household and per hectare. We explore whether forest income varies according...... to the extent of rule enforcement, and congruence (i.e., overlap of user rights between owners and users). We find negative associations between enforcement and smallholder forest income for state-owned and community forests, and positive associations for privately owned forests. Where user rights are limited...... to formal owners we find negative associations for state-owned forests. Overlapping user rights are positively associated with forest income for community forests. Our findings suggest that policy reforms emphasizing enforcement and reducing overlapping claims to forest resources should consider possible...

  8. Indiana's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Mark N. Webb; Barry T. Wilson; Jeff Settle; Ron J. Piva; Charles H. Perry; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Brett J. Butler; Mark Hansen; Mark Hatfield; Gary Brand; Charles. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Indiana's forests reports more than 4.75 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,000 cubic feet per acre. Forest land is dominated by the white oak/red oak/hickory forest type, which occupies nearly a third of the total forest land area. Seventy-six percent of forest land consists of sawtimber, 16...

  9. Percent Forest Cover (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCTFuture) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water....

  10. Percent Forest Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Forests provide economic and ecological value. High percentages of forest cover (FORPCT) generally indicate healthier ecosystems and cleaner surface water. More...

  11. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests; Forests ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Research and Environmental Surveillance, Helsinki (Finland))

    2009-06-15

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  12. European mixed forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo-Oviedo, Andres; Pretzsch, Hans; Ammer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Aim of study: We aim at (i) developing a reference definition of mixed forests in order to harmonize comparative research in mixed forests and (ii) review the research perspectives in mixed forests. Area of study: The definition is developed in Europe but can be tested worldwide. Material...... and Methods: Review of existent definitions of mixed forests based and literature review encompassing dynamics, management and economic valuation of mixed forests. Main results: A mixed forest is defined as a forest unit, excluding linear formations, where at least two tree species coexist at any...... density in mixed forests, (iii) conversion of monocultures to mixed-species forest and (iv) economic valuation of ecosystem services provided by mixed forests. Research highlights: The definition is considered a high-level one which encompasses previous attempts to define mixed forests. Current fields...

  13. Forest tenure and sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.P. Siry; K. McGinley; F.W. Cubbage; P. Bettinger

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the principles and key literature related to forest tenure and sustainable forest management, and then examined the status of sustainable forestry and land ownership at the aggregate national level for major forested countries. The institutional design principles suggested by Ostrom are well accepted for applications to public, communal, and private lands....

  14. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...... and competitive combinations in the longer term. Non-native species may serve an important role under some circumstances, e.g., to facilitate reintroduction of native species. Propagation and field establishment techniques must promote survival through seedling stress resistance and site preparation. An improved...

  15. North Dakota's forests 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen; Michael Kangas; Susan J. Crocker; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall; Brett J. Butler; Barry T. Wilson; Dan J. Kaisershot

    2009-01-01

    The first completed annual inventory of North Dakota's forests reports estimates of more than 724,000 acres of forest land. Information about forest attributes and forest health is presented along with information on agents of change including changing land use patterns and the introduction of nonnative plants, insects, and disease.

  16. Forest Health Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    "Forest health" is an important concept often not covered in tree, forest, insect, or fungal ecology and biology. With minimal, inexpensive equipment, students can investigate and conduct their own forest health survey to assess the percentage of trees with natural or artificial wounds or stress. Insects and diseases in the forest are…

  17. Wisconsin's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Vern A. Everson; Ian K. Brown; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Sally E. Dahir; Edward A. Jepsen; Joe Kovach; Michael D. Labissoniere; Terry R. Mace; Eunice A. Padley; Richard B. Rideout; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Greg C. Liknes; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2008-01-01

    The first full, annualized inventory of Wisconsin's forests was completed in 2004 after 6,478 forested plots were visited. There are more than 16.0 million acres of forest land in the Wisconsin, nearly half of the State's land area; 15.8 million acres meet the definition of timberland. The total area of both forest land and timberland continues an upward...

  18. Managing Sierra Nevada forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm North

    2012-01-01

    There has been widespread interest in applying new forest practices based on concepts presented in U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-220, "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests." This collection of papers (PSW-GTR-237) summarizes the state of the science in some topics relevant to this forest management approach...

  19. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  20. Illinois' Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2013-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Illinois' forests, completed in 2010, reports more than 4.8 million acres of forest land and 97 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory and elm/ash/cottonwood forest-type groups, which occupy 93 percent of total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland totals 7.2 billion cubic feet. The average...

  1. Nebraska's Forests 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Greg C. Liknes; Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. (Ty) Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Nebraska's forests reports more than 1.5 million acres of forest land and 39 tree species. Forest land is dominated by the elm/ash/cottonwood and oak/hickory forest types, which occupy nearly half of the total forest land area. The volume of growing stock on timberland currently totals 1.1 billion cubic feet. The average annual...

  2. New Jersey's forests, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Grant M. Domke; Mark H. Hansen; Mark A. Hatfield; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Barry T. Wilson; Christopher W. Woodall; Bill. Zipse

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of New Jersey's forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 83 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak-hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.4 billion cubic feet. The average...

  3. Forest Grammar(Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    Forest grammar,a new type of high-dimensional grammar,is proposed in this paper,of which both the left and the right parts of every production are concatenations of tree structures.A classification of forest grammar is studied,especially,a subclass of the forest grammar,i.e.the context-sensitive forest grammar,and one of its subclasses is defined,called the weak precedence forest grammar.

  4. New Jersey Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan J. Crocker; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Christopher W. Woodall; William. Zipse

    2017-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of New Jersey’s forests reports more than 2.0 million acres of forest land and 77 tree species. Forest land is dominated by oak/hickory forest types in the north and pitch pine forest types in the south. The volume of growing stock on timberland has been rising since 1956 and currently totals 3.3 billion cubic feet. Average annual net...

  5. Michigan's Forests 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Ronald J. Piva; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles J. Barnett; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith. Moser

    2012-01-01

    The seventh inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2009, describes more than 19.9 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 7,516 forested plots from 2005 to 2009. Timberland accounts for 97 percent of this forest land, and 62 percent is privately owned. The sugar maple/beech/yellow birch forest type accounts for 18...

  6. Michigan's forests 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Pugh; Mark H. Hansen; Lawrence D. Pedersen; Douglas C. Heym; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dacia Meneguzzo; Charles H. Perry; David E. Haugen; Christopher Woodall; Ed Jepsen

    2009-01-01

    The first annual inventory of Michigan's forests, completed in 2004, covers more than 19.3 million acres of forest land. The data in this report are based on visits to 10,355 forested plots from 2000 to 2004. In addition to detailed information on forest attributes, this report includes data on forest health, biomass, land-use change, and timber-product outputs....

  7. Development of lichen response indexes using a regional gradient modeling approach for large-scale monitoring of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Will-Wolf; Peter Neitlich

    2010-01-01

    Development of a regional lichen gradient model from community data is a powerful tool to derive lichen indexes of response to environmental factors for large-scale and long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems. The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service includes lichens in its national inventory of forests of...

  8. Forest dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelich, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Forest dynamics encompass changes in stand structure, species composition, and species interactions with disturbance and environment over a range of spatial and temporal scales. For convenience, spatial scale is defined as individual tree, neighborhood, stand, and landscape. Whether a given canopy-leveling disturbance will initiate a sequence of development in structure with little change in composition or initiate an episode of succession depends on a match or mismatch, respectively, with traits of the dominant tree species that allow the species to survive disturbance. When these match, certain species-disturbance type combinations lock in a pattern of stand and landscape dynamics that can persist for several generations of trees; thus, dominant tree species regulate, as well as respond to, disturbance. A complex interaction among tree species, neighborhood effects, disturbance type and severity, landform, and soils determines how stands of differing composition form and the mosaic of stands that compose the landscape. Neighborhood effects (e.g., serotinous seed rain, sprouting, shading, leaf-litter chemistry, and leaf-litter physical properties) operate at small spatial extents of the individual tree and its neighbors but play a central role in forest dynamics by contributing to patch formation at stand scales and dynamics of the entire landscape. Dominance by tree species with neutral to negative neighborhood effects leads to unstable landscape dynamics in disturbance-prone regions, wherein most stands are undergoing succession; stability can only occur under very low-severity disturbance regimes. Dominance by species with positive effects leads to stable landscape dynamics wherein only a small proportion of stands undergo succession at any one time. Positive neighborhood effects are common in temperate and boreal zones, whereas negative effects are more common in tropical climates. Landscapes with positive dynamics have alternate categories of dynamics

  9. Forest and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled the challenges the French forest has to face, and a brief overview of the status of forests in the world, this report proposes an overview of actions which are implemented to strengthen the carbon sequestration role of forests, at the international level and in France. It discusses the distribution of carbon, the forest carbon stocks (in the world, Europe and France), the actions against climate change, the costs and financing of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the forest sector. It comments the status of international negotiations and how forests are taken into account. It presents the French forest and wood sector (characteristics of the forest in metropolitan France and overseas, wood as material and as energy). It recalls the commitment of the Grenelle de l'Environnement, and indicates the current forest studies

  10. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo, Sit [Forest Resource Div., Forest Department (Myanmar)

    1993-10-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  11. Forest inventory in Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sit Bo

    1993-01-01

    Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships

  12. Forest resources of Mississippi’s national forests, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt

    2011-01-01

    This bulletin describes forest resource characteristics of Mississippi’s national forests, with emphasis on DeSoto National Forest, following the 2006 survey completed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program. Mississippi’s national forests comprise > 1 million acres of forest land, or about 7 percent of all forest...

  13. Forest report 2013; Waldzustandsbericht 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, forest soil survey and forest site mapping, and nutritional status of beech on loess.

  14. Age structure and disturbance legacy of North American forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most forests of the world are recovering from a past disturbance. It is well known that forest disturbances profoundly affect carbon stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems, yet it has been a great challenge to assess disturbance impacts in estimates of forest carbon budgets. Net sequestration or loss of CO2 by forests after disturbance follows a predictable pattern with forest recovery. Forest age, which is related to time since disturbance, is a useful surrogate variable for analyses of the impact of disturbance on forest carbon. In this study, we compiled the first continental forest age map of North America by combining forest inventory data, historical fire data, optical satellite data and the dataset from NASA's Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS project. A companion map of the standard deviations for age estimates was developed for quantifying uncertainty. We discuss the significance of the disturbance legacy from the past, as represented by current forest age structure in different regions of the US and Canada, by analyzing the causes of disturbances from land management and nature over centuries and at various scales. We also show how such information can be used with inventory data for analyzing carbon management opportunities. By combining geographic information about forest age with estimated C dynamics by forest type, it is possible to conduct a simple but powerful analysis of the net CO2 uptake by forests, and the potential for increasing (or decreasing this rate as a result of direct human intervention in the disturbance/age status. Finally, we describe how the forest age data can be used in large-scale carbon modeling, both for land-based biogeochemistry models and atmosphere-based inversion models, in order to improve the spatial accuracy of carbon cycle simulations.

  15. US Forest Service Experimental Forests and Ranges Network: a continental research platform for catchment-scale research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Neary; Deborah Hayes; Lindsey Rustad; James Vose; Gerald Gottfried; Stephen Sebesteyn; Sherri Johnson; Fred Swanson; Mary Adams

    2012-01-01

    The US Forest Service initiated its catchment research program in 1909 with the first paired catchment study at Wagon Wheel Gap, Colorado, USA. It has since developed the Experimental Forests and Ranges Network, with over 80 long-term research study sites located across the contiguous USA, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Caribbean. This network provides a unique, powerful...

  16. National Forest Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme shows the USFS national forest boundaries in the state. This data was acquired from the GIS coordinators at both the Chippewa National Forest and the...

  17. Forest Grammar (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张松懋

    1994-01-01

    The syntactic parsing algorithm of weak precedence forest grammar has been introduced and the correctness and unambiguity of this algorithm have been proved. An example is given to the syntactic parsing procedure of weak precedence forest grammar.

  18. Inverse Compton X-Ray Halos Around High-z Radio Galaxies: A Feedback Mechanism Powered by Far-Infrared Starbursts or the Cosmic Microwave Background?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Ian; Blundell, Katherine M.; Lehmer, B. D.; Alexander, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z approx. 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 44) erg/s and sizes of approx.60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the approx.60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z approx. 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z approx. 3.6 radio galaxies, which are 4 fainter in the far-infrared than those at z 3.8, also have approx.4x fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z > or approx. 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes < or approx.100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on approx.100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly(alpha) emission line halos found around some of these systems. The starburst and active galactic nucleus

  19. 75 FR 64243 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District; Oregon Tollgate Fuels Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    .... This project was planned and will be implemented using Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2004... actions will be conducted in accordance with the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA), National Forest... (fiber optic lines, telephone lines, power transmission lines, and communication equipment) is...

  20. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  1. Forests and water cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovino F

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a comprehensive literature analysis, a review on factors that control water cycle and water use in Mediterranean forest ecosystems is presented, including environmental variables and silvicultural treatments. This important issue is considered in the perspective of sustainable forest management of Mediterranean forests, with special regard to crucial environmental hazards such as forest fires and desertification risks related to climate change.

  2. Maine's forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; William H. McWilliams; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The second annual inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2008 after more than 3,160 forested plots were measured. Forest land occupies almost 17.7 million acres, which represents 82 percent of the total land area of Maine. The dominant forest-type groups are maple/beech/yellow birch, spruce/fir, white/red/jack pine, and aspen/white birch. Statewide volume...

  3. Iowa Forests, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Charles J. Barnett; Matt Brewer; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Dale D. Gormanson; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen Matthews; William H. McWilliams; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Jim Westfall; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2009-2013) indicates that just under 3 million acres of forest land exists in the State, 81 percent of which is in family forest ownership. Almost all of Iowa's forest land is timberland (96 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre on timberland and more than 1,...

  4. Dipterocarpaceae: forest fires and forest recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priadjati, A.

    2002-01-01

    One of the serious problems Indonesia is facing today is deforestation. Forests have been playing a very important role in Indonesia as the main natural resources for the economic growth of the country. Large areas of tropical forests, worldwide

  5. Original Paper Contribution of sacred forests to biodiversity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding plant diversity, a total of 75 species (68 tree species and 7 herbaceous species) distributed in 70 genera and 40 ... assess the natural stand structure in forests. ..... multiple sequential rites that have the power ... divinities and wind.

  6. Making Forest Values Work: Enhancing Multi-Dimensional Perspectives towards Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Blagojević

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Sustainability, sustainable development and sustainable forest management are terms that are commonly, and interchangeably used in the forest industry, however their meaning take on different connotations, relative to varying subject matter. The aim of this paper is to look at these terms in a more comprehensive way, relative to the current ideology of sustainability in forestry. Materials and Methods: This paper applies a literature review of the concepts of: i sustainable development; ii sustainable forest management; and iii economic and non-economic valuation. The concepts are viewed through a historical dimension of shifting paradigms, originating from production- to service-based forestry. Values are discussed through a review of general value theory and spatial, cultural and temporal differences in valuation. Along the evolution of these concepts, we discuss their applicability as frameworks to develop operational guidelines for forest management, relative to the multi-functionality of forests. Results and Conclusions: Potential discrepancies between the conceptual origins of sustainable development and sustainable forest management are highlighted, relative to how they have been interpreted and diffused as new perceptions on forest value for the human society. We infer the current paradigm may not reflect the various dimensions adequately as its implementation is likely to be more related to the distribution of power between stakeholders, rather than the value stakeholders’ place on the various forest attributes.

  7. Connecticut's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Cassandra Kurtz; Christopher Martin; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  8. Connecticut's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler; Christopher Martin

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Connecticut based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  9. Forests of Connecticut, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett J. Butler

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of forest resources in Connecticut based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design. Results are for the measurement years 2010-2015 with comparisons made to 2005-...

  10. Vermont's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Morin; R. De Geus

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Vermont based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports...

  11. Forests of Virginia, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.J. Brandeis; A.J. Hartsell; K.C. Randolph; C.M. Oswalt

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Virginia based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Virginia Department of Forestry.

  12. Forests of Kentucky, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.M. Oswalt

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for the Commonwealth of Kentucky based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station of the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Natural Resources Division of Forestry....

  13. Forests of Alabama, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Hartsell

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Alabama based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Alabama Forestry Commission. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly....

  14. Forests of Wisconsin, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Wisconsin based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  15. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly (see footnote 1 on page 4). Information about...

  16. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  17. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  18. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  19. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  20. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station (NRS). Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated yearly1(see footnote 1, page 2). Information...

  1. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; C.J. Barnett

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of...

  2. Pennsylvania's forest resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.L. McCaskill; W.H. McWilliams; B.J. Butler; D.M. Meneguzzo; C.J. Barnett; M.H. Hansen

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Pennsylvania based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 6 of...

  3. Forests of Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in Pennsylvania based upon inventories conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the national and regional FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 1999, FIA has implemented an annual inventory...

  4. Forests of Kansas, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory,...

  5. Forests of Iowa, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kathryne. Clark

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Iowa based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Forests of Nebraska, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Susan J. Crocker

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Nebraska based on annual inventories conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program of the Northern Research Station (NRS), U.S. Forest Service. The estimates presented in this update are based on field data collected in 2010-2014 with comparisons made to data collected from 2005-...

  7. Forests of Kansas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2017-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Kansas based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016 inventory,...

  8. Forests of Nebraska, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Nebraska based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2001-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015 inventory...

  9. Forest resources and conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Linda S. Heath; Gordon C. Reese; Thomas L. Schmidt

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the northern United States support a rich mix of floral and faunal communities that provide inestimable benefits to society. Today's forests face a range of biotic and abiotic stressors, not the least of which may be environmental change. This chapter reviews the compositional traits of presettlement forests and traces the major land use patterns...

  10. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report...

  11. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2007-01-01

    Figure 2 was revised by the author in August 2008. This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service from 2002-2006. These estimates, along with associated core tables postedon the Internet, are...

  12. Wisconsin's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry; V.A. Everson

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, are updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this report.

  13. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.H. Perry

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for Wisconsin based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this report...

  14. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  15. Forests and Forest Cover - DCNR - State Forest Lands 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The state forest boundry coverage is being updated frequently. It is derived from survey descriptions and will be, and has been in certain areas, adjusted to GPS...

  16. What rights and benefits? The implementation of participatory forest management in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutune, Jane M.; Hansen, Christian P.; Wahome, Raphael G.

    2017-01-01

    , and a household survey showed that implementation of PFM has triggered new income opportunities for forest adjacent communities in seedling production and beekeeping. However, PFM bestowed no real decision-making powers to the established Community Forest Associations (CFAs) over important forest resources......The study espoused the access analytical framework to investigate how introduction of Participatory Forest Management (PFM) in Kenya has changed the various actors’ ability to benefit from the forest resources of Eastern Mau Forest Reserve. Data collected through key informant interviews...

  17. Hyperspectral sensing of forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, David G.; Dyk, Andrew; Chen, Hao; Hobart, Geordie; Niemann, K. Olaf; Richardson, Ash

    2007-11-01

    Canada contains 10% of the world's forests covering an area of 418 million hectares. The sustainable management of these forest resources has become increasingly complex. Hyperspectral remote sensing can provide a wealth of new and improved information products to resource managers to make more informed decisions. Research in this area has demonstrated that hyperspectral remote sensing can be used to create more accurate products for forest inventory, forest health, foliar biochemistry, biomass, and aboveground carbon than are currently available. This paper surveys recent methods and results in hyperspectral sensing of forests and describes space initiatives for hyperspectral sensing.

  18. MUNICIPAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National Library of Indonesia Cataloging – in-Publication Data: ..... with both the threat of specific population sectors or elites monopolizing local power and the .... These units have been quite active in delimiting municipal forest areas; many .... in the health and education sectors than those in other Latin American countries.

