WorldWideScience

Sample records for luteal phase subjects

  1. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...... follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using...

  2. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques(ART), progesterone and/or hCG

  3. Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Buckingham, K.; Farquhar, C.; Kremer, J.A.M.; Metwally, M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone prepares the endometrium for pregnancy by stimulating proliferation in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by the corpus luteum. This occurs in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In assisted reproduction techniques (ART) the progesterone

  4. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  5. Characterization of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in regularly menstruating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecochard, Rene; Bouchard, Thomas; Leiva, Rene; Abdulla, Saman; Dupuis, Olivier; Duterque, Olivia; Garmier Billard, Marie; Boehringer, Hans; Genolini, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the variability of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in normal cycles. Observational study. Not applicable. Ninety-nine women contributing 266 menstrual cycles. The women collected first morning urine samples that were analyzed for estrone-3-glucuronide, pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide (PDG), FSH, and LH. The women had serum P tests (twice per cycle) and underwent ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation. The luteal phase was divided into three parts: the early luteal phase with increasing PDG (luteinization), the midluteal phase with PDG ≥10 μg/mg Cr (progestation), and the late luteal phase (luteolysis) when PDG fell below 10 μg/mg Cr. Long luteal phases begin with long luteinization processes. The early luteal phase is marked by low PDG and high LH levels. Long luteinization phases were correlated with low E1G and low PDG levels at day 3. The length of the early luteal phase is highly variable between cycles of the same woman. The duration and hormonal levels during the rest of the luteal phase were less correlated with other characteristics of the cycle. The study showed the presence of a prolonged pituitary activity during the luteinization process, which seems to be modulated by an interaction between P and LH. This supports a luteal phase model with three distinct processes: the first is a modulated luteinization process, whereas the second and the third are relatively less modulated processes of progestation and luteolysis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The luteal phase after GnRH-agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D

    2012-01-01

    In stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the luteal phase is disrupted, necessitating luteal-phase supplementation. The most plausible reason behind this is the ovarian multifollicular development obtained after ovarian stimulation, resulting in supraphysiological steroid...... with a GnRH agonist instead of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG). The first studies applying this concept, however, showed a very poor pregnancy rate, despite standard luteal-phase support with progesterone. This review discusses the reason for the poor results and the newest studies, using GnRH agonist...

  7. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakumari K.J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample and luteal (3 samples phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r. The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml. A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01 and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05 concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001 was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  8. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Leth-Moller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The luteal phase of all stimulated in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI cycles is disrupted, which makes luteal phase support (LPS mandatory. The cause of the disruption is thought to be the multifollicular development achieved during ovarian stimulation which results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids secreted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal phase defect. With the introduction of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocol, it became feasible to trigger final oocyte maturation and ovulation with a single bolus of GnRH agonist (GnRHa as an alternative to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG. GnRHa triggering presents several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa triggering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation with a standard LPS in the form of progesterone and estradiol. Following these disappointing results, several studies now report a luteal phase rescue after modifications of the LPS, resulting in a reproductive outcome comparable to that seen after hCG triggering. We herein review luteal phase differences between the natural cycle, hCG trigger and GnRHa trigger and present the most recent data on handling the luteal phase after GnRHa triggering.

  9. OCT-4 expression in follicular and luteal phase endometrium: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Johannes C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stem cell marker Octamer-4 (OCT-4 is expressed in human endometrium. Menstrual cycle-dependency of OCT-4 expression has not been investigated to date. Methods In a prospective, single center cohort study of 98 women undergoing hysteroscopy during the follicular (n = 49 and the luteal (n = 40 phases of the menstrual cycle, we obtained endometrial samples. Specimens were investigated for OCT-4 expression on the mRNA and protein levels using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Expression of OCT-4 was correlated to menstrual cycle phase. Results Of 89 women sampled, 49 were in the follicular phase and 40 were in the luteal phase. OCT-4 mRNA was detected in all samples. Increased OCT-4 mRNA levels in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 35/49 (71% and 27/40 (68% of women, respectively (p = 0.9. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein was identified in 56/89 (63% samples. Increased expression of OCT-4 protein in the follicular and luteal phases was found in 33/49 (67% and 23/40 (58% of women, respectively (p = 0.5. Conclusions On the mRNA and protein levels, OCT-4 is not differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle. Endometrial OCT-4 is not involved in or modulated by hormone-induced cyclical changes of the endometrium.

  10. The Luteal Phase after GnRHa Trigger-Understanding An Enigma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Moller, Kathrine; Hammer Jagd, Sandra; Humaidan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    results in supraphysiological concentrations of steroids se- creted by a high number of corpora lutea during the early luteal phase. This will directly inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, leading to a luteal...... several advantages, including the reduction in or even elimination of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Despite the potential advantages of GnRHa trig- gering, previous randomized controlled trials reported a poor clinical outcome with high rates of early pregnancy losses, despite supplementation...

  11. Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on current information about luteal phase administration (i.e. typically for the last 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle) of pharmacological agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Compared with continuous administration, a luteal phase administration regimen reduces the exposure to medication and lowers the costs of treatment. Based on evidence from randomised clinical trials, SSRIs are the first-line treatment for PMDD at this time. Of these agents, sertraline, fluoxetine and paroxetine (as an extended-release formulation) are approved by the US FDA for luteal phase, as well as continuous, administration. Clinical trials of these agents and citalopram have demonstrated that symptom reduction is similar with both administration regimens. When used to treat PMDD, SSRI doses are consistent with those used for major depressive disorder. The medications are well tolerated; discontinuation symptoms with this intermittent administration regimen have not been reported. Other medications that have been examined in clinical trials for PMDD or severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using luteal phase administration include buspirone, alprazolam, tryptophan and progesterone. Buspirone and alprazolam show only modest efficacy in PMS (in some but not all studies), but there may be a lower incidence of sexual adverse effects with these medications than with SSRIs. Symptom reduction with tryptophan was significantly greater than with placebo, but the availability of this medication is strictly limited because of safety concerns. Progesterone has consistently failed to show efficacy for severe PMS/PMDD in large, randomised, placebo-controlled trials.

  12. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with luteal phase dosing of sertraline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbreich, Uriel; Kahn, Linda S

    2003-11-01

    Sertraline (Zoloft, Pfizer Inc.) is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) which has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) which affects at least 5 - 8% of women of reproductive age. It is characterised by cyclic appearance at the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and disappearance following the beginning of menses, with no symptoms during at least 1 week of the cycle - usually during the mid-follicular phase. Due to the cyclic luteal occurrence of PMDD, luteal phase dosing of SSRIs has been suggested and proven effective for sertraline as well as several other SSRIs. The clinical response of sertraline is reported to be within several days following initiation of treatment. Despite repeated cyclic discontinuation, no significant discontinuation adverse effects have been reported. In addition to its proven clinical efficacy, luteal-phase dosing may offer the advantages of minimising adverse effects of SSRIs while reducing the personal and economic burden of taking a prescription medication continuously for long periods and thus increasing compliance.

  13. Cytological image of the endometrium in cows in follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and in cows with follicular and luteal ovarian cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48 were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75 were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26. When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11. In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71, and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium

  14. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  15. Effects of cholesterol on progesterone production by goat luteal cell subpopulations at two different stages of the luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Ş; Kalender, H; Simsek, O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on progesterone production during long-term culturing of luteal cell subpopulations at early and late luteal stages of the goat corpora lutea. Corpora lutea were collected from Angora goats on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal cells were isolated by collagenase digestion. The cells were separated into two distinct subpopulations by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Both subpopulations of luteal cells staining positively for 3β-HSD activities (5 × 10(4)  cell/well) were cultured with or without 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) in serum-free culture medium for periods of up to 7 days. Cells were incubated with serum (10%) for the first 18 h of incubation followed by serum-free medium. Cell treatment (10 and 20 μg/ml) was performed on days 1, 3 and 5. Treatment of cells with both concentrations of 22R-HC resulted in significant (p  0.05) on progesterone production in both fractions of cells throughout 7 days of incubation. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol resulted in 2.5- and 9.0-fold increases in progesterone accumulation on day 3 of incubation. Steroid production was maintained throughout the incubations when cells are incubated in serum-free media treated with cholesterol and ITS premix. Cells collected from higher density of percoll layers produced 2.82 and 2.32 times more progesterone, in comparison to the lover density percoll layer, on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle in untreated cell groups, respectively. Progesterone accumulation was decreased as incubation time advanced in all groups of untreated cells. These results demonstrated that goat luteal cell subpopulations secrete substantial amounts of progesterone in response to cholesterol treatment at least for 7 days, and cholesterol is required as progesterone precursor for maintaining a high-level steroidogenesis during long-life culturing of both cell subpopulations. © 2010 Blackwell

  16. INFLUENCE OF EMBRYO IMPLANTATION ON ENDOMETRIUM IN LUTEAL PHASE OF MENSTRUAL CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Dmitrović

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Based on the facts known from embryology, rapid endometrial growth during late luteal phase of the cycle could be expected. In this research, we sought to establish if normal intrauterine pregnancy could be confirmed before gestational sac vizualization, by trans- vaginal ultrasound and hormonal tests. The primary hypothesis was that the endometrial thickness and/or volume in the luteal phase of the cycle, in cycles resulting in normal intra- uterine pregnancy, is significantly different compared to non-conception cycles. We also hypothesized that endometrial thickness and/or volume are different in cycles resulting in normal intrauterine pregnancy compared to cycles resulting in abnormal pregnancy, namely biochemical and ectopic pregnancy, and spontaneous abortion. Additionally, next to endometrial volumes, we decided to measure the endometrium in three planes (thick- ness, length and width, to see if the hypothesized endometrial volume differences could be approximated by this simple surrogate technique, which is available in most parts of the world. Methods: This was a prospective observational study of women enrolled in an assisted reproduction program. Patients were stimulated with standard stimulation protocols. The oocyte retrieval was performed 36 hours after the hCG administration and the embryo was transferred 3 or 5 days later. Patients were first seen on day 20–24 of the cycle , and then on day 27–30 of the cycle. A blood sample was taken, and 3D transvaginal ultrasound was done. Following the completion of study visits, patients with a positive HCG test received phone call check- ups until week 12 of pregnancy, and were stratified according to pregnancy outcome. Results: 80 subjects signed the informed consent form. 4 patients had the IUI in the stimulated cycle, one had ET in spontaneous cycle, and 74 patients had undergone IVF/ET in the stimulated cycle. 63 patients in the stimulated cycles completed the study and

  17. Cytokine production by natural killer lymphocytes in follicular and luteal phase of the ovarian cycle in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, A.; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; De Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    PROBLEM: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that, during luteal phase of the ovarian cycle, as compared with follicular phase, the cytokine productive capacity of peripheral natural killer (NK)-lymphocytes in humans is shifted towards a "Th2-type"-like response. METHOD OF STUDY:

  18. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.

  19. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Administration of single-dose GnRH agonist in the luteal phase in ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira João

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a administered in the luteal phase remains controversial. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the administration of a single-dose of GnRH-a in the luteal phase on ICSI clinical outcomes. Methods The research strategy included the online search of databases. Only randomized studies were included. The outcomes analyzed were implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate. The fixed effects model was used for odds ratio. In all trials, a single dose of GnRH-a was administered at day 5/6 after ICSI procedures. Results All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of implantation (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase single-dose GnRH-a administration can increase implantation rate in all cycles and CPR per transfer and ongoing pregnancy rate in cycles with GnRH antagonist ovarian stimulation protocol. Nevertheless, by considering the heterogeneity between the trials, it seems premature to recommend the use of GnRH-a in the luteal phase. Additional randomized controlled trials are necessary before evidence-based recommendations can be provided.

  1. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V

    2016-01-01

    RHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple......For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the Gn...... corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential...

  2. Effect of Estradiol Prescribed during Luteal Phase of Art Cycles and Pregnancy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimzadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Implantation is one of the most important steps in ART cycles and it depends upon embryo and endometrial reception. Different protocols have been suggested for getting better endometrium. It seems estrogen increases the endometrial reception and pregnancy rate by inducing changes in the hormonal status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of estradiol(E2 on luteal phase support and pregnancy rate in ART cycles Methods: This prospective randomized study was done in Yazd at the IVF center from March until December, 2002. 68 patients who had undergone IVF or ICSI were enrolled in the study. Exclusion criteria was age>40, endometriosis and ovarian hyper stimulation syndrome. Induction ovulation protocol was long suppression with GnRH analogues.After embryo transfer, patients were divided in two groups randomly. Both groups received 100mg progesterone IM daily from the transfer day. Estradiol valerate 2 mg/day was added from the 7th transfer day to progesterone in Group I and continued if the BhCG became positive. Abortion and malformations were measured in all patients. Data analyzed with SPSS 11.0 and P value <0.05 considered statistically significant. Results: Pregnancy rate in the 34 patients of estradiol group (group I was 26.5%which was significantly higher than 11.8 %( 4 cases in the other group (Pvalue=0.034. Abortion rate was higher in estradiol group (3 cases, but there was no abortion in the progesterone group(P=0.119. 2 cases of major fetal malformations were observed in E2 supplementation group (P=0.246 . Conclusions: E2 suplementation to progesterone in the luteal phase of ART cycles, especially in the long GnRH analogues causes higher endometrial receptivity and pregnancy rate.

  3. The impact of luteal phase support on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor expression: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezina Paul R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the impact of luteal phase support on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER alpha and progesterone receptors B (PR-B on the endometrium of oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH. Methods A prospective, randomized study was conducted in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for oocyte donation. Participants were randomized to receive no luteal support, vaginal progesterone alone, or vaginal progesterone plus orally administered 17 Beta estradiol. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at 4 time points in the luteal phase and evaluated by tissue microarray for expression of ER alpha and PR-B. Results One-hundred and eight endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients. No differences were found in expression of ER alpha and PR-B among all the specimens with the exception of one sample value. Conclusions The administration of progesterone during the luteal phase of COH for oocyte donor cycles, either with or without estrogen, does not significantly affect the endometrial expression of ER alpha and PR.

  4. Effects of oestradiol for luteal phase support in fresh embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Yiqing; Chen, Kai; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Runjv; Zhang, Dan

    2018-05-12

    Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation with progesterone for luteal support after fresh embryo transfer in in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles remains controversial. In this study, we further addressed this question in cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for ovarian stimulation. A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching and research hospital. A total of 1602 patients were given oestradiol valerate (E) in addition to progesterone (P) as luteal support. One thousand six hundred and two patients receiving progesterone alone were selected as the control group. Live birth rate. Secondary measures included clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and premature birth rate. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar for the P alone vs the P+E group. In cycles with oestradiol (E2) levels less than 5000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate (23.44% vs 32.92%, OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.46]). In cycles with oestradiol levels 5000 to 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation did not increase the live birth rate (34.43% vs 35.42%, OR = 0.90 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.01]). In cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, the live birth rate was significantly lower (36.83% vs 31.37%, OR = 0.78 [95% CI 0.62 to 0.99]) and the premature birth rate was significantly higher (19.66% vs 28.73%,OR = 1.65 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.59]) in the E supplementation group. Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation for luteal phase support appears to correlate with the serum oestradiol level on the day of hCG trigger. Oestradiol supplementation is beneficial for improving live birth rate in cycles with oestradiol levels less than 5000 pmol/L, but is not recommended in cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Progesterone production is affected by unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling during the luteal phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Woong; Park, Young-Il; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether the three unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, which are activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, are involved in progesterone production in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during the mouse estrous cycle. The luteal phase of C57BL/6 female mice (8 weeks old) was divided into two stages: the functional stage (16, 24, and 48 h) and the regression stage (72 and 96 h). Western blotting and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to analyze UPR protein/gene expression levels in each stage. We investigated whether ER stress affects the progesterone production by using Tm (0.5 μg/g BW) or TUDCA (0.5 μg/g BW) through intra-peritoneal injection. Our results indicate that expressions of Grp78/Bip, p-eIF2α/ATF4, p50ATF6, and p-IRE1/sXBP1 induced by UPR activation were predominantly maintained in functional and early regression stages of the CL. Furthermore, the expression of p-JNK, CHOP, and cleaved caspase3 as ER-stress mediated apoptotic factors increased during the regression stage. Cleaved caspase3 levels increased in the late-regression stage after p-JNK and CHOP expression in the early-regression stage. Additionally, although progesterone secretion and levels of steroidogenic enzymes decreased following intra-peritoneal injection of Tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, the expression of Grp78/Bip, p50ATF6, and CHOP dramatically increased. These results suggest that the UPR signaling pathways activated in response to ER stress may play important roles in the regulation of the CL function. Furthermore, our findings enhance the understanding of the basic mechanisms affecting the CL life span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  7. Analysis of human mammary fibroadenoma by Ki-67 index in the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, M F; Navarrete, M A L H; Facina, G; Falzoni, R; Silva, R; Baracat, E C; Nazario, A C P

    2009-04-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign mammary condition among women aged 35 or younger. Expression of Ki-67 antigen has been used to compare proliferative activity of mammary fibroadenoma epithelium in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Ninety eumenorrheic women were selected for tumour excision; they were assigned to either of the two groups, according to their phase of menstrual cycle. At the end of the study, 75 patients with 87 masses were evaluated by epithelial cell Ki-67 expression, blind (no information given concerning group to which any lesion belonged). Both groups were found to be homogeneous relative to age, menarche, body mass index, previous gestation, parity, breastfeeding, number of fibroadenomas, family history of breast cancer and tabagism. Median tumour size was 2.0 cm and no relationship between proliferative activity and nodule diameter was observed. No typical pattern was observed in the expression of Ki-67 in distinct nodules of the same patient. Average values for expression of Ki-67 (per 1000 epithelial cells) in follicular and luteal phases were 27.88 and 37.88, respectively (P = 0.116). Our findings revealed that proliferative activities in the mammary fibroadenoma epithelium did not present a statistically significant difference in the follicular and luteal phases. The present study contributes to clarifying that fibroadenoma is a neoplasm and does not undergo any change in the proliferative activity during the menstrual cycle.

  8. A randomized trial of microdose leuprolide acetate protocol versus luteal phase ganirelix protocol in predicted poor responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLuigi, Andrea J; Engmann, Lawrence; Schmidt, David W; Benadiva, Claudio A; Nulsen, John C

    2011-06-30

    We performed a randomized trial to compare IVF outcomes in 54 poor responder patients undergoing a microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) protocol or a GnRH antagonist protocol incorporating a luteal phase E(2) patch and GnRH antagonist in the preceding menstrual cycle. Cancellation rates, number of oocytes retrieved, clinical pregnancy rates (PR), and ongoing PRs were similar between the two groups. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R; Conforti, A; Di Rella, F; Strina, I; Picarelli, S; De Rosa, P; De Laurentiis, M; Yding Andersen, C; De Placido, G

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant FSH and letrozole were investigated. Ovulation was induced with hCG (case No. 1) or with GnRH agonist (case No. 2-3). The primary outcome of our study was the detection of progesterone levels in the luteal phase. Very high progesterone values (mean 186.6 ± 43.6 ng/mL) during the luteal phase were recorded in all three cases. High progesterone levels can be related to the use of letrozole independently of the most commonly used trigger regimen. Although progesterone has long been considered a protective factor against breast cancer, several studies have demonstrated that progesterone could expand a transformation-sensitive stem cell population in the mammary glands. The estrogen negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the disruption of steroid biosynthesis and could represent an intriguing reason behind this phenomenon. Our results highlight the need to evaluate further the increase in progesterone levels in the luteal phase in women with breast cancer undergoing COS with letrozole.

  10. GnRH Agonist Trigger and LH Activity Luteal Phase Support versus hCG Trigger and Conventional Luteal Phase Support in Fresh Embryo Transfer IVF/ICSI Cycles—A Systematic PRISMA Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thor Haahr

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa for final oocyte maturation trigger in oocyte donation and elective frozen embryo transfer cycles is well established due to lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS rates as compared to hCG trigger. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that GnRHa trigger was associated with reduced live birth rates (LBRs in fresh autologous IVF cycles compared to hCG trigger. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and recent trials have found encouraging reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal LH activity support. Thus, the aim was to compare GnRHa trigger followed by luteal LH activity support with hCG trigger in IVF patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer.Material and methodsWe conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published until December 14, 2016. The population was infertile patients submitted to IVF/ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonist cotreatment who underwent fresh embryo transfer. The intervention was GnRHa trigger followed by LH activity luteal phase support (LPS. The comparator was hCG trigger followed by a standard LPS. The critical outcome measures were LBR and OHSS rate. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates.ResultsA total of five studies met the selection criteria comprising a total of 859 patients. The LBR was not significantly different between the GnRHa and hCG trigger groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 1.14. OHSS was reported in a total of 4/413 cases in the GnRHa group compared to 7/413 in the hCG group (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.15, 1.60. We observed a slight, but non-significant increase in miscarriage rate in the GnRHa triggered group compared to the hCG group (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97, 3.54.ConclusionGnRHa trigger with LH activity LPS resulted in comparable LBRs compared to hCG trigger. The most recent trials reported LBRs close to unity

  11. Late follicular phase administration of levonorgestrel as an emergency contraceptive changes the secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Marta; Seppala, Markku; Cravioto, Ma Del Carmen; Koistinen, Hannu; Koistinen, Riitta; González-Macedo, José; Larrea, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    This study examined serum glycodelin concentrations and endometrial expression during the luteal phase following oral administration of levonorgestrel (LNG) at different stages of the ovarian cycle. Thirty women were recruited and allocated into three groups. All groups were studied during two consecutive cycles, a control cycle and the treatment cycle. In the treatment cycle, each woman received two doses of 0.75 mg LNG taken 12 h apart on days 3-4 before the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge (Group 1), at the time of LH rise (Group 2) and 48 h after the rise in LH was detected (Group 3). Serum progesterone (P) and glycodelin were measured daily during the luteal phase, and an endometrial biopsy was taken at day LH +9 for immunohistochemical glycodelin-A staining. In Group 1, serum P levels were significantly lower, serum glycodelin levels rose earlier and endometrial glycodelin-A expression was weaker than in Groups 2 and 3, in which no differences were found between control and treatment cycles. Levonorgestrel taken for emergency contraception (EC) prior to the LH surge alters the luteal phase secretory pattern of glycodelin in serum and endometrium. Based on the potent gamete adhesion inhibitory activity of glycodelin-A, the results may account for the action of LNG in EC in those women who take LNG before the LH surge.

  12. Growth Hormone Supplementation in the Luteal Phase Before Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare Protocol for In Vitro Fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Caitlin; Seethram, Ken; Roberts, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) acts in both early and late follicular development to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells and to increase the production of estradiol in animal and human ovaries. Investigators have therefore explored GH supplementation to improve outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, with the greatest interest in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Recent meta-analyses indicate that GH supplementation can be beneficial for poor responders undergoing IVF. In most studies, GH has been given concomitantly with gonadotropins during the follicular phase; this may not be optimal, since follicular recruitment begins during the preceding luteal phase. We therefore wished to examine the effect of GH supplementation in the luteal phase before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with a microdose GnRH agonist flare (MDF) protocol in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of patients undergoing treatment at a private IVF facility between June 2012 and July 2013. Patients identified as poor responders to COH were offered adjuvant GH treatment as part of their ovarian stimulation regimen. The patients in the experimental group chose to take GH, 3.33 mg daily by subcutaneous injection for 14 days, before starting COH. All patients had an MDF stimulation protocol using 450 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) daily. A total of 42 women were included in the study. There were 14 women in the experimental group (GH) and 28 controls (C) matched for age, BMI, and day 3 FSH level. There was no difference between the groups in clinical pregnancy rate (GH = 29%, C = 32%, P = 0.99), number of mature oocytes retrieved (GH = 2.5, C = 5.0, P = 0.13), cycle cancellation rate (GH = 21%, C = 14%, P = 0.88), duration of COH (GH = 10.1, C = 10.1, P = 0.93), or mean peak estradiol level (GH = 4174 pmol/L, C = 5105 pmol/L, P = 0.44). The administration of growth hormone during the

  13. Luteal-phase ovarian stimulation increases the number of mature oocytes in older women with severe diminished ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtian, Justin; Zhang, John

    2018-03-22

    In older women with severe diminished ovarian response (DOR), in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment is much less successful due to the low number of mature oocytes collected. The objective of this study was to assess whether follicular-phase stimulation (FPS) and luteal-phase stimulation (LPS) in the same menstrual cycle (double ovarian stimulation) in older women with severe DOR will produce a higher number of oocytes compared to FPS alone. Women with DOR (n = 69; mean age = 42.4) who underwent double ovarian stimulation for IVF were included. Women underwent ovarian stimulation in FPS using clomiphene citrate, letrozole, and gonadotropins followed by oocyte retrieval. The next day following oocyte retrieval, women underwent a second ovarian stimulation (LPS) using the same medications followed by a second oocyte retrieval. T-test was performed in order to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome in the same participant between FPS and LPS. Although antral follicle count at the start of FPS tended to be higher than at the start of the LPS cycle, there was no statistically significant difference between the duration of ovarian stimulation, peak estradiol levels, number of small (FPS alone. The addition of LPS to the conventional FPS increases the number of mature oocytes retrieved in the same IVF cycle, thus potentially increasing the chances of pregnancy in older women with severe DOR. AFC: antral follicle count; BMI: body mass index; DOR: diminished ovarian reserve; E2: estradiol; FPS: follicular-phase stimulation; FSH: follicle stimulating hormone; GnRH: gonadotropin-releasing hormone; HCG: human chorionic gonadotropin; IRB: institutional review board; IVF: in vitro fertilization; LH: luteinizing hormone; LPS: luteal-phase stimulation; MII: metaphase II.

  14. The steroidogenic response and corpus luteum expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein after human chorionic gonadotropin administration at different times in the human luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Palomino, Alberto; Muñoz, Alex; Christenson, Lane K; Sierralta, Walter; Carvallo, Pilar; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed 1) to assess corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenesis in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at different times during the luteal phase, 2) to examine the effect of hCG on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression within the CL, 3) to correlate StAR expression and luteal steroidogenic responses to hCG, and 4) to determine whether endogenous LH regulates ovarian steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase. Blood was collected before and after hCG treatment for steroid and hCGbeta determinations. CL were obtained at the time of surgery to assess StAR gene and protein expression. During the early luteal phase various women received the GnRH antagonist for 24-48 h; some of them also received hCG 24 h after the GnRH antagonist. A slight steroidogenic response to hCG was observed in early luteal phase; 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, but not progesterone (P4), levels were significantly increased 8 h post-hCG, indicating a differential response by the granulosa and theca-lutein cells. The 1.6- and 4.4-kb StAR transcripts and the 37-kDa preprotein and 30-kDa mature StAR protein did not change post-hCG administration in early luteal phase CL. In contrast, the StAR 4.4- and 1.6-kb transcripts diminished significantly (P < 0.05) after the antagonist treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR protein was weak, particularly in granulosa-lutein cells. Treatment with hCG restored StAR mRNA and protein and plasma P4 levels within 24 h in antagonist-treated women. hCG stimulated the highest plasma concentrations of P4 and estradiol in the midluteal phase, indicating its greatest steroidogenic capacity. Midluteal tissue StAR gene and protein expression increased by 1.6- and 1.4-fold after 24 h of hCG treatment, respectively. Administration of hCG resulted in the greatest increment in plasma P4 (4-fold) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3-fold) levels over baseline in the late luteal phase. This was associated with an increase in

  15. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated...... on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid...... were seen between groups. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH...

  16. Gender-specific cerebral activation during cognitive tasks using functional MRI: comparison of women in mid-luteal phase and men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gizewski, Elke R.; Wanke, Isabel; Forsting, Michael; Krause, Eva; Senf, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies of gender-specific differences in functional imaging during spatial and language tasks have been inconclusive. Furthermore, among women, such differences may occur during mid-luteal phase compared to the rest of the menstrual cycle. In order to examine further gender differences, functional MRI was performed in 12 male volunteers and 12 female volunteers (in the mid-luteal phase) during mental rotation and verb-generation tests. Two-sample t-tests with uncorrected P values of <0.001 for the specific regions of interest (ROIs) revealed cerebral activation differences in both stimuli. During mental rotation tests, higher levels of activation were noted in the right medial frontal, precentral, and bilateral inferior parietal cortex, while in women this occurred in the right inferior and medial temporal, right superior frontal cortex, and left fusiform gyrus. During verb-generation tests, higher levels of activation in men was found in the left medial temporal and precentral cortex. Our results indicate that differences in cerebral activity during cognitive tasks can be shown between men and women in the mid-luteal phase. Gender differences while performing a mental rotation task were more prominent than during a verb-generation task. (orig.)

  17. Differential effects of exogenous progesterone administration at different stages of the luteal phase on endogenous oestradiol concentration in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, G R; Mann, G E

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effects administering exogenous progesterone, via insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 4 days, from either day 5 or day 12 of the oestrous cycle on plasma oestradiol concentrations. In study 1, in which progesterone was administered from day 5, measurement of plasma oestradiol in daily samples revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in peripheral oestradiol concentration. In contrast, in study 2, similar administration of progesterone from day 12 had no effect on plasma oestradiol concentration. In study 3, collection of hourly samples following progesterone treatment on day 5 revealed peak progesterone concentrations within 1 h of CIDR insertion and nadir oestradiol concentrations within 4 h. The results demonstrate that treatment with progesterone early in the luteal phase causes a rapid inhibition of oestradiol secretion, while later treatment does not. While improvements in pregnancy rate following progesterone treatment at this time have traditionally been attributed to increases in progesterone, the potential involvement of decreased oestradiol secretion has often been overlooked.

  18. Outpatient management of severe early OHSS by administration of GnRH antagonist in the luteal phase: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lainas George T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Management of established severe OHSS requires prolonged hospitalization, occasionally in intensive care units, accompanied by multiple ascites punctures, correction of intravascular fluid volume and electrolyte imbalance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is feasible to manage women with severe OHSS as outpatients by treating them with GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase. Methods This is a single-centre, prospective, observational, cohort study. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OHSS, five days post oocyte retrieval, were managed as outpatients after administration of GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg daily from days 5 to 8 post oocyte retrieval, combined with cryopreservation of all embryos. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with severe OHSS, in whom outpatient management was not feasible. Results 11.3% (95% CI 8.3%-15.0% of patients (40/353 developed severe early OHSS. None of the 40 patients required hospitalization following luteal antagonist administration and embryo cryopreservation. Ovarian volume, ascites, hematocrit, WBC, serum oestradiol and progesterone decreased significantly (P  Conclusions The current study suggests, for the first time, that successful outpatient management of severe OHSS with antagonist treatment in the luteal phase is feasible and is associated with rapid regression of the syndrome, challenging the dogma of inpatient management. The proposed management is a flexible approach that minimizes unnecessary embryo transfer cancellations in the majority (88.7% of high risk for OHSS patients.

  19. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  20. Analysis of genes that influence sheep follicular development by different nutrition levels during the luteal phase using expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, F; Jia, R; Ying, S; Wang, Z; Wang, F

    2016-06-01

    Nutrition is an important factor that regulates reproductive performance of sheep and affects follicle development. However, the correlation between nutrition and follicle development is poorly understood at the molecular level. To study its possible molecular mechanisms, we performed expression profiling of granulosa cells isolated from sheep that were fed different levels of nutrition levels during the luteal phase. To do this, ewes received a maintenance diet (M), and their estrus was synchronized by intravaginal progestogen sponges for 12 days. Ewes were randomly divided into the short-term dietary-restricted group (R; 0.5 × M) and the nutrient-supplemented group (S; 1.5 × M). RNA samples were extracted from granulosa cells. Transcriptome libraries from each group were constructed by Illumina sequencing. Among 18 468 detected genes, 170 genes were significantly differentially expressed, of which 140 genes were upregulated and 30 genes were downregulated in group S relative to group R. These genes could be candidates regulating follicular development in sheep. Gene Ontology, KEGG and clustering analyses were performed. Genes related to oocyte meiosis, such as ADCY7, were upregulated. We identified two important groups of related genes that were upregulated with improved nutrition: one group comprising the genes PTGS2, UCP2 and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and the other group comprising interleukin-1A and interleukin-1B. The genes within each group showed similar expression patterns. Additionally, all five genes are involved in the reproduction process. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to validate the results of expression profiling. These data in our study are an abundant genomic resource to expand the understanding of the molecular and cellular events underlying follicle development. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Molecular Signatures of Immune Activation and Epithelial Barrier Remodeling Are Enhanced during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birse, Kenzie; Arnold, Kelly B; Novak, Richard M; McCorrister, Stuart; Shaw, Souradet; Westmacott, Garrett R; Ball, Terry B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Burgener, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The variable infectivity and transmissibility of HIV/SHIV has been recently associated with the menstrual cycle, with particular susceptibility observed during the luteal phase in nonhuman primate models and ex vivo human explant cultures, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we performed an unbiased, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis to better understand the mucosal immunological processes underpinning this observed susceptibility to HIV infection. Cervicovaginal lavage samples (n = 19) were collected, characterized as follicular or luteal phase using days since last menstrual period, and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Biological insights from these data were gained using a spectrum of computational methods, including hierarchical clustering, pathway analysis, gene set enrichment analysis, and partial least-squares discriminant analysis with LASSO feature selection. Of the 384 proteins identified, 43 were differentially abundant between phases (P HIV. Recent studies have discovered an enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection during the progesterone-dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, the mechanism responsible for this enhanced susceptibility has not yet been determined. Understanding the source of this vulnerability will be important for designing efficacious HIV prevention technologies for women. Furthermore, these findings may also be extrapolated to better understand the impact of exogenous hormone application, such as the use of hormonal contraceptives, on HIV acquisition risk. Hormonal contraceptives are the most widely used contraceptive method in sub-Saharan Africa, the most HIV-burdened area of the world. For this reason, research conducted to better understand how hormones impact host immunity and susceptibility factors important for HIV infection is a global health priority. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Influence of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Pokora

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on thermoregulatory responses to exercise in women during follicular (F and luteal (L phase of the menstrual cycle. Ten subjects performed a graded bicycle exercise in a thermoneutral environment (23oC, 52-60% relative humidity. Women were tested after consuming, for 3 days, a control diet (C: 60% carbohydrates, 20% fat, 20% protein and after that a low-carbohydrate diet (LCHO: 50% fat, 35% protein and 5% carbohydrates, in each phase of the menstrual cycle. Tympanic temperature (Tty, mean skin temperature (Tsk, electrical skin resistance (ESR, oxygen uptake (VO2, heart rate (HR as well as blood β-hydroxybutyrate acid (β-HB, glucose (Glu and lactate (LA concentrations were measured. On the basis of ESR, dynamics of sweating was estimated. No differences in Tty and Tsk were found between the C and LCHO during exercise tests. However, Tty was significantly higher during L than F phase. Delay time for sweating was shorter after LCHO (F: 10.8 vs 9.4 min, P<0.05, L: 9.9 vs 9.3 N.S., but temperature threshold for this reaction was unchanged (L: 37.22 vs 37.37 and F: 36.91 vs 36.94 oC. Sweating sensitivity was greater after LCHO during both F and L. Resting blood Glu and LA concentrations were similar in women after C and LCHO diet. Before exercise β-HB level was F: 0.45, L: 0.35 mM after LCHO and F: 0.08, L: 0.09 mM after C diet (P<0.05, respectively. At rest and during exercise HR was significantly higher after LCHO diet in women during F phase. In submaximal exercise loads VO2 after LCHO diet were significantly higher than after C diet in all women. It was concluded that the low-carbohydrate diet ingested by young women in both phases of the menstrual cycle have no effect on body temperature, however, it affects heat dissipation mechanism during exercise.

  3. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal phase and that of the

  4. 1,500 IU human chorionic gonadotropin administered at oocyte retrieval rescues the luteal phase when gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist is used for ovulation induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Bredkjær, Helle Ejdrup; Westergaard, Lars Grabow

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To prospectively assess the reproductive outcome with a small bolus of hCG administered on the day of oocyte retrieval after ovulation induction with a GnRH agonist (GnRHa). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Three hospital-based IVF clinics. PATIENT(S): Three hundred five...... IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection patients after a GnRH antagonist protocol. INTERVENTION(S): Ovulation induction was performed with either 10,000 IU hCG or 0.5 mg GnRHa (buserelin) supplemented with 1,500 IU hCG on the day of oocyte retrieval. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Reproductive outcome...... bolus of hCG in the GnRHa group secured the luteal phase, resulting in a comparable reproductive outcome in the two groups. However, a nonsignificant difference of 7% in delivery rates justifies further studies to refine the use of GnRHa for ovulation induction....

  5. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  6. GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal phase hCG support according to ovarian response to stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, Peter; Polyzos, N P; Alsbjerg, B

    2013-01-01

    , there was a lack of blinding in the RCTs. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Although a non-significant result, one bolus of 1.500 IU hCG after GnRHa trigger tended to reduce the OHSS rate in patients with 15-25 follicles ≥11 mm as well as secure the ongoing pregnancy rate. In contrast, in patients at low risk......STUDY QUESTION: Does a GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger followed by a bolus of 1.500 IU hCG in a group of patients at risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) reduce the OHSS incidence compared with hCG trigger? SUMMARY ANSWER: A GnRHa trigger followed by early luteal hCG support with one bolus...... of 1.500 IU hCG appears to reduce OHSS in patients at risk of OHSS; however, in a low-risk group a second bolus of 1.500 IU hCG induced two cases of late onset OHSS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A GnRHa trigger is an alternative to hCG in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Two...

  7. The expression pattern of microRNAs in granulosa cells of subordinate and dominant follicles during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Salilew-Wondim

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF and dominant follicle (DF during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291-318 were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle.

