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Sample records for luzon strait westward

  1. Numerical study on the interactions between the Kuroshio current in the Luzon Strait and a mesoscale eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Chun; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Zheng, Zhe-Wen

    2017-04-01

    The Luzon Strait (LS) connects the northwestern Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea (SCS) and is the western boundary gap for the Kuroshio current (KC). Satellite observations indicate that a cyclonic mesoscale eddy can trigger westward extension of the KC into the SCS and shed a smaller anticyclonic eddy to the west of the LS. We used a nonlinear reduced-gravity (primitive equation) model to study this phenomenon and analyzed the dynamic process. The location of the collision between the eddy and the KC could be critical for varying the circulation in the LS. The eddy's deformation rate, associated with its decaying speed, is also closely related to the location of the eddy during collision. When a cyclonic eddy moved from a region to the east of the Luzon Island toward the LS, the KC intruded into the SCS with growing negative vorticity during the collision of the eddy and KC. This tendency for negative vorticity is attributed to the beta effect and squeezing of the planetary vorticity caused by the flow divergence. As the eddy dissipated, the KC in the LS recovered its original pattern. When the collision of the eddy occurred at the center of the LS, the momentum balance of the KC loop was dominated by the inertial term, and the circulation in the LS remained in a leaping state.

  2. Eddy formation and surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area during the summer of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze; Hou, Yijun; Xie, Qiang

    2015-09-01

    The formation of mesoscale eddies and the structure of the surface flow field in the Luzon Strait area were examined using in-situ CTD data, Argo float data, and multi-satellite remote sensing data collected from May to August 2009. The results show that vigorous water exchange between Kuroshio water and South China Sea (SCS) water began to emerge over the 200 m water column throughout the strait. Based on an objective definition of surface currents, float A69 tracked an anti-cyclonic eddy southwest of Taiwan Island under a Lagrangian current measurement. The salinity inside the anti-cyclonic eddy was higher than in typical SCS water but lower than in Kuroshio mainstream water, indicating that this eddy was induced by Kuroshio frontal intrusion through the Luzon Strait and into the SCS. From hydrographic data, we propose that continuous horizontal diffusion with high-salinity characteristics in the subsurface layer could extend to 119°E or even further west. The high-temperature filament, large positive sea level anomaly and clockwise geostrophic current all confirmed the existence of this warm eddy in May and June. A strongly negative wind stress curl maintained the eddy until it died. The surface flow field during July and August was rather complicated. Float A83 described an east-west orientated shuttle run in the 20°N section that was not reported by previous studies. At the same time, float A80 indicated a Kuroshio bend into the north-central region of Luzon Strait but it did not cross 120.5°E. The water mass rejoining the Kuroshio mainstream from the southern tip of Taiwan Island was less saline, indicating an entrainment of water from SCS by the Kuroshio bend.

  3. Lagrangian Observations of Nonlinear Internal Waves and Turbulence Mixing in Luzon Strait and South China Sea and Internal Wave in the Vicinity of the Kuroshio Path

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lien, Ren-Chieh; D'Asaro, Eric A

    2008-01-01

    ... mixing in the northern South China Sea. Results are reported. The second was to analyze observations of data taken in the vicinity of the Kuroshio path from Luzon Strait to the southern East China Sea...

  4. Analysis of longer period variation of the Kuroshio Current intrusion into the Luzon Strait using rectified wavelet power spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yaochu; Yang, Chenghao; Tseng, Yu-heng; Zhu, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Huiqun; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-01

    Longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the Luzon Strait (LS) was identified using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) observations as well as pressure and temperature time series data recorded by two TDs (manufactured by the RBR Ltd.) at mooring station N2 (20°40.441‧N, 120°38.324‧E). The ADCP was deployed at depths of 50-300 m between July 7, 2009 and April 10, 2011, and the TDs at around 340 and 365 m between July 9, 2009 and July 9, 2011. Observations provide strong evidence of longer period variation of the Kuroshio into the LS using the Vector rotary spectra (VRS) and Rectified wavelet power spectra analysis (RWPSA). RWPSA of the observations allowed the identification of two types of dominant periods. The first type, with the strongest power spectral density (PSD), had a dominant period of 112 d and was found throughout the upper 300 m. For example, the maximum PSD for western and northern velocity components time series were 3800 and 3550 at 50 m, respectively. The maximum power spectral density decrease with deeper depths, i.e., the depth dependence of maximum PSD. The 112 d period was also identified in the pressure and temperature time series data, at 340 m and 365 m. Combined RWPSA with VRS and mechanism analysis, it is clear that the occurrence of the most dominant period of 112 d in the upper 300 m is related to the clockwise meandering of the Kuroshio into the LS, which is caused by westward propagating stronger anticyclonic eddies from the interior ocean due to the interaction of Rossby eddies with the Kuroshio. The second type of dominant period, for example a 40 d period, is related to the anticlockwise meandering of the Kuroshio. The final dominant period of 14 d coincides with the fortnightly spring-neap tidal period.

  5. Radioactive status of seawater and its assessment in the northeast South China Sea and the Luzon Strait and its adjacent areas from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Li; Li, Haitao; Zhao, Feng; Zheng, Yuanlai; Fang, Hongda; Lou, Quansheng; Cai, Weixu

    2018-06-01

    To understand the impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA), 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta were analyzed in the northeast South China Sea (NSCS), the Luzon Strait (LS) and its adjacent areas. 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta values in the NSCS were similar to those prior to the FNA. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the LS and its adjacent areas were consistent with those in the NSCS. The high 137 Cs-peak values occurred at depth of 150 m whereas the high 90 Sr-peak values occurred at depth of 0.5 m. The 137 Cs and gross beta mean values in Cruise I were higher than those in Cruise II whereas the 90 Sr mean value was just the reverse. 134 Cs in all seawater were below the minimum detectable activity. The past and present data since the 1970s suggested 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the study areas still originated from global fallout and the FNA influence were negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon strait assessed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis ... chain reaction (PCR)-amplified bacterial 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) gene fragments and interpreted the results; its relationship with physical and ...

  7. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  8. Structure and Variability of Internal Tides in Luzon Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    velocity, and (e) S9 meridional velocity. Black lines are isopycnal contours at approximately 500 -m intervals. Contour values (kgm23) are (1023.2, 1026.8...W., and C. Wunsch, 1998: Abyssal recipes II: Energetics of tidal and wind mixing. Deep-Sea Res. I, 45, 1977–2010, doi:10.1016/S0967-0637(98)00070-3

  9. Seismic Evidence of Ancient Westward Residual Slab Subduction Beneath Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Horng Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The northeastern convergence of the Philippine Sea plate toward the Eurasian plate causes the major western Philippine Sea plate boundary to subduct toward the northwest or west directions. However, this phenomenon is not clearly observed along the plate boundary between Luzon and Taiwan. Careful examination of deep seismicity in the southern Taiwan area from the earthquake catalog reported by the Central Weather Bureau shows two seismic zones dipping toward the opposing directions. The first dips toward the east from the surface down to 150 km in depth, while the second dips westward at depths between 150 and 200 km. These two seismic zones are confirmed further by seismogram observation and modeling results generated by two deep faults in the southern Taiwan area. The eastward seismic zone clearly results from the Eurasia plate subduction along the Manila trench, while a small section of the westward seismic zone might likely be a residual slab from the ancient subducted Philippine Sea plate. Based on the subduction speed obtained from GPS observations and the subducted Eurasian plate geometry, we can further estimate the eastward Eurasian plate subduction started at least 3.35 million years ago. This result is roughly consistent with the volcanic ages (3 - 4 Ma observed in the arc between Luzon and Taiwan.

  10. Uranium geochemical exploration in northwestern Luzon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Fernandez, L.; Ogena, M.; Tauli, G.

    1980-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical stream water and sediment survey which was conducted in northwestern Luzon was able to detect ten (10) uranium anomalous areas. These anomalous areas are located along a north-south trending zone of Miocene marine clastics and sedimentary rocks with tuffaceous sediment intercalations. In general, northwest Luzon has low radioactivity except for two anomalous areas which have 3 to 6 times background radioactivity. Radon anomalies occur in sparsely scattered locations. The anomalous zones appear to be related to major north-south faults and secondary northeast-southwest trending structures. Geochemical correlations between uranium and other elements such as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, cobalt and nickel are generally very poor. (author)

  11. Calaveras reversed: westward younging is indicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Harris, A.G.; Kistler, R.W.; Krauskopf, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of limestone collected from strata in the southern part of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada, which traditionally have been assigned to the Calaveras Formation, have yielded Early Triassic conodonts, and samples of metavolcanic rock indicate an Early Jurassic Rb-Sr age. These ages, together with general westward younging of units rather than with eastward younging as has been assumed until recently by many workers, chiefly on the basis of sparse oservations of bedding facings. The rocks are strongly deformed, and the possibility that tectonism rather than stratigraphic succession accounts for the age pattern cannot be dismissed.-Authors

  12. The summer-fall anticyclonic eddy west of Luzon: Structure and evolution in 2012 and interannual variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Fang, Wendong; Chen, Rongyu; Cai, Shuqun

    2017-08-01

    The Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements along 18°N off the western Luzon in the South China Sea (SCS), collected during a cruise from August 12-14, 2012, were used to explore the vertical structure of an anticyclonic eddy (AE) during the observational period. Further, the French Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) sea level anomaly (SLA) and corresponding anomalous surface geostrophic velocity were used to study the temporal evolution of the AE. The vertical structure of the AE along 18°N in August 2012 showed a trough located near 117.5°E. The AE extended vertically downward and its distinct feature was identifiable to 200 m depth. Seasonal variations of SLA indicate that the AE lasted for 5 months (June to early November), going through the growth and nearly stationary period from mid-June to late August and then propagating westward along 18°N with varying phase speeds and shapes to the continental slope off the southeastern Hainan Island during late September to November. Furthermore, T-S characteristics suggest that the AE was generated off the western Luzon. Interannual variations of the summer (July-September) SLA presented by Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, indicates that the local circulation was enhanced by the anomalous anticyclonic eddy along 18°N in the years of 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2013 during the period from1993 to 2014.

  13. Vegetation types on Mount Akiki, Northern Luzon, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bout, I.E.

    2002-01-01

    Mount Akiki (16° 37’ N, 120° 53’ E, c. 2760 m alt.) is one of the highest mountain peaks in the Cordillera mountain range, Luzon Island, Philippines. It is situated in the municipality of Benguet, north-east of Baguio City (a world famous tourist city in the region) and is north-west of Mt Pulog,

  14. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  15. Geology of the Zambales ophiolite, Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, D.L.; Castanada, G.C.; Bacuta, G.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Zambales ophiolite of western Luzon, Philippines, exposes a typical succession of basalt flows, diabasic dikes, gabbro and tectonized harzburgite. The age established by limiting strata is late Eocene. Lack of evidence of thrust faulting and the general domal disposition of the lithologie units indicate that the ophiolitic rocks are exposed by uplift. Highly complex internal layered structures within the complex are related to processes developed during formation of the ophiolite and the Zambales ophiolite may be one of the least disturbed (by emplacement) ophiolitic masses known. The exposed mass trends north and the upper surface plunges at low angles (a few degrees) to the north and south. The chemistry and composition of the rocks in the northwest part of the Zambales area (Acoje block) is distinct from that in the southeastern segment (Coto block). The Acoje block, according to Evans (1983) and Hawkins and Evans (1983), resembles (on a chemical basis) arc-tholeiite series rocks from intra-island arcs and the rocks in the Coto block are typical back-arc basin rock series. The present writer believes that the ophiolite composes a single genetic unit and that the changes in composition are the result of changes that took place during the initial formation. The gabbro probably formed below a spreading center in an elongate, in cross section, V-shaped, magma chamber. The gabbro is estimated by the writer to be less than 2 km thick and may be less than 1 km in places. Numerous erosional windows through the gabbro in the northern and eastern side of the Zambales area show that the gabbro remaining in those areas is likely to be only a few hundred meters thick. Harzburgite is exposed to a depth of about 800 m in the Bagsit River area and this may be the deepest part of the ophiolite accessible for study on which there is any control on depth. A transitional zone, about 200 m thick lying between the gabbro and harzburgite, is composed of serpentinized dunite

  16. Reconnaisance geochemical survey of heavy minerals in Northern Luzon, Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.; Seguis, J.E.; Fernandez, L.G.

    1983-07-01

    A reconnaissance sampling was undertaken in northern Luzon to study the distribution of uranium as well as copper, lead, zinc, manganese, silver, cobalt and nickel in heavy minerals. The average background and threshold values of the elements were determined. Uranium content in the heavy mineral was low, in the order of 0.5-0.6 ppm U. Three uranium anomaly zones were delineated in Malanas Rever-Licuan area, Abra, Itogon, Benguet and Bambang, Nueva Viscaya, all within the Central Cordillera. The anomalous zones appeared to be related to copper-gold mineral areas. Geochemical correlations between uranium and the other elements were generally poor. (author)

  17. An analytical study of M2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Fang, Guohong; Cui, Xinmei; Teng, Fei

    2018-02-01

    The tides in the Taiwan Strait (TS) feature large semidiurnal lunar (M2) amplitudes. An extended Taylor method is employed in this study to provide an analytical model for the M2 tide in the TS. The strait is idealized as a rectangular basin with a uniform depth, and the Coriolis force and bottom friction are retained in the governing equations. The observed tides at the northern and southern openings are used as open boundary conditions. The obtained analytical solution, which consists of a stronger southward propagating Kelvin wave, a weaker northward propagating Kelvin wave, and two families of Poincaré modes trapped at the northern and southern openings, agrees well with the observations in the strait. The superposition of two Kelvin waves basically represents the observed tidal pattern, including an anti-nodal band in the central strait, and the cross-strait asymmetry (greater amplitudes in the west and smaller in the east) of the anti-nodal band. Inclusion of Poincaré modes further improves the model result in that the cross-strait asymmetry can be better reproduced. To explore the formation mechanism of the northward propagating wave in the TS, three experiments are carried out, including the deep basin south of the strait. The results show that the southward incident wave is reflected to form a northward wave by the abruptly deepened topography south of the strait, but the reflected wave is slightly weaker than the northward wave obtained from the above analytical solution, in which the southern open boundary condition is specified with observations. Inclusion of the forcing at the Luzon Strait strengthens the northward Kelvin wave in the TS, and the forcing is thus of some (but lesser) importance to the M2 tide in the TS.

  18. The Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Bureau of Minerals and Petroleum (BMP) is planning for further exclusive licences for exploration and exploitation of hydrocarbons in the Greenland off shore areas of Davis Strait. To support the decision process BMP has asked DCE - Danish Centre for Environment and Energy and the Greenland I...

  19. Plasma sheet instability related to the westward traveling surge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roux, A.; Perraut, S.; Robert, P.; Morane, A.; Pedersen, A.; Korth, A.; Kremser, G.; Aparicio, B.; Rodgers, D.; Pellinen, R.

    1991-01-01

    The detailed analysis of an isolated dispersionless substorm is performed on the basis of field and particle data collected in situ by the geostationary satellite GEOS 2 and of data from ground-based instruments installed close to the GEOS 2 magnetic footprint. These data give evidence for (1) quasi-periodic variations of the magnetic field configuration, which is alternatively taillike and dipolelike, (2) in-phase oscillations of the flux of energetic electrons, which is high when the configuration is dipolelike and vice versa, (3) a gradient in the flux of energetic ions, which is, on the average, earthward but undergoes large fluctuations around this average direction, and (4) large transient fluctuations of the quasi-dc electric field, which reverses its direction from eastward to westward. It is shown that these results are consistent with the development of an instability which leads to a westward propagating wave. The source of the instability is the differential drift of energetic electrons and ions in a highly stressed magnetic field configuration (in a high β plasma). Evidence is given for a system of localized field-aligned currents flowing alternately earthward and equatorward at the leading and trailing edges of the westward propagating wave. This current system resulting from the temporal development of the instability produces the so-called Pi 2 pulsations, at the ionospheric level. The closure of this current system in the equatorial region leads to a current antiparallel to the tail current, and therefore to its reduction or cancellation. This reduction/cancellation of the tail current restores the dipole magnetic field (dipolarization) and generates a large westward directed induced electric field (injection)

  20. Operational Art of Maritime Straits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowell, James P

    2008-01-01

    .... Given the expanding role of asymmetric warfare in littoral sea control and the growing importance of strait integrity in the global economy, understanding the intricacies of operational factors...

  1. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanjargal, G.

    2013-01-01

    We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t) entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991...

  2. The Study of Westward Drift in the Main Geomagnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bayanjargal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have obtained a solution for the velocity of westward drift from the induction equation in which an approach for main geomagnetic field was built. Distribution functions B(r, t entered into the induction equation have been built by the observatories' data in North America and the Europe from 1991 to 2006. The longitudinal −0.123 degree/year and latitudinal 0.068 degree/year drifts were defined in North America. And the longitudinal −0.257 degree/year drift was defined in Europe from 1991 to 2006. These drifts are similar to results of other studies.

  3. Westward ionospheric currents over the dip equator during geomagnetic disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    During geomagnetic disturbed periods, the q type of sporadic E layer near the dip equator is shown to disappear with maximum error of five minutes during the period when the difference of the geomagnetic H field between the equatorial and non-equatorial station decreases below the night level. These periods are identified with the reversal to westward direction of the electrojet currents at the base of the E region around 100 km level irrespective of the changes in the S/subq/ current system which might be produced by the disturbance

  4. A westward extension of the warm pool leads to a westward extension of the Walker circulation, drying eastern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.P.; Funk, Chris [University of California, Santa Barbara, Geography Department, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Observations and simulations link anthropogenic greenhouse and aerosol emissions with rapidly increasing Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Over the past 60 years, the Indian Ocean warmed two to three times faster than the central tropical Pacific, extending the tropical warm pool to the west by {proportional_to}40 longitude (>4,000 km). This propensity toward rapid warming in the Indian Ocean has been the dominant mode of interannual variability among SSTs throughout the tropical Indian and Pacific Oceans (55 E-140 W) since at least 1948, explaining more variance than anomalies associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In the atmosphere, the primary mode of variability has been a corresponding trend toward greatly increased convection and precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean. The temperature and rainfall increases in this region have produced a westward extension of the western, ascending branch of the atmospheric Walker circulation. Diabatic heating due to increased mid-tropospheric water vapor condensation elicits a westward atmospheric response that sends an easterly flow of dry air aloft toward eastern Africa. In recent decades (1980-2009), this response has suppressed convection over tropical eastern Africa, decreasing precipitation during the 'long-rains' season of March-June. This trend toward drought contrasts with projections of increased rainfall in eastern Africa and more 'El Nino-like' conditions globally by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Increased Indian Ocean SSTs appear likely to continue to strongly modulate the Warm Pool circulation, reducing precipitation in eastern Africa, regardless of whether the projected trend in ENSO is realized. These results have important food security implications, informing agricultural development, environmental conservation, and water resource planning. (orig.)

  5. Reversal of subtidal dune asymmetries caused by seasonally reversing wind-driven currents in Torres Strait, northeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.

    1991-07-01

    Large subtidal sand dunes (sandwaves) located in Adolphus Channel, Torres Strait, have been observed to reverse their asymmetric orientation between September-February. This has been attributed to a reversal in wind-driven currents, which flow westward during the SE trade season (April-November) and eastwards during the NW monsoon season [December-March: HARRIS (1989) Continental Shelf Research, 9, 981-1002]. Observations in September 1988 and February 1989 from another area of dunes in Torres Strait corroborate this asymmetry reversal pattern. The results indicate that such reversals may be common in Torres Strait and in other areas where subtidal bedforms are subject to modification by superimposed, seasonally reversing, wind-driven currents.

  6. Geodynamic evolution of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt since the late eocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Jean François; Blanchet, René; Rangin, Claude; Pelletier, Bernard; Letouzey, Jean; Muller, Carla

    1986-05-01

    The structural framework of the Taiwan-Luzon-Mindoro belt (or festoon) is described, following three major transects: the Luzon transect with active subduction and active island arc; the Taiwan transect with active collision; the Mindoro transect with active subduction and inactive collision. Based on this geological study and on available geophysical data, a model for the geodynamic evolution of this portion of the Philippine Sea and Eurasia Plates boundary is proposed in a succession of reconstructions between the Late Eocene and the Present. The major geodynamic events are: (1) beginning of the opening of the South China Sea (S.C.S.) in Lower Oligocene times, contemporaneous with obduction of the Zambales and Angat ophiolites on Luzon. (2) subduction of a Mesozoic (?) oceanic basin along the proto-Manila trench from the Upper Oligocene to the Lower Miocene. (3) obduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust onto the Chinese and Reed Bank—Calamian passive margins in Middle Miocene time (14-15 Ma) related to a major kinematic reorganization (end of opening of the S.C.S.). (4) beginning of collision between the Luzon microblock and the two margins of the S.C.S. in the Upper Miocene (~ 7 Ma); collision is still active in Taiwan whereas it stopped in Mindoro during the Pliocene.

  7. Seasonal variability of water transport through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high-resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béranger, K.; Mortier, L.; Crépon, M.

    2005-08-01

    The variability of the water transport through three major straits of the Mediterranean Sea (Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica) was investigated using a high-resolution model. This model of the Mediterranean circulation was developed in the context of the Mercator project. The region of interest is the western Mediterranean between the Strait of Gibraltar and the Strait of Sicily. The major water masses and the winter convection in the Gulf of Lions were simulated. The model reproduced the meso-scale and large-scale patterns of the circulation in very good agreement with recent observations. The western and the eastern gyres of the Alboran Sea were observed but high interannual variability was noticed. The Algerian Current splits into several branches at the longitude of the Strait of Sicily level, forming the Tyrrhenian branch, and, the Atlantic Ionian Stream and the Atlantic Tunisian Current in the eastern Mediterranean. The North Current retroflexed north of the Balearic Islands and a dome structure was observed in the Gulf of Lions. The cyclonic barotropic Algerian gyre, which was recently observed during the MATER and ELISA experiment, was evidenced in the simulation. From time-series of 10-day mean transport, the three straits presented a high variability at short time-scales. The transport was generally maximum, in April for the Strait of Gibraltar, in November for the Strait of Sicily, and in January for the Strait of Corsica. The amplitudes of the transport through the Straits of Gibraltar (0.11 Sv) and Sicily (0.30 Sv) presented a weaker seasonal variability than that of the Strait of Corsica (0.70 Sv). The study of the relation between transport and wind forcing showed that the transport through the Strait of Gibraltar is dependent on local zonal wind over short time-scales (70%), which was not the case for the other straits (less than 30%). The maximum (minimum) of the transport occurred for an eastward (westward) wind stress in the strait. An interannual

  8. Soviet Carriers in Turkish Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-31

    NATO from breakup in the Southern Region and their countries from war in 1974.8 PASOK (Socialist Party of Greece ) political rhetoric no:withstanding...Mudania on 11 October 1922 established the present borders I between Greece and Turkey. This marked the real end of World War I in the Middle East. The...e.g., Eastern Thrace) to Turkey. Greece kept the islands of the Aegean, but those near the Straits (e.g., Lemnos) were demilitarized. The Treaty of

  9. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    OpenAIRE

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Seismic probing of the earth’s deep interior has shown that the inner core, the solid core of our planet, rotates slightly faster (i.e., eastward) than the rest of the earth. Quite independently, observations of the geomagnetic field provide evidence of westward-drifting features at the edge of the liquid outer core. This paper describes a computer model that suggests that the geomagnetic field itself may provide a link between them: The associated electromagnetic torque currently is westward...

  10. Characteristics of the development of the westward electrojet during the expansive phase of magnetospheric substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiens, R.G.; Rostoker, G.

    1975-01-01

    By use of high-, mid-, and low-latitude magnetograms it is concluded that the westward expansion of the substorm westward electrojet is not continuous but takes place as a series of discrete steps or jumps. The substorm is pictured as consisting of the sequential development of a series of westward electrojets, which we have labeled a 'substorm sequence.' The westward electrojets develop in succession at intervals of about 10 min in such a way that each new electrojet appears to the northwest of the previous one. Associated with the westward jumps of substorm activity are enhancements in the growth rate of a ring or cross-tail current. These enhancements are concurrent with the onset of the westward electrojets and occur to the west of that sector which is presently undergoing its initial onset of substorm activity. Each substorm intensification is accompanied by a response in the adjacent sector to the west, consistent with the signatures of growth suggested by McPherron (1972) and Iijima and Nagata (1972). We suggest that growth may be stimulated by the same mechanism which triggers the expansion phase and that the energy responsible for ensuing substorm intensifications in the evening sector is made available in this fashion

  11. Stratigraphic units overlying the Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) in Luzon, (Philippines): Tectonostratigraphic significance and regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queaño, Karlo L.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Marquez, Edanjarlo J.; Faustino-Eslava, Decibel V.; Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The Zambales Ophiolite Complex (ZOC) on the island of Luzon, Philippines is one of the most well-studied crust-mantle sequences in the region. Several massifs comprise the ZOC, one of which is the Coto Block overlain by clastic sedimentary units previously dated as Eocene. Geochronologic studies from diabase, granodiorites and other late-stage magmatic products similarly yielded the same age. Succeeding tectonic models have therefore all been grounded on the assumption that the entire ZOC is Eocene. Recent investigations, however, revealed the presence of chert blocks within the Early to Middle Miocene clastic formation overlying the Acoje Block in the northern part of the ophiolite complex. Radiolarians extracted from the cherts yielded a stratigraphic range that suggests a Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous age. The recognition of a much older age than previously reported of the ZOC warrants a re-examination of its actual distribution and genesis. Correlating with other similarly-aged ophiolites, we suggest defining a western Mesozoic ophiolite belt, largely extending from the west-central portion of the archipelago to the northeastern tip of Luzon island. Tentatively, we attribute the Mesozoic ophiolitic and associated rocks in western Luzon to an arc-continent collision involving the Philippine Mobile Belt and the Palawan Microcontinental Block. In addition, differences in the clastic compositions of the Cenozoic sedimentary formations provide material not only for deciphering the ZOC's unroofing history but also for constraining the timing of province linkage. The intermittent appearance of lithic fragments and detrital minerals from the ophiolite in the units of the Middle Miocene Candelaria Limestone and the Late Miocene to Early Pliocene Sta. Cruz Formation indicates significant but geographically variable contributions from the ophiolite complex. In the northern Zambales Range, the Sta. Cruz Formation caps the Coto Block and the Acoje Block of the ZOC

  12. FEEDING ECOLOGY OF TREE-CLIMBING MANGROVE SESARMID CRABS FROM LUZON, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMMY TEVAR MASAGCA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large ecological study of tree-climbing mangrove sesarmid crabs in other countries, the Philippine representatives appear to have not been investigated extensively. This paper presents the feeding ecology as to dependence on mangrove trees of sesarmids in different mangrove areas of southern Luzon. This is biased on the nature of the crab habitats, arboreal climbing skills and burrowing behavior of the sesarmids: Selatium elongatum and Episesarma versicolor − exclusive mangrove tree climbers (EMTC; Sarmatium germaini − occasional mangrove tree climber (OMTC; and the non-mangrove tree-climbing (NMTC sesarmids- Neosarmatium smithii, Perisesarma bidens and Perisesarma eumolpe

  13. SuperDARN Hokkaido radar observation of westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Westward flow enhancement in subauroral latitudes is investigated based on the first one and a half year observation of the SuperDARN Hokkaido radar. A total of 15 events are identified with the criteria of westward flow speed of >1.0 km/s in magnetic latitude from 45 to 65 deg during geomagnetically disturbed period of Kp>3+ at 20 magnetic local time. It is found that especially during the storm recovery phase, the flow enhancement occurs in broad range of Dst amplitude, and the occurrence latitude depends on the amplitude of Dst. It is also found that the disturbed Kp condition is not sufficient for the appearance of the subauroral flow enhancement as seen by Hokkaido radar while storm-like Dst condition is necessary, supporting the idea that ring current particles play an essential role to enhance the westward flow in subauroral latitudes via magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the field-aligned current.

  14. Farmers’ Preference for Rice Traits: Insights from Farm Surveys in Central Luzon, Philippines, 1966-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Paguirigan, Neale C.; Moya, Piedad F.; Nelson, Andrew; Sparks, Adam H.; Gregorio, Glenn B.

    2015-01-01

    Many modern rice varieties (MVs) have been released but only a few have been widely adopted by farmers. To understand farmers’ preferences, we characterized MVs released in the Philippines from 1966 to 2013 and identified important characteristics of the varieties that were widely adopted in Central Luzon using farm surveys conducted in 1966–2012. We found that farmers adopt MVs that are high yielding, mature faster, and have long and slender grains, high milling recovery, and intermediate amylose content. The amylose content of adopted varieties has been declining, suggesting value in developing softer rice. To have a high potential for adoption, new MVs should have characteristics within the ranges of values observed for the adopted MVs. In addition, new MVs should have higher head rice recovery, less chalky grains, and better resistance to pests and diseases. Most MVs released in 2005–2013 compared poorly in these three traits. To reduce the risk of severe outbreaks, broad spectrum resistance should be incorporated into new MVs. This analysis of five decades of farm surveys provides insights into the varietal characteristics preferred by farmers which could contribute to the establishment of a product profile for developing improved MVs that are more targeted and, hence, would have high potential for adoption by farmers in Central Luzon and similar areas. We recommend a similar analysis be done in other major rice growing regions to aid the development of MVs that are more responsive to farmers’ needs and preferences. PMID:26317505

  15. Development of the Philippine Mobile Belt in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shigeyuki; Peña, Rolando E.; Tam, Tomas A.; Yumul, Graciano P.; Dimalanta, Carla B.; Usui, Mayumi; Ishida, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The origin of the Philippine Archipelago is characterized by the combination of the oceanic Philippine Mobile Belt (PMB) and the Palawan Continental Block (PCB). This paper is focused on the geologic evolution of the PMB in northern Luzon from Eocene to Pliocene. The study areas (northern Luzon) are situated in the central part of the PMB which is occupied by its typical components made up of a pre-Paleocene ophiolitic complex, Eocene successions, Eocene to Oligocene igneous complex and late Oligocene to Pliocene successions. Facies analysis of the middle Eocene and late Oligocene to early Pliocene successions was carried out to understand the depositional environment of their basins. Modal sandstone compositions, which reflect the basement geology of the source area, were analyzed. Major element geochemistry of sediments was considered to reconstruct the tectonic settings. The following brief history of the PMB is deduced. During the middle Eocene, the PMB was covered by mafic volcanic rocks and was a primitive island arc. In late Eocene to late Oligocene time, the intermediate igneous complex was added to the mafic PMB crust. By late Oligocene to early Miocene time, the PMB had evolved into a volcanic island arc setting. Contributions from alkalic rocks are detected from the rock fragments in the sandstones and chemical composition of the Zigzag Formation. During the middle Miocene to Pliocene, the tectonic setting of the PMB remained as a mafic volcanic island arc.

  16. Equatorial westward electrojet impacting equatorial ionization anomaly development during the 6 April 2000 superstorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Ildiko; Lovell, Brian C.

    2013-11-01

    investigate the forward plasma fountain and the equatorial ionosphere in the topside region during the 6 April 2000 superstorm in the Australian sector at ~0900 LT. Space- and ground-based multi-instrument measurements, Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere Electrodynamics (CTIPe) simulations, and field-aligned observations comprise our results. These reveal an unusual storm development during which the eastward prompt penetration electric (E) field (PPEF) developed and operated under the continuous effects of the westward disturbance dynamo E-field (DDEF) while large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) traveled equatorward and generated strong equatorward wind surges. We have identified the eastward PPEF by the superfountain effect causing the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)'s development with crests situated at ~±28°N (geomagnetic) in the topside ionosphere at ~840 km altitude. The westward DDEF's occurrence is confirmed by mapping the "anti-Sq" current system wherein the equatorial westward current created a weak long-lasting westward electrojet event. Line plots of vertical drift data tracked large-scale TIDs. Four scenarios, covering ~3.5 h in universal time, demonstrate that the westward DDEF became superimposed on the eastward PPEF. As these E-fields of different origins became mapped into the F region, they could interact. Consequently, the eastward PPEF-related equatorial upward E × B drift became locally reduced by up to 75 m/s near the dip equator by the westward DDEF-related equatorial downward E × B drift. Meanwhile, the EIA displayed a better development as equatorial wind surges, reproduced by CTIPe, increased from 501 to 629 m/s, demonstrating the crucial role of mechanical wind effects keeping plasma density high.

  17. Wintertime westward-traveling planetary-scale perturbations over the Euro-Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doblas-Reyes, F.J. [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA, Madrid (Spain); Pastor, M.A.; Casado, M.J. [Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia, Madrid (Spain); Deque, M. [CNRM, Meteo-France, Toulouse (France)

    2001-07-01

    The features of the wintertime westward-traveling planetary scale perturbations over the Euro-Atlantic region are examined through the use of space-time spectral analysis applied to the 500 hPa geopotential height field. The intention is to understand the nature of these phenomena and the performance of climate models. Data from both ECMWF re-analyses and a simulation from the ARPEGE general circulation model are used. Westward-traveling planetary scale transients are found over the region as local perturbations resembling Rossby normal modes, with a maximum power over the Eastern Atlantic. The westward-traveling planetary scale transients north of 40 {sup circle} N have periods larger than 20 days. South of this latitude, wave periods are shifted to a band around 10 days, so that they can be related to subtropical transient waves. The atmospheric model used, like other models which exhibit reasonable mean climatic properties, tend to have less overall intraseasonal variability than observed. Nevertheless, the model is able to capture most of the features of the westward-traveling low-frequency transients. The differences in basic state, partially produced by scale interactions, would lead to the generation of westward-traveling waves in the model distinct from the observed. However, it is suggested that the improvement of the present model version with regard to previous model versions is due to a better simulation of the time-mean state. The reasonable simulation of the synoptic-scale variability south of 50 {sup circle} N, and thus of its barotropic forcing on the basic state, may also help to explain the realistic westward-traveling transients in the model. (orig.)

  18. Observational evidence for westward propagation of temperature inversions in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Durand, F.; Shetye, S.R.; Rajan, C.K.; Johnson, Z.; Araligidad, N.; Michael, G.S.

    2002 to April 2003 show that temperature inversions occur off the southwest coast of India in early December with the arrival of low-salinity waters from the Bay of Bengal. The low-salinity waters and the inversions propagate westward along...

  19. Westward Extension of the Lionfish Pterois volitans Linnaeus, 1758 along the Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gokoglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One red lionfish (Pterois volitans was caught in the Gulf of Antalya on October 15th 2016. The present study, seconf record of P. volitans was reported in the coast of the Antalya Bay, Turkey. Our study shows that P. volitans westward extension along to Turkey Mediterranean coasts.

  20. Intraseasonal variability and tides in Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanto, R. Dwi; Gordon, Arnold L.; Sprintall, Janet; Herunadi, Bambang

    2000-05-01

    Intraseasonal variability and tides along the Makassar Strait, the major route of Indonesian throughflow, are investigated using spectral and time-frequency analyses which are applied to sea level, wind and mooring data. Semidiurnal and diurnal tides are dominant features, with higher (lower) semidiurnal (diurnal) energy in the north compared to the south. Sea levels and mooring data display intraseasonal variability which are probably a response to remotely forced Kelvin waves from the Indian Ocean through Lombok Strait and to Rossby waves from the Pacific Ocean. Sea levels in Tarakan and Balikpapan and Makassar mooring velocities reveal intraseasonal features with periods of 48-62 days associated with Rossby waves from the Sulawesi Sea. Kelvin wave features with periods of 67-100 days are seen in Bali (Lombok Strait), at the mooring sites and in Balikpapan, however, they are not seen in Tarakan, which implies that these waves diminish after passing through the Makassar Strait.

  1. Strait of Georgia chinook and coho fishery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Argue, A. W

    1983-01-01

    The chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon fishery in the Strait of Georgia, between Vancouver Island and the mainland of British Columbia, is a valuble sport and commercial resource...

  2. Biogeochemical cycling in the Taiwan Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, H.; Chen, C-T.A.

    Based on repeat observations made during 2001-2003 along two transects in the Taiwan Strait this study aims at understanding factors controlling primary productivity with an emphasis on biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, the major bio...

  3. Sulfide geochemical survey in Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte (Southern Luzon), Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1979-07-01

    Sulfide geochemical activation analysis survey was conducted in Southern Luzon, Philippines. Trace elements in the rocks of Dawahan, Larap, Camarines Norte, particularly in the sulfide fraction of the rocks were determined and correlated in the search for mineral deposits in the project area. The study has shown that the Cu, V, Co, Pb, Mn, Zn, Ni, Au, Ag and As distributions in Dawahan are log normal with Cu, As and V having an excess of low values. There is a direct relationship between the mineralizations of Ag and Pb with Cu mineralization. Fair geochemical correlations were observed between Cu-Zn, Cu-As and Cu-Co. Low negative or inverse correlation exists between Cu-Mn, Cu-V and Cu-Au. Silver is a good pathfinder for copper deposits in Dawahan and adjacent areas and most probably including the Paracale mining district

  4. Predisposition Factors of Students’ Choice in Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources (AFNR Courses (Luzon Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ROMEO C. CLEMENTE

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is an inquiry into the motivational, personality, and extrinsic variables as factors affecting students’ predisposition in their career choice for agriculture, fisheries and forestry. It features empirical facts generally reflective of the recent conditions of public and private Higher Education Institutions (as NUCAFs, PIAs and PIFs identified by NAFES-CHED and DA of Luzon, Philippines vis-à-vis problems and reasons of continuous decline in the subscription of Filipino students for AFNR courses. Subsumed in the notable findings for Luzon area (i.e., most enrollees and their parents are marginalized; most mothers who are mere housekeepers heavily influence children’s disposition; most professional AFNR parents and enrollees’ siblings who are now AFNR professionals poorly influence them to take the same course; scholarship grants or free tuition fee as a prime way out to finish college education; personal ideal expectation of students for the government to provide promising local employment; common social motive to participate in addressing problems on food security for the continuously increasing population; economic motive to shorter waiting time for employment; SUCs feel obliged to expand curriculum offering to non-AFNR courses to survive institutional fiscal constraints; dearth of educationally qualified faculty and administrators; campaign for the AFNR curriculum programs as effective strategy to improve enrolment rate; low passing rate in AFNR board examinations due to low participation rate, expensive requirements of review, generic contents of examination, and deficiency on the quality and quantity of facilities/equipment and library holdings in most AFNR State Colleges/Universities served as framework of reference for the formulation of proposed education policy reforms/measures and advocacy interventions designed to spur interest in AFNR courses.

  5. Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Altadill

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  6. Six-day westward propagating wave in the maximum electron density of the ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Altadill

    Full Text Available Analyses of time-spatial variations of critical plasma frequency foF2 during the summer of 1998 reveal the existence of an oscillation activity with attributes of a 6-day westward propagating wave. This event manifests itself as a global scale wave in the foF2 of the Northern Hemisphere, having a zonal wave number 2. This event coincides with a 6-day oscillation activity in the meridional neutral winds of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT. The oscillation in neutral winds seems to be linked to the 6–7-day global scale unstable mode westward propagating wave number 1 in the MLT. The forcing mechanisms of the 6-day wave event in the ionosphere from the wave activity in the MLT are discussed.

    Key words. Ionosphere (Ionosphere-Atmosphere interactions; Mid-latitude Ionosphere – Meterology and atmospheric dynamics (waves and tides

  7. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth's core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth's core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth's inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497-502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core.

  8. Electromagnetically driven westward drift and inner-core superrotation in Earth’s core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Philip W.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Jackson, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A 3D numerical model of the earth’s core with a viscosity two orders of magnitude lower than the state of the art suggests a link between the observed westward drift of the magnetic field and superrotation of the inner core. In our model, the axial electromagnetic torque has a dominant influence only at the surface and in the deepest reaches of the core, where it respectively drives a broad westward flow rising to an axisymmetric equatorial jet and imparts an eastward-directed torque on the solid inner core. Subtle changes in the structure of the internal magnetic field may alter not just the magnitude but the direction of these torques. This not only suggests that the quasi-oscillatory nature of inner-core superrotation [Tkalčić H, Young M, Bodin T, Ngo S, Sambridge M (2013) The shuffling rotation of the earth’s inner core revealed by earthquake doublets. Nat Geosci 6:497–502.] may be driven by decadal changes in the magnetic field, but further that historical periods in which the field exhibited eastward drift were contemporaneous with a westward inner-core rotation. The model further indicates a strong internal shear layer on the tangent cylinder that may be a source of torsional waves inside the core. PMID:24043841

  9. Volcanism in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, M. R.

    Back-arc and marginal basins make up a significant portion of the earth's crust and they can represent the transition from continental to oceanic crust. The Bransfield Strait is a young marginal basin of the arc-trench system that lies off the northwestern edge of the Antarctic Peninsula. The strait is about 65 km wide and has a maximum water depth of 2000 m. "Active" volcanoes in the Bransfield Strait include two seamounts, which are south of the eastern end of King George Island, and three island volcanoes — Penguin, Deception, and Bridgeman Islands. Alkaline and calc-alkaline suites occur on these islands, and the seamounts are composed of tholeiites and basaltic andesites. This diversity is similar to that found in some back-arc basins, but the Bransfield Strait basalts as a group cannot be classified as back-arc basin or island-arc basalts. The diverse rock types and the chemical similarity of some of the Bransfield Strait basalts to ophiolite basalts suggests that some ophiolites were generated in back-arc basins.

  10. Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae, Brachymeles elerae (Taylor, 1917: Rediscovery in Old Balbalan, Cordillera Mountain Range, Luzon Island, Philippines, and natural history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siler, C. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachymeles elerae (Taylor 1917 is one of 18 recognized lizard species of Brachymeles, and is one of only twospecies known to possess four digits on the fore- and hind limbs. This unique species was originally described on thebasis of two specimens, both lacking locality data, and has long been presumed to occur in the Nueva Vizcaya Provincein the north central region of Luzon Island in the Philippines. In 1920, two additional specimens were collected from theMunicipality of Balbalan of Luzon by E. H. Taylor. All subsequent reviews of the genus have been based on this material. Ireport on the first records of Brachymeles elerae in over ninety years and present the first photograph and new data onmorphology and habitat.

  11. Constraint on the magma sources in Luzon Island Philippines by using P and S wave local seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghia, N. C.; Huang, B. S.; Chen, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    The subduction of South China Sea beneath the Luzon Island has caused a complex setting of seismicity and magmatism because of the proposed ridge subduction and slab tearing. To constrain the validity of slab tearing induced by ridge subduction and their effect, we performed a P and S wave seismic tomography travel time inversion using LOTOS code. The dataset has been retrieved from International Seismological Centre from 1960 to 2008. A 1D velocity inverted by using VELEST with a Vp/Vs ratio of 1.74 is used as the starting input velocity for tomographic inversion. Total of 20905 P readings and 8126 S readings from 2355 earthquakes events were used to invert for velocity structure beneath Luzon Island. The horizontal tomographic results show low-velocity, high Vp/Vs regions at the shallow depth less than 50 km which are interpreted as the magmatic chambers of the volcanic system in Luzon. At the suspected region of slab tearing at 16oN to 18oN, two sources of magma have been indentified: slab window magma at shallow depth (< 50 km) and magma induced by mantle wedge partial melting from higher depth. This slab melting may have changed the composition of magmatic to become more silicic with high viscosity, which explains the volcanic gap in this region. At the region of 14oN to 15oN, large magma chambers under active volcanos are identified which explain the active volcanism in this region. Contrast to the region of slab tearing, in this region, the magma chambers are fed by only magma from partial melting of mantle wedge from the depth higher than 100 km. These observations are consistent with previous work on the slab tearing of South China Sea and the activities of volcanism in the Luzon Island.

  12. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankert, Stanley [Department of Applied Science, University of California - Davis (United States)

    1970-05-15

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration.

  13. Torres Strait: A channel clearing project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankert, Stanley

    1970-01-01

    The Torres Strait is a reef-laden stretch of water lying south of New Guinea and north of the tip of the Cape York Peninsula of northeastern Australia. Because of its location and geologic structure it is particularly hazardous to shipping, and limits passage through the area. It was suggested that nuclear explosives might be used to create a safe shipping channel through the strait, and in this paper that possibility will be explored. While the construction of the Torres Strait Channel appears feasible from both a technical and an economic point of view, a great deal of further research will have to be done in a number of areas. The Channel would be a great economic boost to northwestern Australia and to trade between southeast Asia and Australia, but its effect on the Great Barrier Reef and the people of the region will require serious consideration

  14. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  15. An ethnomycological survey of macrofungi utilized by Aeta communities in Central Luzon, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Leon AM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Questionnaires and formatted interviews were used to determine mushrooms used as food and as materials for societal rituals and beliefs among six Aeta communities in three provinces of Central Luzon, Northern Philippines. Thirty-eight different fungi were utilized by the Aeta communities: 21 in Pampanga, 10 in Tarlac, and 19 in Zambales. Fourteen fungal species were collected and identified based on their morphological characters: Auricularia auricula, A. polytricha, Calvatia sp., Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus tigrinus, L. sajor-caju, Mycena sp., Pleurotus sp., Schizophyllum commune, Termitomyces clypeatus, T. robustus, Termitomyces sp. 1, Termitomyces sp. 2, and Volvariella volvacea. Twelve of the identified macrofungi were consumed as food while Ganoderma lucidum and Mycena sp. were used as house decoration and medicine, respectively. The Aeta communities also performed rituals prior to the collection of these mushrooms, including tribal dancing, praying and kissing the ground. Their indigenous beliefs regarding mushrooms are also documented. This is the most extensive enthnomycological study on the Aeta communities in the Philippines.

  16. Batek: Traditional Tattoos and Identities in Contemporary Kalinga, North Luzon Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analyn Ikin V. Salvador-Amores

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early 16th century, traditional tattooing is widespread in the Philippines, but very little is known or written about the practice. Sources for the study of traditional tattoos in Northern Luzon are very inadequate and merely make vague statements on the function and symbolic meaning of tattoos, as well as the relationship between the practice and culture as a whole. The statements likewise reveal a distinctly ethnocentric deportment. Until today, tattooing and tattoo designs in the Cordilleras are best understood within the context of headhunting. Headhunting was the only known reason for tattooing, and, to this day, no one knows exactly what tattoos signify. This paper provides insights into the roles and functions of the tattoos, and how the tattoos (batek become cultural symbols of the intricate rituals brought about by community regimens of the Ilubo, Kalinga. No longer practiced, the batek of the Ilubo is a visually powerful rendering of symmetry and unity of designs. Batek now serve as an archive of culture for the group.

  17. Bottom fauna of the Malacca Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parulekar, A.H.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Bottom fauna of Malacca Strait (connecting the Indian Ocean with Pacific) in the depth range of 80 to 1350 m, is dominated by meiofauna which exceeds macrofauna by 12.5 times in weight and by more than 780 times in population density. Standing crop...

  18. Seasonal changes and driving forces of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Qiao, Fangli; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on analyzing seasonal variation of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait that greatly affect the marine environment in the Bohai Sea, using observational data including sea bed mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler currents, CTD salinity data on deck, sea level anomalies of coastal tide gauge stations, and climatological monthly sea level anomalies from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data. Our results show three patterns of outflow and inflow through the Bohai Strait. The first is such that outflow and inflow occur respectively in the southern and northern parts of the strait, as in the traditional understanding. Our results suggest that this pattern occurs only in autumn and winter. Beginning in late September, Ekman currents driven by the northwesterly monsoon carry Bohai Sea water that piles up in the southern part of that sea and then exits eastward to the Yellow Sea. In this process, the pressure and current fields are continuously adjusted, until a quasi balance state between wind stress, Coriolis force and pressure gradient force is reached in winter. Inflow with a compensating property through the northern channel is close to the outflow through the southern channel in winter. The second pattern is a single inflow in spring, and the current and pressure fields are in adjustment. In early spring, the northwesterly monsoon ceases, Yellow Sea water enters the Bohai Sea under the pressure gradient force. With southeasterly monsoon establishment and strengthening, northern Yellow Sea water continually flows into the Bohai Sea and causes sea level rise northward. In the third pattern, outflow is much greater than inflow in summer. The currents run eastward in the central Bohai Sea and then enter the northern Yellow Sea through the northern channel and upper layer of the southern channel, while a westward current with a compensating property enters via the lower layer of the southern channel. Larger

  19. Inner Core Rotation from Geomagnetic Westward Drift and a Stationary Spherical Vortex in Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, C. V.

    1999-01-01

    The idea that geomagnetic westward drift indicates convective leveling of the planetary momentum gradient within Earth's core is pursued in search of a differentially rotating mean state, upon which various oscillations and secular effects might be superimposed. The desired state conforms to roughly spherical boundary conditions, minimizes dissipative interference with convective cooling in the bulk of the core, yet may aide core cooling by depositing heat in the uppermost core and lower mantle. The variational calculus of stationary dissipation applied to a spherical vortex within the core yields an interesting differential rotation profile akin to spherical Couette flow bounded by thin Hartmann layers. Four boundary conditions are required. To concentrate shear induced dissipation near the core-mantle boundary, these are taken to be: (i) no-slip at the core-mantle interface; (ii) geomagnetically estimated bulk westward flow at the base of the core-mantle boundary layer; (iii) no-slip at the inner-outer core interface; and, to describe magnetic locking of the inner core to the deep outer core, (iv) hydrodynamically stress-free at the inner-outer core boundary. By boldly assuming the axial core angular momentum anomaly to be zero, the super-rotation of the inner core is calculated to be at most 1.5 degrees per year.

  20. Multiple severe typhoons in recent history revealed by coral boulders of northwestern Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Shou-Yeh; Wu, Tso-Ren; Liu, Sze-Chieh; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Siringan, Fernando; Lin, Han-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Meter-sized coral boulders occurred on Holocene reef flat at Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte and Cabugao, Ilocos Sur, Philippines. Boulders larger than 3 meters were located and measured by field survey and UAV photogrammetry. Boulders now distributed 45-140 m away from edge of Holocene reef flat, and above highest high tide. The lithology of those boulders is the same as the underlying Holocene coral reef at the sites, hence believed to be broken from reef edge locally. Fossil corals in those boulders mostly appeal not in upward-growing attitude but overturned or tilted. Several tens of photos were taken around selected boulders from different angles, and 3D models were established from the photos. Dimension and volumes were calculated from 3D models. Boulder volumes can be estimated much more accurately this way than simply multiple X, Y, and Z as many previous studies did. The volumes of boulders larger than 3 m in length vary from 10-52.6 m3. Assuming 2.1 g/cm3 for wet density, weights of boulders are estimated to range from 21-110 metric tons. Boulders of such size and weight obviously can't be moved by normal waves, and likely dislodged by Extreme Wave Event (EWE). Small and well-preserved corals were found in depressions on boulder surface and interpreted to represent timing of final displacement. Corals found on seven boulders at Pasuquin were 230Th dated to be 1782, 1904, 1946, 1957, 1978 and 2003 AD respectively. No tsunami was reported in historical records in northern Luzon for those years, but several documented typhoons could be responsible for displacement of each of those boulders. Another Porites boulder at Cabugao was dated to be tilted five times from 673-838 AD, averaging one EWE every 33 years. Such frequent occurrence of EWE is unlikely resulted from tsunami. Therefore, those coral boulders at Pasuquin and Cabugao are interpreted to be displaced by severe typhoons.

  1. THE STATUS OF MOLLUSK DIVERSITY AND PHYSICAL SETTING OF THE MANGROVE ZONES IN CATANDUANES ISLAND, LUZON, PHILIPPINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIMMY T. MASAGCA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The status of mollusk diversity and physical setting of mangrove areas in Catanduanes island, Luzon (Philippines are described. A total of 57 species of mollusks, consisting of 27 gastropods and 30 bivalves were recorded in the island. Registering higher values of species diversity indices (Margalef and species richness (Menhinick are the prosobranch, Terebralia sulcata; corbiculid bivalve, Geloina coaxans; potamidiids, Cerithidea cingulata and Cerithidea rhizophorarum; and two other species of the genus Littorina (Littorinopsis. Using the physiographic model, majority of the mangrove areas under study follow the composite river and wave-dominated setting with some few areas having the wave-dominated, tide-dominated allochthonous setting.

  2. The Sidebands of the Equatorial Electrojet: General Characteristic of the Westward Currents, as Deduced From CHAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun-Liang; Lühr, Hermann; Alken, Patrick

    2018-02-01

    Based on 5 years (2001-2005) of magnetic field measurements made by the CHAMP satellite, latitudinal profiles of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) have been derived. This study provides a comprehensive characterization of the reverse current EEJ sidebands. These westward currents peak at ±5° quasi-dipole latitude with typical amplitudes of 35% of the main EEJ. The diurnal amplitude variation is quite comparable with that of the EEJ. Similarly to the EEJ, the intensity is increasing with solar EUV flux, but with a steeper slope, indicating that not only the conductivity plays a role. For the longitude distribution we find, in general, larger amplitudes in the Western than in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is presently a common understanding that the reverse current EEJ sidebands are generated by eastward zonal winds at altitudes above about 120 km. In particular, a positive vertical gradient of wind speed generates westward currents at magnetic latitudes outside of 2° dip latitude. Interesting information about these features can be deduced from the sidebands' tidal characteristics. The longitudinal variation of the amplitude is dominated by a wave-1 pattern, which can primarily be attributed to the tidal components SPW1 and SW3. In case of the hemispheric amplitude differences these same two wave-1 components dominate. The ratio between sideband amplitude and main EEJ is largely controlled by the tidal features of the EEJ. The longitudinal patterns of the latitude, where the sidebands peak, resemble to some extent those of the amplitude. Current densities become larger when the peaks move closer to the magnetic equator.

  3. Accidental Risk Analyses of the Istanbul and Canakkale Straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essiz, Betül; Dagkiran, Berat

    2017-12-01

    Maritime transportation plays an important role in the world. Commercial transport and navy are international maritime activities in different countries. Thanks to the role of straits and channels, these activities can be easier and faster, Turkey has a crucial importance on it because of importance of geographical location. The Turkish Straits are a series of internationally significant waterways connecting Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. They consist of the Canakkale Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and the Istanbul Strait, all part of the sovereign sea territory of Turkey and subject to the regime of internal waters. They are conventionally considered by the boundary between the continents of Europe and Asia. Because of this geographical importance, all kinds of huge sized vessel activities and high volume cargo transportation always keep going in this waterway. On the other hand, the more maritime activities grow the more accident risks increase. So, can be examined the accident risks on Istanbul and Canakkale Straits and can be assessed risk analysis for them. In the context of the study, one can see general information of the Turkish Straits and the regulatory regime. In addition, tables are applied for vessel movement in the Turkish Straits by years in detail in order to sense variation of the vessel. Risk analyses may also be described in sections with many variables. This paper outlines ship accidents and the risk analysis of ship accidents is applied and resulted for the Turkish Straits. The last chapter concerns the Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) System in the Turkish Straits.

  4. Vertical slab sinking and westward subduction offshore of Mesozoic North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigloch, Karin; Mihalynuk, Mitchell G.

    2013-04-01

    Subducted slabs in the mantle, as imaged by seismic tomography, preserve a record of ancient subduction zones. Ongoing debate concerns how direct this link is. How long ago did each parcel of slab subduct, and where was the trench located relative to the imaged slab position? Resolving these questions will benefit paleogeographic reconstructions, and restrict the range of plausible rheologies for mantle convection simulations. We investigate one of the largest and best-constrained Mesozoic slab complexes, the "Farallon" in the transition zone and lower mantle beneath North America. We quantitatively integrate observations from whole-mantle P-wave tomography, global plate reconstructions, and land geological evidence from the North American Cordillera. These three data sets permit us to test the simplest conceivable hypothesis for linking slabs to paleo-trenches: that each parcel of slab sank only vertically shortly after entering the trench That is, we test whether within the limits of tomographic resolution, all slab material lies directly below the location where it subducted beneath its corresponding arc. Crucially and in contrast to previous studies, we do not accept or impose an Andean-style west coast trench (Farallon-beneath-continent subduction) since Jurassic times, as this scenario is inconsistent with many geological observations. Slab geometry alone suggests that trenches started out as intra-oceanic because tomography images massive, linear slab "walls" in the lower mantle, extending almost vertically from about 800 km to 2000+ km depth. Such steep geometries would be expected from slabs sinking vertically beneath trenches that were quasi-stationary over many tens of millions of years. Intra-oceanic trenches west of Mesozoic North America could have been stationary, whereas a coastal Farallon trench could not, because the continent moved westward continuously as the Atlantic opened. Overlap of North American west-coast positions, as reconstructed in a

  5. Occurrence of 1 ka-old corals on an uplifted reef terrace in west Luzon, Philippines: Implications for a prehistoric extreme wave event in the South China Sea region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Noelynna T.; Maxwell, Kathrine V.; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Chou, Yu-Chen; Duan, Fucai; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Satake, Kenji

    2017-12-01

    Recent 230Th dating of fossil corals in west Luzon has provided new insights on the emergence of late Quaternary marine terraces that fringe west Luzon Island facing the Manila Trench. Apart from regional sea level changes, accumulated uplift from aseismic and seismic processes may have influenced the emergence of sea level indicators such as coral terraces and notches. Varied elevations of middle-to-late Holocene coral terraces along the west Luzon coasts reveal the differential uplift that is probably associated with the movement of local onland faults or upper-plate structures across the Manila Trench forearc basin. In Badoc Island, offshore west of Luzon mainland, we found notably young fossil corals, dated at 945.1 ± 4.6 years BP and 903.1 ± 3.9 years BP, on top of a 5-m-high reef platform. To constrain the mechanism of emergence or emplacement of these fossil corals, we use field geomorphic data and wave inundation models to constrain an extreme wave event that affected west Luzon about 1000 years ago. Our preliminary tectonic and tsunami models show that a megathrust rupture will likely lead to subsidence of a large part of the west Luzon coast, while permanent coastal uplift is attributed to an offshore upper-plate rupture in the northern Manila Trench forearc region. The modeled source fault ruptures and tsunami lead to a maximum wave height of more than 3 m and inundation distance as far as 2 km along the coasts of western and northern Luzon. While emplacement of coral boulders by an unusually strong typhoon is also likely, modeled storm surge heights along west Luzon do not exceed 2 m even with Typhoon Haiyan characteristics. Whether tsunami or unusually strong typhoon, the occurrence of a prehistoric extreme wave event in west Luzon remains an important issue in future studies of coastal hazards in the South China Sea region.