  19. Forested wetland habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duberstein, Jamie A.; Krauss, Ken W.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    A forested wetland (swamp) is a forest where soils are saturated or flooded for at least a portion of the growing season, and vegetation, dominated by trees, is adapted to tolerate flooded conditions. A tidal freshwater forested wetland is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity of soil porewater less than 0.5 g/l. It is known locally as tidal várzea in the Amazon delta, Brazil. A tidal saltwater forested wetland (mangrove forest) is a forested wetland that experiences frequent but short-term surface flooding via tidal action, with average salinity often exceeding 3 g/l and reaching levels that can exceed seawater. Mangrove ecosystems are composed of facultative halophytes that generally experience better growth at moderate salinity concentrations.

  20. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, D.

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between human beings and forests has been important for the development of society. It is based on various productive, ecological, social and cultural functions of forests. The cultural functions, including the spiritual and symbolic role of forests, are often not addressed...... with the same attention as the other functions. The aim of this paper is to put a stronger emphasis on the fact that the acknowledgement of cultural bonds is needed in the discussion of sustainable development. Forest should not only be considered as a technical means to solve environmental and economic...... problems. To achieve a deeper understanding of the dependency of society on forests, it is necessary to recognise the role of forests in our consciousness of being human. Giving a historical overview about the cultural bonds between people and forests, the first part of the paper puts focus on non...

  1. Drivers of forest cover change in Eastern Europe and European Russia, 1985–2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alix-Garcia, Jennifer; Munteanu, Catalina; Zhao, Na

    2016-01-01

    to explain variation in forest loss between countries, nor does trade and price liberalization policy. None of our covariates explain forest regrowth on non-forested land over the period. We conclude that history and land privatization drove important cross-country variation in forest dynamics in the region......The relative importance of geography, history, and policy in driving forest cover change at broad scales remains poorly understood. We examine variation in forest cover dynamics over the period 1985–2012 across 19 countries in Eastern Europe and European Russia in order to shed light on the role...... of these in driving forest cover change after the collapse of socialism. Using a combination of cross-section and panel regression methods, we find that privatization of forest lands increased forest cover loss due to logging, as did increases in agricultural land between 1850 and 1900. Land quality has no power...

  2. GRB 130606A AS A PROBE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN A STAR-FORMING GALAXY IN THE FIRST Gyr AFTER THE BIG BANG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Drout, Maria R.; Fong Wenfai; Laskar, Tanmoy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fox, Derek B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Roth, Katherine C., E-mail: rchornock@cfa.harvard.edu [Gemini Observatory, 670 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z Almost-Equal-To 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 A due to absorption from Ly{alpha} at redshift z Almost-Equal-To 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Ly{alpha} forest between 7000 and 7800 A. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain the metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] {approx}> -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] {approx}< -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Ly{alpha} seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of {Delta}z = 0.12 in the Ly{alpha} forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean Ly{alpha} transmission fraction of {approx}<0.2% (or {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} (Ly{alpha}) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Ly{alpha} red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.

  3. Estimating forest conversion rates with annual forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis A. Roesch

    2009-01-01

    The rate of land-use conversion from forest to nonforest or natural forest to forest plantation is of interest for forest certification purposes and also as part of the process of assessing forest sustainability. Conversion rates can be estimated from remeasured inventory plots in general, but the emphasis here is on annual inventory data. A new estimator is proposed...

  4. Forest resources of the Nez Perce National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michele Disney

    2010-01-01

    As part of a National Forest System cooperative inventory, the Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) Program of the USDA Forest Service conducted a forest resource inventory on the Nez Perce National Forest using a nationally standardized mapped-plot design (for more details see the section "Inventory methods"). This report presents highlights...

  5. Forest type effects on the retention of radiocesium in organic layers of forest ecosystems affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sanada, Yukihisa

    2016-12-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster caused serious radiocesium (137Cs) contamination of forest ecosystems over a wide area. Forest-floor organic layers play a key role in controlling the overall bioavailability of 137Cs in forest ecosystems; however, there is still an insufficient understanding of how forest types influence the retention capability of 137Cs in organic layers in Japanese forest ecosystems. Here we conducted plot-scale investigations on the retention of 137Cs in organic layers at two contrasting forest sites in Fukushima. In a deciduous broad-leaved forest, approximately 80% of the deposited 137Cs migrated to mineral soil located below the organic layers within two years after the accident, with an ecological half-life of approximately one year. Conversely, in an evergreen coniferous forest, more than half of the deposited 137Cs remained in the organic layers, with an ecological half-life of 2.1 years. The observed retention behavior can be well explained by the tree phenology and accumulation of 137Cs associated with litter materials with different degrees of degradation in the organic layers. Spatial and temporal patterns of gamma-ray dose rates depended on the retention capability. Our results demonstrate that enhanced radiation risks last longer in evergreen coniferous forests than in deciduous broad-leaved forests.

  6. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-07-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, Forestry Environment Monitoring, infiltrated substances, main results of Forest soil survey in Hesse (BZE II), the substrate group red sandstone, heavy metal contamination of forests.

  7. 78 FR 18307 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a document in the Federal Register of January 31, 2013, concering a notice of meeting for the Forest Resource...

  8. Forests of east Texas, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.J.W. Dooley; T.J. Brandeis

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. Forest resource estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and...

  9. Forest health from different perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Kolb; M. R. Wagner; W. W. Covington

    1995-01-01

    Forest health is an increasingly important concept in natural resource management. However, definition of forest health is difficult and dependent on human perspective. From a utilitarian perspective, forest health has been defined by the production of forest conditions which directly satisfy human needs. From an ecosystem-centered perspective, forest health has been...

  10. Does participatory forest management promote sustainable forest utilisation in Tanzania?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treue, Thorsten; Ngaga, Y.M.; Meilby, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, Participatory Forest Management (PFM) has become a dominant forest management strategy in Tanzania, covering more than 4.1 million hectares. Sustainable forest use and supply of wood products to local people are major aims of PFM. This paper assesses the sustainability...... of forest utilisation under PFM, using estimates of forest condition and extraction rates based on forest inventories and 480 household surveys from 12 forests; seven under Community Based Forest Management (CBFM), three under Joint Forest Management (JFM) and two under government management (non......-PFM). Extraction of products is intense in forests close to Dar es Salaam, regardless of management regime. Further from Dar es Salaam, harvesting levels in forests under PFM are, with one prominent exception, broadly sustainable. Using GIS data from 116 wards, it is shown that half of the PFM forests in Tanzania...

  11. Missouri Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Thomas B. Treiman; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Dale D. Gormanson; Douglas M. Griffith; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith; Brian F. Walters; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third full cycle of annual inventories (2009-2013) of Missouri's forests, completed in 2013, reports that there are an estimated 15.5 million acres of forest land in the State. An estimated 60 percent of the forest land area is in sawtimber size stands, 30 percent are pole timber size, and 10 percent are seedling/sapling size or nontstocked. The net volume of...

  12. Maine Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    George L. McCaskill; Thomas Albright; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Mark D. Nelson; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The third 5-year annualized inventory of Maine's forests was completed in 2013 after more than 3170 forested plots were measured. Maine contains more than 17.6 million acres of forest land, an area that has been quite stable since 1960, covering more than 82 percent of the total land area. The number of live trees greater than 1 inch in diameter are approaching 24...

  13. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  14. Ghana's high forests

    OpenAIRE

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised stakeholders concerns about the future timber production prospects in the country. The principal drivers of deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana are agricultural expansion (50%), wood harvesting (35...

  15. Kentucky's forests, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery A. Turner; Christopher M. Oswalt; James L. Chamberlain; Roger C. Conner; Tony G. Johnson; Sonja N. Oswalt; KaDonna C. Randolph

    2008-01-01

    Forest land area in the Commonwealth of Kentucky amounted to 11.97 million acres, including 11.6 million acres of timberland. Over 110 different species, mostly hardwoods, account for an estimated 21.2 billion cubic feet of all live tree volume. Hardwood forest types occupy 85 percent of Kentucky’s timberland, and oak-hickory is the dominant forest-type group...

  16. Threatened and neglected forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellicane, P.J.; Gutkowski, R.M.; Czarnock, J.

    1997-01-01

    Polands once considerable forest resource suffered destruction during World War II and is now a victim of the legacy of past forest practices, the toxic effects of industrial pollution, and the urgent needs of its people today. Polish forest are threatened by a variety of abiotic, biotic and anthropogenic factors. Extremes of climate and declining groundwater tables add to the problem. Pollution is the most serious problem, particularly air pollution. Much of the air pollution in Poland is attributable to mining and burning high-sulfur coal. Besides describing the causes of the forest decline, this article discusses solutions

  17. Forest structure in low diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Ostertag; F. Inman-Narahari; S. Cordell; C.P. Giardina; L. Sack

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai‘i Island. We compared the species...

  18. Tropical Deforestation, Community Forests, and Protected Areas in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barton. Bray

    2008-12-01

    may have limited the statistical power of our comparisons, but descriptive statistics on deforestation rates, logistic regression analyses, LUCC maps, data available on local economic impacts, and long-term ethnographic and action-research constitute a web of evidence supporting our conclusions. Long-inhabited community forest management for timber can be as effective as uninhabited parks at delivering long-term forest protection under certain circumstances and more effective at delivering local benefits.

  19. Forest report 2014; Waldzustandsbericht 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    This forest report of Hesse (Germany) contains the following topics: weather and climate, forest protection, crown defoliation, infiltrated substances, environmental monitoring, insects and fungi, and water quality of forest streams.

  20. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS). Part III. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eight Congress, Second Session, March 28 and August 2, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Part III of the hearing record contains the testimony of Peter Johnson, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Administrator, and Energy Secretary Donald Hodel on the subject of BPA's contracts with the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) in which BPA will assume responsibility of WPPSS nuclear projects 1, 2, and 3. At issue was whether the contracts exceed BPA's authority and the protection of BPA's $1.9 billion invested in the projects. Johnson denied any secret agreements and emphasized that the intent was to preserve the assets for the federal government and federal power system. On the second hearing day, Hodel explained DOE's involvement in the agreements and its concurrence with BPA because of related litigation. An appendix with additional correspondence and statements submitted for the record follows the testimony

  1. Forest Policy: Theory and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova N. E.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on summarizing the experiences of countries with the developed forest sector (Finland, Sweden, Japan, Germany, Canada, USA, and Russia the forest policy concept, objectives, and tools are viewed. Types of forest users- recipients of the forest policy are singled out in order to form a rational structure of the forest industry on the basis of the society’s priorities in forest management by means of institutional measures

  2. Wood power in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, J.G.; Guessous, L. [Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    North Carolina (NC) is one of the most forested states, and supports a major wood products industry. The NC Department of Natural Resources sponsored a study by Research Triangle Institute to examine new, productive uses of the State`s wood resources, especially electric power generation by co-firing with coal. This paper summarizes our research of the main factors influencing wood power generation opportunities, i.e., (1) electricity demand; (2) initiative and experience of developers; (3) available fuel resources; (4) incentives for alternate fuels; and (5) power plant technology and economics. The results cover NC forests, short rotation woody crops, existing wood energy facilities, electrical power requirements, and environmental regulations/incentives. Quantitative assessments are based on the interests of government agencies, utilities, electric cooperatives, developers and independent power producers, forest products industries, and the general public. Several specific, new opportunities for wood-to-electricity in the State are identified and described. Comparisons are made with nationwide resources and wood energy operations. Preferred approaches in NC are co-generation in existing or modified boilers and in dedicated wood power plants in forest industry regions. Co-firing is mainly an option for supplementing unreliable primary fuel supplies to existing boilers.

  3. Managing the world's forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, N; Rowe, R

    1992-06-01

    Forests play a vital role in balancing natural systems: the stabilization of global climate and the management of water and land. 30% of the earth's total land area is forested. 66% of the tropical moist forests are in Latin America and the remainder in Africa and Asia. 75% of tropical dry forests are in Africa. Temperate forests are primarily in developed countries. Deforestation and misuse of forests occurs primarily in developing countries at significant social, economic, and environmental costs. Losses have occurred in fuelwood, fodder, timber, forest products, biological diversity, habitats, genetic materials for food and medicine. The World Bank's evolving role in forestry is briefly described. Agreement has not been reached among people or nations about the most appropriate means to balance conservation and development goals. The challenge is to stabilize existing forests and increase forest planting. The causes of forest degradation must be understood. Direct causes include agricultural encroachment, cattle ranching, fuelwood gathering, commercial logging, and infrastructure development. These direct causes are driven by economic, social, and political forces: market and policy failures, population growth, and poverty. The market failures include: 1) the lack of clearly defined property rights on forest resources for now and the future, 2) the conflict between individual and societal needs, 3) the difficulty in placing a value on nonmarket environmental services and joint products, and 4) the separation between private and social costs. The solution is action at the local, national, and global levels. Countries must establish forest policy. The existing government incentives which promote deforestation must be changed. For example, concession policy and royalty systems must be corrected; explicit and implicit export subsidies on timber and forest products must be stopped. Private incentives must be established to promote planting of trees, practicing

  4. 78 FR 38287 - Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District, Como Forest Health Project AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department of Agriculture (USDA), Forest Service, Bitterroot National Forest, Darby Ranger District published a document in...

  5. Why 'a forest conscienceness'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Calver; H. Bigler-Cole; G. Bolton; J. Dargavel; A. Gaynor; P. Horwitz; J. Mills; G. Wardell-Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The phrase 'a forest conscienceness' was used in a major statement made by Charles Lane Poole, Western Australia's Conservator of Forests from 1916-1921, for the 1920 British Empire Forestry Conference. It is both relevant and contemporary at the beginning of the 21st century. We chose it as the conference theme to encourage engagement with both a...

  6. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  7. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  8. Forest nursery pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Michelle S. Frank; Katy M. Mallams

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Forest Nursery Pests, Agriculture Handbook No. 680, was made possible by the work of many people from around the country. Contributing authors include U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service and Agricultural Research Service entomologists and pathologists, university professors and researchers, State extension specialists, consultants, and plant...

  9. Trading forest carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of carbon in forests is discussed from the perspective of carbon trading. Carbon inventories, specifically in the area of land use and forestry are reviewed for the Pacific Northwest. Carbon turnover in forests is discussed as it relates to carbon sequestration. Scient...

  10. Kansas' forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Keith Moser; Gary J. Brand; Melissa Powers

    2007-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis (NRS-FIA) program is changing to a Web-based, dynamically linked reporting system. As part of the process, this year NRS-FIA is producing this abbreviated summary of 2005 data. This resource bulletin reports on area, volume, and biomass using data from 2001 through 2005. Estimates from...

  11. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  12. Status of Forest Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar Espinoza; Urs Buehlmann; Michael Dockry

    2013-01-01

    Forest certification systems are voluntary, market-based initiatives to promote the sustainable use of forests. These standards assume that consumers prefer products made from materials grown in an environmentally sustainable fashion, and this in turn creates incentives for companies to adopt responsible environmental practices. One of the major reasons for the...

  13. Forests and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Myers

    2013-01-01

    Key FindingsForest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial.Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest...

  14. Forest, trees and agroforestry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Syed Ajijur; Foli, Samson; Al Pavel, Muha Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Scientific community is concerned to address contemporary issues of food production and conserve tropical forests that support the livelihoods of millions of people. A review of the literature on deforestation, forest utilization, and landscape management for ecosystem services was conducted to i...

  15. Ghana's high forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oduro, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and forest degradation in the tropics have been receiving both scientific and political attention in recent decades due to its impacts on the environment and on human livelihoods. In Ghana, the continuous decline of forest resources and the high demand for timber have raised

  16. Wisconsin's forest resources, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, H. (Hobie) Perry; Gary J. Brand

    2006-01-01

    The annual forest inventory of Wisconsin continues, and this document reports 2001-05 moving averages for most variables and comparisons between 2000 and 2005 for growth, removals, and mortality. Summary resource tables can be generated through the Forest Inventory Mapmaker website at http://ncrs2.fs.fed.us/4801/fiadb/index. htm. Estimates from this inventory show a...

  17. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronika Leitold; Michael Keller; Douglas C Morton; Bruce D Cook; Yosio E Shimabukuro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas...

  18. Fertilization in northern forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedwall, Per Ola; Gong, Peichen; Ingerslev, Morten

    2014-01-01

    resources into food, health and industrial products and energy. Fertilization in Sweden and Finland is currently practiced by extensive fertilization regimens where nitrogen fertilizers are applied once, or up to three times, during a rotation period, mainly in mature forest. This type of fertilization...... gives, in most cases, a small and transient effect on the environment as well as a high rate of return to the forest owner with low-economic risk. The increase in biomass production, however, is relatively small and consequently the impact on the processing industry and the bioeconomy is limited. More...... in combination with present management systems and, almost instantly, enhances forest productivity. There may, however, be both economic and environmental constraints to large-scale applications of fertilizers in forest. Here we review the literature concerning biomass production of forests under different...

  19. Siting wind farms in and around forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, N. [Natural Power Consultants, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of assessing the impact of trees on wind resources. Turbulence is generated and also absorbed by trees. Disturbances generated at tree level are then transported upwards and down-wind by the wind. The turbulence induced by trees can be felt kilometers downwind of forests at wind turbine hub heights. Wind speeds can be less than predicted, and significant over-estimations can occur with modelled results. The effects of high shear and high turbulence can also have an impact on power curve performance and lead to higher levels of mechanical stress. A SCADA analysis was used to demonstrate the impact of forests on power curves. Wind power predictions near forests can be optimized by using a full year of data capture at hub height, full rotor measurements, and a consideration of seasonal variations. Accurate tree maps are needed to determine the effects of trees on wind shear. Various forestry scenarios were modelled to demonstrate the effects of forestry management over time. tabs., figs.

  20. Human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rantavaara, A.

    2009-01-01

    Forest soil, understorey vegetation and trees are all sources of radionuclides and human radiation doses after contaminating atmospheric deposition. People are exposed to radiation externally from sources outside the body and internally via ingestion and inhalation of radionuclides. Understorey vegetation contributes to ingestion doses through berries, herbs, wild honey, mushrooms and game meat; also trees provide feed to terrestrial birds and big game. During stay in forests people are subject to external radiation from forest floor and overstorey, and they may inhale airborne radioactive aerosol or gaseous radionuclides in ground level air. In the early phase of contamination also resuspended radionuclides may add to the internal dose of people via inhalation. People in Nordic countries are most exposed to radiation via ingestion of radionuclides in wild foods. The distribution of radionuclides in forests is changed by environmental processes, and thereby also the significance of various dose pathways to humans will change with time. External exposure is received in living environment from contaminated stemwood used as building timber and for manufacturing of furniture and other wood products. The aim of this paper is to outline the significance of various human dose pathways of radionuclides in forests considering the public and workers in forestry and production of bioenergy. Examples on effective doses are given based on two historical events, atmospheric nuclear weapon tests (mostly in 1950's and in 1960's) and the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. (au)

  1. Forest inventory: role in accountability for sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd C. Irland

    2007-01-01

    Forest inventory can play several roles in accountability for sustainable forest management. A first dimension is accountability for national performance. The new field of Criteria and Indicators is an expression of this need. A more familiar role for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program is for assessment and...

  2. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for

  3. Just forest governance: how small learning groups can have big impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayers, James; Bhattacharya, Prodyut; Diaw, Chimere [and others

    2009-10-15

    Forests are power bases, but often for the wrong people. As attention turns from making an international deal on REDD to making it work on the ground, the hunt will be on for practical ways of shifting power over forests towards those who enable and pursue sustainable forest-linked livelihoods. The Forest Governance Learning Group – an alliance active in Cameroon, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Uganda and Vietnam – has developed practical tactics for securing safe space, provoking dialogue, building constituencies, wielding evidence and interacting politically. It has begun to have significant impacts. To deepen and widen those impacts, FGLG seeks allies.