  8. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  9. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  10. Luteal blood flow in patients undergoing GnRH agonist long protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasaki Akihisa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood flow in the corpus luteum (CL is closely related to luteal function. It is unclear how luteal blood flow is regulated. Standardized ovarian-stimulation protocol with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa long protocol causes luteal phase defect because it drastically suppresses serum LH levels. Examining luteal blood flow in the patient undergoing GnRHa long protocol may be useful to know whether luteal blood flow is regulated by LH. Methods Twenty-four infertile women undergoing GnRHa long protocol were divided into 3 groups dependent on luteal supports; 9 women were given ethinylestradiol plus norgestrel (Planovar orally throughout the luteal phase (control group; 8 women were given HCG 2,000 IU on days 2 and 4 day after ovulation induction in addition to Planovar (HCG group; 7 women were given vitamin E (600 mg/day orally throughout the luteal phase in addition to Planovar (vitamin E group. Blood flow impedance was measured in each CL during the mid-luteal phase by transvaginal color-pulsed-Doppler-ultrasonography and was expressed as a CL-resistance index (CL-RI. Results Serum LH levels were remarkably suppressed in all the groups. CL-RI in the control group was more than the cutoff value (0.51, and only 2 out of 9 women had CL-RI values Conclusion Patients undergoing GnRHa long protocol had high luteal blood flow impedance with very low serum LH levels. HCG administration improved luteal blood flow impedance. This suggests that luteal blood flow is regulated by LH.

  11. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  12. Nonsupplemented luteal phase characteristics after the administration of recombinant human chorionic gonadotropin, recombinant luteinizing hormone, or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist to induce final oocyte maturation in in vitro fertilization patients after ovarian stimulation with recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone and GnRH antagonist cotreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Macklon (Nick); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); M. Ludwig (Michael); R.E. Felberbaum; K. Diedrich; S. Bustion; E. Loumaye; B.C.J.M. Fauser (Bart); N.G.M. Beckers (Nicole)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReplacing GnRH agonist cotreatment for the prevention of a premature rise in LH during ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) by the late follicular phase administration of GnRH antagonist may render supplementation of the luteal phase redundant, because

  13. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred

  14. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained 1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  15. Estado nutricional e consumo alimentar de mulheres jovens na fase lútea e folicular do ciclo menstrual Nutritional status and food consumption of young women in the luteal and follicular phases of the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Almenara Silva dos Santos

    2011-04-01

    percentage of women with above-average body water during the luteal phase (77%. The consumption of foods from the complementary group was higher during the luteal phase. The consumption of foods from all other groups during both phases was below the recommended levels, except for meats. Food cravings were mild during the entire menstrual cycle and there were no significant differences between the phases. Food cravings were positively associated with increased intake of foods from the complementary group. CONCLUSION: In healthy women, the menstrual cycle influences food consumption and the luteal phase causes water retention.

  16. Induced endometrial trauma (endometrial scratch) in the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase preceding first cycle IVF/ICSI versus usual IVF/ICSI therapy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pye, Clare; Chatters, Robin; Cohen, Judith; Brian, Kate; Cheong, Ying C; Laird, Susan; Mohiyiddeen, Lamiya; Skull, Jonathan; Walters, Stephen; Young, Tracey; Metwally, Mostafa

    2018-05-20

    Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth. If ES can influence this success rate, there would be a significant cost saving to the National Health Service through decreasing the number of IVF/ICSI cycles necessary to achieve a pregnancy, increase the practice of single embryo transfer and consequently have a large impact on risks and costs associated with multiple pregnancies. This 30-month, UK, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial includes a 9-month internal pilot and health economic analysis recruiting 1044 women from 16 fertility units. It will follow up participants to identify if IVF/ICSI has been successful and live birth has occurred up to 6 weeks post partum. Primary analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. A substudy of endometrial samples obtained during the ES will assess the role of immune factors in embryo implantation. Main trial recruitment commenced on January 2017 and is ongoing.Participants randomised to the intervention group will receive the ES procedure in the mid-luteal phase of the preceding cycle prior to first-time IVF/ICSI treatment versus usual IVF/ICSI treatment in the control group, with 1:1 randomisation. The primary outcome is live birth rate after completed 24 weeks gestation. South Central-Berkshire Research Ethics Committee approved the protocol. Findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and abstracts to relevant national and international conferences. ISRCTN23800982; Pre-results. © Article author

  17. Impact of peak/mid luteal estradiol on pregnancy outcome after intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, R.; Hussain, Z.; Zahir, H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare peak to mid estradiol ratio with the probability of successful conception after intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Method: The quasi-experimental study was conducted in an infertility clinic at Islamabad from June 2010 till August 2011, and comprised couples subjected to intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection. Down-regulation of ovaries was followed by calculated stimulation, ovulation induction, oocytes retrieval, intra cytoplasmic sperm injection, in vitro maturation of embryos and finally blastocysts transfer. Serum estradiol was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay on ovulation induction day and the day of embryo transfer. Failure of procedure was detected by beta human chorionic gonadotropin 5-25mIU/ml (Group I; non-pregnant). Females with beta human chorionic gonadotropin>25mIU/ml and no cardiac activity after 4 weeks of transfer were placed in Group II (pre-clinical abortion), and confirmation of foetal heart in the latter comprised Group III (clinical pregnancy). Data was analysed using SPSS 15. Results: Of the 323 couples initially enrolled, embryo transfer was carried out in 282(87.3%) females. Clinical pregnancy was achieved in 101(36%) of the cases, while 61(21.63%) had pre-clinical abortion, and 120(42%) remained non-pregnant. The peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio was low (2.3) in patients who had high oocyte maturity (p=0.001) and fertilisation rate (p=0.003) compared to non-pregnant patients with high peak/mid-luteal estradiolratio (2.56). Conclusion: High peak estradiol with maintenance of optimal levels in mid-luteal phase is required for implantation of fertilised ovum and accomplishment of clinical pregnancy. (author)

  18. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Lan, Vuong Thi Ngoc; Tuong, Ho Manh

    2013-01-01

    Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implanta......Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory...... implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients....

  19. Multiple roles of hypoxia in ovarian function: roles of hypoxia-inducible factor-related and -unrelated signals during the luteal phase

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Ryo; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the role of oxygen conditions in the microenvironment of organs because of the discovery of a hypoxia-specific transcription factor, namely hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1. Ovarian function has several phases that change day by day, including ovulation, follicular growth and corpus luteum formation and regression. These phases are regulated by many factors, including pituitary hormones and local hormones, such as steroids, peptides and cytokines, as well as ox...

  20. Luteal function during the estrous cycle in arginine-treated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Casie S; Redmer, Dale A; Kaminski, Samantha L; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2017-03-01

    Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle. Ewes (n = 111) were categorized by weight and randomly assigned to one of three nutritional planes: maintenance control (C), overfed (2× C) and underfed (0.6× C) beginning 60 days prior to onset of estrus. After estrus synchronization, ewes from each nutritional plane were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: Arg or saline. Serum and CL were collected at the early, mid and late luteal phases. The results demonstrated that: (1) nutritional plane affected ovulation rates, luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA expression, (2) Arg affected luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA expression and (3) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and the VEGF and NO systems depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. These data indicate that plane of nutrition and/or Arg supplementation can alter vascularization and expression of selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue during the estrous cycle in sheep. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  1. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Porcine Luteal Function in Relation to IGF-1 Levels Following Ovulation During Lactation or After Weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Brand, van den H.; Gerritsen, R.; Quesnel, H.; Soede, N.M.; Kemp, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents relationships between peripheral progesterone and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations during the early luteal phase in sows. Data were derived from three experiments, one with primiparous weaned sows (n = 21) and two with multiparous sows that either ovulated

  3. Ruptured corpus luteal cyst: Prediction of clinical outcomes with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Seok; Moon, Min Hoan; Woo, Hyun Sik; Sung, Chang Kyu; Jeon, Hye Won; Lee, Taek Sang [SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the determinant pretreatment CT findings that can predict surgical intervention for patients suffering from corpus luteal cyst rupture with hemoperitoneum. From January 2009 to December 2014, a total of 106 female patients (mean age, 26.1 years; range, 17–44 years) who visited the emergency room of our institute for acute abdominal pain and were subsequently diagnosed with ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum were included in the retrospective study. The analysis of CT findings included cyst size, cyst shape, sentinel clot sign, ring of fire sign, hemoperitoneum depth, active bleeding in portal phase and attenuation of hemoperitoneum. The comparison of CT findings between the surgery and conservative management groups was performed with the Mann-Whitney U test or chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine significant CT findings in predicting surgical intervention for a ruptured cyst. Comparative analysis revealed that the presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth were significantly different between the surgery and conservative management groups and were confirmed as significant CT findings for predicting surgery, with adjusted odds ratio (ORs) of 3.773 and 1.318, respectively (p < 0.01). On the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis for hemoperitoneum depth, the optimal cut-off value was 5.8 cm with 73.7% sensitivity and 58.6% specificity (Az = 0.711, p = 0.004). In cases with a hemoperitoneum depth > 5.8 cm and concurrent active bleeding, the OR for surgery increased to 5.786. The presence of active bleeding and the hemoperitoneum depth on a pretreatment CT scan can be predictive warning signs of surgery for a patient with a ruptured corpus luteal cyst with hemoperitoneum.

  4. Comparison of the Efficacy of Two Vaginal Progesterone Formulations, Crinone 8% Gel and Utrogestan Capsules, Used for Luteal Support in Blastocyst Stage Embryo Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Jung Wang

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Luteal phase support with Crinone 8% vaginal gel (90 mg daily resulted in better clinical pregnancy and implantation rates than Utrogestan vaginal capsules (200 mg, 4 times daily in IVF/ICSI–BT cycles.

  5. Endocrine and molecular control of luteal and placental function in dogs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, M P

    2012-12-01

    In the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), the corpus luteum (CL) is the only source of progesterone (P4) in non-pregnant and pregnant animals. The progesterone secretion profiles are almost identical in both conditions until the last third of the luteal phase when the gradual P4 decline turns into a steep drop in pregnant bitches, indicating the onset of parturition. Consequently, the length of the CL-phase in non-pregnant dogs exceeds the luteal lifespan in pregnant animals. The canine CL-function is regulated by many species-specific regulatory mechanisms, the most intriguing of which is the reported independence of gonadotropic support during the first third of dioestrus. Recently, PGE2 has been proposed as one of the most important luteotropic factors acting locally during this time, but afterwards prolactin (PRL) appears to be the main luteotropic factor. Luteal regression/luteolysis occurs, however, in spite of an increased gonadotropic support. Lately, by demonstrating the expression of PRL-receptor (PRLr), a new insight into possible regulatory mechanisms has indicated that the supply of P4 could be controlled upstream of the steroidogenic machinery at the level of PRLr expression and/or function, subsequently leading to the functional suppression of the steroidogenic machinery. An endogenous source of a luteolytic agent is apparently lacking, implicating the luteal regression in non-pregnant bitches as a passive, degenerative process even if the PGF2α-receptor is constitutively expressed in canine CL. This is in contrast to pregnant dogs in which prepartum luteolysis seems to be an active process of CL destruction by PGF2α of utero/placental origin targeting the luteal PGF2α-receptor. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 messenger ribonucleic acid in endothelial cells of the human corpus luteum: a possible role in luteal development and rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, H M; Lunn, S F; Kim, H; Duncan, W C; Rodger, F E; Illingworth, P J; Erickson, G F

    2000-04-01

    In the human menstrual cycle, extensive angiogenesis accompanies luteinization; and the process is physiologically important for corpus luteum (CL) function. During luteolysis, the vasculature collapses, and the endothelial cells die. In a conceptual cycle, the CL persists both functionally and structurally beyond the luteoplacental shift. Although luteal rescue is not associated with increased angiogenesis, endothelial survival is extended. Despite the central role of the luteal vasculature in fertility, the mechanisms regulating its development and demise are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be important effectors of luteal function. Here, we have found that IGFBP-3 messenger RNA is expressed in the endothelium of the human CL and that the levels of message change during luteal development and rescue by human CG. The signal was strong during the early luteal phase, but it showed significant reduction during the mid- and late luteal phases. Interestingly, administration of human CG caused a marked increase in the levels of IGFBP-3 messenger RNA in luteal endothelial cells that was comparable to that observed during the early luteal phase. We conclude that endothelial cell IGFBP-3 expression is a physiological property of the CL of menstruation and pregnancy. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the regulated expression of endothelial IGFBP-3 may play a role in controlling angiogenesis and cell responses in the human CL by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  8. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  9. Isolation and functional aspects of free luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luborsky, J.L.; Berhrman, H.R.

    1985-01-01

    Methods of luteal cell isolation employ enzymatic treatment of luteal tissue with collagenase and deoxyribonuclease. Additional enzymes such as hyaluronidase or Pronase are also used in some instances. Isolated luteal cells retain the morphological characteristics of steroid secreting cells after isolation. They contain mitochondria, variable amounts of lipid droplets, and an extensive smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Isolated luteal cells have been used in numerous studies to examine the regulation of steriodogenesis by luteinizing hormone (LH). LH receptor binding studies were employed to quantitate specific properties of hormone-receptor interaction in relation to cellular function. Binding of [ 125 I]LH to bovine luteal cells and membranes was compared and it was concluded that the enzymatic treatment used to isolate cells did not change the LH receptor binding kinetics

  10. Stimulatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on progesterone production and survivability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on progesterone (P4) synthesis in cultured luteal cells from different stages of the estrous cycle and on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), antiapoptotic gene PCNA, and proapoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells obtained from mid-luteal phase (MLP) of estrous cycle in buffalo. Corpus luteum samples from the early luteal phase (ELP; day 1st-4th; n=4), MLP (day 5th-10th; n=4), and the late luteal phase (LLP; day 11th-16th; n=4) of oestrous cycle were obtained from a slaughterhouse. Luteal cell cultures were treated with VEGF (0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h. Progesterone was assessed by RIA, while mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect of VEGF on P4 synthesis and expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Moreover, VEGF treatment led to an increase in PCNA expression and decrease in BAX expression. In summary, these findings suggest that VEGF acts locally in the bubaline CL to modulate steroid hormone synthesis and cell survivability, which indicates that this factor has an important role as a regulator of CL development and function in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  12. Age-related changes in luteal dynamics: preliminary associations with antral follicular dynamics and hormone production during the human menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerwald, Angela; Vanden Brink, Heidi; Hunter, Caitlin; Beuker, Denae; Lim, Hyun; Lee, Chel Hee; Chizen, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the development of luteal phase dominant follicles (LPDFs) as women age is associated with abnormal luteal function. Luteal and antral follicle diameter were quantified in ovulatory women of midreproductive age (MRA; 18-35 y; n = 9) and advanced reproductive age (ARA; 45-55 y; n = 16) every 1 to 3 days during one complete interovulatory interval. Blood was drawn at each visit and assayed for progesterone, estradiol, inhibin A, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Luteal diameter and hormone profiles were compared within MRA and ARA women with versus without LPDFs. Luteal growth and regression profiles were similar in MRA women with typical versus no LPDFs (13.9, 14.8 mm; P > 0.1); however, luteal phase estradiol and progesterone were greater in MRA women with typical (91.1 ng/L, 8.81 μg/L) versus no (48.8 ng/L, 7.32 μg/L) LPDFs, respectively (LPDF effect, P < 0.1). In the ARA group, mean luteal diameter was lowest in women with atypical LPDFs (12.3 mm), greatest in those with typical LPDFs (16.0 mm), and moderate in those with no LPDFs (13.6 mm), (P < 0.1). Reduced luteal growth in ARA women with atypical versus typical and/or no LPDFs occurred simultaneously to greater luteal phase estradiol (199 vs 69.0, 78.4 ng/L) lower progesterone (7.38 vs 10.7, 13.8 ug/L), and lower inhibin A (36.3, 35.6, 51.2) (P < 0.1). The development of LPDFs as women age was associated with reduced luteal growth, greater estradiol, lower progesterone, and lower inhibin A. These findings provide preliminary evidence that variations in antral folliculogenesis contribute to luteal insufficiency during the menopausal transition.

  13. Phase Transitions in Sexual Populations Subject to Stabilizing Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.

    2003-04-01

    We show that a simple model of an evolving sexual population, which dates back to some of the earliest work in theoretical population genetics, exhibits an unexpected and previously unobserved phase transition between ordered and disordered states. This behavior is not present in populations evolving asexually without recombination and is thus important in any comparison of sexual and asexual populations. In order to calculate the details of the phase transition, we use techniques from statistical physics. We introduce the correlation of the population as the order parameter of the system and use maximum entropy inference to find the state of the population at any time.

  14. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in delayed C-LA (P = 0.01). Milk yield in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days increased more than cows with C-LA 45 days or less postpartum (P = 0.002). Insulin concentrations increased relatively in parallel from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in cows either with C-LA greater than 45 or with C-LA 45 days or less. We showed for the first time the profile of serum adiponectin concentrations

  15. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hachiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya

    2017-06-29

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.

  16. Association of a trait-like bias towards the perception of negative subjective life events with risk of developing premenstrual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Xenia; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Csukly, Gabor; Telek, Tamas; Pap, Dorottya; Rihmer, Zoltan; Bagdy, Gyorgy

    2010-04-16

    Premenstrual symptoms affect the majority of healthy women. Premenstrual symptomatology has earlier been linked to stress and a state-like alteration in the perception of life events in the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. We hypothesised that there is also a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events evident throughout the whole cycle which is associated with the likelihood to manifest more marked symptoms in the late-luteal phase of the cycle. 88 healthy women completed the PRISM calendar for three consecutive cycles and the Objective and Subjective Event Checklist during the follicular phase of the first cycle. Association between PRISM score change from the follicular through the late-luteal phase and life event variables was investigated by Generalized Linear Model Analysis (GENMOD). The PRISM score change showed a significant negative association with the ratio of positive subjective life events and a significant positive association with the ratio of negative subjective life events. There were no significant results in case of the objective life events. Our results indicate that women manifesting a more marked increase of symptoms from the late follicular through the late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle are more likely to notice negative subjective life events and less likely to notice positive subjective life events. This suggest a trait-like negative bias in the perception of life events present throughout the whole reproductive cycle which may play an important role in the emergence of premenstrual symptoms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  18. Transcriptomes of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Romereim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affymetrix Bovine GeneChip® Gene 1.0 ST Array RNA expression analysis was performed on four somatic ovarian cell types: the granulosa cells (GCs and theca cells (TCs of the dominant follicle and the large luteal cells (LLCs and small luteal cells (SLCs of the corpus luteum. The normalized linear microarray data was deposited to the NCBI GEO repository (GSE83524. Subsequent ANOVA determined genes that were enriched (≥2 fold more or decreased (≤−2 fold less in one cell type compared to all three other cell types, and these analyzed and filtered datasets are presented as tables. Genes that were shared in enriched expression in both follicular cell types (GCs and TCs or in both luteal cells types (LLCs and SLCs are also reported in tables. The standard deviation of the analyzed array data in relation to the log of the expression values is shown as a figure. These data have been further analyzed and interpreted in the companion article “Gene expression profiling of ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions” (Romereim et al., 2017 [1].

  19. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  1. Apoptosis is increased and cell proliferation is decreased in out-of-phase endometria from infertile and recurrent abortion patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irigoyen Marcela

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various endometrial abnormalities have been associated with luteal phase deficiency: a significant dyssynchrony in the maturation of the glandular epithelium and the stroma and a prevalence of out-of-phase endometrial biopsy specimens. Out-of phase endometrium is a controversial disorder related to failed implantation, infertility and early pregnancy loss. Given that the regulation of the apoptotic process in endometrium of luteal phase deficiency is still unknown, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis and the levels of the main effector caspase, caspase-3 in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium. Methods Thirty-seven endometrial samples from sterile or recurrent abortion patients were included in this study: 21 in-phase samples (controls and 16 samples with out-of-phase endometrium. Biopsy specimens of eutopic endometrium were obtained from all subjects during days 21-25 of the menstrual cycle. The endometrium with endometrial maturity of cycle day 25 or less at the time of menstruation was considered out-of phase. Endometrial tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. For apoptosis quantification, sections were processed for in situ immunohistochemical localization of nuclei exhibiting DNA fragmentation, by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT-mediated dUTP digoxygenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL technique. Expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA as a marker of cell proliferation, and of cleaved caspase-3 as a marker of apoptosis, were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium from infertile and recurrent abortion patients. Results Luteal out-of-phase endometrium had increased apoptosis levels compared to in-phase endometrium (p Conclusions this study represents the first report describing variations at the cell proliferation and cell death levels in the out-of-phase endometrium in comparison with in-phase

  2. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Digant; Lis, Christopher G; Dahlk, Sadie L; King, Jessica; Vashi, Pankaj G; Grutsch, James F; Lammersfeld, Carolyn A

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as ei...

  3. Epithelial lining of the endometrium during the luteal phase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... The endometrium is receptive for the embryo and presents an implantation ... This study is aimed at highlighting an alternation in pinopod expression and to ... underwent two endometrial biopsies 2-7 days after human chronic ...

  4. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P production (P production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Degradation of high density lipoprotein in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.J.

    1986-01-01

    In rat ovary luteal cells, degradation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) to tricholoracetic acid (TCA)-soluble products accounts for only a fraction of the HDL-derived cholesterol used for steroidogenesis. In this study the authors have investigated the fate of 125 I]HDL bound to cultured luteal cells using pulse-chase technique. Luteal cell cultures were pulse labeled with [ 125 I]HDL 3 and reincubated in the absence of HDL. By 24 h about 50% of the initallay bound radioactivity was released into the medium, of which 60-65% could be precipitated with 10% TCA. Gel filtration of the chase incubation medium on 10% agarose showed that the amount of TCA-soluble radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity was nearly completely accounted for by a sharp peak in the low molecular weight region which was identified as 96% monoiodotyrosine by paper chromatography. The TCA-precipitable radioactivity eluted over a wide range of molecular weights (15,000-80,000), and there was very little intact HDL present. Electrophoresis of the chase medium showed that component of the TCA-precipitable portion had mobility similar to apo AI. Lysosomal inhibitors of receptor-mediated endocytosis had no effect on the composition or quantity of radioactivity released during chase incubation. The results show that HDL 3 binding to luteal cells is followed by complete degradation of the lipoprotein, although the TCA-soluble part does not reflect the extent of degradation

  6. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, inhibits rat luteal cell progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Yucel; Derk, Raymond C; Meighan, Terence; Rao, K Murali Krishna; Murono, Eisuke P

    2011-07-01

    The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, was shown to inhibit P450-cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) activity resulting in decreased progesterone production by cultured ovarian follicular cells in previous studies. It is not known whether HPTE has any effect on progesterone formation by the corpus luteum. Exposure to 100 nM HPTE reduced progesterone production by luteal cells with progressive declines to progesterone formation and P450scc catalytic activity of hCG- or 8 Br-cAMP-stimulated luteal cells. However, HPTE did not alter mRNA and protein levels of P450scc. Compounds acting as estrogen (17 β-estradiol, bisphenol-A or octylphenol), antiestrogen (ICI) or antiandrogen (monobutyl phthalate, flutamide or M-2) added alone to luteal cells did not mimic the action of HPTE on progesterone and P450scc activity. These results suggest that HPTE directly inhibits P450scc catalytic activity resulting in reduced progesterone formation, and this action was not mediated through estrogen or androgen receptors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The relationship between bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in advanced colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grutsch James F

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA derived phase angle is increasingly being used as an objective indicator of nutritional status in advanced cancer. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA is a subjective method of nutritional status. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between BIA derived phase angle and SGA in advanced colorectal cancer. Methods We evaluated a case series of 73 stages III and IV colorectal cancer patients. Patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the SGA. BIA was conducted on all patients and phase angle was calculated. The correlation between phase angle and SGA was studied using Spearman correlation coefficient. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle. Results Well-nourished patients had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005 median phase angle score (6.12 as compared to those who were malnourished (5.18. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between phase angle and SGA was found to be 0.33 (p = 0.004, suggesting better nutritional status with higher phase angle scores. A phase angle cut-off of 5.2 was 51.7% sensitive and 79.5% specific whereas a cut-off of 6.0 was 82.8% sensitive and 54.5% specific in detecting malnutrition. Interestingly, a phase angle cut-off of 5.9 demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in males who had failed primary treatment for advanced colorectal cancer. Conclusion Our study suggests that bioimpedance phase angle is a potential nutritional indicator in advanced colorectal cancer. Further research is needed to elucidate the optimal cut-off levels of phase angle that can be incorporated into the oncology clinic for better nutritional evaluation and management.

  8. Influences of the Menstrual Phase on Cortisol Response to Stress in Nicotine Dependent Women: A Preliminary Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Motohiro; Allen, Sharon; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2018-04-10

    Evidence indicates that menstrual cycle phase plays a role in smoking withdrawal symptoms and craving. Stress increases these symptoms. Whether the stress regulatory mechanism is associated with menstrual phase and withdrawal symptoms is not well understood. Thirty-seven female smokers and 16 female nonsmokers were asked to complete a laboratory session. In each group, approximately half of the participants were tested when they were in the follicular phase and the other half was tested in the luteal phase. The session included resting baseline, stress, and recovery periods. Saliva samples for the measurement of cortisol and subjective measures of craving and withdrawal symptoms were collected at the end of each period. A series of repeated measures ANCOVAs found a significant smoking group x menstrual phase x sampling time interaction in cortisol levels (p < .05). Follow-up analyses indicated a reduced cortisol stress response in the luteal group relative to the follicular group in smokers (p < .02). This difference was not found in nonsmokers. Menstrual cycle phase is related to hormonal stress response and smoking withdrawal symptomatology. We show influences of the menstrual cycle phase on stress response among smokers. This is demonstrated by a reduced cortisol response to stress in the luteal group relative to the follicular group among smokers. This menstrual phase difference was not found in nonsmokers.

  9. Left ventricular synchrony assessed by phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuetao; Wang Jianfeng; Yang Minfu; Niu Rong

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of Cedars-Sinai quantitative gated SPECT (QGS) phase analysis for left ventricular synchrony assessment in healthy subjects. Methods: Seventy-four healthy subjects (41 males, 33 females,average age: (60±13) years) underwent both rest and exercise 99 Tc m -MIBI G-MPI. QGS software was used to analyze the reconstructed rest gated SPECT images automatically, and then the parameters of left ventricular synchrony including phase bandwidth (BW) and phase standard deviation (SD) were obtained. The influences of gender and age (age<60 years, n=36; age ≥ 60 years, n=38) on left ventricular systolic synchronicity were analyzed. The phase angle for original segmental contraction was measured to determine the onset of the ventricular contraction using 17-segment model. Forty healthy subjects were selected by simple random sampling method to evaluate the intra-observer and interobserver repeatability of QGS phase analysis software. Two-sample t test and linear correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: The BW and SD of left ventricular in healthy subjects were (37.22 ±11.71)°, (11.84±5.39)° respectively. Comparisons between male and female for BW and SD yielded no statistical significance (BW: (36.00±9.70)°, (38.73±13.84)°; SD: (11.88±5.56)°, (11.79±5.26)°; t=0.96 and-0.07, both P>0.05); whereas the older subjects (age≥60 years) had larger BW than the others (age<60 years ; (39.95± 12.65)°, (34.33± 10.00)°; t=-2.11, P<0.05) and no statistical significance was shown for SD between the two age groups ((11.18±4.31)°, (12.54±6.33)°; t=1.08, P>0.05). Of the 74 subjects, the mechanical activation started from the ventricular base to apex in 54 subjects (73%), and from apex to base in only 20 subjects (27%). High repeatability of phase analysis was observed for both intra-observer and inter-observer (r=0.867-0.906, all P<0.001). Conclusions: Good left ventricular segmental synchrony is shown in healthy

  10. Experimental Study about Two-phase Damping Ratio on a Tube Bundle Subjected to Homogeneous Two-phase Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gun; Dagdan, Banzragch [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Two-phase cross flow exists in many shell-and-tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators, and nuclear steam generators. The drag force acting on a tube bundle subjected to air/water flow is evaluated experimentally. The cylinders subjected to two-phase flow are arranged in a normal square array. The ratio of pitch to diameter is 1.35, and the diameter of the cylinder is 18 mm. The drag force along the flow direction on the tube bundles is measured to calculate the drag coefficient and the two-phase damping ratio. The two-phase damping ratios, given by the analytical model for a homogeneous two-phase flow, are compared with experimental results. The correlation factor between the frictional pressure drop and the hydraulic drag coefficient is determined from the experimental results. The factor is used to calculate the drag force analytically. It is found that with an increase in the mass flux, the drag force, and the drag coefficients are close to the results given by the homogeneous model. The result shows that the damping ratio can be calculated using the homogeneous model for bubbly flow of sufficiently large mass flux.

  11. Dealing with subjectivity in early product design phase: a systematic approch to exploit QFD potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raharjo, H.; Brombacher, A.C.; Xie, M.

    2008-01-01

    Quality Function Deployment (QFD), as a customer-driven tool, is generally used in the early phase of new or improved products/services design process, and therefore most of the input parameters are highly subjective in nature. The five major input components of the QFD, which are laid in the House

  12. Pressure distribution over tube surfaces of tube bundle subjected to two phase cross flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Woo Gun

    2013-01-01

    Two phase vapor liquid flows exist in many shell and tube heat exchangers such as condensers, evaporators and nuclear steam generators. To understand the fluid dynamic forces acting on a structure subjected to a two phase flow, it is essential to obtain detailed information about the characteristics of a two phase flow. The characteristics of a two phase flow and the flow parameters were introduced, and then, an experiment was performed to evaluate the pressure loss in the tube bundles and the fluid dynamic force acting on the cylinder owing to the pressure distribution. A two phase flow was pre mixed at the entrance of the test section, and the experiments were undertaken using a normal triangular array of cylinders subjected to a two phase cross flow. The pressure loss along the flow direction in the tube bundles was measured to calculate the two phase friction multiplier, and the multiplier was compared with the analytical value. Furthermore, the circular distributions of the pressure on the cylinders were measured. Based on the distribution and the fundamental theory of two phase flow, the effects of the void fraction and mass flux per unit area on the pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure coefficient and the drag coefficient were evaluated. The drag coefficient was calculated by integrating the measured pressure on the tube by a numerical method. It was found that for low mass fluxes, the measured two phase friction multipliers agree well with the analytical results, and good agreement for the effect of the void fraction on the drag coefficients, as calculated by the measured pressure distributions, is shown qualitatively, as compared to the existing experimental results

  13. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  14. Cortical phase changes measured using 7-T MRI in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment, and their association with cognitive function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooden, van Sanneke; Buijs, Mathijs; Vliet, van Marjolein E.; Versluis, Maarten J.; Webb, Andrew G.; Oleksik, Ania M.; Wiel, van de Lotte; Middelkoop, Huub A.M.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W.E.; Goos, Jeroen D.C.; Flier, van der Wiesje M.; Koene, Ted; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Nieuwerth-van de Rest, Ondine; Slagboom, P.E.; Buchem, van Mark A.; Grond, van der Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested that, in subjects with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like changes may occur in the brain. Recently, an in vivo study has indicated the potential of ultra-high-field MRI to visualize amyloid-beta (Aβ)-associated changes in the cortex in

  15. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase.

  17. Inter-subject phase synchronization for exploratory analysis of task-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Taylor; Nomi, Jason S; Vij, Shruti G; Chang, Catie; Uddin, Lucina Q

    2018-08-01

    Analysis of task-based fMRI data is conventionally carried out using a hypothesis-driven approach, where blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) time courses are correlated with a hypothesized temporal structure. In some experimental designs, this temporal structure can be difficult to define. In other cases, experimenters may wish to take a more exploratory, data-driven approach to detecting task-driven BOLD activity. In this study, we demonstrate the efficiency and power of an inter-subject synchronization approach for exploratory analysis of task-based fMRI data. Combining the tools of instantaneous phase synchronization and independent component analysis, we characterize whole-brain task-driven responses in terms of group-wise similarity in temporal signal dynamics of brain networks. We applied this framework to fMRI data collected during performance of a simple motor task and a social cognitive task. Analyses using an inter-subject phase synchronization approach revealed a large number of brain networks that dynamically synchronized to various features of the task, often not predicted by the hypothesized temporal structure of the task. We suggest that this methodological framework, along with readily available tools in the fMRI community, provides a powerful exploratory, data-driven approach for analysis of task-driven BOLD activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. There are differences in cerebral activation between females in distinct menstrual phases during viewing of erotic stimuli: A fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Karama, Sherif; Baars, Anneke; Senf, Wolfgang; Forsting, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that men experience more sexual arousal than women but also that women in mid-luteal phase experience more sexual arousal than women outside this phase. Recently, a few functional brain imaging studies have tackled the issue of gender differences as pertaining to reactions to erotica. The question of whether or not gender differences in reactions to erotica are maintained with women in different phases has not yet been answered from a functional brain imaging perspective. In order to examine this issue, functional MRI was performed in 22 male and 22 female volunteers. Subjects viewed erotic film excerpts alternating with emotionally neutral excerpts in a standard block-design paradigm. Arousal to erotic stimuli was evaluated using standard rating scales after scanning. Two-sample t-test with uncorrected P erotic stimuli and with corrected P erotic stimuli. Furthermore, gender differences with women in mid-luteal phases are similar to those in females outside the mid-luteal phase.

  19. Deficiencies in luteal function during re-initiation of cyclic breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    such conversion to large luteal cells occurs only during the early part of the oestrous cycle. There may even be stem .... anoestrous ewes, stimulation of the pre-ovulatory follicle ...... time relationships concerning oestrus, ovulation and electrical.

  20. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its functional receptor in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle and the modulatory role of ghrelin on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells in buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Chouhan, V S; Hyder, I; Babitha, V; Yadav, V P; Khan, F A; Sonwane, A; Singh, G; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2014-07-01

    Evidence obtained during recent years provided has insight into the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) development, function, and regression by locally produced ghrelin. The present study was carried out to evaluate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in bubaline CL during different stages of the estrous cycle and investigate the role of ghrelin on progesterone (P4) production along with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of P4 synthesis intermediates. The mRNA and protein expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was significantly greater in mid- and late luteal phases. Both factors were localized in luteal cells, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Immunoreactivity of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was greater during mid- and late luteal phases. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL concentrations for 48 h after obtaining 75% to 80% confluence. At a dose of 1 ng/mL, there was no significant difference in P4 secretion between control and treatment group. At 10 and 100 ng/mL, there was a decrease (P production in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals differences in mechanisms regulating cessation of luteal function in pregnant and non-pregnant dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatta, Sophie; Rehrauer, Hubert; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Kowalewski, Mariusz Pawel

    2017-09-27

    In the domestic dog, corpora lutea (CL) are the only source of progesterone (P4), both in pregnant and non-pregnant cycles because there is no placental steroidogenesis. The absence of an endogenous luteolysin in absence of pregnancy results in long-lasting physiological pseudopregnancy, strongly contrasting with the acute luteolysis observed prepartum. The underlying biological mechanisms and the involvement of P4 signalling remain, however, not fully understood. Therefore, here, next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on CL from the late luteal phase and compared with normally luteolyzing CL collected at the prepartum P4 decrease. The contrast "luteal regression over luteolysis" yielded 1595 differentially expressed genes (DEG). The CL in late luteal regression were predominantly associated with functional terms linked to extracellular matrix (p = 5.52e-05). Other terms related to transcriptional activity (p = 2.45e-04), and steroid hormone signalling (p = 2.29e-04), which were more highly represented in late regression than during luteolysis. The prepartum luteolysis was associated with immune inflammatory responses (p = 2.87e-14), including acute-phase reaction (p = 4.10e-06). Immune system-related events were also more highly represented in CL derived from normal luteolysis (p = 7.02e-04), compared with those from dogs in which luteolysis was induced with an antigestagen (1480 DEG in total). Additionally, the withdrawal of P4 at mid-gestation resulted in 92 DEG; over-represented terms enriched in antigestagen-treated dogs were related to the inflammatory response (p = 0.005) or response to IL1 (p = 7.29e-05). Terms related to proliferation, e.g., centrosome organization (p = 0.002) and steroid metabolic processes (p = 0.001), prevailed at mid-gestation. Thereby, our results revealed the nature of luteotropic effects of P4 within canine CL. It appears that, even though they result in diminished steroidogenic output, the effect of

  2. Measurement of cerebral blood flow in normal subjects by phase contrast MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Yusuke; Osada, Hisato

    1994-01-01

    Global cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured with a two-dimensional phase contrast cine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique in 24 normal subjects (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70 years). Cine transverse images of the upper cervical region (32 phases/cardiac cycle) were acquired with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. In five subjects, measurement of CBF was performed before and after intravenous administration of acetazolamide (DIAMOX, 15 mg/kg). Inter- and intra-observer variations in flow volume measurement were small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate (SEE)=2.9 ml/min, n=8; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml/min, n=40, respectively). In measuring flow velocity, they were inferior to those of flow volume measurement. On a visually determined setting of region of interest (ROI), reproducibility of the measurement of flow velocity was not satisfactory in this study. Thus only the results of flow volume measurement are presented. Mean summed vertebral flow volume (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed internal carotid flow volume (523 ml/min, SD=111). Total blood flow volume showed a significant decline with age (r=-0.45, p<0.05). The mean proportions of carotid and vertebral flow volume to total flow volume were 75.3% and 24.7%, respectively, and showed no significant change with age. The left-to-right ratio of vertebral flow volume (1.39) was significantly higher than that of internal carotid flow volume (0.99, r=0.05). After DIAMOX i.v., the mean rate of increase in total flow volume was 157%. Mean rates of increase in carotid and vertebral flow volume were 154% and 166%, respectively, which were not significantly different. In conclusion, this method is useful for estimating carotid and vertebral flow volume. (author)

  3. Inhalation of a dry powder ciprofloxacin formulation in healthy subjects: a phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, Heino; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Willmann, Stefan; Delesen, Heinz; Gupta, Abhishek; Baumann, Sybille

    2013-06-01

    Oral and intravenous formulations of ciprofloxacin have established efficacy and safety profiles in respiratory infections. A dry powder for inhalation (DPI) that uses Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology has been developed to deliver high concentrations of ciprofloxacin to the lung with low systemic exposure using a portable and convenient passive dry powder inhaler (Novartis' T-326 inhaler). The primary objective was to investigate the safety and tolerability of ciprofloxacin DPI in healthy male subjects, with a secondary objective to investigate the pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin after ciprofloxacin DPI administration. This was a phase I, single-dose, single-site, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study conducted in the hospital setting. Subjects were followed up for safety for approximately 2 weeks. Six healthy male subjects, aged 27-42 years with no history of pulmonary disease, repeated bronchitis or respiratory allergies were enrolled. In randomized order and separated by a 1-week washout period, subjects inhaled a single dose of ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or placebo from the T-326 inhaler. Primary safety parameters included vital signs, electrocardiogram, laboratory tests, adverse events and lung function (total specific resistance, thoracic gas volume and forced expiratory volume in 1 s). Plasma concentration-time data were used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters. Ciprofloxacin DPI was well tolerated with no clinically relevant adverse effects on lung function. Estimates of lung deposition derived from physiology-based pharmacokinetic modelling suggest that approximately 40 % of the total dose of ciprofloxacin DPI reached the trachea/bronchi and alveolar space. Systemic ciprofloxacin was detected soon after inhalation [peak concentration in plasma (C(max)) 56.42 μg/L, median time to C max 0.625 h], but total systemic exposure was minimal (area under the plasma concentration-time curve 354.4 μg·h/L). Terminal elimination half

  4. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  5. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Validation of Inter-Subject Training for Hidden Markov Models Applied to Gait Phase Detection in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juri Taborri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gait-phase recognition is a necessary functionality to drive robotic rehabilitation devices for lower limbs. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs represent a viable solution, but they need subject-specific training, making data processing very time-consuming. Here, we validated an inter-subject procedure to avoid the intra-subject one in two, four and six gait-phase models in pediatric subjects. The inter-subject procedure consists in the identification of a standardized parameter set to adapt the model to measurements. We tested the inter-subject procedure both on scalar and distributed classifiers. Ten healthy children and ten hemiplegic children, each equipped with two Inertial Measurement Units placed on shank and foot, were recruited. The sagittal component of angular velocity was recorded by gyroscopes while subjects performed four walking trials on a treadmill. The goodness of classifiers was evaluated with the Receiver Operating Characteristic. The results provided a goodness from good to optimum for all examined classifiers (0 < G < 0.6, with the best performance for the distributed classifier in two-phase recognition (G = 0.02. Differences were found among gait partitioning models, while no differences were found between training procedures with the exception of the shank classifier. Our results raise the possibility of avoiding subject-specific training in HMM for gait-phase recognition and its implementation to control exoskeletons for the pediatric population.