  6. National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Education Strategy 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Council, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Despite determined effort much more needs to be done to close the gap in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are the first Australians with the oldest continuing cultures in human history. Governments across Australia affirm the right of Aboriginal and Torres Islander people to…

  7. Westward equatorial electrojet during daytime hours. [relation to geomagnetic horizontal field depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of the depression of the geomagnetic horizontal field during the daytime hours of magnetically quiet days at equatorial stations is described. These events are generally seen around 0700 and 1600 LT, being more frequent during the evening than the morning hours. The evening events are more frequent during periods of low solar activity and in the longitude region of weak equatorial electrojet currents. The latitudinal extent of the phenomenon is limited to the normal equatorial electrojet region, and on some occasions the phenomenon is not seen at both stations, separated by only a few hours in longitude. During such an event, the latitudinal profile of the geomagnetic vertical field across the equator is reversed, the ionospheric drift near the equator is reversed toward the east, the q type of sporadic E layer is completely absent, and the height of the peak ionization in the F2 region is decreased. It is suggested that these effects are caused by a narrow band of current flowing westward in the E region of the ionosphere and within the latitude region of the normal equatorial electrojet, due to the reversal of the east-west electrostatic field at low latitudes.

  8. Sea state indices for a coastal strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmrich, Johannes; Dewey, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The Strait of Georgia at the west coast of Canada is an enclosed coastal strait, about 250km long and 25 to 50 km wide, with great socio-economic importance. Regular freighter traffic, ferry services, commercial and sport fisheries, and recreational boating, makes the area one of the busiest marine areas in the world. Waves in SoG are generally small, with the median value of the significant wave height Hs=0.3m. However, strong outflows off the mountainous terrain can generate significant wave heights Hs > 2.5m, with high spatial and temporal variability. In addition, strong tidal currents and the Fraser River outflow generate localized regions of steep and breaking waves that are of particular concern. We have implemented the Wavewatch III model at 500m-resolution, forced by Environment Canada's high resolution atmospheric model winds and currents from the UBC NEMO implementation of the Salish Sea. The final output combines GIS layers of the predicted wave field (Hs, dominant wave length and direction), the modeled wind field and currents, observed currents from a set of CODAR systems, and a sea state index that highlights regions of potentially steep and dangerous waves.

  9. Greening the Grid: Solar and Wind Grid Integration Study for the Luzon-Visayas System of the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, Clayton P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Katz, Jessica R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cochran, Jaquelin M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maclaurin, Galen J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marollano, Mark C. [Dept. of Energy of the Philippines, Taguig (Philippines); Gabis, Mary G. [Dept. of Energy of the Philippines, Taguig (Philippines); Reyes, Noriel C. [Dept. of Energy of the Philippines, Taguig (Philippines); Munoz, Kenneth J. [Dept. of Energy of the Philippines, Taguig (Philippines); Jesus, Clarita D. [Dept. of Energy of the Philippines, Taguig (Philippines); Asedillo, Nielson [Grid Management Committee (GMC), Inc., Pasig City (Philipines); Binayug, Jake [Grid Management Committee (GMC), Inc., Pasig City (Philipines); Cubangbang, Hanzel [National Grid Corporation of the Philippines, Metro Manila (Philippines); Reyes, Rommel [National Grid Corporation of the Philippines, Metro Manila (Philippines); de la Vina, Jonathan [Philippine Electricity Market Corporation, Pasig City (Phillipines); Olmedo, Edward [Philippine Electricity Market Corporation, Pasig City (Phillipines); Leisch, Jennifer [United States Agency for International Development, Washington DC (United States)

    2018-01-24

    The Republic of the Philippines is home to abundant solar, wind, and other renewable energy (RE) resources that contribute to the national government's vision to ensure sustainable, secure, sufficient, accessible, and affordable energy. Because solar and wind resources are variable and uncertain, significant generation from these resources necessitates an evolution in power system planning and operation. To support Philippine power sector planners in evaluating the impacts and opportunities associated with achieving high levels of variable RE penetration, the Department of Energy of the Philippines (DOE) and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) have spearheaded this study along with a group of modeling representatives from across the Philippine electricity industry, which seeks to characterize the operational impacts of reaching high solar and wind targets in the Philippine power system, with a specific focus on the integrated Luzon-Visayas grids.

  10. Ichthyoplankton gut analysis with relevance to prey availability in the waters of Lamon Bay, northeastern Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollozos, I.; Yniguez, A. T.; Palermo, J. H.; Cabrera, O. C.; Villanoy, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The waters in the eastern part of Luzon are highly influenced by the western boundary current system of the western Pacific brought about by the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current into the Kuroshio and Mindanao Current. Eddies are formed with varying intensities as an effect of the ENSO cycle. Three spatial zones were identified according to prominent current movements and circulations observed during the summer 2011 and 2012 oceanographic cruises. These events also affect the productivity in the surrounding waters. Plankton samples were collected to determine the relative abundances of major groups representing three trophic levels. The abundance and composition of phyto- and zooplankton major groups slightly varied among the zones. Gut analysis of fish larvae was then conducted to determine potential prey preference and linked to the phyto- and zooplankton densities.

  11. Preliminary study of internal wave effects to chlorophyll distribution in the Lombok Strait and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Yessy; Oshima, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of internal wave in the Lombok Strait to chlorophyll distribution in the surrounded areas using ERS SAR, ASTER, SeaWiFS and AVHRR-NOAA images data during 1996-2004 periods. The observation results shows that the internal waves were propagated to the south and the north of strait and mostly occurred during transitional season from dry to wet and wet season (rainy season) between September to December when the layers are strongly stratified. Wavelet transform of image using Meyer wavelet analysis is applied for internal wave detection in ERS SAR and ASTER images, for symmetric extension of data at the image boundaries, to prevent discontinuities by a periodic wrapping of data in fast algorithm and space-saving code. Internal wave created elongated pattern in detail and approximation of image from level 2 to 5 and retained value between 2-4.59 times compared to sea surface, provided accuracy in classification over than 80%. In segmentation process, the Canny edge detector is applied on the approximation image at level two to derive internal wave signature in image. The proposed method can extract the internal wave signature, maintain the continuity of crest line while reduce small strikes from noise. The segmentation result, i.e. the length between crest and trough, is used to compute the internal wave induced current using Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. On ERS SAR data contains surface signature of internal wave (2001/8/20), we calculated that internal wave propagation speed was 1.2 m/s and internal wave induced current was 0.56 m/s, respectively. From the observation of ERS SAR and SeaWiFS images data, we found out that the distribution of maximum chlorophyll area at southern coastline off Bali Island when strong internal wave induced current occurred in south of the Lombok Strait was distributed further to westward, i.e. from 9.25°-10.25°LS, 115°-116.25°SE to 8.8°-10.7°LS, 114.5°-116°SE, and surface chlorophyll concentration

  12. The bottom water exchange between the Singapore Strait and the West Johor Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunfang; Eltahir, Elfatih; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    2017-08-01

    As a part of the border between Singapore and Malaysia, the West Johor Strait (WJS) suffered newly from harmful algal blooms. There is no previous study showing the source of the nutrients in the WJS. This paper is investigating the possible water exchange between the water in the WJS and the bottom water in Singapore Strait. This paper adopts a two-level nesting atmosphere-ocean coupled models to downscale the global atmosphere-ocean model into the Singapore coastal water, keeping the large-scale and long-term ocean and climate circulation signals and the advantages of the high-resolution. Based on the high-resolution ocean circulation fields, a Lagrangian particle tracking model is used to trace the Singapore Strait's bottom water movement and the water mixing in the WJS. The results showed that the numerical models well resolved the Singapore coastal water regional circulation. There is a small but significant bottom water (1.25%) transport from the Singapore Strait to the WJS, which occurs from the southwest coastline of Singapore. The bottom water in the Singapore Strait prefers to enter the WJS during the spring tide and the flood period, and stay in Johor Strait for 6.4 days. The spring tide is the first-order factor for the water vertical mixing in the WJS, the wind is also very important for the vertical mixing especially in neap tide condition. An overall very important factor is the light perturbation. With the strongest vertical mixing of nutrients and bottom sediments due to the spring tide, the latter ones may inhibit the light penetration during the spring tide and reduce the algal bloom. The light penetration otherwise is greater during the neap tide, when the winds are the most important factor and hence favor the algal bloom. With the strongest wind in February and the longest permanence time in June and the sufficient nutrient supply in February and June, the most serious algal blooms may happen in February and June in the WJS.

  13. Zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete volcanic sequences restored in the Coastal Range of Taiwan are key archives for better understanding the magmatic and tectonic evolution of the Northern Luzon Arc. This paper reports (1 new zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data of fourteen volcanic samples from different sequences of four major volcanoes in the Coastal Range, (2 Hf isotopic data of dated magmatic and detrital zircons from two offshore volcanic islands, Lutao and Lanyu. These data indicate that the arc magmatism in the Coastal Range started at ~15 Ma, most active at ~9 Ma, and ceased at ~4.2 Ma. Magmatic zircons from the arc rocks show a significant variation in Hf isotopic composition, with εHf(T values varying from +24.9 to +4.8. As pointed out by our previous studies, old continental zircons that show Cathaysian-type ages and Hf isotope features are common in samples from the Yuemei, Chimei, and Lanyu volcanoes, supporting the notion for the influence of the existence of an accreted micro-continent or continental fragment plays a role in the petrogenesis. Such inherited zircons are not observed in the Chengkuang’ao and Tuluanshan volcanoes and uncommon in Lutao, implying the discontinuity or a limited extent of the accreted continental fragment. The εHf(T values are high and positive from ~15 - 8 Ma (+25 to +15; ±5ε-unit variation, and became lower from ~6 to 4.2 Ma (+20 to +8; ±6ε units and the lowest from ~1.3 Ma (+19 to +5; ±7ε units. Such a temporal variation in zircon Hf isotopic ratios can be also identified in whole-rock Hf and Nd isotopic compositions, which decrease from ~6 Ma when the Northern Luzon Arc may have started colliding with the Eurasian continental margin.

  14. On the Nocturnal Downward and Westward Equatorial Ionospheric Plasma Drifts During the 17 March 2015 Geomagnetic Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagiya, Mala S.; Vichare, Geeta; Sinha, A. K.; Sripathi, S.

    2018-02-01

    During quiet period, the nocturnal equatorial ionospheric plasma drifts eastward in the zonal direction and downward in the vertical direction. This quiet time drift pattern could be understood through dynamo processes in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere. The present case study reports the nocturnal simultaneous occurrence of the vertically downward and zonally westward plasma drifts over the Indian latitudes during the geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015. After 17:00 UT ( 22:10 local time), the vertical plasma drift became downward and coincided with the westward zonal drift, a rarely observed feature of low latitude plasma drifts. The vertical drift turned upward after 18:00 UT, while the zonal drift became eastward. We mainly emphasize here the distinct bipolar type variations of vertical and zonal plasma drifts observed around 18:00 UT. We explain the vertical plasma drift in terms of the competing effects between the storm time prompt penetration and disturbance dynamo electric fields. Whereas, the westward drift is attributed to the storm time local electrodynamical changes mainly through the disturbance dynamo field in addition to the vertical Pedersen current arising from the spatial (longitudinal) gradient of the field aligned Pedersen conductivity.

  15. Strait of Juan de Fuca 1 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This...

  16. Atmospheric forcing of salinity in the overflow of Denmark Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Holfort

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal evolution of the characteristics of Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW is reconstructed using hydrographic data and compared with possible atmospheric forcing mechanisms. It is concluded that the main factor influencing the DSOW characteristics at a time scale of one to several years is the difference in mean sea level pressure across Denmark Strait or, in other words, the wind along Denmark Strait. At these time scales upstream changes in the characteristics of the different water masses involved in the formation of DSOW are only of minor importance. The main process responsible for the observed salinity changes in the DSOW is mixing in Denmark Strait. Triggered by the wind, different water masses contribute with changing amounts to the formation of DSOW, leading to the observed changes in the salinity of DSOW.

  17. Strait of Juan de Fuca 36 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 36-second Strait of Juan de Fuca Washington Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 36-second resolution in geographic coordinates....

  18. Holocene earthquakes of magnitude 7 during westward escape of the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Alan R.; Personius, Stephen; Wells, Ray; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Buck, Jason; Reitman, Nadine G.

    2017-01-01

    Mountains by north‐directed, margin‐parallel shortening and westward escape of the mountains.

  19. Temporal geochemical trends in northern Luzon arc lavas (Philippines): implications on metasomatic processes in the island arc mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, R.C.; Bellon, H.; Jacques, D.; Defant, J.; Joron, J.L.; Mcdermott, F.; Vidal, Ph.

    1998-01-01

    Neogene and Quaternary lavas from Batan, Babuyan de Claro, Camiguin and Calayan islands (northern Luzon arc) display temporal increases in incompatible elements including Cs, Rb, Ba, K, La, Ce, Th, U, Ta, Hf and Zr from volcanoes older than 3 Ma to younger ones. These enrichments occur either within a single island (Batan) or within an island group (from Calayan to Camiguin and Babuyan). We show that these enrichments result from incompatible element input into the mantle wedge rather than from partial melting or fractionation effects. The fact that highly incompatible elements display temporal enrichment patterns in Batan lavas whatever their chemical properties indicates that hydrous fluids are not the only metasomatic agents operating in the mantle wedge and that slab-derived melts (adakitic magmas) may also be involved. The coupled temporal variation patterns of large ion lithophile elements and Sr-Nd isotopes suggest that the metasomatic budgets beneath the southern group of islands are mainly controlled by hydrous fluids inputs. In contrast, young Batan lavas likely derive from a mantle source mostly metasomatized by adakitic magmas. (authors)

  20. Detection of a westward hotspot offset in the atmosphere of hot gas giant CoRoT-2b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Lisa; Cowan, Nicolas B.; Schwartz, Joel C.; Rauscher, Emily; Zhang, Michael; Knutson, Heather A.; Line, Michael; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Deming, Drake; Sundararajan, Sudarsan; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Zhao, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Short-period planets exhibit day-night temperature contrasts of hundreds to thousands of kelvin. They also exhibit eastward hotspot offsets whereby the hottest region on the planet is east of the substellar point1; this has been widely interpreted as advection of heat due to eastward winds2. We present thermal phase observations of the hot Jupiter CoRoT-2b obtained with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. These measurements show the most robust detection to date of a westward hotspot offset of 23 ± 4°, in contrast with the nine other planets with equivalent measurements3-10. The peculiar infrared flux map of CoRoT-2b may result from westward winds due to non-synchronous rotation11 or magnetic effects12,13, or partial cloud coverage, that obscure the emergent flux from the planet's eastern hemisphere14-17. Non-synchronous rotation and magnetic effects may also explain the planet's anomalously large radius12,18. On the other hand, partial cloud coverage could explain the featureless dayside emission spectrum of the planet19,20. If CoRoT-2b is not tidally locked, then it means that our understanding of star-planet tidal interaction is incomplete. If the westward offset is due to magnetic effects, our result represents an opportunity to study an exoplanet's magnetic field. If it has eastern clouds, then it means that a greater understanding of large-scale circulation on tidally locked planets is required.

  1. Beyond dire straits: a view from the conservation perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, T. [Marine and Coastal Community Network, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    As a stretch of water, Bass Strait is often considered a place to be bridged, but in reality it has been treated as a bit of a road, a road without many rules, a road to profit and loss. If this stretch of water should have taught anything, it should have been the consequences of unchecked resource extraction. The Australian fur seal, the southern elephant seal, the southern right whale are just a few examples. Recent examples also suggest that there is some distance to go in the management of renewable resources at sustainable levels. In reality, Bass Strait, in terms of marine resource extraction, a region where the multiple-use concept has been applied for the longest period in Australia`s history, has not been managed particularly well. A number of concepts in the path to integrated planning are outlined, particularly the implementation of sanctuary areas which could assist the protection of biodiversity and ecological processes if applied in a network. Challenges to be faced in any future planning for the pro-active management of Bass Strait are listed. Conservation interests recognize lack of management in the area and the lack of interstate and interagency co-ordination continues to allow the region to be plundered much the same way as it always has. Bass Strait`s road to the future must be a bridge, a bridge built on solid foundations of ecological sustainability, a bridge with a resilient conservation keystone. (author). 2 refs.

  2. On the lifetime and extent of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC observed during a magnetospheric substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available A -190-nT negative bay in the geomagnetic X component measured at Macquarie Island ( -65° L showed that an ionospheric substorm occurred during 09:58 to 11:10 UT on 27 February 2000. Signatures of an auroral westward flow channel (AWFC were observed nearly simultaneously in the backscatter power, LOS Doppler velocity, and Doppler spectral width measured using the Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar. Many of the characteristics of the AWFC were similar to those occurring during a polarisation jet (PJ, or subauroral ion drift (SAID event, and suggest that it may have been a pre-cursor to a fully developed, intense westward flow channel satisfying all of the criteria defining a PJ/SAID. A beam-swinging analysis showed that the westward drifts (poleward electric field associated with the flow channel were very structured in time and space, but the smoothed velocities grew to ~ 800 ms-1 (47 mVm-1 during the 22-min substorm onset interval 09:56 to 10:18 UT. Maximum west-ward drifts of >1.3 km s-1 (>77 mVm-1 occurred during a ~ 5-min velocity spike, peaking at 10:40 UT during the expansion phase. The drifts decayed rapidly to ~ 300 ms-1 (18 mVm-1 during the 6-min recovery phase interval, 11:04 to 11:10 UT. Overall, the AWFC had a lifetime of 74 min, and was located near -65° L in the evening sector west of the Harang discontinuity. The large westward drifts were confined to a geographic zonal channel of longitudinal ex-tent >20° (>1.3 h magnetic local time, and latitudinal width ~2° L. Using a half-width of ~ 100 km in latitude, the peak electric potential was >7.7 kV. However, a transient velocity of >3.1 km s-1 with potential >18.4 kV was observed further poleward at the end of the recovery phase. Auroral oval boundaries determined

  3. Household economic modelsof gill net fishermen at Madura strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primyastanto, M.

    2018-04-01

    The purposes of this research was to analyze household economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait. 30 families of gillnet fishermenwere used for purposive sampling. Data analysis used descriptive qualitative and quantitative (regression analysis). Quantitative descriptive analysis was used to analyze research and compare to factors that affecting household economic models of gill net fishermen family. Research results showed tha thousehold economic models of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was production value level or fishermen revenue at sea was strongly influenced byp roduction asset production, education level, fuel, and work flow. Work flow rate of fishermen families affected by asset production, non fisheries workflow and number of male workforce. Non fishing income level was strongly influenced by non-fishery business assets, number of family members owned andnon-fishing work flow. Spending levels of gill net fishermen at Madura strait was affected by fishing income, non-fishing income, fishermen wife education and fishermen family members.

  4. On the Nature of the Mesoscale Variability in Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickart, Robert; von Appen, Wilken; Mastropole, Dana; Valdimarsson, Hedinn; Vage, Kjetil; Jonsson, Steingriumur; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Girton, James

    2017-04-01

    The dense overflow through Denmark Strait is the largest contributor to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. As such, it is important to understand the sources of water feeding the overflow and how the water negotiates the sill as it passes into the Irminger Sea. Here we use a large collection of shipboard hydrographic transects occupied across the strait, together with 6-years of mooring data from the sill, to investigate the water masses and mesoscale variability of the overflow water. Two dominant types of mesoscale features were identified, referred to as a "bolus" and a "pulse". The former is a large lens of weakly stratified water corresponding to a slight increase in along-strait velocity. The latter is a thin layer with greater stratification and strongly enhanced along-strait flow. The boluses, which are often noted in the historical literature, are associated with cyclonic circulation, while pulses, which have not been previously identified, are associated with anti-cyclonic circulation. Both features result in increased transport of overflow water. It is argued that these fluctuations at the sill trigger energetic variability downstream in the Deep Western Boundary Current.

  5. Dynamics of Flow in the Region of the Tsugaru Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    possessed sufficient initial vrticity at a strait outlet. Beardslev and Hart (1978) pro- duced anal yr i c sol It i ons -t the out t low ci rcul at ion for a...38. ’da , M . , 1934, Hlydrographical studies based on simll taneous oceano - ,graphi cal surveys made in the Japan Sea and i ts adjacent waters during

  6. PROBLEMS OF SEA-GOING NAVIGATION IN KERCI STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ŞTEFAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Kerch Strait was the main passage between the Azov Sea and the Black Sea.The passage of ships through the strait is hampered by several physical and geographical factors: emerged and submerged morphology, the climatic and hydrological parameters. As a result of the extremely low depths of the strait, for the safety of navigation, authorities have been forced to dredge a canal for passage of the vessels with a medium draft, to make a properly hydrographical develop¬ment of the fairway and of the shores, and to establish a favorable anchoring area etc. Ice, which occurs in winter, makes the navigation very difficult, which takes place in convoys, preceded by ice breakers. Fog, frequent in the transitional seasons, hampered navigation; many accidents happened because of this inconvenience. Most accidents due to weather conditions (fog, wind are specific to smaller vessels, sea-river type, which are sailing in the area and which, due to their construction, are not able to deal with exceptional weather conditions at sea. The existence of surface currents, with the dominant direction north-south, from the Sea of Azov to the Black Sea, affects navigation only around the heads where cau¬ses circular currents. In this case are affected only pleasure boats and low powered vessel. With all these impediments to navigation, the Kerch Strait is an important waterway, especially for the countries bordering the Sea of Azov: Ukraine and the Russian Federation, and also for the countries from the Black Sea basin.

  7. Tide-surge Interaction Intensified by the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Zhou; Shi, Fengyan; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Shang, Shao-Ping; Kirby, James T.

    2010-06-01

    The Taiwan Strait is a long and wide shelf-channel where the hydrodynamics is extremely complex, being characterized by strong tides, and where storm surges frequently occur during the typhoon season. Obvious oscillations due to tide-surge interaction were observed by tide gauges along the northern Fujian coast, the west bank of the Taiwan Strait, during Typhoon Dan (1999). Numerical experiments indicate that nonlinear bottom friction (described by the quadratic formula) is a major factor to predict these oscillations while the nonlinear advective terms and the shallow water effect have little contribution. It is found that the tide-surge interaction in the northern portion of the Taiwan Strait is intensified by the strait. Simulations based on simplified topographies with and without the island of Taiwan show that, in the presence of the island, the channel effect strengthens tidal currents and tends to align the major axes of tidal ellipses along the channel direction. Storm-induced currents are also strengthened by the channel. The pattern of strong tidal currents and storm-induced currents along the channel direction enhances tide-surge interaction via the nonlinear bottom friction, resulting in the obvious oscillations along the northern Fujian coast.

  8. Legal regime of the Bering Strait and security of navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Skaridov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to establish the legal regime and security of navigation in the Bering Strait. Methods formal logical method systemic method comparative legal method statistical method. Results in the recent years specialized publications contain numerous publications on the problems of development of Arctic shipping and the future intensification of the use of the Northern Sea Route. Whatever Arctic routes may be chosen by the skippers the vessels will have to overcome the narrowness of the Bering Strait. If the existing estimates are reasonable and the navigation of the NorthWest Sea Passage will increase it is appropriate to ask whether the legal regime and security means are adapted to the possible increase of commercial shipping and military navigation. In this respect the author formulates the legal measures aimed at ensuring security in the Bering Strait area with the account of growing cargo traffic. Scientific novelty for the first time the article proves the necessity to include into the Bering Strait area the territories bounded from the north by the east and west passages formed by the Diomede Islands and continental coasts of the Russian Federation and the United States and from the south ndash by the passages between the Cape of Chukotka and Cape Sevuokuk of St. Lawrence Island Cape Sivuka and the mainland of Alaska in order to protect the sea natural landscape and to ensure the maritime safety. The opinion is substantiated about the necessity to equip the marine passages forming the waters of the Bering Strait with a security system. The proposed legal regime of ensuring the safety of navigation in the Bering Strait which includes the common navigation rules establishing the areas of the vessel traffic separation designation of areas of marine reserves and organizationallegal means for damping the dangerous situations. Practical significance the findings and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific educational and law

  9. Analysis of Sea Level Rise in Singapore Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Luu, Quang-Hung

    2013-04-01

    Sea level in Singapore Strait is governed by various scale phenomena, from global to local. Global signals are dominated by the climate change and multi-decadal variability and associated sea level rise; at regional scale seasonal sea level variability is caused by ENSO-modulated monsoons; locally, astronomic tides are the strongest force. Tide gauge records in Singapore Strait are analyzed to derive local sea level trend, and attempts are made to attribute observed sea level variability to phenomena at various scales, from global to local. It is found that at annual scale, sea level anomalies in Singapore Strait are quasi-periodic, of the order of ±15 cm, the highest during northeast monsoon and the lowest during southwest monsoon. Interannual regional sea level falls are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are related to La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ±9 cm. At multi-decadal scale, sea level in Singapore Strait has been rising at the rate 1.2-1.9 mm/year for the period 1975-2009, 2.0±0.3 mm/year for 1984-2009, and 1.3-4.7 mm/year for 1993-2009. When compared with the respective global trends of 2.0±0.3, 2.4, and 2.8±0.8 mm/year, Singapore Strait sea level rise trend was weaker at the earlier period and stronger at the recent decade.

  10. Leaf insects from Luzon, Philippines, with descriptions of four new species, the new genus Pseudomicrophyllium, and redescription of Phyllium (Phyllium) geryon Gray, 1843, (Phasmida: Phylliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Royce T; Leong, Jing V; Lohman, David J

    2017-12-17

    Examination of unidentified Phylliidae specimens revealed a number of undescribed species from the island of Luzon, Philippines. Morphological and molecular study of specimens from the obscure phasmid genus Microphyllium Zompro, 2001, revealed a new species, which we describe as Microphyllium haskelli Cumming sp. nov.. It is here described and differentiated from the two other species in the genus, both currently only known from adults of a single sex. Pseudomicrophyllium Cumming gen. nov. is described as a new genus within Phylliidae with the type species Pseudomicrophyllium faulkneri Cumming gen. et sp. nov. as the sole known species in the genus. As is unfortunately often the case in the leaf-mimicking family Phylliidae, this new genus and species is only known from a single specimen. In addition to the new genus, two new Phyllium (Phyllium) species from the siccifolium species-group are named and described as Ph. (Ph.) antonkozlovi Cumming sp. nov. and Ph. (Ph.) bourquei Cumming Le Tirant sp. nov.. In addition to the newly described species, Phyllium (Phyllium) geryon Gray, 1843 is redescribed from a nearly perfect specimen, completing some of the morphological knowledge gaps currently missing because of the severely damaged holotype specimen. A key to all known species of Phylliidae from Luzon is included. Holotype specimens for all four new species will be deposited in the National Museum of the Philippines type collection and paratype specimens will be deposited into the San Diego Natural History Museum collection or retained within the first author's collection.

  11. Variation of the cold intermediate water in the Black Sea exit of the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus and its transfer through the strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Yuce

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The cold intermediate water (CIW, T < 8°C entering the Strait of Istanbul and its variation along the strait have been studied by using monthly conductivity-temperature-depth (CTDdata sets collected during the period from 1996 to 2000. In the northern exit of the strait, CIW is located between the seasonal thermocline and Mediterranean water originating from the lowerlayer of the Sea of Marmara. The thickness of CIW decreases fromApril to October. In the Strait of Istanbul, CIW is observedas a layer of temperature < 14$^{circ}$C. The thickness of thismodified cold intermediate water flowing southwards with the upper layer decreases, while its temperature increases along thestrait due to mixing with adjacent water. In the southern exit of the strait, the modified cold intermediate water is observed during the period from May to October. If CIW exists in the Black Sea exit region of the strait, modified cold water is found inthe Marmara exit region during the same period. The distribution of CIW in the Strait of Istanbul contributes to our understanding of the dynamics of the strait, especially in the summer months.

  12. Three-dimensional current flow and particle precipitation in a westward travelling surge (observed during the barium-GEOS rocket experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opgenoorth, H.J.; Pellinen, R.J.; Baumjohann, W.; Nielsen, E.; Marklund, G.; Eliasson, L.

    1983-01-01

    During the Barium-GEOS rocket experiment on September 24, 1979 the passage of a westward travelling surge (WTS) was observed over Scandinavia. Extended instrument networks in that area, viz., the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array, the STARE radars, all-sky cameras, and riometers, allowed simultaneous observation of the two-dimensional character of magnetic and electric field disturbances and particle precipitation associated with the auroral feature. By combination of the different datasets and additional information from particle and electric field measurements aboard the Barium-GEOS rocket it was possible to derive the two-dimensional distribution of ionospheric electric fields and conductivities and to model the three-dimensional current flow in the vicinity of the westward travelling surge. The main feature of the resulting model current system is the presence of a localized upward field-aligned current directed out of the head of the surge and fed by a westward electrojet, which is composed of both Hall and Pedersen currents. Secondary ionospheric currents, e.g. a counterclockwise loop of mainly Hall currents around the leading edge of the surge, are found to be responsible for most of the transient effects observed by ground-based magnetometers as the WTS passed overhead. The most energetic particle precipitation as inferred from cosmic noise absorption measurements and triangulation of auroral arc altitudes is found to be confined to the leading part and central regions of the surge and to travel westward with the visual auroral form

  13. Wintertime sea surface temperature fronts in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Lee, Ming-An; Lu, Hsueh-Jung; Sakaida, Futoki; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2006-12-01

    We present wintertime variations and distributions of sea surface temperature (SST) fronts in the Taiwan Strait by applying an entropy-based edge detection method to 10-year (1996-2005) satellite SST images with grid size of 0.01°. From climatological monthly mean maps of SST gradient magnitude in winter, we identify four significant SST fronts in the Taiwan Strait. The Mainland China Coastal Front is a long frontal band along the 50-m isobath near the Chinese coast. The sharp Peng-Chang Front appears along the Peng-Hu Channel and extends northward around the Chang-Yuen Ridge. The Taiwan Bank Front evolves in early winter. As the winter progresses, the front becomes broad and moves toward the Chinese coast, connecting to the Mainland China Coastal Front. The Kuroshio Front extends northeastward from the northeastern tip of Taiwan with a semicircle-shape curving along the 100-m isobath.

  14. Tidal and residual currents in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. López

    Full Text Available During the 1992-1993 oceanographic cruise of the Spanish R/V Hespérides, recording equipment was deployed in the Bransfield Strait. Six Aanderaa RCM7 current meters and three Aanderaa WLR7 tide gauges were successfully recovered after an operation period of 2.5 months. Relevant features of the time series obtained are presented and discussed in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the tidal character of the currents and the relative importance of tidal flow in the general hydrodynamics of the strait. For these purposes a dense grid of hydrographic stations, completed during the BIOANTAR 93 cruise, is used. Preliminary geostrophic calculations relative to a 400 m depth, yield current velocities of around 0.20 m s-1 in the study area, whereas the magnitude of tidal currents is seen to be 0.30-0.40 m s-1.

  15. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  16. On summer stratification and tidal mixing in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia; Hu, Jianyu; Liu, Zhiyu

    2013-06-01

    On continental shelves, a front that separates the sea into well-mixed and stratified zones is usually formed in warm seasons due to spatial variations of tidal mixing. In this paper, using eight years of in situ hydrographic observations, satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a) concentration, and results of a tidal model, we investigate summer stratification in the Taiwan Strait and its dependence on tidal mixing, upwelling, and river diluted water plumes. In most regions of the strait the dominant role of tidal mixing in determining the thermohaline structure is confirmed by the correlation between the two; there are some regions, however, where thermohaline structure varies in different ways owing to significant influences of upwelling and river diluted water plumes. The well-mixed regions are mainly distributed on the Taiwan Bank and in the offshore regions off the Dongshan Island, Nanao Island, and Pingtan Island, while the northern and central Taiwan Strait and the region south of the Taiwan Bank are stratified. The critical Simpson-Hunter parameter for the region is estimated to be 1.78.

  17. Recirculation in the Fram Strait and transports of water in and north of the Fram Strait derived from CTD data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marnela

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The volume, heat and freshwater transports in the Fram Strait are estimated from geostrophic computations based on summer hydrographic data from 1984, 1997, 2002 and 2004. In these years, in addition to the usually sampled section along 79° N, a section between Greenland and Svalbard was sampled further north. Quasi-closed boxes bounded by the two sections and Greenland and Svalbard can then be formed. Applying conservation constraints on these boxes provides barotropic reference velocities. The net volume flux is southward and varies between 2 and 4 Sv. The recirculation of Atlantic water is about 2 Sv. Heat is lost to the atmosphere and the heat loss from the area between the sections averaged over the four years is about 10 TW. The net heat (temperature transport is 20 TW northward into the Arctic Ocean, with large interannual differences. The mean net freshwater added between the sections is 40 mSv and the mean freshwater transport southward across 79° N is less than 60 mSv, indicating that most of the liquid freshwater leaving the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait in summer is derived from sea ice melt in the northern vicinity of the strait. In 1997, 2001 and 2003 meridional sections along 0° longitude were sampled and in 2003 two smaller boxes can be formed, and the recirculation of Atlantic water in the strait is estimated by geostrophic computations and continuity constraints. The recirculation is weaker close to 80° N than close to 78° N, indicating that the recirculation is mainly confined to the south of 80° N. This is supported by the observations in 1997 and 2001, when only the northern part of the meridional section, from 79° N to 80° N, can be computed with the constraints applied. The recirculation is found strongest close to 79° N.

  18. Regional Forecasting of Wind Speeds during Typhoon Landfall in Taiwan: A Case Study of Westward-Moving Typhoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chiang Wei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on a route where typhoons often strike. Each year, the strong winds accompanying typhoons are a substantial threat and cause significant damage. However, because the terrains of high mountains in Taiwan vary greatly, when a typhoon passes the Central Mountain Range (CMR, the wind speed of typhoons becomes difficult to predict. This research had two primary objectives: (1 to develop data-driven techniques and a powerful artificial neural network (ANN model to predict the highly complex nonlinear wind systems in western Taiwan; and, (2 to investigate the accuracy of wind speed predictions at various locations and for various durations in western Taiwan when the track of westward typhoons is affected by the complex geographical shelters and disturbances of the CMR. This study developed a typhoon wind speed prediction model that evaluated various typhoon tracks (covering Type 2, Type 3, and Type 4 tracks, as defined by the Central Weather Bureau, and evaluated the prediction accuracy at Hsinchu, Wuqi, and Kaohsiung Stations in western Taiwan. Back propagation neural networks (BPNNs were employed to establish wind speed prediction models, and a linear regression model was adopted as the benchmark to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the BPNNs. The results were as follows: (1 The BPNNs generally had favorable performance in predicting wind speeds and their performances were superior to linear regressions; (2 when absolute errors were adopted to evaluate the prediction performances, the predictions at Hsinchu Station were the most accurate, whereas those at Wuqi Station were the least accurate; however, when relative errors were adopted, the predictions at Hsinchu Station were again the most accurate, whereas those at Kaohsiung were the least accurate; and, (3 regarding the relative error rates for the maximum wind speed of Types 2, 3, and 4 typhoons, Wuqi, Kaohsiung, and Wuqi had the most accurate performance, respectively; as

  19. Hydrological, plankton and pigment observations in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea by the R.V. Samudera, April 16 to May 19, 1975 (NODC Accession 7700306)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton and chemical data were collected using net and bottle casts from the R.V. SAMUDERA in the Makassar Strait, Madura Strait and Eastern Java Sea from 16...

  20. Ocean wave characteristic in the Sunda Strait using Wave Spectrum Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmayani, R.; Ningsih, N. S.; Adiprabowo, S. R.; Nurfitri, S.

    2018-03-01

    The wave characteristics including significant wave height and direction, seas and swell in the Sunda Strait are analyzed seasonally to provide marine weather information. This is crucial for establishing secured marine activities between islands of Sumatera and Java. Ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are simulated for one year (July 1996–June 1977) by using SWAN numerical model. The ocean wave characteristics in the Sunda Strait are divided into three areas of interest; southern, centre and northern part of the Sunda Strait. Despite a weaker local wind, the maximum significant wave height is captured at the southern part with its height of 2.6 m in November compared to other seasonally months. This is associated with the dominated swell from the Indian Ocean contributes on wave energy toward the Sunda Strait. The 2D spectrum analysis exhibits the monthly wave characteristic at southern part that is dominated by seas along the year and swell propagating from the Indian Ocean to the Sunda Strait during December to February (northwest monsoon), May, and November. Seas and swell at northern part of the Sunda Strait are apprehended weaker compared to other parts of the Sunda Strait due to its location is farther from the Indian Ocean.

  1. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between...

  2. Mechanisms of flow and water mass variability in Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Martin; Jochumsen, Kerstin; Quadfasel, Detlef; Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Käse, Rolf H.

    2017-04-01

    The dense water export through Denmark Strait contributes significantly to the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Overflow water is transported southwestward not only in the deep channel of the Strait, but also within a thin bottom layer on the Greenland shelf. The flow on the shelf is mainly weak and barotropic, exhibiting many recirculations, but may eventually contribute to the overflow layer in the Irminger Basin by spilling events in the northern Irminger Basin. Especially the circulation around Dohrn Bank and the Kangerdlussuaq Trough contribute to the shelf-basin exchange. Moored observations show the overflow in Denmark Strait to be stable during the last 20 years (1996-2016). Nevertheless, flow variability was noticed on time scales of eddies and beyond, i.e. on weekly and interannual scales. Here, we use a combination of mooring data and shipboard hydrographic and current data to address the dominant modes of variability in the overflow, which are (i) eddies, (ii) barotropic pulsations of the plume, (iii) lateral shifts of the plume core position, and (iv) variations in vertical extension, i.e. varying overflow thickness. A principle component analysis is carried out and related to variations in sea surface height and wind stress, derived from satellite measurements. Furthermore, a test for topographic waves is performed. Shelf contributions to the overflow core in the Irminger Basin are identified from measurements of temperature and salinity, as well as velocity, which were obtained during recent cruises in the region. The flow and water mass pattern obtained from the observational data is compared to simulations in a high resolution regional model (ROMS), where tracer release experiments and float deployments were carried out. The modelling results allow a separation between different atmospheric forcing modes (NAO+ vs NAO- situations), which impact the water mass distribution and alter the dense water pathways on the

  3. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically; the entire width of the array (70 km freshened between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. The OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01, despite the inevitable limitations of a z-coordinate model in representing the mixing processes at and downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase in southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated strengthening of the East Greenland Current.

  4. Taiwan’s Security Calculus of Cross-­Strait Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Chang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Migration across the Taiwan Strait is relatively insignificant by its scale but it is indeed indisputably politically sensitive. Given the long-term political separation and military rivalry across the Taiwan Strait in the past six decades while both sides of the Taiwan Strait nevertheless intensively engaged each other economically, commercially and culturally, a social trend of cross-Strait migration inevitably results. There are various interpretations on such a demographic development which has raised security concerns, which are in turn creating a biased judiciary arrangement on the migration activities. What are the factors behind the security calculus of cross-Strait migration? How can the security calculus justify its arguments and subsequently maintain unequal treatments with respect to cross-Strait immigrants? Are the rationales for maintaining a tight grip on cross-Strait migration in line with the political ideal proclaimed by the political factions in Taiwan still sensible? What is the potential for the trend of cross-Strait migration affecting the security calculus in the future? On the other hand, for the migration from Taiwan to Mainland China, how influential can it be on the security decision-making process of the Beijing leadership? Is there any impact possibly caused by cross-Strait migration – and is it essentially overstated? Or alternatively, is the overstated influence potentially caused by cross-Strait migration an intentionally staged political myth? What are the substantial impacts actually ever achieved by cross-Strait migration on the security dimension? What is the self-fulfilled conviction of cross-Strait migration? For all the inquiries noted above, the author of this paper would like to scrutinize the truth and separate it from numerous myths ever advocated by the different factions in Taiwan politics. A sound and neutral judgment to tell the exact influences likely enacted by cross-Strait migration would

  5. Sea level trend and variability in the Singapore Strait

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Luu, Q.-H.; Babu, M.T.

    www.ocean-sci.net/9/293/2013/ doi:10.5194/os-9-293-2013 © Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License. EGU Journal Logos (RGB) Advances in Geosciences O pen A ccess Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences O pen A ccess Annales Geophysicae O pen A... Sci., 9, 293–300, 2013 www.ocean-sci.net/9/293/2013/ P. Tkalich et al.: Sea level in Singapore Strait 295 likely to be the cause for modulating the inter-annual sea level variability associated with ENSO. On the Sunda Shelf and particularly in SS, our...

  6. Hydrological conditions in the straits of the Ryukyu archipelago and adjacent basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V. V.; Bogdanov, K. T.

    2007-10-01

    The structure and dynamics of the water are studied on the basis of hydrological and meteorological long-term data combined with the materials of field observations over a period longer than half a century in the region of the Ryukyu archipelago. New data about the hydrological characteristics of the waters were obtained. Characteristic differences of waters of various modifications in the main straits between the islands are demonstrated. The dependence of the water structure formation in the straits on the seasonal variability of the water exchange through the straits is distinguished.

  7. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  8. Magnetic signature of river sediments drained into the southern and eastern part of the South China Sea (Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Catherine; Liu, Zhifei; Li, Jinhua; Wandres, Camille

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic properties of 22 river samples collected in the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo, Luzon and Taiwan have been investigated in order to magnetically characterize the sediments drained and deposited into the South China Sea. The geological formations as well as the present climatic conditions are different from one region to another. Laboratory analyses include low-field magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic (ARM) and isothermal (IRM) remanent magnetizations acquisition and decay, back-field acquisition, thermal demagnetization of three-axes IRM, hysteresis cycles and low-temperature magnetic measurements. The magnetic properties indicate that the sediments are a mixture of hematite, magnetite and pyrrhotite in different proportions depending on the region. Combined with results previously reported for the three main Asian rivers (Pearl, Red and Mekong rivers), the new data indicate that, in general, hematite-rich sediments are delivered to the southern basin of the South China Sea while the northern basin is fed with magnetite and pyrrhotite-rich sediments. In addition to this general picture, some variability is observed at smaller geographic scales. Indeed, the magnetic assemblages are closely related to the geology of the various catchments while clay minerals, previously reported for the same samples, are more representative of the climatic conditions under which the parent rocks have evolved within each catchment. The magnetic fraction, now well characterized in the main river sediments drained into the South China Sea, can be used as a tracer for changes in precipitation on land and in oceanic water mass transport and exchange.

  9. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafe Brown

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces, northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province, as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province, combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%. The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning. This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  10. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  11. The anomalous amplification of M2 tide in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Sen; Chern, Ching-Sheng; Wang, Joe; Chao, Shenn-Yu

    2004-04-01

    The complex tidal wave propagation pattern in the Taiwan Strait invites parochialism. Along the eastern (Taiwan) boundary of the strait, the anomalous amplification of M2 tide in the middle often led to the parochial view that two tidal waves coming from both ends of the strait collide in the middle, creating wave resonance. Along the western (China) boundary, one sees a southward progressive tidal wave and hence no wave collision. To reconcile, we examine a few solutions of a numerical tidal model below. Both realistic bottom bathymetry and idealized bottom topographies are used to identify dominant mechanism leading to the complex tidal wave propagation. Our process of elimination identifies the wave reflection of southward propagating tidal wave by the deep trench in the southern strait as the true cause responsible for the complex wave propagation pattern.

  12. Determination of trace and toxic elements in marine sediments collected from the strait of Malacca, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee Boon Siong; Abdul Khalik Hj. Wood

    2007-01-01

    The Strait of Malacca has been a major route for international trade with heavy traffic of large vessels navigating through the narrow waterway everyday. Beside, the Strait of Malacca has some natural ecosystem which requires proper protection from human activities. Therefore, the Malaysian government has initiated a project to monitor the pollution level at the Strait of Malacca. As a result, sampling expeditions had been conducted to collect marine samples to be analyzed for trace and toxic elements as well as organic pollutions and radionuclides. The focus of this report is to determine trace and toxic element concentration in surface sediment samples collected from 18 sampling locations at the Strait of Malacca was reported. (author)

  13. Outpatient alcohol withdrawal management for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lawrence, Leanne; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Kate

    2014-08-01

    There is concern from within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities about the lack of access to alcohol withdrawal management ('detox') services. Outpatient detox is described within national Australian guidelines as a safe option for selected drinkers. However, uncertainly exists as to how suited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples are to this approach. 
 Consultations were conducted with stakeholders of four health services providing outpatient detox for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in NSW. Thematic analysis was performed to determine elements perceived as important for success. Key themes that emerged were individual engagement, flexibility, assessment of suitability, Aboriginal staff and community engagement, practical support, counselling, staff education and support, coping with relapse and contingency planning. 
 There is a need to improve access to alcohol detox services for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. The outpatient setting seems to be a feasible and safe environment to provide this kind of service for selected drinkers.

  14. 33 CFR 117.169 - Mare Island Strait and the Napa River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Strait and the Napa River. (a) The draw of the Mare Island Drawbridge, mile 2.8, at Vallejo shall open on... may contact the City of Vallejo via the same telephone number to schedule drawspan operation. (b) The...

  15. Data Assimilation Modeling of the Barotropic Tides in the Korea/Tsushima Strait

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Book, Jeffrey W; Pistek, Pavel; Perkins, Henry; Thompson, Keith R; Teague, William J

    2004-01-01

    During 1999-2000, 13 bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) and 12 wave/tide gauges were deployed along two lines across the Korea/Tsushima Strait, providing long-term measurements of currents and bottom pressure...

  16. Acoustic Environment of Haro Strait: Preliminary Propagation Modeling and Data Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Christopher D; Wolfson, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Field measurements and acoustic propagation modeling for the frequency range 1 10 kHz are combined to analyze the acoustic environment of Haro Strait of Puget Sound, home to the southern resident killer whales...

  17. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    OpenAIRE

    Prihartini Widiyanti; Siswanto Siswanto

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid im...

  18. Seasonal and interannual variability of the water exchange in the Turkish Straits System estimated by modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. MADERICH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A chain of simple linked models is used to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of the Turkish Straits System. This chain includes two-layer hydraulic models of the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits simulating the exchange in terms of level and density difference along each strait, and a one-dimensional area averaged layered model of the Marmara Sea. The chain of models is complemented also by the similar layered model of the Black Sea proper and by a one-layer Azov Sea model with the Kerch Strait. This linked chain of models is used to study the seasonal and interannual variability of the system in the period 1970-2009. The salinity of the Black Sea water flowing into the Aegean Sea increases by approximately 1.7 times through entrainment from the lower layer. The flow entering into the lower layer of the Dardanelles Strait from the Aegean Sea is reduced by nearly 80% when it reaches the Black Sea. In the seasonal scale, a maximal transport in the upper layer and minimal transport in the bottom layer are during winter/spring for the Bosphorus and in spring for the Dardanelles Strait, whereas minimal transport in upper layer and maximal undercurrent are during the summer for the Bosphorus Strait and autumn for the Dardanelles Strait. The increase of freshwater flux into the Black Sea in interannual time scales (41 m3s-1 per year is accompanied by a more than twofold growth of the Dardanelles outflow to the North Aegean (102 m3s-1 per year.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF THE PETROLEUM POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE SHIP SOURCE IN ISTANBUL STRAIT

    OpenAIRE

    Salihoglu, Eren

    2018-01-01

    Introduction.The Istanbul Strait is one of theworld's most dangerous natural waterways in terms of sea traffic. Istanbulstraıt, which have great strategic importance, can cause environmentaldisasters because of the sea accidents that the may occur. Petroleum pollutionthat can arise from these vessels can negatively affect the structure of seawater and the marine life.Aim of the study In this study, oil pollution inİstanbul Strait, accidents and investigated scales were researched, the ef...

  20. Mesoscale variability in the Bransfield Strait region (Antarctica during Austral summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The Bransfield Strait is one the best-known areas of Antarctica's oceanic surroundings. In spite of this, the study of the mesoscale variability of its local circulation has been addressed only recently. This paper focuses on the mesoscale structure of local physical oceanographic conditions in the Bransfield Strait during the Austral summer as derived from the BIOANTAR 93 cruise and auxiliary remote sensing data. Moreover, data recovered from moored current meters allow identification of transient mesoscale phenomena.

  1. Fronts and internal currents at the northern mouth of the strait of Messina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marullo, S.; Santoleri, R.

    1986-01-01

    Recent observations of internal waves and currents generated by tidal mixing inside the strait of Messina, with classical measurements made in 1922-1923 by Francesco Vercelli are compared. A peculiar front South of Capo Vaticano in southern Tyrrhenian Sea is described. Its relation with the turbolence due to the braking of internal nonlinear waves generated by the inside the Strait of Messina is discussed

  2. The Commander’s Handbook on the Law of Naval Operations NWP 9 (REV.A)/ FMFM 1-10. Annotated Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Channel ( Luzon Strait) Geographe Channel -Maemei Sudjo Bangka Passage Gibraltar, Strait of 1.4afia-St-a:t Bangki-Strait -Greyhound Strait Ma; acca Strait...if receipt and delivery not simultaneous, two separate msgs shall be sent) F6 AS7-6- 14 FORM 21 REPORT OF SPECIAL PRIZE COMMISSIONER UNITED STATES

  3. Long-term monitoring of sea ice conditions in the Kerch Strait by remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Mityagina, Marina I.; Bocharova, Tatiana Yu.; Kostianoy, Andrey G.

    2017-10-01

    The results of multi-year satellite monitoring of ice conditions in the Kerch Strait connecting the Black and Azov Seas are discussed. The issue gained importance in view of the ongoing construction of the Crimean Bridge across the strait. Our monitoring has been based on the whole variety of available satellite data including visible and radar data over the past 17 years. Every year the Azov Sea becomes fully or partially covered by ice during the cold season. In severe winters, ice often is carried to the Kerch Strait and even the Black Sea. An analysis of ice drift hydrometeorological conditions is presented. The ice conditions of 2017 are under special consideration. Everyday satellite monitoring of the Kerch Strait, including the construction area of the Crimean Bridge, revealed ice formation and drift features on the way from the Azov Sea through the Kerch Strait as well as ice interaction with the piers of the main and technological bridges under construction. It was found that, even under strong northeast winds, ice can pass neither through the piers, nor via the widest shipway. At present, it is hard to discern the impacts of the two bridges on floating ice, nevertheless when the construction is over and the technological bridge is gone, by all appearances the main bridge will strongly affect ice conditions in the Kerch Strait. This perspective calls for continuous satellite monitoring of the area that is enabled by cutting-edge systems and technologies.

  4. Characteristics of Marine Recreational Fishing in the anakkale Strait (Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. UNAL

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The economic and harvest impacts of Marine Recreational Fishing (MRF in Çanakkale Strait were analysed along with fishing policy, sociology and habits of fishers. Data sources included field survey data carried out along the entire length of the Çanakkale strait and policy information gathered from published sources. MRF policy is commendable, even in the fishing tourism sector, and is better developed than that in many other European countries. In Çanakkale, 9.9% of the population is recreational fishers. Recreational fishers are typically men (90%, primarily those between the ages of 25 and 49 yrs. The occupation of the recreational fishers ranged from self-employed (28%, students (28%, retired persons (22% and public employees (15%, to currently-unemployed persons (7%. An analysis of diel behaviour showed that most recreational fishers preferred fishing during the day (56.1%, while the evening was the next most preferred time for fishing (18%, followed by the night-time (9.8%, while a substantial number of recreational fishers (16.1% reported that they fished at any time of day. The most popular type of fishing was shore-based (68%, followed by boat-based (21%, and underwater fishing (11%. The mean daily fishing times were 6.07 h d-1, 6.18 h d-1 4.75 d-1 for boat-based, underwater and shore-based fishing, respectively. Summer and autumn were the preferred seasons for shore-based and underwater fishing, while autumn and winter were preferred for boat-based fishing. The highest Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE was observed for boat-based fishing (2.77 kg h-1, followed by underwater (0.97 kg h-1 and shore-based fishing (0.81 kg h-1. The catch composition included 51 species, though the catch composition of each fishing type was mostly comprised of only 3 or 4 species. The impact of the MRF harvest was high (30% of commercial fishing, particularly for bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix and picarel (Spicara smaris species. The economic impact of MRF was

  5. Creating walking tracks to success: A narrative analysis of AustralianAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ stories ofsuccess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Roianne; Foster, Kim; Usher, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have higher rates of morbidity and mortality thanother Australians. One proposed strategy to improve this situation is to increase the participation ofAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nurses, inthe health workforce. Although the numbers of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students under-taking tertiary nursing courses have increased, completion rates have not kept pace. The study aimedto describe Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students’ experiences of enablers for successfulcourse completion and to develop a narrative of student experience. A qualitative study using a strengths-based approach with a narrative analysis of semi-structured interview data was conducted across fourschools of Nursing in Queensland, Australia. Eight final-year Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursingstudents volunteered to participate in the study. A collective story with the overarching plotline Creatingwalking tracks to success was developed. Six threads of experience emerged: Making a difference, Valu-ing Indigeneity, Healing strength of connections, Resisting racism, Embracing support, and perseveringtowards completion. Key success factors included resilient attributes, building supportive connectionsand having positive expectations of the future, along with sustained institutional support from Aboriginaland Torres Strait Islander nurse academics and clinicians. Development of tailored resilience-buildingtraining for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nursing students and appointment of Aboriginal andTorres Strait Islander academics in Schools of Nursing that include such students may facilitate futuresuccessful completions in other programs.

  6. Evaluation of the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Chen, Chun-Lung; Tu, Yi-Long; Yeh, Hung-Te; Wu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new statistical downscaling framework to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. • The statistical model relates Weibull distribution parameters to output of a GCM model and regression coefficients. • Validation of the simulated wind speed distribution presents an acceptable agreement with meteorological data. • Three chosen GCMs show the same tendency that the eastern half of Taiwan Strait stores higher wind resources. - Abstract: A new statistical downscaling framework is proposed to evaluate the climate change impact on wind resources in Taiwan Strait. In this framework, a two-parameter Weibull distribution function is used to estimate the wind energy density distribution in the strait. An empirically statistical downscaling model that relates the Weibull parameters to output of a General Circulation Model (GCM) and regression coefficients is adopted. The regression coefficients are calculated using wind speed results obtained from a past climate (1981–2000) simulation reconstructed by a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. These WRF-reconstructed wind speed results are validated with data collected at a weather station on an islet inside the strait. The comparison shows that the probability distributions of the monthly wind speeds obtained from WRF-reconstructed and measured wind speed data are in acceptable agreement, with small discrepancies of 10.3% and 7.9% for the shape and scale parameters of the Weibull distribution, respectively. The statistical downscaling framework with output from three chosen GCMs (i.e., ECHAM5, CM2.1 and CGCM2.3.2) is applied to evaluate the wind energy density distribution in Taiwan Strait for three future climate periods of 2011–2040, 2041–2070, and 2071–2100. The results show that the wind energy density distributions in the future climate periods are higher in the eastern half of Taiwan Strait, but reduce slightly by 3% compared with that in the

  7. Monthly Variation of Taiwan Strait Through-flow Transports and Associated Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, S.; Sheu, D.; Kuo, H.

    2005-05-01

    Through-flow transports and associated water masses are analyzed using current data measured by bottom-mounted and ship-board ADCP (1999-2001) across the central Taiwan Strait and strait-wide hydrographic data acquired from 79 CTD survey cruises (1986-2003). The East Asian monsoon, from southwest in July to August and northeast in October to March, controls the transport fluctuation which peaks in August (2.34 Sv northward), is hampered by the northeast monsoon after September and diminishes to the minimum (0.26 Sv southward) in December. The standard deviation of the calculated transport ranges from 0.56 to 1.05 Sv during northeast monsoon months and is relatively small in other months. A cluster analysis together with conventional T-S diagrams identifies the saline and warm Kuroshio Branch Water (KBW), the less saline South China Sea Surface Water (SCSSW), the brackish and cold China Coastal Water (CCW), the saline Subsurface Water (SW) (depth > 100 m) and the Diluted Coastal Water (DCW). The majority of the northward transport in summer carries the SCSSW to the East China Sea. Meanwhile, the DCW appears off the northwest bank of the strait and the SW resides in the bottom layer of a deep trench in the southeastern strait. The onset of the northeast monsoon in September drives the CCW from the Yangtze river mouth to the northern strait. In the southern strait, the northward-moving KBW replaces the SCSSW and meets the southward-intruding CCW in the middle strait during November to April.

  8. A Riccati model for Denmark Strait overflow variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käse, R. H.

    2006-10-01

    A controlled volume box model of the western basins of the Nordic Seas for water denser than 1027.8 kg m-3 is constructed, where accumulation in volume ($\\frac{dV}{dt) is driven by net imbalances between prescribed net inflow from the northern, eastern and top boundaries (Qs) and hydraulically limited outflow through the Denmark Strait. The resulting Riccati equation is solved analytically for filling and flushing experiments with constant Qs and numerically for stochastic forcing Qs(t). For small perturbations to Qs with white noise spectrum, the overflow response is red noise with a time scale between 5 and 15 years depending on the mean interface height and area. For Qs proportional to the NAO index, the overflow is positively correlated with the NAO. A 140 years integration reveals variations in the overflow between 2.5 Sv in the 1970s and a maximum of 4 Sv in the 1990s. Hydraulic transport calculations from hydrographic data north of Iceland show good agreement with the model hindcast.