  4. Central America's shrinking forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.

  5. Forest pathology in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Native Hawaiian forests are characterised by a high degree of endemism, including pathogens as well as their hosts. With the exceptions of koa (Acacia koa Gray), possibly maile (Alyxia oliviformis Gaud.), and, in the past, sandalwood (Santalum spp.), forest species are of little commercial value. On the other hand, these forests are immensely important from a cultural, ecological, and evolutionary standpoint. Forest disease research was lacking during the mid-twentieth century, but increased markedly with the recognition of ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha Gaud.) decline in the 1970s. Because many pathogens are themselves endemic, or are assumed to be, having evolved with their hosts, research emphasis in natural areas is on understanding host-parasite interactions and evolutionary influences, rather than disease control. Aside from management of native forests, attempts at establishing a commercial forest industry have included importation of several species of pine, Araucaria, and Eucalyptus as timber crops, and of numerous ornamentals. Diseases of these species have been introduced with their hosts. The attacking of native species by introduced pathogens is problematic - for example, Armillaria mellea (Vahl ex Fr.) Que??l. on koa and mamane (Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.). Much work remains to be done in both native and commercial aspects of Hawaiian forest pathology.

  6. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  7. Pervasive Defaunation of Forest Remnants in a Tropical Biodiversity Hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Gustavo R.; Peres, Carlos A.; Guidorizzi, Carlos E.; Gatto, Cassiano A. Ferreira; Kierulff, Maria Cecília M.

    2012-01-01

    Tropical deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the most important biodiversity conservation issues worldwide, yet local extinctions of millions of animal and plant populations stranded in unprotected forest remnants remain poorly explained. Here, we report unprecedented rates of local extinctions of medium to large-bodied mammals in one of the world's most important tropical biodiversity hotspots. We scrutinized 8,846 person-years of local knowledge to derive patch occupancy data for 18 mammal species within 196 forest patches across a 252,669-km2 study region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We uncovered a staggering rate of local extinctions in the mammal fauna, with only 767 from a possible 3,528 populations still persisting. On average, forest patches retained 3.9 out of 18 potential species occupancies, and geographic ranges had contracted to 0–14.4% of their former distributions, including five large-bodied species that had been extirpated at a regional scale. Forest fragments were highly accessible to hunters and exposed to edge effects and fires, thereby severely diminishing the predictive power of species-area relationships, with the power model explaining only ∼9% of the variation in species richness per patch. Hence, conventional species-area curves provided over-optimistic estimates of species persistence in that most forest fragments had lost species at a much faster rate than predicted by habitat loss alone. PMID:22905103

  8. Pervasive defaunation of forest remnants in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo R Canale

    Full Text Available Tropical deforestation and forest fragmentation are among the most important biodiversity conservation issues worldwide, yet local extinctions of millions of animal and plant populations stranded in unprotected forest remnants remain poorly explained. Here, we report unprecedented rates of local extinctions of medium to large-bodied mammals in one of the world's most important tropical biodiversity hotspots. We scrutinized 8,846 person-years of local knowledge to derive patch occupancy data for 18 mammal species within 196 forest patches across a 252,669-km(2 study region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We uncovered a staggering rate of local extinctions in the mammal fauna, with only 767 from a possible 3,528 populations still persisting. On average, forest patches retained 3.9 out of 18 potential species occupancies, and geographic ranges had contracted to 0-14.4% of their former distributions, including five large-bodied species that had been extirpated at a regional scale. Forest fragments were highly accessible to hunters and exposed to edge effects and fires, thereby severely diminishing the predictive power of species-area relationships, with the power model explaining only ~9% of the variation in species richness per patch. Hence, conventional species-area curves provided over-optimistic estimates of species persistence in that most forest fragments had lost species at a much faster rate than predicted by habitat loss alone.

  9. Phylobetadiversity among forest types in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Leandro Da Silva; Bergamin, Rodrigo Scarton; Marcilio-Silva, Vinícius; Seger, Guilherme Dubal Dos Santos; Marques, Márcia Cristina Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Phylobetadiversity is defined as the phylogenetic resemblance between communities or biomes. Analyzing phylobetadiversity patterns among different vegetation physiognomies within a single biome is crucial to understand the historical affinities between them. Based on the widely accepted idea that different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest constitute different facies of a single biome, we hypothesize that more recent phylogenetic nodes should drive phylobetadiversity gradients between the different forest types within the Atlantic Forest, as the phylogenetic divergence among those forest types is biogeographically recent. We compiled information from 206 checklists describing the occurrence of shrub/tree species across three different forest physiognomies within the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Dense, Mixed and Seasonal forests). We analyzed intra-site phylogenetic structure (phylogenetic diversity, net relatedness index and nearest taxon index) and phylobetadiversity between plots located at different forest types, using five different methods differing in sensitivity to either basal or terminal nodes (phylogenetic fuzzy weighting, COMDIST, COMDISTNT, UniFrac and Rao's H). Mixed forests showed higher phylogenetic diversity and overdispersion than the other forest types. Furthermore, all forest types differed from each other in relation phylobetadiversity patterns, particularly when phylobetadiversity methods more sensitive to terminal nodes were employed. Mixed forests tended to show higher phylogenetic differentiation to Dense and Seasonal forests than these latter from each other. The higher phylogenetic diversity and phylobetadiversity levels found in Mixed forests when compared to the others likely result from the biogeographical origin of several taxa occurring in these forests. On one hand, Mixed forests shelter several temperate taxa, like the conifers Araucaria and Podocarpus. On the other hand, tropical groups, like

  10. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  11. The Challenge of Forest Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecologists and practitioners have conventionally used forest plots or transects for monitoring changes in attributes of forest condition over time. However, given the difficulty in collecting such data, conservation practitioners frequently rely on the judgment of foresters and forest users for evaluating changes. These methods are rarely compared. We use a dataset of 53 forests in five countries to compare assessments of forest change from forest plots, and forester and user evaluations of changes in forest density. We find that user assessments of changes in tree density are strongly and significantly related to assessments of change derived from statistical analyses of randomly distributed forest plots. User assessments of change in density at the shrub/sapling level also relate to assessments derived from statistical evaluations of vegetation plots, but this relationship is not as strong and only weakly significant. Evaluations of change by professional foresters are much more difficult to acquire, and less reliable, as foresters are often not familiar with changes in specific local areas. Forester evaluations can instead better provide valid single-time comparisons of a forest with other areas in a similar ecological zone. Thus, in forests where local forest users are present, their evaluations can be used to provide reliable assessments of changes in tree density in the areas they access. However, assessments of spatially heterogeneous patterns of human disturbance and regeneration at the shrub/sapling level are likely to require supplemental vegetation analysis.

  12. Forests of North Dakota, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Paulson

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program within the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  13. Forests of North Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  14. 78 FR 23903 - Forest Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Dixie Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service... and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding... review proposals for forest projects and recommending funding. DATES: The meeting will be held Thursday...

  15. International Trade In Forest Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Joseph Buongiomo; David N. Wear; Jacek P. Siry

    2003-01-01

    The 21st century continues a trend of rapid growth in both international trade of forest products and a concern for forests. These two trends are connected. Forces causing trade growth are linked to the loss of native forest resources in some countries and the accumulation of nonnative forest resources in other countries. Factors increasing trade...

  16. Forests of East Texas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas derived from an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. These estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are...

  17. Forests of east Texas, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry Dooley

    2018-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in east Texas based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station (SRS) in cooperation with Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—Southeast (unit 1),...

  18. Climate change and forest diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.N. Sturrock; Susan Frankel; A. V. Brown; Paul Hennon; J. T. Kliejunas; K. J. Lewis; J. J. Worrall; A. J. Woods

    2011-01-01

    As climate changes, the effects of forest diseases on forest ecosystems will change. We review knowledge of relationships between climate variables and several forest diseases, as well as current evidence of how climate, host and pathogen interactions are responding or might respond to climate change. Many forests can be managed to both adapt to climate change and...

  19. Forests of North Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Haugen

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  20. Forests of North Carolina, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2015-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  1. Forests of North Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; S.A. Pugh

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the North Dakota Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  2. Forests of North Carolina, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Brown; Samuel Lambert

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in North Carolina based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the North Carolina Forest Service. Data estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design...

  3. Trading forest carbon - OSU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issues associate with trading carbon sequestered in forests are discussed. Scientific uncertainties associated with carbon measurement are discussed with respect to proposed accounting procedures. Major issues include: (1) Establishing baselines. (2) Determining additivity from f...

  4. Forest decline through radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, G.; Kollert, R.

    1985-01-01

    Is more serious damage of forest observed in the vicinity of nuclear reactors. How are those decline patterns to be explained. Does the combined effect of radioactivity and different air pollutants (such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, oxidants etc.) have an influence in the decline of the forest. In what way do synergisms, i.e. mutually enhanced effects, participate. How does natural and artificial radioactivity affect the chemistry of air in the polluted atmosphere. What does this mean for the extension of nuclear energy, especially for the reprocessing plant planned. Damage in the forests near nuclear and industrial plants was mapped and the resulting hypotheses on possible emittors were statistically verified. Quantitative calculations as to the connection between nuclear energy and forest decline were carried through: they demand action. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Human-Forest Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Eva; Dauksta, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between forests and people goes back to the early development of civilisation. However, parallel with technical innovations and an increasing urbanisation of the society, an alienation from nature has taken place...

  6. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  7. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  8. Forest industries energy reserch: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G C

    1976-01-01

    The forest industries, which contribute 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consume 25% of all industrial energy (including self-generated sources such as waste liquors and wood wastes), were closely investigated to determine the extent to which imported energy sources can be substituted by local sources and savings made in the specific energy consumption of the industry's products. Issues considered as fundamental to the study were conservation of the nation's fossil fuels; nuclear power should be considered only after full study of its implications; restraints on the growth of energy demands; a greater emphasis on renewable energy resources; and new energy-intensive industries must account for the environmental and social costs of providing the energy. The study was commenced in February 1975 and involved a series of visits to all the major plants and a few representative smaller plants. Energy balances for all the major plants were prepared and are published in the text of the report. The forest-based industries have developed from a large number of small scattered sawmills, drawing from indigenous resources into a few large industrial units which are capital-intensive and produce a wide variety of products serving the home and export markets. They fall into four categories, roughly as follows: large integrated units; intermediate-size integrated mills; sawmills and chip plants; and manufacturing.

  9. Disturbing forest disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volney, W.J.A.; Hirsch, K.G. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    This paper described the role that disturbances play in maintaining the ecological integrity of Canadian boreal forests. Potential adaptation options to address the challenges that these disturbances present were also examined. Many forest ecosystems need fire for regeneration, while other forests rely on a cool, wet disintegration process driven by insects and commensal fungi feeding on trees to effect renewal. While there are characteristic natural, temporal and spatial patterns to these disturbances, recent work has demonstrated that the disturbances are being perturbed by climatic change that has been compounded by anthropogenic disturbances in forests. Fire influences species composition and age structure, regulates forest insects and diseases, affects nutrient cycling and energy fluxes, and maintains the productivity of different habitats. Longer fire seasons as a result of climatic change will lead to higher intensity fires that may more easily evade initial attacks and become problematic. Fire regimes elevated beyond the range of natural variation will have a dramatic effect on the regional distribution and functioning of forest ecosystems and pose a threat to the safety and prosperity of people. While it was acknowledged that if insect outbreaks were to be controlled on the entire forest estate, the productivity represented by dead wood would be lost, it was suggested that insects such as the forest tent caterpillar and the spruce bud worm may also pose a greater threat as the climate gets warmer and drier. Together with fungal associates, saproxylic arthropods are active in nutrient cycling and ultimately determine the fertility of forest sites. It was suggested that the production of an age class structure and forest mosaic would render the forest landscape less vulnerable to the more negative aspects of climate change on vegetation response. It was concluded that novel management design paradigms are needed to successfully reduce the risk from threats

  10. New focus on forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Unger; Divya Abhat.; Constance Millar; Greg [featured scientists] McPherson

    2010-01-01

    It would appear that forests are finally having their day—and not a moment too soon. Around the world, trees are dying at an alarming rate, besieged by illegal logging, agricultural conversion, wildfire, and drought. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 13 million  hectares of the world’s forests are now lost to deforestation every year....

  11. Forest Microclimate Characteristics Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    1123–32. This study area was located in the coastal mountain range of the Serra do Palmital, Saquarema, in the State of Rio de Janeiro , Brazil...the Atlantic forest in Rio de Janeiro . The objective of the study was to reveal whether forest fragmentation produces biotic and abiotic differences...Roanoke River Basin, North Carolina North Carolina percentage cover of individual species, percentage cover of exotic species, species richness

  12. Forests and carbon storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan

    2008-01-01

    Forests store much carbon and their growth can be a carbon sink if disturbance or harvesting has killed or removed trees or if trees that can now regrow are planted where they did not historically occur. Forests and long-lived wood products currently offset 310 million metric tons of U.S. fossil fuel emissions of carbon--20 percent of the total (Pacala et al. 2007)....

  13. Maryland's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Lister; J.L Perdue; C.J. Barnett; B.J. Butler; S.J. Crocker; G.M. Domke; D. Griffith; M.A. Hatfield; C.M. Kurtz; A.J. Lister; R.S. Morin; W.K. Moser; M.D. Nelson; C.H. Perry; R.J. Piva; R. Riemann; R. Widmann; C.W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of Maryland's forests reports approximately 2.5 million acres of forest land, which covers 40 percent of the State's land area and with a total volume of more than 2,100 cubic feet per acre. Nineteen percent of the growing-stock volume is yellow-poplar, followed by red maple (13 percent) and loblolly pine (10 percent). All...

  14. Iowa's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Nelson; Matt Brewer; Christopher W. Woodall; Charles H. Perry; Grant M. Domke; Ronald J. Piva; Cassandra M. Kurtz; W. Keith Moser; Tonya W. Lister; Brett J. Butler; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Patrick D. Miles; Charles J. Barnett; Dale Gormanson

    2011-01-01

    The second full annual inventory of Iowa's forests (2004-2008) reports more than 3 million acres of forest land, almost all of which is timberland (98 percent), with an average volume of more than 1,000 cubic feet of growing stock per acre. American elm and eastern hophornbeam are the most numerous tree species, but silver maple and bur oak predominate in terms of...

  15. Delaware's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonya W. Lister; Glenn Gladders; Charles J. Barnett; Gary J. Brand; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Grant M. Domke; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Andrew J. Lister; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The fifth full inventory of Delaware's forests reports an 8 percent decrease in the area of forest land to 352,000 acres, which cover 28 percent of the State's land area and has a volume of approximately 2,352 cubic feet per acre. Twenty-one percent of the growing-stock volume is red maple, followed by sweetgum (13 percent), and loblolly pine (12 percent)....

  16. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  17. Newtonian boreal forest ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Hollmén, Jaakko; Jõgiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kähkönen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko

    2017-01-01

    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by...

  18. Forests and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curren, T.

    1991-04-01

    The importance of forests to Canada, both in economic and environmental terms, is indisputable. A warmer global climate may well have profound effects on the Canadian boreal forest, and at least some of the effects will not be beneficial. With the state of the current knowledge of climate processes and climate change it is not possible to predict the extent or rate of projected changes of anthropogenic origin. Given these uncertainties, the appropriate course of action for the Canadian forest sector is to develop policies and strategies which will make good sense under the current climatic regime, and which will also be appropriate for actions in a warmer climate scenario. The business as usual approach is not acceptable in the context of pollution control as it has become clear that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants must be substantially reduced, both to prevent (or at least slow the rate of) possible global warming, and to reduce impacts on the biophysical environment and human health. Effective mitigative actions must be introduced on both a national and global scale. Forest management policies more effectively geared to the sustainability of forests are needed. The programs that are developed out of such policies must be cognizant of the real possibility that climate in the present boreal forest regions may change in the near future. 13 refs

  19. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  20. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  1. Rehabilitation of radioactive contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilov, A.V.; Uspenskaya, E.Ju.

    2002-01-01

    As a result of radiation accidents and nuclear-weapon tests at the territory of the former USSR a part of the Forest Fund of 23 subjects of the Russian Federation has been contaminated by radionuclides. The contaminated forests, which are included in a structure of more than 130 forest management units (leskhozes) and more then 330 local forest management units, as a rule, are located in highly inhabited regions with traditionally intensive forestry management and high level of forest resources use. To provide radiologically safe forest management in the contaminated areas, the Federal Forest Service has developed and validated a special system of countermeasures. Use of this system makes it possible to diminish significantly the dose to personnel, to exclude the use of forest products with contamination exceeding radiological standards and to provide protection of the forest as a biogeochemical barrier to radionuclide migration from contaminated areas to human habitat. (author)

  2. Where do forests influence rainfall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; van der Ent, Ruud; Fetzer, Ingo; Keys, Patrick; Savenije, Hubert; Gordon, Line

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a major role in hydrology. Not only by immediate control of soil moisture and streamflow, but also by regulating climate through evaporation (i.e., transpiration, interception, and soil evaporation). The process of evaporation travelling through the atmosphere and returning as precipitation on land is known as moisture recycling. Whether evaporation is recycled depends on wind direction and geography. Moisture recycling and forest change studies have primarily focused on either one region (e.g. the Amazon), or one biome type (e.g. tropical humid forests). We will advance this via a systematic global inter-comparison of forest change impacts on precipitation depending on both biome type and geographic location. The rainfall effects are studied for three contemporary forest changes: afforestation, deforestation, and replacement of mature forest by forest plantations. Furthermore, as there are indications in the literature that moisture recycling in some places intensifies during dry years, we will also compare the rainfall impacts of forest change between wet and dry years. We model forest change effects on evaporation using the global hydrological model STEAM and trace precipitation changes using the atmospheric moisture tracking scheme WAM-2layers. This research elucidates the role of geographical location of forest change driven modifications on rainfall as a function of the type of forest change and climatic conditions. These knowledge gains are important at a time of both rapid forest and climate change. Our conclusions nuance our understanding of how forests regulate climate and pinpoint hotspot regions for forest-rainfall coupling.

  3. Design of forest rent accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The urgent task for the effective functioning of the national economy is the need to reflect income from the use of forest resources in accounting, which will allow management personnel to prove the effectiveness of environmental protection measures, to assess the amount of expenses taken during restoration and protection of forest resources. The study aims at identifying characteristics of forest rent to determine the amount and its reflection in the accounting for its management. The author understands a forest rent as the income received from the owner of forest resources. The above procedure for determining the amount of forest rent can be used to display it in the accounting. A forest rent is a type of business income, so for its reflection in the accounting it is proposed to open the analytical accounts to account 79 named «Financial results». To determine the amount of forest rent and its reflection in the accounting the author suggests the calculation form of a forest rent. In order to manage the size of a forest rent and expenses incurred to obtain it the author proposes to use the information from the developed report about the forest rent formation. The displaying forest rents in accounting will provide accurate and deep information to the management about the revenue and assets of a company. The rational use of forest resources and accounting reflection of a forest rent will strengthen control over the influence of human activity on natural resources and keep the conception of sustainable development.

  4. Simulation of Forest Cover Dynamics for Eastern Eurasian Boreal Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugart, H. H.; Yan, X.; Zhang, N.; Isaev, A. S.; Shuman, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing and testing a boreal zone forest dynamics model capable of simulating the forest cover dynamics of the Eurasian boreal forest, a major biospheric ecosystem with potentially large roles in the planetary carbon cycle and in the feedback between terrestrial surface and the atmosphere. In appreciating the role of this region in the coupling between atmosphere and terrestrial surface, on must understand the interactions between CO2 source/sink relationships (associated with growing or clearing forests) and the albedo effects (from changes in terrestrial surface cover). There is some evidence that in the Eurasian Boreal zone, the Carbon budget effects from forest change may oppose the albedo changes. This creates complex feedbacks between surface and atmosphere and motivates the need for a forest dynamics model that simultaneous represents forest vegetation and carbon storage and release. A forest dynamics model applied to Eastern Eurasia, FAREAST, has been tested using three types of information: 1. Direct species composition comparisons between simulated and observed mature forests at the same locations; 2. Forest type comparisons between simulated and observed forests along altitudinal gradients of several different mountains; 3. Comparison with forest stands in different succession stages of simulated forests. Model comparisons with independent data indicate the FAREAST model is capable of representing many of the broad features of the forests of Northeastern China. After model validation in the Northeast China region, model applications were developed for the forests of the Russian Far East. Continental-scale forest cover can be simulated to a relatively realistic degree using a forest gap model with standard representations of individual-plant processes. It appears that such a model, validated relatively locally in this case, in Northeastern China, can then be applied over a much larger region and under conditions of climatic change.