  7. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  8. [EEG alpha indices in dependence on the menstrual cycle phase and salivary progesterone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazanova, O M; Kondratenko, A V; Kuz'minova, O I; Muravleva, K B; Petrova, S E

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the neurohumoral status on the EEG alpha - activity indices were studied in a within-subject design with 78 women aged 18-27 years during 1-2 menstrual cycle. Psychometric and EEG indices of alpha waves basal body temperature, saliva progesterone and cortisol level were monitored every 2-3 days. Menstrual and follicular recording sessions occurred before the ovulatory temperature rise, luteal recording session--after increasing progesterone level more than 20% respect to previous day and premenstrual sessions after decreasing progesterone level more that 20% respect to previous day. The design consisted of rest and task periods EEG, EMG and ECG recordings. Half the subjects began during their menstrual phase and half began during their luteal phase. All 5 phases were compared for differences between psychometric features EEG alpha activity, EMG and ECG baseline resting levels, as well as for reactivity to cognitive task. The results showed menstrual phase differences in all psychometric and alpha EEG indices. The cognitive fluency, alpha peak frequency, alpha band width, power in alpha-2 frequency range are maximal at luteal, alpha visual activation and reactivity to cognitive task performance--at follicular phase. The hypothesis that the EEG alpha activity depends on the hormonal status supported by the positive association salivary progesterone level with the alpha peak frequency, power in the alpha-2 band and negative--with the power of the alpha-1 band. According these results, we conclude that psycho-physiological recording sessions with women might be provided with a glance to phase of menstrual cycle.

  9. The Adequate Corpus Luteum: miR-96 Promotes Luteal Cell Survival and Progesterone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Bushra T; Sontakke, Sadanand D; Ioannidis, Jason; Duncan, W Colin; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance. To comprehensively investigate the involvement of miRNAs during the ovarian follicle-luteal transition. The effects of specific miRNAs on survival and steroid production by human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs) were tested using specific miRNA inhibitors. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analyses of follicular and luteal tissues in a bovine model. An academic institution in the United Kingdom associated with a teaching hospital. hLGCs were obtained by standard transvaginal follicular-fluid aspiration from 35 women undergoing assisted conception. Inhibition of candidate miRNAs in vitro. Levels of miRNAs, mRNAs, FOXO1 protein, apoptosis, and steroids were measured in tissues and/or cultured cells. Two specific miRNA clusters, miR-183-96-182 and miR-212-132, were dramatically increased in luteal relative to follicular tissues. miR-96 and miR-132 were the most upregulated miRNAs within each cluster. Database analyses identified FOXO1 as a putative target of both these miRNAs. In cultured hLGCs, inhibition of miR-96 increased apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels, and decreased progesterone production. These effects were prevented by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FOXO1. In bovine luteal cells, miR-96 inhibition also led to increases in apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels. miR-96 targets FOXO1 to regulate luteal development through effects on cell survival and steroid production. The miR-183-96-182 cluster could provide a novel target for the manipulation of luteal function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  10. Random excitation forces in tube bundles subjected to two-phase cross-flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.E.; Pettigrew, M.J.; Currie, I.G.

    1996-01-01

    Data from two experimental programs have been analyzed to determine the characteristics of the random excitation forces associated with two-phase cross-flow in tube bundles. Large-scale air-water flow loops in France and Canada were used to generate the data. Tests were carried out on cantilevered, clamped-pinned, and clamped-clamped tubes in normal-square, parallel-triangular, and normal-triangular configurations. Either strain gages or force transducers were used to measure the vibration response of a centrally located tube as the tue array was subjected to a wide range of void fractions and flow rates. Power spectra were analyzed to determine the effect of parameters such as tube diameter, frequency, flow rate, void fraction, and flow regime on the random excitation forces. Normalized expressions for the excitation force power spectra were found to be flow-regime dependent. In the churn flow regime, flow rate and void fraction had very little effect on the magnitude of the excitation forces. In the bubble-plug flow regime, the excitation forces increased rapidly with flow rate and void fraction

  11. Effects of single dose GnRH agonist as luteal support on pregnancy outcome in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles: an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robab Davar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no doubt that luteal phase support is essential to enhance the reproductive outcome in IVF cycles. In addition to progesterone and human chorionic gonadotropin, several studies have described GnRH agonists as luteal phase support to improve implantation rate, pregnancy rate and live birth rate, whereas other studies showed dissimilar conclusions. All of these studies have been done in fresh IVF cycles. Objective: To determine whether an additional GnRH agonist administered at the time of implantation for luteal phase support in frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET improves the embryo developmental potential. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective controlled trial study in 200 FET cycles, patients were randomized on the day of embryo transfer into group 1 (n=100 to whom a single dose of GnRH agonist (0.1 mg triptorelin was administered three days after transfer and group 2 (n=100, who did not receive agonist. Both groups received daily vaginal progesterone suppositories plus estradiol valerate 6 mg daily. Primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcome measures were implantation rate, chemical, ongoing pregnancy rate and abortion rate. Results: A total of 200 FET cycles were analyzed. Demographic data and embryo quality were comparable between two groups. No statistically significant difference in clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates was observed between the two groups (26% versus 21%, p=0.40 and 21% versus 17%, p=0.37, respectively. Conclusion: Administration of a subcutaneous GnRH agonist at the time of implantation does not increase clinical or ongoing pregnancy.

  12. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography as a Tool to Assess Luteal Function in Santa Inês Ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, L M; Fonseca, J F; Arashiro, Ekn; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Ribeiro, Acs; Oba, E; Viana, Jhm; Brandão, F Z

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteal dynamics in the Santa Inês ewes using colour Doppler (CD) ultrasonography. Oestrus was synchronized in nulliparous females (n = 18), and subsequently, they were only teased (n = 6) or teased and mated (n = 12). Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone (P4 ) concentrations. Ultrasonographic images of corpora lutea (CL) in CD mode were obtained for further analysis in its largest diameter. The CD mode allowed an early sequential monitoring of CL that was visualized by the first time 0.77 ± 0.62 days after ovulation, with luteal area 29.68 ± 13.21 mm(2) . During the luteogenesis, a progressive increase was observed, followed by a plateau of luteal area, vascularization area and plasma concentrations of P4 reaching maximum values in D11 (124.0 ± 38.0 mm(2) , 52.78 ± 24.08 mm(2) and 11.23 ± 4.89 ng/ml, respectively). In the luteolysis, the plasma concentrations of P4 decreased sharply, whereas luteal and vascularization area gradually. The vascularization area was positively correlated with plasma concentrations of P4 during the luteogenesis (r = 0.22) and luteolysis (r = 0.48). The luteal dynamics of Santa Inês ewes showed patterns similar to those observed in other sheep breeds studied. The CD ultrasonography has the potential to be used as a tool to assess luteal function in sheep. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  14. Effects of electroacupuncture on luteal regression and steroidogenesis in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome model rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuan; Chen, Li; Xia, You-Bing; Xie, Min; Sun, Qin; Yao, Bing

    2018-03-15

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective and safe therapeutic method widely used for treating clinical diseases. Previously, we found that EA could decrease serum hormones and reduce ovarian size in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rat model. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that contribute to these improvements remain unclear. HE staining was used to count the number of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles. Immunohistochemical and ELISA were applied to examine luteal functional and structural regression. Immunoprecipitation was used for analyzing the interaction between NPY (neuropeptide Y) and COX-2; western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes and PKA/CREB pathway. EA treatment significantly reduced the ovarian weight and the number of CL, also decreased ovarian and serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2 expression; increased ovarian PGF2α levels and PGF2α/PGE2 ratio; decreased PCNA expression and distribution; and increased cyclin regulatory inhibitor p27 expression to have further effect on the luteal formation, and promote luteal functional and structural regression. Moreover, expression of COX-2 in ovaries was possessed interactivity increased expression of NPY. Furthermore, EA treatment lowered the serum hormone levels, inhibited PKA/CREB pathway and decreased the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes. Hence, interaction with COX-2, NPY may affect the levels of PGF2α and PGE2 as well as impact the proliferation of granulosa cells in ovaries, thus further reducing the luteal formation, and promoting luteal structural and functional regression, as well as the ovarian steroidogenesis following EA treatment. EA treatment could be an option for preventing OHSS in ART. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Vibration response of a pipe subjected to two-phase flow: Analytical formulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz-Vidal, L. Enrique, E-mail: leortiz@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Mureithi, Njuki W., E-mail: njuki.mureithi@polymtl.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Département de Géniemécanique 2900, H3T 1J7 Montreal, QC (Canada); Rodriguez, Oscar M.H., E-mail: oscarmhr@sc.usp.br [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sao Carlos School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo (USP), Av., Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, 13566-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Analytical formulations for two-phase flow-induced vibration (2-FIV) are presented. • Standard deviation of acceleration pipe response is a function of the square of shear velocity. • Peak frequency is correlated to hydrodynamic mass and consequently to void fraction. • Dynamic pipe response increases with increasing mixture velocity and void fraction. • Hydrodynamic mass in 2-FIV in horizontal pipe is proportional to mixture density. - Abstract: This paper treats the two-phase flow-induced vibration in pipes. A broad range of two-phase flow conditions, including bubbly, dispersed and slug flow, were tested in a clamped-clamped straight horizontal pipe. The vibration response of both transversal directions for two span lengths was measured. From experimental results, an in-depth discussion on the nature of the flow excitation and flow-parameters influence is presented. The hydrodynamic mass parameter is also studied. Experimental results suggest that it is proportional to mixture density. On the other hand, two analytical formulations were developed and tested against experimental results. One formulation predicts the quadratic trend between standard deviation of acceleration and shear velocity found in experiments. The other formulation indicates that the peak-frequency of vibration response depends strongly on void fraction. It provides accurate predictions of peak-frequency, predicting 97.6% of the data within ±10% error bands.

  16. Coping with missing data in phase III pivotal registration trials: Tolvaptan in subjects with kidney disease, a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, John; Carroll, Kevin J; Koch, Gary; Li, Junfang

    2017-07-01

    Missing data cause challenging issues, particularly in phase III registration trials, as highlighted by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US National Research Council. We explore, as a case study, how the issues from missing data were tackled in a double-blind phase III trial in subjects with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. A total of 1445 subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive active treatment (tolvaptan), or placebo. The primary outcome, the rate of change in total kidney volume, favored tolvaptan (P outline the analyses undertaken to address the issue of missing data thoroughly. "Tipping point analyses" were performed to explore how extreme and detrimental outcomes among subjects with missing data must be to overturn the positive treatment effect attained in those subjects who had complete data. Nonparametric rank-based analyses were also performed accounting for missing data. In conclusion, straightforward and transparent analyses directly taking into account missing data convincingly support the robustness of the preplanned analyses on the primary and secondary endpoints. Tolvaptan was confirmed to be effective in slowing total kidney volume growth, which is considered an efficacy endpoint by EMA, and in lessening the decline in renal function in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on glucose kinetics in healthy women & women with premenstrual symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena K. Nandimath

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the blood glucose levels during the two phases of the menstrual cycle between healthy women and patients with premenstrual syndrome (PMS.Methods: From January of 2012 to the August of 2013, a descriptive cross-sectional study was performed among staff of tertiary care hospital.Inclusion Criteria: 1100 women aged 18 to 45 years, 2 Regular Menstrual cycle.Exclusion Criteria: 1 Menopause 2 Patient on Oral Contraceptive pills.After approval from IEC and informed consent from the 100 enrolled subjects with either the most severe symptoms of PMS or healthy controls. 2ml of venous blood was collected on fasting condition during the follicular phase (5-11 days of  menstrual cycleand the luteal phase of the cycle (19-28 days menstrual cycle and analyzed the serum concentrations of glucose by using the glucose oxidase method.Results: The statistical analysis was done using student's paired T test. P value less than 0.0001was taken as significant.No significant differences between the demographic data of the control and PMS groups were observed. The mean concentrations of glucose were significantly different during the follicular and luteal phases.

  18. Characterization of a U-Mo alloy subjected to direct hydriding of the gamma phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balart, Silvia N.; Bruzzoni, Pablo; Granovsky, Marta S.

    2003-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has imposed the need to develop plate-type fuel elements based on high density uranium compounds, such as U-Mo alloys. One of the steps in the fabrication of the fuel elements is the pulverization of the fissile material. In the case of the U-Mo alloys, the pulverization can be accomplished through hydriding - dehydriding. Two alternative methods of the hydriding-dehydriding process, namely the selective hydriding in alpha phase (HS-alpha) and the massive hydriding in gamma phase (HM-gamma) are currently being studied at the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica. The HM-gamma method was reproduced at laboratory scale starting from a U-7 wt % Mo alloy. The hydrided and dehydrided materials were characterized using metallographic techniques, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and X-ray diffraction. These results are compared with previous results of the HS-alpha method. (author)

  19. Characterization of emergent HIV resistance in treatment-naive subjects enrolled in a vicriviroc phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Paul; Wei, Yi; Whitcomb, Jeannette; Greaves, Wayne; Black, Todd A; Tremblay, Cecile L; Strizki, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Vicriviroc is a C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist that is in clinical development for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This study explored the molecular basis for the development of phenotypically resistant virus. HIV-1 RNA from treatment-naive subjects who experienced virological failure in a phase 2 dose-finding trial was evaluated for coreceptor usage and susceptibility. For viruses that exhibited reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, envelope clones were phenotypically and genotypically characterized. Twenty-six vicriviroc-treated subjects experienced virological failure; for 24 the virus remained CCR5-tropic, and 2 had dual/X4 virus. Reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, manifested as decreases in the maximum percent inhibition value (no increase in median inhibitory concentration), was detected in 4 of the 26 subjects who experienced virological failure. Clonal analysis of envelopes in samples from these 4 subjects revealed multiple sequence changes in gp160, principally within the variable domain 1/variable domain 2, variable domain 3, and variable domain 4 loops. However, no consistent pattern of mutations was observed across subjects. In this study, only a small proportion of treatment failures were associated with tropism changes or reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc. Genotypic analysis of cloned env sequences revealed no specific mutational pattern associated with reduced susceptibility to vicriviroc, although numerous changes were observed in the variable domain 3 loop and in other regions of gp160.

  20. Evaluation of reproducibility of solid-phase gastric emptying in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roland, J.; Dobbeleir, A.; Vandevivere, J.; Ham, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide gastric emptying studies are performed as a matter of clinical routine. Our aim was to evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability and the reproducibility of gastric emptying studies in healthy young male volunteers using a single solid-phase, standard meal. The meal consisted of a pancake (500 KJ) tagged with 99m Tc-labeled sulfur colloid and no additional liquid. Continuous acquisitions of gastric activity in anterior projection were taken during 90 min, starting from the onset of the meal. Gastric emptying was evaluated three times in a 3-week period. Five different parameters were evaluated. Our results show that there is important inter- and intra-individual variability in normal volunteers. In spite of this variability, no significant difference between the different series of gastric emptying studies was observed. (orig.)

  1. Role of P2X7 on steroid synthesis in murine luteal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP regulates different cellular functions through activating purinergic receptors as a signalling molecule or neurotransmitter. P2X7 is highly expressed in murine small luteal cells. In this study, murine luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with P2X7 agonists – ATP and 2′(3′-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl-adenosine 50-triphosphate (BzATP and with P2X7 antagonist – brilliant blue G (BBG. We found that ATP and BzATP increased the production of progesterone and had no influence on the production of estradiol. BBG reversed the effect of BzATP and ATP. Further studies demonstrated that ATP and BzATP promoted the expression of CYP11A. These results revealed that P2X7 receptor activation is involved in the steroid synthesis in corpus luteum.

  2. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Amenamevir in Healthy Subjects: Analysis of Four Randomized Phase 1 Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusawake, Tomohiro; Keirns, James J; Kowalski, Donna; den Adel, Martin; Groenendaal-van de Meent, Dorien; Takada, Akitsugu; Ohtsu, Yoshiaki; Katashima, Masataka

    2017-12-01

    Amenamevir (ASP2151) is a nonnucleoside antiherpesvirus compound available for the treatment of varicella-zoster virus infections. In this article we summarize the findings of four phase 1 studies in healthy participants. Four randomized phase 1 studies investigated the safety and pharmacokinetics of single and multiple doses of amenamevir, including the assessment of age group effect (nonelderly vs elderly), food effect, and the relative bioavailability of two formulations. Amenamevir was administered orally at various doses as a single dose (5-2400 mg) or daily (300 or 600 mg/day) for 7 days. Following single and multiple oral doses, amenamevir demonstrated a less than dose proportional increase in the pharmacokinetic parameters area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC inf ) and C max . After single and multiple oral 300-mg doses of amenamevir, no apparent differences in pharmacokinetics were observed between nonelderly and elderly participants. In contrast, with the amenamevir 600-mg dose both the area under the plasma drug concentration versus time curve from time zero to 24 h and C max were slightly increased and renal clearance was decreased in elderly participants. The pharmacokinetics of amenamevir was affected by food, with AUC inf increased by about 90%. In the bioavailability study, AUC inf and C max were slightly lower following tablet versus capsule administration (decreased by 14 and 12%, respectively), with relative bioavailability of 86%. The different amenamevir doses and formulations were safe and well tolerated; no deaths or serious adverse events were reported. Amenamevir had less than dose proportional pharmacokinetic characteristics. Age may have an influence on amenamevir pharmacokinetics; however, the effect was considered minimal. The pharmacokinetics of amenamevir were affected by food, with AUC inf almost doubling when amenamevir was administered with food. The concentration versus

  3. Involvement of microtubules in lipoprotein degradation and utilization for steroidogenesis in cultured rat luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, V.P.; Menon, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cells isolated from superovulated rat ovaries metabolize low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) of human or rat origin and use the lipoprotein-derived cholesterol as a precursor for progesterone production. Under in vitro conditions, both lipoproteins are internalized and degraded in the lysosomes, although degradation of HDL is of lower magnitude than that of LDL. In this report we have examined the role of cellular microtubules in the internalization and degradation of human LDL and HDL in cultured rat luteal cells. The microtubule depolymerizing agents colchicine, podophyllotoxin, vinblastine, and nocodazole as well as taxol, deuterium oxide, and dimethyl sulfoxide, which are known to rapidly polymerize cellular tubulin into microtubules, were used to block the function of microtubules. When these antimicrotubule agents were included in the incubations, degradation of the apolipoproteins of [ 125 I]iodo-LDL and [ 125 I]iodo-HDL by the luteal cells was inhibited by 50-85% compared to untreated control values. Maximum inhibitory effects were observed when the cells were preincubated with the inhibitor for at least 4 h at 37 C before treatment with the labeled lipoprotein. Lipoprotein-stimulated progesterone production by luteal cells was also inhibited by 50% or more in the presence of antimicrotubule agents. However, basal and hCG-stimulated progesterone production were unaffected by these inhibitors. The binding of [ 125 I]iodo-LDL and [ 125 I]iodo-HDL to luteal cell plasma membrane receptors was not affected by the microtubule inhibitors. Although binding was unaffected and degradation was impaired in the presence of the inhibitors, there was no detectable accumulation of undegraded lipoprotein within the cells during the 24 h of study

  4. Structure, Texture and Phases in 3D Printed IN718 Alloy Subjected to Homogenization and HIP Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mostafa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available 3D printing results in anisotropy in the microstructure and mechanical properties. The focus of this study is to investigate the structure, texture and phase evolution of the as-printed and heat treated IN718 superalloy. Cylindrical specimens, printed by powder-bed additive manufacturing technique, were subjected to two post-treatments: homogenization (1100 °C, 1 h, furnace cooling and hot isostatic pressing (HIP (1160 °C, 100 MPa, 4 h, furnace cooling. The Selective laser melting (SLM printed microstructure exhibited a columnar architecture, parallel to the building direction, due to the heat flow towards negative z-direction. Whereas, a unique structural morphology was observed in the x-y plane due to different cooling rates resulting from laser beam overlapping. Post-processing treatments reorganized the columnar structure of a strong {002} texture into fine columnar and/or equiaxed grains of random orientations. Equiaxed structure of about 150 µm average grain size, was achieved after homogenization and HIP treatments. Both δ-phase and MC-type brittle carbides, having rough morphologies, were formed at the grain boundaries. Delta-phase formed due to γ″-phase dissolution in the γ matrix, while MC-type carbides nucleates grew by diffusion of solute atoms. The presence of (Nb0.78Ti0.22C carbide phase, with an fcc structure having a lattice parameter a = 4.43 Å, was revealed using Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS and X-ray diffractometer (XRD analysis. The solidification behavior of IN718 alloy was described to elucidate the evolution of different phases during selective laser melting and post-processing heat treatments of IN718.

  5. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  6. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  7. Quantitative comparison of luteal histology in the rat and rabbit: changes from mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmarajan, A M; Bruce, N W; Meyer, G T

    1989-01-01

    Progesterone secretion by the corpora lutea (CL) of rats and rabbits declines from a peak, at about Day 16 of gestation, to near term (Day 22 rats and 28 rabbits). However there are major differences between the two species in CL growth and blood flow over this period. In the present work quantitative histological measurements were made of CL at these stages to examine the accompanying structural changes. Eight rats and five rabbits were examined at each stage: standard morphometric techniques were used. There was gross discrepancy between the two species in the histology of their CL at peak secretory activity. Although the proportions of the major tissue components were similar, the rabbit luteal cell (52 pl) was five times larger than that in the rat (9 pl). There was substantially less vascular and interstitial space in the rabbit, all characteristics which might affect transport processes between luteal cell cytoplasm and blood. Over the period examined, there was no change in CL volume in the rat but a 37% reduction in the rabbit due to loss of luteal cells. The vascular space in the rat, however, was reduced, whereas that in the rabbit declined only in proportion to the overall decrease in CL volume. These results show that structurally there is a substantial difference in patterns of early regression between the two species which reflect different mechanisms involved. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2621138

  8. Exenatide augments first- and second-phase insulin secretion in response to intravenous glucose in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehse, Frauke; Trautmann, Michael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: First-phase insulin secretion (within 10 min after a sudden rise in plasma glucose) is reduced in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). The incretin mimetic exenatide has glucoregulatory activities in DM2, including glucose-dependent enhancement of insulin secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of the study was to determine whether exenatide can restore a more normal pattern of insulin secretion in subjects with DM2. DESIGN: Fasted subjects received iv insulin infusion to reach plasma glucose 4.4-5.6 mmol/liter. Subjects received iv exenatide (DM2) or saline (DM2 and healthy volunteers), followed...... by iv glucose challenge. PATIENTS: Thirteen evaluable DM2 subjects were included in the study: 11 males, two females; age, 56 +/- 7 yr; body mass index, 31.7 +/- 2.4 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 6.6 +/- 0.7% (mean +/- sd) treated with diet/exercise (n = 1), metformin (n = 10), or acarbose (n = 2). Controls...

  9. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  10. Serotonin regulates the phase of the rat suprachiasmatic circadian pacemaker in vitro only during the subjective day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medanic, M; Gillette, M U

    1992-05-01

    1. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus is the primary pacemaker for circadian rhythms in mammals. The 24 h pacemaker is endogenous to the SCN and persists for multiple cycles in the suprachiasmatic brain slice. 2. While serotonin is not endogenous to the SCN, a major midbrain hypothalamic afferent pathway is serotonergic. Within this tract the dorsal raphe nucleus sends direct projections to the ventrolateral portions of the SCN. We investigated a possible regulatory role for serotonin in the mammalian circadian system by examining its effect, when applied at projection sites, on the circadian rhythm of neuronal activity in rat SCN in vitro. 3. Eight-week-old male rats from our inbred colony, housed on a 12 h light: 12 h dark schedule, were used. Hypothalamic brain slices containing the paired SCN were prepared in the day and maintained in glucose and bicarbonate-supplemented balanced salt solution for up to 53 h. 4. A 10(-11) ml drop of 10(-6) M-serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) creatinine sulphate complex) in medium was applied to the ventrolateral portion of one of the SCN for 5 min on the first day in vitro. The effect of the treatment at each of seven time points across the circadian cycle was examined. The rhythm of spontaneous neuronal activity was recorded extracellularly on the second and third days in vitro. Phase shifts were determined by comparing the time-of-peak of neuronal activity in serotonin- vs. media-treated slices. 5. Application of serotonin during the subjective day induced significant advances in the phase of the electrical activity rhythm (n = 11). The most sensitive time of treatment was CT 7 (circadian time 7 is 7 h after 'lights on' in the animal colony), when a 7.0 +/- 0.1 h phase advance was observed (n = 3). This phase advance was perpetuated on day 3 in vitro without decrement. Serotonin treatment during the subjective night had no effect on the timing of the electrical activity rhythm (n = 9). 6. The

  11. Dynamics and stability of flexible cylinders subjected to liquid and two-phase axial flow in confined annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Paidoussis, M.P.

    1976-03-01

    The nuclear fuel for CANDU-BLW reactors consists of fuel bundles assembled in the form of strings. The strings are inserted in fuel channels. From a fluidelastic viewpoint the strings are essentially flexible cylinders in confined annuli. Fluidelastic instability is one of the flow-induced vibration excitation mechanisms that could cause fretting damage. The fluidelastic behaviour of flexible cylinders in confined annuli was investigated experimentally. The cylinders were subjected to fuel channel flow conditions, that is flow velocities up to 10 m/s in liquid flow and mass fluxes up to 500 g/cm 2 s in two-phase flow simulated by air-water. The effect of several parameters such as flexural rigidity, end conditions, downstream end shape, and annular confinement were explored. Generally, cylinders except those with square downstream free ends experienced fluidelastic instabilities in liquid flow in the form of buckling or oscillations. Higher frequencies and higher modes were observed at higher flow velocities. Conversely cylinders with square downstream free ends were very stable in liquid flow. The behaviour in two-phase flow is completely different. The cylinder vibration response was severe and broadband random in nature. A mathematical model was formulated for the fluidelastic behaviour. The experimental results are compared to the analytical predictions. The formulated model is qualitatively valid for liquid flow but not for two-phase flow. (author)

  12. A phase 1 study to evaluate effect of food on veliparib pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability in subjects with solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Nael M; Chiu, Yi-Lin; Rosen, Lee S; Bessudo, Alberto; Kovacs, Xenia; Giranda, Vincent L

    2014-09-01

    A phase 1 study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability and food effect of a new veliparib formulation in subjects with solid tumors. Subjects (planned: Stage I, N = 20; Stage II, N = 16) received four regimens of a single oral dose of veliparib utilizing a group-sequential design. Subjects were administered single doses of 40 mg veliparib supplied as four 10 mg current formulation, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation under fasting conditions and under non-fasting conditions. Serial blood samples were collected for the determination of veliparib pharmacokinetics. At the end of Stage I, the relative bioavailability between each pair of regimens was assessed by a two one-sided tests procedure from the analyses of the natural logarithms of C(max) and AUC. A 92.7 % confidence interval within the 0.80-1.25 range between each regimen pair determined bioequivalence. Four 10 mg current formulation capsules, four 10 mg new formulation and one 40 mg new formulation were bioequivalent with respect to C(max) and AUC under fasting conditions. The administration of a high-fat meal did not have a significant effect on AUC and only caused a slight decrease in veliparib C(max) (17 %) and a delay of approximately 1 h in T(max). The 40 mg new capsule was bioequivalent to currently used formulation. Food had no effect on the extent of veliparib absorption and only a small (17 %) decrease in peak exposure of veliparib.

  13. A Proof-of-Concept Clinical Trial of A Single Luteal Use of Long-Acting Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist Degarelix in Controlled Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization: Long Antagonist Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G. Papanikolaou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA drawback of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonist protocols in in vitro fertilization (IVF is that they have limited flexibility in cycle programming. This proof of concept study explored the efficacy of a single-dose, long-acting GnRH antagonist IVF protocol. Trial registration number is NCT03240159, retrospectively registered on March 08, 2017.Materials and methodsThe efficacy of a single-dose long-acting antagonist, degarelix, was explored initially in healthy donors and subsequently in infertile patients. In the first part, five healthy oocyte donors underwent ovarian stimulation with this new protocol: in the late luteal phase, at day 24, a bolus injection of degarelix was administered subcutaneously to control the LH surge in the follicular phase. Ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins was initiated subsequently from day 7 to day 10. End points were first to inhibit the LH surge later in the follicular phase and, second, to retrieve mature oocytes for IVF. In the second part, five infertile women received the same bolus injection of degarelix administered during the luteal phase at day 24. Different gonadotropin starting days (day 2 through day 8 were tested in order to observe possible differences in ovarian stimulation. In these infertile patients, fresh embryo transfers were performed to assess the pregnancy efficacy of this protocol on pregnancy outcomes and to address any possible negative effects on endometrium receptivity.ResultsIn the first part of the study, all donors were effectively downregulated with a single luteal dose of 0.5 ml of degarelix for up to 22 days until the final oocyte maturation triggering day. Mature oocytes were retrieved after 36 h from all patients and all produced 2–7 blastocysts. In the second part, all five infertile patients achieved sufficient LH downregulation and completed ovarian stimulation without any LH surge. All patients (except one with freeze all strategy had

  14. Enhanced response to ozone exposure during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, S.D.; Adams, W.C.; Brookes, K.A.; Lasley, B.L. (Univ. of Calfornia, Davis (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Exposure to ozone (O[sub 3]), a toxic component of photochemical smog, results in significant airway inflammation, respiratory discomfort, and pulmonary function impairment. These effects can be reduced via pretreatment with anti-inflammatory agents. Progesterone, a gonadal steroid, is known to reduce general inflammation in the uterine endometrium. However, it is not known whether fluctuation in blood levels of progesterone, which are experienced during the normal female menstrual cycle, could alter O[sub 3] inflammatory-induced pulmonary responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that young, adult females are more responsive to O[sub 3] inhalation with respect to pulmonary function impairment during their follicular (F) menstrual phase when progesterone levels are lowest that during their mid-luteal (ML) phase when progesterone levels are highest. Nine subjects with normal ovarian function were exposed in random order for 1 hour each to filtered air and to 0.30 ppm O[sub 3] in their F and ML menstrual phases. Ozone responsiveness was measured by percent change in pulmonary function from pre- to postexposure. Significant gas concentration effects (filtered air versus O[sub 3]) were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV[sub 1]), and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (FEF[sub 25-75]), showed a significant menstrual phase and gas concentration interaction effect, with larger decrements observed in the F menstrual phase when progesterone concentrations were significantly lower. We conclude that young, adult females appear to be more responsive to acute O[sub 3] exposure during the F phase than during the ML phase of their menstrual cycles. This difference in pulmonary function response could be related to the anti-inflammatory effects of increased progesterone concentrations during the luteal phase.

  15. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  16. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated) to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four) walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236%) and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%). Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15%) at the hip motors and 734 mA (38%) at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the common

  17. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ekelem

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Spasticity is a common comorbidity associated with spinal cord injury (SCI. Robotic exoskeletons have recently emerged to facilitate legged mobility in people with motor complete SCI. Involuntary muscle activity attributed to spasticity, however, can prevent such individuals from using an exoskeleton. Specifically, although most exoskeleton technologies can accommodate low to moderate spasticity, the presence of moderate to severe spasticity can significantly impair gait kinematics when using an exoskeleton. In an effort to potentially enable individuals with moderate to severe spasticity to use exoskeletons more effectively, this study investigates the use of common peroneal stimulation in conjunction with exoskeleton gait assistance. The electrical stimulation is timed with the exoskeleton swing phase, and is intended to acutely suppress extensor spasticity through recruitment of the flexion withdrawal reflex (i.e., while the stimulation is activated to enable improved exoskeletal walking. In order to examine the potential efficacy of this approach, two SCI subjects with severe extensor spasticity (i.e., modified Ashworth ratings of three to four walked in an exoskeleton with and without supplemental stimulation while knee and hip motion was measured during swing phase. Stimulation was alternated on and off every ten steps to eliminate transient therapeutic effects, enabling the acute effects of stimulation to be isolated. These experiments indicated that common peroneal stimulation on average increased peak hip flexion during the swing phase of walking by 21.1° (236% and peak knee flexion by 14.4° (56%. Additionally, use of the stimulation decreased the swing phase RMS motor current by 228 mA (15% at the hip motors and 734 mA (38% at the knee motors, indicating improved kinematics were achieved with reduced effort from the exoskeleton. Walking with the exoskeleton did not have a significant effect on modified Ashworth scores, indicating the

  18. Plasma melatonin circadian rhythms during the menstrual cycle and after light therapy in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, B L; Berga, S L; Mostofi, N; Klauber, M R; Resnick, A

    1997-02-01

    The aim of this study was to replicate and extend previous work in which the authors observed lower, shorter, and advanced nocturnal melatonin secretion patterns in premenstrually depressed patients compared to those in healthy control women. The authors also sought to test the hypothesis that the therapeutic effect of bright light in patients was associated with corrective effects on the phase, duration, and amplitude of melatonin rhythms. In 21 subjects with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and 11 normal control (NC) subjects, the authors measured the circadian profile of melatonin during follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases and after 1 week of light therapy administered daily, in a randomized crossover design. During three separate luteal phases, the treatments were either (1) bright (> 2,500 lux) white morning (AM; 06:30 to 08:30 h), (2) bright white evening (PM; 19:00 to 21:00 h), or (3) dim (compressed, and area under the curve, amplitude, and mean levels were decreased. In NC subjects, melatonin rhythms did not change significantly during the menstrual cycle. After AM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were advanced and both duration and midpoint concentration were decreased as compared to RED light. After PM light in PMDD subjects, onset and offset times were delayed, midpoint concentration was increased, and duration was decreased as compared to RED light. By contrast, after light therapy in NC subjects, duration did not change; onset, offset, and midpoint concentration changed as they did in PMDD subjects. When the magnitude of advance and delay phase shifts in onset versus offset time with AM, PM, or RED light were compared, the authors found that in PMDD subjects light shifted offset time more than onset time and that AM light had a greater effect on shifting melatonin offset time (measured the following night in RED light), whereas PM light had a greater effect in shifting melatonin onset time. These findings replicate the

  19. Dual Phase Lag Model of Melting Process in Domain of Metal Film Subjected to an External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochnacki B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating process in the domain of thin metal film subjected to a strong laser pulse are discussed. The mathematical model of the process considered is based on the dual-phase-lag equation (DPLE which results from the generalized form of the Fourier law. This approach is, first of all, used in the case of micro-scale heat transfer problems (the extremely short duration, extreme temperature gradients and very small geometrical dimensions of the domain considered. The external heating (a laser action is substituted by the introduction of internal heat source to the DPLE. To model the melting process in domain of pure metal (chromium the approach basing on the artificial mushy zone introduction is used and the main goal of investigation is the verification of influence of the artificial mushy zone ‘width’ on the results of melting modeling. At the stage of numerical modeling the author’s version of the Control Volume Method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations and conclusions are presented.