  9. Special Fluid Viscous Dampers For The Messina Strait Bridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colato, Gian Paolo; Infanti, Samuele; Castellano, Maria Gabriella

    2008-01-01

    The Messina Strait Bridge would be the world's longest suspension bridge, with a design earthquake characterised by a PGA value of 0.58 g and a distance between the ipocenter and the bridge of 15 km. Said critical structure of course would need a suitable restraint system for traffic braking loads, wind and seismic actions. Each type of load requires a specific behaviour of the restraint system, making its design a big challenge.The restraint system comprises special types of fluid viscous dampers, installed both in longitudinal and transverse direction, both at the towers and at the anchorages. In seismic conditions they behave as viscous dampers, to reduce the forces on the structural elements and the movements of the bridge deck. But in service dynamic conditions, e.g. under traffic or wind load, the devices shall behave like shock transmission units, thus preventing the longitudinal and transverse movements of the deck.FIP Industriale cooperated with the selected General Contractor, a consortium lead by Impregilo, in the design of said viscous dampers. This paper describes the main features of said devices

  10. Underwater Noise Pollution at the Strait of Istanbul (Bosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Gazioğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Underwater noise pollution (UNP has become a major concern in marine habitats, which is intense anthropogenic noise in the marine (aquatic environment. It is caused by ship traffic, oceanographic experiments, and use of explosives in geophysical research, underwater construction, active sonars and seismic survey techniques. Oceans are much nosier than 1960s. Narrow and shallow channel noisy aquatic environments where noise levels reach the highest value is not surprising. The Strait of Istanbul (SoI; Bosphorus is one of the most important maritime passages (app. 50 000 vessel/year or 140 vessel/day which is situated between the Black Sea and the Aegean Sea are also biologically extremely important gateway not only it provides access to a channel. Many of the varieties of fish migration hunting value are realized through the TSS. Local maritime traffic is another important acoustic sources which are more than 3 000 elements (Kesgin and Vardar, 2001 of everyday local traffic in SoI, which are causing noise in the 2 and 10 kHz range. Large vessels create signals both in bands below 1 kHz (main engine, electrical instruments cavitation noise creates higher frequency bands. Almost all elements of marine traffic in SoI located therefore encountered UND in all bands.

  11. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander casemix study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D A; Murray, J M; Cleary, M I; Brewerton, R E

    1998-10-19

    With increasing implementation of casemix-based funding for hospitals, quantitative data were needed to confirm the clinical impression that treating Aboriginal (compared with non-Aboriginal) inpatients consumes significantly more resources. Utilisation data, collected over a three-month period in 10 hospitals, were used to determine a cost per inpatient episode, which was grouped according to AN-DRG-3 to give a cost per AN-DRG for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) patients and non-ATSI patients. ATSI patients had consistently longer average length of stay and significant variation in relative frequency of admissions, compared with non-ATSI patients, with higher prevalences of infectious diseases. Degenerative and neoplastic conditions were more common in non-ATSI patients. There were significant differences in casemix-adjusted costs per patient episode (ATSI, $1856; non-ATSI, $1558; P < 0.001). Our study has quantified differential resource consumption between two Australian populations, and highlights the need for recognition of some hospitals' atypical populations and special funding requirements.

  12. Analysis of turbulent mixing in Dewakang Sill, Southern Makassar Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risko; Atmadipoera, A. S.; Jaya, I.; Sudjono, E. H.

    2017-01-01

    Dewakang Sill is located in southern Makassar Strait, conveying major path of Indonesian Throughflow (ITF), as a confluence region of different water masses, such as salty Pacific water and fresh Java Sea water. Its depth is about 680 m which blocks the ITF flow below this depth into Flores Sea. This research aimed to estimate turbulent mixing in the Dewakang Sill by applying Thorpe analysis using 24 hours “yoyo” CTD data sets, acquired from MAJAFLOX Cruise in August 2015. The results showed that stratification of water masses is dominated by Pacific water origin. Those are North Pacific Subtropical thermocline and Intermediate water masses. Mean dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy (ɛ) and turbulent vertical diffusivity (Kρ ) value in the Dewakang Sill are of O(1.08 × 10-6)Wkg-1, and O(2.84 × 10-4) m2s-1 respectively. High correlation between epsilon and internal waves oscillation suggested that internal tidal waves activities are the major forcing for turbulent mixing in the study area.

  13. Topographic control of oceanic flows in deep passages and straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, J. A.

    1998-08-01

    Saddle points between neighboring deep ocean basins are the sites of unidirectional flow from one basin to the next, depending on the source of bottom water. Flow in these sites appears to be topographically controlled so the interface between the bottom water and the water above adjusts itself to permit bottom water flow from the basin that contains a source of bottom water into the next. Examples in the Atlantic include flow in the Romanche Fracture Zone, the Vema Channel, the Ceara Abyssal Plain, the Anegada-Jungfern passage, and the Discovery Gap, but there are many more. Theoretical predictions of volume flux using a method that requires only conductivity-temperature-depth data archives and detailed knowledge of bathymetry near the saddle point are compared with volume flux estimates using current meters and/or geostrophic estimates for seven cases. The ratio of prediction to volume flux estimate ranges from 1.0 to 2.7. Some ocean straits that separate adjacent seas are also found to critically control bidirectional flows between basins. Theory of the influence of rotation on such critical flows is reviewed. Predictions of volume flux in eight cases are compared with ocean estimates of volume flux from traditional methods.

  14. Moho Depth Derived from Gravity Data in the Taiwan Strait Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Hsiang Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed are gional Bouguer gravity anomaly map using marine and land data from Tai wan and the Chinese province of Fuchien, as well as SEASAT altimetry-de rived gravity data for the Tai wan Strait and its surrounding area. The map shows isogals trending generally in a NE-SW direction, conforming with the over all shallower geo logical strike of the strait. Removing gravity effects generated by the water layer and seafloor to pography, the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly is obtained, reflecting the subsurface structure. Moho depth is then computed by the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method from the regional Bouguer gravity data set. Over the strait area, the geometry of the Moho relief is smooth with an average depth of about 30 km, except for the Penghu up lift. Moho depth is shallower in the Taiwan Strait and thickens to ward both sides of the strait. The relatively shallower Moho depth, reaching up to 28 km, is convex up ward underneath the Penghu uplift.

  15. Assisting an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Kathy S; Dart, Katrina M; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Reavley, Nicola J

    2017-08-02

    Gambling problems appear to be more prevalent in the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population than in the non-Indigenous population. Although gambling harms can be significant, treatment-seeking rates are low. The Delphi expert consensus method was used to develop a set of guidelines on how a family or community member can assist an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. Building on a previous systematic review of websites, books and journal articles a questionnaire was developed that contained items about the knowledge, skills and actions needed for supporting an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person with gambling problems. These items were rated over three rounds by an expert panel comprising professionals who provide treatment to or conduct research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with gambling problems. A total of 22 experts rated 407 helping statements according to whether they thought the statements should be included in these guidelines. There were 225 helping statements that were endorsed by at least 90% of participants. These endorsed statements were used to develop the guidelines. Experts were able to reach substantial consensus on how someone can recognise the signs of gambling problems and support an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person to change.

  16. Risk Assessment in the Istanbul Strait Using Black Sea MOU Port State Control Inspections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esma Gül Emecen Kara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Istanbul Strait has intense maritime traffic while, at the same time, it poses significant navigational challenges. Due to these properties, there is always a high risk arising from maritime shipping in this region. Especially, substandard ships threaten life, as well as the marine environment. In this aspect, Black Sea Memorandum of Understanding (MOU Port State Control Inspections are important for maritime safety in the Istanbul Strait, because they directly reflect the performance of ships passing through the Istanbul Strait. Stringent and effective inspections assist in the enhancement of navigation safety and help to develop sustainable environment management. In this context, this study aims to assess maritime safety for the Strait region concerning passing flag states. Firstly, to assess the performance of flag states in general, the Black Sea MOU Black-Grey-White lists were generated for the period 2004–2014 and the change in the performance of these flags was examined. Secondly, the risk level of each flag state passing from the Strait region was determined using the method of weighted points based on the Black-Grey-White List, deficiency index level, casualty index level, and passing index level.

  17. IMPACT OF CLIMATE ANOMALY ON CATCH COMPOSITION OF NERITIC TUNA IN SUNDA STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Amri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tongkol komo/kawakawa (Euthynnus affinis and tenggiri (Scomberomerus guttatus are commonly caught by mini purseiners operated in Sunda Straits and landed in Labuan, West Java. This species inhabits coastal water and has preference staying in relatively warm water. Oceanography parameters commonly influencing the distribution of Euthynnus affinis are temperature, current, and salinity. The oceanography of Sunda Strait is influenced by water masses coming from the north that mainly originated from the Java Sea and water masses from the south mainly originated from Indian Ocean. The internal oceanography of Sunda Strait is also influenced by upwelling and monsoon as regional climate anomaly (ENSO and Indian Ocean Dipole Mode. This paper describes the influence of Dipole Mode (positive and negative event and ENSO (El- Nino/La-Nina to the catch dynamics of neritic tuna particularly in Sunda Straits waters. The results shown that regional climate anomaly influenced neritic tuna catch and its composition. The catches Euthynnus affinis in phase negative dipole mode or La-Nina were higher and dominated the catch composition of pelagic fishes of Sunda Strait. Similar situation also is showen by Scomberomorus commerson.

  18. Multi-model ensemble estimation of volume transport through the straits of the East/Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sooyeon; Hirose, Naoki; Usui, Norihisa; Miyazawa, Yasumasa

    2016-01-01

    The volume transports measured at the Korea/Tsushima, Tsugaru, and Soya/La Perouse Straits remain quantitatively inconsistent. However, data assimilation models at least provide a self-consistent budget despite subtle differences among the models. This study examined the seasonal variation of the volume transport using the multiple linear regression and ridge regression of multi-model ensemble (MME) methods to estimate more accurately transport at these straits by using four different data assimilation models. The MME outperformed all of the single models by reducing uncertainties, especially the multicollinearity problem with the ridge regression. However, the regression constants turned out to be inconsistent with each other if the MME was applied separately for each strait. The MME for a connected system was thus performed to find common constants for these straits. The estimation of this MME was found to be similar to the MME result of sea level difference (SLD). The estimated mean transport (2.43 Sv) was smaller than the measurement data at the Korea/Tsushima Strait, but the calibrated transport of the Tsugaru Strait (1.63 Sv) was larger than the observed data. The MME results of transport and SLD also suggested that the standard deviation (STD) of the Korea/Tsushima Strait is larger than the STD of the observation, whereas the estimated results were almost identical to that observed for the Tsugaru and Soya/La Perouse Straits. The similarity between MME results enhances the reliability of the present MME estimation.

  19. Characterizing the Seismic Ocean Bottom Environment of the Bransfield Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, B.; Lekic, V.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean bottom seismometers record ground motions that result from earthquakes, anthropogenic sound sources (e.g. propellers, air gun sources, etc.), ocean waves and currents, biological activity, as well as surface processes on the sea and coastal land. Over a two-week span in April, 2001 - the Austral late fall -ten stations arranged in eleven lines were deployed beneath the Bransfield Strait along the Antarctica Peninsula to passively record data before and after an active source seismic survey. The goal of this study is to understand ocean bottom seismicity, identify centers of seismic activity and characterize possible glaciological mechanisms of icequakes and tremors. The instruments were sampled at 200Hz, allowing signals of ice-quakes, small earthquakes, and other high frequency sources to be detected and located. By visualizing the data as spectrograms, we identify and document ground vibrations excited by local earthquakes, whale songs, and those potentially due to surface processes, such as the cracking and movement of icebergs or ice shelves, including possible harmonic tremors from the ice or the volcanic arc nearby. Using relative timing of P-wave arrivals, we locate the hypocenters of nearby earthquakes and icequakes, and present frequency-dependent polarization analysis of their waveforms. Marine mammal sounds were detected in a substantial part of the overall acoustic environment-late March and Early April are the best months to hear whales such as humpback, sperm and orca communicating amongst each other because they are drawn to the cold, nutrient-rich Antarctic waters. We detect whales communicating for several hours in the dataset. Other extensively recorded sources resemble harmonic tremors, and we also identify signals possibly associated with waves set up on the notoriously stormy seas.

  20. Application of INCSEA principles to the Taiwan Strait.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen-Chung, Chai (Taiwan Navy, Taiwan)

    2003-06-01

    The waters surrounding Taiwan are important international waterways. In addition to merchant ships of every nation, the warships of the United States, Japan, Russia, and China may appear in these waters. No hostility is expected between Taiwan and the United States, Japan, or Russia; however, Taiwan and China have a tense relationship, and both sides face a potential for naval incidents. As Taiwan and China expand their naval capability, the International Maritime Organization Convention for the lnternational Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea may not be sufficient to prevent naval incidents, any of which might develop into conflict or war. Therefore, China and Taiwan need to develop maritime confidence building measures (CBMs) that could reduce the chance of naval incidents and strengthen mutual trust and confidence. Among the variety of maritime CBM concepts for military purposes, the most successful and effective measure has been the 1972 U.S.-Soviet Union Agreement on the Prevention of Incidents On and Over the High Seas (INCSEA). The success of the agreement demonstrates that CBMs represent a workable alternative to traditional arms controls. The purpose of this paper is to suggest a concrete approach to the constraint of naval activities between China and Taiwan to reduce accidents and misunderstandings. This paper outlines the categories and characteristics of incidents at sea. Next, the author identifies the successful factors of the U.S.-Soviet INCSEA and applies the INCSEA concept to the Taiwan Strait. Finally, the author develops a framework of options and a step-by-step approach for establishing an INCSEA between Taiwan and China.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany

    Full Text Available Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia. The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions, with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  4. Sea Level Trend and Variability in the Straits of Singapore and Malacca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Q.; Tkalich, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Straits of Singapore and Malacca (SSM) connect the Andaman Sea located northeast of the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea, the largest marginal sea situated in the tropical Pacific Ocean. Consequently, sea level in the SSM is assumed to be governed by various regional phenomena associated with the adjacent parts of Indian and Pacific Oceans. At annual scale sea level variability is dominant by the Asian monsoon. Interannual sea level signals are modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). In the long term, regional sea level is driven by the global climate change. However, relative impacts of these multi-scale phenomena on regional sea level in the SSM are yet to be quantified. In present study, publicly available tide gauge records and satellite altimetry data are used to derive long-term sea level trend and variability in SSM. We used the data from research-quality stations, including four located in the Singapore Strait (Tanjong Pagar, Raffles Lighthouse, Sultan Shoal and Sembawang) and seven situated in the Malacca Strait (Kelang, Keling, Kukup, Langkawji, Lumut, Penang and Ko Taphao Noi), each one having 25-39 year data up to the year 2011. Harmonic analysis is performed to filter out astronomic tides from the tide gauge records when necessary; and missing data are reconstructed using identified relationships between sea level and the governing phenomena. The obtained sea level anomalies (SLAs) and reconstructed mean sea level are then validated against satellite altimetry data from AVISO. At multi-decadal scale, annual measured sea level in the SSM is varying with global mean sea level, rising for the period 1984-2009 at the rate 1.8-2.3 mm/year in the Singapore Strait and 1.1-2.8 mm/year in the Malacca Strait. Interannual regional sea level drops are associated with El Niño events, while the rises are correlated with La Niña episodes; both variations are in the range of ×5 cm with correlation coefficient

  5. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF DEMERSAL FISH STOCK IN THE MALACCA STRAIT OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwanto Purwanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malacca Strait is one of the main fishing areas for demersal fishery in Indonesia. To support the management of that fishery, an assessment of the demersal fish stock was conducted. This study estimated that the maximum sustainable yield and the optimal catch per unit effortof demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait were about 106.8 thousand tons/year and 28.5 tons per unit of Danish seine, respectively, resulting from the operation of 3,752 Danish seines. Unfortunately, fishing effort was higher than its optimum level and the fish stock was over-exploited since 2003. To recover the demersal fish stock to its optimum level and to ensure the optimal fish production from demersal fishery in the Malacca Strait, it was necessary to reduce fishing effort at about 67% from its level in 2011.

  6. The Holocene History of Nares Strait: Transition from Glacial Bay to Arctic-Atlantic Throughflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennings, Anne; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    . As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes...... retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later......Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea...

  7. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  8. Description of gravity cores from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodrow, Donald L.; John L. Chin,; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa A.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2017-06-27

    Seventy-two gravity cores were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1990, 1991, and 2000 from San Pablo Bay and Carquinez Strait, California. The gravity cores collected within San Pablo Bay contain bioturbated laminated silts and sandy clays, whole and broken bivalve shells (mostly mussels), fossil tube structures, and fine-grained plant or wood fragments. Gravity cores from the channel wall of Carquinez Strait east of San Pablo Bay consist of sand and clay layers, whole and broken bivalve shells (less than in San Pablo Bay), trace fossil tubes, and minute fragments of plant material.

  9. Seasonal variation of the flow in the strait of Bah al Mandab

    OpenAIRE

    Smeed, D

    1997-01-01

    There is a strong seasonal variation in the exchange flow through the strait of Bah al Mandab connecting the Red Sea to the Gulf of Aden (Thompson, 1939). In the winter a two-layer flow is observed in the strait. Dense intermediate water from the Red Sea flows into the Gulf of Aden and warmer fresher surface water flows into the Red Sea. In the summer season the direction of the surface flow is reversed and a third layer, of density between that of the surface layer and that of the intermedia...

  10. Analysis on the Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Maritime traffic profile in Western Taiwan Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinhai, C; Feng, L; Guojun, P

    2014-01-01

    The mathematical statistics and spatial analyses for merchant vessels navigating in Western Taiwan Strait are used to unravel potential spatial heterogeneity based on ship tracking records derived from China's coastal Automatic Identification System shore-based network from October 2011 to September 2012. Two maritime traffic profile's indices, composition of vessels, weighted frequency of ship transits, are proposed. Based on the two indices, the most risky hotspots or areas in the Strait are detected by comparing spatial distribution of maritime traffic volume of fishing boat, container ship, crude oil tanker and all ships exclude fishing boats

  11. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was ob...... clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region.......Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris...

  12. An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC and its relationship to field-aligned current, ring current, and plasmapause location determined using multiple spacecraft observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An auroral westward flow channel (AWFC is a latitudinally narrow channel of unstable F-region plasma with intense westward drift in the dusk-to-midnight sector ionosphere. AWFCs tend to overlap the equatorward edge of the auroral oval, and their life cycle is often synchronised to that of substorms: they commence close to substorm expansion phase onset, intensify during the expansion phase, and then decay during the recovery phase. Here we define for the first time the relationship between an AWFC, large-scale field-aligned current (FAC, the ring current, and plasmapause location. The Tasman International Geospace Environment Radar (TIGER, a Southern Hemisphere HF SuperDARN radar, observed a jet-like AWFC during ~08:35 to 13:28 UT on 7 April 2001. The initiation of the AWFC was preceded by a band of equatorward expanding ionospheric scatter (BEES which conveyed an intense poleward electric field through the inner plasma sheet. Unlike previous AWFCs, this event was not associated with a distinct substorm surge; rather it occurred during an interval of persistent, moderate magnetic activity characterised by AL~−200 nT. The four Cluster spacecraft had perigees within the dusk sector plasmasphere, and their trajectories were magnetically conjugate to the radar observations. The Waves of High frequency and Sounder for Probing Electron density by Relaxation (WHISPER instruments on board Cluster were used to identify the plasmapause location. The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE EUV experiment also provided global-scale observations of the plasmapause. The Cluster fluxgate magnetometers (FGM provided successive measurements specifying the relative location of the ring current and filamentary plasma sheet current. An analysis of Iridium spacecraft magnetometer measurements provided estimates of large-scale ionospheric FAC in relation to the AWFC evolution. Peak flows in the AWFC were located close to the peak of a Region 2

  13. Numerical assessment of factors affecting nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    Nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea exhibit diverse characteristics, which are associated with the complex conditions in Luzon Strait, such as the double ridge topography, the Earth’s rotation, variations in stratification and the background current induced by the Kuroshio. These effects are individually assessed using the MITgcm. The performance of the model is first validated through comparison with field observations. Because of in-phased ray interaction, the western ridge in Luzon Strait intensifies the semidiurnal internal tides generated from the eastern ridge, thus reinforcing the formation of nonlinear internal waves. However, the ray interaction for K1 forcing becomes anti-phased so that the K1 internal tide generation is reduced by the western ridge. Not only does the rotational dispersion suppress internal tide generation, it also inhibits nonlinear steepening and consequent internal solitary wave formation. As a joint effect, the double ridges and the rotational dispersion result in a paradoxical phenomenon: diurnal barotropic tidal forcing is dominant in Luzon Strait, but semidiurnal internal tides prevail in the deep basin of the South China Sea. The seasonal variation of the Kuroshio is consistent with the seasonal appearance of nonlinear internal waves in the South China Sea. The model results show that the westward inflow due to the Kuroshio intrusion reduces the amplitude of internal tides in the South China Sea, causing the weakening or absence of internal solitary waves. Winter stratification cannot account for the significant reduction of nonlinear internal waves, because the amplitude growth of internal tides due to increased thermocline tilting counteracts the reduced nonlinearity caused by thermocline deepening.

  14. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  15. Effective Behaviour Management Strategies for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Students: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Linda L.; Boon, Helen J.; Lewthwaite, Brian E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a systematic literature review conducted to identify effective behaviour management strategies which create a positive learning environment for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students. The search criteria employed resulted in 103 documents which were analysed in response to this focus. Results identified…

  16. Storm surges in the Singapore Strait due to winds in the South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.

    on the north, Karimata Strait on the south, east cost of Peninsular Malaysia on the west, and break of Sunda Shelf on the east, could experience positive or negative SLAs depending on the wind direction and speed. Strong sea level surges during NE monsoon...

  17. Report on the Hydroida collected by the "BALGIM" expedition in and around the Strait of Gibraltar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramil, F.; Vervoort, W.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 102 species and varieties of hydroids and three unidentifiable species are described or mentioned in the present report, which deals principally with hydroids collected in the IberoMoroccan Bay (and adjacent Atlantic), the Strait of Gibraltar, and the Alboran Sea; for revisionary purposes

  18. Mathematics Funds of Knowledge: "Sotmaute" and "Sermaute" Fish in a Torres Strait Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a project with one Torres Strait Islander Community. It provides some insights into parents' funds of knowledge that are mathematical in nature, such as sorting shells and giving fish. The idea of funds of knowledge is based on the premise that people are competent and have knowledge that has been…

  19. An improved MODIS standard chlorophyll-a algorithm for Malacca Straits Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lah, N Z Ab; Reba, M N M; Siswanto, Eko

    2014-01-01

    The Malacca Straits has high productivity of nutrients as a result to potential primary production. Yet, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua has shown an overestimation of Chl-a retrieval in the case-2 water of Malacca Straits. In an update to the previous study, this paper presents the second validation exercise of MODIS OC3M algorithm using the reprocessed MODIS data (R2013) and locally tuned the algorithm with respect to two in-sit stations located at northern and southern part of Malacca Straits. The result shows the OC3M retrieved in the case-2 (south station) water remarkably overestimated in-situ Chl-a, but it is underestimated in the case-1 (north station). Local tuning was employed by iterative regression at the fourth-order polynomial to improve the accuracy of Chl-a retrieval. As a result, locally tuned OC3M algorithm give robust statistical performance and can be applied best for both case-1 and case-2 water in Malacca Straits

  20. VET Retention in Remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities. Good Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    This good practice guide is based on the research project "Enhancing training advantage for remote Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander learners" by John Guenther et al. on behalf of Ninti One Limited. The project examines five unique and successful vocational education and training (VET) programs in remote areas and identifies how…

  1. Simulation of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, V. I.; Fayman, P. A.; Prants, S. V.; Budyansky, M. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2018-06-01

    The eddy-resolved ocean circulation model RIAMOM (Lee et al., 2003) is used to analyze seasonal variability of mesoscale circulation in the Tatar Strait of the Japan Sea. The model domain is a vast area including the northern Japan Sea, Okhotsk Sea and adjacent region in the Pacific Ocean. A numerical experiment with a horizontal 1/18° resolution has been carried out under realistic meteorological conditions from the ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis with restoring of surface temperature and salinity. The simulated seasonal variability of both the current system and mesoscale eddy dynamics in the Tatar Strait is in a good agreement with temperature and salinity distributions of oceanographic observation data collected during various seasons and years. Two general circulation regimes in the Strait have been found. The circulation regime changes from summer to winter due to seasonal change of the North Asian Monsoon. On a synoptic time scale, the similar change of the circulation regime occurs due to change of the southeastern wind to the northwestern one when the meteorological situation with an anticyclone over the Okhotsk Sea changes to that with a strong cyclone. The Lagrangian maps illustrate seasonal changes in direction of the main currents and in polarity and location of mesoscale eddies in the Strait.

  2. 33 CFR 334.1330 - Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. 334.1330 Section 334.1330 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....1330 Bering Strait, Alaska; naval restricted area off Cape Prince of Wales. (a) The area. An area 2,000 feet wide extending from a point on Cape Prince of Wales marked by a triangular cable marker located...

  3. Indigenous Language Learning and Maintenance among Young Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon, Sarah; McLeod, Sharynne

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, cultural renewal and language revitalisation are occurring among Indigenous people whose lands were colonised by foreign nations. In Australia, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are striving for the re-voicing of their mother tongue and the re-practicing of their mother culture to achieve cultural renewal in the…

  4. Needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in Australian residential aged-care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Nicole J

    2011-08-01

    This review was undertaken to identify evidence-based practice guidelines to support the care needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients residing in residential aged-care facilities. A systematic literature review was undertaken. An electronic search of online databases and subsequent manual retrieval process was undertaken to identify relevant reports and studies that explored interventions for care of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person. Very limited published material identified strategies necessary within residential aged care. Sixty-seven articles were considered for inclusion, and a subsequent review resulted in 34 being included due to direct alignment with the study aim. Strategies recommended within the review cover areas such as care, communication, palliative care, activities and the environment. Care for an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander person in an Australian residential aged-care facility requires a collaborative and individual approach. Cultural safety principles should be maintained across a culturally competent workforce. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander persons in care is a significant experience that should not be considered 'routine' as there is much to consider in the care of this person and their community. © 2011 The Author. Australian Journal of Rural Health © National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  5. Hydraulic theory of sea straits applied to the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    Theory for the dynamics of flow in sea straits holds promise to provide, in addition to geological evidence, insight into the configuration of the connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean at the onset of the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This paper, for the first time,

  6. Managing Stability in the Taiwan Strait: Non-Military Policy towards Taiwan under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-ueh Chang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s Taiwan policy has been one of coupling intimidation (the “stick” approach with coercion (the “carrot” approach, a policy mix which, in the near term, is not likely to change, as is evidenced by the passage of the “Anti-Secession Law” in March, 2005. However, under Hu Jintao, the focus has been on pragmatism. The warm atmosphere that presently reigns in the Taiwan Strait area is unprecedented. Further talks are expected before the two cross-Strait leaders are slated to step down, simultaneously, in 2012. An era of reconciliation and negotiations has dawned. For the first time there is consensus regarding norms of interaction between the two sides. Cross-Strait relations have stabilized after years of tumult. More open, stable and predictable cross-Strait relations are in the interests of both sides. Difficulties surely lie ahead, but they will be dealt with in a different manner than what has been witnessed in the past.

  7. Supporting Australian Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal Nursing Students Using Mentoring Circles: An Action Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jane; Felton-Busch, Catrina; Park, Tanya; Maza, Karen; Mills, Frances; Ghee, McCauley; Hitchins, Marnie; Chamberlain-Salaun, Jennifer; Neuendorf, Nalisa

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to recruit Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students into nursing degrees have made minimal impact on the number of registered nurses working in Australia's healthcare sector. Yet increasing the number of Indigenous nurses remains one of the most important objectives in strategies to close the health gap between Indigenous and…

  8. Late glacial ice advances in the Strait of Magellan, Southern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcculloch, Robert D.; Bentley, Michael J.

    During the last glacial cycle low gradient glaciers repeatedly drained north-eastward into the Strait of Magellan and dammed extensive proglacial lakes in the central section of the strait. This paper focuses on the two most recent glacial advances in the strait, culminating over 150 and 80 km from the present ice limits. The timing of the first of the two advances has, up to now, been ambiguous and depended on the interpretation of anomously older dates of 16,590-15,800 yr BP for deglaciation at Puerto del Hambre. Here, we show there is evidence from seismic data and truncated shorelines that the Puerto del Hambre basin has been tectonically displaced and that the dates do not represent minimums for deglaciation. Several other dates show that the advance occurred sometime before 14,260 yr BP. The timing of the second advance has been investigated using a refined tephrochronology for the region, which has also enabled a palaeoshoreline and glaciolacustrine sediments to be linked to a moraine limit. 14C dating of peat and a key tephra layer, above and below the glaciolacustrine deposits, respectively suggest that the advance culminated in the Strait of Magellan between 12,010 and 10,050 yr BP.

  9. High-frequency bottom-pressure and acoustic variations in a sea strait: internal wave turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.

    2012-01-01

    During a period of 3 days, an accurate bottom-pressure sensor and a four-beam acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) were mounted in a bottom frame at 23 m in a narrow sea strait with dominant near-rectilinear tidal currents exceeding 1 m s(-1) in magnitude. The pressure record distinguishes small

  10. Exploration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of Home Medicines Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Lindy S; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, Home Medicines Review (HMR) has been found to be an important tool to raise awareness of medication safety, reduce adverse events and improve medication adherence. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are 'underserviced' by the HMR program and are the most likely of all Australians to miss out on HMRs despite their high burden of chronic disease and high rates of hospitalisation due to medication misadventure. The goal of this study was to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander perspectives of the Home Medicines Review program and their suggestions for an 'improved' or more readily accessible model of service. Eighteen semi-structured focus groups were conducted with 102 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients at 11 Aboriginal Health Services (AHSs). Participants who were multiple medication users and understood English were recruited to the study by AHS staff. Seven focus groups were conducted for people who had already used the HMR program (User, n=23) and 11 focus groups were conducted for people who had not had an HMR (Non User, n=79). Focus groups were recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and analysed for themes. Focus groups continued and concepts were explored until no new findings were being generated and thus saturation of data occurred. Focus group participants who had not had an HMR had little or no awareness of the HMR program. All the participants felt that lack of awareness and promotion of the HMR program were contributing factors to the low uptake of the HMR program by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Most participants felt that an HMR would assist them to better understand their medicines, would empower them to seek information about medicines, would improve relationships with health professionals and would increase the likelihood of medication adherence. Most of the User participants reported that the HMR interview had been very useful for learning more about their

  11. The Holocene history of Nares Strait: Transition from glacial bay to Arctic-Atlantic throughflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Anne E.; Sheldon, Christina; Cronin, Thomas M.; Francus, Pierre; Stoner, Joseph; Andrews, John

    2011-01-01

    Retreat of glacier ice from Nares Strait and other straits in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago after the end of the last Ice Age initiated an important connection between the Arctic and the North Atlantic Oceans, allowing development of modern ocean circulation in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea. As low-salinity, nutrient-rich Arctic Water began to enter Baffin Bay, it contributed to the Baffin and Labrador currents flowing southward. This enhanced freshwater inflow must have influenced the sea ice regime and likely is responsible for poor calcium carbonate preservation that characterizes the Baffin Island margin today. Sedimentologic and paleoceanographic data from radiocarbon-dated core HLY03-05GC, Hall Basin, northern Nares Strait, document the timing and paleoenvironments surrounding the retreat of waning ice sheets from Nares Strait and opening of this connection between the Arctic Ocean and Baffin Bay. Hall Basin was deglaciated soon before 10,300 cal BP (calibrated years before present) and records ice-distal sedimentation in a glacial bay facing the Arctic Ocean until about 9,000 cal BP. Atlantic Water was present in Hall Basin during deglaciation, suggesting that it may have promoted ice retreat. A transitional unit with high ice-rafted debris content records the opening of Nares Strait at approximately 9,000 cal BP. High productivity in Hall Basin between 9,000 and 6,000 cal BP reflects reduced sea ice cover and duration as well as throughflow of nutrient-rich Pacific Water. The later Holocene is poorly resolved in the core, but slow sedimentation rates and heavier carbon isotope values support an interpretation of increased sea ice cover and decreased productivity during the Neoglacial period.

  12. Annual sediment flux estimates in a tidal strait using surrogate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Annual suspended-sediment flux estimates through Carquinez Strait (the seaward boundary of Suisun Bay, California) are provided based on surrogate measurements for advective, dispersive, and Stokes drift flux. The surrogates are landward watershed discharge, suspended-sediment concentration at one location in the Strait, and the longitudinal salinity gradient. The first two surrogates substitute for tidally averaged discharge and velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration in the Strait, thereby providing advective flux estimates, while Stokes drift is estimated with suspended-sediment concentration alone. Dispersive flux is estimated using the product of longitudinal salinity gradient and the root-mean-square value of velocity-weighted suspended-sediment concentration as an added surrogate variable. Cross-sectional measurements validated the use of surrogates during the monitoring period. During high freshwater flow advective and dispersive flux were in the seaward direction, while landward dispersive flux dominated and advective flux approached zero during low freshwater flow. Stokes drift flux was consistently in the landward direction. Wetter than average years led to net export from Suisun Bay, while dry years led to net sediment import. Relatively low watershed sediment fluxes to Suisun Bay contribute to net export during the wet season, while gravitational circulation in Carquinez Strait and higher suspended-sediment concentrations in San Pablo Bay (seaward end of Carquinez Strait) are responsible for the net import of sediment during the dry season. Annual predictions of suspended-sediment fluxes, using these methods, will allow for a sediment budget for Suisun Bay, which has implications for marsh restoration and nutrient/contaminant transport. These methods also provide a general framework for estimating sediment fluxes in estuarine environments, where temporal and spatial variability of transport are large. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of sea ice variations in Vilkitsky strait, Russian High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, T.; Cheng, X.; Hui, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Ocean has been greatly affected by climate change. Future predications show an even more drastic reduction of the ice cap which will open new areas for the exploration of natural resources and maritime transportation.Shipping through the Arctic Ocean via the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could save about 40% of the sailing distance from Asia (Yokohama) to Europe (Rotterdam) compared to the traditional route via the Suez Canal. Vilkitsky strait is the narrowest and northest portion of the Northern Sea Route with heaviest traffic between the Taimyr Peninsular and the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago. The preliminary results of sea ice variations are presented by using moderate-resolution imaging spectro radiometer(MODIS) data with 250-m resolution in the Vilkitsky strait during 2009-2012. Temporally, the first rupture on sea ice in Vilkitsky strait usually comes up in April and sea ice completely break into pieces in early June. The strait would be ice-free between August and late September. The frequency of ice floes grows while temperature falls down in October. There are always one or two months suitable for transport. Spatially, Sea ice on Laptev sea side breaks earlier than that of Kara sea side while sea ice in central of strait breaks earlier than in shoreside. The phenomena are directly related with the direction of sea wind and ocean current. In summmary, study on Spatial and temporal patterns in this area is significant for the NSR. An additional research issue to be tackled is to seeking the trends of ice-free duration in the context of global warming. Envisat ASAR data will also be used in this study.

  14. Study of dissolved oxygen content in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, N. I.

    2017-09-01

    Seasonal changes in the dissolved oxygen (DO) content in water were analyzed based on long-term observations (2006-2013) in the Eastern Bosporus Strait (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan). It was found that the monthly average DO concentrations at the bottom of the strait were significantly lower in summer than the average annual long-term data. The minimum DO contents were recorded during four months, from July to October. It was shown that the DO content in water depended on changes in current directions in the strait: lower DO contents resulted from hypoxic water inflow, mostly from Amur Bay.

  15. Greater circadian disadvantage during evening games for the National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL) and National Football League (NFL) teams travelling westward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jonathan; Forest, Geneviève

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the effects of a circadian disadvantage (i.e. playing in a different time zone) on the winning percentages in three major sport leagues in North America: the National Basketball Association, the National Hockey League and the National Football League. We reviewed 5 years of regular season games in the National Basketball Association, National Hockey League and National Football League, and noted the winning percentage of the visiting team depending on the direction of travel (west, east, and same time zone) and game time (day and evening games). T-tests and analysis of variance were performed to evaluate the effects of the circadian disadvantage, its direction, the number of time zones travelled, and the game time on winning percentages in each major league. The results showed an association between the winning percentages and the number of time zones traveled for the away evening games, with a clear disadvantage for the teams travelling westward. There was a significant difference in the teams' winning percentages depending on the travelling direction in the National Basketball Association (F 2,5908  = 16.12, P < 0.0001) and the National Hockey League (F 2,5639  = 4.48, P = 0.011), and a trend was found in the National Football League (F 2,1279  = 2.86, P = 0.058). The effect of the circadian disadvantage transcends the type of sport and needs to be addressed for greater equity among the western and eastern teams in professional sports. These results also highlight the importance of circadian rhythms in sport performance and athletic competitions. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. Water temperature, salinity, and velocity including ADCP ice tracking from Bering Strait moorings A2, A3, A4 in Bering Strait from 2015-07-02 to 2016-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0164166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2015 to summer 2016. Mooring deployments were funded by the NSF-Arctic Observing...

  17. Physical oceanographic mooring data (temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking) collected from Bering Strait Moorings A2, A3, A4 in Bering Strait from 2014-07-02 to 2015-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0155760)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2014 to summer 2015. Mooring deployments were funded by the NSF-Arctic Observing...

  18. Sediment quality in depositional areas of Shelikof Strait and outermost Cook Inlet, July 1997 - July 1998 (NODC Accession 0000702)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Minerals Management Service (MMS) program "Sediment Quality in Depositional Areas of Shelikof Strait and Outermost Cook Inlet," consisted of a two-year study...

  19. Derelict Gear - Impacts of derelict fishing gear on marine fauna in Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits have experienced a long history of commercial fishing activity. Although much of this fishing activity no longer takes place,...

  20. Marine resources, biophysical processes, and environmental management of a tropical shelf seaway: Torres Strait, Australia Introduction to the special issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P. T.; Butler, A. J.; Coles, R. G.

    2008-09-01

    This special issue of Continental Shelf Research contains 20 papers giving research results produced as part of Australia's Torres Strait Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) Program, which was funded over a three-year period during 2003-2006. Marine biophysical, fisheries, socioeconomic-cultural and extension research in the Torres Strait region of northeastern Australia was carried out to meet three aims: 1) support the sustainable development of marine resources and minimize impacts of resource use in Torres Strait; 2) enhance the conservation of the marine environment and the social, cultural and economic well being of all stakeholders, particularly the Torres Strait peoples; and 3) contribute to effective policy formulation and management decision making. Subjects covered, including commercial and traditional fisheries management, impacts of anthropogenic sediment inputs on seagrass meadows and communication of science results to local communities, have broad applications to other similar environments.

  1. Anthropogenic and natural CO2 exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruíz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The exchange of both anthropogenic and natural inorganic carbon between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea through Strait of Gibraltar was studied for a period of two years under the frame of the CARBOOCEAN project. A comprehensive sampling program was conducted, which was design to collect samples at eight fixed stations located in the Strait in successive cruises periodically distributed through the year in order to ensure a good spatial and temporal coverage. As a result of this monitoring, a time series namely GIFT (GIbraltar Fixed Time series has been established, allowing the generation of an extensive data set of the carbon system parameters in the area. Data acquired during the development of nine campaigns were analyzed in this work. Total inorganic carbon concentration (CT was calculated from alkalinity-pHT pairs and appropriate thermodynamic relationships, with the concentration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT being also computed using two methods, the ΔC* and the TrOCA approach. Applying a two-layer model of water mass exchange through the Strait and using a value of −0.85 Sv for the average transport of the outflowing Mediterranean water recorded in situ during the considered period, a net export of inorganic carbon from the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic was obtained, which amounted to 25±0.6 Tg C yr−1. A net alkalinity output of 16±0.6 Tg C yr−1 was also observed to occur through the Strait. In contrast, the Atlantic water was found to contain a higher concentration of anthropogenic carbon than the Mediterranean water, resulting in a net flux of CANT towards the Mediterranean basin of 4.20±0.04 Tg C yr−1 by using the ΔC* method, which constituted the most adequate approach for this environment. A carbon balance in the Mediterranean was assessed and fluxes through the Strait are discussed in relation to the highly diverse estimates available in the literature for the area and the different approaches

  2. Food and nutrition programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Jennifer; Adams, Karen; Atkinson, Petah; Gleeson, Deborah; Hayes, Rick

    2017-09-19

    Objective To provide an overview of previous reviews of programs that aimed to improve nutritional status or diet-related health outcomes for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, in order to determine what programs are effective and why. Methods A systematic search of databases and relevant websites was undertaken to identify reviews of nutrition interventions for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Pairs of reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction and performed quality assessment using a validated tool. Results Twelve papers reporting 11 reviews were identified. Two reviews were rated high quality, three were rated medium and six were rated low quality. The reviews demonstrated that a positive effect on nutrition and chronic disease indicators can be a result of: 1) incorporating nutrition and breastfeeding advice into maternal and child health care services; and 2) multifaceted community nutrition programs. The evidence suggests that the most important factor determining the success of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander food and nutrition programs is community involvement in (and, ideally, control of) program development and implementation. Conclusions Community-directed food and nutrition programs, especially those with multiple components that address the underlying causes of nutrition issues, can be effective in improving nutrition-related outcomes. What is known about the topic? More effective action is urgently required in order to reduce the unacceptable health inequalities between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Food insecurity and nutrition-related chronic conditions are responsible for a large proportion of the ill health experienced by Australia's First Peoples. What does this paper add? This narrative overview of 11 reviews published between 2005 and 2015 provides a synthesis of the current evidence for improving Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander nutrition

  3. Ice-Ocean Interactions to the North-West of Greenland: Glaciers, Straits, Ice Bridges, and the Rossby Radius (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchow, A.; Falkner, K. K.; Melling, H.; Johnson, H. L.; Huntley, H. S.; Ryan, P.; Friends Of Petermann

    2010-12-01

    Petermann Glacier at 81 N latitude is a major outlet glacier adjacent to Nares Strait. It terminates in a long (70 km), narrow (16 km) and thin (50 m) floating tongue and has a grounding line more than 500 m below sea level. A calving event in 2010 reduced the floating area by 25% and produced a single 240 km2 ice island currently moving south in Nares Strait where it will likely interact with island to potentially create a temporary polynya in Nares Strait. The 2010 calving from Petermann Glacier contributes bridge formed regularly at the southern end of Nares Strait creating the North-Water polynya near 79 N latitude. Since 2006 this ice bridge has largely failed to form, leading, perhaps, to the occasional formation of a secondary ice bridge 300 km to the north where Nares Strait connects to the Arctic Ocean. However, this ice bridge appears to form for shorter periods only. Consequently Arctic sea ice can now exit the Arctic in winter via pathways to the west of Greenland all year. We speculate that this changed ocean and sea ice regime in Nares Strait and the Arctic Ocean may contribute to the recently observed calving events in Petermann Fjord.

  4. Weathering the empire: meteorological research in the early British Straits Settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Fiona

    2015-09-01

    This article explores meteorological interest and experimentation in the early history of the Straits Settlements. It centres on the establishment of an observatory in 1840s Singapore and examines the channels that linked the observatory to a global community of scientists, colonial officers and a reading public. It will argue that, although the value of overseas meteorological investigation was recognized by the British government, investment was piecemeal and progress in the field often relied on the commitment and enthusiasm of individuals. In the Straits Settlements, as elsewhere, these individuals were drawn from military or medical backgrounds, rather than trained as dedicated scientists. Despite this, meteorology was increasingly recognized as of fundamental importance to imperial interests. Thus this article connects meteorology with the history of science and empire more fully and examines how research undertaken in British dependencies is revealing of the operation of transnational networks in the exchange of scientific knowledge.

  5. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river......Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...

  6. Effect of the Northern Sea Route Opening to the Shipping Activities at Malacca Straits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.F. Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The opening of the Northern Sea Route as an alternative route for transporting cargoes between the Far East and Europe seems highly acceptable by shipping companies due to the great saving in fuel consumption, bunker cost, operating cost, emissions and journey time. This situation will not only affect the maritime business activity in the Straits of Malacca but also, the Malaysian economy in different perspectives when the vessels sail via the Suez Canal and the Indian Ocean are expected to decrease. The objective of this study is to analyse the implication in the opening of the Northern Sea Route on Maritime Sector of the Malaysian economy by using PESTEL analysis. The main scope is focusing more on the Malacca Straits shipping activity by using a number of parameters that have been obtained from Port Klang and Port Klang Authority through a set of questionnaires and interview sessions with industrial experts.

  7. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cucco

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  8. Support to oil spill emergencies in the Bonifacio Strait, western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucco, A.; Ribotti, A.; Olita, A.; Fazioli, L.; Sorgente, B.; Sinerchia, M.; Satta, A.; Perilli, A.; Borghini, M.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.

    2012-07-01

    An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions for oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled with a wind wave model, are the core of the integrated Bonifacio Strait system. Such a system is capable of predicting operationally the dispersion of hydrocarbon spills in the area, both in forward and backward mode, through an easy-to-use graphical user interface. A set of applications are described and discussed including both operational applications aimed at providing rapid responses to local oil spill emergences and managing applications aimed at mitigating the risk of oil spill impacts on the coast.

  9. What constitutes 'support' for the role of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child health workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karen; Young, Jeanine; Barnes, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    As well as providing primary health care services, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers are known to significantly contribute to the overall acceptability, access and use of health services through their role of cultural brokerage in the communities within which they work. As such they are uniquely positioned to positively influence health improvements for this vulnerable population. This study sought to identify key areas that both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous health professionals working within Indigenous communities felt were important in providing support for their roles. This group of workers require support within their roles particularly in relation to cultural awareness and capability, resource provision, educational opportunities, collaboration with colleagues and peers, and professional mentorship.

  10. Meiofauna communities from the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Chen

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Meiofauna from 20 stations (ranging between 8 and 550 m in the Magellan Straits and the Beagle Channel revealed 28 small sized taxa of higher categories including the temporary meiofauna. Nematoda, Copepoda Harpacticoidea and Polychaeta occurred in all samples; Turbellaria, Bivalvia, Kinorhyncha and Ostracoda were regularly present. Nematodes represented between 68% and 94% of the meiofauna at each station, followed by the copepods (2.3% to 14.5% and polychaetes (1.1% to 11.5%. Maximal total density, 9700 individuals 10 cm-2, was found in the surroundings of Picton Island, while the mean abundance per station was 3374 individuals 10 cm-2. The vertical pattern within the sediment showed that 87% of meiofauna components concentrated in the upper 0-5 cm sediment layers and 13% in the lower ( > 5cm layers. More than 95% of copepods, as well as the temporary meiofauna occurred in the top 5 cm layers. The proportion of nematodes and copepods shows opposite trends in the vertical distribution. Multivariate analysis using the total density and the 10 `true´ meiofauna taxa densities discriminates between communities in the Straits of Magellan and the Beagle Channel area. Meiofaunal density was much higher in the Beagle Channel, but the diversity was lower than that in the Straits of Magellan. The Southern Magellan meiofauna communities are compared with those found at the Antarctic Peninsula and in the Weddell Sea (high Antarctic. It is considered that hydrodynamic features (tidal currents with strong winds, geographical characteristics, together with sediment composition are the key parameters structuring the meiofauna community in the Straits of Magellan and in the Beagle Channel.

  11. Scales of Marine Turbulence in Cook Strait (New Zealand) in the Context of Tidal Energy Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig

    2017-04-01

    Cook Strait, the channel separating New Zealand's North and South Islands, is at it's narrowest around 22 km across with flows driven by a semidiurnal tide, wind and a baroclinic pressure gradient. Water depths are around 250-300 m in the main part of the channel, with shoals to the south and the submerged Fishermans Rock (aka pinnacle) in the centre northwest of the Strait. The substantial tidal flow speed is due to the tide being nearly out of phase comparing the ends of the strait and further enhanced by a narrowing of the strait. It has significant potential for a tidal energy resource suitable for extraction due to both its significant energy levels but also its proximity to electricity infrastructure and nationally high uptake of renewable energy in general. Here we describe recent flow and turbulence data and contextualise them in terms of scales relevant to marine energy extraction. With flow speeds reaching 3 m s-1 in a water column of > 200 m depth the setting is heuristically known to be highly turbulent. Turbulent energy dissipation rates are modest but high for oceans, around 5x10-5 W kg-1. Thorpe scales, the observed quantity representing the energy-bearing scale, are often as much as one quarter of the water depth. This means eddy sizes can potentially be larger than blade length. A boundary-layer structure was apparent but highly variable. This has implications for both operation of tidal turbines, as well as modulating their effect on the environment. Fishermans Rock itself is interesting as if can be considered a proxy for a larger array of turbines.

  12. Transports and tidal current estimates in the Taiwan Strait from shipboard ADCP observations (1999-2001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. H.; Jan, S.; Wang, D. P.

    2003-05-01

    Tidal and mean flows in the Taiwan Strait are obtained from analysis of 2.5 years (1999-2001) of shipboard ADCP data using a spatial least-squares technique. The average tidal current amplitude is 0.46 ms -1, the maximum amplitude is 0.80 ms -1 at the northeast and southeast entrances and the minimum amplitude is 0.20 ms -1 in the middle of the Strait. The tidal current ellipses derived from the shipboard ADCP data compare well with the predictions of a high-resolution regional tidal model. For the mean currents, the average velocity is about 0.40 ms -1. The mean transport through the Strait is northward (into the East China Sea) at 1.8 Sv. The transport is related to the along Strait wind by a simple regression, transport (Sv)=2.42+0.12×wind (ms -1). Using this empirical formula, the maximum seasonal transport is in summer, about 2.7 Sv, the minimum transport is in winter, at 0.9 Sv, and the mean transport is 1.8 Sv. For comparison, this result indicates that the seasonal amplitude is almost identical to the classical estimate by Wyrtki (Physical oceanography of the southeast Asian waters, scientific results of marine investigations of the South China Sea and Gulf of Thailand, 1959-1961. Naga Report 2, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, 195 pp.) based on the mass balance in the South China Sea, while the mean is close to the recent estimate by Isobe [Continental Shelf Research 19 (1999) 195] based on the mass balance in the East China Sea.

  13. Using Metasynthesis to Develop Sensitising Concepts to Understand Torres Strait Islander Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinnitta Patricia Mosby

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research indicates that more and more Indigenous peoples will be forced to migrate due to climate change. Current responses focus on mitigation and adaptation strategies. One such group, Torres Strait Islander people are already moving for other reasons and existing vulnerabilities compound levels of disadvantage when moving. It will be important to understand Torres Strait Islander people’s experiences of contemporary movements in order to inform policy development and facilitate the process of migration and resettlement as movement increases. A synthesis of existing studies would allow the development of sensitising concepts that could inform future research in the Torres Strait Islander context. This article presents a metasynthesis of six qualitative studies of the experiences of different Indigenous and minority groups at various stages of migration, displacement and resettlement. Articles were selected on contemporary movements (2001-2011 and importantly the inclusion of first person voice. Reciprocal translation was used to synthesise common themes and a core construct. The overarching construct that became apparent from the metasynthesis was ‘continuity of being’ through staying connected to self, family and culture. Three themes emerged: ‘freedom to be’, ‘staying close’ and ‘forming anchor’. These were enacted through people valuing their personal, social, religious and political freedom and recognising the importance of maintaining or forming strong social and family networks. When researching the experiences of Torres Strait Islanders it will be necessary to focus on motivations for moving, and understand the processes for staying connected to kin and homeland in order to achieve the desired outcomes of successful resettlement under conditions of uncertainty.

  14. The Messina straits tsunami of december 28, 1908: a critical review of experimental data and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinti, S.; Giuliani, D.

    1983-01-01

    The tsunami which occurred on December 28, 1908, in the Straits of Messina is examined. A wide set of data coming from a number of sources was collected and reviewed in order to get a picture as clear as possible of the generation and evolution of the event. The tsunami magnitude is estimated according to the Murty-Loomis scale, based upon the evaluation of the initial wave disturbance energy

  15. Process evaluation of a pilot evidence-based Polycystic Ovary Syndrome clinic in the Torres Strait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Jacqueline; Hollands, Grace; Beck, Sarah; Hampel, Gaynor; Wapau, Hylda; Arnot, Marissa; Browne, Louise; Teede, Helena J; Moran, Lisa J

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a chronic endocrine syndrome in reproductive-aged women which is very common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. The objective of this study was to conduct a process evaluation of a pilot clinic on Thursday Island which aimed to provide a comprehensive evidence-based service for women with PCOS throughout the Torres Strait. Mixed-method evaluation at 12 months comprising a medical record audit, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. Primary care. Audit of n = 11 clinics (n = 36 women), qualitative semi-structured interviews with n = 8 clinicians and focus group discussions with n = 8 women. (i) Fidelity to evidence-based guidelines, (ii) barriers and enablers to women using the service, (iii) the ability to meet the needs of women and the community. The clinic was largely successful in providing evidence-based care with up to 78% of women receiving recommended cardiometabolic screening, 100% emotional screening and 89% lifestyle management despite the remoteness of the clinic and limited financial and human resources. Health care providers report sustainability of the clinic will be dependent on factors including staffing, administrative support and inclusion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers. While the clinic has been largely successful there are areas identified for potential improvement and to facilitate sustainability which should be considered before up-scaling this model to a national level. These include systems, administrative and staffing support, engaging with other community services to facilitate lifestyle changes and ongoing engagement and upskilling of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health care providers. © 2016 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  16. Long-time observation of annual variation of Taiwan Strait upwelling in summer season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, D. L.; Kawamura, H.; Guan, L.

    The Taiwan Strait is between Taiwan Island and Mainland China, where several upwelling zones are well known for good fishing grounds. Earlier studies in the strait have been conducted on detecting upwelling by ship measurements with short-term cruises, but long-term variations of upwelling in this region are not understood. The present paper examines satellite images for a long-time observation of two major upwelling zones in the Taiwan Strait: Taiwan Bank Upwelling (TBU) and Dongshan Upwelling (DSU). Sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll a (Chl-a) images have been analyzed for summer months (June, July, and August) from 1980 to 2002. Results reveal annual variation of two upwelling zones. These two upwelling zones occur every year characterized with distinct low water temperature and high Chl-a concentrations. During the period from 1989 to 1998, SST is found to be 1.15 °C lower in TBU, and 1.42 °C lower in the DSU than the Taiwan Strait. The size of DSU has been found to be larger during summer of 1989, 1990, 1993 and 1995; TBU has been found to be weak during summer of 1994 and 1997. Ocean color images obtained from CZCS, OCI, and SeaWiFS also show high Chl-a concentrations (0.8-2.5 mg m-3) in two upwelling zones, which coincide with low SST in terms of location, shape, and time. These high Chl-a concentrations in TBU and DSU may be related to upwelling waters that bring nutrients from bottom to surface. The present results also show the potential of using satellite data for monitoring of ocean environment for long time period.

  17. The Application of Fucus vesiculosus as a Bioindicator of 60Co Concentrations in the Danish Straits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1985-01-01

    The occurrence of 60Co in the Danish Straits is investigated by applying the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus as a bioindicator. In order to describe different dispersion situations, three areas have been studied separately: the North Sea, where it is possible to measure 60Co from sources in France and...... of distance from Barsebäck. Problems of uncertainty related to differences in environmental parameters are discussed and new investigations to improve the use of Fucus as a bioindicator are suggested....

  18. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. An approach to peat formation period on both coast of Fildes Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenfen, Z.

    1997-01-01

    Because peat consist mainly of organic matter, both credibility and comparability of the peat 14 C age are high. This paper discuss the use of radiocarbon ( 14 C) to study the peat age. The results of a comparative study of ten samples from China Great Wall Station in Antarctica and the nearby area (on both sides of Fildes Strait) are presented, indicating differences of peat formation period between the pole and other areas

  20. STATUS OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN THE MAKASSAR STRAIT BASED AT THE NORTHERN PART OF JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Turni Hartati

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coastal of Makassar Strait is one of main fishing grounds for purse seine vessels from northern part of Java which based at the following landing sites, i.e. Pekalongan, Tegal and Juwana. The purse seine fishery predominantly targets small pelagic fish. This paper attempts to present the current condition of small pelagic fishery in the Makassar Strait. Catch and effort (trip data between 2004 and 2011 from the three landing sites were used to estimate Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY using Schaefer & Fox models. The results showed a decreasing trend in the catch rate, from 30.83 tons/trip in 2004 to 12.27 tons/trip in 2011. The estimated MSY is at the range of 34,705- 37,930 tons with optimum efforts for 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips. Thus the level of purse seine fishing effort in 2011, i.e. 3,078 trips, was exceeding the optimum effort. The decreasing trend in the catch rate may indicate overfishing is occurring between 2004 and 2011. For management of the small pelagic fisheries in the waters of Makassar Strait, important action recommended is fishing effort restrictions. The effort allowed would be only in the range of 2,234-2,500 purse seine trips, and the fishing capacity needs to be controled.

  1. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  2. Domesticating Hybridity: Straits Chinese Cultural Heritage Projects in Malaysia and Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Teoh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the literal and figurative domestication of Straits Chinese, or Peranakan, history in selected heritage projects in late twentieth-century Malaysia and Singapore. These projects simultaneously foreground Straits Chinese history as a symbol of interracial harmony and marginalize it as a cultural artifact. Over the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the ethnoculturally hybrid Straits Chinese positioned themselves as “the King’s Chinese,” champions of a Confucian-values renaissance, and citizens of independent Malaysia and Singapore. Their adaptability helped them survive the upheaval of imperialism, decolonization, and nation building, but it was also controversial for its suggestion of political flexibility. Today, Southeast Asian governments and the Peranakan themselves depict the community as a uniquely local model of ethnic integration. Museums and historic homes emphasize portrayals and consumption of supposedly feminine aspects of Peranakan culture (e.g., fashion and cuisine, while downplaying purportedly masculine elements (e.g., the possession of multiple nationalities. By conflating femininity, tradition, and racial hybridity, this approach reifies stereotypes about gender and cultural identity, and replaces transgressive potential with politically anodyne nostalgia and commercialization. As anxieties about race, national history, and belonging continue to undergird the modern polity, transnationalism and transculturalism are acceptable as long as they are confined to the past.