  5. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Wang, Xiaohua; Fu, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5 Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19 and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21.

  6. Forest Classification Based on Forest texture in Northwest Yunnan Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinliang; Gao, Yan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-01-01

    Forest texture is an intrinsic characteristic and an important visual feature of a forest ecological system. Full utilization of forest texture will be a great help in increasing the accuracy of forest classification based on remote sensed data. Taking Shangri-La as a study area, forest classification has been based on the texture. The results show that: (1) From the texture abundance, texture boundary, entropy as well as visual interpretation, the combination of Grayscale-gradient co-occurrence matrix and wavelet transformation is much better than either one of both ways of forest texture information extraction; (2) During the forest texture information extraction, the size of the texture-suitable window determined by the semi-variogram method depends on the forest type (evergreen broadleaf forest is 3×3, deciduous broadleaf forest is 5×5, etc.). (3)While classifying forest based on forest texture information, the texture factor assembly differs among forests: Variance Heterogeneity and Correlation should be selected when the window is between 3×3 and 5×5; Mean, Correlation, and Entropy should be used when the window in the range of 7×7 to 19×19; and Correlation, Second Moment, and Variance should be used when the range is larger than 21×21

  7. Nordic Forest Energy Solutions in the Republic of Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Gerasimov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The situation in Karelia, a region in Northwest Russia, is analyzed in the context of forest energy. The annual potential energy available from wood harvesting is about 7 tera watt hours (TWh (3.6 million m3, which is equal to the total need of Karelia in energy for municipal heating. We point out that the contribution to the municipal economy, the moderate heating cost, the enhanced energy security in the cold Russian climate, the environmental friendliness, the better access to the forests and the utilization of the proven Nordic forest energy solutions (NFES might have important consequences for strategy-making processes in forest energy development. For this purpose, connecting Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP with SWOT (internal strengths (S or weaknesses (W and external opportunities (O or threats (T analysis is proposed to identify local operational strategies and assign priorities. Major threats include lack of government support, an insufficient road network, the dominance of extensive forest management, gasification and financial indiscipline. Analysis indicates that NFES are viewed positively for the Russian conditions. The forest biomass market has virtually unlimited opportunities for growth. Together, with the transition to intensive forest management, favorable policy in terms of forestry development programs can support bioenergy development. The advantageous location of existing power plants next to forests, increasing fossil fuel prices, the improvement of the road network and the availability of new technology are seen as potential opportunities for NFES. However, the results also indicate that there is substantial uncertainty and skepticism concerning how such markets benefit forest leaseholders who would like to adopt forest energy. The lack of bioenergy technology development, high transportation cost, low awareness of NFES, high demands for roads, the requirement for skilled specialists and wood fuel quality are the main

  8. Radionuclides in forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Bossew, P.; Kienzl, K.; Hiesel, E.

    2000-01-01

    Some regions within Austria were highly contaminated (> 50 kBq m -2 ) with radiocaesium by the deposition event following the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986. Monitoring carried out by several Austrian institutions showed that in contrast to agricultural products radiocaesium levels in wild berries, mushrooms and game meat from forest ecosystems remained considerably higher over the years. To find reasons for this contrasting radioecological behavior and for the derivation of model input parameters, an extended study about the distribution of 137 Cs within three Austrian forest stands was carried out between 1987 and 1997. Results of this and subsequent studies are summarized and include the following ecosystem compartments: forest soils, litter, trees, bilberry, mushrooms, mosses, ferns, lichen, other vegetation, insects, small mammals, game animals and surface water. Besides the investigation of radioecological behavior an estimation of pool sizes and transfer rates as well as radioecological residence half times for 137 Cs in different forest species was used to compile a radiocaesium balance for the years 1988 and 1996. Soil proved to be an effective sink for radiocaesium contamination, but in long-term perspective it can act as a source for the contamination of vegetation and higher levels of the food-chain as well. Due to the high standing biomass trees represent the largest 'living' radiocaesium pool within the investigated forest stand. Dose estimations based on average consume habits gave no significant increase (less than 0.4 %) of the annual average population radiation dose due to the ingestion of forest products from the investigated forest stands. (author)

  9. Forest fuel and sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, A.

    1994-10-01

    This report illustrates the sulphur cycle in forest fuel and in the forest ecosystem. The hypothesis is that sulphur dioxide from combustion of forest fuel is not more acidifying than sulphur that is mineralized from tree biomass if it is left in the forest instead of being burnt. The report gives an overview of the sulphur cycle in general together with the acidifying effect of sulphur. The sulphur content in wood biomass is about 1 mg/g in the needles and 0.2-0.3 mg/g in wood. Chipped forest fuel contains 0.2-0.5 mg S/g. A removal of 40 tonnes of felling residues per hectare may contain about 8-30 kg S. The sulphur occurs both in organic, often reduced, form and as sulphate. In situations of high availability to sulphur there will be an increased proportion of sulphate. After combustion some, perhaps half, of the sulphur is left in the ashes, most of which appears to be sulphate. In mineralisation of reduced organic sulphur, of type R-SH, the sulphur is released in the form of sulphide. Hydrogen sulphide, H2S, can be oxidised by microbes to sulphate, which should be acidifying (2 H+ will remain). A very rough estimate suggests that emissions of sulphur dioxide from forest fuel, spread over the period the trees are growing, and on the area from which the trees are taken, corresponds to 0.5% of the sulphur deposition in southern Sweden. Sulphur emissions from biofuel combustion are much lower than Sweden's and the EU's most stringent emission limits for coal. Whole-tree removal with return of ashes will theoretically give a considerable reduction in soil acidity since large quantities of nitrogen are removed and thus the acidifying effect of nitrogen will not occur. This should be of greater importance for forest acidification than the effect of biomass sulphur. 80 refs, numerous tabs

  10. Dynamics of radionuclides in forest environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belli, M.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Kliashtorin, A.; Shcheglov, A.; Rafferty, B.; Shaw, G.; Wirth, E.; Kammerer, L.; Ruehm, W.; Steiner, M.; Delvaux, B.; Maes, E.; Kruyts, N.; Bunzl, K.; Dvornik, A.M.; Kuchma, N.

    1996-01-01

    In the CIS countries, during the Chernobyl accident, more than 30000 km 2 of forested areas received a 137 Cs deposition higher than 37 kBq m -2 and about 1000 km 2 a deposition of radiocesium higher than 1.5 MBq m -2 . Before the accident only few data were available on the behaviour of radionuclides in forests and during last eight years, the understanding of the fate of radionuclides in these ecosystems has been improved significantly. This paper reports the results achieved in the frame of 1991-1996 EU/CIS collaborative project on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ECP-5 project deals with the impact of radioactive contamination on natural and semi-natural environment. The investigations were carried out in different forest ecosystems, located in the near field (within the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant) as well as in the far field in the CIS and in the western Europe countries. The results achieved have been used to develop a simplified model representation of the behaviour of radiocesium within forest ecosystems

  11. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest management: The World Wide Fund (WWF) case study. ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current ...

  12. Municipal forest benefits and costs in five U.S. cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; S.E. Maco; Q. Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Increasingly, city trees are viewed as a best management practice to control stormwater, an urban-heat–island mitigation measure for cleaner air, a CO2-reduction option to offset emissions, and an alternative to costly new electric power plants. Measuring benefits that accrue from the community forest is the first step to altering forest...

  13. Patterns of covariance between forest stand and canopy structure in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew T. Hudak; Warren B. Cohen; S.A. Acker

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, LIDAR (light detection and ranging) has emerged as a powerful tool for remotely sensing forest canopy and stand structure, including the estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon storage. Numerous papers have documented the use of LIDAR measurements to predict important aspects of forest stand structure, including aboveground biomass. Other...

  14. 76 FR 55001 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement; Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... authorities of the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2004. After the initial request for public comment..., power transmission lines, and communication equipment) is interspersed throughout the WUI. Oregon State... objectives were identified based on the intent of the 2004 Healthy Forest Restoration Act, the Umatilla...

  15. The Effects of Cyclone Hudah on the Forest of Masoala Peninsula ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cyclones regularly impact the east coast of Madagascar but almost nothing is known about their effects on Malagasy ecosystems. On 2 April 2000 the powerful winds of Cyclone Hudah struck the humid forests in the northern part of Masoala Peninsula. An analysis of satellite images revealed that 3 % of the forest here was ...

  16. The use of forests to mitigate global warming - designing programs that work for utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, N.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of forests as carbon sinks by utilities to offset carbon dioxide production by fossil-fueled power plants. The topics of the paper include greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect, why trees are carbon sinks, planning a carbon sequestering program based on trees and forests, and descriptions of specific types of programs

  17. A New Supersensitive Flame Detector and its Use for Early Forest Fire Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Peskov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    A new flame detector, three orders of magnitude more powerful than the existing ones, is presented. This detector needs to be mass-produced for its use in order to be incorporated in an early forest fire detection system. A project able to implement its use to overcome the forest fire emergency is described.

  18. A literal use of "forest health" safeguards against misuse and misapplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Raffa; Brian Aukema; Barbara J. Bentz; Allan Carroll; Nadir Erbilgin; Daniel A. Herms; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Richard W. Hofstetter; Steven Katovich; B. Staffan Lindgren; Jesse Logan; William Mattson; A. Steven Munson; Daniel J. Robison; Diana L. Six; Patrick C. Tobin; Philip A. Townsend; Kimberly F. Wallin

    2009-01-01

    "Forest Health" has become one of the most widely used terms in ecosystem management. Its popularity derives from powerful personal imagery, connecting the fragility of health with ecosystems. It addresses a need for an efficient term to describe the vitality of the world's forests, a usage we support. However, broad adoption has brought multiple usages...

  19. Behaviour of radiocesium in forest ecosystem contaminated during a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiry, Y.; Ronneau, C.; Myttenaere, C.

    1992-01-01

    Vegetation and soils sampling were realized in 2 forest zones near the accidented power plant of Chernobyl. The 137 Cs distribution in a red pine stand is established; many specific measures of wood complete the study. Results discussion point out the difficulties to manage the contaminated forest area without a good knowledge of the radioelement biochemical cycle. (author)

  20. Potential of the Russian forests and forest industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anttonen, T.; Petrov, A.P. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The publication contains the proceedings of the seminar `Potential of the Russian Forests and Forest Industries` held in Moscow, May 14-16, 1997. The seminar was one step along the road to spread knowledge and become acquainted with forestry and forest industries in northern Europe and Russia. The seminar proceedings contain a lot of fresh information concerning forestry and forest industries in Russia. Both have undergone many changes and reforms during the last few years

  1. The BigBoss Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  2. Sustainable forest management in Poland – theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruk Hanna

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The conception of sustainable development has been implemented into practice in numerous economic sectors, including forestry. Forest ecosystems are extremely important in the global ecological system, therefore maintenance and appropriate management of forest resources according to sustainable development principles have engaged a great deal of attention. The concept of sustainable forest management (SFM encompasses three dimensions: ecological, economic and social. A powerful tool to promote SFM are criteria and indicators. The aim of the article was evaluation of SFM in Poland, using one of the methods proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. According to data available, Polish forestry has a number of advantages: Poland has avoided the problem of deforestation, forest area has been permanently increasing, there has been observed improvement of forest health and vitality as well as a significant share of forests has carried out protective functions with no impact on timber production. Poland’s model of SFM is an adaptive process of balancing the ever-changing set of economic, environmental and social expectations. Such a complicated undertaking requires constant assessing and adjusting forest practices, in response to new circumstances, scientific advances and societal input

  3. Perceptions about Forest Schools: Encouraging and Promoting Archimedes Forest Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Blackwell, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out parents' and children's perception of outdoor learning programmes with specific reference to Archimedes Forest Schools, known as Forest Schools. A review of existing research showed that there had been no rigorous evaluation of perception of forest schools. The study was conducted in the UK and mixed method…

  4. Forest Stakeholder Participation in Improving Game Habitat in Swedish Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene E. Ezebilo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Although in Sweden the simultaneous use of forests for timber production and game hunting are both of socioeconomic importance it often leads to conflicting interests. This study examines forest stakeholder participation in improving game habitat to increase hunting opportunities as well as redistribute game activities in forests to help reduce browsing damage in valuable forest stands. The data for the study were collected from a nationwide survey that involved randomly selected hunters and forest owners in Sweden. An ordered logit model was used to account for possible factors influencing the respondents’ participation in improving game habitat. The results showed that on average, forest owning hunters were more involved in improving game habitat than non-hunting forest owners. The involvement of non-forest owning hunters was intermediate between the former two groups. The respondents’ participation in improving game habitat were mainly influenced by factors such as the quantity of game meat obtained, stakeholder group, forests on hunting grounds, the extent of risk posed by game browsing damage to the economy of forest owners, importance of bagging game during hunting, and number of hunting days. The findings will help in designing a more sustainable forest management strategy that integrates timber production and game hunting in forests.

  5. Non-timber forest products and forest stewardship plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becky Barlow; Tanner Filyaw; Sarah W. Workman

    2015-01-01

    To many woodland owners “harvesting” typically means the removal of timber from forests. In recent years many landowners have become aware of the role non-timber forest products (NTFPs) can play in supplemental management strategies to produce income while preserving other forest qualities. NTFPs are a diverse group of craft, culinary, and medicinal products that have...

  6. Rare Plants of the Redwood Forest and Forest Management Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teresa Sholars; Clare Golec

    2007-01-01

    Coast redwood forests are predominantly a timber managed habitat type, subjected to repeated disturbances and short rotation periods. What does this repeated disturbance mean for rare plants associated with the redwood forests? Rare plant persistence through forest management activities is influenced by many factors. Persistence of rare plants in a managed landscape is...

  7. Characterizing Virginia's private forest owners and their forest lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Sandra S. Hodge; Michael T. Thompson

    1998-01-01

    A recently completed forest inventory and two woodland owner surveys have given us insight about the owners of private forest lands in Virginia. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the number of nonindustrial private (NIPF) landowners in Virginia. More than half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some...

  8. Private forest owners of the Central Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch

    1997-01-01

    A recently completed survey of woodland owners provides insight into the owners of private forest lands in the Central Hardwood Region. There is increasing parcelization of forested lands and an increase in the numbers of nonindustrial private forest-land owners. Over half of the private owners have harvested timber from their holdings at some time in the past, they...

  9. Ecological modeling for forest management in the Shawnee National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard G. Thurau; J.F. Fralish; S. Hupe; B. Fitch; A.D. Carver

    2008-01-01

    Land managers of the Shawnee National Forest in southern Illinois are challenged to meet the needs of a diverse populace of stakeholders. By classifying National Forest holdings into management units, U.S. Forest Service personnel can spatially allocate resources and services to meet local management objectives. Ecological Classification Systems predict ecological site...

  10. Evaluating Forest Management in Nepal: Views across Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Nagendra

    2005-06-01

    with rather strict controls on export of forest products, which were put in place by park authorities, and which the users do not have the power to modify. Downward accountability is limited, and communities do not have a high degree of effective control over forest-management policies. Thus, local communities currently function under a situation of constraint, where they have been delegated responsibilities, but lack the devolution of property rights and decision-making power. This has significant and potentially negative implications for the future of the program.

  11. Forest carbon sink: A potential forest investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chaocheng; Zhang, Yi; Cheng, Dongxiang

    2017-01-01

    A major problem being confronted to our human society currently is that the global temperature is undoubtedly considered to be rising significantly year by year due to abundant human factors releasing carbon dioxide to around atmosphere. The problem of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide can be addressed in a number of ways. One of these is forestry and forest management. Hence, this paper investigates a number of current issues related to mitigating the global warming problem from the point of forestry view previous to discussion on ongoing real-world activities utilizing forestry specifically to sequester carbon.

  12. Mangrove forest decline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Abdul; Mertz, Ole; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests in the tropics and subtropics grow in saline sediments in coastal and estuarine environments. Preservation of mangrove forests is important for many reasons, including the prevention of coastal erosion and seawater intrusion; the provision of spawning, nursery, and feeding grounds...... of diverse marine biota; and for direct use (such as firewood, charcoal, and construction material)—all of which benefit the sustainability of local communities. However, for many mangrove areas of the world, unsustainable resource utilization and the profit orientation of communities have often led to rapid...... and severe mangrove loss with serious consequences. The mangrove forests of the Takalar District, South Sulawesi, are studied here as a case area that has suffered from degradation and declining spatial extent during recent decades. On the basis of a post-classification comparison of change detection from...

  13. The purpose of forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westoby, J.

    1987-01-01

    The writings and speeches in this book have been selected to illustrate Jack Westoby's contributions to international forestry over the last two decades and more, and to show something of the evolution of his thinking. The problems he addresses are ones central to international forest policy and to the proper social responsibilities of foresters. This paper covers the following topics: Part I is a selection of papers which Westoby wrote during the 1960s on forest industries and their part in propelling economic development. The papers of Part II explore the responsibilities and dilemmas of the forestry profession in deciding which, among conflicting interests, to serve. Part III develops and enlarges Westoby's ideas of what forestry should be about-which he earlier defined as making trees serve people

  14. Management of contaminated forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Tikhomirov, F.A.; Grebenkov, A.; Dubourg, M.; Belli, M.; Arkhipov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the main radioecological issues, the consequence of which are the distribution of doses for critical group of populations living in the vicinity of contaminated forest after the Chernobyl accident and the effects on the forestry economy. The main problems that have to be tackled are to avert doses for the population and forest workers, mitigate the economical burden of the lost forestry production and comply with the permissible levels of radionuclides in forest products. Various options are examined with respect to their application, and their cost effectiveness in terms of dose reduction when such attribute appears to be relevant. It is found that the cost effectiveness of the various options is extremely dependant of the case in which it is intended to be applied. Little actions are available for decreasing the doses, but most of them can lead to an economical benefit

  15. Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Mangrove Forests Distribution, 2000 data set is a compilation of the extent of mangroves forests from the Global Land Survey and the Landsat archive with...

  16. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  17. Proceedings 19th Central Hardwood Forest Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Groninger; Eric J. Holzmueller; Clayton K. Nielsen; Daniel C., eds. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Proceedings from the 2014 Central Hardwood Forest Conference in Carbondale, IL. The published proceedings include 27 papers and 47 abstracts pertaining to research conducted on biofuels and bioenergy, forest biometrics, forest ecology and physiology, forest economics, forest health including invasive species, forest soils and hydrology, geographic information systems,...

  18. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-05-27

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. Forest fires, drought and logging increase susceptibility to further burning while deforestation and smoke can inhibit rainfall, exacerbating fire risk. If sea surface temperature anomalies (such as El Niño episodes) and associated Amazon droughts of the last decade continue into the future, approximately 55% of the forests of the Amazon will be cleared, logged, damaged by drought or burned over the next 20 years, emitting 15-26Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. Several important trends could prevent a near-term dieback. As fire-sensitive investments accumulate in the landscape, property holders use less fire and invest more in fire control. Commodity markets are demanding higher environmental performance from farmers and cattle ranchers. Protected areas have been established in the pathway of expanding agricultural frontiers. Finally, emerging carbon market incentives for reductions in deforestation could support these trends.

  19. A comparison of producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon from two distributed scale thermochemical conversion systems used to process forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel Anderson; J. Greg Jones; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Daniel McCollum; Stephen Baker; Daniel Loeffler; Woodam Chung

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or...

  20. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  1. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-01

    This forest condition report of Hesse (Germany) includes the following topics: forest condition survey for all tree species, forest in the in the Rhine-Main area, weather and climate, insects and fungi, forestry environment monitoring, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Hesse, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and the substrate group basalt/diabase.

  2. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ostertag

    Full Text Available The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha. While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ∼80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species, six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1 and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C. Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological

  3. Estonian energy forest project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, A.; Kirt, E.; Kull, K.; Lasn, R.; Noormets, A.; Roostalu, H.; Ross, J.; Ross, V.; Sulev, M.