  20. Subjective, behavioral, and physiological responses to the rubber hand illusion do not vary with age in the adult phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Priscila; Borrego, Adrián; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Llorens, Roberto; Demarzo, Marcelo; Baños, Rosa M

    2018-02-01

    The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures. There were neither significant differences among groups in any response, nor significant covariability or correlation between age and other measures (but for skin temperature), which suggests that the RHI elicits similar responses across different age groups in the adult phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of cholesterol and cAMP on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cat ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, Sevket; Yigit, Ayse Arzu

    2009-10-01

    The present study was designed to incubate luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cats and to investigate the effects of cholesterol and cAMP on luteal progesterone production. Corpora lutea were collected from the cats on days 10 and 15 of pseudopregnancy. Luteal cells were isolated from the ovaries by collagenase digestion. Steroidogenic luteal cells were stained for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity. Cells (2 x 10(4)) staining positive for 3beta-HSD were cultured for up to 7 days. The cells were treated with 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on days 1, 3 and 7. Treatment of cells with 22R-HC resulted in a dose-dependent increase (pprogesterone production. When 22R-HC was used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml, it resulted in 2.7- and 5.1-fold increases in progesterone production on days 3 and 5, respectively. When the dose was doubled (20 microg/ml), treated cells produced four times more progesterone on days 3 and 7, and three times more on day 5. By day 7, progesterone production increased up to 9.1 times more than the control. Incubation of cells with both concentrations of dbcAMP (0.1 mM and 1 mM) resulted in significant stimulations of progesterone on days 5 and 7 (pProgesterone production was increased up to 2- and 2.9-fold of the control when cells were treated with lower concentration of dbcAMP (0.1 mM) on days 5 and 7, respectively. Incubation of cells with 1 mM concentrations of dbcAMP induced a 3.2-fold increase on day 5 and a 5-fold increase on day 7. In conclusion, a successful incubation was performed for long-life culturing of luteal cells collected from pseudopregnant cats. The method works well and allows for optimal growth and development of cells in the culture. The present study also demonstrated that incubating cat luteal cells with 22R-HC and dbcAMP induces a significant increase in luteal progesterone synthesis.

  2. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Device and Module Reliability, Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0108 SILICON CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled...CARBIDE (SiC) DEVICE AND MODULE RELIABILITY Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field 5a...Shukla, K., “Thermo-fluid dynamics of Loop Heat Pipe Operation,” International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer , Vol. 35, No. 8, 2008, pp

  3. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (Pcows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H with moderate NEB the delayed start of ovulation post partum did not impair subsequent reproductive performance.

  4. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N; Crawford, S L; Lasley, W L; Luborsky, J L; Matthews, K A; McConnell, D; Randolph, J F; Gold, E B; Greendale, G A; Korenman, S G; Powell, L; Sowers, M F; Weiss, G

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive hormones are incompletely characterized during the menopause transition (MT). Increased anovulation and decreased progesterone accompany progress through the MT. The Daily Hormone Study (DHS) of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) included 848 women aged 43-53 yr at baseline who collected daily urine for one cycle or up to 50 d annually for 3 yr. LH, FSH, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide levels were assessed. Cycles were classified by presumed luteal (ovulatory) status and bleeding. Hormones were related to time in study, age, menopausal status, and selected variables. Ovulatory-appearing cycles declined from 80.9% at baseline to 64.7% by the third assessment (H3). Cycles presumed anovulatory and not ending with bleeding by 50 d (anovulatory/nonbleeding) increased from 8.4 to 24% by H3 and were associated with progress to early perimenopause [odds ratio (OR) = 2.66; confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-6.04] or late perimenopause (OR = 56.21; CI = 18.79-168.12; P school education (OR = 3.51; CI = 1.62-7.62). Anovulatory cycles ending with bleeding remained at about 10% from baseline to H3; compared with ovulatory cycles, they were associated with obesity (OR = 4.68; CI = 1.33-16.52) and more than high school education (OR = 2.12; CI = 1.22-3.69; P = 0.02). Serum estradiol in both the highest and lowest categories was associated with anovulatory/nonbleeding collections. Pregnanediol glucuronide decreased 6.6% for each year on study. Insulin sensitivity measures did not relate strongly to menstrual cycle hormones. Anovulation without bleeding represents progression of the MT. A small but detectable decrease in luteal progesterone excretion occurs as women progress through the MT.

  5. The mediation effect of menstrual phase on negative emotion processing: evidence from N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Chen, Chunping; Cheng, Dazhi; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Ruiwang; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a 'negativity bias' in emotion processing and effect of menstrual phase on emotion processing. Most of these results, however, did not match the arousal of different types of stimuli. The present study examined the time course of negative emotion processing across different menstrual phases (e.g., late luteal/premenstrual phase and follicular phase) when the arousal level of negative and neutral stimuli was equal. Following previous studies, an oddball paradigm was utilized in present study. Participants viewed neutral and negative (highly (HN) and moderately negative (MN)) stimuli with matched arousal and were asked to make deviant vs. standard judgments. The behavioral results showed a higher accuracy for HN stimuli than neutral stimuli, and the other comparisons were not significant. The major event-related potential (ERP) finding was that N2 amplitude was larger for MN than neutral in the late luteal phase, whereas such difference was absent during the follicular phase. Moreover, The N2 for HN stimuli was larger in late luteal phase than in follicular phase. Therefore, female may be with higher sensitivity to MN stimuli during late luteal phase than during follicular phase when the arousal of stimuli was well controlled. These results provide additional insight to premenstrual affective syndrome and affective disorder.

  6. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P

    2013-01-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?......Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)?...

  7. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann Bernd; Guscetti Franco; Boos Alois; Gram Aykut; Michel Erika; Kowalewski Mariusz P; Aslan Selim; Reichler Iris

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of g...

  8. Precipitation of β′ phase and hardening in dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloys subjected to aging treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghwan; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Hieda, Junko; Nakai, Masaaki; Cho, Ken; Fukui, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    The age-hardening behavior of the dental-casting Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy subjected to aging treatment at around 673 K is well known, and this hardening has been widely employed in various applications. To date, the age-hardening of this alloy has been explained to attribute to the precipitation of a β phase, which is a B2-type ordered CuPd phase or PdCu x Zn 1−x phase. In this study, results obtained from microstructural observations using a transmission electron microscopy and a scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that a fine L1 0 -type ordered β′ phase precipitated in the matrix and a coarse-structure region (consisting of Ag- and Cu-rich regions) appeared after aging treatment at 673 K and contributed to increase in hardness. The microstructure of the coarse β phase, which existed before aging treatment, did not change by aging treatment. Thus, it is concluded that the fine β′ phase precipitated by aging treatment contributed more to increase in hardness than the coarse-structure region and coarse β phase. - Highlights: • Hardness of Ag–20Pd–12Au–14.5Cu alloy increased significantly by aging treatment. • A fine β′ phase and a coarse structure region appeared after aging treatment. • The microstructure of a coarse β phase did not change by aging treatment. • It is considered that the fine β′ phase contributed most to age-hardening

  9. Safety and long-term immunological effects of CryJ2-LAMP plasmid vaccine in Japanese red cedar atopic subjects: A phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Anagnostou, Athanasia; Fitz-Patrick, David; Hearl, William; Heiland, Teri

    2017-12-02

    Japanese Red Cedar (JRC) pollen induced allergy affects one third of Japanese and the development of effective therapies remains an unachieved challenge. We designed a DNA vaccine encoding CryJ2 allergen from the JRC pollen and Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1 (LAMP-1) to treat JRC allergy. These Phase IA and IB trials assessed safety and immunological effects of the investigational CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine in both non-sensitive and sensitive Japanese expatriates living in Honolulu, Hawaii. In the Phase IA trial, 6 JRC non-sensitive subjects and 9 JRC and/or Mountain Cedar (MC) sensitive subjects were given 4 vaccine doses (each 4mg/1ml) intramuscularly (IM) at 14-day intervals. Nine JRC and/or MC sensitive subjects were given 4 doses (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM at 14-day intervals. The safety and functional biomarkers were followed for 132 d. Following this, 17 of 24 subjects were recruited into the IB trial and received one booster dose (2 mg/0.5 ml) IM approximately 300 d after the first vaccination dose to which they were randomized in the first phase of the trial. All safety endpoints were met and all subjects tolerated CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations well. At the end of the IA trial, 10 out of 12 JRC sensitive and 6 out of 11 MC sensitive subjects experienced skin test negative conversion, possibly related to the CryJ2-LAMP vaccinations. Collectively, these data suggested that the CryJ2-LAMP DNA vaccine is safe and may be immunologically effective in treating JRC induced allergy.

  10. Mechanism of phase transformations in Mg-based alloys subjected to plasma immersion ion implantation of Ag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutsenko, Larisa; Fuks, David; Kiv, Arnold; Talianker, Michael; Burlaka, Ljubov; Monteiro, Othon; Brown, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The formation of a new phase of composition Mg 54 Al 28 Ag 18 was observed as a result of plasma immersion ion implantation of Ag into the compound Mg 17 Al 12 . The new structure was characterized using a micro-beam diffraction technique. It was found that the implantation-induced phase transition occurs when the retained dose of the implanted ions is within the range of about 10 15 -10 16 ions/cm 2 . The implanted system has been studied theoretically by means of density-functional electronic structure calculations and a new ab initio approach has been developed to evaluate the specific concentrations of the implanted ions that might cause the phase transition effect in the implanted matrix. The theoretically estimated values of concentrations are in good agreement with experimental observations

  11. Onset and duration of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on first insemination conception rate in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of different types of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on reproductive performance were studied in 21 postpartum dairy cows. Progesterone concentrations in defatted milk collected 3 times a week were determined by EIA. Reproductive tract examination was undertaken every other week postpartum. Body weight and body condition score (BCS) were measured before and after calving and the average 100-day milk yield was calculated. Nine (42.9%) cows had normal ovarian activity (first luteal activity or = 20 days pre-service) and in 7 (33.3%) cows the first luteal activity was shown later than 50 days postpartum (DOV). When compared with normal cows, both PLP and DOV had longer interval to first insemination (63.1 +/- 22.0 days versus 77.6 +/- 21.6 and 93.0 +/- 22.3 days, Pconception rate (88.9% versus 0.0% and 57.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and greater BCS loss (0.81 +/- 0.2 versus 1.05 +/- 0.21 and 1.04 +/- 0.10, respectively, P<0.01). Cows with PLP showed longer interval to uterine involution than normal and DOV groups (54.0 +/- 8.3 days versus 42.4 +/- 5.5 and 43.3 +/- 8.3 days, respectively, P<0.01) and higher 100-day milk yield (38.8 +/- 2.7 kg versus 33.6 +/- 4.7 and 29.9 +/- 6.1 kg, respectively, P<0.01). In conclusion, more than half of the cows had abnormal luteal activity postpartum, which adversely affected reproductive performance.

  12. Impact of phase I or phase II enzyme polymorphisms on lymphocyte DNA adducts in subjects exposed to urban air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Georgiadis, P.; Demopoulos, N. A.; Topinka, Jan; Stephanou, G.; Stoikidou, M.; Bekyrou, M.; Katsouyianni, K.; Šrám, Radim; Autrup, H.; Kyrtopoulos, S. A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 149, 1-3 (2004), s. 269-280 ISSN 0378-4274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : DNA adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.571, year: 2004

  13. Studies of Neural and Cognitive Function in Subjects Exposed to the Marine-Air Interface. Phase 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-26

    Uiversity of Minnesota 1100 Washiviton Ave. S., Suite 201 Minneapolis, MN 55455 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES None ZA. DISTRIBUTION AVAILABILITY STATEMENT...performance feedback while firing at targets displayed by its projector. The subject is presented with a series of life -size scenarios projected onto a

  14. Phase 2, Dose-Ranging Study of Relebactam with Imipenem-Cilastatin in Subjects with Complicated Intra-abdominal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucasti, Christopher; Vasile, Liviu; Sandesc, Dorel; Venskutonis, Donatas; McLeroth, Patrick; Lala, Mallika; Rizk, Matthew L; Brown, Michelle L; Losada, Maria C; Pedley, Alison; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Paschke, Amanda

    2016-10-01

    Relebactam (REL [MK-7655]) is a novel class A/C β-lactamase inhibitor intended for use with imipenem for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. REL restores imipenem activity against some resistant strains of Klebsiella and Pseudomonas In this multicenter, double-blind, controlled trial (NCT01506271), subjects who were ≥18 years of age with complicated intra-abdominal infection were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 250 mg REL, 125 mg REL, or placebo, each given intravenously (i.v.) with 500 mg imipenem-cilastatin (IMI) every 6 h (q6h) for 4 to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of microbiologically evaluable (ME) subjects with a favorable clinical response at discontinuation of i.v. therapy (DCIV). A total of 351 subjects were randomized, 347 (99%) were treated, and 255 (73%) were ME at DCIV (55% male; mean age, 49 years). The most common diagnoses were complicated appendicitis (53%) and complicated cholecystitis (17%). Thirty-six subjects (13%) had imipenem-resistant Gram-negative infections at baseline. Both REL doses plus IMI were generally well tolerated and demonstrated safety profiles similar to that of IMI alone. Clinical response rates at DCIV were similar in subjects who received 250 mg REL plus IMI (96.3%) or 125 mg REL plus IMI (98.8%), and both were noninferior to IMI alone (95.2%; one-sided P imipenem exposure at the proposed dose of 500 mg IMI with 250 mg REL q6h provides coverage of >90% of carbapenem-resistant bacterial strains. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Characterization of the disposition of fostamatinib in Japanese subjects including pharmacokinetic assessment in dry blood spots: results from two phase I clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul; Cheung, S Y Amy; Yen, Mark; Han, David; Gillen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of fostamatinib in two phase I studies in healthy Japanese subjects after single- and multiple-dose administration, and to evaluate the utility of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling. In study A, 40 Japanese and 16 white subjects were randomized in a double-blind parallel group study consisting of seven cohorts, which received either placebo or a fostamatinib dose between 50 and 200 mg after single and multiple dosing. Pharmacokinetics of R406 (active metabolite of fostamatinib) in plasma and urine was assessed, and safety was intensively monitored. Study B was an open-label study that assessed fostamatinib 100 and 200 mg in 24 Japanese subjects. In addition to plasma and urine sampling (as for study A), pharmacokinetics was also assessed in blood. Mean maximum plasma concentration (C max) and area under total plasma concentration–time curve (AUC) increased with increasing dose in Japanese subjects. Steady state was achieved in 5–7 days for all doses. C max and AUC were both higher in Japanese subjects administered a 150-mg single dose than in white subjects. This difference was maintained for steady state exposure by day 10. Overall, R406 blood concentrations were consistent and ∼2.5-fold higher than in plasma. Minimal (blood cells, and DBS sampling was a useful method for assessing R406 pharmacokinetics.

  16. Effect of anabolics on bovine granulosa-luteal cell primary cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomeo Biolatti

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumours are observed with increased frequency among calves slaughtered in Northern Italy. The use of illegal anabolics in breeding was taken into account as a cause of this pathology. An in vitro approach was used to detect the possible alterations of cell proliferation induced by anabolics on primary cultures of bovine granulosa-luteal cells. Cultures were treated with different concentrations of substances illegally used in cattle (17beta-estradiol, clenbuterol and boldione. Cytotoxicity was determined by means of MTT test, to exclude toxic effects induced by anabolics and to determine the highest concentration to be tested. Morphological changes were evaluated by means of routine cytology, while PCNA expression was quantified in order to estimate cell proliferation. Cytotoxic effects were revealed at the highest concentrations. The only stimulating effect on cell proliferation was detected in boldione treated cultures: after 48 h treated cells, compared to controls, showed a doubled expression of PCNA. In clenbuterol and 17beta-estradiol treated cells PCNA expression was similar to controls or even decreased. As the data suggest an alteration in cell proliferation, boldione could have a role in the early stage of pathogenesis of granulosa cell tumour in cattle.

  17. The cytoskeleton proteins and LH-regulated steroidogenesis in porcine luteal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoraszczuk, Ewa L.; Slomczynska, Maria

    1996-01-01

    The involvement of microtubules (MT) and microflilaments (MF) in LH-regulation of luteal cell stereoidogenesis was assessed at the middle stage of corpus luteum development. The influence microtubule- and microfilament-altering agents on basal and LH-stimulated progesterone (P4) production and secretion into the incubation medium was determined by RIA. LH-stimulated P4 production was 2.5 times higher than in the control cultures. Cytochalasis B (Cyt B) was without effect on basal P4 synthesis but increased the basal fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium, while colchicine (Col) increased both basal P4 synthesis and the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis was reduced by Col, but the fraction secreted into the incubation medium increased. Cyt B had no effect on LH-stimulated synthesis but it decreased the fraction of P4 secreted into the incubation medium. Our findings demonstrate significant differences in the effect of Cyt B and Col on steroidogenesis in corpus luteum. We conclude that microtubules play an important role in the process of LH-stimulated P4 synthesis, while microfilaments act in the process of basal and LH-stimulated P4 secretion. (author). 23 refs, 4 figs

  18. Convective heat transfer in single-phase flow in a vertical tube subjected to axial low frequency oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, Rajashekhar; Jayanti, Sreenivas; Balakrishnan, A.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-05-15

    The effect of oscillations on the heat transfer in a vertical tube has been studied experimentally. A vertical tube was mounted on a plate and the whole plate was subjected to oscillations in the vertical plane using a mechanical oscillator to provide low frequency oscillations. A section of the tube in the middle is subjected to a constant heat flux. The effect of the oscillations on the heat transfer coefficient has been examined. It was found that the heat transfer coefficient increased with oscillations in the laminar regime. In turbulent flow regime (Re > 2,100) it is found that the effect of oscillations did not show any change. A correlation has been developed for enhancement of the local Nusselt number in terms of the effective acceleration and Reynolds number. Using this, an expression has been proposed to calculate the mean Nusselt number as a function of the tube length. (orig.)

  19. Textural and fluid phase analysis of rock salt subjected to the combined effects of pressure, heat and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huertas, F.; Major, J.C.; Del Olmo, C.

    1992-01-01

    The formation of colloidal sodium by radiolytic processes is a main concern with respect to the safety of disposal of high-level radioactive waste in salt formations. The research work seeks to assess the irradiation damage in natural rock salt when exposed to a different dose, dose rate, temperature and time of gamma irradiation. The work encompasses four major tasks: (i) detailed characterization of both solid and fluid phases of natural rock salt; (ii) gamma irradiation of salt samples; (iii) determination of the amount of colloidal sodium present in irradiated samples; (iv) calculation of radiation damage. 40 refs., 36 figs., 34 tabs

  20. Liquid-solid phase transition of physical hydrogels subject to an externally applied electro-chemo-mechanical coupled field with mobile ionic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Li, Hua

    2017-08-09

    In this study, a model was multiphysically developed for the simulation of the phase transition of physical hydrogels between liquid solution and solid gel states, subject to an electro-chemo-mechanically coupled field, with the effect of the mobile ionic species in the solution. The present model consists of the governing equations for the equilibrium of forces and the conservation of mass, Maxwell's equations, and an evolution equation for the interface. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the constitutive equations are formulated from the energy viewpoint, including a novel formulation of free energy with the effect of crosslink density. The present model may be reduced to Suo's non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory if the interface is ignored when only a single phase exists. It may also be reduced to Dolbow's model for gel-gel phase transition when the electric field is ignored. Therefore, the present model becomes more generalized since it is able to represent both the bulk phase and the interface behaviors, and the mechanical field is simultaneously coupled with both the electric and chemical fields. In the first case study, the system at equilibrium state was numerically investigated for analysis of the influences of the electrical and chemical potentials as well as the mechanical pressure externally imposed on the boundary of the system domain. The second case study presents a spherically symmetrical solution-gel phase transition at non-equilibrium states, with the emphasis on the evolution of both the interface and electrochemical potentials.

  1. Effect of LH and prolactin on steroid secretion by perifused luteal tissue from pregnant gilts with induced hypoprolactinemia or after passive immunoneutralization of LH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szafranska, B.; Przala, J.; Grazul-Bilska, A.

    1992-01-01

    The study was performed using luteal tissue obtained from 24 pregnant gilts. Group 1 was treated with bromocriptine (BR) from 37th to 42nd day of day of pregnancy. Group 2 was treated with homologous anti-pLH serum from 37th to 42nd day of pregnancy. Group 3 was given BR from 67th to 72nd day of gestation. Group 4 received anti-pLH serum from 67th to 72nd day of pregnancy. The effect of exogenous LH or prolactin (100 ng/ml) on secretion of progesterone (P 4 ) and estradiol (E 2 ) by luteal tissue was studied using perfusion technique. Prolactin caused a significant (P 4 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts in groups 1 and 4. Both LH and prolactin decreased (P 4 and E 2 secretion by luteal tissue from gilts from groups 4 and 2, respectively. The results demonstrate that both LH and prolactin have a regulatory role in steroid secretion by luteal tissue of gilts in the mid- and late period of pregnancy. (author). 28 refs, 2 figs

  2. Comparison of luteal estradiol patch and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist suppression protocol before gonadotropin stimulation versus microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist protocol for patients with a history of poor in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Vanessa N; Engmann, Lawrence; DiLuigi, Andrea; Maier, Donald; Nulsen, John; Benadiva, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    To compare IVF outcomes in poor-responder patients undergoing stimulation after luteal phase E(2) patch/GnRH antagonist (LPG) protocol versus microdose GnRH agonist protocol. Retrospective analysis. University-based IVF center. Forty-five women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using the LPG protocol were compared with 76 women stimulated with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol from May 2005 to April 2006. Cancellation rate, number of oocytes retrieved, and clinical pregnancy rates. The mean number of oocytes (9.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 8.9 +/- 4.3) and mature oocytes (6.7 +/- 3.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 3.1) retrieved were similar, as were the fertilization rates (70.0% +/- 24.2% vs. 69.9% +/- 21.5%) and the number of embryos transferred (2.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 1.3). The cancellation rate was not significantly different between the groups (13/45, 28.9% vs. 23/76, 30.3%). Likewise, there were no significant differences among the implantation rate (15.0% vs. 12.5%), clinical pregnancy rate (43.3% vs. 45.1%), and ongoing pregnancy rate per transfer (33.3% vs. 26.0%) between both groups. This study demonstrates that the use of an E(2) patch and a GnRH antagonist during the preceding luteal phase in patients with a history of failed cycles can provide similar IVF outcomes when compared with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol.

  3. Cachexia Stage, Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, Phase Angle, and Handgrip Strength in Patients with Gastrointestinal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozorio, Gislaine Aparecida; Barão, Katia; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate patients with gastrointestinal cancer, classified according to different stages of cancer cachexia (SCC) as proposed by Fearon, with nutritional assessment tools such as PG-SGA, phase angle (PA), and handgrip strength. One hundred one patients with a mean age of 61.8 ± 12.8 yr, with 58.4% being men were included. 32.6% were malnourished according to the body mass index (BMI). A severe or moderate malnutrition had been diagnosed in 63.3% when assessed using the PG-SGA, 60.4% had decreased handgrip strength, and 57.4% had lower grades of PA. Among the patients in the study, 26% did not have cachexia, 11% had precachexia, 56% cachexia, and 8% refractory cachexia. The PG-SGA, PA, and handgrip strength were associated with cachexia (P ≤ 0.001). An increased risk of death was found in patients with cachexia [RR: 9.1; confidence interval (CI) 95%: 0.1-90.2, P = 0.039], refractory cachexia (RR: 69.4, CI 95%: 4.5-1073.8, P = 0.002), and increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P cachexia or refractory cachexia in the first nutritional assessment. Nutritional risk, as determined by PG-SGA, was correlated with PA and handgrip strength. High CRP levels, cachexia, and refractory cachexia were prognostic factors for cancer patients.

  4. Biodegradation of 3,4 dichloroaniline by fungal isolated from the preconditioning phase of winery wastes subjected to vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Jean Manuel; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2014-02-28

    A hazardous contaminant, 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) is widespread in the environment due to its extensive use in the manufacture of chemicals and its application in different sectors. The ability of fungi grow on in winery wastes in the preconditioning period of vermicomposting to degrade DCA was investigated. Three filamentous fungi (F1, F2, and F3) were isolated and one identified as Aspergillus niger and two as Fusarium sp. strains. The culture media with the fungus alone or in consortium (Fmix) with DCA as the nitrogen source were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The fastest degradation rate was measured in Fmix with a DT50 of 0.85day(-1). Fusarium sp. and A. niger differed in the metabolism of DCA. Five metabolites were identified as a result of oxidation, co-denitrification, N-acetylation, and polymerization reactions. The major metabolites were 3,4-dichloroacetanilide and dichloroquinolines. The azo-metabolites tetrachloroazobenzene and tetracloroazoxybenzene and 3,4-dichloronitrobenzene were found in minor amounts but appeared to be the most persistent in the Fusarium cultures (half-lives ranging from 8.3 to 30.9 days). This study highlights the metabolic potential of microorganisms in the preconditioning period of the vermicomposting process and its possible application for in situ bioremediation strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of a Novel Artificial Intelligence Platform on Mobile Devices to Assess Dosing Compliance in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Subjects With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Earle E; Shafner, Laura; Walling, David P; Othman, Ahmed A; Chuang-Stein, Christy; Hinkle, John; Hanina, Adam

    2017-02-21

    Accurately monitoring and collecting drug adherence data can allow for better understanding and interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials. Most clinical trials use a combination of pill counts and self-reported data to measure drug adherence, despite the drawbacks of relying on these types of indirect measures. It is assumed that doses are taken, but the exact timing of these events is often incomplete and imprecise. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of a novel artificial intelligence (AI) platform (AiCure) on mobile devices for measuring medication adherence, compared with modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) in a substudy of a Phase 2 trial of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist (ABT-126) in subjects with schizophrenia. AI platform generated adherence measures were compared with adherence inferred from drug concentration measurements. The mean cumulative pharmacokinetic adherence over 24 weeks was 89.7% (standard deviation [SD] 24.92) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored using the AI platform, compared with 71.9% (SD 39.81) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored by mDOT. The difference was 17.9% (95% CI -2 to 37.7; P=.08). Using drug levels, this substudy demonstrates the potential of AI platforms to increase adherence, rapidly detect nonadherence, and predict future nonadherence. Subjects monitored using the AI platform demonstrated a percentage change in adherence of 25% over the mDOT group. Subjects were able to use the technology successfully for up to 6 months in an ambulatory setting with early termination rates that are comparable to subjects outside of the substudy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01655680 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01655680?term=NCT01655680. ©Earle E Bain, Laura Shafner, David P Walling, Ahmed A Othman, Christy Chuang-Stein, John Hinkle, Adam Hanina. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 21.02.2017.

  6. Use of a Novel Artificial Intelligence Platform on Mobile Devices to Assess Dosing Compliance in a Phase 2 Clinical Trial in Subjects With Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Accurately monitoring and collecting drug adherence data can allow for better understanding and interpretation of the outcomes of clinical trials. Most clinical trials use a combination of pill counts and self-reported data to measure drug adherence, despite the drawbacks of relying on these types of indirect measures. It is assumed that doses are taken, but the exact timing of these events is often incomplete and imprecise. Objective The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of a novel artificial intelligence (AI) platform (AiCure) on mobile devices for measuring medication adherence, compared with modified directly observed therapy (mDOT) in a substudy of a Phase 2 trial of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist (ABT-126) in subjects with schizophrenia. Methods AI platform generated adherence measures were compared with adherence inferred from drug concentration measurements. Results The mean cumulative pharmacokinetic adherence over 24 weeks was 89.7% (standard deviation [SD] 24.92) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored using the AI platform, compared with 71.9% (SD 39.81) for subjects receiving ABT-126 who were monitored by mDOT. The difference was 17.9% (95% CI -2 to 37.7; P=.08). Conclusions Using drug levels, this substudy demonstrates the potential of AI platforms to increase adherence, rapidly detect nonadherence, and predict future nonadherence. Subjects monitored using the AI platform demonstrated a percentage change in adherence of 25% over the mDOT group. Subjects were able to use the technology successfully for up to 6 months in an ambulatory setting with early termination rates that are comparable to subjects outside of the substudy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01655680 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01655680?term=NCT01655680 PMID:28223265

  7. Mapping and characterization of vicriviroc resistance mutations from HIV-1 isolated from treatment-experienced subjects enrolled in a phase II study (VICTOR-E1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicholas, Paul M; Mann, Paul A; Wojcik, Lisa; Qiu, Ping; Lee, Erin; McCarthy, Michael; Shen, Junwu; Black, Todd A; Strizki, Julie M

    2011-03-01

    In the phase 2 VICTOR-E1 study, treatment-experienced subjects receiving 20 mg or 30 mg of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc (VCV), with a boosted protease containing optimized background regimen, experienced significantly greater reductions in HIV-1 viral load compared with control subjects. Among the 79 VCV-treated subjects, 15 experienced virologic failure, and of these 5 had VCV-resistant virus. This study investigated the molecular basis for the changes in susceptibility to VCV in these subjects. Sequence analysis and phenotypic susceptibility testing was performed on envelope clones from VCV-resistant virus. For select clones, an exchange of mutations in the V3 loop was performed between phenotypically resistant clones and the corresponding susceptible clones. Phenotypic resistance was manifest by reductions in the maximum percent inhibition. Clonal analysis of envelopes from the 5 subjects identified multiple amino acid changes in gp160 that were exclusive to the resistant clones, however, none of the changes were conserved between subjects. Introduction of V3 loop substitutions from the resistant clones into the matched susceptible clones was not sufficient to reproduce the resistant phenotype. Likewise, changing the substitutions in the V3 loops from resistant clones to match susceptible clones only restored susceptibility in 1 clone. There were no clearly conserved patterns of mutations in gp160 associated with phenotypic resistance to VCV and mutations both within and outside of the V3 loop contributed to the resistance phenotype. These data suggest that genotypic tests for VCV susceptibility may require larger training sets and additional information beyond V3 sequences.

  8. Effects of Food on the Pharmacokinetics of Omega-3-Carboxylic Acids in Healthy Japanese Male Subjects: A Phase I, Randomized, Open-label, Three-period, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hitoshi; Nilsson, Catarina; Noda, Yoshinori; Kim, Hyosung; Lundström, Torbjörn; Yajima, Toshitaka

    2017-09-01

    Omega-3-carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) contain omega-3 free fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as carboxylic acids. Food intake is known to affect the bioavailability of ethyl ester fatty acid formulations. We conducted a phase I study to investigate the effects of the timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA. In this randomized, open-label, three-period crossover study, Japanese healthy male subjects were administered 4×1 g OM3-CA capsules with continued fasting, before a meal, or after a meal. All subjects fasted for ≥10 h prior to drug/meal administration. The primary objective was to examine the effect of meal timing on the pharmacokinetics of EPA and DHA after OM3-CA administration. The secondary objectives were to examine the safety and tolerability of OM3-CA. A total of 42 Japanese subjects was enrolled in the study. The baseline-adjusted maximum concentration and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 72 h for EPA, DHA, and EPA +DHA were lower in the fasting and before meal conditions than in the after meal condition. The maximum total EPA, total DHA, and total EPA+DHA concentrations were reached later when administered in fasting conditions than in fed conditions, indicating slower absorption in fasting conditions. Diarrhea was reported by five, six, and no subjects in the fasting, before meal, and after meal conditions, respectively. The timing of OM3-CA administration relative to food intake influences the systemic bioavailability of EPA and DHA in healthy Japanese male subjects. NCT02372344.

  9. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  10. Culture of porcine luteal cells as a substrate for in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes. Establishment and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplitz MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and characterize the porcine luteal cells (PLC culture for the subsequent coculture with porcine COC. The final purpose is to promote the oocyte maturation. The PLC was established using corpora lutea obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Corpora lutea were dissected and luteal tissue submitted to a mechanical and enzymatic digestion with collagenase IV. The cell suspension was filtered and centrifuged and the cells obtained were diluted in 15 mL of DMEM-F12 supplemented media. Diluted cells were seeded in 3 culture flasks T25, staying in a controlled environment and changing the medium every 2 days. For the analysis and characterization, the cells were assessed by the Nile red staining to detect intracellular lipids, immunocytochemistry (ICC for 3β-hydroxy steroid dehidrogenase (3β-HSD and ELISA for P4 determination. We observed the presence of lipid intracellular droplets. Also, we observed an increase of P4 concentration at 48, 96 y 144 h of primary culture and almost all the cells were positive to the ICC evaluation for 3β-HSD, showing the steroidogenic capacity of the culture cells.

  11. Differences between the chewing and non-chewing sides of the mandibular first molars and condyles in the closing phase during chewing in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonari, Hiroshi; Kwon, Sangho; Kuninori, Takaharu; Miyawaki, Shouichi

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to assess differences between the closing paths of the chewing and non-chewing sides of mandibular first molars and condyles during natural mastication, using standardized model food in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy young adults (age: 19-25 years; 22 men, 10 women) with normal occlusion and function chewed on standardized gummy jelly. Using an optoelectric jaw-tracking system with six degrees of freedom, we recorded the path of the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides for 10 strokes during unilateral chewing. Variables were compared between the chewing side and the non-chewing side of first molars and condyles on frontal, sagittal, and horizontal views during the early-, middle- and late-closing phases. On superior/inferior displacements, the chewing side first molar and condyle were positioned superior to those on the non-chewing side during the early- and middle-closing phases. Conversely, the first molar and condyle on the non-chewing side were positioned significantly superior to those on the chewing side during the late-closing phase. On anterior/posterior displacements, the chewing side mandibular first molar and condyle were positioned significantly posterior to those on the non-chewing side throughout all closing phases. Our results showed the differences between the mandibular first molars and condyles on both sides with respect to masticatory path during natural chewing of a model food. These differences can be useful for informing initial diagnostic tests for impaired masticatory function in the clinical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training.

  13. Fetal programming: prenatal testosterone treatment leads to follicular persistence/luteal defects; partial restoration of ovarian function by cyclic progesterone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikkam, Mohan; Steckler, Teresa L; Welch, Kathleen B; Inskeep, E Keith; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2006-04-01

    Prenatal testosterone (T) excess during midgestation leads to estrous cycle defects and polycystic ovaries in sheep. We hypothesized that follicular persistence causes polycystic ovaries and that cyclic progesterone (P) treatment would overcome follicular persistence and restore cyclicity. Twice-weekly blood samples for P measurements were taken from control (C; n = 16) and prenatally T-treated (T60; n = 14; 100 mg T, im, twice weekly from d 30-90 of gestation) Suffolk sheep starting before the onset of puberty and continuing through the second breeding season. A subset of C and T60 sheep were treated cyclically with a modified controlled internal drug-releasing device for 13-14 d every 17 d during the first anestrus (CP, 7; TP, 6). Transrectal ovarian ultrasonography was performed for 8 d in the first and 21 d in the second breeding season. Prenatal T excess reduced the number, but increased the duration of progestogenic cycles, reduced the proportion of ewes with normal cycles, increased the proportion of ewes with subluteal cycles, decreased the proportion of ewes with ovulatory cycles, induced the occurrence of persistent follicles, and reduced the number of corpora lutea in those that cycled. Cyclic P treatment in anestrus, which produced one third the P concentration seen during luteal phase of cycle, did not reduce the number of persistent follicles, but increased the number of progestogenic cycles while reducing their duration. These findings suggested that follicular persistence might contribute to the polycystic ovarian morphology. Cyclic P treatment was able to only partially restore follicular dynamics, but this may be related to the low replacement concentrations of P achieved.

  14. A randomized phase II chemoprevention trial of 13-CIS retinoic acid with or without alpha tocopherol or observation in subjects at high risk for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Kittelson, John; Franklin, Wilbur A; Kennedy, Timothy C; Klein, Catherine E; Keith, Robert L; Dempsey, Edward C; Lewis, Marina; Jackson, Mary K; Hirsch, Fred R; Bunn, Paul A; Miller, York E

    2009-05-01

    No chemoprevention strategies have been proven effective for lung cancer. We evaluated the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), with or without alpha tocopherol, as a lung cancer chemoprevention agent in a phase II randomized controlled clinical trial of adult subjects at high risk for lung cancer as defined by the presence of sputum atypia, history of smoking, and airflow obstruction, or a prior surgically cured nonsmall cell lung cancer (disease free, >3 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 13-cis RA, 13-cis RA plus alpha tocopherol (13-cis RA/alpha toco) or observation for 12 months. Outcome measures are derived from histologic evaluation of bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by bronchoscopy at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome measure is treatment "failure" defined as histologic progression (any increase in the maximum histologic score) or failure to return for follow-up bronchoscopy. Seventy-five subjects were randomized (27/22/26 to observations/13-cis RA/13-cis RA/alpha toco); 59 completed the trial; 55 had both baseline and follow-up bronchoscopy. The risk of treatment failure was 55.6% (15 of 27) and 50% (24 of 48) in the observation and combined (13 cis RA plus 13 cis RA/alpha toco) treatment arms, respectively (odds ratio adjusted for baseline histology, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-2.66; P = 0.95). Among subjects with complete histology data, maximum histology score in the observation arm increased by 0.37 units and by 0.03 units in the treated arms (difference adjusted for baseline, -0.18; 95% confidence interval, -1.16 to 0.81; P = 0.72). Similar (nonsignificant) results were observed for treatment effects on endobronchial proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 immunolabeling. Twelve-month treatment with 13-cis RA produced nonsignificant changes in bronchial histology, consistent with results in other trials. Agents advancing to phase III randomized trials should produce greater histologic changes. The

  15. A Randomized Phase II Chemoprevention Trial of 13-CIS Retinoic Acid with Or without α Tocopherol or Observation in Subjects at High Risk for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Kittelson, John; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Kennedy, Timothy C.; Klein, Catherine E.; Keith, Robert L.; Dempsey, Edward C.; Lewis, Marina; Jackson, Mary K.; Hirsch, Fred R.; Bunn, Paul A.; Miller, York E.