  3. Increased bone mineral density in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: impact of body composition differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, L J; Hughes, J; Piers, L S; Ward, L C; Meerkin, J; Eisman, J A; Center, J R; Pocock, N A; Jerums, G; O'Dea, K

    2012-07-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported to be both higher and lower in Indigenous women from different populations. Body composition data have been reported for Indigenous Australians, but there are few published BMD data in this population. We assessed BMD in 161 Indigenous Australians, identified as Aboriginal (n=70), Torres Strait Islander (n=68) or both (n=23). BMD measurements were made on Norland-XR46 (n=107) and Hologic (n=90) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machines. Norland BMD and body composition measurements in these individuals, and also in 36 Caucasian Australians, were converted to equivalent Hologic BMD (BMD(H)) and body composition measurements for comparison. Femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine Z-scores were high in Indigenous participants (mean FN Z-score: Indigenous men +0.98, pAboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander than Caucasian participants, after adjusting for age, gender, diabetes and height and remained higher in men after addition of lean mass to the model. We conclude that FN BMD is higher in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians than Caucasian Australian reference ranges and these differences still remained significant in men after adjustment for lean mass. It remains to be seen whether these BMD differences translate to differences in fracture rates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Johor strait as a hotspot for trace elements contamination in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir; Ismail, Ahmad; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2010-05-01

    Present study was conducted to evaluate current status of trace elements contamination in the surface sediments of the Johor Strait. Iron (2.54 +/- 1.24%) was found as the highest occurring element, followed by those of zinc (210.45 +/- 115.4 microg/g), copper (57.84 +/- 45.54 microg/g), chromium (55.50 +/- 31.24 microg/g), lead (52.52 +/- 28.41 microg/g), vanadium (47.76 +/- 25.76 microg/g), arsenic (27.30 +/- 17.11 microg/g), nickel (18.31 +/- 11.77 microg/g), cobalt (5.13 +/- 3.12 microg/g), uranium (4.72 +/- 2.52 microg/g), and cadmium (0.30 +/- 0.30 microg/g), respectively. Bioavailability of cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were higher than 50% of total concentration. Vanadium, copper, zinc, arsenic and cadmium were found significantly different between the eastern and western part of the strait (p Johor Strait is suitable as a hotspot for trace elements contamination related studies.

  5. Influence of habitat structure and environmental variables on larval fish assemblage in the Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roushon; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Idris, M H; Gaffar, Mazlan Abd; Romano, Nicholas

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that among different habitat sites (mangrove, estuary, river, seagrass and Open Sea) in Johor Strait, Malaysia, seagrass showed highest family diversity and abundance of larval fish. However, it is unclear whether this was due to difference in habitat complexity or water quality parameters.? To test this, larval fish were collected by using a bongo net equipped with a flow meter by subsurface horizontal towing from different habitats in Johor Strait between October 2007 and September 2008.? Various physico-chemical parameters were measured and then examined for any relationship to fish larvae diversity and abundance. Among the 24 families identified from the sites, seven families (Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Mullidae, Nemipteridae, Syngnathidae, Terapontidae and Uranoscopeidae) were significantly correlated with the tested waters quality parameters.? Salinity showed a positive and negative significant correlation with Clupeidae (p Johor Strait, Malaysia. This likely indicates that habitat structure was more important in determining larval abundance (highest in the seagrass habitat) as compared to water quality at the tested sites. This study emphasizes the need to conserve seagrass beds as important nursery grounds for various fish larvae to ensure adequate recruitment and ultimately sustainable fisheries management. ?

  6. Enhanced Structural Interpretation Using Multitrace Seismic Attribute For Oligo-Miocene Target at Madura Strait Offshore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama Wahyu Hidayat, Putra; Hary Murti, Antonius; Sudarmaji; Shirly, Agung; Tiofan, Bani; Damayanti, Shinta

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is an important parameter for the field of hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation, it has significant effect to the amount of resources or reserves, rock spreading, and risk analysis. The existence of geological structure or fault becomes one factor affecting geometry. This study is conducted as an effort to enhance seismic image quality in faults dominated area namely offshore Madura Strait. For the past 10 years, Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock has been slightly explored on Madura Strait area, the main reason because migration and trap geometry still became risks to be concern. This study tries to determine the boundary of each fault zone as subsurface image generated by converting seismic data into variance attribute. Variance attribute is a multitrace seismic attribute as the derivative result from amplitude seismic data. The result of this study shows variance section of Madura Strait area having zero (0) value for seismic continuity and one (1) value for discontinuity of seismic data. Variance section shows the boundary of RMKS fault zone with Kendeng zone distinctly. Geological structure and subsurface geometry for Oligo-Miocene carbonate rock could be identified perfectly using this method. Generally structure interpretation to identify the boundary of fault zones could be good determined by variance attribute.

  7. What are the legal dimensions to climate change in the Torres Strait?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Climate change projections suggest that the Torres Strait Islands are one of the most vulnerable regions in Australia. This is due, in part, because several of the islands are only a metre or two above local mean sea level. Social and economic disadvantage further reduces the capacity to adapt to rapid environmental change, and so this problem is compounded on many of the Islands which lack adequate infrastructure, health services and employment opportunities. Consequently, considering the biophysical impacts in the socio-economic context is highly significant in order to understand - and hopefully improve - these communities' resilience to climate change. Cultural issues, not normally considered by natural scientists working on identifying climate impacts in human settlements, add increasing complexity to comprehending the full impacts of climate change in this location. Many Islanders connect the health of their land and sea country to their mental and physical wellbeing and, more broadly, their cultural integrity. In the longer term, the very existence of Ailan Kastom (Island Custom) may be threatened if projected sea level rise in combination with extreme weather events increases the frequency and/or severity of inundation incidents and necessitates relocation from the Islands. One other significant concern that has not been given appropriate consideration relates to the legal status of land (and sea) ownership. Over the last 15 years, the Torres Strait Islanders have successfully fought to obtain native title rights. Some Islanders are now concerned that these rights may disappear due to the impacts of climate change. In order to explore these issues, this paper provides: 1. a background to the climate change projections and likely direct and indirect impacts on the islands; and 2. a discussion of the legal dimension of the potential for climate change to impact on the native title rights of Torres Strait Islanders. We use the Torres

  8. Deadly progress: changes in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult daily smoking, 2004–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Lovett

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Reducing tobacco use in this population is a public health priority. Precise monitoring of smoking prevalence trends is central to implementation and evaluation of effective tobacco control. The way in which trends are reported influences understanding of the extent of progress, with potential implications for policy. Our objective was to quantify absolute changes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult (≥18 years old daily tobacco smoking prevalence from 2004 to 2015, including comparisons with the total Australian population, and by age, sex and remoteness. Methods: We analysed multiple nationally representative surveys of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander, and total Australian, population conducted from 2004 to 2015. Aligned with strength-based approaches, we applied a progress frame, focusing on absolute differences in smoking prevalence within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population. Results: The prevalence of current daily smoking among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults nationally was 50.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.9, 52.2 in 2004–05 and 41.4% (95% CI 39.1, 43.6 in 2014–15, representing an absolute prevalence decrease of 8.6 percentage points (95% CI 5.5, 11.8 over the past decade. This is comparable with the 6.8 percentage point (95% CI 5.6, 7.9 decrease in smoking prevalence in the total Australian population over the same period, from 21.3% in 2004–05 (95% CI 20.5, 22.0 to 14.5% in 2014–15 (95% CI 13.6, 15.4. Particular success in reducing Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smoking was observed among younger age groups, with a decrease of 13.2 percentage points for 18–24-year-olds (95% CI 5.9, 20.4, 9.0 percentage points for 25–34-year-olds (95% CI 2.7, 15.3 and 8.7 percentage points for 35–44-year-olds (95% CI 2.6, 14.8. Smoking

  9. Summer nitrogenous nutrient transport and its fate in the Taiwan Strait: A coupled physical-biological modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Hong, Huasheng; Jiang, Yuwu; Chai, Fei; Yan, Xiao-Hai

    2013-09-01

    In order to understand the fate of nutrients in the Taiwan Strait during summer, we built a coupled physical-biological numerical ocean model, which can capture the basic hydrographic and biological features within the strait. The nutrient that we chose to model is dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The model includes individual reservoirs for nitrate (NO3) and ammonium (NH4). Both the observational evidence and model results show that NO3 in the strait originates primarily from the upwelling subsurface water in the northern South China Sea (SCS) that enters the strait via the eastern and western routes separated by the Taiwan Bank. The coupled physical and biological effects on the NO3 transport at these two routes are highlighted in the study. For the western route, the shallow topography and the coastal upwelling intensify the biological uptake of NO3 in the whole water column. Consequently, the nitrogenous contribution by this route is mainly in form of the particulate organic nitrogen (PON). In contrast, NO3 is transported conservatively below the nitricline at the deep eastern route, contributing the whole NO3 supply in the TWS. The model estimates the fluxes of DIN and PON into the TWS, from the northern SCS, are 1.8 and 4 kmol s-1, respectively. Over half (˜1 kmol s-1) of the DIN is synthesized into PON by the phytoplankton in the strait. Overall, this study estimates the physical and biological effects on the nutrient transport in the TWS during summer.

  10. The Re-Creation and Resolution of the 'Problem' of Indigenous Education in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cross-Curriculum Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Jacinta; Lowe, Kevin; Salter, Peta

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the 'problem' of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander education represented in the Australian Curriculum's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures cross-curriculum priority. Looking beyond particular curriculum content, we uncover the policy discourses that construct (and reconstruct) the…

  11. Impact of recirculation on the East Greenland Current in Fram Strait: Results from moored current meter measurements between 1997 and 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.; Mauritzen, C.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Fahrbach, E.

    2014-01-01

    Transports of total volume and water masses obtained from a mooring array in the East Greenland Current (EGC) in Fram Strait are presented for the period 1997–2009. The array in the EGC was moved along isobaths from 79°N to 78°50'N78°50'N in 2002 to line up with moorings in the eastern Fram Strait.

  12. Analysis of Backscatter and Seafloor Acoustical Properties across deepwater sandwaves in Cook Strait, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, X.; Lamarche, G.

    2011-12-01

    Central Cook Strait, New Zealand presents a variety of geological landforms subjected to intense hydrodynamic conditions. A comprehensive EM300 multibeam coverage of the strait was used to develop a method to objectively characterise the seafloor substrate. Specific post-processing was applied to the backscatter data to correct the signal from sensor bias, and was completed by correlating a quantitative description of backscatter with the field data. The final calibrated Backscattering Strength (BS) provides information on the physical characteristics of the seafloor. The BS imagery was used for both qualitative and quantitative interpretation, and give access to a level of detail higher than with conventional multibeam bathymetry. We developed a functional descriptive model of the physical BS angular response, describing satisfactorily the various typical BS responses met over Cook Strait and providing a first-order interpretation of the substrate composition. The full model needs 6 input parameters, but a practical classification can be obtained with only two (the BS value at 45° and the specular-to-oblique contrast). We analyse the BS angular response of sandwaves and erosional bedforms typically met in the central Cook Strait. The sandwave fields occur in 200-350 m of water depth and exhibit large-scale topographical features (wavelengths 100 - 250 m; vertical amplitudes 2 - 10 m). They are conspicuous in the backscatter imagery, and analysing their BS variations according to topography is specially informative. The BS level has a sharp minimum at the wave crests and is maximal inside the troughs, with a typical dynamics of 6 dB. Such a variation cannot be explained by the dependence on incident angle retrieved from local high-resolution bathymetry. Hence we infer that the reflectivity variations observed on the sandwaves are due to sediment facies changes, from fine to coarse sand in this case. This is corroborated by the fact that some sandwave fields with

  13. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  14. Turkish Straits System and Southern Black Sea: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin

    2015-04-01

    Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits System (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black Sea are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer system has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black Sea past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.

  15. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. Methods and analysis All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and

  16. Population ecology of polar bears in Davis Strait, Canada and Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Taylor, Mitchell K.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Stirling, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, the sea ice habitat of polar bears was understood to be variable, but environmental variability was considered to be cyclic or random, rather than progressive. Harvested populations were believed to be at levels where density effects were considered not significant. However, because we now understand that polar bear demography can also be influenced by progressive change in the environment, and some populations have increased to greater densities than historically lower numbers, a broader suite of factors should be considered in demographic studies and management. We analyzed 35 years of capture and harvest data from the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulation in Davis Strait, including data from a new study (2005–2007), to quantify its current demography. We estimated the population size in 2007 to be 2,158 ± 180 (SE), a likely increase from the 1970s. We detected variation in survival, reproductive rates, and age-structure of polar bears from geographic sub-regions. Survival and reproduction of bears in southern Davis Strait was greater than in the north and tied to a concurrent dramatic increase in breeding harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) in Labrador. The most supported survival models contained geographic and temporal variables. Harp seal abundance was significantly related to polar bear survival. Our estimates of declining harvest recovery rate, and increasing total survival, suggest that the rate of harvest declined over time. Low recruitment rates, average adult survival rates, and high population density, in an environment of high prey density, but deteriorating and variable ice conditions, currently characterize the Davis Strait polar bears. Low reproductive rates may reflect negative effects of greater densities or worsening ice conditions.

  17. SEAFLOOR MORPHOLOGY INFLUENCES ON CURRENT CONDITION IN A SUNDA STRAIT BRIDGE PROJECT USING NUMERICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franto Novico

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than 50 years since the idea to construct the bridge of Sunda Strait was inspirited by Prof. Sedyatmo. This issued is very important due to accelerate the economic growth between Sumatera Island and Java Island which is known as the densest population in the Indonesia. However, until today the bridge is still not construct yet because the high budget and the lack of technical data are still being problems. One of the most important data is current condition along the Sunda Strait. Unfortunately, no one has been clearly studied about current condition along Sunda Strait. Therefore, the information about current condition would be completed to fulfil the lack of data and information. The RV Geomarine I, as a research vessel conducted the survey in October 2012 that one of the objectives is to get the impression about the current condition around the bridge plan. Attaching echo sounder of bathy 1500 to get the depth profile and applied the RD Instrument ADCP Mobile Workhorse Monitor 300 kHz to collect the real current data and analyze the current using numerical model by Mike 21 were carried out to describe the condition of the current around the bridge proposed. In addition, the detail flexible mesh of hydrodynamic model is applied along bridge plan to analyse the current condition that caused by seafloor morphology. Based on the ADCP data it would be seen that the highest velocity record of the current occurs at October 18th 2012 at line 19 with the value 2.63 m/sec. Nevertheless, the numerical model shown the highest current velocity occurs around the northwest of Sangiang Island where the speed attains more than 4.59 m/sec.

  18. Performance Evaluation of HYCOM-GOM for Hydrokinetic Resource Assessment in the Florida Strait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neary, Vincent S [ORNL; Gunawan, Budi [ORNL; Ryou, Albert S [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) is assessing and mapping the potential off-shore ocean current hydrokinetic energy resources along the U.S. coastline, excluding tidal currents, to facilitate market penetration of water power technologies. This resource assessment includes information on the temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution of the daily averaged power density, and the overall theoretical hydrokinetic energy production, based on modeled historical simulations spanning a 7-year period of record using HYCOM-GOM, an ocean current observation assimilation model that generates a spatially distributed three-dimensional representation of daily averaged horizontal current magnitude and direction time series from which power density time series and their statistics can be derived. This study ascertains the deviation of HYCOM-GOM outputs, including transport (flow) and power density, from outputs based on three independent observation sources to evaluate HYCOM-GOM performance. The three independent data sources include NOAA s submarine cable data of transport, ADCP data at a high power density location, and HF radar data in the high power density region of the Florida Strait. Comparisons with these three independent observation sets indicate discrepancies with HYCOM model outputs, but overall indicate that the HYCOM-GOM model can provide an adequate assessment of the ocean current hydrokinetic resource in high power density regions like the Florida Strait. Additional independent observational data, in particular stationary ADCP measurements, would be useful for expanding this model performance evaluation study. ADCP measurements are rare in ocean environments not influenced by tides, and limited to one location in the Florida Strait. HF radar data, although providing great spatial coverage, is limited to surface currents only.

  19. Depositional environment of near-surface sediments, King George Basin, Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, H. I.; Park, B. K.; Chang, S. K.; Han, M. W.; Oh, J. K.

    1994-03-01

    Four sediment cores were collected to determine the depositional environments of the King George Basin northeast of Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. The cored section revealed three distinct lithofacies: laminated siliceous ooze derived from an increased paleoproductivity near the receding sea-ice edges, massive muds that resulted from hemipelagic sedimentation in open water, and graded sediments that originated from nearby local seamounts by turbidity currents. Clay mineral data of the cores indicate a decreasing importance of volcanic activity through time. Active volcanism and hydrothermal activity appear to be responsible for the enrichment of smectite near the Penguin and Bridgeman Islands.

  20. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  1. On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Hasager

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen is the limiting factor for phytoplankton in the Kattegat Strait during summer periods (May to August and the major nitrogen inputs come from the atmosphere and deep-water entrainment. The extreme reoccurrence values of nitrogen from atmospheric wet and dry deposition and deep-water flux entrainments are calculated by the periodic maximum method and the results are successfully compared to a map of chlorophyll return periods based on in-situ observations. The one-year return of extreme atmospheric wet deposition is around 60 mg N m-2 day-1 and 30 mg N m-2 day-1 for deep-water entrainment. Atmospheric nitrogen dry deposition is insignificant in the context of algal blooms. At longer time-scales e.g. at 10-year return, the nitrogen deep-water entrainment is larger than the extreme of atmospheric wet deposition. This indicates that the pool of nitrogen released from the sea bottom by deep-water entrainment forced by high winds greatly exceeds the atmospheric pool of nitrogen washed out by precipitation. At the frontal zone of the Kattegat Strait and Skagerrak, the nitrogen deep-water entrainment is very high and this explains the high 10-year return chlorophyll level at 8 mg m-3 in the Kattegat Strait. In the southern part, the extreme chlorophyll level is only 4 mg m-3 according to the statistics of a multi-year time-series of water samples. The chlorophyll level varies greatly in time and space as documented by a series of SeaWiFS satellite maps (OC4v4 algorithm of chlorophyll ScanFish and buoy observations from an experimental period in the Kattegat Strait. It is recommended to sample in-situ chlorophyll observation collocated in time to the satellite

  2. Four new bass strait platforms -a project manager's view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, J.W.

    1982-05-01

    The offshore development by Esso/BHP of the West Kingfish, Cobia, Fortescue and Flounder oil fields in the Gippsland Basin is one of the significant undertakings by the petroleum industry during the 1980s. Production from the fields will help sustain the current level of production from Bass Strait into the latter part of this decade. This paper examines some of the principal project management issues and actions involved in the planning and execution of the design and construction phases of the platforms and pipelines associated with each of these fields.

  3. EDXRF analysis of Straits Chinese porcelains for zirconium and niobium using a cadmium-109 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    An annular Cd-109 source was used to induce fluorescent X-rays from 37 pieces of Straits Chinese porcelain of which four were modern pieces and the rest were produced from the nineteenth century up to the Republic period (1912-1939). Experimental data show that for zirconium and niobium infinite thickness is reached for a thickness of about 1.5 mm. A plot of the intensity of the K/sub α/ 1 line of Zr against that of Nb shows that all Ch'ing and Republic pieces cluster together and are quite distinct from the modern pieces, allowing easy nondestructive identification of modern fakes

  4. Water mass distribution in Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rudels

    Full Text Available The water mass distribution in northern Fram Strait and over the Yermak Plateau in summer 1997 is described using CTD data from two cruises in the area. The West Spitsbergen Current was found to split, one part recirculated towards the west, while the other part, on entering the Arctic Ocean separated into two branches. The main inflow of Atlantic Water followed the Svalbard continental slope eastward, while a second, narrower, branch stayed west and north of the Yermak Plateau. The water column above the southeastern flank of the Yermak Plateau was distinctly colder and less saline than the two inflow branches. Immediately west of the outer inflow branch comparatively high temperatures in the Atlantic Layer suggested that a part of the extraordinarily warm Atlantic Water, observed in the boundary current in the Eurasian Basin in the early 1990s, was now returning, within the Eurasian Basin, toward Fram Strait. The upper layer west of the Yermak Plateau was cold, deep and comparably saline, similar to what has recently been observed in the interior Eurasian Basin. Closer to the Greenland continental slope the salinity of the upper layer became much lower, and the temperature maximum of the Atlantic Layer was occasionally below 
    0.5 °C, indicating water masses mainly derived from the Canadian Basin. This implies that the warm pulse of Atlantic Water had not yet made a complete circuit around the Arctic Ocean. The Atlantic Water of the West Spitsbergen Current recirculating within the strait did not extend as far towards Greenland as in the 1980s, leaving a broader passage for waters from the Atlantic and intermediate layers, exiting the Arctic Ocean. A possible interpretation is that the circulation pattern alternates between a strong recirculation of the West Spitsbergen Current in the strait, and a larger exchange of Atlantic Water between the Nordic Seas and the inner parts of the Arctic Ocean.

    Key words: Oceanography: general

  5. Ten years of the Tiger: Aedes albopictus presence in Australia since its discovery in the Torres Strait in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F. van den Hurk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The “Asian tiger mosquito”, Aedes albopictus, is highly invasive, an aggressive biter and a major arbovirus vector. It is not currently present on mainland Australia despite being intercepted on numerous occasions at international ports and infesting the Torres Strait of Australia since at least 2004. In the current paper, we describe the invasion and current status of Ae. albopictus in the Torres Strait, as well as research conducted to assess the threat of this species becoming established in arbovirus transmission cycles on the Australian mainland. Genetic analysis of the invading population demonstrated that the Indonesian region was the likely origin of the invasion and not Papua New Guinea (PNG as initially suspected. There was also intermixing between Torres Strait, PNG and Indonesian populations, indicating that the species could be re-introduced into the Torres Strait compromising any successful eradication programme. Vector competence experiments with endemic and exotic viruses revealed that Ae. albopictus from the Torres Strait are efficient alphavirus vectors, but less efficient flavivirus vectors. Ae. albopictus obtains blood meals from a range of vertebrate hosts (including humans, indicating that it could play a role in both zoonotic and human-mosquito arbovirus transmission cycles in Australia. Predictive models coupled with climate tolerance experiments suggest that a Torres Strait strain of Ae. albopictus could colonise southern Australia by overwintering in the egg stage before proliferating in the warmer months. Cohabitation experiments demonstrated that the presence of Aedes notoscriptus larvae in containers would not prevent the establishment of Ae. albopictus. Evidence from these studies, coupled with global experience suggests that we need to be prepared for the imminent invasion of Australia by Ae. albopictus by thoroughly understanding its biology and being willing to embrace emerging control technologies.

  6. Naval War College Review. Volume 59, Number 3, Summer 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Hokkaido islands), the Tsushima Strait, and the Soya Strait (between Sakhalin and Hokkaido). Beyond the archi- pelago, the Luzon (Bashi) Strait between...attack left Taranto to take cover in the ports of Naples and La Spezia. It was a re- treat. After five months of illusionary superior- ity, the Italian

  7. Impacts of Changed Extratropical Storm Tracks on Arctic Sea Ice Export through Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, J.; Zhang, X.; Wang, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Studies have indicated a poleward shift of extratropical storm tracks and intensification of Arctic storm activities, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of dynamic effect on changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and activities on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait through ocean-sea ice model simulations. The model employed is the high-resolution Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm), which was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.

  8. Mesoscale mixing of the Denmark Strait Overflow in the Irminger Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszalka, Inga M.; Haine, Thomas W. N.; Magaldi, Marcello G.

    2017-04-01

    The Denmark Strait Overflow (DSO) is a major export route for dense waters from the Nordic Seas forming the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, an important element of the climate system. Mixing processes along the DSO pathway influence its volume transport and properties contributing to the variability of the deep overturning circulation. They are poorly sampled by observations, however, which hinders development of a proper DSO representation in global circulation models. We employ a high resolution regional ocean model of the Irminger Basin to quantify impact of the mesoscale flows on DSO mixing focusing on geographical localization and the time-modulation of water property changes. The model reproduces the observed bulk warming of the DSO plume 100-200 km downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. It also reveals that mesoscale variability of the overflow ('DSO-eddies', of 20-30 km extent and a time scale of 2-5 day) modulates water property changes and turbulent mixing, diagnosed with the vertical shear of horizontal velocity and the eddy heat flux divergence. The space-time localization of the DSO mixing and warming and the role of coherent mesoscale structures should be explored by turbulence measurements and factored into the coarse circulation models.

  9. [The possible causes of the tragedy of "Port Famine" in the Strait of Magellan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza G, Juan Pablo; Espinoza G, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    The attempts to colonize the Strait of Magellan soon followed the discovery of this route. PeDro Sarmiento de Gamboa, a Spanish sailor, established human settlements to fortify those lands and control the transit of vessels, especially those of English corsairs, which devastated Chilean and Peruvian coasts. During the summer of 1584, approximately 500 soldiers, artisans, priests, women and children established two villages called "Nombre de Jesús" and "Rey Don Felipe". From the beginning, these settlers had leadership and communication problems and difficulties to obtain food. After three winters only 17 to 18 people survived according to the testimony of one of the survivors, that was rescued by an English sailor named Cavendish, which renamed the village "Rey Don Felipe" as "Port Famine". When he observed the scenes of abandonment and death, he supposed that the settlers died due to lack of food. Other factors that facilitated the desolation were hypothermia, execution, anthropophagy and lesions caused by natives. There is also a possibility that intoxication by red tide (harmful algal bloom) could explain in part the finding of unburied corpses in the strait beaches.

  10. Holocene neoglacial events in the Bransfield Strait (Antarctica. Palaeocenographic and paleoclimatic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Bárcena

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical analysis, micropalaeontological analysis and radiometric dating techniques were performed on four gravity cores, G-1, G-2, A-3 and A-6, recovered during the BIO Hesperides expeditions GEBRA-93 and FRUELA-96 from the Bransfield Strait (Antarctica. Moreover, in order to improve the sedimentation rate control we tentatively relate abundance variations in the sea-ice taxa group (SITG to air temperature estimations based on Deuterium contents in Vostok ice-core. The results of diatom analyses were related to the sequence of neoglacial events that have occurred over the last three millennia. For these periods, a restricted communication between the Weddell, Bransfield and Bellingshausen seas has been proposed. The abundance patterns of diatom valves, resting spores (RS of the diatom Chaetoceros and opal content agree with the high productivity values previously reported for the area. The significant reduction Chaetoceros RS towards the present is interpreted as a reduction in surface productivity. Trend differences between Chaetoceros RS and TOC contents are explained in terms of organic matter preservation. Diatom communities from the Bransfield Strait did not play an important role in the global CO2 cycle during cold periods. Bio- and geochemical changes have overprinted high frequency cyclicity at about 200-300 yr, which might be related to the 200-yr solar cycle.

  11. Atlantic water heat transfer through the Arctic Gateway (Fram Strait) during the Last Interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Anastasia; Bauch, Henning A.; Spielhagen, Robert F.

    2017-10-01

    The Last Interglacial in the Arctic region is often described as a time with warmer conditions and significantly less summer sea ice than today. The role of Atlantic water (AW) as the main oceanic heat flux agent into the Arctic Ocean remains, however, unclear. Using high-resolution stable isotope and faunal records from the only deep Arctic Gateway, the Fram Strait, we note for the upper water column a diminished influence of AW and generally colder-than-Holocene surface ocean conditions. After the main Saalian deglaciation had terminated, a first intensification of northward-advected AW happened ( 124 ka). However, an intermittent sea surface cooling, triggered by meltwater release at 122 ka, caused a regional delay in the further development towards peak interglacial conditions. Maximum AW heat advection occurred during late MIS 5e (118.5-116 ka) and interrupted a longer-term cooling trend at the sea surface that started from about 120 ka on. Such a late occurrence of the major AW-derived near-surface warming in the Fram Strait - this is in stark contrast to an early warm peak in the Holocene - compares well in time with upstream records from the Norwegian Sea, altogether implying a coherent development of south-to-north ocean heat transfer through the eastern Nordic Seas and into the high Arctic during the Last Interglacial.

  12. A reconstructed database of historic bluefin tuna captures in the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué M. Polanco-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This data paper presents a reconstruction of a compilation of a small but consistent database of historical capture records of bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus; BFT hereafter from the Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean (Portugal, Spain and Italy. The compilation come from diverse historical and documentary sources and span the time interval from 1525 to 1936 covering a period of 412 years. There is a total of 3074 datum, which reach up to 67.83% of the total implying a 32.17% of missing data. However, we have only reconstructed the captures for the time interval 1700–1936 and we provide these reconstructions only for this time interval and for 9 out of 11 series due to the scarcity and inhomogeneity of the two oldest capture time series. This reconstructed database provides an invaluable opportunity for fisheries and marine research as well as for multidisciplinary research in climate change. Keywords: Data reconstructions, DINEOF, Missing data, Historic Bluefin tuna captures, Gibraltar Strait and Western Mediterranean

  13. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-01

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258 ± 291) > Gorsozan (122 ± 23) > Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26 ± 6) > Suru (14 ± 4) > Khor-e-Azini (2 ± 1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a ‘snapshot’ of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. - Highlights: • MP pollution determined in the sediments along the Strait of Hormuz. • Sites included industrial and urban areas, and a marine protected area. • MPs found at all sites. Abundance related to proximity of anthropogenic activities. • Fibers were the dominant MP type (83%). PE, nylon and PET were identified by FT-IR. • Sources may include discarded fishing gear and outflows containing clothing fibers.

  14. Optical properties and molecular diversity of dissolved organic matter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, Michael; Luek, Jenna; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its light absorbing chromophoric component (CDOM) are of particular interest in the Arctic region because of climate change effects that lead to warmer sea surface temperatures and longer exposure to sunlight. We used continuous UV-vis (UV-vis) spectroscopy, excitation emission matrix fluorescence and ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry during a transect from the Aleutian Islands in the Bering Sea to the Chukchi Sea ice edge through Bering Strait to determine the variability of DOM and CDOM. These data were combined with discrete sampling for stable oxygen isotopes of seawater, in order to evaluate the contributions of melted sea ice versus runoff to the DOM and CDOM components. This study demonstrated that high geographical resolution of optical properties in conjunction with stable oxygen ratios and non-targeted ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry was able to distinguish between different DOM sources in the Arctic, including identification of labile DOM sources in Bering Strait associated with high algal blooms and sampling locations influenced by terrestrially-derived DOM, such as the terrestrial DOM signal originating from Arctic rivers and dirty/anchor sea ice. Results of this study also revealed the overall variability and chemodiversity of Arctic DOM present in the Bering and Chukchi Seas.

  15. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa; Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 μg Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 μg Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes

  16. Isopod fauna, excluding Epicaridea, from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas (Southern Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Castelló

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 42 isopod species from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas were found, including the first record of Munna fabricii, Monodanthura maroccana, Campecopea hirsute, and Natatolana gallica from the Mediterranean; Synisoma nadejda and Uromunna petiti from the Atlantic; and Munna fabricii, Uromunna petiti, Monodanthura maroccana, Stellanthura cryptobia and Natatolana gallica from the Iberian waters. This article includes the previous records from the Iberian waters for all the species. The greatest number of species were found in Tarifa (16 species, located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. According to depth, the distribution of species was as follows: 18 species were collected in the intertidal zone, mostly Dynamene edwardsi and Ischyromene lacazei; 33 species were found between 1 and 10 m, 13 species were found between 11 and 20 m, and 6 species were found between 21 and 28 m, mostly Janira maculosa. According to habitat, 16 species were collected on soft bottoms, 2 species on Zostera, and 22 species on algae substrata, mostly Halopteris, Asparagopsis and Cystoseira. The most diverse genus was Cymodoce (5 species. This paper contributes to the taxonomic, faunistic and biogeographical knowledge of the benthic communities from the Strait of Gibraltar and nearby areas.

  17. First report of the toxigenic Nitzschia navis-varingica (Bacillariophyceae) isolated from Tebrau Straits, Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyanti, S N P; Usup, Gires

    2015-12-15

    Screening of the occurrence of potentially toxic diatoms was carried out at two sites of cage cultures in Tebrau Straits, Johor. Phytoplankton samples from Sungai Pendas and Teluk Sengat were collected using a 20 μm mesh plankton net and salinity was recorded in-situ. Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia cells were isolated and established into clonal cultures. All cultures were tested for domoic acid using HPLC-UV analysis and verified by LC-MS analysis. Three Nitzschia spp. and one Pseudo-nitzschia sp. were identified from these locations. Toxic and non-toxic strains of Nitzschia navis-varingica are found at the cage culture areas. Cellular toxin content in the toxic strain of N. navis-varingica is 1.8 pg cell(-1). This is a new record from Malaysia and this species was isolated from estuarine water with salinity 28 PSU. The discovery of toxic Nitzschia species in Tebrau Straits indicates the potential for domoic acid accumulation in seafood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reproductive and bloom patterns of Pelagia noctiluca in the Strait of Messina, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milisenda, G.; Martinez-Quintana, A.; Fuentes, V. L.; Bosch-Belmar, M.; Aglieri, G.; Boero, F.; Piraino, S.

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on sexual reproduction of jellyfish are essential to understanding mechanisms and patterns of outbreaks formation. Pelagia noctiluca (Forskål, 1775) (Scyphozoa) is known as the predominant jellyfish species with direct development in Western and Central Mediterranean Sea. In this paper we used integrated morphometric, histological, and biochemical approaches to investigate the annual reproductive biology of P. noctiluca from the Strait of Messina (South Thyrrenian Sea), a key proliferation area for this species due to favourable temperatures and high productivity. From November 2011 to September 2012, P. noctiluca sexual reproduction occurred throughout the year, with two seasonal peaks (autumn, spring) of spawning and embryonic development. Gonads of female P. noctiluca were characterized by a large amount of mature eggs of small size (diameter 200 μm) were detected during low availability of prey. Two morphometric indexes were applied: the Gonad-Somatic Index (GSI, gonadal/somatic tissue dry weight ratio) and Fecundity Index (FI, n° eggs mm-2 * gonadal dry weight). The FI showed longer spawning periods than the GSI, providing a better causal-mechanistic explanation for the year-round occurrence of P. noctiluca in the Strait of Messina. Protein contents of the gonads changed seasonally, with the highest concentrations during the pre-spawning periods. We suggest that investigations on jellyfish sexual reproduction can provide biological information relevant for understanding mechanisms of jellyfish blooms as well as for the management of coastal zones affected by outbreaks of gelatinous species.

  19. 234Th as tracer of organic carbon export in Bransfield Strait, Antarctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Joselene de; Vieira, Lucia Helena; Duarte, Celina Lopes

    2011-01-01

    The element thorium has multiple isotopes that have emerged collectively as a powerful set of tracers for particle associated processes in the oceans. The production of 2 34T h from 2 38U , coupled with the conservative behavior of 2 38U in seawater, makes the source of 2 34T h easy to characterize. Because of its very particle reactive behavior, 2 34T h is removed from a parcel of water in only two ways, through decay and through particle flux. Therefore, a steady-state 1D activity balance can be used to calculate its flux. This work presents results of a collaborative research on organic carbon fluxes distribution in the Bransfield Strait. Macro-nutrients, micro nutrients and chlorophyll-a distributions were used to examine the pathway sources. 2 34T h was used as a tracer of organic carbon fluxes distribution in the Bransfield Strait in order to evaluate its influence in the CO 2 drawdown, since POC export via sinking particles is the primary mechanism of carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean. Fluxes up to 15274 dmp m-2 d-1 were estimated, the highest value observed in Station 09 at 794 m depth. POC exported fluxes derived from the disequilibrium 2 34T h/ 2 38U model varied from 0.6 to 16000 mmol C m -2 d -1 . (author)

  20. Impacts of extratropical storm tracks on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianfen; Zhang, Xiangdong; Wang, Zhaomin

    2018-05-01

    Studies have indicated regime shifts in atmospheric circulation, and associated changes in extratropical storm tracks and Arctic storm activity, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and cyclone activity on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait by using a high resolution global ocean-sea ice model, MITgcm-ECCO2. The model was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter (in this study winter is defined as October-March and summer as April-September) storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.

  1. Particulate organic matter composition in a semi-enclosed Periantarctic system: the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fabiano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental and biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM was investigated in the Straits of Magellan during February-March 1991. Twenty-two stations were selected in order to identify different areas of the Magellan ecosystem from a trophic point of view. The Strait of Magellan can be divided into three subsystems characterized by different hydrological and geomorphological conditions. Seston concentrations were mostly constrained by physical events, particularly the influence of oceanic and land run-off water inputs and the strong vertical mixing and resuspension events. POM composition displayed quali-quantitative differences between the three areas. In the first subsystem, influenced by Pacific waters, the low seston and POM concentrations and the high POC/Chl-a ratio values indicated the general predominance of the detrital and heterotrophic fractions. In the second subsystem, characterized by superficial stratification, higher seston and organic matter concentrations and lower values of POC/Chl-a ratio were found, indicating that this subsystem was influenced by an active autotrophic component. Shallow waters with intense tidal regime and strong vertical mixing characterized the third subsystem, connected to the Atlantic Ocean, which displayed an increasing importance of the inorganic fraction (values of the POC/TSM ratio lower than in the other systems. Moreover, the third subsystem showed higher values of the RNA/DNA ratio, possibly indicating that resuspension events may enhance the metabolic state of the organic particles mainly dominated by heterotrophic components.

  2. Validation of a Numerical Program for Analyzing Kinetic Energy Potential in the Bangka Strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompas, P. T. D.; Taunaumang, H.; Sangari, F. J.

    2018-02-01

    The paper presents validation of the numerical program that computes the distribution of marine current velocities in the Bangka strait and the kinetic energy potential in the form the distributions of available power per area in the Bangka strait. The numerical program used the RANS model where the pressure distribution in the vertical assumed to be hydrostatic. The 2D and 3D numerical program results compared with the measurement results that are observation results to the moment conditions of low and high tide currents. It found no different significant between the numerical results and the measurement results. There are 0.97-2.2 kW/m2 the kinetic energy potential in the form the distributions of available power per area in the Bangka strait when low tide currents, whereas when high tide currents of 1.02-2.1 kW/m2. The results show that to be enabling the installation of marine current turbines for construction of power plant in the Bangka strait, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  3. Diabetic Foot Care: Developing Culturally Appropriate Educational Tools for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in the Northern Territory, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer; Obersteller, Elizabeth A.; Rennie, Linda; Whitbread, Cherie

    2001-01-01

    Participatory research in Australia's Northern Territory sought opinions from nurses, general practitioners, Aboriginal health workers, and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders on the development of culturally relevant foot care education for Indigenous people with diabetes. They decided to use a visual approach (posters and flip charts) to…

  4. Modeling Evaluation of Tidal Stream Energy and the Impacts of Energy Extraction on Hydrodynamics in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsi Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Tidal stream speeds in straits are accelerated because of geographic and bathymetric features. For instance, narrow channels and shallows can cause high tidal stream energy. In this study, water level and tidal current were simulated using a three-dimensional semi-implicit Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-element model to investigate the complex tidal characteristics in the Taiwan Strait and to determine potential locations for harnessing tidal stream energy. The model was driven by nine tidal components (M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1, Q1, and M4 at open boundaries. The modeling results were validated with the measured data, including water level and tidal current. Through the model simulations, we found that the highest tidal currents occurred at the Penghu Channel in the Taiwan Strait. The Penghu Channel is an appropriate location for the deployment of a tidal turbine array because of its deep and flat bathymetry. The impacts of energy extraction on hydrodynamics were assessed by considering the momentum sink approach. The simulated results indicate that only minimal impacts would occur on water level and tidal current in the Taiwan Strait if a turbine array (55 turbines was installed in the Penghu Channel.

  5. Building resilience through interlocal relations: case studies of polar bear and walrus management in the Bering Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda L. Meek; Amy Lauren Lovecraft; Martin D. Robards; Gary P. Kofinas

    2008-01-01

    Arctic coastal communities in the Bering Strait region of Alaska (USA) and Chukotka (Russia) share a close relationship with their natural environments that can be characterized as a social-ecological system. This system is complex, featuring changing ecosystem conditions, multiple jurisdictions, migratory animal populations, and several cultures. We argue that...

  6. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Residual flow and tidal asymmetry in the Singapore Strait, with implications for resuspension and residual transport of sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Maren, D.S.; Gerritsen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Singapore Strait connects the South China Sea, where tides are dominantly diurnal, to the dominantly semidiurnal Indian Ocean. At this transition, the tidal water level oscillations are observed to be semidiurnal while the tidal current oscillations are mixed, diurnal to fully diurnal. Due to

  8. Self-management programs for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with chronic conditions: A rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ellie; Lawn, Sharon; Oster, Candice; Morello, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Review the evidence for the effectiveness of chronic condition self-management programs applied to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. Methods A rapid review methodology was followed to develop an evidence summary from peer-reviewed and grey literature. Results Only seven peer-reviewed studies were identified. The evidence indicated that group programs, particularly the Stanford Program, and structured individual chronic condition self-management programs were of good quality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, although these need to be integrated into practice in order to see the greatest benefits. The Flinders Program showed promise as a standardised program with content designed specifically with and for these populations. Numerous grey literature sources were identified, many using strong participatory approaches developed locally within Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples. However, few of these programs have been subject to rigorous evaluation. Discussion Despite the significant focus on chronic condition self-management programs to help address the burden of disease for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples, few studies exist that have been properly evaluated. The Closing the Gap Principles developed by the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare offer important guidance for how to proceed to maximise engagement, cultural appropriateness and ownership of program initiatives.

  9. New Approaches to Cross-Strait Integration and Its Impacts on Taiwan’s Domestic Economy: An Emerging “Chaiwan”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. K. Cheung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Legislative Yuan and Presidential elections in January and March 2008 respectively re-orientated cross-Strait relations from hostility to co-operation. On 4 November 2008, Chen Yunlin, head of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits (ARATS, and Chiang Pin-kun (Jiang Bingkun, chairman of Taiwan’s Straits Exchange Foundation (SEF, meeting in the Second Chiang-Chen Talks in Taiwan, took a historical step in the further development of cross-Strait relations. Agreements were signed on direct air and sea transport, postal services and food-safety security. On 22 December 2009, the Fourth Chiang- Chen Talks took place in Taizhong and more substantial and technical agreements were signed on agriculture, inspection/ accreditation and fisheries. It seems that continuous integration between China and Taiwan is inevitable. To address the implications of this process for Taiwan’s domestic economy, four dimensions of the current cross-Strait relationship are scrutinized: guanxi, plutocracy, legalism and the idea of a Chinese Common Market. It is argued that in order to intensify economic co-operation across the Taiwan Strait, more institutionalization of the cross-Strait relationship must be brought about.

  10. Sediment Budget in the Taiwan Strait with High Fluvial Sediment Inputs from Mountainous Rivers: New Observations and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh-Ji Kao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The shallow Taiwan Strait at the southern opening of the East China Sea (ECS receives abundant sediments from turbid mountainous rivers in Taiwan. The volume of sediment is among the highest sediment yields on the global surface. This large amount of sediment discharged from modern Taiwan (range: 175 - 380 Mt y-1 based on 50-yr data is comparable to that discharged from Changjaing (500 Mt y-1-decreasing in recent decades, underscoring the importance of sediment budget in the Taiwan Strait and sediment flux from Taiwan into the ECS.We documented fluvial mud and sand concentrations during flash flooding with our observations indicating that fluvial materials in Taiwan¡¦s rivers are chiefly composed of mud (> 70 and up to 98 . By contrast, sand fraction dominates (> 85 for most stations surface sediments in the Taiwan Strait. Super typhoon Herb alone delivered 130 Mt of sediments from Choshui, the largest river in Taiwan, yet only insignificant amounts of mud were found at the river mouth six months later. The actions of waves, tides, and currents apparently prevent the deposition of fine grained sediments. Assuming sand occupied 30 (the maximum of the 60 Mt y-1 total sediment input from major western Taiwanese rivers, our annual budget estimate shows that the amount of sand input (18 5 Mt y-1 is comparable to the burial output of sand (12 10 Mt y-1. However, mud burial (6 5 Mt y-1 in the strait is far below the estimated mud input (42 11 Mt y-1, resulting in a significant shortfall. Hydrodynamic conditions were synthesized to explain the distribution pattern of limited mud patches in the strait and to reveal potential pathways by which fine-grain sediment transportation takes place in the seas surrounding Taiwan. A significant shortfall in the mud budget in the Taiwan Strait suggests that ~85 of the fluvial mud left the strait. Alternatively, the 50-year modern sediment flux data used in this study reflects exacerbated sediment flux due to human

  11. Splitting of Atlantic water transport towards the Arctic Ocean into the Fram Strait and Barents Sea Branches - mechanisms and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Skagseth, Øystein; von Appen, Wilken-Jon; Walczowski, Waldemar; Lien, Vidar

    2016-04-01

    The heat content in the Arctic Ocean is to a large extent determined by oceanic advection from the south. During the last two decades the extraordinary warm Atlantic water (AW) inflow has been reported to progress through the Nordic Seas into the Arctic Ocean. Warm anomalies can result from higher air temperatures (smaller heat loss) in the Nordic Seas, and/or from an increased oceanic advection. But the ultimate fate of warm anomalies of Atlantic origin depends strongly on their two possible pathways towards the Arctic Ocean. The AW temperature changes from 7-10°C at the entrance to the Nordic Seas, to 6-6.5°C in the Barents Sea opening and 3-3.5°C as the AW leaving Fram Strait enters the Arctic Ocean. When AW passes through the shallow Barents Sea, nearly all its heat is lost due to atmospheric cooling and AW looses its signature. In the deep Fram Strait the upper part of Atlantic water becomes transformed into a less saline and colder surface layer and thus AW preserves its warm core. A significant warming and high variability of AW volume transport was observed in two recent decades in the West Spitsbergen Current, representing the Fram Strait Branch of Atlantic inflow. The AW inflow through Fram Strait carries between 26 and 50 TW of heat into the Arctic Ocean. While the oceanic heat influx to the Barents Sea is of a similar order, the heat leaving it through the northern exit into the Arctic Ocean is negligible. The relative strength of two Atlantic water branches through Fram Strait and the Barents Sea governs the oceanic heat transport into the Arctic Ocean. According to recently proposed mechanism, the Atlantic water flow in the Barents Sea Branch is controlled by the strength of atmospheric low over the northern Barents Sea, acting through a wind-induced Ekman divergence, which intensifies eastward AW flow. The Atlantic water transport in the Fram Strait Branch is mainly forced by the large-scale low-pressure system over the eastern Norwegian and

  12. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  13. Personal attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Bennet, Pele T; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe attitudes towards smoking in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent quitters and assess how they are associated with quitting, and to compare these attitudes with those of smokers in the general Australian population. The Talking About The Smokes project used a quota sampling design to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1392 daily smokers, 251 non-daily smokers and 78 recent quitters from April 2012 to October 2013. Personal attitudes towards smoking and quitting, wanting to quit, and attempting to quit in the past year. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander daily smokers were less likely than daily smokers in the general Australian population to report enjoying smoking (65% v 81%) and more likely to disagree that smoking is an important part of their life (49% v 38%); other attitudes were similar between the two groups. In the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander sample, non-daily smokers generally held less positive attitudes towards smoking compared with daily smokers, and ex-smokers who had quit within the past year reported positive views about quitting. Among the daily smokers, 78% reported regretting starting to smoke and 81% reported spending too much money on cigarettes, both of which were positively associated with wanting and attempting to quit; 32% perceived smoking to be an important part of their life, which was negatively associated with both quit outcomes; and 83% agreed that smoking calms them down when stressed, which was not associated with the quitting outcomes. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers were less likely than those in the general population to report positive reasons to smoke and held similar views about the negative aspects, suggesting that factors other than personal attitudes may be responsible for the high continuing smoking rate in this population.

  14. Magnetic properties as tracers for source-to-sink dispersal of sediments: A case study in the Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An

    2011-09-01

    Different lithologies between Taiwan and southeastern China lead to diverse mineralogical composition for weathering products derived from the two shores of the Taiwan Strait. Pyrrhotite and magnetite are respectively the dominant magnetic minerals associated with fluvial sediments from western Taiwan and southeastern China. While magnetite commonly co-exists with pyrrhotite in sediments sourced from Taiwan, pyrrhotite has not been found in sediments sourced from mainland China. Associated with such a distinction are vast differences in magnetic properties, including magnetic susceptibility (χ), SIRM, HIRM and the S-ratio, which can be used to study the provenances of sediments in the Taiwan Strait and adjoining marginal seas. Based on any two of these parameters, the magnetic characteristics of much of the Taiwan Strait sediment can be explained using a two-endmember mixing model. Source-to-sink dispersal of sediments in the Taiwan Strait can then be traced from the distribution of these parameters. The results not only corroborate an earlier study based on radionuclides and particle size distribution ( Huh et al., 2011) but reveal more diagnostic details. Besides spatial distribution based on a large number (216) of surface sediments, we also analyzed temporal variation of magnetic properties in six well-dated cores collected at key sites along the sediment source-to-sink pathways. From profiles of these parameters in cores from the middle of the northern Taiwan Strait, it is calculated that sediment supply from Taiwan has increased substantially in the past five decades, which may very well be related to accelerated land use and increased frequency of intense rainfalls in Taiwan during the same period. The approach described in this work may be extended to other source-to-sink systems around the world and through time, especially the mountainous islands fringing the Pacific and Indian Oceans in southeastern Asia. As with Taiwan, these islands have high

  15. Measuring emotional and social wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations: an analysis of a Negative Life Events Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunthorpe Wendy

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience widespread socioeconomic disadvantage and health inequality. In an attempt to make Indigenous health research more culturally-appropriate, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have called for more attention to the concept of emotional and social wellbeing (ESWB. Although it has been widely recognised that ESWB is of crucial importance to the health of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, there is little consensus on how to measure in Indigenous populations, hampering efforts to better understand and improve the psychosocial determinants of health. This paper explores the policy and political context to this situation, and suggests ways to move forward. The second part of the paper explores how scales can be evaluated in a health research setting, including assessments of endorsement, discrimination, internal and external reliability. We then evaluate the use of a measure of stressful life events, the Negative Life Events Scale (NLES, in two samples of Aboriginal people living in remote communities in the Northern Territory of Australia. We argue that the Negative Life Events Scale is a promising assessment of psychosocial wellbeing in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations. Evaluation of the scale and its performance in other samples of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is imperative if we hope to develop better, rather than more, scales for measuring ESWB among Indigenous Australians. Only then will it be possible to establish standardized methods of measuring ESWB and develop a body of comparable literature that can guide both a better understanding of ESWB, and evaluation of interventions designed to improve the psychosocial health of Indigenous populations and decrease health inequalities.

  16. Using Indigenist and Indigenous methodologies to connect to deeper understandings of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Elaine; Davy, Carol

    2015-12-01

    The lack of a common description makes measuring the concept of quality of life (QoL) a challenge. Whether QoL incorporates broader social features or is attributed to health conditions, the diverse range of descriptions applied by various disciplines has resulted in a concept that is multidimensional and vague. The variety of theoretical conceptualisations of QoL confounds and confuses even the most astute. Measuring QoL in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations is even more challenging. Instruments commonly developed and used to measure QoL are often derived from research methodologies shaped by Western cultural perspectives. Often they are simply translated for use among culturally and linguistically diverse Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. This has implications for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations whose perceptions of health are derived from within their specific cultures, value systems and ways of knowing and being. Interconnections and relationships between themselves, their communities, their environment and the natural and spiritual worlds are complex. The way in which their QoL is currently measured indicates that very little attention is given to the diversity of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples' beliefs or the ways in which those beliefs shape or give structure and meaning to their health and their lives. The use of Indigenist or Indigenous methodologies in defining what Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples believe gives quality to their lives is imperative. These methodologies have the potential to increase the congruency between their perceptions of QoL and instruments to measure it.

  17. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews and Cultural Safety Transforming Sexual Assault Service Provision for Children and Young People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Funston

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Child Sexual Assault (CSA in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities is a complex issue that cannot be understood in isolation from the ongoing impacts of colonial invasion, genocide, assimilation, institutionalised racism and severe socio-economic deprivation. Service responses to CSA are often experienced as racist, culturally, financially and/or geographically inaccessible. A two-day forum, National Yarn Up: Sharing the Wisdoms and Challenges of Young People and Sexual Abuse, was convened by sexual assault services to identify the main practice and policy concerns regarding working with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people (C&YP, families and communities in the context of CSA. The forum also aimed to explore how services can become more accountable and better engaged with the communities they are designed to support. The forum was attended by eighty invited Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Aboriginal youth sexual assault managers and workers representing both “victim” and “those who sexually harm others” services. In keeping with Aboriginal Community-Based Research methods forum participants largely directed discussions and contributed to the analysis of key themes and recommendations reported in this article. The need for sexual assault services to prioritise cultural safety by meaningfully integrating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Worldviews emerged as a key recommendation. It was also identified that collaboration between “victims” and “those who sexually harm” services are essential given Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander C&YP who sexually harm others may have also been victims of sexual assault or physical violence and intergenerational trauma. By working with the whole family and community, a collaborative approach is more likely than the current service model to develop cultural safety and thus increase the accessibility of sexual assault services.

  18. Hypertension: high prevalence and a positive association with obesity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth in far north Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Danielle; Raulli, Alexandra; Pratt, Rohan; Fagan, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and other chronic disease risks are common among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults but there is little evidence regarding the epidemiology of these risk factors during adolescence. This study examines the prevalence of pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years living in remote Indigenous communities in north Queensland. In so doing, it aims to better inform the approach to cardiovascular disease in this population. This is a descriptive study that retrospectively examines health service data from a program of community screening, the Young Persons Check (YPC). Participants were 1,883 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people aged 15-24 years who attended for a YPC in 11 remote communities in north Queensland between March 2009 and April 2011. Overall, the prevalence of pre-hypertension was 34.0%; stage I hypertension was 17.7% and stage II hypertension was 3.3%. The prevalence of elevated waist circumference was 47.6%, overweight or obesity 45.9%, elevated triglycerides 18.3%, decreased HDL 54.8% and proteinuria 24.3%. The prevalence of hypertension (stage I or II) among Torres Strait Islander males was 34.1%, Aboriginal males 26.9%, Torres Strait Islander females 12.6% and Aboriginal females 13.0%. Hypertension was associated with sex (males) (OR= 4.37, p<0.000), overweight (OR=2.46, p<0.000), obesity (OR=4.59, p<0.000) and elevated triglycerides (OR=2.38, p<0.000). Pre-hypertension, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk in this population is highly prevalent. Hypertension was particularly prevalent among male participants. The results reiterate the importance of early life experience in cardiovascular disease prevention. © 2015 The Authors.

  19. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  20. Understanding burn injuries in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivers, Rebecca Q; Hunter, Kate; Clapham, Kathleen; Coombes, Julieann; Fraser, Sarah; Lo, Serigne; Gabbe, Belinda; Hendrie, Delia; Read, David; Kimble, Roy; Sparnon, Anthony; Stockton, Kellie; Simpson, Renee; Quinn, Linda; Towers, Kurt; Potokar, Tom; Mackean, Tamara; Grant, Julian; Lyons, Ronan A; Jones, Lindsey; Eades, Sandra; Daniels, John; Holland, Andrew J A

    2015-10-13

    Although Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia have higher risk of burns compared with non-Aboriginal children, their access to burn care, particularly postdischarge care, is poorly understood, including the impact of care on functional outcomes. The objective of this study is to describe the burden of burns, access to care and functional outcomes in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia, and develop appropriate models of care. All Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children aged under 16 years of age (and their families) presenting with a burn to a tertiary paediatric burn unit in 4 Australian States (New South Wales (NSW), Queensland, Northern Territory (NT), South Australia (SA)) will be invited to participate. Participants and carers will complete a baseline questionnaire; follow-ups will be completed at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Data collected will include sociodemographic information; out of pocket costs; functional outcome; and measures of pain, itch and scarring. Health-related quality of life will be measured using the PedsQL, and impact of injury using the family impact scale. Clinical data and treatment will also be recorded. Around 225 participants will be recruited allowing complete data on around 130 children. Qualitative data collected by in-depth interviews with families, healthcare providers and policymakers will explore the impact of burn injury and outcomes on family life, needs of patients and barriers to healthcare; interviews with families will be conducted by experienced Aboriginal research staff using Indigenous methodologies. Health systems mapping will describe the provision of care. The study has been approved by ethics committees in NSW, SA, NT and Queensland. Study results will be distributed to community members by study newsletters, meetings and via the website; to policymakers and clinicians via policy fora, presentations and publication in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ

  1. Physical characteristic of brown algae (Phaeophyta from madura strait as irreversible hydrocolloid impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prihartini Widiyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brown algae is a raw material for producing natrium alginates. One type of brown algae is Sargassum sp, a member of Phaeophyta division. Sargassum sp could be found in Madura strait Indonesia. Natrium alginate can be extracted from Sargassum sp. The demand of alginate in Indonesia is mainly fulfilled from abroad, meanwhile Sargassum sp is abundantly available. Purpose: The purpose of study were to explore the potency of brown alga Sargassum sp from Madura strait as hydrocolloid impression material and to examine its physical characteristic. Methods: The methods of research including extraction natrium alginate from Sargassum sp, synthesis of dental impression material and the test of porosity, density, viscosity, and water content of impression material which fulfilled the standard of material used in clinical application in dentistry. Results: Extraction result of Sargassum sp was natrium alginate powder with cream colour, odorless, and water soluble. The water content of natrium alginate was 21.64% and the viscosity was 0.7 cPs. The best porosity result in the sample with the addition of trinatrium phosphate 4% was 3.61%. Density value of impression material was 3 gr/cm3. Conclusion: The research suggested that brown algae Sargassum sp from Madura strait is potential as hydrocolloid impression material, due to its physical properties which close to dental impression material, but still need further research to optimize the physical characteristic.Latar belakang: Alga coklat adalah sumber bahan baku material natrium alginat. Salah satu jenis alga coklat adalah Sargassum sp yang merupakan anggota divisi Phaeophyta. Sargassum sp dapat ditemukan di Selat Madura Indonesia. Natrium alginat dapat diekstraksi dari Sargassum sp. Kebutuhan akan bahan ini di Indonesia sebagian besar dipenuhi dari impor, padahal ketersediaan Sargassum sp di Indonesia sangat melimpah. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengeksplorasi potensi alga coklat

  2. Late Glacial and Holocene Flow Dynamics of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Schmidt, D. N.; Andersen, M. B.; Barker, S.; McCave, I. N. N.