    1994-04-01

    In February 1993 an agreement of Swedish-Estonian scientific co-operation on energy forest was signed. In may five energy forest plantations (altogether 2 ha) were established in Estonia with Swedish selected clones of Salix viminalis and Salix dasyclados. The research within this project is carried out within three main directions. The studies of basic ecophysiological processes and radiation regime of willow canopy will be carried out in Toravere. The production ecology studies, comparison of the productivity of multiple clones on different soil types is based on the plantations as vegetation filter for wastewater purification is studied on the basis of plantations in Vaeike-Maarja and Valga (author)

  4. West Virginia's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. West Virginia's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.W. Cook

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. West Virginia's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  7. West Virginia's forest resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; G.M. McCaskill; W. McWilliams; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for this state based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 5 of this report...

  8. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  9. Forests of the Mountain State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Charles R. Dye; Gregory W. Cook

    2007-01-01

    A report on the forest inventory of West Virginia conducted in 1999-2001 by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northeastern Research Station. Discusses the current condition and changes from previous inventories for forest area, timber volume, tree species, mortality and growth and removals. Graphics depict data at the state level and by county where...

  10. Iowa's Forest Resources in 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph T. II Boykin

    2002-01-01

    The North Central Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program began fieldwork for the fourth forest inventory of Iowa in 1999. This inventory initiates a new annual inventory system. This Research Note contains preliminary estimates of Iowa's forest resources prepared from data gathered during the first year of the inventory.

  11. New Hampshire's Forest Resources, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Morin; M. Tansey

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for New Hampshire based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These annual estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory...

  12. Forests of South Dakota, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2016-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  13. South Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  14. North Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  15. Forests of South Dakota, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2015-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station (NRS) in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data...

  16. South Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  17. North Dakota's forest resources, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; R.A. Harsel

    2012-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  18. South Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  19. Forests of South Dakota, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters

    2014-01-01

    This resource update provides an overview of forest resources in South Dakota based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Agriculture, Resource Conservation and Forestry Division. Estimates are based on field data collected...

  20. South Dakota's forest resources, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian F. Walters; Ronald J. Piva

    2011-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  1. South Dakota's Forest Resources, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva; Andrew J. Lister; Douglas Haugan

    2009-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  2. North Dakota's forest resources, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2013-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with Web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  3. South Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald J. Piva

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for South Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis program of the U.S. Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information regarding past inventory reports for South...

  4. North Dakota's forest resources, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen; A.J. Lister

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  5. North Dakota's forest resources, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.E. Haugen

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for North Dakota based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information, please refer to page 4 of this...

  6. Forest operations for ecosystem management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert B. Rummer; John Baumgras; Joe McNeel

    1997-01-01

    The evolution of modern forest resource management is focusing on ecologically sensitive forest operations. This shift in management strategies is producing a new set of functional requirements for forest operations. Systems to implement ecosystem management prescriptions may need to be economically viable over a wider range of piece sizes, for example. Increasing...

  7. New technology in forest operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Rummer

    2009-01-01

    Many forest landowners are looking for forest operations that are low impact or that will work on smaller forest tracts. In general, these objectives lend themselves toward smaller or lowground pressure equipment and systems. Landowners cannot afford to bring a whole high-production mechanized crew onto a 10-acre parcel unless they plan to cut everything. Low impact or...

  8. Biological invasions in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Eckehard G. Brockerhoff; Susan Kalisz; Martin A. Nuñez; David A. Wardle; Michael J. Wingfield

    2017-01-01

    Forests play critical roles in global ecosystem processes and provide numerous services to society. But forests are increasingly affected by a variety of human influences, especially those resulting from biological invasions. Species invading forests include woody and herbaceous plants, many animal species including mammals and invertebrates, as well as a variety of...

  9. Genetic transformation of forest trees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    In this review, the recent progress on genetic transformation of forest trees were discussed. Its described also, different applications of genetic engineering for improving forest trees or understanding the mechanisms governing genes expression in woody plants. Key words: Genetic transformation, transgenic forest trees, ...

  10. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  11. Tropical Forest Gain and Interactions amongst Agents of Forest Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Sloan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The tropical deforestation literature advocates multi-agent enquiry in recognition that key dynamics arise from inter-agent interactions. Studies of tropical forest-cover gain have lagged in this respect. This article explores the roles and key aspects of interactions shaping natural forest regeneration and active reforestation in Eastern Panama since 1990. It employs household surveys of agricultural landholders, interviews with community forest-restoration organisations, archival analysis of plantation reforestation interests, satellite image analysis of forest-cover change, and the consideration of State reforestation policies. Forest-cover gain reflected a convergence of interests and land-use trends amongst agents. Low social and economic costs of sustained interaction and organisation enabled extensive forest-cover gain, but low transaction costs did not. Corporate plantation reforestation rose to the fore of regional forest-cover gain via opportunistic land sales by ranchers and economic subsidies indicative of a State preference for autonomous, self-organising forest-cover gain. This reforestation follows a recent history of neoliberal frontier development in which State-backed loggers and ranchers similarly displaced agriculturalists. Community institutions, long neglected by the State, struggled to coordinate landholders and so effected far less forest-cover gain. National and international commitments to tropical forest restoration risk being similarly characterised as ineffective by a predominance of industrial plantation reforestation without greater State support for community forest management.

  12. Landscape-scale forest disturbance regimes in southern Peruvian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Doreen S; Hill, Ross A; Hopkinson, Chris; Baker, Timothy R

    2013-10-01

    Landscape-scale gap-size frequency distributions in tropical forests are a poorly studied but key ecological variable. Currently, a scale gap currently exists between local-scale field-based studies and those employing regional-scale medium-resolution satellite data. Data at landscape scales but of fine resolution would, however, facilitate investigation into a range of ecological questions relating to gap dynamics. These include whether canopy disturbances captured in permanent sample plots (PSPs) are representative of those in their surrounding landscape, and whether disturbance regimes vary with forest type. Here, therefore, we employ airborne LiDAR data captured over 142.5 km2 of mature, swamp, and regenerating forests in southeast Peru to assess the landscape-scale disturbance at a sampling resolution of up to 2 m. We find that this landscape is characterized by large numbers of small gaps; large disturbance events are insignificant and infrequent. Of the total number of gaps that are 2 m2 or larger in area, just 0.45% were larger than 100 m2, with a power-law exponent (alpha) value of the gap-size frequency distribution of 2.22. However, differences in disturbance regimes are seen among different forest types, with a significant difference in the alpha value of the gap-size frequency distribution observed for the swamp/regenerating forests compared with the mature forests at higher elevations. Although a relatively small area of the total forest of this region was investigated here, this study presents an unprecedented assessment of this landscape with respect to its gap dynamics. This is particularly pertinent given the range of forest types present in the landscape and the differences observed. The coupling of detailed insights into forest properties and growth provided by PSPs with the broader statistics of disturbance events using remote sensing is recommended as a strong basis for scaling-up estimates of landscape and regional-scale carbon balance.

  13. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey The role of HI kinematics and HI column density on the escape of Ly alpha photons in star-forming galaxies at 2 < z < 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guaita, L.; Talia, M.; Pentericci, L.; Verhamme, A.; Cassata, P.; Lemaux, B. C.; Orlitová, Ivana; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Zamorani, G.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Marchi, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 606, September (2017), A19/1-A19/17 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06217Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : lyman break galaxies * cosmic reionization * emitting galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  14. Radiocesium in the forest and forest industry. Studies on the flow, occurrence and technological enhancement of radionuclides in the forest industry with emphasis on the behaviour of radiocesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravila, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the aftermath of the nuclear weapons testing and as compared with agriculture, the forest industry has received relatively little attention in spite of its large-scale use of radiocesium-contaminated wood and water. After the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986, numerous studies of the forest environment have been conducted with respect to radionuclide transfer through the forest ecosystem or its many components. Still, the impact from radioactive fallout on the forest industries that receive the bulk fraction of biomass removed from the forest has scarcely been investigated. Recycling process elements is a necessity in chemical pulping to be competitive. The chemical pulping process is primarily designed to extract, separate and recover the digesting agent carriers such as sodium and complementary carriers such as calcium needed for the production of fresh cooking liquors. Besides these chemical elements, unwanted elements in the process such as K and many other chemical elements are also retained as a consequence of their chemical similarity to sodium and calcium. Notably, two such elements are the long-lived fallout fission products radiocesium and radiostrontium which build-up to substantial activities in parts of the pulp mill recovery cycle and in ash and sludge deposits. Improvements of the pulp recovery processes and the striving towards completely closed systems are estimated to yield around 30 GBq 137 Cs per Bq kg -1 of 137 Cs in wood as an upper limit of the radiocesium activity inventory within an average Nordic pulp mill site. In the perspective of new emerging practices for industrial resource management of by-products, radionuclides will not only be transferred from the forest to the industries, but may be returned to the forest with by-products rich in valuable plant nutrients. The radionuclides in the forest soil and trees constitute a source of radiation and the consequences thereof can be evaluated in terms of the resulting absorbed

  15. Dynamics of secondary forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, van M.

    2007-01-01

    The succession of tropical secondary forests on abandoned agricultural fields has been studied since long, most often by comparing stands of different age since abandonment. These so-called chronosequence studies have yielded much insight in general patterns of succession and the constraints and

  16. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  17. Oklahoma forest industries, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor A. Rudis; J. Greg Jones

    1978-01-01

    Oklahoma supplied 73 million cu ft of roundwood to forest industries in 1978, an increase of 13 percent since 1972, and 35 percent since 1975 (fig. 1). Pine made up four-fifths of the total. Sawlogs and pulpwood were the major products, accounting for 81 percent of the roundwood produced. Veneer logs accounted for 8 percent and the remainder was mostly posts.

  18. Illinois forest statistics, 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerold T. Hahn

    1987-01-01

    The third inventory of the timber resource of Illinois shows a 1% increase in commercial forest area and a 40% gain in growing-stock volume between 1962 and 1985. Presented are highlights and statistics on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  19. Florida's forests-2005 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Brown

    2007-01-01

    This bulletin highlights principal findings of an annual inventory of Florida's forests. Data summaries are based on measurements of 60 percent of the plots in the State. Additional data summaries and bulletins will be published as the remaining plots are measured.

  20. Rain Forest Murals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    The rain forest murals in the author's school began as a request from her principal to have students decorate the cafeteria with their own paintings. She decided to brainstorm ideas with her eighth-grade students. Taking into consideration the architectural space and the environmental concerns they wanted to convey, students chose the rain forest…

  1. Michigan forest statistics, 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith

    1983-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resource of Michigan shows a 7% decline in commercial forest area and a 27% gain in growing-stock volume between 1966 and 1980. Highlights and statistics are presented on area, volume, growth, mortality, removals, utilization, and biomass.

  2. Timber and forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart

    2009-01-01

    Many years ago, I had an epiphany that I would like to share. Several students and I were installing research plots in the forests on Pittman Island, Issaquena County, Mississippi, an island adjacent to the Mississippi River, near the borders of Arkansas, Mississippi, and Louisiana. While eating lunch, we watched a bird, more specifically a prothonotary warbler (

  3. The forest Gribskov, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overballe-Petersen, Mette V; Raulund-Rasmussen, Karsten; Buttenschøn, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    valuable when working with forest management, conservation and restoration. Integrating the legacies of past disturbances-natural as well as anthropogenic-into conservation and management strategies is likely to favour natural values and ecosystem services. A case-study in Gribskov, Denmark, using...

  4. Plentiful forest, happy people?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin; Nathan, Iben

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on potential impact on social sustainability in timber exporting or processing states outside the EU, this article discusses the EU’s Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) scheme and its regulatory implementation modalities. Drawing on Vietnam as a case study and the priva...

  5. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  6. Forest-management modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Twery; Aaron R. Weiskittel

    2013-01-01

    Forests are complex and dynamic ecosystems comprising individual trees that can vary in both size and species. In comparison to other organisms, trees are relatively long lived (40-2000 years), quite plastic in terms of their morphology and ecological niche, and adapted to a wide variety of habitats, which can make predicting their behaviour exceedingly difficult....

  7. Harmonizing national forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Erkki O. Tomppo; Klemens Schadauer; Göran. Ståhl

    2012-01-01

    International agreements increasingly require that countries report estimates of national forest resources. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that countries submit annual reports of greenhouse gas emissions and removals by sources and sinks. The Convention on Biological Diversity requires that countries identify and monitor components...

  8. The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project: the effects of forest management on the forest ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Brookshire; Carl Hauser

    1993-01-01

    The effects of forest management on non-timber resources are of growing concern to forest managers and the public. While many previous studies have reported effects of stand-level treatments (less than 15 ha) on various stand-level attributes, few studies have attempted to document the influence of forest management on the biotic and abiotic characteristics of entire...

  9. Size of forest holdings and family forests: implications for forest management in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Williams; Thomas Straka; Richard Harper

    2012-01-01

    There are about 11.3 million private forest owners in the United States; of those, 10.4 million are family forest owners who control 62% of the nation's private timberland. South Carolina has about 262,000 family forest owners who control almost two-thirds of the state's private timberland (Butler, 2008). In the recent past, these ownerships were generally...

  10. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...

  11. Forest owners' timber sales satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pammo, R.; Ripatti, P.

    2003-01-01

    The TTS Institute has carried out a study concerning forest owners' timber sales. The material was collected in 2002 via a mail inquiry that targeted forest owners who sold timber during the years 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. Three quarters of the forest owners sold timber to the same timber buying company during both periods of 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. The most important reasons for selling to the same buyer were that they purchased all timber assortments, reliability and good timber price. Mainly the same reasons also applied when changing the timber buying company. The most sensitive groups to changing timber buyer were 60-69 year old, entrepreneurs, men, and owners of forest holdings between 20-29 hectares, owners of inherited forests and joint forest ownerships. The forest owners assessed the timber buying company's operations and its staff on the basis of the last timber sale. The forest owners gave best values for the timber buyer's reliability, the purchase of all timber assortments and the timber buyers' reputation. The worst values were given for cross-cutting and response to complaints. No less than 95 percent of forest owners were prepared to recommend their timber trade partner to acquaintances, friends or other forest owners. Yet only half of the forest owners recognized that their last timber sale experience would not affect which company will be selected for the nest timber sale process

  12. How to restore dry forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    AIDER is a Peruvian non-governmental organization working since 1992 on forest management activities, watershed management and urban forest management on tropical humid and dry forest at a national level. AIDER and the José Ignacio Távara Pasapera rural community have been working on dry forest management and recovery since 1992. This paper summarizes the activity of AIDER in the dry forests for the purpose of recovering degraded forest areas and conserve existing forests by developing sustai...

  13. Secondary Forest Age and Tropical Forest Biomass Estimation Using TM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, R. F.; Kimes, D. S.; Salas, W. A.; Routhier, M.

    1999-01-01

    The age of secondary forests in the Amazon will become more critical with respect to the estimation of biomass and carbon budgets as tropical forest conversion continues. Multitemporal Thematic Mapper data were used to develop land cover histories for a 33,000 Square kM area near Ariquemes, Rondonia over a 7 year period from 1989-1995. The age of the secondary forest, a surrogate for the amount of biomass (or carbon) stored above-ground, was found to be unimportant in terms of biomass budget error rates in a forested TM scene which had undergone a 20% conversion to nonforest/agricultural cover types. In such a situation, the 80% of the scene still covered by primary forest accounted for over 98% of the scene biomass. The difference between secondary forest biomass estimates developed with and without age information were inconsequential relative to the estimate of biomass for the entire scene. However, in futuristic scenarios where all of the primary forest has been converted to agriculture and secondary forest (55% and 42% respectively), the ability to age secondary forest becomes critical. Depending on biomass accumulation rate assumptions, scene biomass budget errors on the order of -10% to +30% are likely if the age of the secondary forests are not taken into account. Single-date TM imagery cannot be used to accurately age secondary forests into single-year classes. A neural network utilizing TM band 2 and three TM spectral-texture measures (bands 3 and 5) predicted secondary forest age over a range of 0-7 years with an RMSE of 1.59 years and an R(Squared) (sub actual vs predicted) = 0.37. A proposal is made, based on a literature review, to use satellite imagery to identify general secondary forest age groups which, within group, exhibit relatively constant biomass accumulation rates.

  14. The role of litterfall in transferring Fukushima-derived radiocesium to a coniferous forest floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramage, Mengistu T., E-mail: teramaget@yahoo.com [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Onda, Yuichi; Kato, Hiroaki [Center for Research in Isotopes and Environmental Dynamics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba shi, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Gomi, Takashi [Department of International Environmental and Agricultural Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fuchuu, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    The deposition of Fukushima-derived radiocesium via falling litter in a coniferous forest 180 km downwind immediately following the nuclear power plant accident was investigated. The litterfall contribution to the transfer of radiocesium from the forest canopy to the forest floor was determined, and this pathway was compared with hydrological pathways. The results demonstrated that during the observation period, a total of approximately 5.5 kBq m{sup −2} of Fukushima-derived radiocesium was deposited on the forest floor through throughfall (53%), stemflow (2.3%) and litterfall (45%) routes. The data revealed that the contributions of hydrological pathways became less important as time passed. However, the litterfall route, which transferred approximately 31% (2.5 ± 0.6 kBq m{sup −2}) of the local fallout within the observation period, continued depositing radiocesium onto the forest floor. - Graphical abstract: Schematic diagram summarizing the depositional routes of radiocesium in the cypress forest during the observation period (March to October, 2011). - Highlights: • Fukushima-derived radiocesium deposition in a coniferous forest was explored. • Approximately 68% of the radiocesium was deposited onto the forest floor. • The ecological half-life of the radiocesium in the forest canopy was 180 days. • The roles of hydrological pathways decreased over time. • The litterfall route continued to deposit radiocesium onto the forest floor.

  15. Cost structure of and competition for forest-based biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundmark, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Biomass has become a popular alternative to satisfy expanding energy demand and as a substitute for fossil fuels and phased-out nuclear energy in Europe. The European Union White Paper stipulates that the utilization of biomass shall increase to 1566 TWh by 2010. However it is often overlooked that the forest resources are already, to a large extent, used by the forest industries. When promoting biomass for energy generation the consequences for the forest industries also need to be considered. Sweden is an excellent case study, as there are vast quantities of forest resources, nuclear power is starting to be phased out, there are restrictions on expanding hydropower and the political desire exists to 'set an example' with respect to carbon dioxide emissions. This paper attempts to estimate and analyse the supply of two types of forest resource, namely, roundwood and harvesting residues derived from final harvesting and commercial thinnings. Two separate supply curves are estimated: one for roundwood and one for harvesting residues. The cost structure is based on an economic-engineering approach where the separate cost components are constructed from the lowest cost element into aggregates for labour, capital, materials and overhead costs for each forest resource. The results indicate an unutilized economic supply of 12 TWh of harvesting residues in Sweden. However, after these 12 TWh have been recovered it becomes more profitable to use roundwood for energy purposes than to continue extracting further amounts of harvesting residues

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREST AND LANDSCAPE RESOURCE FOR COMMUNITY AROUND GUNUNG LUMUT PROTECTED FOREST, EAST KALIMANTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murniati Murniati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The forest of Gunung  Lumut  in Pasir District,  East Kalimantan was designated  for a protection  forest in 1983. It is surrounded  by 15 villages  and one settlement  lies inside it. Communities in those villages are dependent upon the landscape and forest resources mainly for non timber forest products. This study was focused on the perception of the communities on the importance of the landscape and forests. The study was conducted in two settlements, located  in and outside  (near  the protection  forest,  namely  Rantau  Layung  Village  and Mului  Sub-Village.  Data collection  was undertaken through  general field observations, key- informant personal  interviews and focus group  discussions.  In Rantau  Layung, the most important land  type  was rice  field, whereas  in Mului  was forest.  There  were  13 and 14 use categories  of landscape  resources  in Rantau  Layung  and Mului,  respectively, such as food, medicine,  constructions and source of income.  People in Rantau  Layung  and Mului ranked  plants  to be more  important than  animals.  People  also considered  products  from wild  resources  to be more  important than  those from cultivated  and purchased  sources. Communities living  in both  settlements  considered  the future  uses of forests to be the most important as compared to those of the present and past. They  suggested that sungkai (Peronema canescens and telien (Eusideroxylon zwageri to be the most important plants while payau  (Cervus unicolor and telaus (Muntiacus muntjak to be the most important animals. People used the wildlife mainly for food and source of income. They also identified important and potential  resources for economic  development in the area, i.e. ecotourism  and hydro- power for electric  generator.