    2011-01-01

    No chemoprevention strategies have been proven effective for lung cancer. We evaluated the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), with or without α tocopherol, as a lung cancer chemoprevention agent in a phase II randomized controlled clinical trial of adult subjects at high risk for lung cancer as defined by the presence of sputum atypia, history of smoking, and airflow obstruction, or a prior surgically cured nonsmall cell lung cancer (disease free, >3 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 13-cis RA, 13-cis RA plus α tocopherol (13-cis RA/α toco) or observation for 12 months. Outcome measures are derived from histologic evaluation of bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by bronchoscopy at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome measure is treatment “failure” defined as histologic progression (any increase in the maximum histologic score) or failure to return for follow-up bronchoscopy. Seventy-five subjects were randomized (27/22/26 to obervations/13-cis RA/13-cis RA/α toco); 59 completed the trial; 55 had both baseline and follow-up bronchoscopy. The risk of treatment failure was 55.6% (15 of 27) and 50% (24 of 48) in the observation and combined (13 cis RA plus 13 cis RA/α toco) treatment arms, respectively (odds ratio adjusted for baseline histology, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.36–2.66; P = 0.95). Among subjects with complete histology data, maximum histology score in the observation arm increased by 0.37 units and by 0.03 units in the treated arms (difference adjusted for baseline, −0.18; 95% confidence interval, −1.16 to 0.81; P = 0.72). Similar (nonsignificant) results were observed for treatment effects on endobronchial proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 immunolabeling. Twelve-month treatment with 13-cis RA produced nonsignificant changes in bronchial histology, consistent with results in other trials. Agents advancing to phase III randomized trials should produce greater histologic changes. The addition of

  16. Fluidelastic instability of a flexible tube in a rigid normal square array subjected to uniform two-phase cross-flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axisa, F.; Villard, B.; Antunes, J.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade several researchers, investigated fluidelastic instability in tube arrays by restricting the problem to a single degree of freedom system. This is a very attractive idea because of obvious theoretical and experimental simplifications. Nevertheless, it has still to be clarified how far such results can be applied to fully flexible arrays. This paper is presenting a few experimental data obtained on a rigid normal square array subjected to uniform air-water cross flows, at various homogeneous void fractions α H from O to 1. Fluidelastic instability was clearly observed in air and in water. However instability was progressively vanishing in two-phase flow, when α H was increased. Such a result is contrasting with those obtained on fully flexible arrays

  17. GnRH agonist ovulation trigger and hCG-based, progesterone-free luteal support: a proof of concept study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Itskovitz-Eldor, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    in normal responder IVF patients. We here present a novel approach for luteal support after a GnRHa trigger. METHODS Normal responder patients who failed at least one previous IVF attempt, during which a conventional hCG trigger was used, were consecutively enrolled in the study. A GnRH antagonist...

  18. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4 of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr, the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. Methods The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o. as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. Conclusions The data presented suggest that the

  19. Luteal and placental function in the bitch: spatio-temporal changes in prolactin receptor (PRLr) expression at dioestrus, pregnancy and normal and induced parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Mariusz P; Michel, Erika; Gram, Aykut; Boos, Alois; Guscetti, Franco; Hoffmann, Bernd; Aslan, Selim; Reichler, Iris

    2011-08-03

    Endocrine mechanisms governing canine reproductive function remain still obscure. Progesterone (P4) of luteal origin is required for maintenance of pregnancy. Corpora lutea (CL) are gonadotrop-independent during the first third of dioestrus; afterwards prolactin (PRL) is the primary luteotropic factor. Interestingly, the increasing PRL levels are accompanied by decreasing P4 concentrations, thus luteal regression/luteolysis occurs in spite of an increased availability of gonadotropic support. PRL acts through its receptor (PRLr), the expression of which has not yet been thoroughly investigated at the molecular and cellular level in the dog. The expression of PRLr was assessed in CL of non-pregnant dogs during the course of dioestrus (days 5, 15, 25, 35, 45, 65 post ovulation; p.o.) as well as in CL, the utero/placental compartments (Ut/Pl) and interplacental free polar zones (interplacental sites) from pregnant dogs during the pre-implantation, post-implantation and mid-gestation period of pregnancy and during the normal and antigestagen-induced luteolysis. Expression of PRLr was tested by Real Time PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In non-pregnant CL the PRLr expression was significantly upregulated at day 15 p.o. and decreased significantly afterwards, towards the end of dioestrus. CL of pregnancy showed elevated PRLr expression until mid gestation while prepartal downregulation was observed. Interestingly, placental but not interplacental expression of PRLr was strongly time-related; a significant upregulation was observed towards mid-gestation. Within the CL PRLr was localized to the luteal cells; in the Ut/Pl it was localized to the fetal trophoblast and epithelial cells of glandular chambers. Moreover, in mid-pregnant animals treated with an antigestagen, both the luteal and placental, but not the uterine PRLr were significantly downregulated. The data presented suggest that the luteal provision of P4 in both pregnant and non-pregnant dogs

  20. Effects of diet and arginine treatment during the luteal phase on ovarian NO/PGC-1α signaling in ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi-Xuan; Nie, Hai-Tao; Sun, Ling-Wei; Zhang, Guo-Min; Deng, Kai-Ping; Fan, Yi-Xuan; Wang, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether arginine (Arg) supplementation of malnourished ewes affects the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary. On Day 6-15 of the estrous cycle, 24 multiparous Hu sheep (BW = 43.56 ± 1.53 kg) were randomly assigned to three groups: control group (CG; n = 6), restriction group (RG; n = 9) and l-arginine group (AG; n = 9), and administered Arg treatment (or vehicle) three times per day. The ewes were slaughtered at the end of treatment, and blood samples and ovaries were collected for analysis. The results of our analyses showed that both short-term feed-restriction and/or supplementation with L-Arg-HCl affected the number of different size follicles observed in the ovary, and the relative day of estrus behavior initiation of ewes. Specifically, the relative day of estrus behavior initiation was significantly advanced in AG compared with that in RG ewes (P ewes. RG ewes exhibited a higher proportion of ≤2 mm (P 5 mm follicles than did CG ewes (P ewes. Furthermore, the expression of eNOS, nNOS, iNOS, PDE5A, PDE9A, PRKG2, and PPARGC1A varied significantly among the treatment groups (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes (P ewes. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that feed-restriction negatively affects follicular development, and that Arg-supplementation may modulate the expression of key NO/PGC-1α signaling pathway genes in the ovary and thereby accelerate ovulatory processes and the estrous rate. Elucidation of mechanisms underlying these effects of Arg on gene expression in the ewe ovary requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent contr...

  2. Evidence for alterations in luteinizing hormone secreted in rhesus monkeys with normal and inadequate luteal phases using radioreceptor and radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, C.N.; Channing, C.P.

    1979-05-01

    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) using porcine granulosa cells and (/sup 125/I)hCG was developed and validated for the measurement of LH or CG. The RRA was used in conjunction with a heterologous RIA employing antiserum against ovine LH and (/sup 125/I)ovine LH (RIA) to measure serum LH in the rhesus monkey throughout the menstrual cycle. Discrepancies were found in the measurement of serum LH using RRA and RIA. Measurements of serum LH using RIA were consistently higher than the measurements of serum LH using RRA in serum from adult intact female and male monkeys and hypophysectomized, ovariectomized, and pregnant monkeys.

  3. Phase I clinical studies of the advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-breaker TRC4186: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kumar P; Shiwalkar, Ajay; Kotecha, Jignesh; Thakkar, Purav; Srivastava, Ambrish; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Sharma, Sanjay K; Cross, Maurice R; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2009-01-01

    Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications through a variety of mechanisms including endothelial dysfunction and structural abnormalities in the vasculature and myocardium. Reducing the AGEs burden and their ensuing pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative and pro-coagulant effect with associated dysfunctional proteins in various target tissues may retard the progression of and even reverse diabetic macro- and microvascular complications. Pyridinium, 3-[[2-(methylsulfonyl) hydrazino] carbonyl]-1-[2-oxo-2-2-thienyl) ethyl]-chloride (TRC4186) has demonstrated AGE-breaking activities in in vitro experiments and improvement in the endothelial and myocardial function in animal models of diabetes mellitus with reduction of AGEs accumulation in tissues over time. The safety of TRC4186 has been established in in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies. Thus, this drug is being developed for the treatment of complications associated with diabetes. This investigation set out to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of TRC4186 in healthy human subjects after single and multiple ascending doses, fixed doses in elderly male and female subjects, and with food and different formulations of the compound. Four studies were conducted during phase I clinical development of TRC4186. These were: (i) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with doses of TRC4186 ranging from 250 to 2500 mg administered as an oral solution (total six doses); (ii) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose, dose-ascending study in healthy male subjects with three doses of TRC4186 ranging from 500 to 2000 mg twice daily for 6 days with a final single dose on day 7; (iii) a randomized, open-label, three-way crossover study to assess the effect of food (fasted vs fed) and formulation (solution vs tablet) with TRC4186 500 mg; (iv) a randomized, double

  4. Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P L; Morice-Atkinson, X; Allen, E J; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1≤δ≤1. Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1. Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.

  5. Flow-induced vibration of steam generator helical tubes subjected to external liquid cross flow and internal two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper addresses the potential flow-induced vibration problems in a helically-coiled tube steam generator of integral-type nuclear reactor, of which the tubes are subjected to liquid cross flow externally and multi-phase flow externally. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted using a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency and corresponding mode shape of the helical type tubes with various conditions, a finite element analysis code is used. Based on the results of both helical coiled tube steam generator thermal-hydraulic and coiled tube modal analyses, turbulence-induced vibration and fluid-elastic instability analyses are performed. And then the potential for damages on the tubes due to either turbulence-induced vibration or fluid-elastic instability is assessed. In the assessment, special emphases are put on the detailed investigation for the effects of support conditions, coil diameter, and helix pitch on the modal, vibration amplitude and instability characteristics of tubes, from which a technical information and basis needed for designers and regulatory reviewers can be derived. (authors)

  6. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Hidalgo-Lopez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an “inverted U-shaped” manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i to the luteal cycle phase and (ii to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses–low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory–high estradiol; luteal–high progesterone and estradiol. During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important

  7. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P Angus cows. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-2 in Brahman cows. PGE1 or PGE2 may alter cow luteal FGF-2, ANG-1, or ANG-2 but not VEGF to prevent luteolysis; however, species or breed differences may exist. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Soccer-related performance in eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players: effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Mohamed; Jaafar, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Souissi, Nizar

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and moment of day on female soccer players' performances in the five-jump test (5JT), the repeated shuttle-sprint ability test (RSSA), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YYIRT1). Eleven eumenorrheic Tunisian high-level soccer players volunteered to participate. Each subject individually participated in three testing periods: one in the early follicular phase (menses), one in the late follicular phase, and another in the luteal phase. In each period, two test sessions were conducted: one at 07:30 and another at 17:30. The testing routines included the 5JT, the RSSA, and the YYIRT1. None of the measured variables were altered due to menstrual cycle phase (all P>0.05). Mean time during RSSA was significantly lower in the afternoon session compared to the morning session (8.48±0.27 s and 8.77±0.34 s, respectively, P<0.001), while 5JT performance was significantly higher in the afternoon compared to the morning (9.08±0.58 m and 8.60±0.56 m, respectively, P<0.001). Soccer-specific endurance as well as jumping and repeated sprinting ability of Tunisian female high-level soccer players are not affected due to menstrual cycle phase neither in the morning nor in the afternoon.

  9. 2079-IJBCS-Article-Omorogiuwa Arthur

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    This study compares the hematological values of the ovulation phase with the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Sixty subjects with 30 subjects each in the ovulation and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle were studied. Ethical clearance and informed consent were obtained for the study. Hematological parameters of.

  10. Assessment of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Obeticholic Acid and Caffeine, Midazolam, Warfarin, Dextromethorphan, Omeprazole, Rosuvastatin, and Digoxin in Phase 1 Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey E; Eliot, Lise; Parkinson, Andrew; Karan, Sharon; MacConell, Leigh

    2017-09-01

    Obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the potential drug-drug interaction effect of OCA on metabolic CYP450 enzymes and drug transporters. Five phase 1 single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, inpatient studies were conducted in healthy adult subjects to evaluate the effect of oral daily doses of 10 or 25 mg OCA on single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics of specific probe substrates for enzymes CYP1A2 (caffeine, R-warfarin), CYP3A (midazolam, R-warfarin), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and drug transporters, BCRP/OATP1B1/OATP1B3 (rosuvastatin), and P-gp (digoxin). OCA showed no substantial suppression/inhibition of S-warfarin, digoxin, and dextromethorphan and weak interactions with caffeine, omeprazole, rosuvastatin, and midazolam. The maximal pharmacodynamic responses (E max ) to warfarin-based INR, PT, and aPTT were reduced by 11%, 11%, and 1%, respectively, for the 10-mg dose group and by 7%, 7% and 0%, respectively, for the 25-mg dose group. Overall, drugs dosed in combination with OCA were well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild in severity. No clinically important trends were noted in laboratory evaluations, vital signs, or 12-lead ECGs. In these studies, OCA showed weak to no suppression/inhibition of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters at the highest recommended therapeutic dose in patients with PBC. On the basis on these analyses, monitoring and maintenance of target INR range are required during coadministration of OCA with drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2 (R-warfarin). Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

  11. Effects of menstrual cycle phase on cocaine self-administration in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D; Foltin, Richard W; Evans, Suzette M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological findings suggest that men and women vary in their pattern of cocaine use resulting in differences in cocaine dependence and relapse rates. Preclinical laboratory studies have demonstrated that female rodents are indeed more sensitive to cocaine's reinforcing effects than males, with estrous cycle stage as a key determinant of this effect. The current study sought to extend these findings to normally cycling female rhesus macaques, a species that shares a nearly identical menstrual cycle to humans. Dose-dependent intravenous cocaine self-administration (0.0125, 0.0250, and 0.0500 mg/kg/infusion) using a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement was determined across the menstrual cycle. The menstrual cycle was divided into 5 discrete phases - menses, follicular, periovulatory, luteal, and late luteal phases - verified by the onset of menses and plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone. Dependent variables including number of infusions self-administered per session, progressive ratio breakpoint, and cocaine intake were analyzed according to cocaine dose and menstrual cycle phase. Analysis of plasma hormone levels verified phase-dependent fluctuations of estradiol and progesterone, with estrogen levels peaking during the periovulatory phase, and progesterone peaking during the luteal phase. Progressive ratio breakpoint, infusions self-administered, and cocaine intake did not consistently vary based on menstrual cycle phase. These findings demonstrate that under the current experimental parameters, the reinforcing effects of cocaine did not vary across the menstrual cycle in a systematic fashion in normally cycling rhesus macaques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of EGF and IGF-1 on FSH-mediated in vitro maturation of domestic cat oocytes derived from follicular and luteal stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Koray; Vural, M Rıfat; Küplülü, Sükrü; Ozcan, Ziya; Polat, I Mert

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) on the in vitro maturation of cat oocytes recovered from follicular and luteal stage ovaries. Oocytes from follicular (n=580) and luteal (n=209) stages were harvested and divided into four groups, which were cultured in FSH-mediated maturation medium supplemented with: (1) EGF alone (25ng/mL); (2) IGF-1 alone (100ng/mL); (3) EGF+IGF-1 (25ng/mL EGF+100ng/mL IGF-I); or (4) no growth factor (control). The proportion of follicular stage oocytes reaching the metaphase II stage was significantly higher than that of oocytes obtained at the luteal stage in both control and study groups (pIGF-1, and 78.1% in EGF+IGF-1 groups, whereas the respective values for gametes collected from luteal stage ovaries were 12.5%, 17.5%, 12.5%, and 16.9%. Additionally, the differences between the study and control groups were significant in the case of follicular stage oocytes. Finally, supplementing the maturation medium with EGF and/or IGF-1 significantly enhanced the meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from follicular stage ovaries. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of EGF and IGF-I provides an additional or synergic effect on meiotic maturation of oocytes recovered from the follicular stage. Copyright © 2014 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolomics study on primary dysmenorrhea patients during the luteal regression stage based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Gu, Caiyun; Liu, Xinyu; Xie, Jiabin; Hou, Zhiguo; Tian, Meng; Yin, Jia; Li, Aizhu; Li, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological disorder which, while not life-threatening, severely affects the quality of life of women. Most patients with PD suffer ovarian hormone imbalances caused by uterine contraction, which results in dysmenorrhea. PD patients may also suffer from increases in estrogen levels caused by increased levels of prostaglandin synthesis and release during luteal regression and early menstruation. Although PD pathogenesis has been previously reported on, these studies only examined the menstrual period and neglected the importance of the luteal regression stage. Therefore, the present study used urine metabolomics to examine changes in endogenous substances and detect urine biomarkers for PD during luteal regression. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to create metabolomic profiles for 36 patients with PD and 27 healthy controls. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis were used to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with PD. Ten biomarkers for PD were identified, including ornithine, dihydrocortisol, histidine, citrulline, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and 15-keto-prostaglandin F2α. The specificity and sensitivity of these biomarkers was assessed based on the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic curves, which can be used to distinguish patients with PD from healthy controls. These results provide novel targets for the treatment of PD. PMID:28098892

  14. Effects and safety of GnRH-a as a luteal support in women undertaking assisted reproductive technology procedures: follow-up results for pregnancy, delivery, and neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiqin; Zhuang, Yanyan; Pan, Yanping; Xia, Fei

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects and safety of gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (GnRH-a) as an addition to progesterone luteal support in women who underwent in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection-embryo transfer (IVF/ICSI-ET) and achieved a clinical pregnancy. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 214 patients who underwent IVF/ICSI-ET procedures with standard long mid-luteal protocol, of which 123 received GnRH-a-free protocol and 91 received GnRH-a-added protocol. The patients' pregnancy and delivery course, and their neonates' status at birth and growth/development after birth were statistically compared. There was no significant difference between both study groups regarding embryo risks and maternal complications during early pregnancy. as well as fetal risks during the middle and late stages and neonate risks during birth, except that the twin pregnancies of the GnRH-a-added group had a considerably greater male/female ratio, and a significantly higher rate of premature delivery and low birth weight than those of the GnRH-a-free group. In addition, there was no significant difference in neonate risks within 2 years after birth between both cohorts. With precautions taken to control the number of implanted embryos and reduce the incidence of twinning pregnancy, the addition of GnRH-a to luteal support is relatively safe and effective.

  15. Luteal cell steroidogenesis in relation to delayed embryonic development in the Indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenakumari, Karukayil J; Banerjee, Arnab; Krishna, Amitabh

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the possible cause of slow or delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx by investigating morphological and steroidogenic changes in the corpus luteum (CL) and circulating hormone concentrations during two pregnancies of a year. This species showed delayed post-implantational embryonic development during gastrulation of the first pregnancy. Morphological features of the CL showed normal luteinization during both pregnancies. The CL did not change significantly in luteal cell size during the delay period of the first pregnancy as compared with the second pregnancy. The circulating progesterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were significantly lower during the period of delayed embryonic development as compared with the same stage of embryonic development during the second pregnancy. We also showed a marked decline in the activity of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, P450 side chain cleavage enzyme, and steroidogenic acute regulatory peptide in the CL during the delay period. This may cause low circulating progesterone and estradiol synthesis and consequently delay embryonic development. What causes the decrease in steroidogenic factors in the CL during the period of delayed development in C. sphinx is under investigation.

  16. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  17. Prolactin modulates luteal activity in the short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx during delayed embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuradha; Krishna, Amitabh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of prolactin as a modulator of luteal steroidogenesis during the period of delayed embryonic development in Cynopterus sphinx. A marked decline in circulating prolactin levels was noted during the months of November through December coinciding with the period of decreased serum progesterone and delayed embryonic development. The seasonal changes in serum prolactin levels correlated positively with circulating progesterone (P) level, but inversely with circulating melatonin level during first pregnancy showing delayed development in Cynopterus sphinx. The results also showed decreased expression of prolactin receptor-short form (PRL-RS) both in the corpus luteum and in the utero-embryonic unit during the period of delayed embryonic development. Bats treated in vivo with prolactin during the period of delayed development showed significant increase in serum progesterone and estradiol levels together with significant increase in the expression of PRL-RS, luteinizing hormone receptor (LH-R), steroidogenic acute receptor protein (STAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in the ovary. Prolactin stimulated ovarian angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor) and cell survival (B-cell lymphoma 2) in vivo. Significant increases in ovarian progesterone production and the expression of prolactin-receptor, LH-R, STAR and 3β-HSD proteins were noted following the exposure of LH or prolactin in vitro during the delayed period. In conclusion, short-day associated increased melatonin level may be responsible for decreased prolactin release during November-December. The decline in prolactin level might play a role in suppressing P and estradiol-17β (E2) estradiol levels thereby causing delayed embryonic development in C. sphinx. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The GLP-1 analogue liraglutide improves first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity over 14 weeks of therapy in subjects with Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, Sten; Vilsbøll, Tina; Brock, Birgitte

    Aims: We investigated the clinical effect of liraglutide, a long- acting GLP-1 analogue, on insulin secretion in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: Thirty-nine subjects (28 completed) from a randomised trial received a hyperglycaemic clamp (20 mM) with intravenous arginine stimulation, and an insulin...... group. Conclusion: In subjects with Type 2 diabetes, 14 weeks’ once-daily liraglutide (1.25 and 1.9 mg/day) markedly improves beta-cell function, significantly increases first-phase insulin secretion and maximal beta-cell secretory capacity....

  19. Duration of luteal support (DOLS with progesterone pessaries to improve the success rates in assisted conception: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazvani Rafet

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteal support with progesterone is necessary for successful implantation of the embryo following egg collection and embryo transfer in an in-vitro fertilization (IVF cycle. Progesterone has been used for as little as 2 weeks and for as long as 12 weeks of gestation. The optimal length of treatment is unresolved at present and it remains unclear how long to treat women receiving luteal supplementation. Design The trial is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of the duration of luteal support with progesterone in IVF cycles. Following 2 weeks standard treatment and a positive biochemical pregnancy test, this randomized control trial will allocate women to a supplementary 8 weeks treatment with vaginal progesterone or 8 weeks placebo. Further studies would be required to investigate whether additional supplementation with progesterone is beneficial in early pregnancy. Discussion Currently at the Hewitt Centre, approximately 32.5% of women have a positive biochemical pregnancy test 2 weeks after embryo transfer. It is this population that is eligible for trial entry and randomization. Once the patient has confirmed a positive urinary pregnancy test they will be invited to join the trial. Once the consent form has been completed by the patient a trial prescription sheet will be sent to pharmacy with a stated collection time. The patient can then be randomized and the drugs dispensed according to pharmacy protocol. A blood sample will then be drawn for measurement of baseline hormone levels (progesterone, estradiol, free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A, Activin A, Inhibin A and Inhibin B. The primary outcome measure is the proportion of all randomized women that continue successfully to a viable pregnancy (at least one fetus with fetal heart rate >100 beats/minute on transabdominal/transvaginal ultrasound at 10 weeks post embryo

  20. Antiviral activity of dolutegravir in subjects with failure on an integrase inhibitor-based regimen: week 24 phase 3 results from VIKING-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G; Mills, A; Grossberg, R; Lazzarin, A; Maggiolo, F; Molina, J; Pialoux, G; Wright, D; Ait-Khaled, M; Huang, J; Vavro, C; Wynne, B; Yeo, J

    2012-01-01

    Background VIKING-3 aimed to examine efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg twice daily in patients with resistance to multiple ARV classes, including integrase inhibitors (INI). Methods RAL and/or EVG-resistant (current or historical) adult subjects with screening plasma HIV-1 RNA ≥500 c/mL and resistance to ≥2 other ART classes received open-label DTG 50 mg BID while continuing their failing regimen (without RAL/EVG). At Day 8 the background regimen was optimised and DTG continued. Activity of the optimized background regimen (OBR) was determined by Monogram Net Assessment. Primary endpoints were antiviral efficacy at Day 8 and Week 24. Results 183 subjects enrolled, 124 with INI-resistance at screening and 59 with historical (but no screening) resistance. Population was advanced: at BL, median CD4 140, prior ART 13 yrs, 56% CDC Class C; 79% had >2 NRTI, 75% >1 NNRTI, and 70% >2 PI resistance-associated mutations, and 61% had non-R5 HIV detected. Of the 114 subjects who had the opportunity to complete 24 weeks on study before data cutoff, 72 (63%) had 1 log HIV RNA decline of 2, respectively. Discontinuations due to adverse events were uncommon (6/183, 3%); the most common drug-related AEs were diarrhoea, nausea and headache, each reported in only 5% of subjects. Conclusion A majority of the highly treatment-experienced subjects in VIKING-3 achieved suppression with DTG-based therapy. Responses were associated with Baseline IN genotype but not OSS, highlighting the importance and independence of DTG antiviral activity. DTG had a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events at 50 mg BID in this advanced patient population.

  1. Phase 1 Evaluation of [(64)Cu]DOTA-Patritumab to Assess Dosimetry, Apparent Receptor Occupancy, and Safety in Subjects with Advanced Solid Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, A Craig; Liu, Yongjian; Dehdashti, Farrokh; Laforest, Richard; Picus, Joel; Frye, Jennifer; Trull, Lauren; Belanger, Stefanie; Desai, Madhuri; Mahmood, Syed; Mendell, Jeanne; Welch, Michael J; Siegel, Barry A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety, dosimetry, and apparent receptor occupancy (RO) of [(64)Cu]DOTA-patritumab, a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody directed against HER3/ERBB3 in subjects with advanced solid tumors. Dosimetry subjects (n = 5) received [(64)Cu]DOTA-patritumab and underwent positron emission tomography (PET)/X-ray computed tomography (CT) at 3, 24, and 48 h. Evaluable RO subjects (n = 3 out of 6) received [(64)Cu]DOTA-patritumab at day 1 and day 8 (after 9.0 mg/kg patritumab) followed by PET/CT at 24 h post-injection. Endpoints included safety, tumor uptake, and efficacy. The tumor SUVmax (± SD) was 5.6 ± 4.5, 3.3 ± 1.7, and 3.0 ± 1.1 at 3, 24, and 48 h in dosimetry subjects. The effective dose and critical organ dose (liver) averaged 0.044 ± 0.008 mSv/MBq and 0.46 ± 0.086 mGy/MBq, respectively. In RO subjects, tumor-to-blood ratio decreased from 1.00 ± 0.32 at baseline to 0.57 ± 0.17 after stable patritumab, corresponding to a RO of 42.1 ± 3. [(64)Cu]DOTA-patritumab was safe. These limited results suggest that this PET-based method can be used to determine tumor-apparent RO.

  2. A Multicenter, Open-Label, Controlled Phase II Study to Evaluate Safety and Immunogenicity of MVA Smallpox Vaccine (IMVAMUNE in 18-40 Year Old Subjects with Diagnosed Atopic Dermatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard N Greenberg

    Full Text Available Replicating smallpox vaccines can cause severe complications in individuals with atopic dermatitis (AD. Prior studies evaluating Modified Vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA, a non-replicating vaccine in humans, showed a favorable safety and immunogenicity profile in healthy volunteers.This Phase II study compared the safety and immunogenicity of MVA enrolling groups of 350 subjects with AD (SCORAD ≤ 30 and 282 healthy subjects.Subjects were vaccinated twice with MVA, each dose given subcutaneously 4 weeks apart. Adverse events, cardiac parameters, and the development of vaccinia virus humoral immune responses were monitored.The overall safety of the vaccine was similar in both groups. Adverse events affecting skin were experienced significantly more often in subjects with AD, but the majority of these events were mild to moderate in intensity. Seroconversion rates and geometric mean titers for total and neutralizing vaccinia-specific antibodies in the AD group were non-inferior compared to the healthy subjects.The size of the study population limited the detection of serious adverse events occurring at a frequency less than 1%.MVA has a favorable safety profile and the ability to elicit vaccinia-specific immune responses in subjects with AD.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00316602.

  3. Influence of menstrual cycle phase on pulmonary function in asthmatic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Kristin I; Mickleborough, Timothy D; Ray, Shahla; Lindley, Martin R; Koceja, David M; Stager, Joel M

    2006-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a relationship between menstrual cycle phase and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Seven eumenorrheic subjects with regular 28-day menstrual cycles were exercised to volitional exhaustion on day 5 [mid-follicular (FOL)] and day 21 [mid-luteal (LUT)] of their menstrual cycle. Pulmonary function tests were conducted pre- and post-exercise. The maximal percentage decline in post-exercise forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced expiratory flow from 25 to 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF(25-75%)) was significantly greater (Pphase) (-17.35+/-2.32 and -26.28+/-6.04%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was highest, compared to day 5 (mid-FOL phase) (-12.81+/-3.35 and -17.23+/-8.20%, respectively), when salivary progesterone concentration was lowest. The deterioration in the severity of EIB during the mid-LUT phase was accompanied by worsening asthma symptoms and increased bronchodilator use. There was a negative correlation between the percent change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1) and salivary progesterone concentration. However, no such correlation was found between salivary estradiol and the percentage change in pre- to post-exercise FEV(1). This study has shown for the first time that menstrual cycle phase is an important determinant of the severity of EIB in female athletes with mild atopic asthma. Female asthmatic athletes may need to adjust their training and competition schedules to their menstrual cycle and to consider the potential negative effects of the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle on exercise performance.

  4. A Comparison of Amplitude-Based and Phase-Based Positron Emission Tomography Gating Algorithms for Segmentation of Internal Target Volumes of Tumors Subject to Respiratory Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jani, Shyam S.; Robinson, Clifford G.; Dahlbom, Magnus; White, Benjamin M.; Thomas, David H.; Gaudio, Sergio; Low, Daniel A.; Lamb, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively compare the accuracy of tumor volume segmentation in amplitude-based and phase-based respiratory gating algorithms in respiratory-correlated positron emission tomography (PET). Methods and Materials: List-mode fluorodeoxyglucose-PET data was acquired for 10 patients with a total of 12 fluorodeoxyglucose-avid tumors and 9 lymph nodes. Additionally, a phantom experiment was performed in which 4 plastic butyrate spheres with inner diameters ranging from 1 to 4 cm were imaged as they underwent 1-dimensional motion based on 2 measured patient breathing trajectories. PET list-mode data were gated into 8 bins using 2 amplitude-based (equal amplitude bins [A1] and equal counts per bin [A2]) and 2 temporal phase-based gating algorithms. Gated images were segmented using a commercially available gradient-based technique and a fixed 40% threshold of maximum uptake. Internal target volumes (ITVs) were generated by taking the union of all 8 contours per gated image. Segmented phantom ITVs were compared with their respective ground-truth ITVs, defined as the volume subtended by the tumor model positions covering 99% of breathing amplitude. Superior-inferior distances between sphere centroids in the end-inhale and end-exhale phases were also calculated. Results: Tumor ITVs from amplitude-based methods were significantly larger than those from temporal-based techniques (P=.002). For lymph nodes, A2 resulted in ITVs that were significantly larger than either of the temporal-based techniques (P<.0323). A1 produced the largest and most accurate ITVs for spheres with diameters of ≥2 cm (P=.002). No significant difference was shown between algorithms in the 1-cm sphere data set. For phantom spheres, amplitude-based methods recovered an average of 9.5% more motion displacement than temporal-based methods under regular breathing conditions and an average of 45.7% more in the presence of baseline drift (P<.001). Conclusions: Target volumes in images generated

  5. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    supported on titania catalysts for oxidation reactions 467. 1,2,4-triazoles. Analysis of ... MCM-41 nanocomposites in the gas phase. 989 .... Green oxidation of alkenes in ionic liquid solvent by hydrogen ..... Engineering reactors for catalytic reactions. 341. Catalyst .... Design of non-molecular coordination solids from aqueous ...

  6. Roles of prostaglandin F2alpha and hydrogen peroxide in the regulation of Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase in bovine corpus luteum and luteal endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Hai V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF induces luteolysis in cow by inducing a rapid reduction in progesterone production (functional luteolysis followed by tissue degeneration (structural luteolysis. However the mechanisms of action of PGF remain unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS play important roles in regulating the luteolytic action of PGF. The local concentration of ROS is controlled by superoxide dismutase (SOD, the main enzyme involved in the control of intraluteal ROS. Thus SOD seems to be involved in luteolysis process induced by PGF in cow. Methods To determine the dynamic relationship between PGF and ROS in bovine corpus luteum (CL during luteolysis, we determined the time-dependent change of Copper/Zinc SOD (SOD1 in CL tissues after PGF treatment in vivo. We also investigated whether PGF and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 modulates SOD1 expression and SOD activity in cultured bovine luteal endothelial cells (LECs in vitro. Results Following administration of a luteolytic dose of PGF analogue (0 h to cows at the mid-luteal stage, the expression of SOD1 mRNA and protein, and total SOD activity in CL tissues increased between 0.5 and 2 h, but fell below the initial (0 h level at 24 h post-treatment. In cultured LECs, the expression of SOD1 mRNA was stimulated by PGF (1–10 microM and H2O2 (10–100 microM at 2 h (P

  7. The loss of luteal progesterone production in women is associated with a galectin switch via α2,6-sialylation of glycoconjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nio-Kobayashi, Junko; Boswell, Lyndsey; Amano, Maho; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Duncan, W Colin

    2014-12-01

    Luteal progesterone is fundamental for reproduction, but the molecular regulation of the corpus luteum (CL) in women remains unclear. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 bind to the sugar chains on cells to control key biological processes including cell function and fate. The expression and localization of LGALS1 and LGALS3 were analyzed by quantitative PCR and histochemical analysis, with special reference to α2,6-sialylation of glycoconjugates in carefully dated human CL collected across the menstrual cycle and after exposure to human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in vivo. The effects of hCG and prostaglandin E2 on the expression of galectins and an α2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) in granulosa lutein cells were analyzed in vitro. Galectin-1 was predominantly localized to healthy granulosa lutein cells and galectin-3 was localized to macrophages and regressing granulosa lutein cells. Acute exposure to luteotrophic hormones (hCG and prostaglandin E2) up-regulated LGALS1 expression (P progesterone synthesis. Luteotrophic hormones differentially regulate galectin-1 and galectin-3/α2,6-sialylation in granulosa lutein cells, suggesting a novel galectin switch regulated by luteotrophic stimuli during luteolysis and luteal rescue.

  8. A phenotypical approach to the effects of production traits, parturition, puerperium and body condition on commencement of luteal activity in high yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Ariane; Becker, Frank; Martin, Gunter; Nürnberg, Gerd; Römer, Anke; Kanitz, Wilhelm

    2015-06-01

    The interval from calving to commencement of luteal activity (CLA) was determined by progesterone measurements from milk samples obtained once a week until the 14th week post-partum in 513 German Holstein cows in first to third parity. Milk samples were analyzed by an "on-farm" device (eProCheck(®), Minitüb, Germany) and simultaneously by RIA. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of milk yield, protein content and body condition of a cow on the CLA post-partum. Milk progesterone concentrations of "on-farm" measurements correlated with measurements done by the RIA-method significantly (r=0.72; PCows with a milk protein content at 1st milk recording of ≤3.5% revealed first luteal activity 1.3±0.3 weeks later than cows that had a content of >3.75% protein (Pcows with assisted calving or dystocia presented significantly later CLA than cows which required no help during the calving process (Pfertility cannot be confirmed regarding to CLA. The negative energy balance after calving, caused by the high milk yields, is more detrimental for the cyclical activity as was shown by the parameters milk protein content and change in BFT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. US/French Joint Research Program regarding the behavior of polymer base materials subjected to beta radiation. Volume 1. Phase-1 normalization results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyant, F.J.; Buckalew, W.H.; Chenion, J.; Carlin, F.; Gaussens, G.; Le Tutour, P.; Le Meur, M.

    1986-06-01

    As part of the ongoing multi-year joint NRC/CEA international cooperative test program to investigate the dose-damage equivalence of gamma and beta radiation on polymer base materials, dosimetry and ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) specimens were exchanged, irradiated, and evaluated for property changes at research facilities in the US (Sandia National Laboratories) and France (Compagnie ORIS Industrie). The purpose of this Phase-1 test series was to normalize and cross-correlate the results obtained by one research center to the other, in terms of exposure (1.0 MeV accelerated electrons and 60 Co gammas) and postirradiation testing (ultimate elongation and tensile strength, hardness, and density) techniques. The dosimetry and material specimen results indicate good agreement between the two countries regarding the exposure conditions and postirradiation evaluation techniques employed

  10. A Phase II, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo Controlled, Dose-Response Trial of the Melatonin Effect on the Pain Threshold of Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cadore Stefani

    Full Text Available Previous studies have suggested that melatonin may produce antinociception through peripheral and central mechanisms. Based on the preliminary encouraging results of studies of the effects of melatonin on pain modulation, the important question has been raised of whether there is a dose relationship in humans of melatonin on pain modulation.The objective was to evaluate the analgesic dose response of the effects of melatonin on pressure and heat pain threshold and tolerance and the sedative effects.Sixty-one healthy subjects aged 19 to 47 y were randomized into one of four groups: placebo, 0.05 mg/kg sublingual melatonin, 0.15 mg/kg sublingual melatonin or 0.25 mg/kg sublingual melatonin. We determine the pressure pain threshold (PPT and the pressure pain tolerance (PPTo. Quantitative sensory testing (QST was used to measure the heat pain threshold (HPT and the heat pain tolerance (HPTo. Sedation was assessed with a visual analogue scale and bispectral analysis.Serum plasma melatonin levels were directly proportional to the melatonin doses given to each subject. We observed a significant effect associated with dose group. Post hoc analysis indicated significant differences between the placebo vs. the intermediate (0.15 mg/kg and the highest (0.25 mg/kg melatonin doses for all pain threshold and sedation level tests. A linear regression model indicated a significant association between the serum melatonin concentrations and changes in pain threshold and pain tolerance (R(2  = 0.492 for HPT, R(2  = 0.538 for PPT, R(2  = 0.558 for HPTo and R(2  = 0.584 for PPTo.The present data indicate that sublingual melatonin exerts well-defined dose-dependent antinociceptive activity. There is a correlation between the plasma melatonin drug concentration and acute changes in the pain threshold. These results provide additional support for the investigation of melatonin as an analgesic agent. Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec: (U1111

  11. Resting-state networks in healthy adult subjects: a comparison between a 32-element and an 8-element phased array head coil at 3.0 Tesla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolini, Marco; Keeser, Daniel; Ingrisch, Michael; Werner, Natalie; Kindermann, Nicole; Reiser, Maximilian; Blautzik, Janusch

    2015-05-01

    Little research exists on the influence of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head coil's channel count on measured resting-state functional connectivity. To compare a 32-element (32ch) and an 8-element (8ch) phased array head coil with respect to their potential to detect functional connectivity within resting-state networks. Twenty-six healthy adults (mean age, 21.7 years; SD, 2.1 years) underwent resting-state functional MRI at 3.0 Tesla with both coils using equal standard imaging parameters and a counterbalanced design. Independent component analysis (ICA) at different model orders and a dual regression approach were performed. Voxel-wise non-parametric statistical between-group contrasts were determined using permutation-based non-parametric inference. Phantom measurements demonstrated a generally higher image signal-to-noise ratio using the 32ch head coil. However, the results showed no significant differences between corresponding resting-state networks derived from both coils (p coil does not offer any significant advantages in detecting ICA-based functional connectivity within RSNs. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Pharmacodynamic consequences of administration of VLA-4 antagonist CDP323 to multiple sclerosis subjects: a randomized, double-blind phase 1/2 study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wolf

    Full Text Available Lymphocyte inhibition by antagonism of α4 integrins is a validated therapeutic approach for relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS.Investigate the effect of CDP323, an oral α4-integrin inhibitor, on lymphocyte biomarkers in RMS.Seventy-one RMS subjects aged 18-65 years with Expanded Disability Status Scale scores ≤6.5 were randomized to 28-day treatment with CDP323 100 mg twice daily (bid, 500 mg bid, 1000 mg once daily (qd, 1000 mg bid, or placebo.Relative to placebo, all dosages of CDP323 significantly decreased the capacity of lymphocytes to bind vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 and the expression of α4-integrin on VCAM-1-binding cells. All but the 100-mg bid dosage significantly increased total lymphocytes and naive B cells, memory B cells, and T cells in peripheral blood compared with placebo, and the dose-response relationship was shown to be linear. Marked increases were also observed in natural killer cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells, but only with the 500-mg bid and 1000-mg bid dosages. There were no significant changes in monocytes. The number of samples for regulator and inflammatory T cells was too small to draw any definitive conclusions.CDP323 at daily doses of 1000 or 2000 mg induced significant increases in total lymphocyte count and suppressed VCAM-1 binding by reducing unbound very late antigen-4 expression on lymphocytes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00726648.