    2014-12-01

    The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge forms a major component of the deep branch of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and influences the climate system in Northwest Europe. Research has focused on deep convection of the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and its links to climate variability in the North Atlantic. Our understanding of the history of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) is significantly less constrained and yet it accounts for half of the total overflow production today. We focus on the Eirik Drift south of Greenland in the vicinity of the DSOW. Down-core 230Thxs derived sediment focusing factors (Ψ) and measurements of the mean size of sortable silt reveal winnowed sediments during the Last Glacial Maximum and Heinrich 1 suggesting an influx of vigorous southern sourced waters and restricted DSOW production. Reduced overflow may be due to glacial isostatic processes which shoaled the Denmark Strait sill combined with a southward shift of deep convection sites in response to enhanced ice cover in the Nordic Seas. Intensification of the DSOW is evident between 9 and 13ka BP indicating initial deepening of the Denmark Strait sill and northward migration of the locus of deep water production. Ψ values for the Holocene suggest an active DSOW with a shift in the flow regime at 6.8 ka BP indicated by a reduction and subsequent stabilization of mean size sortable silt during the mid-late Holocene. This is corroborated by other studies showing a reorganization of the deep water after 7ka. An establishment of the Labrador Sea Water at intermediate depths altered the density structure of the deep western boundary current and weakened the ISOW. Changes in deep water circulation occur as North Atlantic climate entered Neoglacial cooling determined by Mg/Ca derived sea surface temperatures and abundances of the polar planktic foraminifera species N. pachyderma. They

  3. Blending of Radial HF Radar Surface Current and Model Using ETKF Scheme For The Sunda Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujiasih, Subekti; Riyadi, Mochammad; Wandono, Dr; Wayan Suardana, I.; Nyoman Gede Wiryajaya, I.; Nyoman Suarsa, I.; Hartanto, Dwi; Barth, Alexander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2017-04-01

    Preliminary study of data blending of surface current for Sunda Strait-Indonesia has been done using the analysis scheme of the Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (ETKF). The method is utilized to combine radial velocity from HF Radar and u and v component of velocity from Global Copernicus - Marine environment monitoring service (CMEMS) model. The initial ensemble is based on the time variability of the CMEMS model result. Data tested are from 2 CODAR Seasonde radar sites in Sunda Strait and 2 dates such as 09 September 2013 and 08 February 2016 at 12.00 UTC. The radial HF Radar data has a hourly temporal resolution, 20-60 km of spatial range, 3 km of range resolution, 5 degree of angular resolution and spatial resolution and 11.5-14 MHz of frequency range. The u and v component of the model velocity represents a daily mean with 1/12 degree spatial resolution. The radial data from one HF radar site is analyzed and the result compared to the equivalent radial velocity from CMEMS for the second HF radar site. Error checking is calculated by root mean squared error (RMSE). Calculation of ensemble analysis and ensemble mean is using Sangoma software package. The tested R which represents observation error covariance matrix, is a diagonal matrix with diagonal elements equal 0.05, 0.5 or 1.0 m2/s2. The initial ensemble members comes from a model simulation spanning a month (September 2013 or February 2016), one year (2013) or 4 years (2013-2016). The spatial distribution of the radial current are analyzed and the RMSE values obtained from independent HF radar station are optimized. It was verified that the analysis reproduces well the structure included in the analyzed HF radar data. More importantly, the analysis was also improved relative to the second independent HF radar site. RMSE of the improved analysis is better than first HF Radar site Analysis. The best result of the blending exercise was obtained for observation error variance equal to 0.05 m2/s2. This study is

  4. Climate modulates internal wave activity in the Northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Thomas M.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Davis, Kristen A.; Wong, George T. F.

    2015-02-01

    Internal waves (IWs) generated in the Luzon Strait propagate into the Northern South China Sea (NSCS), enhancing biological productivity and affecting coral reefs by modulating nutrient concentrations and temperature. Here we use a state-of-the-art ocean data assimilation system to reconstruct water column stratification in the Luzon Strait as a proxy for IW activity in the NSCS and diagnose mechanisms for its variability. Interannual variability of stratification is driven by intrusions of the Kuroshio Current into the Luzon Strait and freshwater fluxes associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Warming in the upper 100 m of the ocean caused a trend of increasing IW activity since 1900, consistent with global climate model experiments that show stratification in the Luzon Strait increases in response to radiative forcing. IW activity is expected to increase in the NSCS through the 21st century, with implications for mitigating climate change impacts on coastal ecosystems.

  5. The effect of westward travel across five time zones on sleep and subjective jet-lag ratings in athletes before and during the 2015's World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Treff, Gunnar; Winkert, Kay; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-11-01

    This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P travel fatigue probably had a major effect on perceptual decrements, sleep during travel and time to recover upon arrival should be emphasised. Coaches and practitioners should consider higher sleep propensity in the early evening by scheduling training sessions and meetings until the late afternoon.

  6. Statistical analysis of strait time index and a simple model for trend and trend reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Jayaprakash, C.

    2003-06-01

    We analyze the daily closing prices of the Strait Time Index (STI) as well as the individual stocks traded in Singapore's stock market from 1988 to 2001. We find that the Hurst exponent is approximately 0.6 for both the STI and individual stocks, while the normal correlation functions show the random walk exponent of 0.5. We also investigate the conditional average of the price change in an interval of length T given the price change in the previous interval. We find strong correlations for price changes larger than a threshold value proportional to T; this indicates that there is no uniform crossover to Gaussian behavior. A simple model based on short-time trend and trend reversal is constructed. We show that the model exhibits statistical properties and market swings similar to those of the real market.

  7. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  8. Modeling sub-sea permafrost in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf: the Dmitry Laptev Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolsky, D; Shakhova, N

    2010-01-01

    The present state of sub-sea permafrost modeling does not agree with certain observational data on the permafrost state within the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. This suggests a need to consider other mechanisms of permafrost destabilization after the recent ocean transgression. We propose development of open taliks wherever thaw lakes and river paleo-valleys were submerged shelf-wide as a possible mechanism for the degradation of sub-sea permafrost. To test the hypothesis we performed numerical modeling of permafrost dynamics in the Dmitry Laptev Strait area. We achieved sufficient agreement with the observed distribution of thawed and frozen layers to suggest that the proposed mechanism of permafrost destabilization is plausible.

  9. Origin and location of new Arctic islands and straits due to glacial recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, Wiesław; Ostafin, Krzysztof

    2018-03-29

    A total of 34 new islands (each 0.5 km 2 or above) have appeared due to recession of Arctic glaciers under climate warming since the 1960s. Analysis of maps and satellite images of the Arctic coasts has been a basic method of recognizing these islands. Their origin is the final stage of a process which began in the twentieth century. They appear only on the coasts where bedrock elevations above sea level are surrounded by depressions below this level, filled (at least from the landside) with glaciers. Their recession leads to flooding of the depressions by sea water, thus creating straits which separate the new islands from the mainland. Hence, such new islands appear only in Greenland and the European Arctic. Their ecosystems accommodate to new environmental conditions. In the near future, this process will be intensified in a situation of further warming.

  10. Two new species of Colletteidae (Crustacea: Tanaidacea: Tanaidomorpha from Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana L. Segadilha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Samples from deep benthic areas in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica, revealed the presence of two new species of Colletteidae: Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. and Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. Filitanais elongatus sp. nov. resembles F. moskalevi in its habitus; it can, however, be distinguished by characters such as the pleonites and pleotelson with lateral margins parallel and the uropod exopod being longer than half of the first endopod article. Macrinella lavradoae sp. nov. differs from the other species of Macrinella in the shape of the uropod and the pleotelson, with the uropod exopod shorter than the first article of the endopod, the uropod about as long as the pleotelson and the pleotelson with a rounded tip. The number of species of Tanaidacea recorded from Antarctica increases to 162, while the colletteids are now represented by 16 species. Moreover, the diagnosis of the genus Filitanais is herein modified.

  11. Characterization of spatial and temporal variability in hydrochemistry of Johor Straits, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Pauzi; Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed; Jaafar, Othman; Mahmud, Mastura; Khalik, Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd

    2015-12-15

    Characterization of hydrochemistry changes in Johor Straits within 5 years of monitoring works was successfully carried out. Water quality data sets (27 stations and 19 parameters) collected in this area were interpreted subject to multivariate statistical analysis. Cluster analysis grouped all the stations into four clusters ((Dlink/Dmax) × 1001) that explained 82.6% of the total variance of the data set. Classification matrix of discriminant analysis assigned 88.9-92.6% and 83.3-100% correctness in spatial and temporal variability, respectively. Times series analysis then confirmed that only four parameters were not significant over time change. Therefore, it is imperative that the environmental impact of reclamation and dredging works, municipal or industrial discharge, marine aquaculture and shipping activities in this area be effectively controlled and managed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The occurrence of pycnogonids associated with the volcanic structures of Bransfield Strait central basin (Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Munilla

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four specimens of pycnogonids belonging to twenty-two species, eight genera and six families were collected with a rocky dredge during the cruise Gebrap-96 in the central basin of Bransfield Strait, from depths between 647 and 1592 m. The richest station in terms of abundance and biomass was DR6 (south of Livingston Island, which was also the shallowest one; at this relatively shallow depth food is more available than in deeper waters. The families Nymphonidae and Colossendeidae had the same number of specimens (21 specimens; 39% abundance each. The most abundant species were Nymphon villosum and N. proximum. Pallenopsis buphthalmus was collected for only the third time. The collections increased the geographical distribution of three species and the depth range of six species. The volcanic structures sampled were inactive during 1996, since none of the specimens showed signs of hydrothermal phenomena. This collection was typically representative of the west Antarctic benthic zone.

  13. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  14. Kelimpahan dan Keanekaragaman Plankton di Perairan Selat Bali (Plankton Abundance and Diversity in the Bali Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Isfatul Khasanah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitoplankton mempunyai peran sangat penting dalam suatu perairan, selain berada pada dasar rantai makanan sedangkan zooplankton merupakan herbivor pemangsanya. Penelitian mengenai kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton di perairan Selat Bali dilakukan pada musim peralihan II (Nopember 2012 dan musim barat (Pebruari 2013. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengamati perbedaan kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton pada dua musim angin muson. Sampel air diambil dengan menggunakan water sampler sedangkan sampel plankton diambil secara horisontal dan vertikal  pada kedalaman 1 m dan 20 m dengan jaring plankton Kitahara bermata jaring 20 µm. Hasil pengukuran nutrien pada musim peralihan II memiliki kadar fosfat, nitrat, bahan organik, silikat dan klorofil-a lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada musim barat. Informasi tersebut memperkuat indikasi adanya perpindahan massa air dari lapisan yang lebih dalam ke lapisan yang lebih dangkal. Nutrien fosfat dan nitrat diperlukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi membran sel dan silikia dibutuhkan untuk pembentukan dinding sel terutama pada diatom. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa kelas diatom (Bacillariophyceae mencapai 95,9 % dari total jenis dan kelimpahan fitoplankton seluruh stasiun penelitian, sisanya berasal dari genus Dinophyceae. Kelimpahan fitoplankton tertinggi terjadi pada musim peralihan II dengan Rhizosolenia stolterfothii sebesar 51.405 sel.L-1 (80,1%, sedangkan pada musim barat copepoda ditemukan melimpah sebesar 8.178 ind.L-1 (88,3 %. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa dengan kelimpahan plankton yang ditemukan perairan Selat Bali dinilai cukup potensial untuk mendukung kehidupan biota laut pelagis. Kata kunci: plankton, selat Bali, rhizosolenia stolterfothii, muson   Abstract Phytoplankton has important role as primary producer in the sea and act as base of food chain while zooplankton act as herbivore prey on them. Research on abundance and diversity of plankton at Bali Strait was performed during

  15. Parasites of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus from Western Johor Straits, Malaysian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the apicomplexa as well as other parasites infecting organs/tissues of the hard clam Meretrix meretrix Linnaeus, from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly by hand picking, in November and December 2013. Histological techniques were performed, stained using Masson's Trichrome protocol and observed under light microscope. The results showed that gonad and gill were the most infected organs followed by digestive gland, intestine and adductor muscle. No pathology condition was observed in the mantle. Histophatological examination showed that the gregarine, Nematopsis, unidentified coccidian and Perkinsus were found in the gill and gonad, and also in the numerous hemocytes. Other pathological conditions such as bacteria-like inclusion and intracellular bacteria were also observed in the same organs. Further investigations are needed particularly on other molluscs present at the study area. Understanding the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  16. Characterization of active faulting beneath the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J.F.; Rogers, Gary C.; Waldhauser, F.

    2000-01-01

    Southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington State are subject to megathrust earthquakes, deep intraslab events, and earthquakes in the continental crust. Of the three types of earthquakes, the most poorly understood are the crustal events. Despite a high level of seismicity, there is no obvious correlation between the historical crustal earthquakes and the mapped surface faults of the region. On 24 June 1997, a ML = 4.6 earthquake occurred 3-4 km beneath the Strait of Georgia, 30 km to the west of Vancouver, British Columbia. This well-recorded earthquake was preceded by 11 days by a felt foreshock (ML = 3.4) and was followed by numerous small aftershocks. This earthquake sequence occurred in one of the few regions of persistent shallow seismic activity in southwestern British Columbia, thus providing an ideal opportunity to attempt to characterize an active near-surface fault. We have computed focal mechanisms and utilized a waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral determination routine to obtain accurate relative hypocenters of the mainshock, foreshock, and 53 small aftershocks in an attempt to image the active fault and the extent of rupture associated with this earthquake sequence. Both P-nodal and CMT focal mechanisms show thrust faulting for the mainshock and the foreshock. The relocated hypocenters delineate a north-dipping plane at 2-4 km depth, dipping at 53??, in good agreement with the focal mechanism nodal plane dipping to the north at 47??. The rupture area is estimated to be a 1.3-km-diameter circular area, comparable to that estimated using a Brune rupture model with the estimated seismic moment of 3.17 ?? 1015 N m and the stress drop of 45 bars. The temporal sequence indicates a downdip migration of the seismicity along the fault plane. The results of this study provide the first unambiguous evidence for the orientation and sense of motion for active faulting in the Georgia Strait area of British Columbia.

  17. FCJ-140 Radio Feeds, Satellite Feeds, Network Feeds: Subjectivity Across the Straits of Gibraltar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Knouf

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with the practices surrounding the two fadaiat encounters that took place simultaneously in Spain and Morocco in the summers of 2004 and 2005 (see http://fadaiat.net/ .  The fadaiat project focused on the question of immigration to Europe, specifically from northern Africa, and the ‘Fortress Europe’ responses by European Union governments.  Participants in fadaiat included academic scholars, free software developers, artists, and activists, forming a meta-network that created bridges across disparate communities and practices.  In particular, the participation of the Spanish collective hackitectura was key; they describe themselves as a ‘posse of architects, hackers and social activists experimenting in the merging territories of recombining spatial cyborgs composed by physical spaces, ICT networks and bodies’.  hackitectura led the development of both a temporary civil, non-commercial wireless link across the straits of Gibraltar between Tarifa, Spain and Tangier, Morocco, as well as an entirely free software audio/video streaming system, that enabled participants on both sides to come together independently of the restrictions normally placed on such movement by immigration laws.The importance of free software for fadaiat extends beyond its purely instrumental use as an agent for disrupting state control.  Indeed, the imagery of computation and free software – networks, links, patches, nodes, penguins – pervades the documentation of the project.  Rave parties simulcast across the straits are as important as the discussions and software produced.  I suggest that this can be understood as developing new forms of subjectivity, in the sense given by Felix Guattari, and therefore link the fadaiat project to earlier pirate radio practices, especially Radio Alice in Bologna, Italy, in which Guattari was involved.

  18. Concentrations and isotopic compositions of neodymium in the eastern Indian Ocean and Indonesian straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeandel, Catherine; Thouron, Danièle; Fieux, Michèle

    1998-08-01

    Four profiles of Nd concentration and isotopic composition were determined at two stations in the eastern Indian Ocean along a north/south section between Bali and Port-Hedland and at two others in the Timor and Sumba straits. Neodymium concentrations increase with depth, between 7.2 pmol/L at the surface to 41.7 pmol/L close to the bottom. The ɛ Nd of the different water masses along the section are -7.2 ± 0.2 for the Indian Bottom Waters and -6.1 ± 0.2 for the Indian Deep Waters. The intermediate and thermocline waters are less radiogenic at st-10 than at st-20 (-5.3 ± 0.3 and -3.6 ± 0.2, respectively). In the Timor Passage and Sumba Strait, ɛ Nd of the Indonesian waters is -4.1 ± 0.2 and that of the North Indian Intermediate Waters is -2.6 ± 0.3. These distinct isotopic signals constrain the origins of the different water masses sampled in the eastern Indian Ocean. They fix the limit of the nonradiogenic Antarctic and Indian contributions to the southern part of the section whereas the northern part is influenced by radiogenic Indonesian flows. In addition, the neodymium isotopic composition suggests that in the north, deep waters are influenced by a radiogenic component originating from the Sunda Arch Slope flowing deeper than 1200 m, which was not documented previously. Mixing calculations assess the conservativity of ɛ Nd on the scale of an oceanic basin. The origin of the surprising radiogenic signal of the NIIW is discussed and could result from a remobilization of Nd sediment-hosted on the Java shelf, requiring important dissolved/particulate exchange processes. Such processes, occurring in specific areas, could play an important role in the world ocean Nd budget.

  19. Direct observations of seasonal exchange through the Bab el Mandab Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stephen P.; Johns, William

    The exchange flow between the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden-Indian Ocean through the Bab el Mandab Strait was measured continuously for 10 months, June 1995-March 1996. ADCP and temperature-salinity chain moorings allow an unprecedented look at the magnitude and seasonal evolution of the inflow layer from the Gulf of Aden, and the high salinity outflow layer from the Red Sea. The timing, structure, and evolution of the summer season mid-depth intrusion of cold, low salinity water into the Red Sea from the Gulf of Aden is measured for the complete intrusion cycle of 1995. We unexpectedly find the deep outflow still strong in June 1995, with speeds of 0.6 m/sec and transport of 0.4 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m³/sec). From July to mid-September, the deep outflow persists but is attenuated to speeds of 0.2 m/sec and transport of 0.05 Sv. The dominant summer feature, the cold low salinity intermediate layer intrusion, persists for 3 months, occupies 70% of the water column in the Strait and carries approximately 1.7 × 1012 m³ of cold nutrient-rich water into the Red Sea. The winter regime begins in mid-September, is fully developed by early November, and continues to the end of our first observation interval in March 1996. Speeds in the lower layer are 0.8-1.0 m/sec and 0.4-0.6 m/sec in the upper layer. At maximum exchange in mid-February, outflow transport reaches 0.7 Sv. Ubiquitous oscillations in current and salinity at synoptic and intraseasonal periods appear closely related to fluctuations in the along-channel wind forcing and perhaps to coastally-trapped waves.

  20. GENETIC VARIABILITY OF THREE POPULATIONS OF FLYING FISH, Hirundichthy oxycephalus FROM MAKASSAR STRAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Parenrengi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flying fish, Hirundichthy oxycephalus is one of economically important marine species to Indonesia, particularly in Makassar Strait and Flores Sea. However, there is a limited published data on genetic variation in molecular marker level of this species. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD was employed in this study to determine the genetic variability of three populations of flying fish collected from Takalar, Pare-Pare, and Majene in Makassar Strait. Genomic DNA was isolated from preserved muscle tissue using phenol-chloroform technique. Two selected arbitrary primers (CA-01 and P-40 were performed to generate RAPD finger printing of flying fish populations. The two primers generated a total of 81 fragments (loci and 50 polymorphic fragments with size ranging from 125 to 1,250 bp. There were no significant differences in number of fragment and number of polymorphic fragment among populations. The high polymorphism (63.5±7.4% was obtained from Takalar population followed by Pare-Pare (58.3±19.6% and Majene population (57.7±0.8%. Similarity index of individuals was 0.60±0.17 for Takalar, 0.63±0.17 for Majene and 0.75±0.21 for Pare-Pare population. Seven fragments were identified as species-specific markers of H. oxycephalus. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the Takalar population was genetically closer to Pare-Pare population (D= 0.0812 than to Majene population (D= 0.1873.

  1. Remote environmental monitoring of the upper sea (REMUS) : Implementation in the strait of Gibraltar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabet, R.El.; Dehbi, N.; Khoukhi, T.El.; Laissaoui, A.; Delecaut, G.; Lacroix, J.P.; Abril, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Interest in the need of environmental monitoring in the Gibraltar strait, in which a wide range of oceanic processes and interactions of global interest occur, has recently increased in order to ensure proper surveillance and control of marine pollution and consequently to complying with international recommendations and binding agreements pertaining to the protection of marine environment. The effects of the english submarine incident (end 2000) in the Gibraltar strait and the radiological incident of Algeciras, Spain (melting of a Cs- 137 source at a steel manufactory ACENIROX) suggest an adequate national and regional technical capabilities and expertise for long-term environmental monitoring as a key to control the area and to develop emergency model in the case of any future accident in the zone. REMUS involves new technologic developments that allow real-time and continuous remote monitoring of sea areas using autonomous probes in anchored buoys, powered with solar panels and equipped with low consumption sensors and one onboard PC that communicates via GSM with central laboratory in land. Sensors incorporate a very sensitive (few Bq m -3 ) NaI detector for gamma-emitting radionuclides, oceanographic instruments (current meters, CTDs), and chemical sensors (pH,chlorophyl1,..). This technology allows the remote environmental monitoring of the upper sea (although some additional sensors can be equally deployed in depth) combining the interest in the early detection of environmental risks (releases of many hazardous materials) and the fundmental research in marine systems, as chalenge in the preservation of natural resources and the human health through the knowledge. Thus, the development of predictive models is also one objective of this project. [fr

  2. Biomaterial compounds and bioactivity of horseshoe crab Carsinoscorpius rotundicauda biomass harvested from the Madura Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Eka Nurrahema Ning; Kawaroe, Mujizat; Bengen, Dietriech G.

    2018-03-01

    Carsinoscorpius rotundicauda or horseshoe crab biomass has great potential in pharmaceutical aspects, one of them as an antibacterial substance. Information related to the benefits of Carsinoscorpius rotundicauda biomass such as meat and blood is essential because in fact, this species is considered a pest by fishermen, a low market value and has no legal protection in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to determine the content of biomaterial compounds of meat and bioactivity of Carsinoscorpius rotundicauda plasma on bacterial inhibition from three different stations harvested from the waters in Madura Strait. The observation of the utilization of the potential from horseshoe crab biomass ie meat and plasma was performed by measuring the content of biomaterial compound in horseshoe crab meat by HPLC method and zone of inhibition test for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria in horseshoe crab plasma. Analysis of the relationship between the two parameters used the Principal Component Analysis. The highest content of biomaterial compounds of monoterpenoid and zoosterol is found in horseshoe crab from Bangkalan waters, namely monoterpenoid (18.33 ppm) and zoosterol (22.67 ppm), while the smallest compound content obtained in horseshoe crab from Probolinggo waters, namely monoterpenoid (13.67) ppm and zoosterol (17.33 ppm). The bioactivity of Dark Blue Plasma (BDP) and Light Blue Plasma (LBP) samples of horseshoe crab obtained around the Madura Strait has the ability to inhibit gram-positive bacteria higher than gram-negative bacteria. The total average of DBP plasma inhibitory power on Staphylococcus aureus was 10.00 mm and 10.07 mm on Bacillus, while that in LBP sample, Staphylococcus aureus was 9.11 mm and Bacillus was 9.67 mm. The high biomaterial compound content of horseshoe crab is in line with the ability of horseshoe crab plasma to inhibit Bacillus and Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. Observed increase in freshwater transport in the East Greenland Current north of Denmark Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Steur, Laura; Pickart, Bob; Macrander, Andreas; Våge, Kjetil; Harden, Ben; Jonsson, Steingrimur; Østerhus, Svein; Valdimarsson, Hedinn

    2017-04-01

    We present liquid freshwater transports of the shelfbreak East Greenland Current (EGC) and the separated EGC determined from mooring records from the Kögur section north of Denmark Strait between August 2011 and July 2012. The 11-month mean freshwater transport (FWT) of these two branches was 65±11 mSv to the south (relative to a salinity of 34.8). Approximately 70% of this was associated with the shelfbreak EGC and the remaining 30% with the separated EGC. Very large southward FWT ranging from 160 mSv to 120 mSv was observed from September to mid-October 2011 and was foremost due to anomalously low upper-layer salinities. The FWT on the Greenland shelf was also estimated using additional inshore moorings deployed from 2012-2014. While the annual mean ranged from nearly zero during the first year to 18 mSv to the south during the second year, synoptically the FWT on the shelf can be significant. Furthermore, an anomalous event in autumn 2011 caused the shelfbreak EGC to reverse, leading to a large reduction in FWT. This reversed circulation was due to the passage of a large, 100 km wide anticyclone originating upstream from the shelfbreak. The late summer FWT of -131 mSv is two and a half times larger than earlier estimates based on sections in the late-1990s and early-2000s. This increase is likely the result of enhanced freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean to the Nordic Seas during the early 2010s when also a significant increase of Pacific Water in the EGC was observed. Preliminary results obtained from the long-term ocean observing system in Fram Strait are included to compare the increased FWT seen in 2011-2012 with interannual variations in Arctic freshwater outflow during the last decade.

  4. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for bald eagle, great blue heron, and seabird nesting sites in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  5. Current speed and direction, temperature and salinity collected from Moored Buoy in Davis Strait from 1987-09-05 to 1990-09-06 (NCEI Accession 0129882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Volume, freshwater and heat transport through Davis Strait, the northern boundary of the Labrador Basin, were computed using a mooring array deployed for three...

  6. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: SOCECON (Socioeconomic Resource Points and Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains points that represent the following sensitive human-use socioeconomic sites in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: access...

  7. Physical, biological and optical oceanographic data collected from moored buoys in the Bering Strait from 08/16/2004 to 09/03/2007 (NODC Accession 0045300)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical, current meter, biological, and optical oceanographic data were collected in the Bering Strait from August 16, 2004 to September 3, 2007. These data were...

  8. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: INVERT (Invertebrate Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for clams, oysters, crabs, and other invertebrate species in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca,...

  9. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0013952)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for the Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca from 1978 to 2006. ESI data characterize...

  10. Determining the Applicability of the Barotropic Approximation to the Mean Seasonal Flow Through the Tsushima/Korean Strait using Variational Assimilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, S. R; Jacobs, G. A; Leben, R. R

    2005-01-01

    .... The velocity measurements are from two lines of moored acoustic Doppler Current profilers (ADCPs) spanning the Tsushima/Korean strait just north and south of Tsushima island and the SSHA measurements are from the TOPEX altimeter...

  11. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: HABITATS (Habitat Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine and estuarine vegetation in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector polygons...

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: FISHL (Fish Lines)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and anadromous fish in Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington. Vector...

  13. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Puget Sound and Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons that represent the following sensitive human-use management areas in Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington:...

  14. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  15. Enhancing national data to align with policy objectives: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence at finer geographic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alyson; Lovett, Ray; Roe, Yvette; Richardson, Alice

    2017-06-05

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the utility of national Aboriginal survey data in a regional geospatial analysis of daily smoking prevalence for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and discuss the appropriateness of this analysis for policy and program impact assessment. Methods Data from the last two Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) national surveys of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey 2014-15 (n=7022 adults) and the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey 2012-13 (n=10896 adults), were used to map the prevalence of smoking by Indigenous regions. Results Daily smoking prevalence in 2014-15 at Indigenous regions ranges from 27.1% (95%CI 18.9-35.3) in the Toowoomba region in Queensland to 68.0% (95%CI 58.1-77.9) in the Katherine region in the Northern Territory. The confidence intervals are wide and there is no significant difference in daily smoking prevalence between the two time periods for any region. Conclusion There are significant limitations with analysing national survey data at finer geographical scales. Given the national program for Indigenous tobacco control is a regional model, evaluation requires finer geographical analysis of smoking prevalence to inform public health progress, policy and program effects. Options to improve the data currently collected include increasing national survey sample sizes, implementing a smoking status question in census surveys, investing in current cohort studies focused on this population or implementing localised surveys. What is known about the topic? The last geospatial analysis of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking prevalence was undertaken in 1997. Current national survey data have not been analysed geospatially. What does this paper add? This paper provides new insights into the use of national survey data for understanding regional patterns and prevalence levels of smoking

  16. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-04-24

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80-11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the glacial period can lead to the emergence of stronger hysteresis behavior of the ocean conveyor belt circulation to create conditions that are conducive to triggering abrupt climate transitions. Hence, it is argued that even for greenhouse warming, abrupt climate transitions similar to those in the last glacial time are unlikely to occur as the Bering Strait remains open.

  17. The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking epidemic: what stage are we at, and what does it mean?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Lovett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is the leading contributor to the burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, and there is considerable potential for change. Understanding the epidemic stage may provide insight into probable trends in smoking-attributable mortality, and inform program and policy development. Tobacco use among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians has declined substantially, accompanied by declining tobacco-related cardiovascular mortality. Based on the available evidence, we expect tobacco-related cancer mortality to remain high, but peak within the next decade; however, there is a critical need for improved evidence to make an accurate assessment. The continuation and expansion of comprehensive tobacco reduction measures is expected to further decrease tobacco use. Health gains will be observed over both the short and long term.

  18. 234Th-based measurements of particle flux in surface water of the Bransfield Strait, western Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, S.B.; National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Sevastopol, Autonomous Republic of Crimea

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of particulate and dissolved 234 Th were carried out in March 2002 in the Bransfield Strait located between the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. The 234 Th/ 238 U disequilibrium found in the upper water column has allowed evaluation of downward particle fluxes across a frontal zone, which divides water masses coming from the Bellingshausen Sea and the Weddell Sea. The highest particle flux has been found in this mixing zone, where it was 3-5 times greater than in the adjacent waters. Total mass fluxes in the upper 150-m water column were estimated as about 2.2 g m -2 day -1 in the eastern part of the Strait and 3.1 g m -2 day -1 in the western area. (author)

  19. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  20. Role of the Bering Strait on the hysteresis of the ocean conveyor belt circulation and glacial climate stability

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Aixue; Meehl, Gerald A.; Han, Weiqing; Timmermann, Axel; Otto-Bliesner, Bette; Liu, Zhengyu; Washington, Warren M.; Large, William; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Kimoto, Masahide; Lambeck, Kurt; Wu, Bingyi

    2012-01-01

    Abrupt climate transitions, known as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, occurred frequently during the last glacial period, specifically from 80–11 thousand years before present, but were nearly absent during interglacial periods and the early stages of glacial periods, when major ice-sheets were still forming. Here we show, with a fully coupled state-of-the-art climate model, that closing the Bering Strait and preventing its throughflow between the Pacific and Arctic Oceans during the g...

  1. Practice and Exploration of New Rural Construction in West Bank of Taiwan Strait Led by Spark Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chaocan

    2013-01-01

    According to practice and exploration of spark program for 26 years in Quanzhou, the main model and their effects of new rural construction in west bank of Taiwan Strait led by spark science and technology were expounded. Six spark program systems were established, consisting of policy support guide, science and technology project lead, experts’ intelligence support, spark science and technology training, sci-tech information service and spark program demonstration. Five spark projects were...

  2. The Gulf of Carpentaria heated Torres Strait and the Northern Great Barrier Reef during the 2016 mass coral bleaching event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanski, E.; Andutta, F.; Deleersnijder, E.; Li, Y.; Thomas, C. J.

    2017-07-01

    The 2015/16 ENSO event increased the temperature of waters surrounding northeast Australia to above 30 °C, with large patches of water reaching 32 °C, for over two months, which led to severe bleaching of corals of the Northern Great Barrier Reef (NGBR). This study provides evidence gained from remote-sensing data, oceanographic data and oceanographic modeling, that three factors caused this excessive heating, namely: 1) the shutdown of the North Queensland Coastal Current, which would otherwise have flushed and cooled the Northern Coral Sea and the NGBR through tidal mixing 2) the advection of warm (>30 °C) water from the Gulf of Carpentaria eastward through Torres Strait and then southward over the NGBR continental shelf, and 3) presumably local solar heating. The eastward flux of this warm water through Torres Strait was driven by a mean sea level difference on either side of the strait that in turn was controlled by the wind, which also generated the southward advection of this warm water onto the NGBR shelf. On the NGBR shelf, the residence time of this warm water was longer inshore than offshore, and this may explain the observed cross-shelf gradient of coral bleaching intensity. The fate of the Great Barrier Reef is thus controlled by the oceanography of surrounding seas.

  3. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter in the Upper Klamath River, Lost River, and Klamath Straits Drain, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jami H.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2017-12-11

    Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which together comprise total organic carbon, were measured in this reconnaissance study at sampling sites in the Upper Klamath River, Lost River, and Klamath Straits Drain in 2013–16. Optical absorbance and fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which contains DOC, also were analyzed. Parallel factor analysis was used to decompose the optical fluorescence data into five key components for all samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to investigate differences in DOM source and processing among sites.At all sites in this study, average DOC concentrations were higher than average POC concentrations. The highest DOC concentrations were at sites in the Klamath Straits Drain and at Pump Plant D. Evaluation of optical properties indicated that Klamath Straits Drain DOM had a refractory, terrestrial source, likely extracted from the interaction of this water with wetland peats and irrigated soils. Pump Plant D DOM exhibited more labile characteristics, which could, for instance, indicate contributions from algal or microbial exudates. The samples from Klamath River also had more microbial or algal derived material, as indicated by PCA analysis of the optical properties. Most sites, except Pump Plant D, showed a linear relation between fluorescent dissolved organic matter (fDOM) and DOC concentration, indicating these measurements are highly correlated (R2=0.84), and thus a continuous fDOM probe could be used to estimate DOC loads from these sites.

  4. STUDY OF ESTIMATE CONCENTRATION OF WATER CONSTITUENTS AT BADUNG STRAIT BALI USING INVERSE MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Swardika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm was employed to retrieve the concentrations of three water constituents, chlorophyll-a,suspended matter and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM from MODIS (Moderate-ResolutionImaging Spectrometer in wide range covering from oligotrophic case-1 to turbid case-2 waters at theBadung Strait Bali. The algorithm is a neural network (NN which is used to parameterize the inverse of aradiative transfer model. It’s used in this study as a multiple nonlinear regression technique. The NN is a feedforward back propagation model with two hidden layers. The NN was trained with computed radiancecovering the range of chlorophyll-a from 0.001 to 64.0 ?g/l, inorganic suspended matter from 0.01 to 50.0mg/l, and CDOM absorption at 440nm from 0.001 to 5.0 m-1. Inputs to the NN are the radiance of the fivespectral channels which were under discussion for MODIS. The outputs are the three water constituentconcentrations. The NN algorithm was tested using in-situ data set on May, September, November 2005 atthe Badung Strait Bali and the north sea of Sumbawa Island and applied to MODIS. The coefficient ofdetermination (R2 between chlorophyll-a concentrations derived from simulation and in-situ data is 0.327,for suspended matter R2 is 0.408. No in-situ measurements of CDOM available for validation. Also, in-situdata were compared with the corresponding distribution obtained by the NASA standard OC4 (OC3M forMODIS chlorophyll-a algorithm and giving R2 0.188. This study gives better accuracy compare withstandard algorithm. How ever both studies are giving over estimate chlorophyll-a concentration. Since thereare no standard MODIS products available for suspended matter and CDOM, the result of the retrieval by theNN for these two variables could only be assessed by a general knowledge of their concentrations anddistribution patterns

  5. Paleocene Picrites of Davis Strait: Products of a Plume or Plates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, E. K.; Clarke, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Voluminous, subaerial, ultra-depleted, 62 Ma, primary picritic lavas occur on both sides of Davis Strait separating Baffin Island and West Greenland. Temporally, the picrites are coeval with the initiation of sea-floor spreading in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay around 62 Ma. Petrogenetically, the chemical characteristics of these picrites (MgO = 18-21 wt. %; K2O = 0.01-0.20 wt. %; 87Sr/86Sri ≈ 0.7030; ɛNdi ≈ +5.2-8.6; 3He/4He ≤ 49.5RA) demand only derivation by partial melting of highly depleted subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) at a pressure of 4 GPa, followed by rapid ascent to the surface, but do not necessarily require high temperatures or high degrees of partial melting. Tectonically, these picrites formed in thick Archean and Paleoproterozoic cratonic terranes during Paleogene rifting between Greenland and North America. Structurally, the picrites are related to the major intersection of a NNW suture zone under Baffin Bay and the E-W trending Paleoproterozoic Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt. During the late Mesozoic, ENE extension created normal faulted basins quasi-parallel with the NNW suture and thinned the mantle lithosphere. Elastic finite element models and present day studies of crustal extension show that the thicker Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt underwent less thinning and extension than the NNW suture zone in the Archean Rae craton. These extensional disparities occur at the orthogonal intersection of pre-existing E-W trending strike-slip faults in the thicker Nagssugtoqidian Fold Belt with the NNW thinned Archean suture zone, and likely resulted in the formation of one or more pull-apart basins. Because the strike-slip faults are ancient suture zones, trans-tension within these suture zones easily reached 120 km, creating not only decompression melting in the SCLM, but also a pathway for the picritic melts to rapidly reach the surface. Such a purely tectonic model requires no spatially or temporally improbable deep mantle plume for generation of

  6. Strain partitioning in southeastern Alaska: Is the Chatham Strait Fault active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel; Elliott, Julie L.; Conrad, James E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Kluesner, Jared

    2018-01-01

    A 1200 km-long transform plate boundary passes through southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia and represents one of the most seismically active, but poorly understood continental margins of North America. Although most of the plate motion is accommodated by the right-lateral Queen Charlotte–Fairweather Fault (QCFF) System, which has produced at least six M > 7 earthquakes since 1920, seismic hazard assessments also include the Chatham Strait Fault (CSF) as a potentially active, 400 km-long strike slip fault that cuts northward through southeastern Alaska, connecting with the Eastern Denali Fault. Nearly the entire length of the CSF is submerged beneath Chatham Strait and Lynn Canal and has never been systematically imaged using high-resolution marine geophysical approaches. In this study we present an integrated analysis of new marine seismic reflectiondata acquired across Lynn Canal and tectonic block modeling constrained by data from continuous and campaign GPS sites. Seismic profiles cross the CSF at twelve locations spanning ∼50 km of fault length; they reveal thick (up to 300 m) packages of glaciomarine sedimentary facies emplaced on an unconformity surface that formed during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Localized warping of post-LGM stratigraphy (∼13.9 kyr B.P. to present) appears to correlate with sediment drape on basement topography and current-controlled deposition. There is no evidence for an active fault along the axis of Lynn Canal in the seismic reflection data. Crustal block models constrained by GPS data allow, but do not require, a maximum slip rate of 2–3 mm/yr along the CSF; higher slip rates on the CSF result in significant misfit to GPS data in the surrounding region. Based on the combined marine geophysical and GPS observations, it is plausible that the CSF has not generated resolvable coseismic deformation in the last ∼13 ka and that the modern slip-rate is <1 mm/yr. We propose that models for strain

  7. Dolphin Watching in the Southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape, Philippines: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemnuel V. Aragones

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin watching is a growing economic activity in the southern Tañon Strait Protected Seascape (TSPS, the Philippines, an area that is also heavily exploited by fisheries. In order to examine the issues and challenges in this growing industry, we monitored relevant information regarding cetacean watching, conducted focus group discussions (FGDs and educational seminar-workshops for various local stakeholders from 2004 to 2006, and followed these up from 2008-2012. From 9 May to 16 August 2004, we conducted structured interviews to determine the perceptions of cetacean-watching tourists (CWTs and assess the level of local knowledge of f ishers and non-fishers (NFs regarding marine mammals and environmental management in this area. Ninety f ive (95 CWTs, 100 local fishers, and 64 NFs were interviewed. Sixty seven percent (n=64 of the CWTs believed that the overall quality of tours was impressive primarily because they were able to watch, at reasonable costs, large groups of dolphins in close proximity and in an almost pristine environment. The majority of CWTs (~91% felt that there is a need to develop a ‘Special Management Plan’ (SMP for the southern TSPS focusing on cetaceans and their habitats. The increasing number of dolphin watching boats, heavy exploitation of f ishing ground, misperception of local f ishers that cetaceans are competitors with f isheries, and lack of a SMP or a Management Plan per se for TSPS warranted the facilitation of a participatory management process to protect the cetaceans and their habitats.This study has shown that even with only preliminary results, survey interviews of key stakeholders in combination with FGDs and seminar-workshop could be critical in facilitating a participatory management process. In the case of the TSPS, this par ticipatory approach led to the formation of the Tañon Strait Association of Dolphin and Whale Watching Operators, Inc. (TaSADoWWI, and eventual development of cetacean

  8. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  9. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Singer, Judy

    2017-05-29

    In Australia, mental health services are undergoing major systemic reform with eMental Health (eMH) embedded in proposed service models for all but those with severe mental illness. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers have been targeted as a national priority for training and implementation of eMH into service delivery. Implementation studies on technology uptake in health workforces identify complex and interconnected variables that influence how individual practitioners integrate new technologies into their practice. To date there are only two implementation studies that focus on eMH and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. They suggest that the implementation of eMH in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations may be different from the implementation of eMH with allied health professionals and mainstream health services. The objective of this study is to investigate how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers in one regional area of Australia used eMH resources in their practice following an eMH training program and to determine what types of eMH resources they used. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. Interviews were co-conducted by one indigenous and one non-indigenous interviewer. A sample of transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed by each interviewer and then peer reviewed. Consensus codes were then applied to all transcripts and themes identified. It was found that 9 of the 16 service providers were implementing eMH resources into their routine practice. The findings demonstrate that participants used eMH resources for supporting social inclusion, informing and educating, assessment, case planning and management, referral, responding to crises, and self and family care. They chose a variety of types of eMH resources to use with their clients, both culturally

  10. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

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    M. Uspensky

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs reasonably well for these additional events.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, plasma waves and instabilities, auroral ionosphere

  11. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations inolden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

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    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  13. Active faults and historical earthquakes in the Messina Straits area (Ionian Sea

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    A. Polonia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Calabrian Arc (CA subduction complex is located at the toe of the Eurasian Plate in the Ionian Sea, where sediments resting on the lower plate have been scraped off and piled up in the accretionary wedge due to the African/Eurasian plate convergence and back arc extension. The CA has been struck repeatedly by destructive historical earthquakes, but knowledge of active faults and source parameters is relatively poor, particularly for seismogenic structures extending offshore. We analysed the fine structure of major tectonic features likely to have been sources of past earthquakes: (i the NNW–SSE trending Malta STEP (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator fault system, representing a lateral tear of the subduction system; (ii the out-of-sequence thrusts (splay faults at the rear of the salt-bearing Messinian accretionary wedge; and (iii the Messina Straits fault system, part of the wide deformation zone separating the western and eastern lobes of the accretionary wedge.

    Our findings have implications for seismic hazard in southern Italy, as we compile an inventory of first order active faults that may have produced past seismic events such as the 1908, 1693 and 1169 earthquakes. These faults are likely to be source regions for future large magnitude events as they are long, deep and bound sectors of the margin characterized by different deformation and coupling rates on the plate interface.

  14. Assessment of eco-environmental quality of Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, He; Shi, Longyu

    2016-05-01

    Regional eco-environmental quality is the key and foundation to the sustainable socio-economic development of a region. Eco-environmental quality assessment can reveal the capacity of sustainable socio-economic development in a region and the degree of coordination between social production and the living environment. As part of a new development strategy for Fujian Province, the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone) provides an important guarantee for the development of China's southeastern coastal area. Based on ecological and remote sensing data on the Economic Zone obtained in 2000, 2005, and 2010, this study investigated county-level administrative regions with a comprehensive index of eco-environmental indicators. An objective weighting method was used to determine the importance of each indicator. This led to the development of an indicator system to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone. ArcGIS software was used to assess the eco-environmental quality of the economic zone based on each indicator. The eco-environmental quality index (EQI) of the county-level administrative regions was calculated. The overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone during the period studied is described and analyzed. The results show that the overall eco-environmental quality of the Economic Zone is satisfactory, but significant intraregional differences still exist. The key to improving the overall eco-environmental quality of this area is to restore vegetation and preserve biodiversity.

  15. Chinstrap penguin foraging area associated with a seamount in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Lee, Won Young; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Takahashi, Akinori

    2015-12-01

    Identifying marine features that support high foraging performance of predators is useful to determine areas of ecological importance. This study aimed to identify marine features that are important for foraging of chinstrap penguins (Pygoscelis antarcticus), an abundant upper-trophic level predator in the Antarctic Peninsula region. We investigated the foraging locations of penguins breeding on King George Island using GPS-depth loggers. Tracking data from 18 birds (4232 dives), 11 birds (2095 dives), and 19 birds (3947 dives) were obtained in 2007, 2010, and 2015, respectively. In all three years, penguins frequently visited an area near a seamount (Orca Seamount) in Bransfield Strait. The percentage of dives (27.8% in 2007, 36.1% in 2010, and 19.1% in 2015) and depth wiggles (27.1% in 2007, 37.2% in 2010, and 22.3% in 2015) performed in this area was higher than that expected from the size of the area and distance from the colony (8.4% for 2007, 14.7% for 2010, and 6.3% for 2015). Stomach content analysis showed that the penguins fed mainly on Antarctic krill. These results suggest that the seamount provided a favorable foraging area for breeding chinstrap penguins, with high availability of Antarctic krill, possibly related to local upwelling.

  16. Suicides in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children: analysis of Queensland Suicide Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soole, Rebecca; Kõlves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Suicide rates among Indigenous Australian children are higher than for other Australian children. The current study aimed to identify factors associated with Indigenous child suicide when compared to other Australian children. Using the Queensland Suicide Register, suicides in Indigenous children (10-14 years) and other Australian children in the same age band were compared. Between 2000 and 2010, 45 child suicides were recorded: 21 of Indigenous children and 24 of other Australian children. This corresponded to a suicide rate of 10.15 suicides per 100,000 for Indigenous children - 12.63 times higher than the suicide rate for other Australian children (0.80 per 100,000). Hanging was the predominant method used by all children. Indigenous children were significantly more likely to suicide outside the home, to be living outside the parental home at time of death, and be living in remote or very remote areas. Indigenous children were found to consume alcohol more frequently before suicide, compared to other Australian children. Current and past treatments of psychiatric disorders were significantly less common among Indigenous children compared to other Australian children. Western conceptualisation of mental illness may not adequately embody Indigenous people's holistic perspective regarding mental health. Further development of culturally appropriate suicide prevention activities for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children is required. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  17. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial microdiversity in Arctic deep-sea sediments (HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ramette, Alban

    2014-01-01

    Marine bacteria colonizing deep-sea sediments beneath the Arctic ocean, a rapidly changing ecosystem, have been shown to exhibit significant biogeographic patterns along transects spanning tens of kilometers and across water depths of several thousand meters (Jacob et al., 2013). Jacob et al. (2013) adopted what has become a classical view of microbial diversity - based on operational taxonomic units clustered at the 97% sequence identity level of the 16S rRNA gene - and observed a very large microbial community replacement at the HAUSGARTEN Long Term Ecological Research station (Eastern Fram Strait). Here, we revisited these data using the oligotyping approach and aimed to obtain new insight into ecological and biogeographic patterns associated with bacterial microdiversity in marine sediments. We also assessed the level of concordance of these insights with previously obtained results. Variation in oligotype dispersal range, relative abundance, co-occurrence, and taxonomic identity were related to environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass, and sedimentary pigment concentration. This study assesses ecological implications of the new microdiversity-based technique using a well-characterized dataset of high relevance for global change biology.

  18. Biogeographic patterns of bacterial microdiversity in Arctic deep-sea sediments (Hausgarten, Fram Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Luigi eButtigieg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine bacteria colonising deep-sea sediments beneath the Arctic ocean, a rapidly changing ecosystem, have been shown to exhibit significant biogeographic patterns along transects spanning tens of kilometres and across water depths reaching several thousands of metres (Jacob et al., 2013. Jacob et al. adopted what has become a classical view of microbial diversity based on operational taxonomic units clustered at the 97% sequence identity level of the 16S rRNA gene and observed a very large microbial community replacement at the Hausgarten Long-Term Ecological Research station (Eastern Fram Strait. Here, we revisited these data using the oligotyping approach with the aims of obtaining new insights into ecological and biogeographic patterns associated with bacterial microdiversity in marine sediments and of assessing the level of concordance of these insights with previously obtained results. Variation in oligotype dispersal range, relative abundance, co-occurrence, and taxonomic identity were related to environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass, and sedimentary pigment concentration. This study assesses ecological implications of the new microdiversity-based technique using a well-characterised dataset of high relevance for global change biology.

  19. Low-frequency variability of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar during CANIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Delgado, Javier; Vargas, Juan Miguel; Vargas, Manuel; Plaza, Francisco; Sarhan, Tarek

    Time series of the exchanged flows through the Strait of Gibraltar at the eastern section have been estimated from current-meter observations taken between October 1995 and May 1998 within the Canary Islands Azores Gibraltar Observations (CANIGO) project. The inflow exhibits a clear annual signal that peaks in late summer simultaneously with a deepening of the interface. The cycle seems to be driven by the seasonal signal of the density contrast between the surface Atlantic water that forms the inflow and the deep Mediterranean water of the outflow. The outflow and the depth of the interface have predominant semiannual signals and a smaller annual one whose phase agrees with that of the density contrast as well. Local wind stress and atmospheric pressure difference between the Atlantic and the Western Mediterranean to less extent have clear semiannual signal, so that the possibility that the semiannual cycle of the outflow and of the depth of the interface are forced by them was analyzed. The composite Froude number in this section is well below the critical value, suggesting submaximal exchange. Therefore, the conditions in the Alboran basin influence the exchange and some evidence that the size and location of the Western Alboran Gyre contribute to the observed signals, both annual and semiannual, is provided.

  20. Holocene sea-level changes along the Strait of Magellan and Beagle Channel, southernmost South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen C.; Stuiver, Minze; Heusser, Calvin J.

    1984-07-01

    Radiocarbon-dated marine sediments from five coastal sites along the Strait of Magellan and Beagle Channel in southernmost Chile permit construction of a curve of relative sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. Morphologic and stratigraphic data point to coastal submergence during the early Holocene as the sea rose to a maximum level at least 3.5 m higher than present about 5000 yr ago. Progressive emergence then followed during the late Holocene. Data from widely separated localities define a smooth curve, the form of which is explainable in terms of isostatic and hydroisostatic deformation of the crust resulting from changing ice and water loads. Apparently anomalous data from one site located more than 100 km behind the outer limit of the last glaciation may reflect isostatic response to deglaciation. The sea-level curve resembles one derived by Clark and Bloom (1979, In "Proceedings of the 1978 International Symposium on Coastal Evolution in the Quaternary, Sao Paulo, Brasil," pp. 41-60. Sao Paulo) using a spherical Earth model, both in amplitude and in the timing of the maximum submergence.

  1. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The first comprehensive study related to radioactivity concentrations in the study area. • Assessment of several radionuclides such as Cs-137, K-40, Ra-226, Ra-228, Po-210 and Pb-210 in mussel and sediment. • Investigation of relationship amongst radionuclides, organic matter percent, pH value and particle size of sediment. - Abstract: The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03 ± 0.23, 389 ± 41.6, 2.61 ± 1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96 ± 37.88 and 11.48 ± 4.85 Bq kg −1 , respectively. In sediments, it was observed that 137 Cs, 40 K, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Po and 210 Pb activity concentrations in <63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and 210 Po/ 210 Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn

  2. Development of Seismic Demand for Chang-Bin Offshore Wind Farm in Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan is located on the Pacific seismic belt, and the soil conditions of Taiwan’s offshore wind farms are softer than those in Europe. To ensure safety and stability of the offshore wind turbine supporting structures, it is important to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces reasonably. In this paper, the relevant seismic and geological data are obtained for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm in Taiwan Strait, the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA is carried out, and the first uniform hazard response spectrum for Chang-Bin offshore wind farm is achieved. Compared with existing design response spectrum in the local regulation, this site-specific seismic hazard analysis has influence on the seismic force considered in the design of supporting structures and therefore affects the cost of the supporting structures. The results show that a site-specific seismic hazard analysis is required for high seismic area. The paper highlights the importance of seismic hazard analysis to assess the offshore wind farms seismic forces. The follow-up recommendations and research directions are given for Taiwan’s offshore wind turbine supporting structures under seismic force considerations.

  3. Plastic debris and microplastics along the beaches of the Strait of Hormuz, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R

    2017-01-30

    Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Eating disorder features in indigenous Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian Peoples

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    Hay Phillipa J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and related cardiovascular and metabolic conditions are well recognized problems for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. However, there is a dearth of research on relevant eating disorders (EDs such as binge eating disorder in these groups. Methods Data were obtained from interviews of 3047 (in 2005 and 3034 (in 2008 adults who were participants in a randomly selected South Australian household survey of individuals' age > 15 years. The interviewed comprised a general health survey in which ED questions were embedded. Data were weighted according to national census results and comprised key features of ED symptoms. Results In 2005 there were 94 (85 weighted First Australian respondents, and in 2008 65 (70 weighted. Controlling for secular differences, in 2005 rates of objective binge eating and levels of weight and shape influence on self-evaluation were significantly higher in indigenous compared to non-indigenous participants, but no significant differences were found in ED features in 2008. Conclusions Whilst results on small numbers must be interpreted with caution, the main finding was consistent over the two samples. For First Australians ED symptoms are at least as frequent as for non-indigenous Australians.

  5. Artificial radionuclide tracer supply to the Denmark Strait overflow between 1972 and 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Hugh D.; Swift, James H.; Ostlund, H. Gote

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides 3H, 137Cs, and 90Sr in the northern Irminger Sea in 1972 and 1981 are reported. In both years, tracer measurements from this area included data from samples of the dense overflow water from the north through Denmark Strait. All three tracers were strongly correlated inversely with salinity in the dense outflows—the tracer maxima being related directly to the salinity minimum. When the tracer characteristics in the outflows in 1972 and 1981 were compared, concentrations of all in 1981 were observed to be about double the 1972 values. The individual tracer concentrations—on a decay-corrected, density-normalized basis—were higher in increasing order: 90Sr (+93%) seas of advected European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. Both the tracer and hydrographic data are used to identify northern locations of intermediate water formation capable of supplying the observed dense overflow water characteristics. It is argued, from the time taken for the overflow water to reflect the new surface 137Cs source, that transport from the source to the overflow can be quite rapid (about 2 years).

  6. Effect of Scour on the Natural Frequency Responses of the Meteorological Mast in the Taiwan Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Tseng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The meteorological mast (met mast for the Taiwan Power Company’s offshore wind farm is located in Taiwan Strait near Changhua County. The p–y curve method recommended in the current offshore foundation design codes does not account for the local scour around the pile foundation; it overestimates the lateral pile deformation and underestimates the foundation stiffness. This paper presents a method to correct the initial modulus of subgrade reaction and modify the ultimate lateral resistance caused by the local scour. The natural frequency of the met mast structure is also determined by a numerical model and verified with the measured data in situ. A comprehensive parameter study is performed to analyze the effect of scour on the dynamic responses of the met mast. Two types of foundation model, a coupled-springs foundation model and a distributed-springs foundation model, are considered in the dynamic analysis of the met mast. The results demonstrate that using a distributed-springs foundation model provides a relatively accurate estimate of the natural frequencies of the met mast structure. Furthermore, the scour exerted significant effects on certain modes of the vibration responses. The natural frequencies of the met mast structure can be reduced by approximately 14% due to scour, particularly in the horizontal bending modes. This paper also provides a preliminary strategy for structural monitoring and analysis to detect scour damage on offshore wind turbines with monopile foundations.

  7. Bringing back the bridge solution to establish a fixed link over the Strait of Gibraltar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Simal, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this essay is to address some of the aspects of the Bridge alternative and to examine the conclusions reached back in 1995 over the feasibility of such a solution. Although having been left aside for decades, the Bridge Solution of the Strait of Gibraltar Crossing Project has been brought back to life as an available alternative to close the gap between the two continents, being the reason to have recently detected some impediment down into the lower layers of the site laying grounds. All of which has revealed further geotechnical issues to tackle. Given the current level of development the Tunnel solution has reached, the 20-year-old Bridge solution needs to be fully updated in order to catch up with the former: As well as taking into consideration the new trends present in the state of the art on design of structures, the Bridge solution would also entail updating construction procedures if it is to incorporate all the potentialities offered by: (1) related tools (2) machinery, and (3), many new ideas which, coming from distinct industrial sectors others than the public works, have worked their way through the construction field. Furthermore, it would be necessary to bear in mind the ceaseless development materials science is going through, which involves constant increases in both levels of resilience and number of characteristics such materials present. (Author)

  8. Assessment of Eco-Environmental Stress in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longyu Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Eco-environmental stress refers to the pressure borne by the environment in sustaining the pre-existing non-industrialized state and/or in counteracting adverse impacts caused by natural and human factors. The present article introduces the concept, research progress, and method for assessing eco-environmental stress. An eco-environmental stress index (ESI is established to assess the eco-environmental stress of 13 cities in the Western Taiwan Straits Economic Zone (hereafter referred to as the Economic Zone during the period from 2000 to 2010. The research provides a reference for the strategic planning of industrial development and environmental protection. The results show that the overall eco-environmental stress of the Economic Zone was slight and did not have significant change during the past 10 years. The cities with the most severe eco-environmental stress are distributed in the north and south of the Economic Zone. Most areas of Fujian Province have a low degree of eco-environmental stress, a situation that is being constantly improved. The regions with high atmospheric and water pollutant emissions are concentrated in the northern, middle, and southern coastal regions of the Economic Zone. The pollutant emissions of coastal cities are higher than those of inland cities. In the future, ecological restoration and compensation mechanisms should be established for regions where environmental protection and remediation is urgently needed.