  17. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E; Pfrommer, Christoph [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2012-06-10

    increase the temperature of the mean density IGM by nearly an order of magnitude, and at low densities by substantially more. It also naturally produces the inverted temperature-density relation inferred by recent observations of the high-redshift Ly{alpha} forest, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with standard reionization models. Finally, we close with a discussion on the possibility of detecting this hot low-density IGM suggested by our model either directly or indirectly via the local Ly{alpha} forest, the Comptonized CMB, or free-free emission, but we find that such measurements are currently not feasible.

  18. Externalities assessment of a coal power plant in the forest ecosystems in Valdecaballeros Area; Estimacion de las externalidades de una central termica de carbon en los ecosistemas forestales del Area de Valdecaballeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforga, P; Planas, B

    1995-07-01

    The book is divided in two parts. The first one analyzes the critical load and level concepts, and the methodological framework for Environmental Impact Statement (E.L.S.). In line with this, critical loads and levels represent the system vulnerability and excedances of critical values identify zones where impacts could occur. These are evaluated according to a set of criteria, talking into account present and future land use, their socio cultural interest, economic value of their natural resources and ecological quality of the whole system. In addition to Environment Impact Statement of air pollutants, the proposed formalism allows assessing the external cost of gaseous emission. The second part applies the developed ideas to a practical case: a hypothetical coal power plant on Valdecaballeros (Badajoz, Spain). Environmental impact on forestry ecosystems is studied on a 70 km radius area around the plant. The assessment of the external costs rely on yield losses associated with gaseous emission of the hypothetical plant. (Author) 100 refs.

  19. CTFS-ForestGEO: A worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson-Teixeira, K.J.; Davies, S.J.; Bennett, A.C.; Gonzalez-Akre, E.B.; Muller-Landau, H.C.; Wright, S.J.; Abu Salim, K.; Almeyda Zambrano, A.M.; Jansen, P.A.; Ouden, den J.

    2015-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics

  20. Protecting climate with forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B.; Randerson, James T.; Canadell, Josep G.; Anderson, Ray G.; Avissar, Roni; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Caldeira, Ken; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Field, Christopher B.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Jobbágy, Esteban G.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Nosetto, Marcelo D.; Pataki, Diane E.

    2008-10-01

    Policies for climate mitigation on land rarely acknowledge biophysical factors, such as reflectivity, evaporation, and surface roughness. Yet such factors can alter temperatures much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in a conflicting way. We outline a framework for examining biophysical factors in mitigation policies and provide some best-practice recommendations based on that framework. Tropical projects—avoided deforestation, forest restoration, and afforestation—provide the greatest climate value, because carbon storage and biophysics align to cool the Earth. In contrast, the climate benefits of carbon storage are often counteracted in boreal and other snow-covered regions, where darker trees trap more heat than snow does. Managers can increase the climate benefit of some forest projects by using more reflective and deciduous species and through urban forestry projects that reduce energy use. Ignoring biophysical interactions could result in millions of dollars being invested in some mitigation projects that provide little climate benefit or, worse, are counter-productive.

  1. Protecting climate with forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Robert B; Randerson, James T; Anderson, Ray G; Pataki, Diane E; Canadell, Josep G; Avissar, Roni; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Bonan, Gordon B; Caldeira, Ken; Field, Christopher B; Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Hungate, Bruce A; Jobbagy, Esteban G; Nosetto, Marcelo D; Kueppers, Lara M

    2008-01-01

    Policies for climate mitigation on land rarely acknowledge biophysical factors, such as reflectivity, evaporation, and surface roughness. Yet such factors can alter temperatures much more than carbon sequestration does, and often in a conflicting way. We outline a framework for examining biophysical factors in mitigation policies and provide some best-practice recommendations based on that framework. Tropical projects-avoided deforestation, forest restoration, and afforestation-provide the greatest climate value, because carbon storage and biophysics align to cool the Earth. In contrast, the climate benefits of carbon storage are often counteracted in boreal and other snow-covered regions, where darker trees trap more heat than snow does. Managers can increase the climate benefit of some forest projects by using more reflective and deciduous species and through urban forestry projects that reduce energy use. Ignoring biophysical interactions could result in millions of dollars being invested in some mitigation projects that provide little climate benefit or, worse, are counter-productive.

  2. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  3. Austin's Urban Forest, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Allison R. Bodine; Robert E. Hoehn; Christopher B. Edgar; Dudley R. Hartel; Tonya W. Lister; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2016-01-01

    An analysis of the urban forest in Austin, Texas, reveals that this area has an estimated 33.8 million trees with tree canopy that covers 30.8 percent of the city. The most common tree species are Ashe juniper, cedar elm, live oak, sugarberry, and Texas persimmon. Trees in Austin currently store about 1.9 million tons of carbon (7.0 million tons of carbon dioxide [CO...

  4. Managing impressions and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Ångman, Elin; Hallgren, Lars; Nordström, Eva-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Social interaction is an important—and often forgotten—aspect of conflicts in natural resource management (NRM). Building on the theoretical framework of symbolic interaction, this article explores how the concept of impression management during social interaction can help understand NRM conflicts. A qualitative study was carried out on a Swedish case involving a conflict over clear-cutting of a forest. To explain why the conflict escalated and destructivity increased, we investigated how the...

  5. Bonneville Power Administration: financial fallout from termination of WPPSS nuclear projects 4 and 5. Oversight hearings before the Subcommittee on Mining, Forest Management, and Bonneville Power Administration of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session, February 14 and 15, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Peter T. Johnson, Administrator of the Bonneville Power Administration, and a representative of the Washington Public Power Supply System (WPPSS) described the financial situation resulting from the cancellations and cost overruns of WPPSS nuclear projects that have left the area with an unacceptable debt. Four panels representing area utilities and electric cooperatives described their financial positions on the second day of hearings. Two appendices with additional material from Bonneville, WPPSS, the Department of the Interior, and others follow the testimony

  6. Can Forest Transformation Help Reducing Floods in Forested Watersheds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Niels Arne; Wöllecke, B.; Benz, O.

    2005-01-01

    of the management practice of forest transformation in forested areas on soil hydraulic properties is presented and discussed as a means of preventing such disasters at a reasonable cost and during a foreseeable period. Investigations were carried out in northeastern Germany on forest stands differing in tree...... populations and stand structure. It was found that infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity K exhibit overall low values nevertheless the tree species. This finding appears to be related to water repellency, the predominating texture, and a poor macroporosity. During the different stages of forest...

  7. Forest crimes as a threat to sustainable forest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Özden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From ancient times to the present day, forest public relations has been an issue on the agenda. This relationship’s purpose was initially needed for shelter and nutrition; however today this process has changed with urbanization, overpopulation and understanding the new functions of forests. When land ownership became a tool of production, offenses occurred in order to convert forestlands to agricultural lands. So the vast majority of the world’s forests have been lost for this reason. Today, deforestation is occurring in tropical countries that are expecting to gain agricultural area. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between urbanization and the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of forest crimes, which are a major obstacle for sustainable forestry. Although forests cover about 27 % of Turkey’s territory, the forests are losing viability; the status of wood raw material per unit area and the total area of the country in the ratio of productive forests are becoming critical in Turkey. Turkey’s rugged terrain and factors such as human interventions, fires, deforestation for agriculture, illegal cuttings, or improper grazing reduce existing forests or cause deterioration of their structure. In the past, deforestation, as a result of human interventions in Turkey, was done by forest villagers who live in rural areas. The forest crimes depend on various socio-economic reasons and have many adverse effects on the sustainability of forest and forest existence. In developed countries, illegal interventions such as opening, grazing, cutting, occupation, use, settlement, or hunting crimes have been largely eliminated because of the absence of cadastral problems, the existence of more responsive people to protect the environment and forests and a rural population, which has a higher standard of living. In the last 20 years, there has been both a dramatic decrease in the population living in rural areas and a

  8. Pragmatic power

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2008-01-01

    Pragmatic Power is focused on just three aspects of the AC electrical power system that supplies and moves the vast majority of electrical energy nearly everywhere in the world: three-phase power systems, transformers, and induction motors. The reader needs to have had an introduction to electrical circuits and AC power, although the text begins with a review of the basics of AC power. Balanced three-phase systems are studied by developing their single-phase equivalents. The study includes a look at how the cost of ""power"" is affected by reactive power and power factor. Transformers are cons

  9. 78 FR 73819 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Cancellation. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service was required to cancel the October 17-18, 2013 meeting of the Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  10. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  11. Proceedings, 15th central hardwood forest conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. Buckley; Wayne K. Clatterbuck; [Editors

    2007-01-01

    Proceedings of the 15th central hardwood forest conference held February 27–March 1, 2006, in Knoxville, TN. Includes 86 papers and 30 posters pertaining to forest health and protection, ecology and forest dynamics, natural and artificial regeneration, forest products, wildlife, site classification, management and forest resources, mensuration and models, soil and...

  12. H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Art McKee; Pamela. Druliner

    1998-01-01

    The H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest is a world renowned center for research and education about the ecology and management of forests and streams. Located about 50 miles (80 km) east of Eugene, Oregon, the Andrews Experimental Forest lies in the Blue River Ranger District of the Willamette National Forest. Established in 1948, the Experimental Forest is administered...

  13. Valuation of Forest Amenities: A Macro Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald Raunikar; Joseph Buongiorno

    2001-01-01

    A method of estimating forest amenity value based on macroeconomic growth theory is presented. It relies on the assumption that more valuable forest amenities are provided by a forest with a more natural stand structure. We construct a forest naturalness index from stand data that provides a relative measure of the forest amenity provided regionally. This naturalness...

  14. Globalization and its implications for forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Liebhold; Michael. Wingfield

    2014-01-01

    Consideration of forest health is central to the sustainable management of forests. While many definitions of forest health have been proposed, the most widely adopted concept refers to the sustained functioning of desired forest ecosystem processes (Kolb et al., 1994). Legitimate complaints have been raised about the human-centric usage of the term "Forest Health...

  15. Gainesville's urban forest structure and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    The urban forest provides a community numerous benefits. The urban forest is composed of a mix of native and non-native species introduced by people managing this forest and by residents. Because they usually contain non-native species, many urban forests often have greater species diversity than forests in the surrounding natural...

  16. Geospatial technology applications in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.S. Panda; E. Masson; S. Sen; H.W. Kim; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    Two separate disciplines, hydrology and forestry, together constitute forest hydrology. It is obvious that forestry and forest hydrology disciplines are spatial entities. Forestry is the science that seeks to understand the nature of forests throygh their life cycle and interactions with the surrounding environment. Forest hydrology includes forest soil water, streams...

  17. Factors driving the development of forest energy in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, Pentti

    2006-01-01

    Renewable energy sources play an important role in the Finnish energy and climate strategies which are implemented partly through the Action Plan for Renewable Energy Sources. Enhancement of wood energy plays a key role in the plan. A special emphasis is given to forest chips produced from small-sized trees from early thinnings and above-ground and below-ground residual biomass from regeneration cuttings. The production goal of forest chips is 5 million m 3 solid (10TWh) in 2010. The use of forest chips is promoted by means of environmental taxes, financial aid for investments, and financial support for research, development and commercialization of technology. In 2002, altogether 365 heating and power plants larger than 0.4MW used forest chips. The total consumption was 1.7 million m 3 , the use of small houses and farms included. The growth of use is presently about 350000 m 3 per annum, but reaching the official goal will require an annual growth of 400000 m 3 during this decade. The consumption of roundwood per capita, 15m 3 per annum, is in Finland 20 times as high as the average consumption of the EU countries, respectively. Consequently, residual forest biomass is abundantly available. The capacity of heating and power plants to use forest chips is large enough to meet the goal. However, users require competitive chip prices, good quality control of fuel and reliable supply chains, and new efficient procurement systems are being developed. The paper deals with the drivers of this development: support measures of the Government; strong support to research, development and commercialization of forest chip production from the National Technology Agency Tekes; advanced infrastructure for the procurement of timber for the forest industries; positive attitude and active participation of the forest industries; the active role of leading forest machine and boiler manufacturers, and the possibility to cofire wood and peat fuels in large fluidized bed boilers so as to

  18. Modelling mixed forest growth : a review of models for forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porte, A.; Bartelink, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Most forests today are multi-specific and heterogeneous forests (`mixed forests'). However, forest modelling has been focusing on mono-specific stands for a long time, only recently have models been developed for mixed forests. Previous reviews of mixed forest modelling were restricted to certain

  19. Forest and water relationships: hydrologic implications of forestation campaigns in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Guoyi Zhou; Zhiqiang Zhang; Xiaohua Wei; Steven G. McNulty; James Vose

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation and afforestation (referred to forestation thereafter) campaigns in the past two decades have resulted in great increases in both forest land area and forest ecosystem productivity in China. Although the ecological benefits of forests are well accepted, the hydrologic consequences of man-made forests by forestation are unclear. Debate and confusion on the...

  20. CTFS-ForestGEO: a worldwide network monitoring forests in an era of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristina J. Anderson-Teixeira; Stuart J. Davies; Amy C. Bennett; Erika B. Gonzalez-Akre; Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Kamariah Abu Salim; Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano; Alfonso Alonso; Jennifer L. Baltzer; Yves Basset; Norman A. Bourg; Eben N. Broadbent; Warren Y. Brockelman; Sarayudh Bunyavejchewin; David F. R. P. Burslem; Nathalie Butt; Min Cao; Dairon Cardenas; George B. Chuyong; Keith Clay; Susan Cordell; Handanakere S. Dattaraja; Xiaobao Deng; Matteo Detto; Xiaojun Du; Alvaro Duque; David L. Erikson; Corneille E.N. Ewango; Gunter A. Fischer; Christine Fletcher; Robin B. Foster; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory S. Gilbert; Nimal Gunatilleke; Savitri Gunatilleke; Zhanqing Hao; William W. Hargrove; Terese B. Hart; Billy C.H. Hau; Fangliang He; Forrest M. Hoffman; Robert W. Howe; Stephen P. Hubbell; Faith M. Inman-Narahari; Patrick A. Jansen; Mingxi Jiang; Daniel J. Johnson; Mamoru Kanzaki; Abdul Rahman Kassim; David Kenfack; Staline Kibet; Margaret F. Kinnaird; Lisa Korte; Kamil Kral; Jitendra Kumar; Andrew J. Larson; Yide Li; Xiankun Li; Shirong Liu; Shawn K.Y. Lum; James A. Lutz; Keping Ma; Damian M. Maddalena; Jean-Remy Makana; Yadvinder Malhi; Toby Marthews; Rafizah Mat Serudin; Sean M. McMahon; William J. McShea; Hervé R. Memiaghe; Xiangcheng Mi; Takashi Mizuno; Michael Morecroft; Jonathan A. Myers; Vojtech Novotny; Alexandre A. de Oliveira; Perry S. Ong; David A. Orwig; Rebecca Ostertag; Jan den Ouden; Geoffrey G. Parker; Richard P. Phillips; Lawren Sack; Moses N. Sainge; Weiguo Sang; Kriangsak Sri-ngernyuang; Raman Sukumar; I-Fang Sun; Witchaphart Sungpalee; Hebbalalu Sathyanarayana Suresh; Sylvester Tan; Sean C. Thomas; Duncan W. Thomas; Jill Thompson; Benjamin L. Turner; Maria Uriarte; Renato Valencia; Marta I. Vallejo; Alberto Vicentini; Tomáš Vrška; Xihua Wang; Xugao Wang; George Weiblen; Amy Wolf; Han Xu; Sandra Yap; Jess Zimmerman

    2014-01-01

    Global change is impacting forests worldwide, threatening biodiversity and ecosystem services including climate regulation. Understanding how forests respond is critical to forest conservation and climate protection. This review describes an international network of 59 long-term forest dynamics research sites (CTFS-ForestGEO) useful for characterizing forest responses...

  1. Impacts of participatory forest management on species composition and forest structure in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Meilby, Henrik; Feyisa, Gudina Legese

    2016-01-01

    The present study assesses the impacts of decentralized forest management on forest conditions in Ethiopian Montane forests. We compared observed densities of different tree species and size categories in forests managed by local forest user groups (FUGs) and the government. We used forest...

  2. A model of forest floor carbon mass for United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Smith; Linda S. Heath

    2002-01-01

    Includes a large set of published values of forest floor mass and develop large-scale estimates of carbon mass according to region and forest type. Estimates of average forest floor carbon mass per hectare of forest applied to a 1997 summary forest inventory, sum to 4.5 Gt carbon stored in forests of the 48 contiguous United States.

  3. The soil indicator of forest health in the Forest Inventory and Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Amacher; Charles H. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (MPCI) were established to monitor forest conditions and trends to promote sustainable forest management. The Soil Indicator of forest health was developed and implemented within the USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program to assess condition and trends in forest soil quality in U.S. forests regardless of ownership. The...

  4. Future directions in forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.M. Williams; Devendra Amatya; L. Bren; C. deJong; J.E. Nettles

    2016-01-01

    Forest hydrology is a separate and unique branch of hydrology due to the special conditions caused by trees, and the understorey beneath them, comprising a forest. Understanding the forest, with trees that can grow over 100 m tall, may have crowns up to 20-30 m in diameter with roots 5-10 m deep and spread as widely as the crowns, and have lifespans from 50 to 5000...

  5. Forest statistics for Georgia, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Tansey

    1983-01-01

    Since the fourth inventory of the forest resources of Georgia in 1972, the area of commercial forest land decreased over 4 percent, or by almost 1.1 million acres. Commercial forests now cover approximately 23.7 million acres, 64 percent of the land area in the State. Nearly 5.1 million acres were harvested, while about 2.9 million acres were adequately regenerated...

  6. Western forests and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.K.; Binkley, D.; Boehm, M.

    1992-01-01

    The book addresses the relationships between air pollution in the western United States and trends in the growth and condition of Western coniferous forests. The major atmospheric pollutants to which forest in the region are exposed are sulfur and nitrogen compounds and ozone. The potential effects of atmospheric pollution on these forests include foliar injury, alteration of growth rates and patterns, soil acidification, shifts in species composition, and modification of the effects of natural stresses

  7. Iowa's forest resources in 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Steve Pennington; Gary J. Brand

    2003-01-01

    Results of the 2001 annual inventory of Iowa show an estimated 2.6 million acres of forest land in the State. The estimate of total all live tree volume on forest land is 3.6 billion cubic feet. Nearly 2.5 million acres of forest land in Iowa are classified as timberland. The estimate of growing-stock volume on timberland is 2.7 billion cubic feet. All live aboveground...

  8. Wisconsin's forest resources in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Perry

    2006-01-01

    Results of the 2000-2004 annual inventory of Wisconsin show about 16.0 million acres of forest land, more than 22.1 billion cubic feet of live volume on forest land, and nearly 593 million dry tons of all live aboveground tree biomass on timberland. Populations of jack pine budworm are increasing, and it remains a significant pest in Wisconsin forests. A complete...

  9. Resource analysis of the Chinese society 1980-2002 based on exergy-Part 2: Renewable energy sources and forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.; Chen, G.Q.