  13. Effect of the Thermomechanical Treatment on Structural and Phase Transformations in Cu-14Al-3Ni Shape Memory Alloy Subjected to High-Pressure Torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukyanov, A. V.; Pushin, V. G.; Kuranova, N. N.; Svirid, A. E.; Uksusnikov, A. N.; Ustyugov, Yu. M.; Gunderov, D. V.

    2018-04-01

    The possibilities of controlling the structure and properties of a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy due to the use of different schemes of the thermomechanical treatment, including forging, homogenizing in the austenitic state and subsequent quenching, and high-pressure torsion have been found. For the first time, an ultrafine-grain structure has been produced in this alloy via severe plastic deformation using high-pressure torsion. It has been detected that high-pressure torsion using ten revolutions of the anvils leads to the formation of a nanocrystalline structure with a grain size of less than 100 nm. The subsequent short-term heating of the alloy to 800°C (10 s) in the temperature region of the existence of the homogeneous β phase made it possible to form an ultrafine-grain structure with predominant sizes of recrystallized grains of 1 and 8 μm. The quenching after heating prevented the decomposition of the solid solution. The refinement of the grain structure changed the deformation behavior of the alloy, having provided the possibility of the significant plastic deformation upon mechanical tensile tests. The coarse-grained hot-forged quenched alloy was brittle, and fracture occurred along the boundaries of former austenite grains and martensite packets. The highstrength ultrafine-grained alloy also experienced mainly the intercrystalline fracture along the high-angle boundaries of elements of the structure, the grain size of which was less by two orders than that in the initial alloy. This determined an increase in its relative elongation upon mechanical tests.

  14. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author)

  15. Measurement of cerebral blood flow with two-dimensional cine phase-contrast MR imaging. Evaluation of normal subjects and patients with vertigo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari; Mamiya, Toshio; Takahashi, Taku; Kamano, Tsuyoshi; Osada, Hisato [Saitama Medical School, Kawagoe (Japan). Saitama Medical Center

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not the vertebral flow of patients with vertigo and normal brain magnetic resonance (MR) images was decreased in comparison with normal controls. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was quantitatively measured by a two-dimensional phase contrast cine MR imaging technique in 24 normal controls (mean age, 38.6 years; range, 12-70) and 23 patients (mean age, 53.7 years; range, 19-76) with a 1.5 Tesla MR imaging unit. Inter-and intraobserver variation in blood flow measurements was small (r=0.970, standard error of the estimate [SEE]=2.9 ml, n=80; r=0.963, SEE=4.6 ml, n=40, respectively), In the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (171 ml/min, SD=40.6) was significantly less than mean summed carotid flow (523 ml/min, SD=111). Right vertebral flow (80.2 ml/min, SD=30.5) was less than left vertebral flow (91.2 ml/min, SD=38.2), but the difference was not statistically significant (p<0.05), In the 23 patients, although the summed vertebral flows of two patients (63.3, 88.8 ml/min) were significantly less than that of the normal group, mean summed vertebral flow (165 ml/min, SD=59.1) showed no significant difference from that of the normal group (p<0.05). In this study, the majority of patients had normal CBF. This method is clinically useful for estimating CBF. (author).

  16. A prospective randomized multicentre study comparing vaginal progesterone gel and vaginal micronized progesterone tablets for luteal support after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Christina; Lindenberg, Svend; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2012-01-01

    fertility centres in Denmark and Sweden between March 2006 and January 2010. A web-based randomization program was used with concealed allocation of patients. Patients were randomized to one of two groups: vaginal progesterone gel or vaginal micronized progesterone tablets. There was no blinding of patients....... PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 2057 women ≤ 40 years of age were included and down-regulated, using the long agonist protocol and rFSH for stimulation. Luteal support was given for 19 days after embryo transfer or until a negative pregnancy test Day 14 after embryo transfer. Patient convenience...... (pregnancy) is robust, blinding would have been unlikely to affect the results. Unfortunately, owing to an error in the randomization, the intended age distribution allocated older women to the micronized progesterone tablet group. In the analysis of results, adjustments were made for age and number...

  17. The acute phase protein ceruloplasmin as a non-invasive marker of pseudopregnancy, pregnancy, and pregnancy loss in the giant panda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L Willis

    Full Text Available After ovulation, non-pregnant female giant pandas experience pseudopregnancy. During pseudopregnancy, non-pregnant females exhibit physiological and behavioral changes similar to pregnancy. Monitoring hormonal patterns that are usually different in pregnant mammals are not effective at determining pregnancy status in many animals that undergo pseudopregnancy, including the giant panda. Therefore, a physiological test to distinguish between pregnancy and pseudopregnancy in pandas has eluded scientists for decades. We examined other potential markers of pregnancy and found that activity of the acute phase protein ceruloplasmin increases in urine of giant pandas in response to pregnancy. Results indicate that in term pregnancies, levels of active urinary ceruloplasmin were elevated the first week of pregnancy and remain elevated until 20-24 days prior to parturition, while no increase was observed during the luteal phase in known pseudopregnancies. Active ceruloplasmin also increased during ultrasound-confirmed lost pregnancies; however, the pattern was different compared to term pregnancies, particularly during the late luteal phase. In four out of the five additional reproductive cycles included in the current study where females were bred but no birth occurred, active ceruloplasmin in urine increased during the luteal phase. Similar to the known lost pregnancies, the temporal pattern of change in urinary ceruloplasmin during the luteal phase deviated from the term pregnancies suggesting that these cycles may have also been lost pregnancies. Among giant pandas in captivity, it has been presumed that there is a high rate of pregnancy loss and our results are the first to provide evidence supporting this notion.

  18. Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase 1/2 Study of Tazemetostat (EZH2 Histone Methyl Transferase [HMT] Inhibitor) as a Single Agent in Subjects With Adv. Solid Tumors or With B-cell Lymphomas and Tazemetostat in Combination With Prednisolone in Subjects With DLBCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-12

    B-cell Lymphomas (Phase 1); Advanced Solid Tumors (Phase 1); Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (Phase 2); Follicular Lymphoma (Phase 2); Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Primary Mediastinal Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  19. Failure to establish and maintain a pregnancy in undernourished recipient ewes is associated with a poor endocrine milieu in the early luteal phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brun, Victoria; Meikle, Ana; Fernández-Foren, Andrea; Forcada, Fernando; Palacín, Inmaculada; Menchaca, Alejo; Sosa, Cecilia; Abecia, José-Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Embryos from undernourished and control donor ewes were transferred to undernourished and control recipient ewes. Progesterone and metabolic hormones were investigated in recipient ewes to determine their association with pregnancy success. Forty-five donor and 52 recipient Rasa Aragonesa ewes were fed 1.5 (control group; donor n=20; recipient n=25) or 0.5 (low group; donor n=25; recipient n=27) times the daily requirements for maintenance from the onset of estrous synchronization treatment to embryo collection and transfer. The embryos were collected 7days after the onset of estrus (day 0), and two good-quality embryos were transferred into each recipient ewe. The percentage of pregnant ewes on day 18 and 40 did not differ between the two groups, although the recipient undernourished ewes tended to have greater late embryonic mortality (from days 18-40) than the control recipient ewes (P=0.11). No effect of the nutrition of the donor was found. Recipients that became pregnant had a higher ovulation rate than non-pregnant ewes (P=0.02). Undernourished ewes had lower plasma insulin concentrations than control ewes (P=0.03), and those that suffered late embryo mortality (from days 18-40) tended to have lower insulin and progesterone concentrations than their counterparts that remained pregnant (P=0.06 and P=0.07, respectively). In this study, pregnancy in control and undernourished recipient ewes was not associated with the origin of the embryo (undernourished and control donors). In conclusion, failure to establish and maintain a pregnancy was associated with lower progesterone and insulin levels one week after estrus in recipient ewes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptives on alertness, cognitive performance, and circadian rhythms during sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. P. Jr; Badia, P.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The influence of menstrual cycle phase and oral contraceptive use on neurobehavioral function and circadian rhythms were studied in healthy young women (n = 25) using a modified constant routine procedure during 24 h of sleep deprivation. Alertness and performance worsened across sleep deprivation and also varied with circadian phase. Entrained circadian rhythms of melatonin and body temperature were evident in women regardless of menstrual phase or oral contraceptive use. No significant difference in melatonin levels, duration, or phase was observed between women in the luteal and follicular phases, whereas oral contraceptives appeared to increase melatonin levels. Temperature levels were higher in the luteal phase and in oral contraceptive users compared to women in the follicular phase. Alertness on the maintenance of wakefulness test and some tests of cognitive performance were poorest for women in the follicular phase especially near the circadian trough of body temperature. These observations suggest that hormonal changes associated with the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives contribute to changes in nighttime waking neurobehavioral function and temperature level whereas these factors do not appear to affect circadian phase.

  1. Menstrual cycle phase affects discrimination of infant cuteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Janek S; Probst, Fabian; Perrett, David I; Heinrichs, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that women are more sensitive than men to subtle cuteness differences in infant faces. It has been suggested that raised levels in estradiol and progesterone may be responsible for this advantage. We compared young women's sensitivity to computer-manipulated baby faces varying in cuteness. Thirty-six women were tested once during ovulation and once during the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle. In a two alternative forced-choice experiment, participants chose the baby which they thought was cuter (Task 1), younger (Task 2), or the baby that they would prefer to babysit (Task 3). Saliva samples to assess levels of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were collected at each test session. During ovulation, women were more likely to choose the cuter baby than during the luteal phase, in all three tasks. These results suggest that cuteness discrimination may be driven by cyclic hormonal shifts. However none of the measured hormones were related to increased cuteness sensitivity. We speculate that other hormones than the ones measured here might be responsible for the increased sensitivity to subtle cuteness differences during ovulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kadar dan Daya Luteolitik PGF2? Produksi Sel Monolayer Vesikula Seminalis dan Endometrium Sapi Bali (PROSTAGLANDIN F2? CONCENTRATIONS OF BALI CATTLE ENDOMETRIAL AND SEMINAL VESICLE MONOLAYER CELLS CULTURE PRODUCTS AND ITS IN VITRO TEST ON LUTEAL MONOLAYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjok Gde Oka Pemayun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine PGF2? concentration the produced by bali cattlesendometrial and seminal vesicle monolayer cell culture and in vitro luteolytic ability on luteal monolayercell culture. The endometrial and seminal vesicle epithelial cell of bali cattle were cultured in tissueculture medium (TCM 199 growth medium supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and 10% EstrusMare Serum. The cells were cultured at 1.9 x 106 density per ml medium. Then Followed by incubation at38.50 C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 12 days. The level of PGF2? in the cell culture medium were assayed byRadioimmnuassay (RIA technique. The luteal cells were cultured in 9 days incubation and divided into 2groups. Group I were added with 10% of cell culture product and group II were added with 1,25 mgdinoprost/ml. The level of progesterone produced by luteal cell culture was measured at day 9th and 11thincubation. The result showed concentration of PGF2? cell product of seminal vesicle cell culture wassignificantly higher (P < 0.05 compared to endometrial cell culture. There was no significant difference(P>0.05 in luteolytic ability between PGF2? cell culture product and dinoprost. In conclusion, the PGF2?could be produced by monolayer cell culture of bali cattle is endometrial and seminal vesicle epithelialcells more over they have similar ability with dinoprost in luteolytic ability.

  3. Stimulation of the young poor responder: comparison of the luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist priming protocol versus oral contraceptive microdose leuprolide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Shefali M; Barbieri, Elizabeth; Kligman, Isaac; Schoyer, Katherine D; Davis, Owen K; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcomes in young poor responders treated with a luteal estradiol/gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (E(2)/ANT) protocol versus an oral contraceptive pill microdose leuprolide protocol (OCP-MDL). Retrospective cohort. Academic practice. Poor responders: 186 women, aged <35 years undergoing IVF with either E(2)/ANT or OCP-MDL protocols. None. Clinical pregnancies, oocytes retrieved, cancellation rate. Patients in the E(2)/ANT group had a greater gonadotropin requirement (71.9 ± 22.2 vs. 57.6 ± 25.7) and lower E(2) level (1,178.6 ± 668 vs. 1,627 ± 889), yet achieved similar numbers of oocytes retrieved and fertilized, and a greater number of embryos transferred (2.3 ± 0.9 vs. 2.0 ± 1.1) with a better mean grade (2.14 ± .06 vs. 2.7 ± 1.8) compared with the OCP/MDL group. The E2/ANT group exhibited a trend toward improved implantation rates (30.5% vs. 21.1%) and ongoing pregnancy rates per started cycle: 44 out of 117 (37%) versus 17 out of 69 (25%). Poor responders aged <35 years may be treated with the aggressive E(2)/ANT protocol to improve cycle outcomes. Both protocols remain viable options for this group. Adequately powered, randomized clinical comparison appears justified. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transvaginal sonographic evaluation at different menstrual cycle phases in diagnosis of uterine lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajishaiha M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Masomeh Hajishaiha1, Mohammad Ghasemi-rad2, Nazila Karimpour1, Nikol Mladkova3, Farzaneh Boromand11Department of Gynecology, 2Student Research Committee (SRC, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Islamic Republic of Iran; 3Institute of Cell and Molecular Science, London, UKPurpose: Intrauterine lesions (IULs are a common finding in women of reproductive age, particularly infertile women. Transvaginal sonography (TVS is a popular tool for IUL detection, but there are conflicting data with respect to its accuracy.Methods: Five hundred and six women were enrolled into the study. Of these, 496 underwent hysterosalpingography and subsequent TVS six different times during the course of their menstrual cycle. If a lesion was detected, it was further evaluated by sonohysterography (SHG and hysteroscopy.Results: Of 496 women, 41 were shown to have IULs by TVS and those lesions were confirmed in 39 by SHG and hysteroscopy. All 39 lesions were detectable during the ovulatory and early luteal phase (days 16–19 of the menstrual cycle. Accuracy of TVS during different phases was largely dependent on the size of the lesion. TVS falsely detected two lesions and missed fine adhesions in two patients.Conclusion: Accuracy of TVS in detection of IULs is highly dependent on the menstrual cycle phase, with the ovulatory and early luteal phase being the optimal time for this examination.Keywords: menstrual cycle phase, space occupying lesions, transvaginal sonography

  5. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the concentration of individual carotenoids in lipoproteins of premenopausal women: a controlled dietary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Johnson, E J; Lanza, E; Graubard, B I; Beecher, G R; Muesing, R

    1998-01-01

    Because premenopausal women experience cyclic fluctuations of plasma carotenoids and their lipoprotein carriers, it is hypothesized that carotenoid concentrations in lipoprotein fractions fluctuate by phase of the menstrual cycle. Nine women ate a standard set of carotenoid-rich foods daily for two cycles under isoenergetic conditions. In the second cycle, hormones and carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions were measured in the early and late follicular and luteal phases. alpha-Carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction were lower in the early than in the late follicular phase (P = 0.03) on the basis of regression analysis. beta-carotene concentrations in the LDL fraction and the HDL2 subfraction were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Lutein/zeaxanthin concentrations in the LDL and HDL fractions were higher in the late follicular than in the luteal phase (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively). In each phase, 80% of alpha-carotene, 82% of beta-carotene, 85% of lycopene, and 64% of lutein/zeaxanthin were distributed in the LDL fraction. Among the hydrocarbon cartenoids, 18% of alpha-carotene and of beta-carotene and 13% of lycopene were distributed in the HDL fraction, with slightly more in the HDL2 than in the HDL3 subfraction. In contrast 34% of lutein/zeaxanthin was distributed in the HDL fraction with more concentrated in the HDL3 than in the HDL2 subfraction. Less than 4% of any carotenoid was found in the VLDL + IDL (intermediate-density-lipoprotein) fractions. Thus, the hydrocarbon carotenoids were highly concentrated in the LDL fraction and xanthophyll was more evenly distributed in the LDL and HDL fractions. The cyclic fluctuations of these carotenoids in lipoprotein fractions add another dimension to the understanding of their transport and physiologic function.

  6. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is reviewed under the headings: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase; crystallography; physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase; electronic structure of omega phase; electronic basis for omega phase stability; omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase; conclusion. The following elements of nuclear interest (or their alloys) are included: Zr, Hf, Nb, V, Mo. (U.K.)

  7. The effects of menstrual phase on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, H; Gao, M; Zhu, Y; Liu, H; Zhou, Y; Liao, L; Lai, W

    2017-04-01

    To explore the effects of menstrual cycle on orthodontic pain following initial archwire engagement. Female participants with regular menstrual cycles were recruited and assigned into follicular group or luteal group. Demographical and baseline variables were collected: age, education, menstrual duration, anxiety, oral health impact profile-14 (OHIP-14), and index of complexity outcome and need (ICON). Following initial archwire engagement, orthodontic pain was determined through visual analogue scale (VAS) on 1st day, 2nd day, and 3rd day. Demographical and baseline variables were compared between the two groups. Two-way repeated-measures anova was used to examine the effects of menstrual phase, time, and their interactions on orthodontic pain. Multivariate linear regression was employed to examine the independent effect of each variable on orthodontic pain. Finally, 37 and 39 were assigned to the follicular and luteal groups, respectively, with balanced demographical and baseline data. Orthodontic pain was significantly affected by menstrual phase and time (both P  0.05). Moreover, orthodontic pain was independently predicted by menstrual phase, OHIP, education level, and anxiety (all P < 0.05). We suggest that practitioners arrange female patients to receive initial archwire engagement during their follicular phases to relieve orthodontic pain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase II Trial Investigating the Safety and Immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara Smallpox Vaccine (MVA-BN®) in 56-80-Year-Old Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Richard N; Hay, Christine M; Stapleton, Jack T; Marbury, Thomas C; Wagner, Eva; Kreitmeir, Eva; Röesch, Siegfried; von Krempelhuber, Alfred; Young, Philip; Nichols, Richard; Meyer, Thomas P; Schmidt, Darja; Weigl, Josef; Virgin, Garth; Arndtz-Wiedemann, Nathaly; Chaplin, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® is a live, highly attenuated, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. In this Phase II trial, the safety and immunogenicity of Modified Vaccinia Ankara MVA-BN® (MVA) was assessed in a 56-80 years old population. MVA with a virus titer of 1 x 108 TCID50/dose was administered via subcutaneous injection to 56-80 year old vaccinia-experienced subjects (N = 120). Subjects received either two injections of MVA (MM group) or one injection of Placebo and one injection of MVA (PM group) four weeks apart. Safety was evaluated by assessment of adverse events (AE), focused physical exams, electrocardiogram recordings and safety laboratories. Solicited AEs consisted of a set of pre-defined expected local reactions (erythema, swelling, pain, pruritus, and induration) and systemic symptoms (body temperature, headache, myalgia, nausea and fatigue) and were recorded on a memory aid for an 8-day period following each injection. The immunogenicity of the vaccine was evaluated in terms of humoral immune responses measured with a vaccinia-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) before and at different time points after vaccination. Vaccinations were well tolerated by all subjects. No serious adverse event related to MVA and no case of myopericarditis was reported. The overall incidence of unsolicited AEs was similar in both groups. For both groups immunogenicity responses two weeks after the final vaccination (i.e. Visit 4) were as follows: Seroconversion (SC) rates (doubling of titers from baseline) in vaccine specific antibody titers measured by ELISA were 83.3% in Group MM and 82.8% in Group PM (difference 0.6% with 95% exact CI [-13.8%, 15.0%]), and 90.0% for Group MM and 77.6% for Group PM measured by PRNT (difference 12.4% with 95% CI of [-1.1%, 27.0%]). Geometric mean titers (GMT) measured by ELISA two weeks after the final vaccination for Group

  9. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina; LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study compares in two experiments the responses of lactating dairy cows to four different progesterone-based protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in terms of their effects on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility. The protocols consisted of a progesterone intravaginal device fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I, the data were derived from 232 lactating cows. Binary logistic regression identified no effects of treatment on ovulation failure or multiple ovulation 10 days post artificial insemination (AI). Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of ovulation failure was lower (by a factor of 0.1) in cows showing at least one corpus luteum (CL) upon treatment than in cows lacking a CL; repeat breeders (> 3 AI) and cows with multiple CLs at treatment showed lower (by a factor of 0.44) and higher (by a factor of 9.0) risks of multiple ovulation, respectively, than the remaining animals. In Experiment II, the data were derived from 5173 AIs. The independent variable treatment failed to affect the conception rate 28–34 days post AI, twin pregnancy or early fetal loss 58–64 days post AI. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of 5-day progesterone-based protocols for FTAI. All four protocols examined were able to induce ovulation in both cyclic and non-cyclic animals so that FTAI returned a similar pregnancy rate to spontaneous estrus. Our results suggest that the ovarian response and fertility resulting from each treatment are due more to the effect of ovarian structures at treatment than to the different combinations of hormones investigated. PMID:25196275

  10. Concentrations of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin in the serum as well as comparisons of sensitivity between radioimmunoassays and enzyme assays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase in the presence of carcinomas of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopelius-Feldt, F. von.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between carcinomas of the prostate and the plasma levels of testosterone, luteal hormone and prolactin as well as the possible influence of these neoplasms on the testosterone binding capacity and free testosterone index are investigated for various tumour stages and degrees of histological differentiation, in connection with several forms of local therapy as well as a variety of contrasexual methods. The sensitivity of enzyme assays and radioimmunoassays for the detection of acid prostate phosphatase is evaluated within the framework of this study. (MBL) [de

  11. A Phase IIIb, Multicentre, Randomised, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study to Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of OROS Hydromorphone in Subjects with Moderate-to-Severe Chronic Pain Induced by Osteoarthritis of the Hip or the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Vojtaššák

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Opioid analgesics are included in treatment guidelines for the symptomatic management of osteoarthritis (OA. Starting with a low dose of opioid and slowly titrating to a higher dose may help avoid intolerable side effects. Methods. Subjects aged ≥40 years, with moderate to severe pain induced by OA of the hip or knee not adequately controlled by previous non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or paracetamol treatment, were enrolled. Subjects received OROS hydromorphone 4 mg or placebo once-daily. The dose was titrated every 3-4 days in case of unsatisfactory pain control during the 4-week titration phase. A 12 week maintenance phase followed. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in “pain on average” measured on the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI scale from baseline to the end of the maintenance phase. Results. 139 subjects received OROS hydromorphone and 149 subjects received placebo. All efficacy endpoints showed similar improvements from baseline to end of study in the 2 groups. The safety results were consistent with the safety profile of OROS hydromorphone. Conclusion.The study did not meet the primary endpoint; although many subjects' pain was not adequately controlled at inclusion, their pain may have improved with continued paracetamol or NSAID treatment.

  12. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  13. How to be patient. The ability to wait for a reward depends on menstrual cycle phase and feedback-related activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA plays a major role in reinforcement learning with increases promoting reward sensitivity (Go learning while decreases facilitate the avoidance of negative outcomes (NoGo learning. This is also reflected in adaptations of response time: higher levels of DA enhance speeding up to get a reward, whereas lower levels favor slowing down. The steroid hormones estradiol and progesterone have been shown to modulate dopaminergic tone. Here, we tested fourteen women twice during their menstrual cycle, during the follicular (FP and the luteal phase (LP, applying functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed a feedback learning task. Subsequent behavioral testing assessed response time preferences with a clock task, in which subjects had to explore the optimal response time (RT to maximize reward. In the FP subjects displayed a greater learning-related change of their RT than during the LP, when they were required to slow down. Final RTs in the slow condition were also predicted by feedback-related brain activation, but only in the FP. Increased activation of the inferior frontal junction and rostral cingulate zone was thereby predictive of slower and thus better adapted final RTs. Conversely, final RT was faster and less optimal for reward maximization if activation in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex was enhanced. These findings show that hormonal shifts across the menstrual cycle affect adaptation of response speed during reward acquisition with higher RT adjustment in the FP in the condition that requires slowing down. Since high estradiol levels during the FP increase synaptic DA levels, this conforms well to our hypothesis that estradiol supports Go learning at the expense of NoGo learning. Brain-behavior correlations further indicated that the compensatory capacity to counteract the follicular Go bias may be linked to the ability to more effectively monitor action outcomes and suppress bottom-up reward desiring during

  14. Expression of Progesterone and Androgen Receptors in the Breast of Premenopausal Women, Considering Menstrual Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlén, Mia; Zhang, Hua; Löfgren, Lars; Masironi, Britt; VON Schoultz, Eva; VON Schoultz, B O; Sahlin, Lena

    2018-03-01

    Progesterone and androgens are important for normal development and tumorigenesis of the breast. Breast tissue samples from 49 premenopausal women were obtained. The progesterone receptors (PRA, PRB, PGRMC1 and PGRMC2) and the androgen receptor (AR) were determined in malignant and benign breast tumors and control tissues. The PRB and AR mRNA levels were highest in tumors. PGRMC1 and PGRMC2 mRNA levels were higher in malignant tumors compared to their paired normal tissues. PRA protein showed most immunostaining in benign tumors. PRB immunostaining varied according to menstrual phase. AR immunostaining was highest in the glands of malignant tumors. Progesterone and androgen receptors are differently regulated in tumors compared to normal breast tissues. A malignant breast tumor could appear PR-negative if collected in the luteal phase, but positive in the follicular phase. This finding may have clinical implications. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  16. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  17. An Evaluation of the Correlation between the Free Moments Applied on the Lower Extremity and the Knee Extensor Mechanism Force in Pronated Foot Subjects during the Stance Phase of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yazdani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the rotatory nature of the excessive subtalar pronation and the possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, changes of the free moment (FM and changes of the extensor mechanism force are expected in hyper-pronated foot subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the FM applied on the lower extremity and the knee extensor mechanism force in subjects with flexible pronated feet. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic female subjects (21.32±1.66 y, 56.30±6.08 kg, 159±6.3 cm participated in the study. Excessive subtalar pronation was determined by measuring the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP in the frontal plane during weight bearing. A neutrally aligned foot was defined as having an RCSP between 2° of inversion and 2° of eversion. On the other hand, a flat foot had an RCSP of more than or equal to 4° of eversion. Both kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a six-camera motion analysis system and a single force plate. Three successful barefoot walking trials were recorded at selfselected speeds. The extensor mechanism force and the adductory component of the free moment (ADD FM were calculated. The correlation between the ADD FM and the knee extensor mechanism force was examined using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the ADD FM and the extensor mechanism force (r=0.917, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excessive subtalar pronation, along with a possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, may affect the extensor mechanism force at the knee joint. From a clinical perspective, the possible biomechanical linkage between the knee and the foot complex in the physical examination and treatment of patients should be considered.

  18. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  19. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  20. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  1. Developing connectivity of the phases in a short fibre reinforced aluminium piston alloy subjected to creep; Entwicklung der Konnektivitaet der Phasen in einer kurzfaserverstaerkten Aluminium-Kolbenlegierung unter Kriechbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Requena, G.C.; Degischer, H.P.; Marks, E.D. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/308 - A1040 Vienna (Australia); Boller, E. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)

    2007-11-15

    The evolution of the micro-structure during creep of an AlSi12CuMgNi piston alloy with 15 vol% of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} short fibres is investigated by means of synchrotron micro-tomography. The results reveal a 3D morphology of the rigid phases in the composite: the eutectic-Si, the short fibres and the Fe- and Ni-rich intermetallic particles, which form an interconnected hybrid reinforcement. The connectivity of these phases increases during creep exposure at 300 C due to the diffusion induced ripening of Si and of the intermetallic particles. The hybrid reinforcement reaches almost complete percolation after 6400 h of creep exposure. The fibre orientation analysed by three-dimensional Fast Fourier Transformation does not indicate any reorientation of the fibres along the load direction. The formerly observed strengthening effect during creep exposure is attributed to the increasing load carrying capacity of the interconnected hybrid reinforcement. The analysis of creep damage during secondary creep stage shows the increase of the void volume fraction by a factor of 2 with respect to the void content from processing, while the number of voids per volume remains practically constant. The voids are located at interfaces of the rigid phases and not within the {alpha}-aluminium matrix. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Das drei-dimensionale Gefuege einer AlSi12CuMgNi-Kolbenlegierung verstaerkt mit 15 vol% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Kurzfasern wird mittels Synchrotron Mikro-Tomographie dargestellt. Der loesungsgegluehte Ausgangszustand enthaelt ein zusammenhaengendes Netzwerk aus Kurzfasern und Fe- und Ni-reichen Primaerausscheidungen, das darueber hinaus durch eine Vielzahl von Si-Bruecken des Eutektikums verbunden wird. Die Konnektivitaet nimmt mit der Dauer der Kriechbelastung bei 300 C zu, besonders durch die Reifung der Si-Teilchen, die zu einer in sich zusammenhaengenden Struktur zusammenwachsen, die mit dem bereits vorhandenen Netzwerk mit den

  2. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  3. Efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate in subjects with moderate to very severe COPD: results from a 52-week Phase III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashkin DP

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Donald P Tashkin1, Dennis E Doherty2, Edward Kerwin3, Carlos E Matiz-Bueno4, Barbara Knorr5, Tulin Shekar5, Sibabrata Banerjee5, Heribert Staudinger51David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 2Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 3Clinical Research Institute of Southern Oregon, Medford, OR USA; 4Fundación Salud Bosque, Bogota, Colombia; 5Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ USABackground: A clinical trial of mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate (MF/F administered via a metered-dose inhaler in subjects with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD investigated the efficacy and safety of a fixed-dose combination of MF/F.Methods: This multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial had a 26-week treatment period and a 26-week safety extension. Subjects (n = 1055; ≥40 years were current or ex-smokers randomized to twice-daily treatment with inhaled MF/F 400/10 µg, MF/F 200/10 µg, MF 400 µg, F 10 µg, or placebo. The coprimary endpoints of the trial were mean changes from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 over 0–12 hours (AUC0–12 FEV1 with MF/F versus MF, and in morning predose FEV1 with MF/F versus F. Key secondary endpoints were quality of life (Saint George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], symptom-free nights, and partly stable COPD at 26 weeks, as well as time to first COPD exacerbation.Results: Significant improvements in FEV1 AUC0–12 occurred at endpoint with MF/F 400/10 and MF/F 200/10 versus MF 400 (P ≤ 0.007. Significant bronchodilation occurred in 5 minutes with MF/F, and serial spirometry demonstrated sustained FEV1 improvements with MF/F over the treatment period. Significant improvements in morning predose FEV1 occurred with both MF/F doses, and these effects were further investigated by excluding results for subjects whose morning FEV1 data were collected >2 days after the last

  4. A Phase 1, Single-center, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study in Healthy Subjects to Assess the Safety, Tolerability, Clinical Effects, and Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics of Intravenous Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) after a Single Ascending Bolus Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struys, Michel M R F; Valk, Beatrijs I; Eleveld, Douglas J; Absalom, Anthony R; Meyer, Peter; Meier, Sascha; den Daas, Izaak; Chou, Thomas; van Amsterdam, Kai; Campagna, Jason A; Sweeney, Steven P

    2017-07-01

    Cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (ABP-700) is a new "soft" etomidate analog. The primary objectives of this first-in-human study were to describe the safety and efficacy of ABP-700 and to determine its maximum tolerated dose. Secondary objectives were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of ABP-700 and its primary metabolite (cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonyl acid), to assess the clinical effects of ABP-700, and to investigate the dose-response and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. Sixty subjects were divided into 10 cohorts and received an increasing, single bolus of either ABP-700 or placebo. Safety was assessed by clinical laboratory evaluations, infusion-site reactions, continuous monitoring of vital signs, physical examination, adverse event monitoring, and adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation testing. Clinical effects were assessed with modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index monitoring. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Stopping criteria were met at 1.00 mg/kg dose. No serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events were dose-dependent and comprised involuntary muscle movement, tachycardia, and ventilatory effects. Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation evoked a physiologic cortisol response in all subjects, no different from placebo. Pharmacokinetics were dose-proportional. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model described the data well. A rapid onset of anesthesia/sedation after bolus administration and also a rapid recovery were observed. A quantitative concentration-effect relationship was described for the modified observer's assessment of alertness/sedation and Bispectral Index. This first-in-human study of ABP-700 shows that ABP-700 was safe and well tolerated after single-bolus injections up to 1.00 mg/kg. Bolus doses of 0.25 and 0.35 mg/kg were found to provide the most beneficial clinical effect versus side-effect profile.

  5. Women's preferences for men's beards show no relation to their ovarian cycle phase and sex hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Barnaby J W; Lee, Anthony J; Blake, Khandis R; Jasienska, Grazyna; Marcinkowska, Urszula M

    2018-01-01

    According to the ovulatory shift hypothesis, women's mate preferences for male morphology indicative of competitive ability, social dominance, and/or underlying health are strongest at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle. However, recent meta-analyses are divided on the robustness of such effects and the validity of the often-used indirect estimates of fertility and ovulation has been called into question in methodological studies. In the current study, we test whether women's preferences for men's beardedness, a cue of male sexual maturity, androgenic development and social dominance, are stronger at the peri-ovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle compared to during the early follicular or the luteal phase. We also tested whether levels of estradiol, progesterone, and the estradiol to progesterone ratio at each phase were associated with facial hair preferences. Fifty-two heterosexual women completed a two-alternative forced choice preference test for clean-shaven and bearded male faces during the follicular, peri-ovulatory (validated by the surge in luteinizing hormone or the drop in estradiol levels) and luteal phases. Participants also provided for one entire menstrual cycle daily saliva samples for subsequent assaying of estradiol and progesterone. Results showed an overall preference for bearded over clean-shaven faces at each phase of the menstrual cycle. However, preferences for facial hair were not significantly different over the phases of menstrual cycle and were not significantly associated with levels of reproductive hormones. We conclude that women's preferences for men's beardedness may not be related to changes in their likelihood of conception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  7. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  8. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  9. Impact of menstrual cycle phase on endocrine effects of partial sleep restriction in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoux, Amanda; Wright, Lisa; Perrot, Tara; Rusak, Benjamin

    2014-11-01

    There is extensive evidence that sleep restriction alters endocrine function in healthy young men, increasing afternoon cortisol levels and modifying levels of other hormones that regulate metabolism. Recent studies have confirmed these effects in young women, but have not investigated whether menstrual cycle phase influences these responses. The effects on cortisol levels of limiting sleep to 3h for one night were assessed in two groups of women at different points in their menstrual cycles: mid-follicular and mid-luteal. Eighteen healthy, young women, not taking oral contraceptives (age: 21.8±0.53; BMI: 22.5±0.58 [mean±SEM]), were studied. Baseline sleep durations, eating habits and menstrual cycles were monitored. Salivary samples were collected at six times of day (08:00, 08:30, 11:00, 14:00, 17:00, 20:00) during two consecutive days: first after a 10h overnight sleep opportunity (Baseline) and then after a night with a 3h sleep opportunity (Post-sleep restriction). All were awakened at the same time of day. Women in the follicular phase showed a significant decrease (p=0.004) in their cortisol awakening responses (CAR) after sleep restriction and a sustained elevation in afternoon/evening cortisol levels (p=0.008), as has been reported for men. Women in the luteal phase showed neither a depressed CAR, nor an increase in afternoon/evening cortisol levels. Secondary analyses examined the impact of sleep restriction on self-reported hunger and mood. Menstrual cycle phase dramatically altered the cortisol responses of healthy, young women to a single night of sleep restriction, implicating effects of spontaneous changes in endocrine status on adrenal responses to sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WISE-2005: Changes in cardiovascular variables due to increasing levels of adrenergic stimulation in women according to phase of menstruation. H. Edgell, D. Greaves, P. Arbeille, M-A. Custaud, R.L. Hughson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; Greaves, Danielle; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Arbeille, Phillipe; Hughson, Richard L.

    those in luteal phase, especially in light of data from Waters et al. (JAP 92(2):586-94; 2002) which indicate that subjects with lower tolerance had smaller increases of NE. These results are important to consider for all studies involving women. Funding provided by the CSA, NASA, ESA, and CNES.