  9. Baseline metals pollution profile of tropical estuaries and coastal waters of the Straits of Malacca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looi, Ley Juen; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Wan Johari, Wan Lutfi; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Hashim, Zailina

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Order of metals distribution were as follow: Fe > Al > Se > Cu > As > Zn > Mn > Ni > Ba > Pb > Cd > Cr > Co. • As and Cu levels have exceeded Malaysia Marine Water Quality Criteria and Standard. • Seven principal components of PCA were extracted from estuaries and coastal waters. • Mineral-related parameters are main pollution sources in the waters. -- Abstract: The status report on metal pollution in tropical estuaries and coastal waters is important to understand potential environmental health hazards. Detailed baseline measurements were made on physicochemical parameters (pH, temperature, redox potential, electrical conductivity, salinity, dissolved oxygen, total dissolved solid), major ions (Na, Ca, Mg, K, HCO 3 , Cl, SO 4 and NO 3 ) and metals concentrations ( 27 Al, 75 As, 138 Ba, 9 Be, 111 Cd, 59 Co, 63 Cu, 52 Cr, 57 Fe, 55 Mn, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 80 Se, 66 Zn) at estuaries and coastal waters along the Straits of Malacca. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to reveal potential pollution sources. Seven principal components were extracted with relation to pollution contribution from minerals-related parameters, natural and anthropogenic sources. The output from this study will generate a profound understanding on the metal pollution status and pollution risk of the estuaries and coastal system

  10. Artificial radionuclide tracer supply to the Denmark strait overflow between 1972 and 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, H.D.; Swift, J.H.; Ostlund, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of the artificial radionuclides 3 H, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr in the northern Irminger Sea in 1972 and 1981 are reported. In both years, tracer measurements from this area included data from samples of the dense overflow water from the north through Denmark Strait. All three tracers were strongly correlated inversely with salinity in the dense outflows-the tracer maxima being related directly to the salinity minimum. When the tracer characteristics in the outflows in 1972 and 1981 were compared, concentrations of all in 1981 were observed to be about double the 1972 values. The individual tracer concentrations-on a decay-corrected, density-normalized basis-were higher in increasing order: 90 Sr(+93%) 3 H(+115%) 137 Cs(+150%). The relatively greater increases for 3 H and 137 Cs were attributed to contributions of new sources of these tracers in northern surface waters: the 3 H source is argued to derive from atmospheric hydrological recycling, whereas the 137 Cs source is identified as the input to the Greenland and Iceland seas of advected European nuclear fuel reprocessing wastes. Both the tracer and hydrographic data are used to identify northern locations of intermediate water formation capable of supplying the observed dense overflow water characteristics. It is argued, from the time taken for the overflow water to reflect the new surface 137 Cs source, that transport from the source to the overflow can be quite rapid (about 2 years)

  11. Parasites and pathological condition in Green mussel Perna viridis Linnaeus, 1758 from western Johor Straits, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur-Fauzana; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Cob, Zaidi Che

    2018-04-01

    This study describes the parasites and pathological condition of infected organ of the green mussel Perna viridis from Merambong Shoal, Western Johor Straits, Malaysia. Samples were collected randomly in November and December 2013. Histopathology techniques using Masson's Trichrome staining protocol were performed and the thin sections were observed under light microscope. Result showed that gonad was the most infected organ followed by the digestive tubule, adductor muscle, intestine and mantle tissue. The parasites (apicomplexa) such as spore-like Nematopsis, macrogamont-like coccidian, mature oocyst-like coccidian, unidentified coccidian and protozoan were found in the adductor muscle, gonad and mantle. Meanwhile, the pathological conditions were found in all infected organs except the gill, such as particular melanin deposits in cytoplasm, Rickettsia-like or Chlamydiae organism and bacteria-like inclusions. Haemocytic infiltrations were found in the surrounding connective tissues of all infected organs. However, these light infections are not causing morbidity and mortalityof the green mussel P.viridis. This study provides baseline information on health profile of the green mussel P.viridis. Further investigations are needed particularly on parasite species identification and their ecology. Understanding of the morphology and pathology of parasites infecting mollusks are very important for management of the resources.

  12. A radioisotope study of the dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, A.

    1983-01-01

    The dispersion of ferric hydroxide floc in Bass Strait waters adjacent to Burnie, Tasmania, has been investigated using radioisotope tracer techniques. Gold-198 labelled floc was employed to follow the movement of floc produced by dilution of the iron-rich effluent from a titanium dioxide plant. Dispersion was determined under calm and storm conditions. Tidal and wind-driven currents were measured, oscillating wave generated currents were calculated, and lateral and vertical dispersion coefficients were determined. It is concluded that floc disperses episodically during storms. The agglomerated floc remains trapped in a stable seabed layer which spreads slowly at seabed level when wind velocities are less than 15 m s -1 . When wind velocities exceed this level, the wave generated oscillating currents at seabed level, 30 m below the surface, are strong enough to raise the floc into suspension where advective dispersion occurs. Since tidal currents in the area are negligible, the direction of floc movement depends on the direction of the wind-driven current during each storm

  13. High incorporation of carbon into proteins by the phytoplankton of the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang H.; Kim, Hak-Jun; Whitledge, Terry E.

    2009-07-01

    High incorporation of carbon into proteins and low incorporation into lipids were a characteristic pattern of the photosynthetic allocations of phytoplankton throughout the euphotic zone in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea in 2004. According to earlier studies, this indicates that phytoplankton had no nitrogen limitation and a physiologically healthy condition, at least during the cruise period from mid-August to early September in 2004. This is an interesting result, especially for the phytoplankton in the Alaskan coastal water mass-dominated region in the Chukchi Sea which has been thought to be potentially nitrogen limited. The relatively high ammonium concentration is believed to have supported the nitrogen demand of the phytoplankton in the region where small cells (stress than large phytoplankton. If the high carbon incorporation into proteins by the phytoplankton in 2004 is a general pattern of the photosynthetic allocations in the Chukchi Sea, they could provide nitrogen-sufficient food for the highest benthic faunal biomass in the Arctic Ocean, sustaining large populations of benthic-feeding marine mammals and seabirds.

  14. A dynamic box model of bioactive elements in the southern Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua-Sheng, Hong; Shao-Ling, Shang

    1994-06-01

    A dynamic box model was applied to study the characteristics of biogeochemical cycling of PO4-P, NO3-N, AOU, POC and PON in the southern Taiwan Strait region based on the field data of the “Minnan Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground Upwelling Ecosystem Study” during the period of Dec. 1987-Nov. 1988. According to the unique hydrological and topographical features of the region, six boxes and three layers were considered in the model. The variation rates and fluxes of elements induced by horizontal current, upwelling, by diffusion, sinking of particles and biogeochemical processes were estimated respectively. Results further confirmed that upwellings had important effects in this region. The nearshore upwelling areas had net input fluxes of nutrients brought by upwelling water, also had high depletion rates of nutrients and production rates of particulate organic matter and dissolved oxygen. The abnormal net production of nutrients in the middle layer, (10-30 m) indicated the important role of bacteria in this high production region. The phytoplankton POC contributed about 28% of the total POC. POC settling out from the euphotic zone was estimated to be 2×10-6 g/(m2·s) which was about 35% of the primary production.

  15. Observations on a cucullanid nematode of marine fishes from Taiwan Strait, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Damin; Guo, Shulin; Fang, Wenzhen; Huang, Heqin

    2004-06-01

    During a helminthological examination of marine fishes from south of the Minnan-Taiwan Bank Fishing Ground, Taiwan Strait, Fujian, China, a new cucullanid nematode, Dichelyne (Cucullanellus) jialaris n. sp., was removed from the intestine of the red seabream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel, 1834). The new species differs from its congeners mainly in the following characters: body size medium but with relative long spicules of 1.01 mm (0.97-1.06) in length or 20.0% (18.21-21.8%) of the body length; proximal end of spicules somewhat expanded and distal end rounded; gubernaculum I-shaped, slightly narrow in the middle part, both ends rounded; both anterior and posterior cloaca lips round or oval, prominent and unequal in size. The anterior cloaca lip is at least 2 times larger than the posterior one. There is a conspicuous papilliform structure within the central of anterior and posterior cloacal lip. Vulva of female is not prominent, slightly postequatorial; distance from vulva to anterior end of body is 4.3 (3.0-5.5) mm or 58.0% (54.0-62.0%) of the body length. Considering the result of comparing the structure of so-called unpaired median papilla with the 10 pairs of caudal petiolated papillae in the body of the same individual. the papilliform structures are just a backstop for the cloacal lips, this new species represents the first record of a nematode of the Dichelyne, subgenus Cucullanellus in marine fishes of China Sea.

  16. Marine Emissions and Atmospheric Processing Influence Aerosol Mixing States in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpes, R.; Rodriguez, B.; Kim, S.; Park, K.; China, S.; Laskin, A.; Pratt, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing due to sea ice loss and increasing oil/gas development and shipping activity. These changes influence aerosol sources and composition, resulting in complex aerosol-cloud-climate feedbacks. Atmospheric particles were collected aboard the R/V Araon in July-August 2016 in the Alaskan Arctic along the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea. Offline analysis of individual particles by microscopic and spectroscopic techniques provided information on particle size, morphology, and chemical composition. Sea spray aerosol (SSA) and organic aerosol (OA) particles were the most commonly observed particle types, and sulfate was internally mixed with both SSA and OA. Evidence of multiphase sea spray aerosol reactions was observed, with varying degrees of chlorine depletion observed along the cruise. Notably, atmospherically processed SSA, completely depleted in chlorine, and internally mixed organic and sulfate particles, were observed in samples influenced by the central Arctic Ocean. Changes in particle composition due to fog processing were also investigated. Due to the changing aerosol sources and atmospheric processes in the Arctic region, it is crucial to understand aerosol composition in order to predict climate impacts.

  17. The North Atlantic Oscillation and sea surface temperature affect loggerhead abundance around the Strait of Gibraltar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Báez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the possible link between variations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO and sea surface temperature (SST and the abundance of loggerhead turtles around the Strait of Gibraltar, using stranding data for the Andalusian coastal area as a proxy for abundance. The annual average SST (from November to October in the Gulf of Cadiz was negatively associated with the total number of loggerhead strandings each year from November 1997 to October 2006 in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran Sea. The average NAO index was positively associated with the number of strandings in the Gulf of Cadiz in the following year. Prevailing westerly winds during positive NAO phases and the subsequent delayed decrease in SST may lead to turtles from the west Atlantic accumulating in the Gulf of Cadiz and unsuccessfully attempting to return. Secondary causes, such as buoyancy, cold stunning, longline fisheries, net fisheries, debilitated turtle syndrome, and trauma may also increase the number of turtle strandings.

  18. Tectonomagmatic activity and ice dynamics in the Bransfield Strait back-arc basin, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziak, Robert P.; Park, Minkyu; Lee, Won Sang; Matsumoto, Haru; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R.; Haxel, Joseph H.

    2010-01-01

    An array of moored hydrophones was used to monitor the spatiotemporal distribution of small- to moderate-sized earthquakes and ice-generated sounds within the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica. During a 2 year period, a total of 3900 earthquakes, 5925 icequakes and numerous ice tremor events were located throughout the region. The seismic activity included eight space-time earthquake clusters, positioned along the central neovolcanic rift zone of the young Bransfield back-arc basin. These sequences of small magnitude earthquakes, or swarms, suggest ongoing magmatic activity that becomes localized along isolated volcanic features and fissure-like ridges in the southwest portion of the basin. A total of 122 earthquakes were located along the South Shetland trench, indicating continued deformation and possibly ongoing subduction along this margin. The large number of icequakes observed show a temporal pattern related to seasonal freeze-thaw cycles and a spatial distribution consistent with channeling of sea ice along submarine canyons from glacier fronts. Several harmonic tremor episodes were sourced from a large (˜30 km2) iceberg that entered northeast portion of the basin. The spectral character of these signals suggests they were produced by either resonance of a small chamber of fluid within the iceberg, or more likely, due to periodicity of discrete stick-slip events caused by contact of the moving iceberg with the seafloor. These pressure waves appear to have been excited by abrasion of the iceberg along the seafloor as it passed Clarence and Elephant Islands.

  19. Prehistoric contacts over the Straits of Gibraltar indicated by genetic analysis of Iberian Bronze Age cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, Cecilia; Bouwman, Abigail; Persson, Per; Carretero, José Miguel; Ortega, Ana Isabel; Elburg, Rengert; Smith, Colin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Ellegren, Hans; Götherström, Anders

    2005-06-14

    The geographic situation of the Iberian Peninsula makes it a natural link between Europe and North Africa. However, it is a matter of debate to what extent African influences via the Straits Gibraltar have affected Iberia's prehistoric development. Because early African pastoralist communities were dedicated to cattle breeding, a possible means to detect prehistoric African-Iberian contacts might be to analyze the origin of cattle breeds on the Iberian Peninsula. Some contemporary Iberian cattle breeds show a mtDNA haplotype, T1, that is characteristic to African breeds, generally explained as being the result of the Muslim expansion of the 8th century A.D., and of modern imports. To test a possible earlier African influence, we analyzed mtDNA of Bronze Age cattle from the Portalón cave at the Atapuerca site in northern Spain. Although the majority of samples showed the haplotype T3 that dominates among European breeds of today, the T1 haplotype was found in one specimen radiocarbon dated 1800 calibrated years B.C. Accepting T1 as being of African origin, this result indicates prehistoric African-Iberian contacts and lends support to archaeological finds linking early African and Iberian cultures. We also found a wild ox haplotype in the Iberian Bronze Age sample, reflecting local hybridization or backcrossing or that aurochs were hunted by these farming cultures.

  20. ­­­­Submarine Mass Wasting on Hovgaard Ridge, Fram Strait, European Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forwick, M.; Laberg, J. S.; Husum, K.; Gales, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hovgaard Ridge is an 1800 m high bathymetric high in the Fram Strait, the only deep-water gateway between the Arctic Ocean and the other World's oceans. The slopes of the ridge provide evidence of various types of sediment reworking, including 1) up to 12 km wide single and merged slide scars with maximum ~30 m high headwalls and some secondary escarpments; 2) maximum 3 km wide and 130 m deep slide scars with irregular internal morphology, partly narrowing towards the foot of the slope; 3) up to 130 m deep, 1.5 km wide and maximum 8 km long channels/gullies originating from areas of increasing slope angle at the margins of a plateau on top of the ridge. Most slide scars result presumably from retrogressive failure related to weak layers in contourites or ash. The most likely trigger mechanism is seismicity related to tectonic activity within the nearby mid-ocean fracture zone. Gully/channel formation is suggested to result from cascading water masses and/or from sediment gravity flows originating from failure at the slope break after winnowing on the plateau of the ridge.

  1. Healthy imaginations: a social history of the epidemiology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, M

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to imagine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health without the powerful descriptors of epidemiology. The statistical imagery of numerical tables, pie charts, and bar graphs have become a key element in the public presentation of Indigenous public health issues. Such quantitative measurements of health draw on the authority of neutral, objective science and are thus rarely questioned in terms of their social meaning. This paper traces the history of this imagery through the 20th century, providing a social account of epidemiological description. Historical notions such as social Darwinism, assimilation, and dangerous other are all seen to be woven into the epidemiological text. The enormous rise in the epidemiological description of Indigenous health problems in recent years needs to be analyzed as a social phenomenon and, in particular, as an aspect of emerging forms of governmentality. Finally, it is argued that such analyses are needed in order to promote an anthropology of epidemiology and to avoid limiting medical anthropology to applications within epidemiology.

  2. Phytoplankton community and environmental correlates in a coastal upwelling zone along western Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Upwelling system in western Taiwan Strait is important for facilitating the fishery production. This study investigated hydro-chemical properties, phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton species composition, three-dimensional (horizontal, vertical and transect) distribution of phytoplankton abundance, as well as phytoplankton annual variation and the correlation of phytoplankton community with the upwelling of underlying current and nutrients according to samples of Fujian-Guangdong coastal upwelling zone in western Taiwan Strait from August 27 to September 8, 2009. The results manifest that the nutrient-rich cold and high salinity current on the continental shelf of South China Sea upwells to the Fujian-Guangdong coastal waters through Taiwan Bank and the surging strength to surface is weak while strong at 30-m layer. The thermohaline center of coastal upwelling shifts to the east of Dongshan Island and expanded to offshore waters in comparison with previous records. A total of 137 phytoplankton species belonging to 59 genera in 4 phyla are identified excluding the unidentified species. Diatom is the first major group and followed by dinoflagellate. Cyanobacteria mainly composed by three Trichodesmium species account for a certain proportions, while Chrysophyta are only found in offshore waters. The dominant species include Thalassionema nitzschioides, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima, Rhizosolenia styliformis, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Diplopsalis lenticula and Trichodesmium thiebautii. Phytoplankton community mainly consists of eurythermal and eurytopic species, followed by warm-water species, tropic high-salinity species and oceanic eurythermic species in order. Phytoplankton abundance ranges from 1.00 × 102 ind./L ~ 437.22 × 102 ind./L with an average of 47.36 × 102 ind./L. For vertical distribution, maximum abundance is found at 30 m-depth and the surface comes second. Besides, the abundance below 30 m

  3. Seagrass-Watch: Engaging Torres Strait Islanders in marine habitat monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, Jane E.; McKenzie, Len J.; Coles, Robert G.

    2008-09-01

    Involvement in scientifically structured habitat monitoring is a relatively new concept to the peoples of Torres Strait. The approach we used was to focus on awareness, and to build the capacity of groups to participate using Seagrass-Watch as the vehicle to provide education and training in monitoring marine ecosystems. The project successfully delivered quality scientifically rigorous baseline information on the seasonality of seagrasses in the Torres Strait—a first for this region. Eight seagrass species were identified across the monitoring sites. Seagrass cover varied within and between years. Preliminary evidence indicated that drivers for seagrass variability were climate related. Generally, seagrass abundance increased during the north-west monsoon ( Kuki), possibly a consequence of elevated nutrients, lower tidal exposure times, less wind, and higher air temperatures. Low seagrass abundance coincided with the presence of greater winds and longer periods of exposure at low tides during the south-east trade wind season ( Sager). No seasonal patterns were apparent when frequency of disturbance from high sedimentation and human impacts was high. Seagrass-Watch has been incorporated in to the Thursday Island High School's Marine Studies Unit ensuring continuity of monitoring. The students, teachers, and other interested individuals involved in Seagrass-Watch have mastered the necessary scientific procedures to monitor seagrass meadows, and developed skills in coordinating a monitoring program and skills in mentoring younger students. This has increased the participants' self-esteem and confidence, and given them an insight into how they may participate in the future management of their sea country.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl and heavy metal exposures among fishermen in the Straits of Malacca: neurobehavioural performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Alina; Azlan, Azrina; Adon, Mohd Yusoff; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the level of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and selected heavy metals among fishermen via dietary intake of fish and other seafood from the eastern coast along the Straits of Malacca. This study determined the neurobehavioural performances (based on neurobehavioural core test battery scores) of the fishermen and evaluated the correlations between scores of neurobehavioural core test battery and exposure factors. Ninety fishermen participated in the study. The total fish intakes of the fishermen were measured using a set of food frequency questionnaires. The PCBs contents in the seafood samples ranged between 0.2 and 0.6 pg/g fresh sample. The concentrations of mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the seafood samples were 1.1-5.4, 0.3-4.4, 0.6-36.1, and 0.02-0.3 μg/g fresh sample, respectively. The PCBs, Hg, As, Cd, and Pb exposures of the fishermen was estimated to be 2.8, 0.02, 4.5, 0.09, and 0.5 pg/kg body weight/day, respectively. PCB and heavy metal exposures through dietary intake of fish and seafood were within the tolerable daily limits. The results of neurobehavioural core test battery revealed that the neurobehavioural performances of the fishermen were not affected due to PCB and heavy metal intoxication. No correlations were found between the exposure and neurobehavioural performance among the fishermen. These data are useful for policy makers to assure the safety and quality of seafood in relation to sea pollution. Although the levels of exposure were low, periodic assessment of the quality of fish and fish products is required due to the polluted seawater.

  5. The Deglacial to Holocene Paleoceanography of Bering Strait: Results From the SWERUS-C3 Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Anderson, L. G.; Backman, J.; Barrientos, N.; Björk, G. M.; Coxall, H.; Cronin, T. M.; De Boer, A. M.; Gemery, L.; Jerram, K.; Johansson, C.; Kirchner, N.; Mayer, L. A.; Mörth, C. M.; Nilsson, J.; Noormets, R. R. N. N.; O'Regan, M.; Pearce, C.; Semiletov, I. P.; Stranne, C.

    2017-12-01

    The climate-carbon-cryosphere (C3) interactions in the East Siberian Arctic Ocean and related ocean, river and land areas of the Arctic have been the focus for the SWERUS-C3 Program (Swedish - Russian - US Arctic Ocean Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere-Carbon Interactions). This multi-investigator, multi-disciplinary program was carried out on a two-leg 90-day long expedition in 2014 with Swedish icebreaker Oden. One component of the expedition consisted of geophysical mapping and coring of Herald Canyon, located on the Chukchi Sea shelf north of the Bering Strait in the western Arctic Ocean. Herald Canyon is strategically placed to capture the history of the Pacific-Arctic Ocean connection and related changes in Arctic Ocean paleoceanography. Here we present a summary of key results from analyses of the marine geophysical mapping data and cores collected from Herald Canyon on the shelf and slope that proved to be particularly well suited for paleoceanographic reconstruction. For example, we provide a new age constraint of 11 cal ka BP on sediments from the uppermost slope for the initial flooding of the Bering Land Bridge and reestablishment of the Pacific-Arctic Ocean connection following the last glaciation. This age corresponds to meltwater pulse 1b (MWP1b) known as a post-Younger Dryas warming in many sea level and paleoclimate records. In addition, high late Holocene sedimentation rates that range between about 100 and 300 cm kyr-1, in Herald Canyon permitted paleoceanographic reconstructions of ocean circulation and sea ice cover at centennial scales throughout the late Holocene. Evidence suggests varying influence from inflowing Pacific water into the western Arctic Ocean including some evidence for quasi-cyclic variability in several paleoceanographic parameters, e.g. micropaleontological assemblages, isotope geochemistry and sediment physical properties.

  6. Biogeography of Deep-sea benthic bacteria at regional scale (LTER HAUSGARTEN, Fram Strait, Arctic.

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    Marianne Jacob

    Full Text Available Knowledge on spatial scales of the distribution of deep-sea life is still sparse, but highly relevant to the understanding of dispersal, habitat ranges and ecological processes. We examined regional spatial distribution patterns of the benthic bacterial community and covarying environmental parameters such as water depth, biomass and energy availability at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER site HAUSGARTEN (Eastern Fram Strait. Samples from 13 stations were retrieved from a bathymetric (1,284-3,535 m water depth, 54 km in length and a latitudinal transect (∼ 2,500 m water depth; 123 km in length. 454 massively parallel tag sequencing (MPTS and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA were combined to describe both abundant and rare types shaping the bacterial community. This spatial sampling scheme allowed detection of up to 99% of the estimated richness on phylum and class levels. At the resolution of operational taxonomic units (97% sequence identity; OTU3% only 36% of the Chao1 estimated richness was recovered, indicating a high diversity, mostly due to rare types (62% of all OTU3%. Accordingly, a high turnover of the bacterial community was also observed between any two sampling stations (average replacement of 79% of OTU3%, yet no direct correlation with spatial distance was observed within the region. Bacterial community composition and structure differed significantly with increasing water depth along the bathymetric transect. The relative sequence abundance of Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes decreased significantly with water depth, and that of Deferribacteres increased. Energy availability, estimated from phytodetrital pigment concentrations in the sediments, partly explained the variation in community structure. Overall, this study indicates a high proportion of unique bacterial types on relatively small spatial scales (tens of kilometers, and supports the sampling design of the LTER site HAUSGARTEN to

  7. Larval assemblages of large and medium-sized pelagic species in the Straits of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David E.; Llopiz, Joel K.; Guigand, Cedric M.; Cowen, Robert K.

    2010-07-01

    Critical gaps in our understanding of the distributions, interactions, life histories and preferred habitats of large and medium-size pelagic fishes severely constrain the implementation of ecosystem-based, spatially structured fisheries management approaches. In particular, spawning distributions and the environmental characteristics associated with the early life stages are poorly documented. In this study, we consider the diversity, assemblages, and associated habitat of the larvae of large and medium-sized pelagic species collected during 2 years of monthly surveys across the Straits of Florida. In total, 36 taxa and 14,295 individuals were collected, with the highest diversity occurring during the summer and in the western, frontal region of the Florida Current. Only a few species (e.g. Thunnus obesus, T. alalunga, Tetrapturus pfluegeri) considered for this study were absent. Small scombrids (e.g. T. atlanticus, Katsuwonus pelamis, Auxis spp.) and gempylids dominated the catch and were orders of magnitude more abundant than many of the rare species (e.g. Thunnus thynnus,Kajikia albida). Both constrained (CCA) and unconstrained (NMDS) multivariate analyses revealed a number of species groupings including: (1) a summer Florida edge assemblage (e.g. Auxis spp., Euthynnus alleterattus, Istiophorus platypterus); (2) a summer offshore assemblage (e.g. Makaira nigricans, T. atlanticus, Ruvettus pretiosus, Lampris guttatus); (3) an ubiquitous assemblage (e.g. K. pelamis, Coryphaena hippurus, Xiphias gladius); and (4) a spring/winter assemblage that was widely dispersed in space (e.g. trachipterids). The primary environmental factors associated with these assemblages were sea-surface temperature (highest in summer-early fall), day length (highest in early summer), thermocline depth (shallowest on the Florida side) and fluorescence (highest on the Florida side). Overall, the results of this study provide insights into how a remarkable diversity of pelagic species

  8. Microbial diversity and community structure across environmental gradients in Bransfield Strait, Western Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Negrão Signori

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Ocean is currently subject to intense investigations, mainly related to its importance for global biogeochemical cycles and its alarming rate of warming in response to climate change. Microbes play an essential role in the functioning of this ecosystem and are the main drivers of the biogeochemical cycling of elements. Yet, the diversity and abundance of microorganisms in this system remains poorly studied, in particular with regards to changes along environmental gradients. Here, we used amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA gene tags using primers covering both Bacteria and Archaea to assess the composition and diversity of the microbial communities from four sampling depths (surface, the maximum and minimum of the oxygen concentration, and near the seafloor at ten oceanographic stations located in Bransfield Strait (northwest of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP and near the sea ice edge (north of the AP. Samples collected near the seafloor and at the oxygen minimum exhibited a higher diversity than those from the surface and oxygen maximum for both bacterial and archaeal communities. The main taxonomic groups identified below 100 m were Thaumarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Proteobacteria (Gamma-, Delta-, Beta- and Alphaproteobacteria, whereas in the mixed layer above 100 m Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria (mainly Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were found to be dominant. A combination of environmental factors seems to influence the microbial community composition. Our results help to understand how the dynamic seascape of the Southern Ocean shapes the microbial community composition and set a baseline for upcoming studies to evaluate the response of this ecosystem to future changes.

  9. Transformation of tsunami waves passing through the Straits of the Kuril Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenko, Irina; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Zaytsev, Andrey

    2015-04-01

    Pacific ocean and themselves Kuril Islands are located in the zone of high seismic activity, where underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. They propagate across Pacific ocean and penetrates into the Okhotsk sea. It is natural to expect that the Kuril Islands reflect the Okhotsk sea from the Pacific tsunami waves. It has long been noted that the historical tsunami appeared less intense in the sea of Okhotsk in comparison with the Pacific coast of the Kuril Islands. Despite the fact that in the area of the Kuril Islands and in the Pacific ocean earthquakes with magnitude more than 8 occur, in the entire history of observations on the Okhotsk sea coast catastrophic tsunami was not registered. The study of the peculiarities of the propagation of historical and hypothetical tsunami in the North-Eastern part of the Pacific ocean was carried out in order to identify level of effect of the Kuril Islands and Straits on them. Tsunami sources were located in the Okhotsk sea and in the Pacific ocean. For this purpose, we performed a series of computational experiments using two bathymetries: 1) with use Kuril Islands; 2) without Kuril Islands. Magnitude and intensity of the tsunami, obtained during numerical simulation of height, were analyzed. The simulation results are compared with the observations. Numerical experiments have shown that in the simulation without the Kuril Islands tsunamis in the Okhotsk sea have higher waves, and in the Central part of the sea relatively quickly damped than in fact. Based on shallow-water equation tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE was used for numerical simulations. This work was supported by ASTARTE project.

  10. Crustal Structure Picture of Deception Island [western Bransfield Strait] From Gravimetric and Magnetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, M.; Carbó, A.; Martín, Davila; Muñoz, A.; Agudo, L.

    Bransfield Strait constitutes a marginal basin that separates the South Shetland archipielago from the Antarctic Peninsula. Since the beginning of its geological record, due to the presence of several submarine and above sea surface volcanoes, eruptions could be appointed easily. All these aspects turn the area as one of the most active at Antarctic region. During 1999 austral summer a seismic crisis was developed. It caused the organisation of a geophysical campaign called DECVOL, where several Spanish scientific institutions participated. Along this, several kinds of studies were carried out. Onland: geodesic GPS and gravity measurements, sampling and gases analysis, continuous seismic recording and geomagnetic measurements. Additionally a geophysical marine campaign [inside and outside Deception island] was carried out. Bathymetry and geopotential information [earth gravity field and geomagnetis m data] were acquired. The multi-disciplinar campaign goal was to perform a fast geophysical evaluation of the volcanic risk. This aspect was important particularly, because the emplacement of Spanish and Argentinean semi -permanent stations around its inner bay. In this study, potential field data recorded along this cruise have been used, together with satellite borne altimetry derived data for gravity, seismic bibliography information of the area, and finally magnetic data compiled in previous campaigns, that were processed until homogeneity could be guaranteed. All these gives a deep detail vision of the structure of the crust at Deception surroundings. In this communication the Bouguer gravity anomaly and scalar magnetic maps are presented, compared and discussed, as well as three gravity and magnetic marine profiles are 2D 1/2 modelled.

  11. Oceanographic and topographic conditions structure benthic meiofauna communities in the Weddell Sea, Bransfield Strait and Drake Passage (Antarctic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Durst, Stephan; Schuckenbrock, Jan; Hauquier, Freija; Durán Suja, Laura; Dorschel, Boris; Vanreusel, Ann; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    The marine environment of the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula is characterised by three oceanographically distinct regions for which we linked continental-slope meiofaunal patterns and environmental drivers on a large scale (100-300 km among ecoregions). Samples for meiofauna communities and sediment analyses were collected with a multicorer, water-column data were derived from water samples and CTD recordings. Meiofauna communities including individuals from 19 higher taxa were compared to a set of 16 environmental variables. We detected significant differences between the communities of Weddell Sea and those of Bransfield Strait and Drake Passage. The amount of phytopigments in the sediment, their freshness and the silt and clay content were driving factors for this separation. The highest meiofauna abundances were found at slopes in the Weddell Sea. Food banks may facilitate high standing stocks. There, the highest ever recorded copepod percentages for the Antarctic were related to the highest phytopigment contents while nematodes were extremely abundant even in deeper sediment layers at stations with fresh organic material. For Bransfield Strait and Drake Passage a sampling scheme of slopes and adjacent troughs was applied. The two regions were divided into three geographical "areas" with the two "habitat" types investigated for each area. Multivariate non-parametric permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) showed that in Bransfield Strait slope and trough meiofauna communities differed significantly in all geographical areas while in Drake Passage this was only the case in the East. These differences were explained best by the regionally and topographically distinct characteristics of 7 out of 11 water-column and sediment-bound factors related to sediment grain size, food quantity and quality, water temperature and salinity. Environmental drivers of the benthic habitat are dependent on large-scale oceanographic conditions and are thus sensitive to changes

  12. Serum vitamin D levels, diabetes and cardio-metabolic risk factors in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maple-Brown, Louise J; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Lu, Zhong X; Jeyaraman, Kanakamani; Lawton, Paul; Jones, Graham Rd; Ellis, Andrew; Sinha, Ashim; Cass, Alan; MacIsaac, Richard J; Jerums, George; O'Dea, Kerin

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), have been associated with development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however there are limited data on serum 25(OH)D in Indigenous Australians, a population at high risk for both diabetes and CVD. We aimed to assess levels of serum 25(OH)D in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and to explore relationships between 25(OH)D and cardio-metabolic risk factors and diabetes. 592 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australian participants of The eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) Study, a cross-sectional analysis of a cohort study performed in 2007-2011, from urban and remote centres within communities, primary care and tertiary hospitals across Northern Territory, Far North Queensland and Western Australia. Assessment of serum 25(OH)D, cardio-metabolic risk factors (central obesity, diabetes, hypertension, history of cardiovascular disease, current smoker, low HDL-cholesterol), and diabetes (by history or HbA1c ≥6.5%) was performed. Associations were explored between 25(OH)D and outcome measures of diabetes and number of cardio-metabolic risk factors. The median (IQR) serum 25(OH)D was 60 (45-77) nmol/L, 31% had 25(OH)D 72 nmol/L, respectively) after adjusting for known cardio-metabolic risk factors. The percentage of 25(OH)D levels Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians from Northern and Central Australia. Low 25(OH)D level was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and was independently associated with diabetes. These findings require exploration in longitudinal studies.

  13. Persistence and co-occurrence of demersal nurseries in the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): Implications for fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, G.; Fortibuoni, T.; Gristina, M.; Sinopoli, M.; Fiorentino, F.

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated the nurseries of seven commercially important demersal species of the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily (central Mediterranean): red mullet, European hake, horned octopus, deep-water rose shrimp, greater forkbeard, Norway lobster and giant red shrimp. An eleven-year series of data collected through experimental trawling in the Strait of Sicily during spring and autumn was analyzed. The spatio-temporal persistence of the high-density aggregations (hot spots) of juvenile individuals in their first year of life was investigated to identify habitats that serve as nurseries. The density of recruits within the persistent nurseries was used as a proxy of the unit area contribution of individuals which recruit to the adult population. The spatial distribution patterns of the recruits of most the species were well defined and very stable in the long term. Persistent and potentially highly productive nurseries of European hake, deep-water rose shrimp and greater forkbeard were identified off the southern coast of Sicily. Persistent areas of recruits concentration were also observed for the other species investigated, but their specific potential contribution of individuals to the adult population was not substantial compared to adjacent grounds. The close or overlapped localization of sites which regularly host vulnerable life stages of different exploited species, revealed an area of great ecological significance which probably plays a major role in the dynamics of the fishery resources in the Strait of Sicily. Appropriate spatial protection measures of this area, including marine protected area designation, could complement conventional management approach for ensuring the long-term sustainability of these fisheries and stocks conservation.

  14. Shaded Relief and Radar Image with Color as Height, Bosporus Strait and Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) is a strait that connects the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara in the center of this view of northwest Turkey, taken during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The water of the Black Sea at the top of the image and Sea of Marmara below the center are colored blue in this image, along with several large lakes. The largest lake, to the lower right of the Sea of Marmara, is Iznik Lake. The Bosporus (Turkish Bogazici) Strait is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, and the large city of Istanbul, Turkey is located on both sides of the southern end of the strait, visible as a brighter (light green to white) area on the image due to its stronger reflection of radar. Istanbul is the modern name for a city with along history, previously called Constantinople and Byzantium. It was rebuilt as the capital of the Roman Empire in 330 A.D. by Constantine on the site of an earlier Greek city, and it was later the capital of the Byzantine and Ottoman empires until 1922.The Gulf of Izmit is the narrow gulf extending to the east (right) from the Sea of Marmara. The city of Izmit at the end of the gulf was heavily damaged by a large magnitude 7.4 earthquake on August 17,1999, often called the Izmit earthquake (also known as the Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquake), that killed at least 17,000 people. A previous earthquake under the Gulf of Izmit in 1754 killed at least 2,000people. The Izmit earthquake ruptured a long section of the North Anatolian Fault system from off the right side of this image continuing under the Gulf of Izmit. Another strand of the North Anatolian Fault system is visible as a sharp linear feature in the topography south of Iznik Lake. Bathymetric surveys show that the north Anatolian Fault system extends beneath and has formed the Sea of Marmara, in addition to the Gulf of Izmit and Iznik Lake. Scientists are studying the North Anatolian Fault system to determine the risk of a large earthquake on the faults

  15. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards aboriginal australians and torres strait islanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Blick, J.; Dudgeon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction:This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude.Method:Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized...... order.The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head...... correlated with the IAT,(r=.314;pattitudes towards Aboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure....

  16. Determination of the seismic moment tensor for local events in the South Shetland Islands and Bransfield Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidarelli, M.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-06-01

    We present the results of the analysis for a set of earthquakes recorded in the Bransfield Strait and the South Shetland Islands in the period 1997-1998, to determine focal mechanisms and source time functions. Events with magnitudes between 3 and 5.6 have been analysed, and the source parameters have been retrieved using a robust methodology (INPAR) that allows the reliable inversion of a limited number of noisy records. This methodology is particularly important in oceanic environments, where the presence of seismic noise and the small number of stations makes it difficult to analyse small magnitude events. (author)

  17. Research methods of Talking About The Smokes: an International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project study with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David P; Briggs, Viki L; Couzos, Sophia; Davey, Maureen E; Hunt, Jennifer M; Panaretto, Kathryn S; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron

    2015-06-01

    To describe the research methods and baseline sample of the Talking About The Smokes (TATS) project. The TATS project is a collaboration between research institutions and Aboriginal community-controlled health services (ACCHSs) and their state and national representative bodies. It is one of the studies within the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project, enabling national and international comparisons. It includes a prospective longitudinal study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers and recent ex-smokers; a survey of non-smokers; repeated cross-sectional surveys of ACCHS staff; and descriptions of the tobacco policies and practices at the ACCHSs. Community members completed face-to-face surveys; staff completed surveys on paper or online. We compared potential biases and the distribution of variables common to the main community baseline sample and unweighted and weighted results of the 2008 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey (NATSISS). The baseline survey (Wave 1) was conducted between April 2012 and October 2013. 2522 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in 35 locations (the communities served by 34 ACCHSs and one community in the Torres Strait), and 645 staff in the ACCHSs. Sociodemographic and general health indicators, smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day and quit attempts. The main community baseline sample closely matched the distribution of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population in the weighted NATSISS by age, sex, jurisdiction and remoteness. There were inconsistent differences in some sociodemographic factors between our sample and the NATSISS: our sample had higher proportions of unemployed people, but also higher proportions who had completed Year 12 and who lived in more advantaged areas. In both surveys, similar percentages of smokers reported having attempted to quit in the past year, and daily smokers reported similar numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. The

  18. Visibility in health statistics: a population data linkage study more accurately identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Births in Victoria, Australia, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ritte

    2017-04-01

    This is the first time that the VPDC and RBDM birth data were linked in Victoria. The matched birth information established a more complete population profile of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. These data will provide a more accurate baseline to enhance the Victorian and Australian governments’ ability to plan services, allocate resources and evaluate funded activities aimed at eliminating disparity experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it has established a more accurate denominator from which to calculate Aboriginal infant mortality rates for Victoria, Australia. *Until 2009, the mother’s Indigenous identification only was recorded in the VPDC

  19. On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports at 26° N in the Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Atkinson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since April 2004 the RAPID array has made continuous measurements of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC at 26° N. Two key components of this system are Ekman transport zonally integrated across 26° N and western boundary current transport in the Florida Straits. Whilst measurements of the AMOC as a whole are somewhat in their infancy, this study investigates what useful information can be extracted on the variability of the Ekman and Florida Straits transports using the decadal timeseries already available. Analysis is also presented for Sverdrup transports zonally integrated across 26° N.

    The seasonal cycles of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup transports are quantified at 26° N using harmonic analysis of annual and semi-annual constituents. Whilst Sverdrup transport shows clear semi-annual periodicity, calculations of seasonal Florida Straits and Ekman transports show substantial interannual variability due to contamination by variability at non-seasonal frequencies; the mean seasonal cycle for these transports only emerges from decadal length observations. The Florida Straits and Ekman mean seasonal cycles project on the AMOC with a combined peak-to-peak seasonal range of 3.5 Sv. The combined seasonal range for heat transport is 0.40 PW.

    The Florida Straits seasonal cycle possesses a smooth annual periodicity in contrast with previous studies suggesting a more asymmetric structure. No clear evidence is found to support significant changes in the Florida Straits seasonal cycle at sub-decadal periods. Whilst evidence of wind driven Florida Straits transport variability is seen at sub-seasonal and annual periods, a model run from the 1/4° eddy-permitting ocean model NEMO is used to identify an important contribution from internal oceanic variability at sub-annual and interannual periods. The Ekman transport seasonal cycle possesses less symmetric structure, due in part to different seasonal transport

  20. Temporal variability and climatology of hydrodynamic, water property and water quality parameters in the West Johor Strait of Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Manasa Ranjan; Chun, Cui; Palani, Sundarambal; Tkalich, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Water temperature is driven by solar radiation and air temperature in the West Johor Strait (WJS). • Salinity in WJS is driven by flood-ebb tide and seasonal variability due to monsoon. • Turbidity is mainly dependent on tidal current and river discharge in WJS. • Chl-a concentration increases with increase in air and water temperature in WJS. • Near-bottom Chl-a concentration in the WJS is high during SW monsoon. -- Abstract: The study presents a baseline variability and climatology study of measured hydrodynamic, water properties and some water quality parameters of West Johor Strait, Singapore at hourly-to-seasonal scales to uncover their dependency and correlation to one or more drivers. The considered parameters include, but not limited by sea surface elevation, current magnitude and direction, solar radiation and air temperature, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a and turbidity. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis is carried out for the parameters to delineate relative effect of tidal and weather drivers. The group and individual correlations between the parameters are obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and cross-correlation (CC) technique, respectively. The CC technique also identifies the dependency and time lag between driving natural forces and dependent water property and water quality parameters. The temporal variability and climatology of the driving forces and the dependent parameters are established at the hourly, daily, fortnightly and seasonal scales

  1. Measuring psychological distress in older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Australians: a comparison of the K-10 and K-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Bridgette J; Banks, Emily; Gubhaju, Lina; Williamson, Anna; Joshy, Grace; Raphael, Beverley; Eades, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    To assess the cross-cultural validity of two Kessler psychological distress scales (K-10 and K-5) by examining their measurement properties among older Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders and comparing them to those in non-Aboriginal individuals from NSW Australia. Self-reported questionnaire data from the 45 and Up Study for 1,631 Aboriginal and 231,774 non-Aboriginal people were used to examine the factor structure, convergent validity, internal consistency and levels of missing data of K-10 and K-5. We found excellent agreement in classification of distress of Aboriginal participants by K-10 and K-5 (weighted kappa=0.87), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha K-10: 0.93, K-5: 0.88), and factor structures consistent with those for the total Australian population. Convergent validity was evidenced by a strong graded relationship between the level of distress and the odds of: problems with daily activities due to emotional problems; current treatment for depression or anxiety; and poor quality of life. K-10 and K-5 scales are promising tools for measuring psychological distress among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders aged 45 and over in research and clinical settings. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  2. Cultural dimensions of risk perceptions: A case study on cross-strait driftage pollution in a coastal area of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yi-Chang; Chang, Han-Pi

    2018-01-15

    Constant exploitations of the ocean render numerous present challenges as the ocean is linked to human development. The study focused on cross-strait driftage pollution that poses a great threat to coastal environment under climate change. Several hundred packs of herbicides drifting across the Taiwan Strait were discovered along the coastline of Guanyin District of Taiwan. We compared risk perceptions of the local ethnic groups, Hakka and Fulao, residing in a coastal area of Taiwan and exposed to the herbicide coastal incident under climate change. It is of concern that society's response to every dimension of global climate change is mediated by culture. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) cause-effect framework was applied in semi-structured interviews to explore coastal sensitivity and human adaptability. As a result, we indicated that despite the presence of two ethnic groups in the same place exposed to the incident they presented very different risk perceptions on both environmental degradation (ED) and adaptive capacity (AC) due to cultural values. We argued that the herbicide coastal incident involved people's risk perceptions and subsequently influenced their opinions and attitudes towards environmental problems. We concluded that the ethnic trait contributed to adaptive behaviors during environmental change. Culturally appropriate adaptations appeared to enhance risk perceptions and adaptation actions, suggesting a need for more rigorous cultural adaptation guidelines towards climate resilience when designing adaptation interventions for different ethnic groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Improving the analysis of biogeochemical patterns associated with internal waves in the strait of Gibraltar using remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Vicent, Jorge; Caballero, Isabel; Gómez-Enri, Jesús; Morris, Edward P.; Sabater, Neus; Macías, Diego; Bolado-Penagos, Marina; Gomiz, Juan Jesús; Bruno, Miguel; Caldeira, Rui; Vázquez, Águeda

    2018-05-01

    High Amplitude Internal Waves (HAIWs) are physical processes observed in the Strait of Gibraltar (the narrow channel between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea). These internal waves are generated over the Camarinal Sill (western side of the strait) during the tidal outflow (toward the Atlantic Ocean) when critical hydraulic conditions are established. HAIWs remain over the sill for up to 4 h until the outflow slackens, being then released (mostly) towards the Mediterranean Sea. These have been previously observed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), which captures variations in surface water roughness. However, in this work we use high resolution optical remote sensing, with the aim of examining the influence of HAIWs on biogeochemical processes. We used hyperspectral images from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and high spatial resolution (10 m) images from the MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) onboard the Sentinel-2A satellite. This work represents the first attempt to examine the relation between internal wave generation and the water constituents of the Camarinal Sill using hyperspectral and high spatial resolution remote sensing images. This enhanced spatial and spectral resolution revealed the detailed biogeochemical patterns associated with the internal waves and suggests local enhancements of productivity associated with internal waves trains.

  4. Cultural contact over the Strait of Gibraltar during the Middle Palaeolithic? Evaluating the visibility of cultural exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne TAFELMAIER

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible contacts between hunter-gatherers of Northern Africa and Europe via the Strait of Gibraltar during the Pleistocene are still object to discussions. In the absence of significant fossil remains, debates are mainly based on similarities and differences of singular aspects of material culture. However, a theoretical framework for these discussions was lacking. The first aim of this study thus has been the development of a theoretical base. We therein included Maslow´s pyramid of basic needs. The idea of our approach is that the presence or absence of so-called cultural tracers identify either contact or disparity. A large database on archaeological sites of Morocco and Southern Iberia dating between 160 ka and 40 ka years ago has been compiled, containing information about lithic technology and typology, lithic raw material acquisition, subsistence patterns and symbolic behaviour. We formulated three potential contact scenarios between the two regions. The presence and/or absence of so-called cultural tracers within the data set, that covered all levels of Maslow´s pyramid, led us to conclude that – based on the present archaeological and anthropological data - no contact took place between Iberian and North African populations across the Strait of Gibraltar in the given time frame.

  5. Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra de Witt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes.MethodsAboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific, and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii advise how this information was obtained.ResultsTen primary health care centers (PHCCs across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8, searching paper records (n = 1, and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1. Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers

  6. Culture Matters. Community Report. Reporting on a Research Project To Explore Factors Affecting the Outcomes of Vocational Education and Training for Aboriginal and Torres Straits Islander People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Matthew; Egg, Mez

    The factors leading to positive outcomes in vocational education and training (VET) for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people were examined through person-to-person and telephone interviews with indigenous Australian students and VET providers. The interviews focused on the following: the range of VET provision and the extent of its…

  7. Ngoelmun Yawar, Our Journey: The Transition and The Challenges for Female Students Leaving Torres Strait Island Communities for Boarding Schools in Regional Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobongie, Francis

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the transitional experiences and challenges faced by girls from the Torres Strait Islands when they leave individual communities to attend boarding school in regional Queensland. The paper presents original ethnographic research using a narrative enquiry approach, capturing stories as narrated by a broad cohort of girls from…

  8. Physical, biological and optical oceanographic data collected from moorings deployed in the Bering Strait from 08/27/2007 to 09/02/2009 (NODC Accession 0062860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 2007 to 2009, a total of eight moorings were deployed, including A1W, A1, and A1E in the Russian channel of the Strait, A2W, A2, A4W (A4W for 2007 to 2008 and...

  9. What's in a Name?: Exploring the Implications of Eurocentric (Re)naming Practices of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nomenclature in Australian Education Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weuffen, Sara; Cahir, Fred; Zeegers, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide teachers with knowledge of ways in which Eurocentric (re)naming practices inform contemporary pedagogical approaches, while providing understandings pertinent to the mandatory inclusion of the cross-curriculum priority area: "Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander histories and cultures" (Australian…

  10. Making every Australian count: challenges for the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) and the equal inclusion of homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples with neurocognitive disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Clare; White, Paul; Cullen, Jennifer; Wright, Courtney J; Zeeman, Heidi

    2017-03-30

    This article highlights the dearth of accurate evidence available to inform the National Disability Insurance Scheme (NDIS) regarding the extent and nature of neurocognitive disability amongst homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Without accurate prevalence rates of neurocognitive disability, homeless Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are in danger of not being counted by the NDIS and not receiving supports to which they are entitled. Addressing this knowledge gap is challenged by a range of factors, including: (1) the long-term effect of profound intergenerational disenfranchisement of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people; (2) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander cultural perspectives around disability; (3) the generally unrecognised and poorly understood nature of neurocognitive disability; (4) the use of research methods that are not culturally safe; (5) research logistics; and (6) the absence of culturally appropriate assessment tools to identify prevalence. It is argued that an accurate evidence base that is informed by culturally safe research methods and assessment tools is needed to accurately guide the Commonwealth government and the National Disability Insurance Agency about the expected level of need for the NDIS. Research within this framework will contribute to the realisation of a truly inclusive NDIS.

  11. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in the Fram Strait: Assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, C.A.; Dodd, P.A.; Amon, R.M.W.; Pavlov, A.K.; de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, delta O-18, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water,

  12. Climate change and sea ice: Shipping accessibility on the marine transportation corridor through Hudson Bay and Hudson Strait (1980–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Andrews

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Shipping traffic has been increasing in Hudson Strait and Hudson Bay and the shipping route through these waters to the Port of Churchill may soon become a federally-designated transportation corridor. A dataset on passive microwave-based sea ice concentration was used to characterize the timing of the ice on the shipping corridor to the Port between 1980 and 2014. Efforts were made to produce results in a readily accessible format for stakeholders of the shipping industry; for example, open water was defined using a sea ice concentration threshold of ≤ 15% and results are presented in terms of real dates instead of anomalies. Between 1980 and 2014, the average breakup date on the corridor was July 4, the average freeze-up date was November 25, and the average length of the open water season was 145 days. However, each of these three variables exhibited significant long-term trends and spatial variability over the 34-year time period. Regression analysis revealed significant linear trends towards earlier breakup (–0.66 days year–1, later freeze-up (+0.52 days year–1, and a longer open water season (+1.14 days year–1 along the shipping corridor between 1980 and 2014. Moreover, the section of the corridor passing through Hudson Strait displayed significantly stronger trends than the two sections in Hudson Bay (i.e., “Hudson Islands” and “Hudson Bay”. As a result, sea ice timing in the Hudson Strait section of the corridor has diverged from the timing in the Hudson Bay sections. For example, the 2010–2014 median length of the open water season was 177 days in Hudson Strait and 153 days in the Hudson Bay sections. Finally, significant linear relationships were observed amongst breakup, freeze-up, and the length of the open water season for all sections of the corridor; correlation analysis suggests that these relationships have greatest impact in Hudson Strait.

  13. Recall of anti-tobacco advertising and information, warning labels and news stories in a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Anna K; Borland, Ron; Sarin, Jasmine; Wallace, Sharon; van der Sterren, Anke E; Stevens, Matthew; Thomas, David P

    2015-06-01

    To describe recall of anti-tobacco advertising (mainstream and targeted), pack warning labels, and news stories among a national sample of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers, and to assess the association of these messages with attitudes that support quitting, including wanting to quit. A quota sampling design was used to recruit participants from communities served by 34 Aboriginal community-controlled health services and one community in the Torres Strait. We surveyed 1643 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers from April 2012 to October 2013. Frequency of recall of advertising and information, warning labels and news stories; recall of targeted and local advertising; attitudes about smoking and wanting to quit. More smokers recalled often noticing warning labels in the past month (65%) than recalled advertising and information (45%) or news stories (24%) in the past 6 months. When prompted, most (82%) recalled seeing a television advertisement. Just under half (48%) recalled advertising that featured an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander person or artwork (targeted advertising), and 16% recalled targeted advertising from their community (local advertising). Frequent recall of warning labels, news stories and advertising was associated with worry about health and wanting to quit, but only frequent advertising recall was associated with believing that society disapproves of smoking. The magnitude of association with relevant attitudes and wanting to quit increased for targeted and local advertising. Strategies to tackle Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smoking should sustain high levels of exposure to anti-tobacco advertising, news stories and warning labels. More targeted and local information may be particularly effective to influence relevant beliefs and subsequently increase quitting.

  14. Phylogeography of a widespread species: pre-glacial vicariance, refugia, occasional blocking straits and long-distance migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiso, Xabier; Lopez, Lúa; Retuerto, Rubén; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2016-01-13

    Phylogeographic studies give us the opportunity to reconstruct the historical migrations of species and link them with climatic and geographic variation. They are, therefore, a key tool to understanding the relationships among biology, geology and history. One of the most interesting biogeographical areas of the world is the Mediterranean region. However, in this area, the description of concordant phylogeographic patterns is quite scarce, which limits the understanding of evolutionary patterns related to climate. Species with one-dimensional distribution ranges, such as the strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo), are particularly useful to unravel these patterns. Here, we describe its phylogeographic structure and check for concordance with patterns seen in other Mediterranean plants: longitudinal/latitudinal clines of diversity, evidence for glacial refugia and the role of sea straits in dispersal. We also identify the most likely source for the disjunct Irish population. With this aim, we sequenced four chloroplast non-coding fragments of A. unedo from 23 populations covering its whole distribution. We determined the genetic diversity, population structure, haplotype genealogy and time to the most recent common ancestor. The genealogy revealed two clades that separated during the last 700 ky but before the last glacial maximum. One clade occupies Atlantic Iberia and North Africa, while the other occurs in the Western Mediterranean. The Eastern Mediterranean is inhabited by newer haplotypes derived from both clades, while the Irish population is closely related to Iberian demes. The straits of Sicily and Gibraltar partially restricted the gene flow. We concluded that a vicariance event during the Late Quaternary in the western end of the species' range followed by eastward migration seems a likely explanation for the observed phylogeographic pattern. The role of straits indicates an occasional communication between Europe and North Africa, suggesting that the latter was

  15. PCDD and PCDF exposures among fishing community through intake of fish and shellfish from the Straits of Malacca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azlan, Azrina; Nasir, Nurul Nadiah Mohamad; Shamsudin, Norashikin; Rahman, Hejar Abdul; Khoo, Hock Eng; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2015-07-21

    Exposure to PCDD/PCDF (dioxin and furan) through consumption of fish and shellfish is closely related to the occurrence of skin diseases, such as chloracne and hyperpigmentation. This study aimed to determine the exposure of PCDD/PCDF and its congeners in fish and shellfish obtained from different regions of the Straits of Malacca among the fishing community. The risk of fish and shellfish consumption and exposure to PCDD/PCDF among fishermen living in coastal areas of the Straits were evaluated based on a cross-sectional study involving face to face interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and administration of food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). Skin examination was done by a dermatologist after the interview session. Determination of 17 congeners of PCDD/PCDF in 48 composite samples of fish and shellfish was performed based on HRGC/HRMS analysis. The total PCDD/PCDF in the seafood samples ranged from 0.12 to 1.24 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (4.6-21.8 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). No significant difference found for the concentrations of PCDD/PCDF between the same types of seafood samples obtained from the three different regions. The concentrations of the most potent congener, 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the seafood samples ranged from 0.01 to 0.11 pg WHO-TEQ/g FW (1.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat). A positive moderate correlation was found between the fat contents and concentrations of PCDD/PCDF determined in the seafood samples. The total PCDD/PCDF in all seafood samples were below the 1 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight, with the exception of grey eel-catfish. The respondents had consumed fish and shellfish with the amounts ranging between 2.02 g and 44.06 g per person per day. The total PCDD/PCDF exposures through consumption of fish and shellfish among the respondents were between 0.01 and 0.16 pg WHO-TEQ/kg BW/day. With regard to the two PCDD/PCDF-related skin diseases, no chloracne case was found among the respondents, but 2.2% of the respondents were diagnosed to have

  16. Seasonal variability of coastal water quality in bay of Bengal and Palk Strait, Tamilnadu, Southeast Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswanathan Srinivasan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical parameters of water quality collected from 12 sampling stations from Topputhurai to Muthupet in Vedaranyam located on the southeast coast of India from January to December 2008. Results showed that the DO and nutrients were the maximum in the Bay of Bengal during the monsoon period. High concentration of the nutrients in summer season was obtained near the Muthupet mangroves compared to the Palk Strait, which showed that this acted as a source of nutrients to the adjacent coastal waters. Low concentrations of the nutrients observed in the monsoon could be attributed to the terrestrial runoff from Muthupet lagoon. The physicochemical characteristics of coastal waters between the Point Calimere and Muthupet could be used as a baseline data for the monitoring, conservation and management of Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird sanctuary, Great Vedaranyam swamp and Muthupet mangrove ecosystem.

  17. Vertical structure of currents in Algeciras Bay (Strait of Gibraltar): implications on oil spill modeling under different typical scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megías Trujillo, Bárbara; Caballero de Frutos, Isabel; López Comi, Laura; Tejedor Alvarez, Begoña.; Izquierdo González, Alfredo; Gonzales Mejías, Carlos Jose; Alvarez Esteban, Óscar; Mañanes Salinas, Rafael; Comerma, Eric

    2010-05-01

    Algeciras Bay constitutes a physical environment of special characteristics, due to its bathymetric configuration and geographical location, at the eastern boundary of the Strait of Gibraltar. Hence, the Bay is subject to the complex hydrodynamics of the Strait of Gibraltar, characterized by a mesotidal, semidiurnal regime and the high density-stratification of the water column due to the presence of the upper Atlantic and the lower Mediterranean (more salty and cold) water layers. In addition, this environment is affected by powerful Easterly and Westerly winds episodes. The intense maritime traffic of oil tankers sailing across the Strait and inside the Bay, together with the presence of an oil refinery at its northern coast, imply high risks of oil spilling inside these waters, and unfortunately it has constituted a matter of usual occurrence through the last decades. The above paragraph clearly manifests the necessity of a detailed knowledge on the Bay's hydrodynamics, and the related system of currents, for a correct management and contingency planning in case of oil spilling in this environment. In order to evaluate the range of affectation of oil spills in the Bay's waters and coasts, the OILMAP oil spill model was used, the currents fields being provided by the three-dimensional, nonlinear, finite-differences, sigma-coordinates, UCA 3D hydrodynamic model. Numerical simulations were carried out for a grid domain extended from the western Strait boundary to the Alboran Sea, having a horizontal spatial resolution of 500 m and 50 sigma-levels in the vertical dimension. The system was forced by the tidal constituents M2 (main semidiurnal) and Z0 (constant or zero-frequency), considering three different typical wind conditions: Easterlies, Westerlies and calm (no wind). The most remarkable results from the numerical 3D simulations of Algeciras Bay's hydrodynamics were: a) the occurrence of opposite tidal currents between the upper Atlantic and lower Mediterranean

  18. Comparative validation of self-report measures of negative attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Blick, Julie; Coffin, Juli; Dudgeon, Pat; Forrest, Simon; Morrison, David

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to determine the construct validity of two self-report measures of attitudes towards Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders against an implicit measure of attitude. Total of 102 volunteer participants completed the three measures in a randomized order. The explicit measures of prejudice towards Aboriginal Australians were the Modern Racism Scale (MRS) and the Attitudes Towards Indigenous Australians Scale (ATIAS). The implicit attitudes measure was an adaptation of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and utilised simple drawn head-and-shoulder images of Aboriginal Australians and White Australians as the stimuli. Both explicit measures and implicit measure varied in the extent to which negative prejudicial attitudes were held by participants, and the corresponding construct validities were unimpressive. The MRS was significantly correlated with the IAT, (r =.314;pAboriginal Australians, only the MRS evidenced validity when compared with the use of an implicit attitude measure.