    2007-01-01

    This second part is the continuation of the first part on fossil fuels and energy minerals. The major renewable energy sources and forest products entering the Chinese society from 1980 to 2002, including sunlight, wind power, tidal power, wave power, geothermal power and heating, biomass, hydroelectric resource and forestry products, are calculated and analyzed in detail in this paper. The solar exergy inputs from solar photovoltaics and solar collectors, including water heater, solar oven and solar building, are calculated and discussed. The development of the wind power plant is presented. Major tidal power plants, which are still working, are addressed. Wave power devices and plants are introduced. Geothermal resources, mainly for power generation and heating, associated with distribution, are depicted. The utilization of biomass, embracing firewood, straw and biogas, which served as the main obtainable local resources for private consumption and production in the rural areas, is illustrated. Development of hydroelectric resources as complement to scarce fossil fuels is represented, of which the small hydropower project adapted for rural areas is emphasized. Finally, forest products from timber forest and economic forest are presented, with the forestation, reproducing, tending areas and sum of odd forestation trees being manifested

  10. Climate Change and Forest Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. H. Dale; L. A. Joyce; S. McNulty; R. P. Neilson; M. P. Ayres; M. D. Flannigan; P. J. Hanson; L. C. Irland; A. E. Lugo; C. J. Peterson; D. Simberloff; F. J. Swanson; B. J. Stocks; B. M. Wotton

    2001-01-01

    CLIMATE CHANGE CAN AFFECT FORESTS BY ALTERING THE FREQUENCY, INTENSITY, DURATION, AND TIMING OF FIRE, DROUGHT, INTRODUCED SPECIES, INSECT AND PATHOGEN OUTBREAKS, HURRICANES, WINDSTORMS, ICE STORMS, OR LANDSLIDES

  11. Unearthing Secrets of the Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldin, Sarah I.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Forests are a defining feature for large areas of the Pacific northwestern United States from northern California to Alaska. Coniferous temperate rainforests in the western Cascade and coastal mountain ranges are appreciated for their aesthetic value and abundant natural resources. Few people recognize the riches beneath the forest floor; yet, soil is a key ecosystem component that makes each type of forest unique. Soils harbor immense biological diversity and control the release of water and nutrients that support life above ground. Understanding how carbon and nutrients cycle in forests, known as forest biogeochemistry, is crucial for evaluating forest productivity, composition, diversity, and change. At the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, research in the Terrestrial Ecosystems Laboratory focuses on nutrient cycling in five themes: climate change, nutrition and sustainability, fire effects, restoration, and forest-stream linkages. This research is essential to understand the entire forest ecosystem and to use the best science available to make informed policy and management decisions.

  12. Tropical forests. Nettai no shinrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, I [Kyoto Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    1991-11-05

    It was in 1950s when felling of tropical forests started in earnest, in 1970s felling of forest trees in Southeast Asia reached its peak and the destnation of exportation of most of them was Japan. Besides, among the present overseas development assistance projects (ODA) of Japan, her role to be played in connection with tropical forests is not small and its funds, which surpass by far the budget for forestry of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), are aiding cooperation projects on forestry in many places in the world. Nevertheless, in Japan, the understanding of tropical forests is insufficient and its realities have not been known. In this article, based on the experience and knowledge of the author who stayed in Kalimantan, various kinds of problems concerning tropical forests are explained, the realities are introduced on information, well trained people, funds and philosophy which are far short in pursuance of the problems of tropical forests. Furthermore, as the issues hereafter, such proposals on tropical forests are made as protection of natural forests, planned operation in respecting self renewal ability of the secondary forests and afforestation of alang-alang grassy plains resulted from the failure of burning felled trees and grasses for making the land arable. 1 ref..

  13. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  14. Ecological consequences of forest elephant declines for Afrotropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, John R; Rosin, Cooper; Meier, Amelia; Mills, Emily; Nuñez, Chase L; Koerner, Sally E; Blanchard, Emily; Callejas, Jennifer; Moore, Sarah; Sowers, Mark

    2017-10-27

    Poaching is rapidly extirpating African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) from most of their historical range, leaving vast areas of elephant-free tropical forest. Elephants are ecological engineers that create and maintain forest habitat; thus, their loss will have large consequences for the composition and structure of Afrotropical forests. Through a comprehensive literature review, we evaluated the roles of forest elephants in seed dispersal, nutrient recycling, and herbivory and physical damage to predict the cascading ecological effects of their population declines. Loss of seed dispersal by elephants will favor tree species dispersed abiotically and by smaller dispersal agents, and tree species composition will depend on the downstream effects of changes in elephant nutrient cycling and browsing. Loss of trampling and herbivory of seedlings and saplings will result in high tree density with release from browsing pressures. Diminished seed dispersal by elephants and high stem density are likely to reduce the recruitment of large trees and thus increase homogeneity of forest structure and decrease carbon stocks. The loss of ecological services by forest elephants likely means Central African forests will be more like Neotropical forests, from which megafauna were extirpated thousands of years ago. Without intervention, as much as 96% of Central African forests will have modified species composition and structure as elephants are compressed into remaining protected areas. Stopping elephant poaching is an urgent first step to mitigating these effects, but long-term conservation will require land-use planning that incorporates elephant habitat into forested landscapes that are being rapidly transformed by industrial agriculture and logging. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. INVERSE COMPTON X-RAY HALOS AROUND HIGH-z RADIO GALAXIES: A FEEDBACK MECHANISM POWERED BY FAR-INFRARED STARBURSTS OR THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smail, Ian [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Blundell, Katherine M. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Lehmer, B. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    We report the detection of extended X-ray emission around two powerful radio galaxies at z {approx} 3.6 (4C 03.24 and 4C 19.71) and use these to investigate the origin of extended, inverse Compton (IC) powered X-ray halos at high redshifts. The halos have X-ray luminosities of L {sub X} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} and sizes of {approx}60 kpc. Their morphologies are broadly similar to the {approx}60 kpc long radio lobes around these galaxies suggesting they are formed from IC scattering by relativistic electrons in the radio lobes, of either cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons or far-infrared photons from the dust-obscured starbursts in these galaxies. These observations double the number of z > 3 radio galaxies with X-ray-detected IC halos. We compare the IC X-ray-to-radio luminosity ratios for the two new detections to the two previously detected z {approx} 3.8 radio galaxies. Given the similar redshifts, we would expect comparable X-ray IC luminosities if millimeter photons from the CMB are the dominant seed field for the IC emission (assuming all four galaxies have similar ages and jet powers). Instead we see that the two z {approx} 3.6 radio galaxies, which are {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter in the far-infrared than those at z {approx} 3.8, also have {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign fainter X-ray IC emission. Including data for a further six z {approx}> 2 radio sources with detected IC X-ray halos from the literature, we suggest that in the more compact, majority of radio sources, those with lobe sizes {approx}<100-200 kpc, the bulk of the IC emission may be driven by scattering of locally produced far-infrared photons from luminous, dust-obscured starbursts within these galaxies, rather than millimeter photons from the CMB. The resulting X-ray emission appears sufficient to ionize the gas on {approx}100-200 kpc scales around these systems and thus helps form the extended, kinematically quiescent Ly{alpha} emission line

  16. Power corrupts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, H.; Valentine, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: radiation (hazards associated with nuclear power production); wastes (radioactive wastes); accidents (actual and postulated, resulting in the release of radiation); the FBR and the plutonium cycle; costs (economics of nuclear power); spent fuel transport; civil liberties; doing without nuclear power (UK power demand; low energy strategy; energy policy; government policies; alternative energy sources). (U.K.)

  17. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  18. Estimating forest carbon stocks in tropical dry forests of Zimbabwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation and mapping of forest dendrometric characteristics such as carbon stocks using remote sensing techniques is fundamental for improved understanding of the role of forests in the carbon cycle and climate change. In this study, we tested whether and to what extent spectral transforms, i.e. vegetation indices ...

  19. Forest ecosystem services: Provisioning of non-timber forest products

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; Gregory E. Frey; C. Denise Ingram; Michael G. Jacobson; Cara Meghan Starbuck Downes

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe approaches to calculate a conservative and defensible estimate of the marginal value of forests for non-timber forest products (NTFPs). 'Provisioning" is one of four categories of benefits, or services that ecosystems provide to humans and was described by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment as 'products...

  20. Forest pathology and entomology at Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian W. Geils

    2008-01-01

    Forest pathology and entomology have been researched at Fort Valley Experimental Forest throughout its history. The pathogens and insects of particular interest are mistletoes, decay and canker fungi, rusts, bark beetles, and various defoliators. Studies on life history, biotic interactions, impacts, and control have been published and incorporated into silvicultural...

  1. Non-timber forest products in sustainable forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Chamberlain; A.L. Hammett; Philip A. Araman

    2001-01-01

    The forests of Southern United States are the source of many non-timber forest products (NTFPs). The collection, trade and use of these products have been important to rural economies since Europeans settled in this country. At the same time the plants from which these products originate are crucial to healthy ecosystems. Over the last decade, the market demand and the...

  2. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 198 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reverting urban exotic pine forests to Macchia and indigenous forest vegetation, using cable-yarders on the slopes of Table Mountain, South Africa: management paper · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Pierre Ackerman, Bruce Talbot, 35-44 ...

  3. Forest vegetation simulation tools and forest health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Teck; Melody Steele

    1995-01-01

    A Stand Hazard Rating System for Central ldaho forests has been incorporated into the Central ldaho Prognosis variant of the Forest Vegetation Simulator to evaluate how insects, disease and fire hazards within the Deadwood River Drainage change over time. A custom interface, BOISE.COMPUTE.PR, has been developed so hazard ratings can be electronically downloaded...

  4. Forest fuel characterization using direct sampling in forest plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva Reyna Esmeralda Díaz García; Marco Aurelio González Tagle; Javier Jiménez Pérez; Eduardo JavierTreviño Garza; Diana Yemilet Ávila Flores

    2013-01-01

    One of the essential elements for a fire to occur is the flammable material. This is defined as the total biomass that has the ability to ignite and burn when exposed to a heat source. Fuel characterization in Mexican forest ecosystems is very scarce. However, this information is very important for estimating flammability and forest fire risk, fire behavior,...

  5. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah A.; Hedin, Lars O.; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-10-01

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  6. Institutional Development to Build a Succesfull Local Collective Action in Forest Management from Arau Watershed Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursidah Nursidah

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to build institution model of sustainable forest management, through analysis of action arena, community attributes and forest management rules in Arau Watershed Unit Management Area.  To achieve sustainable forest management, recognition and incorporation of local institutions in forest policy formulation is very important because it had great potential for collective action and had characteristics of common pools resources sustainable management needed.  To achieve a successful local collective action, the institution must be had: the rules in use suitable with local community norms; the organization has power to give reward and punishment as well as recognized and respected by society; specific management according location; rules of the game was made participatory; there are economic incentives for owners and users; there is an instrument for controlling sustainable use; and conflict resolution through negotiations to reach an concencus agreement.  The finding of institutional models  analysis  show  that  co-management  model  between government and local communities, called Nagari Forest Management Model is more suitable, because it gives greater opportunities for indigenous rights recognition to communal forest, until the capacity of villages get better, then the choice of forest management can be shifted into Nagari Community Based Forest Management Model.Keywords: sustainable forest management, institution, collective action, nagari

  7. Key role of symbiotic dinitrogen fixation in tropical forest secondary succession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Sarah A; Hedin, Lars O; van Breugel, Michiel; Ransijn, Johannes; Craven, Dylan J; Hall, Jefferson S

    2013-10-10

    Forests contribute a significant portion of the land carbon sink, but their ability to sequester CO2 may be constrained by nitrogen, a major plant-limiting nutrient. Many tropical forests possess tree species capable of fixing atmospheric dinitrogen (N2), but it is unclear whether this functional group can supply the nitrogen needed as forests recover from disturbance or previous land use, or expand in response to rising CO2 (refs 6, 8). Here we identify a powerful feedback mechanism in which N2 fixation can overcome ecosystem-scale deficiencies in nitrogen that emerge during periods of rapid biomass accumulation in tropical forests. Over a 300-year chronosequence in Panama, N2-fixing tree species accumulated carbon up to nine times faster per individual than their non-fixing neighbours (greatest difference in youngest forests), and showed species-specific differences in the amount and timing of fixation. As a result of fast growth and high fixation, fixers provided a large fraction of the nitrogen needed to support net forest growth (50,000 kg carbon per hectare) in the first 12 years. A key element of ecosystem functional diversity was ensured by the presence of different N2-fixing tree species across the entire forest age sequence. These findings show that symbiotic N2 fixation can have a central role in nitrogen cycling during tropical forest stand development, with potentially important implications for the ability of tropical forests to sequester CO2.

  8. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  9. Link Investigation of IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks in Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xingjian; Sun, Guodong; Yang, Gaoxiang; Shang, Xinna

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks are expected to automatically monitor the ecological evolution and wildlife habits in forests. Low-power links (transceivers) are often adopted in wireless sensor network applications, in order to save the precious sensor energy and then achieve long-term, unattended monitoring. Recent research has presented some performance characteristics of such low-power wireless links under laboratory or outdoor scenarios with less obstacles, and they have found that low-power wireless links are unreliable and prone to be affected by the target environment. However, there is still less understanding about how well the low-power wireless link performs in real-world forests and to what extent the complex in-forest surrounding environments affect the link performances. In this paper, we empirically evaluate the low-power links of wireless sensors in three typical different forest environments. Our experiment investigates the performance of the link layer compatible with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard and analyzes the variation patterns of the packet reception ratio (PRR), the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the link quality indicator (LQI) under diverse experimental settings. Some observations of this study are inconsistent with or even contradict prior results that are achieved in open fields or relatively clean environments and thus, provide new insights both into effectively evaluating the low-power wireless links and into efficiently deploying wireless sensor network systems in forest environments.

  10. Forest industries energy research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G. C.

    1977-10-15

    Data on energy use in the manufacturing process of the wood products industry in 1974 are tabulated. The forest industries contributed 10% of New Zealand's factory production and consumed 25% of all industrial energy (including that produced from self-generated sources such as waste heat liquors and wood wastes) in that year. An evaluation of the potential for savings in process heat systems in existing production levels is shown to be 3% in the short, medium, and long-term time periods. The industry has a high potential for fuel substitution in all sectors. The payback periods for the implementation of the conservation measures are indicated.

  11. Aspen Delineation - Klamath National Forest [ds370

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The database represents polygons of aspen stands in the Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. The Klamath National Forest Region 5 Vegetation aspen...

  12. Organization of private forest sector in Timok forest area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojislav Milijic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, private forest owners (PFOs in Serbia cooperate in form of private forest owners associations (PFOAs. Currently, there are 20 PFOAs, of which 15 are in Timok region. Initiatives of PFOs from Timok forest area, animated the owners from other parts of the country and led to foundation of Serbian Federation of Forest Owners' Associations. Twelve of PFOAs from Timok forest area are the founders of Serbian private forest owners' umbrella organization. Restructuring of Public Enterprise (PE "Srbijasume", which started in 2001, led to development of private small and medium forest enterprises, engaged as contractors of PE for harvesting, timber transport and construction of forest roads. The objectives of this paper are to elaborate if there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region and to analyze organization of private forest owners in Timok forest area. In order to reach these objectives, results of PRIFORT project were used. This project focused on four countries of Western Balkans region: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia and Macedonia. The aim of this project was to explore precondition for formation of PFOs in this region. Quantitative survey (n = 350 of randomly selected PFOs was conducted in nine municipalities in Serbia, of which two were in Timok region (n = 100. The results show that there are differences between PFOs in Serbia and Timok region in number of PFOs, size of private property and in additional incentives. These results also indicate that economic interest is a motive for establishment of PFOAs and that state support is very important for their development. Since a number of PFOs are entrepreneurs, it can be assumed that, further development of theirs organizations could lead to development of SMEs clusters. 

  13. Temporal scaling behavior of forest and urban fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, W.; Zheng, H.; Telesca, L.

    2009-04-01

    It has been found that many natural systems are characterized by scaling behavior. In such systems natural factors dominate the event dynamics. Forest fires in different countries have been found to exhibit frequency-size power law over many orders of magnitude and with similar value of parameters. But in countries with high population density such as China and Japan, more than 95% of the forest fire disasters are caused by human activities. Furthermore, with the development of society, the wildland-urban interface (WUI) area is becoming more and more populated, and the forest fire is much connected with urban fire. Therefore exploring the scaling behavior of fires dominated by human-related factors is very challenging. The present paper explores the temporal scaling behavior of forest fires and urban fires in Japan with mathematical methods. Two factors, Allan factor (AF) and Fano factor (FF) are used to investigate time-scaling of fire systems. It is found that the FF for both forest fires and urban fires increases linearly in log-log scales, and this indicates that it behaves as a power-law for all the investigated timescales. From the AF plot a 7 days cycle is found, which indicates a weekly cycle. This may be caused by human activities which has a weekly periodicity because on weekends people usually have more outdoor activities, which may cause more hidden trouble of fire disasters. Our findings point out that although the human factors are the main cause, both the forest fires and urban fires exhibit time-scaling behavior. At the same time, the scaling exponents for urban fires are larger than forest fires, signifying a more intense clustering. The reason may be that fires are affected not only by weather condition, but also by human activities, which play a more important role for urban fires than forest fires and have a power law distribution and scaling behavior. Then some work is done to the relative humidity. Similar distribution law characterizes the

  14. 78 FR 37781 - Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Forest Resource Coordinating Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting; Correction. SUMMARY: The Forest Service published a... teleconference line. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Maya Solomon, Forest Resource Coordinating Committee...

  15. Nuclear power and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1989-11-01

    The IAEA Director General pointed out that continued and expanded use of nuclear power must be one among several measures to restrain the use of fossil fuels and thereby limit the emissions of greenhouse gases. With regards to future trends in world electricity demands, the Director General emphasized the existing gap between the frequent claims as to what conservation can achieve and actual energy plans. The objections to nuclear power which are related to safety, waste disposal and the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons are also discussed. His conclusion is that nuclear power can help significantly to meet growing needs of electricity without contributing to global warming, acid rains or dying forests, responsible management and disposal of nuclear wastes is entirely feasible, and the safety of nuclear power must be continuously strengthened through technological improvement and methods of operation

  16. Soil strength and forest operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management

  17. Forest report 2016; Waldzustandsbericht 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring (defoliation results of all tree species), weather and climate, soil water balance and drought stress, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, substrate group clay-free sand, and heavy metal pollution of forests.

  18. Forest report 2015; Waldzustandsbericht 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring, weather and climate, spring drought, insects and fungi, infiltrated substances, trends in soil solution of forest ecosystems, soil chemistry and root penetration in deeper layers of soil, climate change and sustainable land management in Northern German Plain.

  19. Gender Bias Affects Forests Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlène Elias

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gender biases persist in forestry research and practice. These biases result in reduced scientific rigor and inequitable, ineffective, and less efficient policies, programs, and interventions. Drawing from a two-volume collection of current and classic analyses on gender in forests, we outline five persistent and inter-related themes: gendered governance, tree tenure, forest spaces, division of labor, and ecological knowledge. Each emerges across geographic regions in the northern and southern hemisphere and reflects inequities in women’s and men’s ability to make decisions about and benefit from trees, forests, and their products. Women’s ability to participate in community-based forest governance is typically less than men’s, causing concern for social equity and forest stewardship. Women’s access to trees and their products is commonly more limited than men’s, and mediated by their relationship with their male counterparts. Spatial patterns of forest use reflect gender norms and taboos, and men’s greater access to transportation. The division of labor results in gender specialization in the collection of forest products, with variations in gender roles across regions. All these gender differences result in ecological knowledge that is distinct but also complementary and shifting across the genders. The ways gender plays out in relation to each theme may vary across cultures and contexts, but the influence of gender, which intersects with other factors of social differentiation in shaping forest landscapes, is global.

  20. Fertilizing Douglas-fir forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard E. Miller; Roger D. Right

    1979-01-01

    This report supplements a slide-tape presentation of the same title. Part I of the report describes the current practice of nitrogen fertilization of Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon and the effects of this fertilization on tree growth and water quality. Part II discusses factors that affect costs and revenues from investments in forest...

  1. Unwelcome Guests: Extoic Forest Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun Jiang-Hua

    2002-01-01

    Exotic forest pests cost China and the United States billions of dollars each year. Current regulatory systems worldwide are over-whelmed with the increasing volume of international trade. Trade in nursery stock, wood products, pallets and dunnage have proven the most common means of transport for exotic forest pests. Despite our best efforts, pests such as chestnut...