  11. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  12. A phase I study evaluating the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of an antibody-based tissue factor antagonist in subjects with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Peter E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tissue factor (TF-dependent extrinsic pathway has been suggested to be a central mechanism by which the coagulation cascade is locally activated in the lungs of patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS and thus represents an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. This study was designed to determine the pharmacokinetic and safety profiles of ALT-836, an anti-TF antibody, in patients with ALI/ARDS. Methods This was a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation Phase I clinical trial in adult patients who had suspected or proven infection, were receiving mechanical ventilation and had ALI/ARDS (PaO2/FiO2 ≤ 300 mm. Eighteen patients (6 per cohort were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive ALT-836 or placebo, and were treated within 48 hours after meeting screening criteria. Cohorts of patients were administered a single intravenously dose of 0.06, 0.08 or 0.1 mg/kg ALT-836 or placebo. Blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic and immunogenicity measurements. Safety was assessed by adverse events, vital signs, ECGs, laboratory, coagulation and pulmonary function parameters. Results Pharmacokinetic analysis showed a dose dependent exposure to ALT-836 across the infusion range of 0.06 to 0.1 mg/kg. No anti-ALT-836 antibody response was observed in the study population during the trial. No major bleeding episodes were reported in the ALT-836 treated patients. The most frequent adverse events were anemia, observed in both placebo and ALT-836 treated patients, and ALT-836 dose dependent, self-resolved hematuria, which suggested 0.08 mg/kg as an acceptable dose level of ALT-836 in this patient population. Conclusions Overall, this study showed that ALT-836 could be safely administered to patients with sepsis-induced ALI/ARDS. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01438853

  13. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  14. First-in-human phase I study of ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, in subjects with open-angle glaucoma undergoing glaucoma filtration surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Pfeiffer

    Full Text Available To evaluate the safety and tolerability of intravitreal ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG undergoing trabeculectomy (TE; glaucoma filtration surgery.In this prospective phase I trial glaucoma patients scheduled for TE with mitomycin C (MMC received a single intravitreal injection of ISTH0036 at the end of surgery in escalating total doses of 6.75 μg, 22.5 μg, 67.5 μg or 225 μg, resulting in calculated intraocular ISTH0036 concentrations in the vitreous humor of approximately 0.3 μM, 1 μM, 3 μM or 10 μM after injection, respectively. Outcomes assessed included: type and frequency of adverse events (AEs, intraocular pressure (IOP, numbers of interventions post trabeculectomy, bleb survival, visual acuity, visual field, electroretinogram (ERG, slit lamp biomicroscopy and optic disc assessment.In total, 12 patients were treated in the 4 dose groups. Main ocular AEs observed were corneal erosion, corneal epithelium defect, or too high or too low IOP, among others. No AE was reported to be related to ISTH0036. All other safety-related analyses did not reveal any toxicities of concern, either. The mean medicated preoperative IOP at decision time-point for surgery was 27.3 mmHg +/- 12.6 mmHg (SD. Mean IOP (±SD for dose levels 1, 2, 3, and 4 were at Day 43 9.8 mmHg ± 1.0 mmHg, 11.3 mmHg ± 6.7 mmHg, 5.5 mmHg ± 3.0 mmHg and 7.5 mmHg ± 2.3 mmHg SD; and at Day 85 9.7 mmHg ± 3.3 mmHg, 14.2 mmHg ± 6.5 mmHg, 5.8 mmHg ± 1.8 mmHg and 7.8 mmHg ± 0.6 mmHg, respectively. In contrast to IOP values for dose levels 1 and 2, IOP values for dose levels 3 and 4 persistently remained below 10 mmHg throughout the observation period.This first-in-human trial demonstrates that intravitreal injection of ISTH0036 at the end of TE is safe. Regarding IOP control, single-dose ISTH0036 administration of 67.5 μg or 225 μg at the time of TE

  15. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  16. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  17. Omega phase in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, S.K.; Vohra, Y.K.; Chidambaram, R.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: introduction; occurrence and some systematics of omega phase (omega phase in Ti, Zr and Hf under high pressures; omega phase in Group IV transition metal alloys; omega in other systems; omega embryos at high temperatures); crystallography (omega structure; relationship of ω-structure to bcc (β) and hcp (α) structures); physical properties; kinetics of formation, synthesis and metastability of omega phase (kinetics of α-ω transformation under high pressures; kinetics of β-ω transformation; synthesis and metastability studies); electronic structure of omega phase (electronic structure models; band structure calculations; theoretical results and experimental studies); electronic basis for omega phase stability (unified phase diagram; stability of omega phase); omega phase formation under combined thermal and pressure treatment in alloys (Ti-V alloys under pressure - a prototype case study; P-X phase diagrams for alloys; transformation mechanisms and models for diffuse omega phase (is omega structure a charge density distortion of the bcc phase; nature of incommensurate ω-structure and models for diffuse scattering); conclusion. (U.K.)

  18. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  19. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  20. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  1. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary

  2. Effects of ACTH on corticosteroid and progesterone levels in female baboons depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todua, T.N.; Goncharov, N.P.; Katsiya, G.V.; Lapin, B.A.; Vorontsov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effect of ACTH on the endocrine function of steroid producing glands depending on the level of sex hormones in the body, a comparative study of the dynamics of steroid hormones in the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in response to a standard does of ACTH was undertaken in experiments on hamadryad baboons. Concentrations of corticosterone, 11-deoxycortisol, and progesterone were determined in duplicate samples of plasma by radioimmunoassay. It is shown that the sensitivity of the adrenals to a single injection of ACTH is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and the inhibitory effects of ACTH on progesterone secretion is exhibited only in the presence of an actively functioning corpus luteus of the ovary.

  3. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  4. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  5. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2011-08-01

    This study was a cephalometric evaluation of the growth changes in untreated subjects with deepbite at 4 time points during their developmental ages (from the early mixed dentition to the permanent dentition, and from the prepubertal phase to young adulthood). A sample of 29 subjects with deepbite (overbite >4.5 mm) was followed longitudinally from about 9 through about 18 years of age. Dentofacial changes at 4 times, defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on lateral cephalograms. Nonparametric statistical analysis was used for comparisons. Overbite improved on average by 1.3 mm between the first and last measurements; it worsened significantly during the prepubertal period, but it improved significantly at the pubertal growth spurt. From the prepubertal ages through young adulthood, overbite improved in 83% of the subjects and self-corrected in 62% of the subjects. Improvements in overbite were related to the initial amount of maxillary incisor proclination. The significant improvement in overbite during the adolescent growth spurt depended on the amount of vertical growth of the mandibular ramus and the eruption of the mandibular molars. Subjects with deepbite showed worsened occlusal conditions during the prepubertal and mixed dentition phases, but had significant improvements thereafter. Improvements in overbite cannot be predicted on the basis of skeletal vertical relationships. These results provide useful indications for appropriate orthodontic treatment timing for an increased overbite. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Nouvelle approche pour le suivi de la réactivité de phases SiO2 soumises à la Réaction Alcali Silice (RAS New approach for monitoring the reactivity of SiO2 phases subject to Alkali Silica Reaction (SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harfouche M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Nous avons suivi- au moyen de la microscopie électronique à balayage environnementale (MEBE la diffraction X et la spectroscopie d’absorption des rayons X sous rayonnement synchrotron (XANES- la réactivité de certaines phases SiO2 lors du processus de la Réaction Alcali Silice (RAS. Cette réactivité est étroitement liée à la structure locale autour des atomes de silicium ainsi qu’à la présence d’impuretés comme le fer. Dans le cas du silex brut, la raie blanche du seuil K du fer ressemble davantage à celle de Fe3O4 ce qui permet de déduire la présence d’un mélange de Fe2+/Fe3+ dans le silex de départ. Après réaction, l’allure du spectre d’absorption des rayons X au seuil K du fer du silex est conservée avec un léger déplacement de la raie blanche vers les hautes énergies. Cette augmentation montre une prédominance de la valence Fe3+ au détriment de la valence Fe2+. Les résultats montrent que le fer participe à la stabilisation de la structure des phases formées. Cette étude peut être étendue à d’autres éléments traces présents dans la structure du silex de départ. In this study the reactivity of some SiO2 phases under Alkali Silica Reaction (RAS process is followed, using the environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy X-ray synchrotron radiation (XANES. This reactivity is closely related to the local structure around the silicon atoms and the presence of impurities such as iron. In the case of flint raw skate white iron K line is more like that of Fe3O4 which allows to deduce the presence of a mixture of Fe2+ / Fe3+ in the flint to start. After reaction, the shape of the spectrum of X-ray absorption K edge of iron in the flint is retained with a slight displacement of the white stripe to high energies. This increase shows a predominance of the valence Fe3+ at the expense of Fe2+ valence. The results show that iron is involved in stabilizing the

  7. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  8. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  9. Serum Thyrotropin and Phase of the Menstrual Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Benvenga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available About one-fifth of patients treated with levothyroxine have serum thyrotropin (TSH above target concentrations but, in approximately 15% of them, the cause of this TSH insufficient normalization remains unknown. We report the cases of two regularly menstruating women with known thyroid disease who had TSH levels consistently >3 mU/L (and sometimes above target levels during mid-cycle, but consistently lower serum levels during the follicular and luteal phases of menstrual cycle. A major TSH release by the thyrotrophs in response to high circulating levels of estradiol (E2 at mid-cycle may increase levels of TSH compared to other phases of the cycle. The increased TSH can be misinterpreted as refractory hypothyroidism if the woman is under L-T4 replacement therapy or as subclinical hypothyroidism if the woman is not. Our findings might have important implications for diagnosis and management of thyroid disease, suggesting to request serum TSH measurements outside of the periovulatory days.

  10. Endometrial gene expression in the early luteal phase is impacted by mode of triggering final oocyte maturation in recFSH stimulated and GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humaidan, P; Van Vaerenbergh, I; Bourgain, C

    2012-01-01

    pregnancy rates similar to those seen after hCG triggering. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE DURATION: A prospective randomized study was performed in four oocyte donors recruited from an oocyte donation program during the period 2010-2011. PARTICIPANTS, MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Four oocyte donors in a university IVF...

  11. Anisotropies of in-phase, out-of-phase,\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Chadima, Martin; Ježek, J.; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 62 (2018) ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 ; RVO:67985831 Keywords : anisotropy * out-of-phase susceptibility * frequency-dependent susceptibility Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016

  12. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  13. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  14. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  15. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  16. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1987-01-01

    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  17. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  18. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  19. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  20. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  1. Resting state alpha frequency is associated with menstrual cycle phase, estradiol and use of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brötzner, Christina P; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Doppelmayr, Michael; Zauner, Andrea; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-08-19

    Ongoing intrinsic brain activity in resting, but awake humans is dominated by alpha oscillations. In human, individual alpha frequency (IAF) is associated with cognitive performance. Noticeable, performance in cognitive and emotional tasks in women is associated with menstrual cycle phase and sex hormone levels, respectively. In the present study, we correlated frequency of alpha oscillation in resting women with menstrual cycle phase, sex hormone level, or use of oral contraceptives. Electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 57 women (aged 24.07 ± 3.67 years) having a natural menstrual cycle as well as from 57 women (aged 22.37 ± 2.20 years) using oral contraceptives while they sat in an armchair with eyes closed. Alpha frequency was related to the menstrual cycle phase. Luteal women showed highest and late follicular women showed lowest IAF or center frequency. Furthermore, IAF as well as center frequency correlated negatively with endogenous estradiol level, but did not reveal an association with endogenous progesterone. Women using oral contraceptives showed an alpha frequency similar to women in the early follicular phase. We suggest that endogenous estradiol modulate resting alpha frequency. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  3. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  4. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  5. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  6. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  7. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  8. Fluctuating serotonergic function in premenstrual dysphoric disorder and premenstrual syndrome: findings from neuroendocrine challenge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Y; Terao, T; Iwata, N; Okamoto, K; Kojima, H; Okamoto, T; Yoshimura, R; Nakamura, J

    2007-02-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) has been assumed to be a subtype of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) with depressive symptoms, such as depressive mood, tension, anxiety, and mood liability during luteal phase. At present, no conclusion has been established about serotonergic function in PMDD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the serotonergic function of PMDD subjects in comparison to PMS without PMDD subjects and normal controls via neuroendocrine challenge tests. Twenty-four women (seven with PMDD, eight with PMS without PMDD, and nine normal controls) were tested on three occasions (follicular phase, early luteal phase, and late luteal phase) receiving paroxetine 20 mg orally as a serotonergic probe at 8:00 A: .M: . Plasma ACTH and cortisol were measured prior to the administration and every hour for 6 h thereafter. As a whole, there were significant differences in serotonergic function measured by ACTH and cortisol responses to paroxetine challenge across these three groups. PMDD subjects showed higher serotonergic function in follicular phase but lower serotonergic function in luteal phase, compared with women with PMS without PMDD and normal controls. The present findings suggest that PMDD women have fluctuating serotonergic function across their menstrual cycles and that the pattern may be different from PMS without PMDD.

  9. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1993-01-01

    that liquid lag phase (min) and was significantly shorter in Phase II than in Phase I (1 vs. 4, P = 0.007). The half emptying time of solid linear phase (min) was reproduced with nearly identical median and range values in the three series (I[1]: 67[51-87]; I[2]: 63[47-80]; 61[47-76]). With meal ingestion......This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...... characteristics of the migrating motor complex. We examined 12 healthy males, and the design included three examinations, twice with meal ingestion in a duodenal Phase I, and once in a Phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with 99mTc followed by 150 ml water labelled with 111In. The results showed...

  10. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  11. Phase field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, B.; Gorti, S.B.; Clarno, K.; Tonks, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the phase-field method and its application to microstructure evolution in reactor fuel and clad are discussed. The examples highlight the capability of the phase-field method to capture evolution processes that are influenced by both thermal and elastic stress fields that are caused by microstructural changes in the solid-state. The challenges that need to be overcome before the technique can become predictive and material-specific are discussed. (authors)

  12. Preeclampsia-Associated Hormonal Profiles and Reduced Breast Cancer Risk Among Older Mothers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laudenslager, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... to cases on race/ethnicity, current age, age at delivery, and breast-feeding status. A fasting blood and saliva sample was collected from each subject during the luteal phase (day 19-22) of the menstrual cycle and assayed for specific steroid and peptide hormones thought to be linked to breast cancer.

  13. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  14. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  15. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  16. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  17. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  18. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  19. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  20. Phase equilibria basic principles, applications, experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Reisman, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Phase Equilibria: Basic Principles, Applications, Experimental Techniques presents an analytical treatment in the study of the theories and principles of phase equilibria. The book is organized to afford a deep and thorough understanding of such subjects as the method of species model systems; condensed phase-vapor phase equilibria and vapor transport reactions; zone refining techniques; and nonstoichiometry. Physicists, physical chemists, engineers, and materials scientists will find the book a good reference material.

  1. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Weak Subjectivity, Trans-Subjectivity and the Power of Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2010), s. 391-406 ISSN 1387-2842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heidegger * Nietschean model of thought Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  3. Phase Vocoder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Flanagan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vocoder technique is described in which speech signals are represented by their short-time phase and amplitude spectra. A complete transmission system utilizing this approach is simulated on a digital computer. The encoding method leads to an economy in transmission bandwidth and to a means for time compression and expansion of speech signals.

  4. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  5. Subjective figures and texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, S W; Cavanagh, P

    1985-01-01

    A texture discrimination task using the Ehrenstein illusion demonstrates that subjective brightness effects can play an essential role in early vision. The subjectively bright regions of the Ehrenstein can be organized either as discs or as stripes, depending on orientation. The accuracy of discrimination between variants of the Ehrenstein and control patterns was a direct function of the presence of the illusory brightness stripes, being high when they were present and low otherwise. It is argued that neither receptive field structure nor spatial-frequency content can adequately account for these results. We suggest that the subjective brightness illusions, rather than being a high-level, cognitive aspect of vision, are in fact the result of an early visual process.

  6. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  7. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U.

    2007-01-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  8. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  9. Subjective effects of cannabis before the first psychotic episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Koning, Pelle; Dingemans, Peter; Becker, Hiske; Linszen, Don H.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the positive and negative effects of cannabis in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and in the ultrahigh-risk (UHR) state for psychosis. Method: A theory-driven questionnaire was used to examine subjective effects in the

  10. Masticatory Efficiency of Shortened Dental Arch Subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... of shortened dental arch subjects with removable partial denture: A comparative ... at the post- and pre-treatment phases was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The .... after the delivery of metal-based RPD with the denture in.

  11. Monitoring the postpartum ovarian activity of Luxi cattle by use of plasma progesterone solid phase RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; Wang Jianchen; Liu Zhixi; Wu Hao; Zhang Dequn

    1992-01-01

    The blood samples were collected from 22 Luxi cattle, aged 2.5-8 years, from calving day (day 0) to 80 days postpartum at 4-day interval. Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in plasma were determined by solid phase RIA. The results are summarized as follows: P 4 levels in plasma of the cows remained at 0.34 +- 0.04-0.55 +- 0.06 ng/ml before 10.6 +- 3.9-13.6 +- 4.4 days postpartum, then they began to rise and the ovarian activity appeared. The plasma P 4 profiles of the cows can be classified into 4 types, characterized by (I) 3 normal cycles; (II) a short cycle followed by 2 normal cycles; (III) a normal cycle followed by a short cycle and a normal cycle; and (IV) some irregular cycles respectively. The lowest and the highest P 4 levels were 0.45 +- 0.15-0.60 +- 0.38 and 2.65 +- 1.95-4.17 +- 2.35 ng/ml respectively in luteal cycles. It is also concluded that determining plasma P 4 concentrations at 4-day interval can precisely identify the oestrus cycles of cows, and that the solid phase P 4 -RIA have practical value for determination of plasma P 4 concentration

  12. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. Abel's summation formula. Analogues of Euler and Poisson summa- tion formulae. 213 ... theorems of Wiener and Lévy on absolutely convergent Fourier series. 179. Brownian motion. Probabilistic representations of solutions to the heat equation. 321. Cesáro matrix. Necessary and sufficient conditions for.

  13. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  14. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  15. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  16. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  17. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  18. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  19. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  20. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  1. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  2. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  3. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  4. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  5. Features of natural and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-induced corpus luteum regression and effects of in vivo human chorionic gonadotropin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Canto, Felipe; Sierralta, Walter; Kohen, Paulina; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2007-11-01

    The natural process of luteolysis and luteal regression is induced by withdrawal of gonadotropin support. The objectives of this study were: 1) to compare the functional changes and apoptotic features of natural human luteal regression and induced luteal regression; 2) to define the ultrastructural characteristics of the corpus luteum at the time of natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression; and 3) to examine the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on the steroidogenic response and apoptotic markers within the regressing corpus luteum. Twenty-three women with normal menstrual cycles undergoing tubal ligation donated corpus luteum at specific stages in the luteal phase. Some women received a GnRH antagonist prior to collection of corpus luteum, others received an injection of hCG with or without prior treatment with a GnRH antagonist. Main outcome measures were plasma hormone levels and analysis of excised luteal tissue for markers of apoptosis, histology, and ultrastructure. The progesterone and estradiol levels, corpus luteum DNA, and protein contents in induced luteal regression resembled those of natural luteal regression. hCG treatment raised progesterone and estradiol in both natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression. The increase in apoptosis detected in induced luteal regression by cytochrome c in the cytosol, activated caspase-3, and nuclear DNA fragmentation, was similar to that observed in natural luteal regression. The antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 was significantly lower during natural luteal regression. The proapoptotic proteins Bax and Bak were at a constant level. Apoptotic and nonapoptotic death of luteal cells was observed in natural luteal regression and induced luteal regression at the ultrastructural level. hCG prevented apoptotic cell death, but not autophagy. The low number of apoptotic cells disclosed and the frequent autophagocytic suggest that multiple mechanisms are involved in cell death at luteal

  6. The relationship between phase and heart rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Walton, S.; Brown, N.J.G.; Laming, P.J.; Ell, P.J.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    The Fourier phase image is used in rest and stress radionuclide angiocardiography to assess the timing of ventricular wall motion in a regional fashion, and areas of high phase are taken to reprensent areas of delayed contraction. However, phase increases with heart rate and this can make interpretation difficult. This study investigates the relationship between phase and heart rate. A heterogenous group of 43 subjects was studied by ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide angiocardiography, all of the subjects having normal extent of left ventricular wall motion as judged by normal ejection fraction and normal amplitude image. Mean left ventricular phase correlated well with mean time of end systole (r=0.92), but there was no correlation with time of end diastole.Thus phase reflects the time of end systole as a proportion of cycle length and should be linearly related to heart rate provided the duration of systole is unchanged. In 28 normal subjects mean left ventricular phase correlated linearly with resting rate (r=0.91), and when exercised the relationship was maintained up to 90 beats per minute. Above this rate the increases were less marked as the duration of systole shortened. The same was true in 4 subjects paced at different rates. Mean resting heart rate in the normal subjects was 70 beats per minute and correcting phase linearly to rate 70 did not change mean left ventricular phase but did decrease the standard deviation from 18 degree to 12 degree. It is concluded that correcting phase for heart rate below 90 beats per minute will increase the sensitivity of the phase image to abnormalities of the timing of ventricular contraction. This correction should be appropriate in resting, isometric exercise, and cold pressor studies but because of the higher heart rates involved will not be appropriate for bicycle exercise. (Author)

  7. Vision as subjective perception; La vision, une perception subjective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-07-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).

  8. Modern theories of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaraman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Modern applications of the ideas of phase transitions to nuclear systems and the modern techniques as applied to familiar phase transitions in solid-state physics are discussed with illustrations. The phenomenon of pion condensation in nuclei and neutron stars, is presented as an example of phase transitions in nuclear systems. The central physical ideas behind this subject as well as techniques used to tackle it are broadly summarised. It is pointed out that unlike familiar examples of ferromagnetism or superconductivity, the order parameter here has spatial variation even in the ground state. Possible experimental consequences are discussed. As an example of the second category, the use of renormalisation group techniques in solid state physics is reviewed. The basic idea behind the renormalisation group in the infra-red (thermodynamic) limit is presented. The observed universality and scaling of critical exponents in second order phase transitions is explained in a model-independent way. (auth.)

  9. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  10. Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-06-01

    Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. RENAL INVOLVEMENT IN SUBJECTS WITH PERIPHERAL ATHEROSCLEROSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FAWZY, A.; IBRAHIM, S.

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic nephropathy is an important cause of renal failure.Sub-clinical renal function abnormalities may exist in patients with extra renal atherosclerosis and may precede the onset of overt ischemic nephropathy. To assess the impact of extrarenal atherosclerosis on the kidney, the study evaluated renal function in 50 subjects with differing degrees of peripheral atherosclerosis without manifest clinical or laboratory signs of ischemic nephropathy and renovascular hypertension.All laboratory testing including total LDL and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, ultrasonography with Doppler analysis for the localization of peripheral vascular disease (carotid and lower limb arteries), and non-invasive evaluation of renal function by radionuclide studies of renal plasma flow (MAG3 clearance) and glomerular filtration (DTPA clearance) were determined as well as smoking habit was recorded. By combining sonographic data on arterial tree stenosis (ATS), the subjects were grouped according to the atherosclerotic vascular damage (ATS involvement). The results showed no change in plasma creatinine while DTPA clearance was increased from 91.58±26.53 to 93.47±24.82 ml/min/1.73 m. MAG3 clearance was progressively declined with the severity of vascular damage from 244.86 ± 60.60 to 173.59±58.74 ml/min/1.73 m.Stepwise, multiple regression analysis indicated that MAG3 clearance was best explained by ATS involvement (standardized B coefficient -0.40; P< 0.001), smoking habit (-0.34;P=0.004) and serum LDL-cholesterol (-0.24; P<0.035).It could be concluded that the renal hemodynamic profile in atherosclerotic patients might constitute functional evidence of the silent phase of ischemic renal disease. The findings suggest that renal function should be carefully assessed in patients with extrarenal atherosclerosis, particularly in those with classic cardiovascular risk factors

  12. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  13. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  14. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  15. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...evidence of -7- Korsakoff’s syndrome and the presence or absence of 2,3-butanediol. There was, however, a suggestive correlation with independently...Gamma GT 193, SGPT 29 b 0 0.023 0.05 51a F.B. 22 M 28 0.029 0.14 b 0 ɘ.01 0.12 77 J.N.S. 52 M 0 0.027 0.11 57 JJ.S 45 m 4. 0.25 .35 Korsakoff ’s

  16. Clinical trials. A pending subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Extremera, B; Jiménez-López, P; Mediavilla-García, J D

    2018-04-01

    Clinical trials are essential tools for the progress of clinical medicine in its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Since the first trial in 1948, which related tobacco use with lung cancer, there have been more than 150,000 clinical trials to date in various areas (paediatrics, cardiology, oncology, endocrinology, etc.). This article highlights the importance for all physicians to participate, over the course of their professional career, in a clinical trial, due to the inherent benefits for patients, the progress of medicine and for curricular prestige. The authors have created a synthesis of their experience with clinical trials on hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and ischaemic heart disease over the course of almost 3 decades. Furthermore, a brief reference has been made to the characteristics of a phase I unit, as well as to a number of research studies currently underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Subjective social status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.

  18. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  19. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  20. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  1. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The controversy as regards the introduction of nuclear energy to the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany has not subdued yet. However, the discussion has shifted from technical questions more to the field of political argumentation. In addition, questions concerning the back end cycle have come to the fore. The report at hand deals with the topical subjects of fuel reprocessing, ultimate storage of radioactive wastes, the impact of power plants in general and nuclear power plants in particular on the climate, safety and safeguard questions concerning nuclear facilities and fissionable materials, and with the properties and possibilities of plutonium. The authors tried to present technical know-how in an easy comprehensible way. Literature references enable the checking of facts and provide the possibility to deal in more detail with the matter. The seminar report is to give all those interested the opportunity to acquaint themselves with facts and know-how and to acquire knowledge on which to base a personal opinion. (orig.) [de

  2. Core Outcome Domains for early phase clinical trials of sound-, psychology-, and pharmacology-based interventions to manage chronic subjective tinnitus in adults: the COMIT'ID study protocol for using a Delphi process and face-to-face meetings to establish consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Smith, Harriet; Colley, Veronica; Thacker, Brian; Horobin, Adele; Haider, Haúla F; Londero, Alain; Mazurek, Birgit; Hall, Deborah A

    2017-08-23

    The reporting of outcomes in clinical trials of subjective tinnitus indicates that many different tinnitus-related complaints are of interest to investigators, from perceptual attributes of the sound (e.g. loudness) to psychosocial impacts (e.g. quality of life). Even when considering one type of intervention strategy for subjective tinnitus, there is no agreement about what is critically important for deciding whether a treatment is effective. The main purpose of this observational study is, therefore to, develop Core Outcome Domain Sets for the three different intervention strategies (sound, psychological, and pharmacological) for adults with chronic subjective tinnitus that should be measured and reported in every clinical trial of these interventions. Secondary objectives are to identify the strengths and limitations of our study design for recruiting and reducing attrition of participants, and to explore uptake of the core outcomes. The 'Core Outcome Measures in Tinnitus: International Delphi' (COMIT'ID) study will use a mixed-methods approach that incorporates input from health care users at the pre-Delphi stage, a modified three-round Delphi survey and final consensus meetings (one for each intervention). The meetings will generate recommendations by stakeholder representatives on agreed Core Outcome Domain Sets specific to each intervention. A subsequent step will establish a common cross-cutting Core Outcome Domain Set by identifying the common outcome domains included in all three intervention-specific Core Outcome Domain Sets. To address the secondary objectives, we will gather feedback from participants about their experience of taking part in the Delphi process. We aspire to conduct an observational cohort study to evaluate uptake of the core outcomes in published studies at 7 years following Core Outcome Set publication. The COMIT'ID study aims to develop a Core Outcome Domain Set that is agreed as critically important for deciding whether a

  3. Computer task performance by subjects with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, Silvia Regina Pinheiro; da Silva, Talita Dias; Favero, Francis Meire; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Fregni, Felipe; Ribeiro, Denise Cardoso; de Mello Monteiro, Carlos Bandeira

    2016-01-01

    Two specific objectives were established to quantify computer task performance among people with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). First, we compared simple computational task performance between subjects with DMD and age-matched typically developing (TD) subjects. Second, we examined correlations between the ability of subjects with DMD to learn the computational task and their motor functionality, age, and initial task performance. The study included 84 individuals (42 with DMD, mean age of 18±5.5 years, and 42 age-matched controls). They executed a computer maze task; all participants performed the acquisition (20 attempts) and retention (five attempts) phases, repeating the same maze. A different maze was used to verify transfer performance (five attempts). The Motor Function Measure Scale was applied, and the results were compared with maze task performance. In the acquisition phase, a significant decrease was found in movement time (MT) between the first and last acquisition block, but only for the DMD group. For the DMD group, MT during transfer was shorter than during the first acquisition block, indicating improvement from the first acquisition block to transfer. In addition, the TD group showed shorter MT than the DMD group across the study. DMD participants improved their performance after practicing a computational task; however, the difference in MT was present in all attempts among DMD and control subjects. Computational task improvement was positively influenced by the initial performance of individuals with DMD. In turn, the initial performance was influenced by their distal functionality but not their age or overall functionality.

  4. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  5. Synchronization of muscular oscillations between two subjects during isometric interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura V. Schaefer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscles oscillate with a frequency around 10 Hz. But what happens with myofascial oscillations, if two neuromuscular systems interact? The purpose of this study was to examine this question, initially, on the basis of a case study. Oscillations of the triceps brachii muscles of two subjects were determined through mechanomyography (MMG during isometric interaction. The MMG-signals were analyzed concerning the interaction of the two subjects with algorithms of nonlinear dynamics. In this case study it could be shown, that the muscles of both neuromuscular systems also oscillate with the known frequency (here 12 Hz during interaction. Furthermore, both subjects were able to adapt their oscillations against each other. This adjustment induced a significant ( < .05 coherent behavior, which was characterized by a phase shifting of approximately 90°. The authors draw the conclusion, that the complementary neuromuscular partners potentially have the ability of mutual synchronization.

  6. 47 CFR 22.960 - Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular unserved area radiotelephone licenses... (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.960 Cellular... applications for cellular unserved area Phase I and Phase II licenses filed after July 26, 1993 are subject to...

  7. The Acquisition of Subject-Verb Agreement in Written French: From Novices to Experts' Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel; Largy, Pierre; Hupet, Michel

    1999-01-01

    Aims at demonstrating the gradual automatization of subject-verb agreement operation in young writers by examining developmental changes in the occurrence of agreement errors. Finds that subjects' performance moved from systematic errors to attraction errors through an intermediate phase. Concludes that attraction errors are a byproduct of the…

  8. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  9. Spectral Weighting Functions for Single-symbol Phase-noise Specifications in OFDM Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Schiphorst, Roelof; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2003-01-01

    For the specification of phase-noise requirements for the front-end of a HiperLAN/2 system we investigated available literature on the subject. Literature differed in several aspects. One aspect is in the type of phase-noise used (Wiener phase-noise or small-angle phase noise). A Wiener phase-noise

  10. Quantum Optics in Phase Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2001-04-01

    Quantum Optics in Phase Space provides a concise introduction to the rapidly moving field of quantum optics from the point of view of phase space. Modern in style and didactically skillful, Quantum Optics in Phase Space prepares students for their own research by presenting detailed derivations, many illustrations and a large set of workable problems at the end of each chapter. Often, the theoretical treatments are accompanied by the corresponding experiments. An exhaustive list of references provides a guide to the literature. Quantum Optics in Phase Space also serves advanced researchers as a comprehensive reference book. Starting with an extensive review of the experiments that define quantum optics and a brief summary of the foundations of quantum mechanics the author Wolfgang P. Schleich illustrates the properties of quantum states with the help of the Wigner phase space distribution function. His description of waves ala WKB connects semi-classical phase space with the Berry phase. These semi-classical techniques provide deeper insight into the timely topics of wave packet dynamics, fractional revivals and the Talbot effect. Whereas the first half of the book deals with mechanical oscillators such as ions in a trap or atoms in a standing wave the second half addresses problems where the quantization of the radiation field is of importance. Such topics extensively discussed include optical interferometry, the atom-field interaction, quantum state preparation and measurement, entanglement, decoherence, the one-atom maser and atom optics in quantized light fields. Quantum Optics in Phase Space presents the subject of quantum optics as transparently as possible. Giving wide-ranging references, it enables students to study and solve problems with modern scientific literature. The result is a remarkably concise yet comprehensive and accessible text- and reference book - an inspiring source of information and insight for students, teachers and researchers alike.

  11. Magnetic Vestibular Stimulation in Subjects with Unilateral Labyrinthine Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kevin Ward

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently discovered that static magnetic fields from high-strength MRI machines induce nystagmus in all normal humans, and that a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD Lorentz force, derived from ionic currents in the endolymph and pushing on the cupula, best explains this effect. Individuals with no labyrinthine function have no nystagmus. The influence of magnetic vestibular stimulation (MVS in individuals with unilateral loss of labyrinthine function is unknown and may provide insight into mechanism of MVS. These individuals should experience MVS, but with differences consistent with their residual labyrinthine function. We recorded eye movements in the static magnetic field of a 7T MRI machine in nine individuals with unilateral labyrinthine hypofunction, as determined by head impulse testing and vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP. Eye movements were recorded using infrared videooculography. Static head positions were varied in pitch with the body supine, and slow-phase eye velocity (SPV was assessed. All subjects exhibited predominantly horizontal nystagmus after entering the magnet head-first, lying supine. The SPV direction reversed when entering feet-first. Pitching chin-to-chest caused subjects to reach a null point for horizontal SPV. Right unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH subjects developed slow-phase-up nystagmus and left UVH subjects, slow-phase-down nystagmus. Vertical and torsional components were consistent with superior semicircular canal excitation or inhibition, respectively, of the intact ear. These findings provide compelling support for the hypothesis that MVS is a result of a Lorentz force and suggest that the function of individual structures within the labyrinth can be assessed with MVS. As a novel method of comfortable and sustained labyrinthine stimulation, MVS can provide new insights into vestibular physiology and pathophysiology.

  12. Thromboxane production in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Francesca; Biasucci, Luigi M; Cialdella, Pio; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Giubilato, Simona; Della Bona, Roberta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude; Crea, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Postmortem studies have demonstrated that morbidly obese subjects, surprisingly, have less coronary atherosclerosis than obese subjects. However, the reasons for this apparent protection from atherosclerosis are not yet clear. Thromboxane A2, a marker of platelet activation, is greater in obese subjects than in lean subjects, and this might be a clue to their increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects are lacking; therefore, we hypothesized that lower levels of thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects might play a role in their lower atherothrombotic burden. We measured the serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leptin in 17 lean subjects (body mass index [BMI] 22.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), 25 obese subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)), and 23 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 48.6 ± 7.1 kg/m(2)), without insulin resistance, diabetes, or overt cardiovascular disease. The serum TxB2 levels were lower in the lean subjects than in the obese subjects (p = 0.046) and in the morbidly obese subjects than in the lean and obese subjects (p = 0.015 and p lean subjects (hs-CRP, p lean subjects (p lean subjects, suggesting that reduced platelet activation could play a role in the paradoxical protection of morbidly obese subjects from atherosclerosis, despite the greater levels of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beer, Wine, Spirits and Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mygind, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  14. Forefoot deformity, pain, and mobility in rheumatoid and nonarthritic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, P G; Lohmann Siegel, K; Kepple, T M; Stanhope, S J; Gerber, L H

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate how painful metatarsal arthritis affects foot and ankle mechanics and mobility. We studied 16 symptomatic forefeet in 10 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and compared them with 14 asymptomatic forefeet in 7 nonarthritic subjects. RA limbs with significant disease at other locations were excluded. We measured pain and deformity of the foot using a visual analog scale and a modified articular index. A video based 3 dimensional gait analysis system and force platform were used to collect data on subjects walking barefoot at a self-selected pace according to an established protocol. Mobility level was quantified using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) ambulation subscale. We observed considerable pain and deformity of the forefeet of RA subjects. During gait, motion and force measures revealed that RA subjects significantly (p SIP scores revealed that these changes in gait resulted in moderate disability in RA subjects (p=0.05). Impairments of the forefoot due to RA include pain and deformity, which produce characteristic stance phase abnormalities in foot function, a slow walking speed, and moderate disability.

  15. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  16. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  17. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  18. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  19. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  20. Effects of the menstrual cycle on language and visual working memory: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kiyomi; Kumashiro, Masaharu; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Yoshiyuki; Awa, Yayoi

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects on language and visual working memory of the follicle, luteal, and menstruation phases. The subjects were 12 female students. We added visual information and the assignment of experimental tasks, which requires the faculty of sight, to the previous study; therefore, this study has an index of visual and linguistic working memory. Computer-based tasks formulated by the authors, using the working memory that actively retains the information as the index, were used for experiments of 30 min during the follicle, luteal, and menstruation phases. After completion of the experiment of each phase, blood samples were collected in order to clearly distinguish the three phases of the subjects' menstrual cycle, and the session order was counter-balanced. The results showed that mental workload was higher in the luteal phase and stress was more easily felt. Indefinite complaints were most frequent during the menstruation phase, but task performance was good regardless of the indefinite complaint. It suggested that when the same tasks were performed during three phases, the sympathetic nerve was ascendant.

  1. Phase equilibrium engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, Esteban Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, the teaching of phase equilibria emphasizes the relationships between the thermodynamic variables of each phase in equilibrium rather than its engineering applications. This book changes the focus from the use of thermodynamics relationships to compute phase equilibria to the design and control of the phase conditions that a process needs. Phase Equilibrium Engineering presents a systematic study and application of phase equilibrium tools to the development of chemical processes. The thermodynamic modeling of mixtures for process development, synthesis, simulation, design and

  2. Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebra, L; Cabulis, U; Knite, M

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage (TES) have become an important subject of research in recent years. Using PCMs for thermal energy storage provides a solution to increase the efficiency of the storage and use of energy in many domestic and industrial sectors. Phase change TES systems offer a number of advantages over other systems (e.g. chemical storage systems): particularly small temperature distance between the storage and retrieval cycles, small unit sizes and lo...