  19. The coccolithophores Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus: Extant populations from the Norwegian-Iceland Seas and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylmer, C. V.; Giraudeau, J.; Hanquiez, V.; Husum, K.

    2015-04-01

    The distributions of the coccolithophore species Emiliania huxleyi and Coccolithus pelagicus (heterococcolith-bearing phase) in the northern North Atlantic were investigated along two zonal transects crossing Fram Strait and the Norwegian-Iceland Sea, respectively, each conducted during both July 2011 and September-October 2007. Remote-sensing images as well as CTD and ARGO profiles were used to constrain the physico-chemical state of the surface water and surface mixed layer at the time of sampling. Strong seasonal differences in bulk coccolithophore standing stocks characterized the northern and southern transects, where the maximum values of 53×103 cells/l (fall) and 70×103 cells/l (summer), respectively, were essentially explained by E. huxleyi. This pattern confirms previous findings of a summer to fall northwestward shift in peak coccolithophore cell densities within the Nordic Seas. While depicting an overall zonal shift in high cell densities between the summer (Norwegian Sea) and fall (northern Iceland Sea) conditions, the southern transects were additionally characterized by local peak coccolithophore concentrations associated with a geographically and temporally restricted convective process (Lofoten Gyre, summer), as well as an island mass effect (in the vicinity of Jan Mayen Island, fall). Maximum coccolithophore abundances within Fram Strait were found during both seasons close to the western frontal zone (Polar and Arctic Fronts) an area of strong density gradients where physical and chemical properties of the surface mixed layer are prone to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity. Here, changes in species dominance from E. huxleyi in summer, to C. pelagicus in fall, were related to the strengthened influence during summer, of surface AW, as well as to high July solar irradiance, within an area usually characterized by C. pelagicus-dominated low density populations.

  20. The Observation of SAR, Optical and Altimeter Data to Study the Generation of Internal Wave in Tsushima Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvelyna, Y.; Oshima, M.

    2006-07-01

    This study proposes D iscr eet Mey er wavelet tr ansform and spectr al reflectan ce analysis for internal w ave detection in ERS1/2 and ASTER imag es data over the Tsushima Strait, Jap an, during 1993-2004 period. The wavelet tr ansform of imag e w as successfully der ived the intern al wav e f eature with h igher w avelet coeff icien t than sea surf ace, i.e. between 2-4.59 times, on horizon tal and vertical d etail coefficient at level 2-5, incr eased the detection probability over 80%. The intern al w ave is modeled using Co mbined Korteweg the Vries (combKdV) model. Non linier speed of in ternal wave is calculated about 85 cm-1. Th e altimetry data products from Topex/Poseidon and Jason-1 data are used to predict th e internal wav e gener ation. Th e observation results show th e propagation of in ternal w aves wer e varied between N W-SW at eastern channel and N-SW at western channel of Tsush ima Strait, p arallel to the direction of the geostrophic curren t. A t NE coast off Tsushima Island, the direction is on S/SE dir ection. I t is suggested th at th e internal wav es w ere sourced from south co ast off Tsush ima Island and south coast off the Japan Sea. They w ere possib ly tid ally gen erated and formed due to bathymetr ic change.

  1. Mind the gap: What is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Jonathan; Lee, K S Kylie; Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Scott; Freeburn, Bradley; Harrison, Kristie; Conigrave, Katherine

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harms cause great concern to Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) communities in Australia as well as challenges to policy makers. Treatment of alcohol use disorders forms one component of an effective public health response. While alcohol dependence typically behaves as a chronic relapsing condition, treatment has been shown to be both effective and cost-effective in improving outcomes. Provision of alcohol treatment services should be based on accurate assessment of treatment need. In this paper, we examine the likely extent of the gap between voluntary alcohol treatment need and accessibility. We also suggest potential approaches to improve the ability to assess unmet need. Existing methods of assessing the treatment needs of Indigenous Australians are limited by incomplete and inaccurate survey data and an over-reliance on existing service use data. In addition to a shortage of services, cultural and logistical barriers may hamper access to alcohol treatment for Indigenous Australians. There is also a lack of services funded to a level that allows them to cope with clients with complex medical and physical comorbidity, and a lack of services for women, families and young people. A lack of voluntary treatment services also raises serious ethical concerns, given the expansion of mandatory treatment programmes and incarceration of Indigenous Australians for continued drinking. The use of modelling approaches, linkage of administrative data sets and strategies to improve data collection are discussed as possible methods to better assess treatment need. [Brett J, Lee K, Gray D, Wilson S, Freeburn B, Harrison K, Conigrave K. Mind the gap: what is the difference between alcohol treatment need and access for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians? Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:456-460]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  2. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-focused primary healthcare social and emotional wellbeing research: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnbach, Sara; Eades, Anne-Marie; Hackett, Maree Lisa

    2015-12-30

    Research with a focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian's (hereafter referred to as Indigenous(1)) needs is crucial to ensure culturally appropriate evidence-based strategies are developed to improve health. However, concerns surrounding this research exist, arising from some previous research lacking community consultation, resulting in little community benefit or infringing on important cultural values. Values and Ethics: Guidelines for Ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research (hereafter referred to as Values and Ethics), developed by The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia in 2003, is the ethical standard for Indigenous-focused health research. Researchers must address its Values in research design and conduct. However, its impact on research processes is unclear. Local Protocols should also be considered. This review aims to systematically examine practices related to Values and Ethics, Local Protocols and the processes of conducting Indigenous-focused primary healthcare research in collaboration with external researchers. The following electronic databases and grey literature will be searched (2003 to current): MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Informit and HealthInfoNet--an Indigenous-specific research and program website. Indigenous-focused research will be included. Research must be conducted in one or more primary healthcare services, in collaboration with external researchers and with a focus on social and emotional well being. One reviewer will review titles and abstracts to remove obviously irrelevant research articles. Full-text research articles will be retrieved and independently examined by two reviewers. Data and quality assessment will be completed by one reviewer and verified by a second reviewer. Quality will be assessed using modified versions of established quality assessment tools. This review will provide information on research processes and the impact of Values and Ethics on

  3. Installation and operational effects of a HVDC submarine cable in a continental shelf setting: Bass Strait, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sherwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many submarine telecommunications and power cables laid world-wide there are fewer than ten published studies of their environmental effects in the refereed literature. This paper describes an investigation into the effects of laying and operating the Basslink High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC cable and its associated metallic return cable across Bass Strait in South East Australia. Over more than 95% of its length the cable was directly laid into a wet jetted trench given the predominantly soft sediments encountered. Underwater remote video investigations found that within two years all visible evidence of the cable and trench was gone at over a third of the transects at six deep water sites (32–72m deep. At other deep water transects the residual trench trapped drift material providing habitat for the generally sparsely distributed benthic community. Diver surveys at both of the near shore sites (<15m deep on the northern side of the Strait also found the cable route was undetectable after a year. On the southern side, where the cable traversed hard basalt rock near shore, it was encased in a protective cast iron half shell. Ecological studies by divers over 3.5 years demonstrated the colonization of the hard shell by similar species occupying hard substrates elsewhere on the basalt reef. Magnetic field strengths associated with the operating cable were found to be within 0.8% of those predicted from theory with strength dropping rapidly with distance from the cable. Beyond 20m the field was indistinguishable from background.

  4. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  5. Temperature and salinity profile data collected by bottle on multiple cruises in the Baltic Sea, Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, the North Atlantic Ocean, and the North Sea from 02 January 1985 to 13 November 1989 (NODC Accession 0000056)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and nutrients data were collected using bottle casts from DANA and other platforms in Baffin Sea, Baltic Sea, Davis Strait, North Sea, and North...

  6. Temperature, salinity, oxygen and fluorescence profiles collected by CTD from the Norseman II in Bering Strait from 2013-07-04 to 2013-07-10 (NCEI Accession 0136939)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive is of data from 150 CTD casts taken during the 2013 Norseman II cruise to the Bering Strait. For positions, see file headers or the cruise report...

  7. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the BERING STRAIT from Ocean Weather Station V (OWS-V) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1958-11-30 to 1958-12-30 (NODC Accession 5800073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the BERING STRAIT within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station V (3400N 16400E) and in transit. Data were collected by...

  8. Turbidity, SOLAR RADIATION - ATMOSPHERIC and other data from R.V. MADIDIHANG and SAMUDERA in the Malacca and Singapore Straits and East Indian Archipelago from 1977-03-01 to 1979-01-17 (NODC Accession 9700267)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Zooplankton, nutrients, and other data were collected from net and bottle casts in the Malacca and Singapore Straits from the R/V Madidihang and other platforms....

  9. An Observational Array for High-Resolution, Year-Round Measurements of Volume, Freshwater, and Ice Flux Variability in Davis Strait: Cruise Report for R/V Knorr 179-05, 22 September-4 October 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Craig

    2004-01-01

    .... This 300-km-wide strait sits between Baffin Island and the west coast of Greenland and acts as the gateway for waters passing between the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and the subpolar North Atlantic...

  10. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected by Bering Strait Moorings A1W, A1, A1E from 2010-08-03 to 2012-08-25 (NCEI Accession 0138174)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from US moorings deployed in the Russian Channel of the Bering Strait from summer 2010 to summer 2012. The deployments were designed to be...

  11. Temperature profile data from Mechanical Bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the BERING STRAIT, STRANGER, and other platforms in the North Pacific, Coastal Equatorial Pacific, and other locations from 1945 to 1968 (NODC Accession 0000507)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profiles were collected from Mechanical Bathythermograph (MBT) casts from the BERING STRAIT, STRANGER, and other platforms. Data were collected from 02...

  12. Current meter components and other data from fixed platforms from the Straits of Florida in support of the Southeast Florida and Caribbean Recruitment Program (SEFCAR) from 1989-04-08 to 1994-11-21 (NODC Accession 9600059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from fixed platforms in the Straits of Florida from 08 April 1989 to 21 November 1994. Data were collected by the...

  13. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected from moored buoys in Bering Strait from 2011-07-14 to 2013-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0138173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in the US waters of the Bering Strait from summer 2011 to summer 2013 (with mooring servicing in summer 2012). For...

  14. Temperature, salinity, velocity including ADCP ice tracking, and bottom pressure collected by Bering Strait Moorings A2W, A2, A4W, A4, A3 from 2010-08-03 to 2011-07-14 (NCEI Accession 0138583)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from US moorings deployed in the Bering Strait from summer 2010 to summer 2011. Moorings were also deployed for this period in Russian...

  15. Quantifying the Bering Strait Oceanic Fluxes and their Impacts on Sea-Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    impacts on sea-ice and water properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014 Rebecca Woodgate Polar Science...and G. R. Bigg (2002), Impact of flow through the Canadian Archipelago and Bering Strait on the North Atlantic and Arctic circulation: an ocean ...Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Feb 2013 - April 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantifying the Bering Strait oceanic fluxes and their impacts

  16. Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Active Wind Speed and Direction on Circulation of Sea of Azov Water with and without Allowance for the Water Exchange through the Kerch Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkesov, L. V.; Shul'ga, T. Ya.

    2018-01-01

    The effect of seawater movement through the Kerch Strait for extreme deviations in the level and speed of currents in the Sea of Azov caused by the action of climate wind fields has been studied using the Princeton ocean model (POM), a general three-dimensional nonlinear model of ocean circulation. Formation of the water flow through the strait is caused by the long-term action of the same type of atmospheric processes. The features of the water dynamics under conditions of changing intensity and active wind direction have been studied. Numerical experiments were carried out for two versions of model Sea of Azov basins: closed (without the Kerch Strait) and with a fluid boundary located in the Black Sea. The simulation results have shown that allowance for the strait leads to a significant change in the velocities of steady currents and level deviations at wind speeds greater than 5 m/s. The most significant effect on the parameters of steady-state movements is exerted by the speed of the wind that generates them; allowance for water exchange through the strait is less important. Analysis of the directions of atmospheric circulation has revealed that the response generated by the movement of water through the strait is most pronounced when a southeast wind is acting.

  17. Coastal Ocean Variability off the Coast of Taiwan in Response to Typhoon Morakot: River Forcing, Atmospheric Forcing, and Cold Dome Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Naval Research Laboratory, 2012), and (c) the Taiwan Central Geolo- gial Survey in- situ measurements (Liu, 2010). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2-9...Island A rc Yaeyama Ridge Ryukyu Trench G agua Ridge Luzon Island Arc So uth Ch ina Se a B asi n Luzon Strait Batan Island Balintang Channel Babuyan...the region by combining model forecasts with in- situ observations and by performing sensitivity studies on existing models. By collecting data and

  18. The spectral optical properties and relative radiant heating contribution of dissolved and particulate matter in the surface waters across the Fram Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, A.K.; Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin

    autumns of 2009 and 2010 comprehensive observations were performed on transects along 79 N across the Fram Strait. Samples for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate absorption were collected and analyzed together with distribution of temperature and salinity in surface waters (0......-100 m). Large spatial variations in the distribution of CDOM and particulate matter as well as in their relative contributions to total absorption were apparent, with high contrast between waters of Arctic and Atlantic origin. In addition, estimates of underwater light profiles and radiant heating rate...... (RHR) of the upper layer were obtained using a simplistic exponential RHR model. This is one of the first detailed overviews of sea water optical properties across the northern Fram Strait, and might have potential implications for biological, biogeochemical and physical processes in the region...

  19. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in the Fram Strait: Assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, C.A.; Dodd, P.A.; Amon, R.M.W.; Pavlov, A.K.; de Steur, L.; Hansen, E.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, delta O-18, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic of the Arctic mixed layer and upper halocline waters in the East Greenland Current (EGC). The lowest CDOM concentrations were found in the Atlantic inflow. We show that the salinity-CDOM relati...

  20. Meeting on the Physical Oceanography of Sea Straits (2nd). Held in Villefanche-sur-Mer, France on 15-19 April 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-19

    Ville• franche , 15"-!9V’ April 2002 Stratified shear flow in sea straits of arbitrarY cross section Larry Pratt, Chris Jones*, Jian Deng* and Lou Howard...shown. W is the the interface Red food colouring is used as dye in the dense minimum channel width, accounting and P=-0.5*f is the ro- fluid, back-lit

  1. Commentary on “A Modest Proposal for a Basic Agreement on Peaceful Cross-Strait Development” by Chang Ya-chung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Hughes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This critique assesses Prof. Chang Ya-chung’s draft basic agreement for cross-Strait relations by arguing that it overstates changes in Beijing’s Taiwan policy, which is based on a strategy that has not seen substantial change since it was devised in the early 1990s to prevent the island’s democratization leading to the exercise of self-determination. By over-estimating Taiwan’s political, diplomatic, military, and economic vulnerability the proposal unnecessarily narrows down Taibei’s options to the point where it has to accept Beijing’s one-China principle. This merely closes off other options that Taiwan can just as readily pursue, such as continuing to develop cross-Strait relations through ad hoc solutions to practical problems or seeking more imaginative ways to create a durable modus vivendi with international support. Even more problematic is that a political framework for stability based on the principles of Chinese nationalism is unlikely to be acceptable for Taiwan’s liberaldemocratic politics and could thus amount to an unnecessary risk that would lead to a less durable cross-Strait status quo than that which has been maintained over the last two decades.

  2. Eukaryotic Plankton Species Diversity in the Western Channel of the Korea Strait using 18S rDNA Sequences and its Implications for Water Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Rae; Song, Eun Hye; Lee, Tongsup

    2018-03-01

    Organisms entering the East Sea (Sea of Japan) through the Korea Strait, together with water, salt, and energy, affect the East Sea ecosystem. In this study, we report on the biodiversity of eukaryotic plankton found in the Western Channel of the Korea Strait for the first time using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (18S rDNA) sequences. We also discuss the characteristics of water masses and their physicochemical factors. Diverse taxonomic groups were recovered from 18S rDNA clone libraries, including putative novel, higher taxonomic entities affiliated with Cercozoa, Raphidophyceae, Picozoa, and novel marine Stramenopiles. We also found that there was cryptic genetic variation at both the intraspecific and interspecific levels among arthropods, diatoms, and green algae. Specific plankton assemblages were identified at different sampling depths and they may provide useful information that could be used to interpret the origin and the subsequent mixing history of the water masses that contribute to the Tsushima Warm Current waters. Furthermore, the biological information highlighted in this study may help improve our understanding about the complex water mass interactions that were highlighted in the Korea Strait.

  3. Fatherhood in Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: An Examination of Barriers and Opportunities to Strengthen the Male Parenting Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Lyndon; Rees, Susan

    2018-03-01

    Traditional Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander societies value men's role as parents; however, the importance of promoting fatherhood as a key social determinant of men's well-being has not been fully appreciated in Western medicine. To strengthen the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male parenting role, it is vital to examine current barriers and opportunities. The first author (a male Aboriginal health project officer) conducted yarning sessions in three remote Australian communities, two being Aboriginal, the other having a high Aboriginal population. An expert sample of 25 Aboriginal and 6 non-Aboriginal stakeholders, including maternal and child health workers and men's group facilitators, considered barriers and opportunities to improve men's parenting knowledge and role, with an aim to inform services and practices intended to support men's parenting. A specific aim was to shape an existing men's group program known as Strong Fathers, Strong Families. A thematic analysis of data from the project identified barriers and opportunities to support men's role as parents. Challenges included the transition from traditional to contemporary parenting practices and low level of cultural and male gender sensitivity in maternal and child health services. Services need to better understand and focus on men's psychological empowerment and to address shame and lack of confidence around parenting. Poor literacy and numeracy are viewed as contributing to disempowerment. Communities need to champion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander male father role models. Biases and barriers should be addressed to improve service delivery and better enable men to become empowered and confident fathers.

  4. A simple diabetes vascular severity staging instrument and its application to a Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal adult cohort of north Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Odette R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To develop an instrument that predicts diabetes-related vascular disease severity using routinely collected data on Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with type 2 diabetes, in the absence of diabetes duration. Methods A complex diabetes severity classification system was simplified and adapted for use with an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adult population with type 2 diabetes in north Queensland. Detailed vascular health risks and morbidities were mapped to routinely collected measures. Individual–level health screening, hospital separation and mortality data were linked and used to plot mean monthly in-patient hospital cost and percent mortality by disease severity as defined by the newly developed instrument, to test construct validity. Results The revised instrument consists of four combined diabetes-related microvascular and macrovascular stages that range from least severe (stage 1 to severe irreversible vascular impairment (stage 4. When applied to data of an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australian population the instrument showed good construct validity, predicting higher hospital cost and mortality as vascular disease severity increased. Conclusions This instrument discriminates between levels of diabetes-related vascular disease severity, displays good construct validity by predicting increased hospital cost and mortality with worsening severity and can be populated with routinely collected data. It may assist with future health service research and its use could be extended to practice settings for health care planning for diabetes management programs and monitoring vascular disease progression.

  5. High Resolution Forecasts in the Florida Straits: Predicting the Modulations of the Florida Current and Connectivity Around South Florida and Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourafalou, V.; Kang, H.; Perlin, N.; Le Henaff, M.; Lamkin, J. T.

    2016-02-01

    Connectivity around the South Florida coastal regions and between South Florida and Cuba are largely influenced by a) local coastal processes and b) circulation in the Florida Straits, which is controlled by the larger scale Florida Current variability. Prediction of the physical connectivity is a necessary component for several activities that require ocean forecasts, such as oil spills, fisheries research, search and rescue. This requires a predictive system that can accommodate the intense coastal to offshore interactions and the linkages to the complex regional circulation. The Florida Straits, South Florida and Florida Keys Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model is such a regional ocean predictive system, covering a large area over the Florida Straits and the adjacent land areas, representing both coastal and oceanic processes. The real-time ocean forecast system is high resolution ( 900m), embedded in larger scale predictive models. It includes detailed coastal bathymetry, high resolution/high frequency atmospheric forcing and provides 7-day forecasts, updated daily (see: http://coastalmodeling.rsmas.miami.edu/). The unprecedented high resolution and coastal details of this system provide value added on global forecasts through downscaling and allow a variety of applications. Examples will be presented, focusing on the period of a 2015 fisheries cruise around the coastal areas of Cuba, where model predictions helped guide the measurements on biophysical connectivity, under intense variability of the mesoscale eddy field and subsequent Florida Current meandering.

  6. Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders have an atherogenic lipid profile that is characterised by low HDL-cholesterol level and small LDL particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, D N; Piers, L S; Iser, D M; Rowley, K G; Jenkins, A J; Best, J D; O'Dea, K

    2008-12-01

    To characterise lipid profiles for Australian Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders. Community-based, cross-sectional surveys in 1995-1997 including: 407 female and 322 male Australian Aboriginal people and 207 female and 186 male Torres Strait Islanders over 15 years old. A comparator of 78 female (44 with diabetes) and 148 male (73 with diabetes) non-indigenous participants recruited to clinical epidemiological studies was used. Lipids were determined by standard assays and LDL diameter by gradient gel electrophoresis. Diabetes prevalence was 14.8% and 22.6% among Aboriginal people and Torres Strait Islanders, respectively. LDL size (mean [95% CI (confidence interval)]) was smaller (P<0.05) in non-diabetic Aboriginal (26.02 [25.96-26.07] nm) and Torres Strait Islander women (26.01 [25.92-26.09] nm) than in non-diabetic non-indigenous women (26.29 [26.13-26.44] nm). LDL size correlated (P<0.0005) inversely with triglyceride, WHR, and fasting insulin and positively with HDL-cholesterol. HDL-cholesterol (mean [95% CI] mmol/L) was lower (P<0.0005) in indigenous Australians than in non-indigenous subjects, independent of age, sex, diabetes, WHR, insulin, triglyceride, and LDL size: Aboriginal (non-diabetic women, 0.86 [0.84-0.88]; diabetic women, 0.76 [0.72-0.80]; non-diabetic men, 0.79 [0.76-0.81]; diabetic men, 0.76 [0.71-0.82]); Torres Strait Islander (non-diabetic women, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic women, 0.89 [0.83-0.96]; non-diabetic men, 1.00 [0.95-1.04]; diabetic men, 0.87 [0.79-0.96]); non-indigenous (non-diabetic women, 1.49 [1.33-1.67]; diabetic women, 1.12 [1.03-1.21]; non-diabetic men, 1.18 [1.11-1.25]; diabetic men, 1.05 [0.98-1.12]). Indigenous Australians have a dyslipidaemia which includes small LDL and very low HDL-cholesterol levels. The dyslipidaemia was equally severe in both genders. Strategies aimed at increasing HDL-cholesterol and LDL size may reduce high CVD risk for indigenous populations.

  7. Downscaling of sea level and fluxes in the Malacca and Singapore Straits using A2 scenario projections of AR4 GCMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkalich, Pavel; Koshebutsky, Volodymyr; Maderich, Vladimir; Thompson, Bijoy

    2013-04-01

    IPCC-coordinated work has been completed within Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) to project climate and ocean variables for the 21st century using coupled atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models (GCMs). Resolution of the GCMs is not sufficient to resolve local features of narrow Malacca and Singapore Straits, having complex coastal line and bathymetry; therefore, dynamical downscaling of ocean variables from the global grid to the regional scale is advisable using ocean models, such as Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). ROMS is customized for the domain centered on the Singapore and Malacca Straits, extending from 98°E to 109°E and 6°S to 14°N. Following IPCC methodology, the modelling is done for the past reference period 1961-1990, and then for the 21st century projections; subsequently, established past and projected trends and variability of ocean parameters are inter-compared. Boundary conditions for the past reference period are extracted from Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), while the projections are made using A2 scenario runs of ECHAM5 and CCSM3 GCMs. Atmospheric forcing for ROMS is downscaled with WRF using ERA-40 dataset for the past period, and outputs of atmospheric variables of respective GCMs for the projections. ROMS-downscaled regional sea level change during 1961-1990, corrected for the global thermosteric effect, land-ice melting and Global Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) effect, corresponds to a mean total trend of 1.52 mm/year, which is higher than the global estimate 1.25 mm/year and observed global sea-level rise (1.44 mm/year) for the same period. Local linear trend in the Singapore Strait (0.9 mm/year) corresponds to the observed trend at Victoria Dock tide gauge (1.1 mm/year) for the past period. Mean discharges through the Karimata, Malacca and Singapore Straits are 0.9, 0.21 and 0.12 Sv, respectively, fall in the range of observations and recent model estimates. A2 scenario projections using ROMS-ECHAM5 and ROMS-CCSM3 for

  8. Temporal variability and climatology of hydrodynamic, water property and water quality parameters in the West Johor Strait of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Manasa Ranjan; Chun, Cui; Palani, Sundarambal; Tkalich, Pavel

    2013-12-15

    The study presents a baseline variability and climatology study of measured hydrodynamic, water properties and some water quality parameters of West Johor Strait, Singapore at hourly-to-seasonal scales to uncover their dependency and correlation to one or more drivers. The considered parameters include, but not limited by sea surface elevation, current magnitude and direction, solar radiation and air temperature, water temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a and turbidity. FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) analysis is carried out for the parameters to delineate relative effect of tidal and weather drivers. The group and individual correlations between the parameters are obtained by principal component analysis (PCA) and cross-correlation (CC) technique, respectively. The CC technique also identifies the dependency and time lag between driving natural forces and dependent water property and water quality parameters. The temporal variability and climatology of the driving forces and the dependent parameters are established at the hourly, daily, fortnightly and seasonal scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Linking spatial distribution and feeding behavior of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, Paola; Basilone, Gualtiero; Fanelli, Emanuela; Barra, Marco; Calabrò, Monica; Genovese, Simona; Gherardi, Serena; Ferreri, Rosalia; Mazzola, Salvatore; Bonanno, Angelo

    2017-03-01

    The Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) is a semi-pelagic fish species with a wide geographical distribution and commonly found on the continental shelf. In recent years, the species has received some attention due to its ecological role in pelagic food webs. Stable isotope of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N and δ13C) and Stomach Content Analysis (SCA) of T. trachurus were adopted as tools to provide necessary knowledge on its feeding habits in the Strait of Sicily. The strong correlation found between δ15N and δ13C values with body length, together with significant ontogenetic shift evidenced by SCA, could be associated to changes in food availability, which in turn is triggered by environmental conditions. Spatial distribution of T. trachurus in the study area, mainly for small and medium size specimens, is linked to lower temperature, salinity and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PARsat) values with higher aggregations on the Adventure Bank (i.e., an area characterized by periodic upwelling events). Larger size specimens mostly inhabited shallower waters characterized by higher temperature, salinity and PAR values, typical of the central-eastern part of the study area. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behavior of T. trachurus is strictly linked to environmental factors (i.e. chiefly oceanographic conditions of the water column and day duration) that in turn influences the distribution of its prey. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis.

  10. Plain packaging implementation: perceptions of risk and prestige of cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Raglan; Durkin, Sarah; Lovett, Ray

    2016-06-01

    To assess the impact of plain packaging with larger graphic health warnings on perceptions of risk and prestige related to different cigarette brands among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in the Australian Capital Territory. We hypothesised that the changes would decrease perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others', and that 'some brands are more prestigious than others', and this would be stronger among participants aged ≤35 years, and among smokers compared with non-smokers. Participants completed the survey prior to packaging changes, and were followed up 12 months later (n=98). Repeated measures ANCOVAs assessed perception changes. Following plain packaging implementation, there was a significant reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more harmful than others'. There was no overall change in perceptions of prestige. However, there was a significant interaction for age. Analyses indicated a reduction in perceptions that 'some cigarette brands are more prestigious than others' among younger participants (p=0.05), but no change among older participants (p>0.20). There was no interaction for smoking status for perceptions of prestige, indicating smokers' and non-smokers' perceptions did not differ on this measure. These findings provide support for the packaging changes. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  11. Reproductive features of the deep-water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Crustacea: Penaeidae, in the Strait of Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. BIANCHINI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep‑water rose shrimp, Parapenaeus longirostris (Lucas, 1846, is one of the most valuable and heavily exploited demersal species of the Mediterranean bottom trawl fisheries. The basic life traits of this shrimp, in particular its reproductive aspects, are regularly monitored during experimental trawl surveys carried out in the Mediterranean Sea. Gonadic condition and maturity status for estimating the size at onset of sexual maturity are commonly assessed in females, using macroscopic color scales, histologically validated only in a few geographical areas. In this study, histological analyses were performed on rose shrimps collected from a trawl survey carried out in the Strait of Sicily, in order to support the empirical 4‑stage macroscopic scale locally employed. Ovaries from females of different sizes, ranging between 16 mm and 40 mm carapace length, were collected and used for microscopic examination of their structure, for oocytes counts and for oocyte diameter frequency distributions; oocytes diameter was measured by imaging analysis. The collected data were also used to estimate other basic vital parameters of the rose shrimp population. The histological observations show a broad correspondence between ovarian development and macroscopic features; therefore, the classifications derived by the empirical scale remain suitable for estimating the maturity parameters.

  12. Estimation of suspended sediment concentration from Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instrument: A case study of Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwinovantyo, Angga; Manik, Henry M.; Prartono, Tri; Susilohadi; Ilahude, Delyuzar

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is one of the parameters needed to determine the characteristics of sediment transport. However, the measurement of SSC nowadays still uses conventional technique and it has limitations; especially in temporal resolution. With advanced technology, the measurement can use hydroacoustic technology such as Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). ADCP measures the intensity of backscatter as echo intensity unit from sediment particles. The frequency of ADCP used in this study was 400 kHz. The samples were measured and collected from Lembeh Strait, North Sulawesi. The highest concentration of suspended sediment was 98.89 mg L-1 and the lowest was 45.20 mg L-1. Time series data showed the tidal condition affected the SSC. From the research, we also made correction from sound signal losses effect such as spherical spreading and sound absorption to get more accurate results by eliminating these parameters in echo intensity data. Simple linear regression analysis at echo intensity measured from ADCP to direct measurement of SSC was performed to obtain the estimation of the SSC. The comparison result of estimation of SSC from ADCP measurements and SSC from laboratory analyses was insignificantly different based on t-test statistical analysis with 95% confidence interval percentage.

  13. Meiobenthos and nematode assemblages from different deep-sea habitats of the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SANDULLI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Much attention is currently devoted at upgrading our knowledge on biodiversity and functioning of deep water ecosystems. Information is constantly enriched by researchers, even from basins as the long-studied Mediterranean Sea. In such a perspective, we studied meiobenthic and nematode communities inhabiting muddy sediments from three different habitats at bathyal depths in the Strait of Sicily: a cold-water coral site (CS in the Maltese Coral Province, a muddy bottom in the same area (MS, and a hydrocarbon imprinted pockmark site (PS in the Gela Basin. The average meiofauna density at CS (1343 ind/10 cm2 and MS (1804 ind/10 cm2 is much higher than that reported in literature for similar habitats; it is also markedly more elevated than that recorded at PS (224 ind/10 cm2. Although nematodes of the three sites show different abundances, they share similar assemblage structure. Nematodes (avg. 86% and copepods (avg. 9.3% were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa at all sites followed by annelids, kinorhynchs and turbellarians. Nematodes were composed by 21 families and 46 genera, with Terschellingia, as most abundant genus (12.4%, followed by Microlaimus (11%, Daptonema (11%, Thalassomonhystera (10.8%, Acantholaimus (9.5% and Sabatieria (8.7%. The genera Thalassomonhystera, Terschellingia, Microlaimus, Daptonema, Chromadorita, Sabatieria, and Anticoma display a dominance in at least one station. The taxonomic structure of meiofaunal communities of the studied sites is rather similar but differences in relative abundance are evident.

  14. 1881 and 1949 earthquakes at the Chios-Cesme Strait (Aegean Sea and their relation to tsunamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Altinok

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most earthquake-prone areas in the eastern central Aegean Sea are the Izmir Bay, the Karaburun peninsula and the island of Chios. The level of seismic activity and tsunami potential are influenced by the presence of normal faults around the region. There have been about 20 moderate-size earthquakes from 496 BC to 1949 AD. Among these earthquakes, the ones on the dates 20 March 1389, 13 November 1856, 19/22 January 1866, 3 April 1881 and 23 July 1949 produced tsunamis. The Chios-Cesme earthquake (1881, Mw 6.5 took place in the South of the Cesme strait while the Chios-Karaburun earthquake (1949, Mw 6.7 occurred in the North. The tsunamis caused by the earthquakes affected the coasts of Chios Island and Cesme. These waves are thought to be associated with the earthquakes and co-seismic underwater failures possibly occurred along the coasts of the Chios Island and Karaburun Peninsula or on the complex subaqueous morphology between these lands. Some sea waves or oscillations observed following the aftershocks are believed to be related to other natural phenomena; e.g. the seiches occurred mainly in open-narrow bays as triggered by the earthquakes.

  15. Fossil Fuel-Derived Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Taiwan Strait, China, and Fluxes across the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya, Miaolei; Xu, Li; Wu, Yuling; Li, Yongyu; Zhao, Songhe; Wang, Xinhong

    2018-06-14

    On the basis of the application of compound-specific radiocarbon analysis (CSRA) and air-water exchange models, the contributions of fossil fuel and biomass burning derived polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as their air-water transport were elucidated. The results showed that fossil fuel-derived PAHs (an average contribution of 89%) presented the net volatilization process at the air-water interface of the Taiwan Strait in summer. Net volatile fluxes of the dominant fluorene and phenanthrene (>58% of the total PAHs) were 27 ± 2.8 μg m -2 day -1 , significantly higher than the dry deposition fluxes (average 0.43 μg m -2 day -1 ). The Δ 14 C contents of selected PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene plus anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene) determined by CSRA in the dissolved seawater ranged from -997 ± 4‰ to -873 ± 6‰, indicating that 89-100% (95 ± 4%) of PAHs were supplied by fossil fuels. The South China Sea warm current originating from the southwest China in summer (98%) and the Min-Zhe coastal current originating from the north China in winter (97%) input more fossil fuel PAHs than the Jiulong River estuary (90%) and Xiamen harbor water (93%). The more radioactive decayed 14 C of fluoranthene (a 4-ring PAH) than that of phenanthrene and anthracene (3-ring PAHs) represented a greater fossil fuel contribution to the former in dissolved seawater.

  16. Effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge in the Taiwan Strait: Insights from Typhoon Morakot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin

    2017-08-01

    The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.

  17. The impact of climate change on an emerging coastline affected by discontinuous permafrost: Manitounuk Strait, northern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, N.; Allard, M. [Laval Univ., Centre of Nordic Studies, Ste-Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2003-10-01

    When results of a field survey and aerial photographs were compared and analyzed, it was observed that permafrost-affected sectors of the coastline along the Manitounuk Strait receded at an increasing rate between 1950 and 1995. During the same period sand beaches at the mouths of streams and rock and till shorelines on headlands were observed to prograde at the pace of isostatic uplift. This study attempts to answer the question whether recent climate warming has had a counterbalancing effect on land uplift, balancing out the coastal prograding associated with this uplift. Results showed that warming during the twentieth century induced its degradation through a succession of environmental impacts driven by climate change. The chain of impacts involved forest growth linked to slowly warming summers and ecologically driven changes in snow cover and groundwater flow, creating a positive feedback loop that accelerated thermokarst over the 50-year period of gradual change in seasonal climate. This degradation is believed to have been responsible for localized coastal retreat along the coastline that is otherwise prograding because of fast land uplift. Littoral factors also played a role, mainly by removing thawed and slumped sediments. 31 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) as a bioindicator of trace metal contamination in Merambong shoal, Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidi, Nordiani; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Mohamat Yusuff, Ferdaus; Looi, Ley Juen; Mokhtar, Nor Farhanna

    2018-01-01

    Revealing the potential of seagrass as a bioindicator for metal pollution is important for assessing marine ecosystem health. Trace metal ( 111 Cd, 63 Cu, 60 Ni, 208 Pb, 66 Zn) concentrations in the various parts (root, rhizome, and blade) of tape seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) collected from Merambong shoal of Sungai Pulai estuary, Johor Strait, Malaysia were acid-extracted using a microwave digester and analysed via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ranges of trace metal concentrations (in μgg -1 dry weight) were as follows: Cd (0.05-0.81), Cu (1.62-27.85), Ni (1.89-9.35), Pb (0.69-4.16), and Zn (3.44-35.98). The translocation factor revealed that E. acoroides is a hyperaccumulator plant, as its blades can accumulate high concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn, but not Pb. The plant limits Pb mobility to minimize Pb's toxic impact. Thus, E. acoroides is a potential bioindicator of metal pollution by Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in estuarine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food and feeding habits of Omobranchus sp. (Blenniidae: Omobranchini) larvae in the Seagrass-Mangrove ecosystem of Johor Strait, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Roushon; Arshad, Aziz; Amin, S M Nurul; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd

    2016-07-01

    The stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. (family Blenniidae) larvae were investigated in a seagrass-mangrove based ecosystem in Johor Strait, Malaysia from October 2007 to September 2008. Specimens of larval fish were collected through subsurface towing of a Bongo net from five different stations. The stomach sacs of 267 Omobranchus sp. larvae were separated and observed, which comprised of 24 significant food stuffs belonging to 6 main groups viz. phytoplankton (62.45%), zooplankton (18.24%), algae (5.56%), plant-like particles (5.75%), debris (4.22%) and unidentified particles (2.03%). In situ water parameters were also measured throughout the sampling cruises. There was a strong and significant positive correlation between stomach phytoplankton and salinity (r = 0.658, p < 0.05).? Canonical correlation analysis indicated a weak relationship (29.8%) between stomach contents and physico-chemical parameters. Only salinity appeared to be the controlling factor for the stomach contents of Omobranchus sp. larvae in the investigated area. Based on the stomach content analysis, it could be concluded that Omobranchus sp. were mainly herbivorous during the larval stages. ?

  20. A Cross-Strait Comparison of Innovation Policy under Industry 4.0 and Sustainability Development Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan Chung Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While the advent of Industry 4.0 is emblematic of national strategy for industrial revitalization, the proliferation of technology has drastically changed the landscape of many major sectors of global industries. Industry 4.0 encompasses multi-dimensional concepts—including computerization, digitization, and intelligentization—of business operations based on cyber-physical-systems (CPS and the Internet-of-Things (IoTs. The vision of Industry 4.0 will bring about improvements in industrial processes, ranging from engineering, material usage, supply chains, and product lifecycle management, to the horizontal value chain. This research project adopts a descriptive analysis with descriptive statistics under the innovation policy framework proposed by Rothwell and Zegveld. This report also informs a comparative policy analysis across China and Taiwan. From the perspectives of industry coalition and competition, this cross-strait comparison lends itself to being a policy-making reference. Results reveal that China, in terms of policy-making, concentrates on ‘political’ and ‘legal/regulatory’ aspects of environmental policy, as well as the theme of ‘public service’ of the demand-side policy. Taiwan also emphasizes the ‘environmental-side’ policy like China, whereas Taiwan focuses more on ‘education/training’ of the supply-side policy.

  1. Comparison of the anaerobic microbiota of deep-water Geodia spp. and sandy sediments in the Straits of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Wolfram M; Brück, Thomas B; Self, William T; Reed, John K; Nitecki, Sonja S; McCarthy, Peter J

    2010-05-01

    Marine sediments and sponges may show steep variations in redox potential, providing niches for both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Geodia spp. and sediment specimens from the Straits of Florida were fixed using paraformaldehyde and 95% ethanol (v/v) for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In addition, homogenates of sponge and sediment samples were incubated anaerobically on various cysteine supplemented agars. FISH analysis showed a prominent similarity of microbiota in sediments and Geodia spp. samples. Furthermore, the presence of sulfate-reducing and annamox bacteria as well as other obligate anaerobic microorganisms in both Geodia spp. and sediment samples were also confirmed. Anaerobic cultures obtained from the homogenates allowed the isolation of a variety of facultative anaerobes, primarily Bacillus spp. and Vibrio spp. Obligate anaerobes such as Desulfovibrio spp. and Clostridium spp. were also found. We also provide the first evidence for a culturable marine member of the Chloroflexi, which may enter into symbiotic relationships with deep-water sponges such as Geodia spp. Resuspended sediment particles, may provide a source of microorganisms able to associate or form a symbiotic relationship with sponges.

  2. Distribution and biology of the Blackmouth catshark Galeus melastomus in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Blackmouth catshark, Galeus melastomus, Rafinesque, 1810 (Carcharhiniformes; Scyliorhinidae, is a common, although at present discarded, by- catch of the bottom trawl fisheries in the Strait of Sicily. Given its ecological interest, data gathered in experimental bottom trawl surveys were analysed in order to describe its distribution and main biological traits. The Blackmouth catshark was sampled almost exclusively on the upper slope (200-800, showing the highest frequency of occurrence (69-100%, biomass (BI; 10-85 kg*km-2 and density (DI; 54-506 N*km-2 indexes in the deeper (501-800m grounds. Individual size (total length, TL, mm were between 70-590 and 90-510 in females and males, respectively. The sex ratio (SR was around 0.5. The SR by size showed a gradual decrease till 450 mm class size, followed by an increase up 1 after 500 mm. Virginal/immature specimens represented the bulk of the samples in both females (77% and males (65%; the length at 50% of sexual maturity (Lm50% and corresponding maturity range (Lm25% - Lm75% was 433 (423-443 and 380 (366-394 mm, respectively.

  3. Peer review CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modelling analysis : Proposed Duke Point generation facility Georgia Strait Crossing pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A peer review of the air quality dispersion modeling analysis for the proposed gas-fired plant at Duke Point in the vicinity of Nanaimo, British Columbia was required, and SENES Consultants Limited (SENES) was commissioned to perform it. British Columbia Hydro had requested that Levelton Engineering Ltd. prepare an air quality impact assessment, and it was submitted to be included in Vancouver Island Generation Project (VIGP) permit application. This permit application was for the Joint Panel Review of the Georgia Strait Crossing Pipeline (GSX) Project and the British Columbia Environmental Assessment Office. The CALMET/CALPUFF Modelling System had been used by Levelton to conduct the air quality dispersion modelling analysis. Copies of the input and output files that had been used for the conduct of the modelling analysis were provided to SENES. The ability for SENES to reproduce the modelling results that had been published in the GSX application represented the first step in the peer review. This was accomplished by running the files received from Levelton into the CALMET/CALPUFF models. A detailed review of the methodology selected by Levelton during the conduct of the dispersion modelling analysis was then initiated by SENES. Some deficiencies were identified by SENES, despite concurrence with the overall conceptual approach adopted by Levelton. The deficiencies concerned meteorological data; startup, partial load and upset conditions; pollutant emissions; health risk assessment; cumulative impact on ambient particulate matter 10 concentrations; and collateral environmental impacts. refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  4. Tidal current and tidal energy changes imposed by a dynamic tidal power system in the Taiwan Strait, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Peng; Zhang, Jisheng; Zheng, Jinhai

    2017-12-01

    The Taiwan Strait has recently been proposed as a promising site for dynamic tidal power systems because of its shallow depth and strong tides. Dynamic tidal power is a new concept for extracting tidal potential energy in which a coast-perpendicular dike is used to create water head and generate electricity via turbines inserted in the dike. Before starting such a project, the potential power output and hydrodynamic impacts of the dike must be assessed. In this study, a two-dimensional numerical model based on the Delft3D-FLOW module is established to simulate tides in China. A dike module is developed to account for turbine processes and estimate power output by integrating a special algorithm into the model. The domain decomposition technique is used to divide the computational zone into two subdomains with grid refinement near the dike. The hydrodynamic processes predicted by the model, both with and without the proposed construction, are examined in detail, including tidal currents and tidal energy flux. The predicted time-averaged power yields with various opening ratios are presented. The results show that time-averaged power yield peaks at an 8% opening ratio. For semidiurnal tides, the flow velocity increases in front of the head of the dike and decreases on either side. For diurnal tides, these changes are complicated by the oblique incidence of tidal currents with respect to the dike as well as by bathymetric features. The dike itself blocks the propagation of tidal energy flux.

  5. Increases in the Pacific inflow to the Arctic from 1990 to 2015, and insights into seasonal trends and driving mechanisms from year-round Bering Strait mooring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Rebecca A.

    2018-01-01

    Year-round in situ Bering Strait mooring data (1990-2015) document a long-term increase (∼0.01 Sv/yr) in the annual mean transport of Pacific waters into the Arctic. Between 2002 and 2015, all annual mean transports (except 2005 and 2012) are greater than the previously accepted climatology (∼0.8 Sv). The record-length maximum (2014: 1.2 ± 0.1 Sv) is 70% higher than the record-length minimum (2001: 0.7 ± 0.1 Sv), corresponding to a reduction in the flushing time of the Chukchi Sea (to ∼4.5 months from ∼7.5 months). The transport increase results from stronger northward flows (not fewer southward flow events), yielding a 150% increase in kinetic energy, presumably with impacts on bottom suspension, mixing, and erosion. Curiously, we find no significant trends in annual mean flow in the Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC), although note that these data are only available 2002-2015. Record-length trends in annually integrated heat and freshwater fluxes (primarily driven by volume flux trends) are large (0.06 ± 0.05 × 1020 J/yr; 30 ± 20 km3/yr; relative to -1.9 °C and 34.8 psu), with heat flux lows in 2001 and 2012 (∼3 × 1020 J) and highs in 2007 and 2015 (∼5.5 × 1020 J), and a freshwater range of ∼2300 km3 (2001) to ∼3500 km3 (2014). High-flow year 2015 (volume transport ∼1.1 Sv) has the highest annual mean temperature recorded, ∼0.7 °C, astoundingly warmer than the record-length mean of 0.0 ± 0.2 °C, while low-flow year 2012 (∼0.8 Sv) is also remarkably cold (∼-0.6 °C), likely due to anomalously weak northward flow in January-March, partly driven by anomalously strong southward winds in March. A seasonal decomposition of properties of the main flow shows significant freshening in winter (∼0.03 psu/yr, January-March) likely due to sea-ice changes, but no trend (or perhaps salinization) in the rest of the year. A seasonal warming trend in the strait proper in May and June (∼0.04 °C/yr) is reflected in a trend to earlier arrival (0.9

  6. Morpho-stratigraphic features of the northern shelf of the Strait of Gibraltar: Tectonic and sedimentary processes acting at different temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luján, M.; Lobo, F. J.; Bruno, M.; de Castro, S.

    2018-06-01

    The northern shelf of the Strait of Gibraltar adjacent to Camarinal Sill, defined here as the Cape Paloma continental shelf, has been investigated by analyzing a set of geophysical data including multibeam bathymetric images, a side-scan sonar mosaic and high-resolution seismic profiles, and the simulation of water-mass circulation patterns along the northern coastal margin. The aim of the study was to establish the significance of factors determining the evolution of this shallow margin at different temporal scales and to assess the implications for bedform generation in strait settings, taking into account the complex tectonic evolution and the energetic hydrodynamic regime of the strait. Deformed basement rocks are part of the Betic-Rif thrust wedge, western Gibraltar Arc, mainly formed by the materials of the Flysch Complex units and covered by Pliocene to Quaternary post-orogenic deposits. A central high (Bajo de los Cabezos High) is delimited by lateral depressions, that nucleated two major depocentres with distinctive filling histories. The eastern depocentre is controlled by WNW-ESE faults cutting the Cretaceous-Miocene basement rocks; these faults generate horsts and grabens that could have contributed to the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar during the Pliocene. The largest and westernmost depocentre is related to the complete infilling of a shelf palaeovalley. The sediment cover is molded by different fields of submarine dunes and comet marks that indicate the influence of hydrodynamic processes on sediment transport at the coastal margin. The observations in the study area regarding bedform development must be placed into a wider context of strait sediment dynamics. The Cape Paloma continental shelf exhibits both erosional and depositional forms, due to its intermediate location between the strait, mostly dominated by erosional processes, and the Barbate Platform (northwest of the study area), mostly characterized by depositional forms. The long

  7. The effects of a local moderate tsunami in the Dover Strait on the French and English main harbors of the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Cécile; Gailler, Audrey; Heinrich, Philippe; Hélène, Hébert; Loevenbruck, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Dover Strait is regularly shaken by small to moderate earthquakes which can be felt in the nearby cities Boulogne-Sur-Mer, Calais, Dover and Folkestone. Three destructive events have been documented during the Middle Ages including 1580 Dover Strait earthquake which has been largely felt in London. The isoseimal map of this main event shows a maximum MSK paleointensity of VIII in Calais and VII in Dover [Neilson et al 1984; Melville et al. 1996]. The Dover Strait has been studied using seismic-reflection method [Garcia-Moreno et al. 2014], seafloor sampling, boreholes and gravity anomaly [Everaerts and Mansy 2001], yet the actual tectonic context of the area stays hard to understand because of the lack of recent seafloor deformation and of large recent seismic events. Among other things the occurrence of a tsunamigenic earthquake is not totally impossible [Roger and Gunnell 2011]. We propose several numerical simulations of tsunamis where the seismic scenari are chosen according to the latest fault activity study of the area [Garcia-Moreno et al. 2014]. We used strike-slip and normal mechanisms for magnitudes ranging from 6.0 to 7.0. The propagation of the tsunamis from the source to the French an English coasts is made using a bathymetry with a grid step of 20m realized by the SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine) within the TANDEM project. Using synthetic gauges, we measure the water elevation prediction at the entrance of the main harbours. We push the investigation further for the case of Boulogne-Sur-Mer where the available topography-bathymetry map has a grid step of 10m. This fine bathymetry map enables to modelize the bassins and the embankments inside the harbor and thus to study the resonance of the site. Moreover Boulogne harbor is equipped with a maregraph that we use to compare the synthetic data with real water height registration. Using maregraph recording of rough sea or storm, we are able to evaluate the relevance of

  8. Hydrographic control of the marine ecosystem in the South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Valerie; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Holm-Hansen, Osmund

    2010-04-01

    The South Shetland-Elephant Island and Bransfield Strait region of the West Antarctic Peninsula is an important spawning and nursery ground of Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and is an important source of krill to the Southern Ocean. Krill reproductive and recruitment success, hence supply of krill to predator populations locally and in downstream areas, are extremely variable on interannual and longer time scales. Interannual ecosystem variability in this region has long been recognized and thought related to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, but understanding of how has been limited by the hydrographic complexity of the region and lack of appropriate ocean-atmosphere interaction models. This study utilizes multidisciplinary data sets collected in the region from 1990 to 2004 by the U.S. Antarctic Living Marine Resources (AMLR) Program. We focus on hydrographic conditions associated with changes in the distribution, abundance and composition of salp- and copepod-dominated zooplankton assemblages during 1998 and 1999, years characterized respectively by a strong El Niño event and La Niña conditions. We provide detailed analyses of hydrographic, biological and ecological conditions during these dichotomous years in order to identify previously elusive oceanographic processes underlying ecosystem variability. We found that fluctuations between salp-dominated coastal zooplankton assemblages and copepod-dominated oceanic zooplankton assemblages result from the relative influence of Weddell Sea and oceanic waters and that these fluctuations are associated with latitudinal movement of the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (sACCf). Latitudinal movements of the sACCf can be explained by meridional atmosphere teleconnections instigated in the western tropical Pacific Ocean by ENSO variability and are consistent with out-of-phase forcing in the South Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans by the Antarctic Dipole high-latitude climate mode. During El

  9. Sedimentary infilling of bedrock-controlled palaeo-embayments off Cape Trafalgar, Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Sandra; Lobo, Francisco J.

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates two bedrock-controlled palaeo-coastal embayments on the Barbate Platform off Cape Trafalgar near the Strait of Gibraltar (Gulf of Cadiz shelf, SW Iberian Peninsula), aiming to reveal their infilling dynamics and the influence of rocky outcrops on shallow-water hydrodynamics and sediment transport. The approach relies on detailed multibeam bathymetric data, high-resolution seismic profiles and tidal current simulations. Elongated rocky outcrops formed a palaeo-coast when sea level was approximately 35 to 20 m below that of the present day, and bound a relatively flat area. However, the seismic profiles enabled to distinguish two main troughs (A and B) that were infilled following a distinctive evolution during the last transgression. Five seismic units were identified (I to V, from base to top). Deposit A is composed of seismic units II to V and is interpreted as a marine embayment infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-embayment (BPE). Deposit B is composed of seismic units I to IV and is interpreted as a palaeo-valley infill, here termed the Barbate palaeo-valley (BPV). The complex internal stratigraphic architecture depicts an overall evolution from tidal/fluvial deposits to shallow-water marine deposits. Most significant is the occurrence of coupled tidal flats/estuarine sand bars constituting the infilling of the BPE; this suggests the persistence of a high-energy current in a shallow, confined embayment, which was amplified by the rocky outcrop constrictions and possibly facilitated by the episodic movement of a normal fault. In contrast to this active setting, the nearby straight and narrow BPV was subjected to lower-energy infilling dynamics during its initial flooding phases. There, tidal activity was possibly reduced by the straight morphology of the valley and the occurrence of a topographic constriction (i.e. the Barbate Passage) at the mouth of the valley.

  10. With good intentions: complexity in unsolicited informal support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A qualitative study

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    Aspin Clive

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding people's social lived experiences of chronic illness is fundamental to improving health service delivery and health outcomes, particularly in relation to self-management activity. In explorations of social lived experiences this paper uncovers the ways in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness experience informal unsolicited support from peers and family members. Methods Nineteen Aboriginal and Torres Islander participants were interviewed in the Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS. Participants were people with Type 2 diabetes (N = 17, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (N = 3 and/or chronic heart failure (N = 11 and family carers (N = 3. Participants were asked to describe their experience of having or caring for someone with chronic illness. Content and thematic analysis of in-depth semi-structured interviews was undertaken, assisted by QSR Nvivo8 software. Results Participants reported receiving several forms of unsolicited support, including encouragement, practical suggestions for managing, nagging, growling, and surveillance. Additionally, participants had engaged in 'yarning', creating a 'yarn' space, the function of which was distinguished as another important form of unsolicited support. The implications of recognising these various support forms are discussed in relation to responses to unsolicited support as well as the needs of family carers in providing effective informal support. Conclusions Certain locations of responsibility are anxiety producing. Family carers must be supported in appropriate education so that they can provide both solicited and unsolicited support in effective ways. Such educational support would have the added benefit of helping to reduce carer anxieties about caring roles and responsibilities. Mainstream health services would benefit from fostering environments that encourage informal interactions that

  11. Standardised alcohol screening in primary health care services targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; Oni, Helen T; Lee, K S Kylie; Hayman, Noel; Wilson, Scott; Harrison, Kristie; Hummerston, Beth; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-03-29

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) around Australia have been asked to standardise screening for unhealthy drinking. Accordingly, screening with the 3-item AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) tool has become a national key performance indicator. Here we provide an overview of suitability of AUDIT-C and other brief alcohol screening tools for use in ACCHSs. All peer-reviewed literature providing original data on validity, acceptability or feasibility of alcohol screening tools among Indigenous Australians was reviewed. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes and integrate results. Three screening tools-full AUDIT, AUDIT-3 (third question of AUDIT) and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener) have been validated against other consumption measures, and found to correspond well. Short forms of AUDIT have also been found to compare well with full AUDIT, and were preferred by primary care staff. Help was often required with converting consumption into standard drinks. Researchers commented that AUDIT and its short forms prompted reflection on drinking. Another tool, the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), jointly screens for alcohol, drug and mental health risk, but is relatively long (13 items). IRIS has been validated against dependence scales. AUDIT, IRIS and CAGE have a greater focus on dependence than on hazardous or harmful consumption. Detection of unhealthy drinking before harms occur is a goal of screening, so AUDIT-C offers advantages over tools like IRIS or CAGE which focus on dependence. AUDIT-C's brevity suits integration with general health screening. Further research is needed on facilitating implementation of systematic alcohol screening into Indigenous primary healthcare.

  12. Quantitative determination of fatty acids in marine fish and shellfish from warm water of Straits of Malacca for nutraceutical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Aziz, Nurnadia; Azlan, Azrina; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Alinafiah, Suryati; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3). Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P < 0.05) amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2-944.1 mg/100 g wet sample) of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S) ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S = 0.58), a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 6.4, P/S = 1.7), moonfish (highest ALA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 1.9, P/S = 1.0), and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω - 3/ω - 6 = 0.8, P/S = 0.4) were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  13. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  14. Quantitative Determination of Fatty Acids in Marine Fish and Shellfish from Warm Water of Straits of Malacca for Nutraceutical Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurnadia Abd Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to quantitatively determine the fatty acid contents of 20 species of marine fish and four species of shellfish from Straits of Malacca. Most samples contained fairly high amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, especially alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3 n3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 n3, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n3. Longtail shad, yellowstripe scad, and moonfish contained significantly higher (P<0.05 amounts of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, respectively. Meanwhile, fringescale sardinella, malabar red snapper, black pomfret, Japanese threadfin bream, giant seaperch, and sixbar grouper showed considerably high content (537.2–944.1 mg/100g wet sample of desirable omega-3 fatty acids. The polyunsaturated-fatty-acids/saturated-fatty-acids (P/S ratios for most samples were higher than that of Menhaden oil (P/S=0.58, a recommended PUFA supplement which may help to lower blood pressure. Yellowstripe scad (highest DHA, ω-3/ω-6=6.4, P/S=1.7, moonfish (highest ALA, ω-3/ω-6=1.9, P/S=1.0, and longtail shad (highest EPA, ω-3/ω-6=0.8, P/S=0.4 were the samples with an outstandingly desirable overall composition of fatty acids. Overall, the marine fish and shellfish from the area contained good composition of fatty acids which offer health benefits and may be used for nutraceutical purposes in the future.