  2. Carbon accumulation in European forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciais, P.; Schelhaas, M.J.; Zaehle, S.; Piao, S.L.; Cescatti, A.; Liski, J.; Luyssaert, S.; Le-Maire, G.; Schulze, E.D.; Bouriaud, O.; Freibauer, A.; Valentini, R.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    European forests are intensively exploited for wood products, yet they also form a sink for carbon. European forest inventories, available for the past 50 years, can be combined with timber harvest statistics to assess changes in this carbon sink. Analysis of these data sets between 1950 and 2000

  3. Forest restoration is forward thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Brian J. Palik; John A. Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    It is not surprising to us that the topic of forest restoration is being discussed in the Journal of Forestry. It is a topic frequently bantered about in the literature; a quick search in Google Scholar for "forest restoration" generates more than 1 million hits. A significant portion of the debate centers on the search for succinct, holistic, universally...

  4. Forest report 2017; Waldzustandsbericht 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-07-01

    This forest report of Lower Saxony (Germany) contains the following topics: Forestry Environment Monitoring (defoliation results of all tree species), weather and climate, insects and fungi, site information for the Federal Forest Inventory in Lower Saxony, infiltrated substances, development of soil acidification on intensive monitoring areas in northwestern Germany, and substrate group mottled sandstone.

  5. Trees of Our National Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Presented is a description of the creation of the National Forests system, how trees grow, managing the National Forests, types of management systems, and managing for multiple use, including wildlife, water, recreation and other uses. Included are: (1) photographs; (2) line drawings of typical leaves, cones, flowers, and seeds; and (3)…

  6. [Madison School Forests Ecology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison Public Schools, WI.

    Each of these three booklets is to be used in conjunction with a field trip in the Madison, Wisconsin area, and to serve as a guide for presenting the filmstrips for each excursion. "Madison School Forests" emphasizes plant succession in a natural oak community. "Three Layers of Green in the Madison School Forest" emphasizes…

  7. Gainesville's urban forest canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco Escobedo; Jennifer A. Seitz; Wayne Zipperer

    2009-01-01

    Ecosystem benefits from trees are linked directly to the amount of healthy urban forest canopy cover. Urban forest cover is dynamic and changes over time due to factors such as urban development, windstorms, tree removals, and growth. The amount of a city's canopy cover depends on its land use, climate, and people's preferences. This fact sheet examines how...

  8. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  9. Iowa's forest resources in 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl C. Leatherberry; Gary J. Brand; Steve Pennington

    2005-01-01

    Reports the initial results of all five annual panels (1999-2003) of the fourth inventory of Iowa`s forest resources, the first annual inventory of the State. Includes information on forest area; volume; biomass; growth, mortality, and removals; and health.

  10. Climate change and forest disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia H. Dale; Linda A. Joyce; Steve McNulty; Ronald P. Neilson; Matthew P. Ayres; Michael D. Flannigan; Paul J. Hanson; Lloyd C. Irland; Ariel E. Lugo; Chris J. Peterson; Daniel Simberloff; Frederick J. Swanson; Brian J. Stocks; Michael Wotton

    2001-01-01

    This article examines how eight disturbances influence forest structure, composition, and function, and how climate change may influence the severity, frequency, and magnitude of disturbances to forests. We focus on examples from the United States, although these influences occur worldwide. We also consider options for coping with disturbance under changing climate....

  11. Chapter 13: Water and Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeme Lockaby; Chelsea Nagy; James M. Vose; Chelcy R. Ford; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Pete Caldwell; Erika Cohen; Jennifer Moore Meyers

    2011-01-01

    Forest conversion to agriculture or urban use consistently causes increased discharge, peak flow, and velocity of streams. Subregional differences in hydrologic responses to urbanization are substantial. Sediment, water chemistry indices, pathogens, and other substances often become more concentrated after forest conversion. If the conversion is to an urban use, the...

  12. Forest Ecosystem services: Water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; James Vose; Travis Warziniack; Bill Holman

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA 2005), awareness has steadily grown regarding the importance of maintaining natural capital. Forest vegetation is a valuable source of natural capital, and the regulation of water quantity and quality is among the most important forest ecosystem services in many regions around the world. Changes in...

  13. Forest policy reform in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Bauch; E. Sills; L.C. Rodriguez Estraviz; K. McGinley; F. Cubbage

    2009-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, caused by economic, social, and policy factors, has focused global and national attention on protecting this valuable forest resource. In response, Brazil reformed its federal forest laws in 2006, creating new regulatory, development, and incentive policy instruments and institutions. Federal forestry responsibilities are...

  14. Fighting forest fires in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Carlos Mendes de Morais

    2013-01-01

    Fire has been used in Brazil for many years, but the increased use of this tool, combined with natural events and the presence of large forest and agricultural areas, has led to a significant jump in the number of forest fires, most of them caused by accident. To optimize existing resources and to cope with growing demand, action levels were adopted according to the...

  15. Forest Service Turns to NREL for Help Fighting Fires More Sustainably |

    Science.gov (United States)

    to need power," said Mike Ferris, public information officer for the Forest Service. "We're going to need phones and some sort of internet connectivity." Ferris said he's worked in fire camps bring in a caterer and a shower unit," Ferris said. "Both of those are going to need power. If

  16. Forest owners as fuelwood sellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripatti, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background features, goals of forest ownership, and forestry behaviour of forest owners who sell fuelwood are considered. The study is based on a sample of 4819 forest holdings collected by mail-inquiry in the 1999. The fuelwood assortments have not been segmented in the data, but fuelwood rerers to chopped firewood, poles, split firewood and chips sold during the period 1994-98. Also, the data does not bring out whether the forest owner has sold his or hers fuelwood straight to the end-user or to a professional trading merchant. The amount of forest owners who sold fuelwood at least once in the years 1994-98 was 33 000, i.e., 11 per cent of all private forest owners. The average sale quantity of fuelwood was 27 stacked cubic metres. The total amount sold fuelwood was 0.9 million stacked cubic metres or approximately 0.6 million solid cubic metres per year. The average size of forest holdings of forest owners who sell firewood was 59 hectares, so they clearly owned larger holdings than on average. The proportion farmers, men and owners who live in rural areas more often were also greater than on average. In addition, proportions of multiobjective, owners who underline both monetary and amenity benefits of their forest ownership, and self-employed forest owners, owners who underline timber sale revenues and self-employment opportunities in their forests, were greater than on average. As a timber sellers and as a silvicultural actors owners who sold fuelwood can be described as a self-initiating and active group of private forest owners. No less than 90 per cent of them made at least one commercial timber sale, and two-thirds at least one delivery sale in the years 1994-98. In addition, 58 per cent of forest holdings owned by fuelwood sellers carried out tending of young stands, and 60 per cent had harvested energy wood. These proportions were clearly greater than for forest holdings as an average. (orig.)

  17. Urban Forest Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucherova, Anastasia; Narvaez, Hana

    2018-03-01

    The tendency of the last 100 years shows the radical change of the proportion between urbanized areas and those dedicated to wild nature and agriculture. Whether we agree with it or not, cities are our future. Also it is confirmed by the annual reports of UNEP that cities are responsible for 75% of CO2 emissions. Among negative consequences of the uncontrolled urban sprawl on the ecology there are: greenhouse effect leading to global warming; increasingly growing number of people affected by respiratory diseases due to the smog; drastic reduction of the biodiversity. The environmental impact and the look of the city of the future is in the hands of the architects of today. At Stefano Boeri Architetti we are exploring one of the possible way of reducing the buildings' ecological footprint and improving the quality of air in cities. It is called "Vertical Foresting", an evolution of the revolutionary idea of bringing the trees to the sky, far beyond its first realization - it became a philosophy, a new lifestyle. But first of all, Vertical Forest is a big question mark, addressed to the global community, to the politicians and common people, asking each and every one living in our planet - what can you do for our common home?

  18. Analysis of Expectations of Forest Products Industry from Forest Industry Engineering Education

    OpenAIRE

    GEDİK, Tarık; ÇİL, Muhammet; SEVİM KORKUT, Derya; CEMİL AKYÜZ, Kadri; KOŞAR, Gökşen; BEKAR, İlter

    2016-01-01

    Forest industry engineers, representing the qualified labor within the forest products industry, choose their field of study either deliberately or by chance. This study explores the main skill sets of forest industry engineers required by forest products industry. As representatives of forest industry owner of forest products companies were surveyed about their views on the qualifications a forest industry engineer must have.This study covered total 7111 companies registered to TOBB as a for...

  19. The Influence of Forest Management Regimes on Deforestation in a Central Indian Dry Deciduous Forest Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Agarwal; Harini Nagendra; Rucha Ghate

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the impact of forest management regimes, with various degrees of restriction, on forest conservation in a dry deciduous Indian forest landscape. Forest change is mapped using Landsat satellite images from 1977, 1990, 1999, and 2011. The landscape studied has lost 1478 km2 of dense forest cover between 1977 and 2011, with a maximum loss of 1002 km2 of dense forest between 1977 and 1990. The number of protected forest areas has increased, concomitant with an increase in r...

  20. The need for forest decontamination: for the recovery of Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orita, Makiko; Fukushima, Yoshiko; Takamura, Noboru; Shunichi Yamashita

    2017-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) in 2011, the residential areas within the evacuation order areas around FDNPS were extensively decontaminated, but the need for forest decontamination remains controversial. Almost 70% of Fukushima prefecture is covered by forest, and forestry is one of the key industries there. From the perspective of forestry recovery and environmental preservation, Fukushima residents desire the further decontamination of forests; from the perspective of cost-effectiveness and priorities, however, this has both pros and cons(1). Bearing in mind the need to discuss priorities regarding the decontamination of forest, therefore, a radiation dose evaluation of foresters working in the FDNPS vicinity is important. This paper reports on the measurement of individual radiation doses by occupation in Kawauchi village (Figure 1a), which is located within 30 km from the FDNPS(2, 3), using the personal dosimeter (D-Shuttle"R, Chiyoda Technol Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Our results showed that estimated annual doses of 1.19 mSv/year (median) with a range of 0.71 1.89 among foresters, 0.97 (0.66 1.48) mSv/year for farmers, 0.94 (0.59 1.51) mSv/year for builders, 0.88 (0.54 1.48) mSv/year for officers, 1.01 (0.55 1.75) mSv/year for unemployed individuals and 0.98 (0.54 7.07) mSv/ year for decontamination workers (Figure 1b). Thus, the annual doses of foresters was not significantly higher than farmers, builders, officers and unemployed individuals, whereas those of decontamination workers were significantly higher than for other workers, including foresters, suggesting that in terms of protecting foresters from radiation, forest decontamination is not a high-priority policy in Fukushima. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends that for the protection of residents living in radio-contaminated areas during the recovery process, the justification of protection strategies goes far beyond the scope

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING LEGAL PROTECTION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Popescu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The first legislative concerns for the protection and exploitation of forests are occurring since the eighteenth century. Forest of the country has always been a priority for environmental policy. The institutional framework for forestry organization in Romania is represented mainly by the Ministry of Environment and National Administration of Forests – Romsilva. First Romanian Forest Code was adopted on 19 June 1881. In present, the main law governing the forest is given by Law No. 46 of March 19, 2008 (Forest Code. Forests are resources of interest economic, social, recreational, ecological and biological. Biodiversity conservation of forest ecosystems involves the sustainable management by applying intensive treatments that promote natural regeneration of species of fundamental natural forest type and forest conservation and quasi virgin. The main way to conserve forest ecosystems is represented by the establishment of protected areas of national interest.

  2. Governance Challenges in an Eastern Indonesian Forest Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Riggs

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated approaches to natural resource management are often undermined by fundamental governance weaknesses. We studied governance of a forest landscape in East Lombok, Indonesia. Forest Management Units (Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan or KPH are an institutional mechanism used in Indonesia for coordinating the management of competing sectors in forest landscapes, balancing the interests of government, business, and civil society. Previous reviews of KPHs indicate they are not delivering their potential benefits due to an uncertain legal mandate and inadequate resources. We utilized participatory methods with a broad range of stakeholders in East Lombok to examine how KPHs might improve institutional arrangements to better meet forest landscape goals. We find that KPHs are primarily limited by insufficient integration with other actors in the landscape. Thus, strengthened engagement with other institutions, as well as civil society, is required. Although new governance arrangements that allow for institutional collaboration and community engagement are needed in the long term, there are steps that the East Lombok KPH can take now. Coordinating institutional commitments and engaging civil society to reconcile power asymmetries and build consensus can help promote sustainable outcomes. Our study concludes that improved multi-level, polycentric governance arrangements between government, NGOs, the private sector, and civil society are required to achieve sustainable landscapes in Lombok. The lessons from Lombok can inform forest landscape governance improvements throughout Indonesia and the tropics.

  3. Proceedings of the California Forest Soils Council Conference on Forest Soils Biology and Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; Donald L. Hauxwell; Gary M. Nakamura

    2000-01-01

    Biotic properties of forest soil are the linkages connecting forest vegetation with an inert rooting medium to create a dynamic, functioning ecosystem. But despite the significance of these properties, managers have little awareness of the biotic world beneath their feet. Much of our working knowledge of soil biology seems anchored in myth and misunderstanding. To...

  4. Effects of Deforestation and Forest Degradation on Forest Carbon Stocks in Collaborative Forests, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Asheshwar MANDAL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some key drivers that favor deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, levels of carbon stock are affected in different parts of same forest types. But the problem lies in exploring the extent of the effects on level of carbon stocking. This paper highlights the variations in levels of carbon stocks in three different collaborative forests of same forest type i.e. tropical sal (Shorea robusta forest in Mahottari district of the central Terai in Nepal. Three collaborative forests namely Gadhanta-Bardibas Collaborative Forest (CFM, Tuteshwarnath CFM and Banke- Maraha CFM were selected for research site. Interview and workshops were organized with the key informants that include staffs, members and representatives of CFMs to collect the socio-economic data and stratified random sampling was applied to collect the bio-physical data to calculate the carbon stocks. Analysis was carried out using statistical tools. It was found five major drivers namely grazing, fire, logging, growth of invasive species and encroachment. It was found highest carbon 269.36 ton per ha in Gadhanta- Bardibash CFM. The findings showed that the levels of carbon stocks in the three studied CFMs are different depending on how the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation influence over them.

  5. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  6. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  7. Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    's normative power than any other academic journal, including a special issue on "What Kind of Power?" in 2006. As the leading journal in the debate, this special issue brings together seven normative power articles published in JEPP since the 2006 special issue, together with Ian Manners' ‘Normative power......The social sciences have many different understandings of ‘normative power', but in European Union (EU) studies normative power has three particular meanings. The first meaning of normative power is its emphasis on normative theory, that is, how we judge and justify truth claims in social science...... effects of EU relations with the world in areas ranging from inter-regional relations, through traditional diplomacy, to environmental politics. Research areas of particular interest include the study of the interplay between physical, material and normative forms of power, as well as the constitutive...

  8. Assessing the Potential for Renewable Energy on National Forest System Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-01-01

    This technical report and CD for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS), evaluates the potential for renewable energy resource development on National Forest System (NFS) lands. USFS can use the report findings to consider potential for development of solar and wind energy resources on NFS lands, in land management decisions. The Geographical Information System (GIS) based analysis resulted in the following findings: (1) Ninety-nine National Forest Units have high potential for power production from one or more of these solar and wind energy sources; and (2) Twenty National Forest Units in nine states have high potential for power production from two or more of these solar and wind energy sources.

  9. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  10. Hydrologic influences of forest vegetation in a changing world: Learning from Forest Service experimental forests, ranges, and watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas E. Lisle; Mary Beth Adams; Leslie M. Reid; Kelly Elder

    2010-01-01

    The importance of forests in providing reliable sources of clean water cannot be underestimated. Therefore, there is a pressing need to understand how hydrologic systems function in forested ecosystems, in response to a variety of traditional and novel stressors and environments. Long-term watershed research on Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) of the Forest...

  11. Power program and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    Main points of the USSR power program and the role of nuclear power in fuel and power complex of the country are considered. Data on dynamics of economic indices of electric power generation at nuclear power plants during 1980-1988 and forecasts till 2000 are presented. It is shown that real cost of 1 kW/h of electric power is equal to 1.3-1.8 cop., and total reduced cost is equal to 1.8-2.4 cop

  12. COMPLEX NETWORK SIMULATION OF FOREST NETWORK SPATIAL PATTERN IN PEARL RIVER DELTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zeng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest network-construction uses for the method and model with the scale-free features of complex network theory based on random graph theory and dynamic network nodes which show a power-law distribution phenomenon. The model is suitable for ecological disturbance by larger ecological landscape Pearl River Delta consistent recovery. Remote sensing and GIS spatial data are available through the latest forest patches. A standard scale-free network node distribution model calculates the area of forest network’s power-law distribution parameter value size; The recent existing forest polygons which are defined as nodes can compute the network nodes decaying index value of the network’s degree distribution. The parameters of forest network are picked up then make a spatial transition to GIS real world models. Hence the connection is automatically generated by minimizing the ecological corridor by the least cost rule between the near nodes. Based on scale-free network node distribution requirements, select the number compared with less, a huge point of aggregation as a future forest planning network’s main node, and put them with the existing node sequence comparison. By this theory, the forest ecological projects in the past avoid being fragmented, scattered disorderly phenomena. The previous regular forest networks can be reduced the required forest planting costs by this method. For ecological restoration of tropical and subtropical in south China areas, it will provide an effective method for the forest entering city project guidance and demonstration with other ecological networks (water, climate network, etc. for networking a standard and base datum.

  13. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They cover a wide spectrum of areas from power supplies to power system ... Ramanarayanan describe the modelling and design of a family of soft transition ... of power when the drive is operating in the braking mode and fast dynamic response. ... time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time ...

  14. Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Emergency Alerts Preparedness Portal Preparedness Messaging Calendar Social Media Preparedness Toolkits Preparedness News Languages About Us Build a Kit Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Power Outages Power Outages Extended power outages may impact ...

  15. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  16. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  17. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  18. The DESI Experiment Part I: Science,Targeting, and Survey Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamousa, Amir; et al.

    2016-10-31

    DESI (Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument) is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment that will study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure through redshift-space distortions with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey. To trace the underlying dark matter distribution, spectroscopic targets will be selected in four classes from imaging data. We will measure luminous red galaxies up to $z=1.0$. To probe the Universe out to even higher redshift, DESI will target bright [O II] emission line galaxies up to $z=1.7$. Quasars will be targeted both as direct tracers of the underlying dark matter distribution and, at higher redshifts ($ 2.1 < z < 3.5$), for the Ly-$\\alpha$ forest absorption features in their spectra, which will be used to trace the distribution of neutral hydrogen. When moonlight prevents efficient observations of the faint targets of the baseline survey, DESI will conduct a magnitude-limited Bright Galaxy Survey comprising approximately 10 million galaxies with a median $z\\approx 0.2$. In total, more than 30 million galaxy and quasar redshifts will be obtained to measure the BAO feature and determine the matter power spectrum, including redshift space distortions.

  19. Are Protected Forests of Bangladesh Prepared for the Implementation of REDD+? A Forest Governance Analysis from Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Habibur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the forest governance structure for REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation implementation in a protected forest of Bangladesh, namely Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS. The study analyses the key aspects of forest governance, focusing on drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, governance deficit, institutions and social networks, co-benefits, and opportunities and challenges of REDD+ in RKWS. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were used for primary data collection from different forest stakeholders, including forest-dependent communities, Forest Department (FD and co-management project staffs. The survey revealed that REDD+ not only on technical issues but even more on how the evolving mechanism is governed on various levels, ranging from local to international. Although a majority (69.5% of the respondents were motivated to engage in REDD+, indigenous communities were less interested in fear of loss of access to and use of land and forest resources, ownership and rights, and traditional customs and knowledge. There remained a degree of ambiguity of FD, community and co-management projects in field operations, which conflicted with the notions of cooperation, transparency, and accountability of the overall initiatives. Moreover, there is a strong local power structure that has major control over the community, locality and even over a local administration that is a crucial issue to the RKWS authority. However, REDD+ will open up the opportunity to manage the RKWS’s forest resources in a sustainable way, increase the level of protection, and expand the area protected, hence REDD+ must align with the interests of all stakeholders to fulfil its goal. Further research is necessary to inform the governance of REDD+ in Bangladesh to better understand the interplay, interactions and linkages between existing institutions, actors and policy processes.

  20. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.