  15. Reproductive biology of Perkinsiana antarctica (Kinberg (Polychaeta, Sabellidae in the Straits of Magellan (South America: Systematic and ecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Gambi

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive biology and larval development of the polychaete Perkinsiana Antarctica (Kinberg, 1867 (Sabellidae are described of a population sampled in October 1994 and March 1997 in the type locality of this species, the Straits of Magellan (Southern Chile. Perkinsiana antarctica is a simultaneous hermaphrodite. Eggs are present in the thorax and in the anterior part of the abdomen, while sperm cells occur in the posterior abdomen. Spermatids are grouped in tetrads; mature sperm cells present an oval nucleus (length of major axis about 3 µm and the acrosome is about 2.5 µm long with a conoid shape. Mature eggs have a mean diameter of 235 µm; embryos and larvae are incubated within the branchial crown of specimens exceeding 10 mm in length. Hatching larvae have a mean length of 420 µm, with 4 segments, each bearing two notochaeta; two ocular spots and a well-developed prototroch are present at the anterior end. Both number of embryos and larvae per individual showed a relatively high range of variation (embryos from 54 to 374, mean=173; larvae from 18 to 222, mean=101. The features of reproductive biology in P. antarctica do not seem to be related to the size of the species itself, as P. antarctica represents one of the largest-sized sabellids that are brooding eggs, and producing a relatively high number of offspring. These reproductive and developmental traits seem more related to the colonization of harsh and selective habitats, such as the intertidal and shallow subtidal of the Subantarctic areas. Comparisons with the reproductive biology of other species of Perkinsiana demonstrate a high degree of variability within the genus regarding reproduction and the apparent lack of synapomorphies.

  16. Prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Simon; O'Connor, Catherine C; Morgan, Stephen; Chamberlain, Catherine; Hocking, Jane

    2017-06-01

    Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (Aboriginal) are Australia's first peoples. Between 2006 and 2015, HIV notifications increased among Aboriginal people; however, among non-Aboriginal people, notifications remained relatively stable. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to examine the prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people overall and by subgroups. In November 2015, a search of PubMed and Web of Science, grey literature and abstracts from conferences was conducted. A study was included if it reported the number of Aboriginal people tested and those who tested positive for HIV. The following variables were extracted: gender; Aboriginal status; population group (men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, adults, youth in detention and pregnant females) and geographical location. An assessment of between study heterogeneity (I 2 test) and within study bias (selection, measurement and sample size) was also conducted. Seven studies were included; all were cross-sectional study designs. The overall sample size was 3772 and the prevalence of HIV was 0.1% (I 2 =38.3%, P=0.136). Five studies included convenient samples of people attending Australian Needle and Syringe Program Centres, clinics, hospitals and a youth detention centre, increasing the potential of selection bias. Four studies had a sample size, thus decreasing the ability to report pooled estimates. The prevalence of HIV among Aboriginal people in Australia is low. Community-based programs that include both prevention messages for those at risk of infection and culturally appropriate clinical management and support for Aboriginal people living with HIV are needed to prevent HIV increasing among Aboriginal people.

  17. Wide variation in absolute cardiovascular risk assessment in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with Type 2 diabetes

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    Bhakti Ramesh Vasant

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA is based on the combined effects of multiple risk factors and can identify asymptomatic individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Our study aimed to investigate variations in the use of absolute CVRA in patients with diabetes at Indigenous community healthcare centres, and to identify patient and health centre characteristics that may contribute to this variation. Methods: Audits of clinical records of 1,728 patients with a known diagnosis of diabetes across 121 health centres over the period 2012–2014 were conducted as part of a large-scale continuous quality improvement program. Multilevel regression modelling was used to quantify variation in recording of CVRA attributable to health centre and patient characteristics. Results: The proportion of eligible patients with documented CVRA was 33% (n=574/1,728. The majority (95% of assessments were conducted in the Northern Territory (NT. Multilevel regression analysis showed health centre characteristics accounted for 70% of the variation in assessments in the NT. Government-operated health centres had 18.8 times the odds (95% CI 7.7–46.2 of recording CVRA delivery compared with other health centres. Conclusion: Health centres in the NT delivered the majority of absolute CVRA to Indigenous patients with diabetes in our study. Health systems factors that may have facilitated provision of CVRA in the NT include decision support tools and a reporting process for CVRA delivery. Implementation of similar systems in other jurisdictions may help improve CVRA delivery. Early identification and treatment of high risk individuals through wider use of CVRA may help reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease in Indigenous Australians with diabetes.

  18. Characterization, Distribution, Sources and Origins of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons from Surface Sediment of Prai Strait, Penang, Malaysia: A Widespread Anthropogenic Input

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    Mahyar Sakari

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent organic pollutants such as petroleum hydrocarbons are one of the most serious and important class of pollutants that face to many countries including Malaysia. Aliphatic hydrocarbons contain straight chain alkane; derive from anthropogenic and natural sources to the marine environment. The multi-purpose strait of Prai is located in the Northwest of Peninsular Malaysia plays an important economic role in the Southeast Asia. Twenty surface sediment samples were collected using Eckman dredge to measure the concentration and determine the characterization, sources and origins of the aliphatic hydrocarbons in December 2006. Samples (top 4 cm were extracted with Soxhlet, treated with activated copper and subjected to 2 steps column chromatography for purification and fractionation. Alkane fraction injected into Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID for instrumental analysis. The results showed that total n-alkane concentrations are ranging from 512 to 10770 ng/mg d. w. Carbon Preferences Index (CPI revealed an extreme widespread anthropogenic input and naturally derived (CPI= 0 to 4.88 hydrocarbons in the study area. The ratio of C31/C19 indicated that natural hydrocarbons are generating from terrestrial vascular plants and transferring by rivers. The characteristics of Major Hydrocarbons provided evidences that oil and its derivatives either fresh or degraded are the major contributors of the pollution in the study area. Statistical approaches also confirmed that 85% of study area affected by oil sources of pollution. It is seen that aliphatic hydrocarbons mostly transfer by lateral input to the marine environment than atmospheric movements.

  19. Surface current measurements in Juan de Fuca Strait using the SeaSonde HF [high frequency] radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgins, D.O.

    1994-09-01

    The shore-based SeaSonde high-frequency (HF) radar was deployed for three weeks in summer 1993 to measure surface currents in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Experimental objectives included documenting the complex flow regime generated by large tides and the brackish plume of the Fraser River, and determining the radar performance under low-wind, low-salinity conditions. The radar data showed that surface flows are dominated by the plume jet formed by the Fraser River outflow, giving rise to recurring, energetic eddies with scales of 8-12 km, strong flow meanders, and convergent fronts. These features were continuously modulated by the along-channel tidal flows. Comparisons with a detailed numerical model hindcast gave good correlation between observed and predicted flow fields, especially at tidal and low frequencies. Radar return was found to be correlated with local winds and radar performance was independent of salinity variations in the plume. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) provides a map of the radar scattering characteristics of the ocean surface on a capillary wave scale. ERS-1 satellite and airborne SAR images for July 28, 1993 were obtained and surface features were examined in the context of the HF radar current fields. Results show that SAR images alone cannot reliably provide the dynamical data required in this region by oil spill models. Under certain conditions, however, the radar imagery offers valuable physical information on phenomena affecting oil slick development. Interpretation of SAR imagery in conjunction with other remote sensing information would offer more quantitative prediction data. 28 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab

  20. Restrictions in Mg/Ca-Paleotemperature Estimations in High-Latitude Bottom Waters: Evidence from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, K.; Marchitto, T. M., Jr.; Not, C.; Spielhagen, R. F.; Husum, K.

    2014-12-01

    Mg to Ca ratios of the benthic foraminifer species Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi provide a great potential for reconstructing bottom water temperatures, especially from the lower end of the temperature range between 0 and 6°C (Tisserand et al., 2013). A set of core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Norwegian margin have been studied for Mg/Ca ratios in C. wuellerstorfi in order to establish a calibration relationship to the environmental conditions. In this part of the northern North Atlantic the bottom water temperature range between -0.5 and -1°C. For the calibration to modern water mass conditions, modern oceanographic data from both existing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) casts and the World Ocean Data Base 2013 (Boyer et al., 2013) have been used. Benthic Mg/Ca ratios are relatively high suggesting a preference of C. wuellerstorfi to incorporate Mg below 0°C. Although no correlation has been found to existing temperature calibrations, the data are in line with earlier Mg/Ca data from C. wuellerstorfi in the area (Martin et al., 2002; Elderfield et al., 2006). The carbonate ion effect is most likely a main cause for the relatively high Mg/Ca ratios found in core top samples from the Fram Strait and the Nordic Seas, however, other factors may influence the values as well. Holocene records of benthic trace metal/Ca ratios from the eastern Fram Strait display trends similar to those found in other proxy indicators, despite the difficulties to constrain a temperature calibration for this low temperature range. In particular, the benthic B/Ca and Li/Ca records resemble trends in Holocene planktic foraminifer assemblages, suggesting to be influenced by environmental factors such as the carbonate ion effect consistent for the entire water column.

  1. Spatial and temporal scales of sea ice protists and phytoplankton distribution from the gateway Fram Strait into the Central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeken, I.; Hardge, K.; Krumpen, T.; Metfies, K.; Nöthig, E. M.; Rabe, B.; von Appen, W. J.; Vernet, M.

    2016-02-01

    The Arctic Ocean is currently one of the key regions where the effect of climate change is most pronounced. Sea ice is an important interface in this region by representing a unique habitat for many organisms. Massive reduction of sea ice thickness and extent, which have been recorded over the last twenty years, is anticipated to cause large cascading changes in the entire Arctic ecosystem. Most sea ice is formed on the Eurasian shelves and transported via the Transpolardrift to the western Fram Strait and out of the Arctic Ocean with the cold East Greenland Current (EGC). Warm Atlantic water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) via eastern Fram Strait. Here, we focus on the spatial spreading of protists from the Atlantic water masses, and their occurrences over the deep basins of the Central Arctic and the relationship amongst them in water and sea ice. Communities were analyzed by using pigments, flow cytometer and ARISA fingerprints during several cruises with the RV Polarstern to the Fram Strait, the Greenland Sea and the Central Arctic Ocean. By comparing these data sets we are able to demonstrate that the origin of the studied sea ice floes is more important for the biodiversity found in the sea ice communities then the respective underlying water mass. In contrast, biodiversity in the water column is mainly governed by the occurring water masses and the presence or absence of sea ice. However, overall the development of standing stocks in both biomes was governed by the availability of nutrients. To get a temporal perspective of the recent results, the study will be embedded in a long-term data set of phytoplankton biomass obtained during several cruises over the last twenty years.

  2. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  3. Discrimination of fine-grained sediment provenance using geochemical elements on the inner shelf of the Korean Strait (South Sea), Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, I. K.; Choi, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    The central South Sea mud (CSSM) is located between the Heuksan mud belt (HMB) in the Yellow Sea and Korea Strait shelf mud (KSSM) in the East Sea and developed along the eastward transport pathway in the South Sea. Major elements (Al, Fe, Mg, and Ti), trace elements (Li, Cs, Sc, and Rb), and rare earth elements (REEs) in the fine-grained sediments (HMB were deposited mostly in the W-CSSM, whereas those from the Seomjin River were deposited mostly in the E-CSSM

  4. Study protocol: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial of a 12-week physical activity and nutritional education program for overweight Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cargo Margaret

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have a higher prevalence and incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes than non-Indigenous Australian women. Physical inactivity is a key modifiable risk factor for obesity and evidence shows that even modest reductions in waist circumference (WC have significant health benefits. Trialing physical activity programs in difficult-to-reach high risk groups, especially urban Indigenous Australians poses distinct implementation challenges. Methods/Design The trial objective is to evaluate the effectiveness of a structured 12-week physical activity group program with nutritional advice. The design is a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. This study protocol describes the implementation and evaluation of the program. Participants are randomised into either an intervention or waitlisted group. The waitlisted group have a 12 month waiting period before commencing the 12-week program. Participant data is collected at baseline, 12, 24 and 52 weeks. Participants are Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, aged 18-64 years with a waist circumference greater than 80 centimetres residing in Adelaide. The primary outcome measure is WC change immediately post program from baseline. Secondary outcomes include short term and long term changes in WC, weight, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance (calculated HOMA, haemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, triglycerides and C-reactive protein (CRP. Behavioural and psychosocial surveys are administered to assess physical activity, dietary intake and the participant's motivation, self-efficacy and perceived social support for physical activity. Qualitative interviews focusing on participants' motivation, enablers and barriers to healthy eating and physical activity will be undertaken. Implementation fidelity and participation are also assessed. Discussion The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Women's Fitness Program (WFP is designed

  5. Getting it Right: Study protocol to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a culturally-specific measure to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hackett, Maree L.; Hackett, Maree L.; Farnbach, Sara

    2016-01-01

    for a study aiming to determine the validity, sensitivity and specificity of the culturally adapted 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (aPHQ-9). Methods and analysis Cross-sectional validation study. A total of 500 people who self-identify as Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander, are ≥18 €...years of age......© Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. Introduction A freely available, culturally valid depression screening tool is required for use by primary care services across Australia to screen for depression in Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander populations. This is the protocol...

  6. Nutrient Dynamics in the Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. T.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) is situated in the sub-tropics along the southern Chinese coast between the southern end of the Taiwan Strait and the Hainan Island. Samples were collected in four cross-shelf transects in summer, 2010 and two cross-shelf transects in winter, 2011 in this Shelf-sea. The shelf may be sub-divided into the inner shelf (1 μM in NO3- and >0.1 μM in soluble reactive phosphate) stretched across the shelf at least to the middle shelf. Thus, vertical mixing, even to relatively shallow depths, on the shelf may supply nutrients to and play a critical role in determining the primary production in the mixed layer. At least three such processes were observed. Through the year, internal waves of various strengths generated at the Luzon Strait propagated westward along the bottom of the mixed layer and dissipated along the middle and outer shelf. The effects of these waves were especially conspicuous north of the Dongsha Atoll and their action enhances vertical mixing. In the summer, upwelling occurred in the inner/middle shelf off Dongshan in response to the along shore southwest monsoon and the topographic forcing by the ridge extending offshore from Dongshan to the Taiwan Bank. In the winter, surface cooling and the strong northeast monsoon led to complete overturn in the shelf. The maximum density, reaching 24.6, in the surface waters was found offshore in the inner and middle shelf. This density was equivalent to the density of the water at >100 m offshore. As a result, this dense water also appeared as a layer of bottom water that extended across the shelf to the shelf edge.

  7. The compositional change of Fluorescent Dissolved Organic Matter across Fram Strait assessed with use of a multi channel in situ fluorometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczkowska, A.; Kowalczuk, P.; Sagan, S.; Zabłocka, M.; Pavlov, A. K.; Granskog, M. A.; Stedmon, C. A.

    2016-02-01

    Observations of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter absorption (CDOM) and fluorescence (FDOM) from water samples and an in situ fluorometer and of Inherent Optical Properties (IOP; light absorption and scattering) were carried out along a section across Fram Strait at 79°N. A 3 channel Wetlabs Wetstar fluorometer was deployed, with channels for humic- and protein-like DOM and used to assess distribution of different FDOM fractions. A relationship between fluorescence intensity of the protein-like fraction of FDOM and chlorophyll a fluorescence was found and indicated the importance of phytoplankton biomass in West Spitsbergen Current waters as a significant source of protein-like FDOM. East Greenland Current waters has low concentration of chlorophyll a, and were characterized by high humic-like FDOM fluorescence. An empirical relationship between humic-like FDOM fluorescence intensity and CDOM absorption was derived and confirms the dominance of terrigenous like CDOM on the composition of DOM in the East Greenland Current. These high resolution profile data offer a simple approach to fractionate the contribution of these two DOM source to DOM across the Fram Strait and may help refine estimates of DOC fluxes in and out of the Arctic through this region.

  8. Interannual variability, growth, reproduction and feeding of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in the Straits of Messina (Central Mediterranean Sea): Linkages with temperature and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, S.; Pansera, M.; Granata, A.; Guglielmo, L.

    2013-02-01

    To identify some of the possible environmental factors stimulating the increasingly frequent outbreaks of the scyphomedusa Pelagia noctiluca in the Straits of Messina, we investigated its abundance, growth, reproduction and feeding over a 4-year period, from 2007 to 2011, at two coastal sites. Using either field investigations and manipulative experiments we show that, among the various factors considered, shifts in water temperature (influencing medusae metabolism, growth and reproduction rates) and the size structure of the zooplankton community (their natural preys) can promote the proliferation of P. noctiluca. In particular, we show that increased temperature let jellyfishes to grow more rapidly and reach exceptional sizes. We also report a peculiar opportunistic behavior of P. noctiluca, which makes this species a potentially strong competitor in the pelagic trophic web of the Straits ecosystem. We therefore propose that more frequent P. noctiluca outbreaks stimulated by increasing sea surface temperature and shifts in their prey availability and composition would become, in the near future, a major cause of ecosystem shift.

  9. Organochlorine residues in harp seals, Phoca groenlandica, from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait: An evaluation of contaminant concentrations and burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.G.; Smith, T.G. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Nanaimo, BC (Canada)); Addison, R.F. (Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans, Sidney, BC (Canada))

    1994-01-01

    Organochlorine contaminant concentrations and burdens were evaluated in blubber samples from 50 harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) obtained from the estuary and northern Gulf of St. Lawrence and Hudson Strait, Canada between December 1988 and December 1989. The concentration and burden of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) increased significantly during the winter months for males occupying the St. Lawrence estuary. The potential for rapid accumulation of contaminants in the estuary was also observed among females: nine postpartum females (1 month after weaning) had higher organochlorine levels than prepartum females from the same location. The lowest observed contaminant concentrations and burdens were in seals from Hudson Strait in autumn. In winter specimens, males had DDT and PCB concentrations about 4 and 2 times as great, respectively, as females of similar age distribution and collection date. Congeners with IUPAC Nos. 138 and 153 accounted for more than 50% of total identifiable PCBs, which is consistent with their prevalence in other marine biota. The concentration of PCBs has declined and the percent p,p'-DDE of total DDT has increased between 1982 and the present study. Unlike the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas), harp seals occupy the more polluted waters of the estuary only seasonally, and this may account for their lower residue concentrations. 59 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  10. The Australian REEFREP System: A Coastal Vessel Traffic Information Service and Ship Reporting System for the Torres Strait Region and the Inner Route of the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, John C.

    The new Australian ship reporting system, identifier , will be the core component of a Vessel Traffic Information Service (VTIS) covering the Torres Strait region and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). It is the first such system to be considered by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) under the terms of the new SOLAS 74 regulation v/8-1, which entered into force on 1 January 1996 and allows for ship reporting systems adopted by the Organization to be made mandatory for all, or certain categories of vessels.The REEFREP system, planned for implementation on 1 January 1997, extends for some 900 n.m. or about 1500 km along the Queensland coastline. It will be a VHF radio-based system with radars covering three selected focal points in the Torres Strait, off Cairns and in the southern approaches to the inner route. The system will provide a capability for a single Ship Reporting Centre to interact with shipping, enabling the provision of improved information on the presence, movements and patterns of shipping in the area and the ability to respond more quickly to an incident or pollution should this occur.An interesting feature and a major factor in the system design is the remoteness of most equipment sites and the limited infrastructure available to support communications and data transmission requiring the application of advanced technology and video transmission, solar power generation and software engineering skills of a high order.

  11. Representation of the thickness distribution of channels and stratigraphic events at one of the Iranian fields in the Hormuz Strait using a composite plot and RGB display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadatinejad, M R; Javaherian, A; Hassani, H

    2011-01-01

    The Hormuz Strait is an important area which is located between the Persian Gulf, with half the oil reserves of the world, and the Oman Sea south of Iran. Many geophysical studies have been done to analyse the structure of subsurface layers in this strait and explore many new gas reservoirs as these findings help to simulate images from reservoir stratigraphy and understand the paleo-depositional environments. Spectral decomposition, which is a quick and important method in seismic interpretation, provides a strong tool to study these types of subsurface layers. In this paper, a red–green–blue (RGB) multi-colour display technique has been performed as an effective interpretation tool. This technique stacks three different frequencies with three different colours for composite display. So, these frequency components show the distribution of channel thickness as we map the variation of thickness with a colour scale that is equal to the quantitative thickness according to its relationship with frequency. In addition, seismic attributes such as coherency, peak and instantaneous frequency, which are sensitive to the edges of stratigraphic events (such as channels), are shown with a composite plot too; although the RGB technique is better than other techniques, for thickness variation a combined application is the best method of study

  12. Resting heart rate, physiological stress and disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: analysis from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Alice; Hughes, Jaquelyne T; Brown, Alex; Lawton, Paul D; Cass, Alan; Hoy, Wendy; O'Dea, Kerin; Maple-Brown, Louise J

    2016-02-11

    Lower socioeconomic status has been linked to long-term stress, which can manifest in individuals as physiological stress. The aim was to explore the relationship between low socioeconomic status and physiological stress in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Using data from the eGFR Study (a cross-sectional study of 634 Indigenous Australians in urban and remote areas of northern and central Australia), we examined associations between resting heart rate and demographic, socioeconomic, and biomedical factors. An elevated resting heart rate has been proposed as a measure of sustained stress activation and was used as a marker of physiological stress. Relationships were assessed between heart rate and the above variables using univariate and multiple regression analyses. We reported a mean resting heart rate of 74 beats/min in the cohort (mean age 45 years). On multiple regression analysis, higher heart rate was found to be independently associated with Aboriginal ethnicity, being a current smoker, having only primary level schooling, higher HbA1c and higher diastolic blood pressure (model R(2) 0.25). Elevated resting heart rate was associated with lower socioeconomic status and poorer health profile in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Higher resting heart rate may be an indicator of stress and disadvantage in this population at high risk of chronic diseases.

  13. Geotechnical characterization through in situ and laboratory tests of several geological formations present in the route of the Future Fix Connection between Spain and Morocco through Gibraltar Strait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perucho Martinez, A.; Diez Torres, J. A.; Muniz Menendez, M.; Cano Linares, H.; Ruiz Fonticiella, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    CEDEX and SECEGSA (Sociedad Española para la Comunicación Fija a través del Estrecho de Gibraltar), Have been collaborating since a few decades ago to study different technical aspects related to the Fix Connection through the Gibraltar Strait, mainly in relation to the geological and geotechnical properties of the different formations present in the route. In order to do so, many studies of geotechnical characterization of materials, in situ and laboratory testing campaigns have been carried out. Furthermore, they have participated in some Expertise Committees carrying out some advice work related to studies performed by other organizations. This paper presents a brief description of the most relevant aspects of the main geological and geotechnical studies performed related to this Project of the Future Fix Connection and obtained through the study of SECEGSAs extensive data base. Moreover, it includes a synopsis of the geotechnical characterization carried out through in situ and laboratory tests on different Miocene and Eocene formations from the Algeciras Unit, present in the route of the future Fix Connection between Spain and gibraltar through the Gibraltar Strait. (Author)

  14. Using systems thinking and the Intervention Level Framework to analyse public health planning for complex problems: Otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D

    2018-01-01

    Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty

  15. The Murri clinic: a comparative retrospective study of an antenatal clinic developed for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kildea Sue

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians are a small, widely dispersed population. Regarding childbearing women and infants, inequities in service delivery and culturally unsafe services contribute to significantly poorer outcomes, with a lack of high-level research to guide service redesign. This paper reports on an Evaluation of a specialist (Murri antenatal clinic for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women. Methods A triangulated mixed method approach generated and analysed data from a range of sources: individual and focus group interviews; surveys; mother and infant audit data; and routinely collected data. A retrospective analysis compared clinical outcomes of women who attended the Murri clinic (n=367 with Indigenous women attending standard care (n=414 provided by the same hospital over the same period. Both services see women of all risk status. Results The majority of women attending the Murri clinic reported high levels of satisfaction, specifically with continuity of carer antenatally. However, disappointment with the lack of continuity during labour/birth and postnatally left some women feeling abandoned and uncared for. Compared to Indigenous women attending standard care, those attending the Murri clinic were statistically less likely to be primiparous or partnered, to experience perineal trauma, to have an epidural and to have a baby admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, and were more likely to have a non-instrumental vaginal birth. Multivariate analysis found higher normal birth (spontaneous onset of labour, no epidural, non-instrumental vaginal birth without episiotomy rates amongst women attending the Murri clinic. Conclusions Significant benefits were associated with attending the Murri clinic. Recommendations for improvement included ongoing cultural competency training for all hospital staff, reducing duplication of services, improving co-ordination and communication between community and tertiary

  16. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Langham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial and emotional wellbeing (SEWB is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS.MethodsCross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1 SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2 concern regarding SEWB, (3 actions in response to concern, and (4 follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening.ResultsThe largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by

  17. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; McCalman, Janya; Matthews, Veronica; Bainbridge, Roxanne Gwendalyn; Nattabi, Barbara; Kinchin, Irina; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs) undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS. Cross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1) SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2) concern regarding SEWB, (3) actions in response to concern, and (4) follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening. The largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases. Our findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by dedicated SEWB funding, and training for health

  18. Application of natural Ra isotopes and 234Th as tracers of organic carbon export in Bransfield Strait, Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The Southern Ocean is the largest of several high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions in the world's oceans. This region plays a major role in regulating the global net transfer of carbon dioxide between the ocean and the atmosphere, in part because the annual photosynthetic uptake of CO 2 by phytoplankton and resulting export of particulate organic carbon (POC) to the deep ocean. The element thorium has multiple radioisotopes that have emerged collectively as a powerful set of tracers for particle associated processes in the oceans. Of all the Th isotopes, 234 Th (half-life 24.1 d) has been the focus of increasing attention and application in the past years. The production of 234 Th from 238 U, coupled with the conservative behavior of 238 U in seawater, makes the source of 234 Th easy to characterize. Moreover, the half-life of 234 Th is sufficiently short to make it sensitive to the short-term (e.g. seasonal) changes that occur in the upper water column of the open ocean or in sediments or water column in coastal areas. Because of its very particle reactive behavior, 234 Th is removed from a parcel of water in only two ways, through decay and through particle flux. Therefore, a steady-state 1D activity balance can be used to calculate its flux. Natural Ra isotopes have been also widely used in marine studies to trace water masses and to quantify mixing processes. This work presents results of a collaborative research on organic carbon fluxes distribution in the Bransfield Strait in order to evaluate its influence in the CO 2 drawdown. Macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and chlorophyll-a distributions were used to examine the pathway sources. Natural radium isotopes were applied as tracers to study the movement of shelf water, while 234 Th was used as a tracer of particle flux in the upper ocean, since POC export via sinking particles is the primary mechanism of carbon sequestration in the Southern Ocean. Sea water samples for total 234 Th and natural Ra

  19. Development of a National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework: A Shared Process to Guide Effective Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Brands

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a substantially higher cancer mortality rate than non-Indigenous Australians. While cancer outcomes are improving for non-Indigenous Australians, they are worsening for Indigenous Australians. Reducing this disparity requires evidence-based and culturally-appropriate guidance. The purpose of this paper is to describe an initiative by Cancer Australia and Menzies School of Health Research (Menzies to develop Australia’s first National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Framework using a process of co-design with relevant stakeholders. The initiative was guided by three core principles: achieving policy-relevant evidence-based outcomes; engaging and maintaining trust with Indigenous Australians at every phase; and employing best-practice and appropriate research methods. Four components of research comprised the Framework development: evidence review; multifaceted stakeholder consultation and input; triangulation of findings; and direct stakeholder input in drafting and refining the Framework. The evidence review confirmed the increasing burden of cancer on Indigenous Australians, while stakeholder consultations facilitated comprehensive input from those with lived experience. The consultations revealed issues not identified in existing literature, and gave different emphases of priority, thus reinforcing the value of including stakeholder perspectives. This paper focuses primarily on documenting the methods used; findings are presented only in order to illustrate the results of the process. The published Framework is available at www.canceraustralia.gov.au; further description and analyses of findings from the consultations will be published elsewhere. The logistics inherent in large-scale consultation are considerable. However, the quality of data and the foundation for sustained partnership with stakeholders and knowledge translation vastly outweighed the challenges. The process of wide

  20. The Late Quaternary Seismic Stratigraphy of the Southern Shelf of the Strait of Istanbul (Sea of Marmara, Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz Abuş, Eren

    2013-04-01

    The sea level changes in the northern shelf (Istanbul) of the Sea of Marmara and the sources of sedimentary packages at the southern exist of the Strait of Istanbul have been an ongoing debate the past decade. This study aims to enlighten both the sea level oscillations since ~125 ky before present and the structure of aforesaid sedimentary sequence, Unit 2, near Kurbaǧalı River observed in high resolution sparker seismic sections using global sea level change curves. Contary to Hiscott et al. (2002), Gökaşan et al. (2005), and Eriş et al. (2007) preferring the global sea level change curve in Fairbanks (1989) so as to explain the age interval of the sequence, we introduced the curve in Bard et al. (1990) presented the 230Th - 234U ages of Acropora palmata samples collected from the offshore of the island of Barbados, where Fairbanks (1989) submits the first chronology using the limited 14C ages. Therefore, the deposition of the Unit 2 was considered as 10 - 9 ky before present by Hiscott et al. (2002), as 12 - 11±1.1 ky BP by Gökaşan et al. (2005), and as 6.4 - 3.2 ky BP by Eriş et al. (2007). Having applied this calibration to our study, the age interval of the Unit 2 was calculated as 11.5 ky before present. In previous studies, Unit 2 was presented as prograding deltaic deposits of the Kurbaǧalı River yet our studies illustrates that the stream current of Kurbaǧalı River is not capable of supporting adequate sediment input, which is about 1.5 x 8.5 kilometers when the thickness and rate of propagation of Unit 2 are considered. Thanks to high resolution seismic sections and bathymetry, we firstly introduce that the Unit 2 is a point-bar structure forming as a product of the meandering regime at the southern exit of the Bosphorus.

  1. Improving the provision of pregnancy care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women: a continuous quality improvement initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson-Helm, Melanie E; Rumbold, Alice R; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Bailie, Ross S; Boyle, Jacqueline A

    2016-05-24

    Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women are at greater risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes than non-Indigenous women. Pregnancy care has a key role in identifying and addressing modifiable risk factors that contribute to adverse outcomes. We investigated whether participation in a continuous quality improvement (CQI) initiative was associated with increases in provision of recommended pregnancy care by primary health care centers (PHCs) in predominantly Indigenous communities, and whether provision of care was associated with organizational systems or characteristics. Longitudinal analysis of 2220 pregnancy care records from 50 PHCs involved in up to four cycles of CQI in Australia between 2007 and 2012. Linear and logistic regression analyses investigated associations between documented provision of pregnancy care and each CQI cycle, and self-ratings of organizational systems. Main outcome measures included screening and counselling for lifestyle-related risk factors. Women attending PHCs after ≥1 CQI cycles were more likely to receive each pregnancy care measure than women attending before PHCs had completed one cycle e.g. screening for cigarette use: baseline = 73 % (reference), cycle one = 90 % [odds ratio (OR):3.0, 95 % confidence interval (CI):2.2-4.1], two = 91 % (OR:5.1, 95 % CI:3.3-7.8), three = 93 % (OR:6.3, 95 % CI:3.1-13), four = 95 % (OR:11, 95 % CI:4.3-29). Greater self-ratings of overall organizational systems were significantly associated with greater screening for alcohol use (β = 6.8, 95 % CI:0.25-13), nutrition counselling (β = 8.3, 95 % CI:3.1-13), and folate prescription (β = 7.9, 95 % CI:2.6-13). Participation in a CQI initiative by PHCs in Indigenous communities is associated with greater provision of pregnancy care regarding lifestyle-related risk factors. More broadly, these findings support incorporation of CQI activities addressing systems level issues into primary care

  2. Water temperature, salinity, and velocity including ADCP ice tracking from Bering Strait Moorings A2, A4, A3 between 2013-07-05 and 2014-07-02 (NCEI Accession 0156230)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is an archive of data from moorings deployed in Bering Strait from summer 2013 to summer 2014. Mooring deployments were funded by the ONR award N00014-13-1-0468...

  3. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Matthew; Chuter, Vivienne; Munteanu, Shannon; Hawke, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91%) while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have a 3-6 fold increased likelihood of experiencing a

  4. Adjusting for under-identification of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births in time series produced from birth records: Using record linkage of survey data and administrative data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence David

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statistical time series derived from administrative data sets form key indicators in measuring progress in addressing disadvantage in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. However, inconsistencies in the reporting of Indigenous status can cause difficulties in producing reliable indicators. External data sources, such as survey data, provide a means of assessing the consistency of administrative data and may be used to adjust statistics based on administrative data sources. Methods We used record linkage between a large-scale survey (the Western Australian Aboriginal Child Health Survey, and two administrative data sources (the Western Australia (WA Register of Births and the WA Midwives’ Notification System to compare the degree of consistency in determining Indigenous status of children between the two sources. We then used a logistic regression model predicting probability of consistency between the two sources to estimate the probability of each record on the two administrative data sources being identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in a survey. By summing these probabilities we produced model-adjusted time series of neonatal outcomes for Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. Results Compared to survey data, information based only on the two administrative data sources identified substantially fewer Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. However, these births were not randomly distributed. Births of children identified as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin in the survey only were more likely to be living in urban areas, in less disadvantaged areas, and to have only one parent who identifies as being of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander origin, particularly the father. They were also more likely to have better health and wellbeing outcomes. Applying an adjustment model based on the linked survey data increased

  5. Defining the gap: a systematic review of the difference in rates of diabetes-related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and non-Indigenous Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew West

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community has an increased risk of developing chronic illnesses including diabetes. Among people with diabetes, foot complications are common and make a significant contribution to the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate the literature comparing the rates of diabetes related foot complications in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians to non-Indigenous Australians. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library; PUBMED and CINAHL were searched from inception until August 2016. Inclusion criteria were: published cross-sectional or longitudinal studies reporting the prevalence of diabetes related foot complications in both a cohort of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians and a cohort of one other Australian population of any age with diabetes. Risk of bias was assessed using the STROBE tool. Results Eleven studies including a total of 157,892 participants were included. Studies were set in Queensland, the Northern Territory and Western Australia, primarily in rural and remote areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experienced substantially more diabetes related foot complications with the mean age up to 14 years younger than non-Indigenous Australians. Aboriginality was associated with increased risk of peripheral neuropathy, foot ulceration and amputation. In several studies, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians accounted for the vast majority of diabetes related foot complications (up to 91% while comprising only a small proportion of the regional population. Reporting quality as assessed with the STROBE tool showed underreporting of: methods, sample description and potential sources of bias. There are no data available for some Australian states and for specific types of diabetes related foot complications. Conclusions Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander

  6. Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explain the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in the Australian state of Victoria: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of food insecurity is substantially higher among Australians of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent. The purpose of this study is to explain the relationship between food insecurity and Aboriginal and Torres Islander status in the state of Victoria. Methods Data were obtained from the 2008 Victorian Population Health Survey; a cross-sectional landline computer-assisted telephone interview survey of 34,168 randomly selected Victorians aged 18 years and older; including 339 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders. We categorised a respondent as food insecure, if in the previous 12 months, they reported having run out of food and not being able to afford to buy more. We used multivariable logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, socioeconomic status (household income), lifestyle risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity), social support (ability to get help from family, friends or neighbours), household composition (lone parent status, household with a child, and household size), and geographic location (rurality). Results Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (20.3%) were more likely than their non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander counterparts (5.4%) to have experienced food insecurity; odds ratio (OR) = 4.5 (95% CI; 2.7-7.4). Controlling for age, SES, smoking, obesity and inability to get help from family or friends reduced the odds ratio by 38%; ORadjusted = 2.8 (1.6-5.0). Conclusions Social determinants and lifestyle risk factors only partially explained the higher prevalence of food insecurity among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders in Victoria. Further research is needed to explain the disparity in food insecurity between the two populations in order to inform and guide corrective action. PMID:24924598

  7. Influence of pycnocline topography and water-column structure on marine distributions of alcids (Aves: Alcidae) in Anadyr Strait, Northern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. Christopher

    1991-01-01

    Systematic ship-board surveys were used to simultaneously record seabird abundances and resolve coarse-scale (3 to 10 km) horizontal and fine-scale (1 to 10 m) vertical variability in water-column structure and bathymetry for portions of the coastal zone in Anadyr Strait near western St. Lawrence Island, northern Bering Sea, Alaska, during August and September 1987. Three plankton-feeding alcids, parakeet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula), crested (Aethia cristatella) and least (A. pusilla) auklets, each exhibited distinct associations for different pycnocline characteristics. Least auklets were more abundant in mixed water, but they also occurred within stratified water where the pycnocline and upper-mixed layer were shallow (≤8 m) and thin (≤10 m), respectively. Low body mass (85 g), high buoyancy, and relatively poor diving ability may have restricted this auklet to areas where water-column strata nearly intersected the surface, or to areas from which strata were absent altogether due to strong vertical mixing. Parakeet and crested auklets, which are larger-bodied (ca. 260 g) planktivores with presumably greater diving ability, were more abundant in stratified water, and both species exhibited less specific affinities for water-column characteristic at intermediate and shallow levels. All three auklets avoided locations with strong pycnocline gradients (≤0.22σtm−1), a crude index of the strong, subsurface shear in water velocities characteristic of this region. Auklet distributions in Anadyr Strait were consistent with: (1) strata accessibility, as estimated from relationships between body mass and relative diving ability, (2) possible avoidance of strong subsurface water motions, and (3) habits and distributions of plankton prey. In contrast, largebodied (>450 g) alcids [i.e., common (Uria aalge) and thick-billed (U. lomvia) murres, pigeon guillemots (Cephus columba), tufted (Fratercula cirrhata), and horned (F. corniculata) puffins feeding on fish or

  8. Diversity And Abundance Of Deep-Water Coral Mounds In The Straits Of Florida: A Result of Adaptability To Local Environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, T. B.; Grasmueck, M.; Eberli, G.; Viggiano, D. A.; Rosenberg, A.; Reed, J. K.

    2007-12-01

    To improve the understanding of the Florida-Bahamas deep-water coral mound ecosystem, Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) surveys were conducted on five coral mound fields throughout the Straits of Florida (three sites at the base of slope of Great Bahama Bank (GBB), one in the middle of the Straits (MS) and one at the base of the Miami Terrace (MT)) in water depths of 590 to 860 m. The AUV provides high-resolution bathymetric maps, sub-bottom profiles and oceanographic data. The AUV survey sites were subsequently groundtruthed via sample collection and video transects, using the Johnson Sealink submersible. Contrary to previous surveys, we found a high diversity in coral mound morphology between sites separated by 15 to 80 km. The MT site is characterized by sinusoidal coral mound ridges, while the MS site contains densely clustered small coral mounds. Meanwhile, mounds of the GBB region are better developed, with some individual mounds reaching up to 90 m in height. Benthic coverage of live corals also differs between sites; the GBB sites are characterized by mounds densely covered by large thickets of live corals, while small thickets of mostly dead corals dominate the MT and MS sites. Several environmental factors may explain these differences. For example, bottom current patterns change between sites. The MT and the MS sites have a unidirectional regime (southward or northward flow, respectively), whereas the GBB sites have a tidal current regime. Sedimentation patterns as depicted by sub-bottom profiles also vary between the sites; coral mounds in the GBB area appear to receive higher sediment input, which can significantly enhance mound growth rates as the reef framework baffles and traps mobile sediments. However, coral mounds that cannot keep-up with the sedimentation rate are buried. Therefore, in the high sedimentation areas of GBB, flourishing live coral mounds are limited to elevated positions (i.e. plateaus, ridges crests) where sediment accumulation

  9. A STRAIT GATE

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Damiano Riguini

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we had tried to articulate from the book ‘The narrow door’, writed by Andre Gide in 1909, the notions about desire and love in Lacan. The text from Gide was choosed because it’sa primorous text from the theme and, here, the gidean love is about to show the truth of love. Someday, Gide says: “who knows what’s an uranist love!”. True love? Impossible love? Possiblelove? Doors are opening...

  10. The flushing and exchange of the South China Sea derived from salt and mass conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Bye, John A. T.; You, Yuzhu; Bao, Xianwen; Wu, Dexing

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we use two kinds of hydrographic data, historical cruise data, Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) float data, and atmospheric data to study the water exchange between the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait. The annual mean distributions of temperature and salinity at five different levels in the SCS and the adjacent Pacific Ocean are presented, which indicate the occurrence of active water exchange through the Luzon Strait. The flushing and exchange of the SCS are then determined by the application of salt and mass conservation in a multi-layered thermohaline system, using an estimate of the net rainfall obtained from reanalysis data. The results show that the annual mean flushing time is 44±8 months with an inflow rate of 11±2 Sv (1 Sv=10 6 m 3 s -1), part of which recirculates at a deeper level through the Luzon Strait, the remainder (6±2 Sv) forming the SCS throughflow. The diffusive influx of salt is also estimated and accounts for about 10% of the total influx, and hence advection dominates over diffusion in the water exchange through the Luzon Strait. The seasonal cycle of exchange shows a maximum in autumn and winter of about twice the annual mean rate.

  11. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Auroral ground magnetogram signatures near .... The bottom panel shows the. Sym-H ... coordinate system for the event depicted in figure 1(a). ... ring current build-up at the substorm onset sug- ... tem with the polarity of IMF BY was first shown.

  12. The westward drift of the lithosphere: A tidal ratchet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Carcaterra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Is the westerly rotation of the lithosphere an ephemeral accidental recent phenomenon or is it a stable process of Earth's geodynamics? The reason why the tidal drag has been questioned as the mechanism determining the lithospheric shift relative to the underlying mantle is the apparent too high viscosity of the asthenosphere. However, plate boundaries asymmetries are a robust indication of the ‘westerly’ decoupling of the entire Earth's outer lithospheric shell and new studies support lower viscosities in the low-velocity layer (LVZ atop the asthenosphere. Since the solid Earth tide oscillation is longer in one side relative to the other due to the contemporaneous Moon's revolution, we demonstrate that a non-linear rheological behavior is expected in the lithosphere mantle interplay. This may provide a sort of ratchet favoring lowering of the LVZ viscosity under shear, allowing decoupling in the LVZ and triggering the westerly motion of the lithosphere relative to the mantle.

  13. Spatial variation of bacterial community composition near the Luzon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... However, little information of spatial variation of bacterial community ... GF/F glass fiber (0.45 µm, 47 mm diameter, Whatman Japan. Limited., Tokyo ... the research vessel using a CTD system (Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc.,. USA).

  14. Unusual downhole and surface free-field records near the Carquinez Strait bridges during the 24 August 2014 Mw6.0 South Napa, California earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Mehmet; Ghahari, S. Farid; Taciroglu, Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of Part A of a study of the recorded strong-motion accelerations at the well-instrumented network of the two side-by-side parallel bridges over the Carquinez Strait during the 24 August 2014 (Mw6.0 ) South Napa, Calif. earthquake that occurred at 03:20:44 PDT with epicentral coordinates 38.22N, 122.31W. (http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eqarchives/poster/2014/20140824.php, last accessed on October 17, 2014). Both bridges and two boreholes were instrumented by the California Strong motion Instrumentation Program (CSMIP) of California Geological Survey (CGS) (Shakal et al., 2014). A comprehensive comparison of several ground motion prediction equations as they relate to recorded ground motions of the earthquake is provided by Baltay and Boatright (2015).

  15. The role of pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities at Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and in the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Cattaneo-Vietti

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available In Antarctic and peri-Antarctic regions, benthic communities are persistent in time and show high biomass and large numbers of individuals, mainly consisting of suspension and deposit feeders. In fact, apart from recruitment, the major factor structuring these communities is the high flow of organic matter from the pelagic domain to the bottom, representing an important energy source for the benthic organisms. The aim of this paper is to review, compile and compare the data from earlier investigations in Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea and the Straits of Magellan, in order to come to a more general conclusion about the role of the pelagic-benthic coupling in structuring littoral benthic communities in southern coastal areas. Few measurements of flux rates and the biochemical composition of the sinking particles occurring in Antarctic and peri-Antarctic shallow waters are available, but a compilation of our own data and others allows a comparison of these two systems. The different environmental conditions between Antarctica and the Straits of Magellan lead to differences in the origin of the particulate organic matter and in its biochemical composition, and consequently in the coupling between pelagic and benthic domains. At Terra Nova Bay the summer particulate matter shows a high labile fraction of a good food value: its flux has been evaluated at about 0.67 g m-2d-1. Conversely, the Straits of Magellan show multi-structured ecosystems where the quality and quantity of the organic matter flux towards the bottom change according to the local geomorphology and current dynamics. Moreover, the three-dimensional assemblages of suspension-feeders, so common in Antarctic shallow waters, seem to be absent in the Magellan area. In particular sponges, gorgonarians and bryozoans play a secondary role inside the Straits of Magellan, where polychaetes (60% and molluscs (9-10% are dominant on soft bottoms, and where they reach high values in density and biomass

  16. Characteristics of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Arctic outflow in Fram Strait: assessing the changes and fate of terrigenous CDOM in the Arctic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granskog, M.A.; Stedmon, Colin; Dodd, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured together with salinity, δ18O, and inorganic nutrients across the Fram Strait. A pronounced CDOM absorption maximum between 30 and 120 m depth was associated with river and sea ice brine enriched water, characteristic...... of the Arctic mixed layer and upper halocline waters in the East Greenland Current (EGC). The lowest CDOM concentrations were found in the Atlantic inflow. We show that the salinity-CDOM relationship is not suitable for evaluating conservative mixing of CDOM. The strong correlation between meteoric water...... and CDOM is indicative of the riverine/terrigenous origin of CDOM in the EGC. Based on CDOM absorption in Polar Water and comparison with an Arctic river discharge weighted mean, we estimate that a 49–59% integrated loss of CDOM absorption across 250–600 nm has occurred. A preferential removal...

  17. Distribution of rare earth elements in marine sediments from the Strait of Sicily (western Mediterranean Sea): Evidence of phosphogypsum waste contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranchida, G.; Oliveri, E.; Angelone, M.; Bellanca, A.; Censi, P.; D'Elia, M.; Neri, R.; Placenti, F.; Sprovieri, M.; Mazzola, S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Coastal recent sediments from the Strait of Sicily showed elevated concentrations of REE associated to high Th concentrations. The shale-normalized REE + Y patterns are characterized by MREE enrichments relative to HREE and LREE, manifested with a convexity along the patterns. Sm n /La n ratio, indicative of MREE enrichments, showed a significant correlation with the Th concentration. This positive correlation supports the origin of these elements by phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents from an industrial plant, located in the southern Sicilian coast. Research highlights: → REE + Y contents are higher in onshore than offshore sediments. → Anomaly in sediments near southwestern Sicilian coast (site 134): high REE + Y. → REE + Y patterns show Middle REE enrichments (convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements). → Sm n /La n, measure of MREE enrichments, is correlated with high Th concentrations. → Anomalies are associated with the input of phosphogypsum-contaminated effluents. - Abstract: Concentrations of rare earth elements (REE), Y, Th and Sc were recently determined in marine sediments collected using a box corer along two onshore-offshore transects located in the Strait of Sicily (Mediterranean Sea). The REE + Y were enriched in offshore fine-grained sediments where clay minerals are abundant, whereas the REE + Y contents were lower in onshore coarse-grained sediments with high carbonate fractions. Considering this distribution trend, the onshore sediments in front of the southwestern Sicilian coast represent an anomaly with high REE + Y concentrations (mean value 163.4 μg g -1 ) associated to high Th concentrations (mean value 7.9 μg g -1 ). Plot of shale-normalized REE + Y data of these coastal sediments showed Middle REE enrichments relative to Light REE and Heavy REE, manifested by a convexity around Sm-Gd-Eu elements. These anomalies in the fractionation patterns of the coastal sediments were attributed to phosphogypsum

  18. DNA-based identifications reveal multiple introductions of the vegetable leafminer Liriomyza sativae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) into the Torres Strait Islands and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacket, M J; Rice, A D; Semeraro, L; Malipatil, M B

    2015-10-01

    Leafmining flies (Diptera: Agromyzidae) can be serious economic pests of horticultural crops. Some genera such as Liriomyza are particularly problematic with numerous species, some of which are highly polyphagous (wide host range), which can only be confidently identified morphologically from adult males. In our study, DNA barcoding was employed to establish new locality records of the vegetable leafminer fly, Liriomyza sativae, from the islands of Torres Strait (Queensland, Australia) and the central highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG). These records represent significant range extensions of this highly invasive plant pest. Specimens of immature leafminers (from leaf mines) were collected over a 5-year period during routine plant health surveys in ethanol or on FTA® filter paper cards, both methods proved effective at preserving and transporting insect DNA under tropical conditions, with FTA cards possessing some additional logistical benefits. Specimens were identified through sequencing two sections of the cytochrome oxidase I gene and the utility of each was assessed for the identification of species and intra-specific genetic lineages. Our study indicates that multiple haplotypes of L. sativae occur in PNG, while a different haplotype is present in the Torres Strait, with genetic regionalization between these areas apart from a single possible instance - one haplotype 'S.7' appears to be common between these two regions - interestingly this has also been the most common haplotype detected in previous studies of invasive L. sativae populations. The DNA barcoding methods employed here not only identified multiple introductions of L. sativae, but also appear generally applicable to the identification of other agromyzid leafminers (Phytomyzinae and Agromyzinae) and should decrease the likelihood of potentially co-amplifying internal hymenopteran parasitoids. Currently, L. sativae is still not recorded from the Australian mainland; however, further sampling of

  19. The Utilisation of Pisang Island as a Platform to Support the Current Safety and Security Needs of Marine Navigation in the Straits of Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Current marine navigational practice relies less on long-range visual marine signals such as lighthouses for reference purposes. This is due to the availability of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS, which are integrated with other navigational aids on ships. Therefore, the objective of this study is to review the function of Pisang Island lighthouse and to propose the most relevant use of Pisang Island for current navigational needs. The function of the lighthouse was reviewed according to the IALA Navigational Guide and the AIS data image. The result showed that the most suitable navigational use of the lighthouse is to act as a reference for Line of Position (LOP. The AIS data image indicated that mariners are not using Pisang Island lighthouse for LOP. The trend in the Straits of Malacca (SoM was compared with the trend in the Straits of Dover, UK. The selected experts verified that LOP was not practised there. As a specific example, a tanker ship route in the South China Sea was used to further support that LOP was not practised. This evidence supported the view that Pisang Island lighthouse is less relevant for current navigational practice and does not directly support the coastal state VTS operation and the establishment of the marine electronic highway. Furthermore, the existing shore-based VTS radar has limitations on range and the detection of targets near Pisang Island. Therefore, this study proposes the establishment of a new radar station on Pisang Island at the existing site of the lighthouse. The proposed new radar station on Pisang Island will add to the existing coverage of the VTS radar, bridging the coverage gaps to overcome the weakness of the existing shore-based radar and improve the safety and security of marine navigation in the SoM.

  20. Concordant patterns of mtDNA and nuclear phylogeographic structure reveal Pleistocene vicariant event in the green crab Carcinus aestuarii across the Siculo-Tunisian Strait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DELI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the population genetic structure of the green crab Carcinus aestuarii along part of the African Mediterranean coast, with the main target to confirm genetic subdivision across the well documented genetic boundary of the Siculo-Tunisian Strait. For this purpose, the mitochondrial COI (cytochrome oxidase I gene and five polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 144 and 120 specimens, respectively. Our results show the existence of two distinct haplogroups, separated by 16 mutational steps and revealed a non random distribution of the genetic variation along the African Mediterranean coast. Dating analyses, based on the use of different molecular clock models and rates, placed the divergence among both haplogroups at 1.91 Myr (95% HPD: 1.11–2.68 Myr to 0.69 Myr (95% HPD: 0.44–0.98 Myr. This range of divergence time estimation corresponds to the Early Pleistocene. The particular pattern of genetic divergence among Eastern and Western African Mediterranean populations of C. aestuarii, detected by 2-level AMOVA at the mitochondrial level, was consistent with that inferred from microsatellite analysis and suggests a vicariant event in C. aestuarii. Demographic reconstruction, inferred from mismatch distribution and BSP analyses, yielded different patterns of demographic history between both African Mediterranean groups. The distribution pattern of the two haplogroups across the African Mediterranean coast, along with results of Bayesian analysis of genetic structure revealing an intermediate geographic group between the two divergent groups of the African coast, support the hypothesis of a secondary contact between two historically isolated groups. Although this hypothetical contact zone, thought to be located near the Siculo-Tunisian Strait, still needs to be verified, the asymmetric gene flow from Western to Eastern African Mediterranean, as inferred by the results of a MIGRATE analysis, reinforces the previously

  1. SMART: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for assessing and managing demersal fisheries, with an application to italian trawlers in the strait of sicily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Russo

    Full Text Available Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries, a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1 spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2 an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3 a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in

  2. SMART: a spatially explicit bio-economic model for assessing and managing demersal fisheries, with an application to italian trawlers in the strait of sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Tommaso; Parisi, Antonio; Garofalo, Germana; Gristina, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano; Fiorentino, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Management of catches, effort and exploitation pattern are considered the most effective measures to control fishing mortality and ultimately ensure productivity and sustainability of fisheries. Despite the growing concerns about the spatial dimension of fisheries, the distribution of resources and fishing effort in space is seldom considered in assessment and management processes. Here we propose SMART (Spatial MAnagement of demersal Resources for Trawl fisheries), a tool for assessing bio-economic feedback in different management scenarios. SMART combines information from different tasks gathered within the European Data Collection Framework on fisheries and is composed of: 1) spatial models of fishing effort, environmental characteristics and distribution of demersal resources; 2) an Artificial Neural Network which captures the relationships among these aspects in a spatially explicit way and uses them to predict resources abundances; 3) a deterministic module which analyzes the size structure of catches and the associated revenues, according to different spatially-based management scenarios. SMART is applied to demersal fishery in the Strait of Sicily, one of the most productive fisheries of the Mediterranean Sea. Three of the main target species are used as proxies for the whole range exploited by trawlers. After training, SMART is used to evaluate different management scenarios, including spatial closures, using a simulation approach that mimics the recent exploitation patterns. Results evidence good model performance, with a noteworthy coherence and reliability of outputs for the different components. Among others, the main finding is that a partial improvement in resource conditions can be achieved by means of nursery closures, even if the overall fishing effort in the area remains stable. Accordingly, a series of strategically designed areas of trawling closures could significantly improve the resource conditions of demersal fisheries in the Strait of

  3. The Bering Strait Region: A Window into Changing Benthic Populations in Response to Varying Subarctic-Arctic Connectivity and Ecosystem Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Cooper, L. W.; Moore, S. E.

    2016-02-01

    A key ecological organizing principle for the northern Bering Sea and the adjoining southern Chukchi Sea just north of Bering Strait is that the shallow, seasonally productive waters lead to strong pelagic-benthic coupling to the sea floor, with deposition of fresh chlorophyll coinciding with the spring bloom as sea ice retreats. Both in situ production and advection of upstream phytodetritus to these regions support persistent biological hotspots that connect benthic prey to upper trophic benthivores. This northern marine ecosystem is dominated by marine macroinvertebrates (e.g. clams, polychaetes, sipunculids, and amphipods) that feed on the high production deposited rapidly to the seafloor, which in turn serve as food resources for diving mammals and seabirds, such as gray whales, bearded seals, eiders, and walruses. Between St. Lawrence Island and Bering Strait and northwards into the Chukchi Sea, the persistence of seasonal sea ice has significantly declined over the past two decades, and along with warming seawater temperatures, these changes have potential ramifications to ecosystem structure. Times-series data over the last 25 years indicate that these regions have experienced a northward shift in macrofaunal composition and a decline in core benthic biomass that matches patterns of reduced sea ice, warming seawater, and changing sediment grain size that relates to varying current patterns. This presentation will discuss these data in the context of both process studies from the region and results from the Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO), an international network of time series transects that is providing a framework to evaluate status and trends on a latitudinal bases in the Pacific Arctic region.

  4. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2011-01-04 to 2011-11-22 (NCEI Accession 0157263)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157263 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  5. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2012-01-10 to 2012-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157390)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157390 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little...

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat and others from 2007-04-27 to 2008-01-05 (NCEI Accession 0144288)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144288 includes Surface underway data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great Belt, Little Belt, North Atlantic...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from NUKA ARCTICA in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait and others from 2013-02-01 to 2013-12-31 (NCEI Accession 0157395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157395 includes Surface underway, chemical and physical data collected from NUKA ARCTICA in the Baffin Bay, Davis Strait, Kattegat, The Sound, Great...

  8. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2012-01-16 to 2012-12-07 (NCEI Accession 0144347)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144347 includes Surface underway data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, East China Sea (Tung Hai), Inland Sea (Seto...

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2012-06-01 to 2012-06-17 (NCEI Accession 0144337)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0144337 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from MARTHA L. BLACK in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from...

  10. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-05-04 to 2015-05-24 (NCEI Accession 0160487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0160487 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2009-05-17 to 2009-06-01 (NODC Accession 0108073)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108073 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2003-07-13 to 2003-08-04 (NODC Accession 0108219)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108219 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  13. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Barometric pressure sensor, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea and others from 2010-01-06 to 2010-12-08 (NCEI Accession 0157308)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157308 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from Trans Future 5 in the Bass Strait, Coral Sea, Inland Sea...

  14. Dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-02 to 2014-05-24 (NCEI Accession 0157623)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0157623 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  15. pH, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and Strait of Gibraltar from 2008-10-06 to 2008-10-12 (NODC Accession 0112927)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0112927 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and time series profile data collected from HESPERIDES in the North Atlantic Ocean and Strait of...

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from the METEOR in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 1997-07-07 to 1997-08-09 (NODC Accession 0113913)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0113913 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from METEOR in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  17. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean from 2008-05-20 to 2008-06-04 (NODC Accession 0108224)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108224 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean...

  18. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence and others from 1999-06-27 to 1999-07-13 (NODC Accession 0108215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108215 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Sea...

  19. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence and others from 2006-05-24 to 2006-06-08 (NODC Accession 0108222)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108222 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Sea...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence and others from 2004-05-15 to 2004-05-30 (NODC Accession 0108220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0108220 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from HUDSON in the Davis Strait, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Labrador Sea...