  3. The effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head analysis in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Munire Erman; Taskin, Omur; Yucel, Iclal; Akar, Yusuf

    2004-12-01

    To determine the effect of the menstrual cycle on optic nerve head topographic analysis in normally menstruating, healthy women. The study included single eyes selected randomly from each of 52 healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. All subjects underwent a complete ocular examination. Optic nerve head topographic analyses were performed using a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph II (HRT II, software version 1.6). The analyses were repeated three times during the menstrual cycle: in the follicular phase (days 7-10 of the cycle), at ovulation, and in the late luteal phase (days 1-3 before menstrual bleeding). Serum oestradiol, progesterone and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at each menstrual phase. Fourteen subjects were excluded from the study. The mean age of the subjects (n = 38) was 25.6 +/- 3.7 years (range 21-34 years). Blood oestradiol levels were significantly lower in the late luteal phase (35.8 pg/ml) (p cup : disc ratio, cup : disc area ratio and the cup area were significantly higher during the luteal phase (p menstrual cycle in healthy women significantly alter neuroretinal rim area and cup variables of the optic nerve head. These findings should be taken into consideration in the clinical follow-up of young women with glaucoma.

  4. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  5. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  6. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R. [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Yeates, Todd O., E-mail: yeates@mbi.ucla.edu [Institute for Genomics and Proteomics, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); University of California, 611 Charles Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  7. CrowdPhase: crowdsourcing the phase problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Julien; Sawaya, Michael R.; Yeates, Todd O.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of attacking the phase problem by crowdsourcing is introduced. Using an interactive, multi-player, web-based system, participants work simultaneously to select phase sets that correspond to better electron-density maps in order to solve low-resolution phasing problems. The human mind innately excels at some complex tasks that are difficult to solve using computers alone. For complex problems amenable to parallelization, strategies can be developed to exploit human intelligence in a collective form: such approaches are sometimes referred to as ‘crowdsourcing’. Here, a first attempt at a crowdsourced approach for low-resolution ab initio phasing in macromolecular crystallography is proposed. A collaborative online game named CrowdPhase was designed, which relies on a human-powered genetic algorithm, where players control the selection mechanism during the evolutionary process. The algorithm starts from a population of ‘individuals’, each with a random genetic makeup, in this case a map prepared from a random set of phases, and tries to cause the population to evolve towards individuals with better phases based on Darwinian survival of the fittest. Players apply their pattern-recognition capabilities to evaluate the electron-density maps generated from these sets of phases and to select the fittest individuals. A user-friendly interface, a training stage and a competitive scoring system foster a network of well trained players who can guide the genetic algorithm towards better solutions from generation to generation via gameplay. CrowdPhase was applied to two synthetic low-resolution phasing puzzles and it was shown that players could successfully obtain phase sets in the 30° phase error range and corresponding molecular envelopes showing agreement with the low-resolution models. The successful preliminary studies suggest that with further development the crowdsourcing approach could fill a gap in current crystallographic methods by making it

  8. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  9. Consumption of 125I labelled fibrinogen in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, B.; Camargo, E.E.; Reis, J.M.M. dos; Carvalho, N.; Leao, L.E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The metabolism of iodine- 125 labeled human fibrinogen is studied by using three different sets of the radiopharmaceutical (0.9, 1.3 and 1.84 iodine atoms/fibrinogen molecule ratios) in 19 normal subjects. An aliquot of 40 μCi of fibrinogem- 125 I is injected in each subject, on normal dietary conditions and blood samples are withdrawn at 30, 60, 180, 36 and 720 minutes after the injection and, thereafter, one daily sample during 10 days. The compartmental distribution of the tracer is defined by plotting plasma and serum sample counts on a semilogarithmic graph paper. A rapid phase and 3 compartments are obtained. A 'rapid' consumption half-life and a 'real' consumption half-life are defined. The fibrinogen clottability is followed up to the last blood sample by checking the ratios of serum and plasma radioactivities [pt

  10. Sudomotor and vasomotor activity during the menstrual cycle with global heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lee, Haneul; Khowailed, Iman Akef

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have reported that there are changes in sympathetic activity throughout the menstrual cycle as there are oestrogen receptor in the hypothalamus and all other parts of the sympathetic nervous system. The purpose of this study was to see whether there were variations in sympathetic activity, skin vasomotor and sweat gland sudomotor rhythms during the menstrual cycle. Eight young female subjects with a regular menstrual cycle participated in the study. Subjects were tested once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Skin blood flow and sweat rate were significantly higher in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase (p < .05), but the frequency and magnitude of sudomotor and vasomotor rhythms were significantly greater in the follicular phase (p < .05). In contrast, spectral data showed less sympathetic activity in the luteal phase. A significant finding here is that the sudomotor rhythm of sweat glands is altered by the menstrual cycle. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    conditions, with single reflections at different arrival times in the two ears and with a simulated room impulse response. The monaural data describe a subjective MTF, which is similar to the physical MTF. An interaural modulation phase difference can create an interaural intensity fluctuation, which can......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...

  12. Generalized phase contrast:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast...

  13. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  14. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  15. Phase space diffusion in turbulent plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1990-01-01

    . The second type are particles introduced at a prescribed phase space position at a certain time and which then self-consistently participate in the phase space dynamics of the turbulence. The latter "active" type of particles can be subject to an effective frictional force due to radiation of plasma waves....... In terms of these test particle types, two basically different problems can be formulated. One deals with the diffusion of a particle with respect to its point of release in phase space. Alternatively the relative diffusion between many, or just two, particles can be analyzed. Analytical expressions...

  16. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  17. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    duration, body mass index, number of diabetes-related complications, and depression). Furthermore, adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin to manage their condition report the lowest levels of subjective wellbeing, and are also most likely to report dissatisfaction with their current health....... These findings suggest that living with diabetes, and in particular, living with type 2 diabetes and using insulin, strongly challenges the maintenance of subjective wellbeing.......This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  18. Psychological methods of subjective risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimolong, B.

    1980-01-01

    Reactions to situations involving risks can be divided into the following parts/ perception of danger, subjective estimates of the risk and risk taking with respect to action. Several investigations have compared subjective estimates of the risk with an objective measure of that risk. In general there was a mis-match between subjective and objective measures of risk, especially, objective risk involved in routine activities is most commonly underestimated. This implies, for accident prevention, that attempts must be made to induce accurate subjective risk estimates by technical and behavioural measures. (orig.) [de

  19. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  20. Fluid-elastic Instability of Helical Tubes Subjected to Single-Phase External Flow and Two-Phase Internal Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the fluid-elastic instability characteristics of steam generator helical type tubes in operating nuclear power plants. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted by a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for helical type tubes with various conditions. Investigated are the effects of the helix angle, the number of supports and the status of the inner fluid on the modal, and fluid-elastic instability characteristics of the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and stability ratio. (authors)

  1. Phase analysis in gated blood pool tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Kenichi; Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Taki, Junichi; Nanbu, Ichiro

    1984-01-01

    Phase analysis of gated blood pool study has been applied to detect the site of accessory conduction pathway (ACP) in the Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome; however, there was a limitation to detect the precise location of ACP by phase analysis alone. In this study, we applied phase analysis to gated blood pool tomography using seven pin hole tomography (7PT) and gated emission computed tomography (GECT) in 21 patients with WPW syndrome and 3 normal subjects. In 17 patients, the sites of ACPs were confirmed by epicardial mapping and the result of the surgical division of ACP. In 7PT, the site of ACP grossly agreed to the abnormal initial phase in phase image in 5 out of 6 patients with left cardiac type. In GECT, phase images were generated in short axial, vertical and horizontal long axial sections. In 8 out of 9 patients, the site of ACP was correctly identified by phase images, and in a patient who had two ACPs, initial phase corresponded to one of the two locations. Phase analysis of gated blood pool tomography has advantages for avoiding overlap of blood pools and for estimating three-dimensional propagation of the contraction, and can be a good adjunctive method in patients with WPW syndrome. (author)

  2. Development of Subjectivity in Cadets during Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Markov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article submits the results of the research, where such personal factors as learning motivation, aggressive reactions and the choice of behavior strategy in conflict are considered as the indicators of subjectivity development. It also shows the dynamics of the subjectivity development in cadets on these indicators.

  3. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  4. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  5. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  6. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  7. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  8. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  9. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  10. USING DIDACTIC EQUIPMENT IN VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    JIROUT, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Baccalaureate Work ?Using Didactic Equipment In Vocational Subjects Teaching? describes various methods of teaching and using didactic engineering in education. Theoretic part describes general aspects of using didactic engineering, teaching methods a and ways how to use didactic engineering in teaching vocational subjects. Practical part finds how students appreciate using modern didactic aids and engineering in education.

  11. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  12. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  13. Subject/Author Index 1968-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, Eva, Ed.; Kupidura, Peter, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This 25-year index contains annotations of feature articles by subject and by author. Representative subjects include basic education, development education, empowerment, human rights, lifelong education, peace education, popular education, rural development, social/political action, technological advancement, and transformative research. Articles…

  14. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  15. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  16. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  17. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  18. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    The theoretical literature has a rich characterization of scoring rules for eliciting the subjective beliefs that an individual has for continuous events, but under the restrictive assumption of risk neutrality. It is well known that risk aversion can dramatically affect the incentives to correctly...... report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...... to distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  19. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  20. A living wage for research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. Phase Transitions, Diffraction Studies and Marginal Dimensionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    Continuous phase transitions and the associated critical phenomena have been one of the most active areas of research in condensed matter physics for several decades. This short review is only one cut through this huge subject and the author has chosen to emphasize diffraction studies as a basic ...

  2. Magnesium hydrides and their phase transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paidar, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 23 (2016), s. 9769-9773 ISSN 0360-3199 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13069 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : hydrogen * magnesium and transition metal hydrides * crystal structure stability * displacive phase transformations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.582, year: 2016

  3. Orbital momentum and topological phase transformation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Středa, Pavel; Kučera, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 23 (2015), "235152-1"-"235152-6" ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : orbital momentum * anomalous Hall effect * topological phase transformation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014

  4. [Esophageal motor disorders in asymptomatic subjects with Trypanosoma cruzi infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Aguilera, M; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Vázquez-Jiménez, J G; De la Cruz-Patiño, E; Grube-Pagola, P; Ruiz-Juárez, I

    2011-01-01

    The indeterminate chronic or "asymptomatic" phase of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' disease) infection is characterized by the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, and has an estimated duration of 20 to 30 years. However, the intramural denervation that induces dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract is progressive. Recently, epidemiological studies have shown that the seroprevalence for this infection in our area ranges between 2% and 3% of the population. To detect the presence of esophageal motor disorders in asymptomatic individuals chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using standard esophageal manometry. A cross sectional study in 28 asymptomatic subjects (27 men, age 40.39 ± 10.79) with serological evidence of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi was performed. In all cases demographic characteristics, gastrointestinal symptoms and esophageal motility disorders using conventional manometry were analyzed. In this study 54% (n = 15) of asymptomatic subjects had an esophageal motor disorder: 5 (18%) had nutcracker esophagus, 5 (18%) nonspecific esophageal motor disorders, 3 (11%) hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter (LES), 1 (4%) an incomplete relaxation of the LES and 1 (4%) had chagasic achalasia. More than half of patients that course with Chagas' disease in the indeterminate phase and that are apparently asymptomatic have impaired esophageal motility. Presence of hypertensive LES raises the possibility that this alteration represents an early stage in the development of chagasic achalasia.

  5. The effects of menstrual cycle phase on physical performance in female soccer players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Hecksteden, Anne; Fullagar, Hugh H. K.; Meyer, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Background Female soccer has grown extensively in recent years, however differences in gender-specific physiology have rarely been considered. The female reproductive hormones which rise and fall throughout the menstrual cycle, are known to affect numerous cardiovascular, respiratory, thermoregulatory and metabolic parameters, which in turn, may have implications on exercise physiology and soccer performance. Therefore, the main aim of the present study was to investigate potential effects of menstrual cycle phase on performance in soccer specific tests. Methods Nine sub elite female soccer players, all of whom have menstrual cycles of physiological length; performed a series of physical performance tests (Yo-Yo Intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IET), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 3x30 m sprints). These were conducted at distinct time points during two main phases of the menstrual cycle (early follicular phase (FP) and mid luteal phase (LP)) where hormones contrasted at their greatest magnitude. Results Yo-Yo IET performance was considerably lower during the mid LP (2833±896 m) as compared to the early FP (3288±800 m). A trend towards significance was observed (p = 0.07) and the magnitude based inferences suggested probabilities of 0/61/39 for superiority/equality/inferiority of performance during the mid LP, leading to the inference of a possibly harmful effect. For CMJ (early FP, 20.0±3.9 cm; mid LP 29.6±3.0 cm, p = 0.33) and sprint (early FP, 4.7±0.1 s; mid LP, 4.7±0.1 s, p = 0.96) performances the results were unclear (8/24/68, 48/0/52, respectively). Conclusion The results of this study are in support of a reduction in maximal endurance performance during the mid LP of the menstrual cycle. However, the same effect was not observed for jumping and sprint performance. Therefore, consideration of cycle phase when monitoring a player’s endurance capacity may be worthwhile. PMID:28288203

  6. Mathematical modeling of disperse two-phase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Morel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This book develops the theoretical foundations of disperse two-phase flows, which are characterized by the existence of bubbles, droplets or solid particles finely dispersed in a carrier fluid, which can be a liquid or a gas. Chapters clarify many difficult subjects, including modeling of the interfacial area concentration. Basic knowledge of the subjects treated in this book is essential to practitioners of Computational Fluid Dynamics for two-phase flows in a variety of industrial and environmental settings. The author provides a complete derivation of the basic equations, followed by more advanced subjects like turbulence equations for the two phases (continuous and disperse) and multi-size particulate flow modeling. As well as theoretical material, readers will discover chapters concerned with closure relations and numerical issues. Many physical models are presented, covering key subjects including heat and mass transfers between phases, interfacial forces and fluid particles coalescence and breakup, a...

  7. Cu–Ni nanoalloy phase diagram – Prediction and experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sopoušek, J.; Vřešťál, J.; Pinkas, J.; Brož, P.; Buršík, Jiří; Stýskalík, A.; Škoda, D.; Zobač, O.; Lee, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, June (2014), s. 33-39 ISSN 0364-5916 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nanoalloy * phase diagram * thermodynamic modeling Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2014

  8. Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue, first, that the identity of the researcher has an impact not only in the way she/he invThis article explains, in the first place, that the identity of the researcher not only influences his way to do research, but also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects? Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  9. High temperature phase equilibria and phase diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Kuo, Chu-Kun; Yan, Dong-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    High temperature phase equilibria studies play an increasingly important role in materials science and engineering. It is especially significant in the research into the properties of the material and the ways in which they can be improved. This is achieved by observing equilibrium and by examining the phase relationships at high temperature. The study of high temperature phase diagrams of nonmetallic systems began in the early 1900s when silica and mineral systems containing silica were focussed upon. Since then technical ceramics emerged and more emphasis has been placed on high temperature

  10. Subjective versus objective assessment of breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2013-05-01

    To date breast assessment has been conducted mainly subjectively. However lately validated objective three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed. The study aimed to assess breast reconstruction subjectively and objectively and conduct a comparison. In forty-four patients after immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with solely the extended latissimus dorsi flap the breast was captured by validated 3D imaging method and standardized 2D photography. Breast symmetry was subjectively evaluated by six experts who applied the Harris score giving a mark of 1-4 for a poor to excellent result. An error study was conducted by examination of the intra and inter-observer agreement and agreement on controls. By Procrustes analysis an objective asymmetry score was obtained and compared to the subjective assessment. The subjective assessment showed that the inter-observer agreement was good or substantial (p-value: value: fair (p-values: 0.159, 0.134, 0.099) to substantial (p-value: 0.005) intra-observer agreement. The objective assessment revealed that the reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume compared to the opposite side and that the average asymmetry score was 0.052, ranging from 0.019 to 0.136. When comparing the subjective and objective method the relationship between the two scores was highly significant. Subjective breast assessment lacked accuracy and reproducibility. This was the first error study of subjective breast assessment versus an objective validated 3D imaging method based on true 3D parameters. The substantial agreement between established subjective breast assessment and new validated objective method supported the value of the later and we expect its future role to expand. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  12. A mechanized gait trainer for restoring gait in nonambulatory subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, S; Uhlenbrock, D; Werner, C; Bardeleben, A

    2000-09-01

    To construct an advanced mechanized gait trainer to enable patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement without overstraining therapists. DEVICE: Prototype gait trainer that simulates the phases of gait (by generating a ratio of 40% to 60% between swing and stance phases), supports the subjects according to their ability (lifts the foot during swing phase), and controls the center of mass in the vertical and horizontal directions. Two nonambulatory, hemiparetic patients who regained their walking ability after 4 weeks of daily training on the gait trainer, a 55-year-old woman and a 62-year-old man, both of whom had a first-time ischemic stroke. Four weeks of training, five times a week, each session 20 minutes long. Functional ambulation category (FAC, levels 0-5) to assess gait ability and ground level walking velocity. Rivermead motor assessment score (RMAS, 0-13) to assess gross motor function. Patient 1: At the end of treatment, she was able to walk independently on level ground with use of a walking stick. Her walking velocity had improved from .29m/sec to .59m/sec. Her RMAS score increased from 4 to 10, meaning she could walk at least 40 meters outside, pick up objects from floor, and climb stairs independently. Patient 2: At end of 4-week training, he could walk independently on even surfaces (FAC level 4), using an ankle-foot orthosis and a walking stick. His walking velocity improved from .14m/sec to .63m/sec. His RMAS increased from 3 to 10. The gait trainer enabled severely affected patients the repetitive practice of a gaitlike movement. Future studies may elucidate its value in gait rehabilitation of nonambulatory subjects.

  13. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  14. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  15. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  16. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  17. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  18. Digital quadrature phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.A.; Johnson, J.A.

    1992-05-26

    A system for detecting the phase of a frequency or phase modulated signal that includes digital quadrature sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal at two times that are one quarter of a cycle of a reference signal apart, determination of the arctangent of the ratio of a first sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal to the second sampling of the frequency or phase modulated signal, and a determination of quadrant in which the phase determination is increased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the first quadrant to the fourth quadrant and decreased by 2[pi] when the quadrant changes from the fourth quadrant to the first quadrant whereby the absolute phase of the frequency or phase modulated signal can be determined using an arbitrary reference convention. 6 figs.

  19. Gas phase ion chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowers, Michael T

    1979-01-01

    Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Volume 2 covers the advances in gas phase ion chemistry. The book discusses the stabilities of positive ions from equilibrium gas-phase basicity measurements; the experimental methods used to determine molecular electron affinities, specifically photoelectron spectroscopy, photodetachment spectroscopy, charge transfer, and collisional ionization; and the gas-phase acidity scale. The text also describes the basis of the technique of chemical ionization mass spectrometry; the energetics and mechanisms of unimolecular reactions of positive ions; and the photodissociation

  20. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  1. Computation of Phase Equilibrium and Phase Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritschel, Tobias Kasper Skovborg; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    formulate the involved equations in terms of the fugacity coefficients. We present expressions for the first-order derivatives. Such derivatives are necessary in computationally efficient gradient-based methods for solving the vapor-liquid equilibrium equations and for computing phase envelopes. Finally, we......In this technical report, we describe the computation of phase equilibrium and phase envelopes based on expressions for the fugacity coefficients. We derive those expressions from the residual Gibbs energy. We consider 1) ideal gases and liquids modeled with correlations from the DIPPR database...... and 2) nonideal gases and liquids modeled with cubic equations of state. Next, we derive the equilibrium conditions for an isothermal-isobaric (constant temperature, constant pressure) vapor-liquid equilibrium process (PT flash), and we present a method for the computation of phase envelopes. We...

  2. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  3. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  4. Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects using MATLAB and ... Keywords: electrical engineering; MATLAB; graphic user interface (GUI); educational software. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Ethical aspects of trade subject to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gethmann, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper pleads for unrestricted use of the requirement of rational risk comparison. The ethical aspects of the problem are that human beings cannot help expecting certain people to take risks and others to forsake them. Expectation of risk requires an ethical justification. Consideration of justification has of course to originate from the fact that both readiness to accept risk and also the preference system are subject to strong subjective variations. Consequently, intercession has to be made to compare the definition of subjective probability (competitiveness) and a subjective preference matrix as the basis for a rational definition of risk. General liability results first due to the fact that consistency can be expected from each individual in relation to the readiness to accept risk expected of him. According to the requirement for consistency introduced here, a readiness to accept risk may be expected of an individual which is otherwise already accepted. (orig.) [de

  6. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  7. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  8. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  9. A Pilot Study of Phase-Evoked Acoustic Responses From the Ears of Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Dewey, James; Dhar, Sumitrajit

    2015-01-01

    Temporal properties of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are of interest as they help understand the dynamic behavior and spatial distribution of the generating mechanisms. In particular, the ringing behavior of responses to clicks and tone bursts have been investigated, and times of arrival and round...

  10. CSF proteomics of secondary phase spinal cord injury in human subjects: perturbed molecular pathways post injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohor Biplab Sengupta

    Full Text Available Recovery of sensory and motor functions following traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is dependent on injury severity. Here we identified 49 proteins from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of SCI patients, eight of which were differentially abundant among two severity groups of SCI. It was observed that the abundance profiles of these proteins change over a time period of days to months post SCI. Statistical analysis revealed that these proteins take part in several molecular pathways including DNA repair, protein phosphorylation, tRNA transcription, iron transport, mRNA metabolism, immune response and lipid and ATP catabolism. These pathways reflect a set of mechanisms that the system may adopt to cope up with the assault depending on the injury severity, thus leading to observed physiological responses. Apart from putting forward a picture of the molecular scenario at the injury site in a human study, this finding further delineates consequent pathways and molecules that may be altered by external intervention to restrict neural degeneration.

  11. Molecular biomarkers for weight control in obese individuals subjected to a multi-phase dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Jennifer L; Montastier, Emilie; Carayol, Jérôme

    2017-01-01

    Context: While calorie restriction has proven beneficial for weight loss, long-term weight control is variable between individuals. Objective: To identify biomarkers of successful weight control during a dietary intervention (DI). Design, Setting, and Participants: Adipose tissue (AT) transcripto......-controllers. Interestingly, ASPN is a TGFβ1 inhibitor. Conclusions: We found circulating biomarkers associated with weight control, which could influence weight management strategies, and genes that may be prognostic for successful weight control....

  12. Phase 1 Study of CK-301 as a Single Agent in Subjects With Advanced Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-02

    Lung Neoplasms; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Carcinoma, Small Cell; Malignant Mesothelioma, Advanced; Head and Neck Cancer; Melanoma; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Urothelial Carcinoma; Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

  13. Subjective Life Horizon and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Spaenjers , Christophe; Spira, Sven Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. household survey, we examine the empirical relation between subjective life horizon (i.e., the self-reported expectation of remaining life span) and portfolio choice. We find that equity portfolio shares are higher for investors with longer horizons, ceteris paribus, in line with theoretical predictions. This result is robust to controlling for optimism and health status, accounting for the endogeneity of equity market participation, or instrumenting subjective life hor...

  14. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  15. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  16. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  17. Eigenstate Phase Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo

    Phase transitions are one of the most exciting physical phenomena ever discovered. The understanding of phase transitions has long been of interest. Recently eigenstate phase transitions have been discovered and studied; they are drastically different from traditional thermal phase transitions. In eigenstate phase transitions, a sharp change is exhibited in properties of the many-body eigenstates of the Hamiltonian of a quantum system, but not the thermal equilibrium properties of the same system. In this thesis, we study two different types of eigenstate phase transitions. The first is the eigenstate phase transition within the ferromagnetic phase of an infinite-range spin model. By studying the interplay of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis and Ising symmetry breaking, we find two eigenstate phase transitions within the ferromagnetic phase: In the lowest-temperature phase the magnetization can macroscopically oscillate by quantum tunneling between up and down. The relaxation of the magnetization is always overdamped in the remainder of the ferromagnetic phase, which is further divided into phases where the system thermally activates itself over the barrier between the up and down states, and where it quantum tunnels. The second is the many-body localization phase transition. The eigenstates on one side of the transition obey the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis; the eigenstates on the other side are many-body localized, and thus thermal equilibrium need not be achieved for an initial state even after evolving for an arbitrary long time. We study this many-body localization phase transition in the strong disorder renormalization group framework. After setting up a set of coarse-graining rules for a general one dimensional chain, we get a simple "toy model'' and obtain an almost purely analytical solution to the infinite-randomness critical fixed point renormalization group equation. We also get an estimate of the correlation length critical exponent nu

  18. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  19. Single-Phase PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    Single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) are popular for the synchronization and control of single-phase gridconnected converters. They are also widely used for monitoring and diagnostic purposes in the power and energy areas. In recent years, a large number of single-phase PLLs with different stru......-PLLs). The members of each category are then described and their pros and cons are discussed. This work provides a deep insight into characteristics of different single-phase PLLs and, therefore, can be considered as a reference for researchers and engineers....

  20. Equilibrium of phases with interfacial energy : a variational approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, 1-2 (2011), s. 271-303 ISSN 0374-3535 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase transitions * phase interface * interface polyconvexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.110, year: 2011 http://www.springerlink.com/content/w4p16v37t032v632/

  1. Pointwise asymptotic convergence of solutions for a phase separation model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Zheng, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2006), s. 1-18 ISSN 1078-0947 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : phase-field system * asymptotic phase separation * energy Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2006 http://aimsciences.org/journals/pdfs.jsp?paperID=1875&mode=full

  2. Stability of Laves Phases in the Cr Zr System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlů, Jana; Vřešťál, Jan; Šob, Mojmír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2009), s. 382-387 ISSN 0364-5916 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : ab initio calculations * Laves phases * phase diagrams Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.904, year: 2009

  3. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  4. Simultaneous estimation of liquid and solid gastric emptying using radiolabelled egg and water in supine normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kris, M G; Yeh, S D; Gralla, R J; Young, C W

    1986-01-01

    To develop an additional method for the measurement of gastric emptying in supine subjects, 10 normal subjects were given a test meal containing 99Tc-labelled scrambled egg as the "solid" phase marker and 111In in tapwater as the marker for the "liquid" phase. The mean time for emptying 50% of the "solid" phase (t1/2) was 85 min and 29 min for the "liquid" phase. Three individuals were restudied with a mean difference between the two determinations of 10.8% for the "solid" phase and 6.5% for the "liquid" phase. Twenty-six additional studies attempted have been successfully completed in symptomatic patients with advanced cancer. This method provides a simple and reproducible procedure for the determination of gastric emptying that yields results similar to those reported for other test meals and can be used in debilitated patients.

  5. Solid phase radioimmunoassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wide, L.

    1977-01-01

    Solid phase coupled antibodies were introduced to facilitate the separation of bound and free labelled ligand in the competitive inhibition radioimmunoassay. Originally, the solid matrix used was in the form of small particles and since then a number of different matrices have been used such as very fine powder particles, gels, paper and plastic discs, magnetic particles and the inside surface of plastic tubes. The coupling of antibodies may be that of a covalent chemical binding, a strong physical adsorbtion, or an immunological binding to a solid phase coupled antigen. New principles of radioimmunoassay such as the solid phase sandwich techniques and the immunoradiometric assay were developped from the use of solid phase coupled antigens and antibodies. The solid phase sandwich techniques are reagent excess methods with a very wide applicability. Several of the different variants of solid phase techniques are suitable for automation. Advantages and disadvantages of solid phase radioimmunoassays when compared with those using soluble reagents are discussed. (orig.) [de

  6. Generalized Phase Contrast

    CERN Document Server

    Glückstad, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    Generalized Phase Contrast elevates the phase contrast technique not only to improve phase imaging but also to cross over and interface with diverse and seemingly disparate fields of contemporary optics and photonics. This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) method including an overview of the range of current and potential applications of GPC in wavefront sensing and phase imaging, structured laser illumination and image projection, optical trapping and manipulation, and optical encryption and decryption. The GPC method goes further than the restrictive assumptions of conventional Zernike phase contrast analysis and achieves an expanded range of validity beyond weak phase perturbations. The generalized analysis yields design criteria for tuning experimental parameters to achieve optimal performance in terms of accuracy, fidelity and light efficiency. Optimization can address practical issues, such as finding an optimal spatial filter for the chosen application, ...

  7. Exploring topological phases with quantum walks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Rudner, Mark S.; Berg, Erez; Demler, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The quantum walk was originally proposed as a quantum-mechanical analog of the classical random walk, and has since become a powerful tool in quantum information science. In this paper, we show that discrete-time quantum walks provide a versatile platform for studying topological phases, which are currently the subject of intense theoretical and experimental investigations. In particular, we demonstrate that recent experimental realizations of quantum walks with cold atoms, photons, and ions simulate a nontrivial one-dimensional topological phase. With simple modifications, the quantum walk can be engineered to realize all of the topological phases, which have been classified in one and two dimensions. We further discuss the existence of robust edge modes at phase boundaries, which provide experimental signatures for the nontrivial topological character of the system.

  8. Metamorphosis: Phases of UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R.H. [Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A 15-minute videotape is presented. The subject matter is 150 grams of UF{sub 6} sealed in a glass tube. Close-up views show the UF{sub 6} as phase changes are effected by the addition or removal of heat from the closed system. The solid-to-liquid transition is shown as heat is added, both slowly and rapidly. The solid phases which result from freezing and from desublimation are contrasted. In the solid state, uranium hexafluoride is a nearly-white, dense crystalline solid. The appearance of this solid depends on whether it is formed by freezing from the liquid or by desublimation from the vapor phase. If frozen from the liquid, the solid particles take the form of irregularly shaped coarse grains, while the solid product of desublimation tends to be a rather formless mass without individually distinguishable particles. The changes in state are presented in terms of the UF{sub 6} phase diagram.

  9. Liquid crystal blue phases: stability, field effects and alignment

    OpenAIRE

    Gleeson, HF; Miller, RJ; Tian, L; Görtz, V; Goodby, JW

    2015-01-01

    The blue phases are fascinating structures in liquid crystals, fluids that exhibit cubic structures that have true crystalline order. The blue phases were discovered in the 1970s and were the subject of extensive research in the 1980s, when a deep understanding of many of their properties was established. The discovery that the blue phases could be stabilised to exist over wide temperature ranges meant that they became more than scientific curiosities and led to a recent resurgence in researc...

  10. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  11. SSDOnt: An Ontology for Representing Single-Subject Design Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berges, Idoia; Bermúdez, Jesus; Illarramendi, Arantza

    2018-02-01

    Single-Subject Design is used in several areas such as education and biomedicine. However, no suited formal vocabulary exists for annotating the detailed configuration and the results of this type of research studies with the appropriate granularity for looking for information about them. Therefore, the search for those study designs relies heavily on a syntactical search on the abstract, keywords or full text of the publications about the study, which entails some limitations. To present SSDOnt, a specific purpose ontology for describing and annotating single-subject design studies, so that complex questions can be asked about them afterwards. The ontology was developed following the NeOn methodology. Once the requirements of the ontology were defined, a formal model was described in a Description Logic and later implemented in the ontology language OWL 2 DL. We show how the ontology provides a reference model with a suitable terminology for the annotation and searching of single-subject design studies and their main components, such as the phases, the intervention types, the outcomes and the results. Some mappings with terms of related ontologies have been established. We show as proof-of-concept that classes in the ontology can be easily extended to annotate more precise information about specific interventions and outcomes such as those related to autism. Moreover, we provide examples of some types of queries that can be posed to the ontology. SSDOnt has achieved the purpose of covering the descriptions of the domain of single-subject research studies. Schattauer GmbH.

  12. Lower peripheral circulation in eumenorrheic young women with premenstrual symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Noriyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A majority of women from all cultures and socioeconomic levels experience diverse psychosomatic and behavioral symptoms premenstrually, a phenomenon commonly termed premenstrual syndrome, although symptoms and discomfort levels vary from woman to woman. The underlying pathological mechanisms of premenstrual syndrome remain unknown; however, altered function or even slight disorder of the blood circulation system, which contributes to the orchestrations of the human internal environment, could cause bio-psychological changes leading to complaints and ultimately compromising a woman's overall health. The present study, therefore, investigates to what extent and how the menstrual cyclicity of peripheral circulation is associated with premenstrual symptomatology. Methods Twenty-one eumenorrheic young women participated in this study. All subjects were investigated during the follicular and late luteal phases. Cycle phase was determined by the onset of menstruation and oral temperature and was verified by concentrations of ovarian hormones, estrone, and pregnanediol in a urine sample taken early in the morning. Peripheral circulation was evaluated with the Astrim (Sysmex, Kobe, a portable non-invasive monitoring device using the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy, which calculates the venous oxygenation index (VOI based on the ratio of light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin, a proven reliable indicator of peripheral blood circulation. The Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was applied to measure physical, emotional, and behavioral symptoms accompanying the menstrual cycle of the subjects. Results The oral temperature and urinary ovarian hormones adjusted for creatinine significantly increased in the late luteal phase in all subjects. While 10 subjects experienced no symptoms during the menstrual cycle, 11 subjects had apparent physical and psychological discomfort in the late luteal phase. We found that VOI

  13. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  14. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Barbosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper are twofold: a to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65 for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs, and b to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP, the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. The strong theoretical claim is that in the Romance non-NSLs the pre-verbal subject is sitting in Spec of IP, while in the Romance NSLs it is Clitic Left-Dislocated (or is extracted by A-bar movement if it belongs to a restricted set of non-referential quantified expressions. The paper provides quantitative evidence that BP is losing the properties associated with the Null Subject Parameter. In its qualitative analysis, it shows that the contrasts between EP and BP are easily accounted for if the two derivations are assumed and if the null subjects in the two varieties are considered to be of a different nature: a pronoun in EP and a pronominal anaphor in BP.

  15. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  16. Shareveillance: Subjectivity between open and closed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Birchall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to question modes of sharing and watching to rethink political subjectivity beyond that which is enabled and enforced by the current data regime. It identifies and examines a ‘shareveillant’ subjectivity: a form configured by the sharing and watching that subjects have to withstand and enact in the contemporary data assemblage. Looking at government open and closed data as case studies, this article demonstrates how ‘shareveillance’ produces an anti-political role for the public. In describing shareveillance as, after Jacques Rancière, a distribution of the (digital sensible, this article posits a politico-ethical injunction to cut into the share and flow of data in order to arrange a more enabling assemblage of data and its affects. In order to interrupt shareveillance, this article borrows a concept from Édouard Glissant and his concern with raced otherness to imagine what a ‘right to opacity’ might mean in the digital context. To assert this right is not to endorse the individual subject in her sovereignty and solitude, but rather to imagine a collective political subjectivity and relationality according to the important question of what it means to ‘share well’ beyond the veillant expectations of the state.

  17. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  18. Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data

  19. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:  Retinal vascular lesions such as microaneurysms and haemorrhages, while typical of diabetic retinopathy, are also seen in subjects without diabetes where they are associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality. In theory, these lesions could be a consequence of past hyperglycaemia. We...... examined the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy, including lens fluorescence, a biomarker of cumulative life-time glycaemia in adults without diabetes. Methods:  Cross-sectional population-based study of 711 subjects without diabetes (WHO 1999 criteria) aged 30-60 years, including oral glucose...... tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results:  Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider...

  20. Preparation of single phase molybdenum boride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camurlu, Hasan Erdem

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Formation of Mo and a mixture of molybdenum boride phases take place in preparation of molybdenum borides. → It is intricate to prepare single phase molybdenum borides. → Formation of single phase MoB from MoO 3 + B 2 O 3 + Mg mixtures has not been reported previously. → Single phase MoB was successfully prepared through a combination of mechanochemical synthesis and annealing process. - Abstract: The formation of MoB through volume combustion synthesis (VCS), and through mechanochemical synthesis (MCS) followed by annealing has been investigated. MoO 3 , B 2 O 3 and Mg were used as reactants while MgO and NaCl were introduced as diluents. Products were leached in dilute HCl solution and were subjected to X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. Mo was the major phase component in the VCS products under all the experimental conditions. Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo 2 B 5 were found as minor phases. Products of MCS contained a mixture of Mo 2 B, MoB, MoB 2 and Mo. After annealing the MCS product at 1400 deg. C for 3 h, single phase α-MoB was obtained.

  1. Effect of the stringency of conditions on caloric test results in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstulovic, Claudio; Tulsidas Mahtani, Bharti; Atrache Al Attrache, Nabil; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio

    The caloric test is widely used to assess vestibular function, but the conditions in which it is performed can vary. Caloric nystagmus obtained in 57 healthy subjects were compared: 24 subjects studied in ideal conditions and 33 subjects in non-ideal conditions. A statistically significant decrease in the slow phase velocity of the 4 irrigations performed on the subjects in non-ideal conditions was observed. This must be considered, especially in subjects with suspected bilateral involvement. Stringent conditions reduce the risk of misdiagnosis with bilateral deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  2. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  3. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2017-01-01

    significantly due to risk aversion. We characterize an approach for eliciting the entire subjective belief distribution that is minimally biased due to risk aversion. We offer simulated examples to demonstrate the intuition of our approach. We also provide theory to formally characterize our framework. And we...... provide experimental evidence which corroborates our theoretical results. We conclude that for empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can reliably elicit most important features of the latent subjective belief distribution without undertaking calibration for risk attitudes providing one...

  4. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  5. A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Drazen

    2004-10-15

    Subjective judgments, an essential information source for science and policy, are problematic because there are no public criteria for assessing judgmental truthfulness. I present a scoring method for eliciting truthful subjective data in situations where objective truth is unknowable. The method assigns high scores not to the most common answers but to the answers that are more common than collectively predicted, with predictions drawn from the same population. This simple adjustment in the scoring criterion removes all bias in favor of consensus: Truthful answers maximize expected score even for respondents who believe that their answer represents a minority view.

  6. The importance of subjective claims management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, C S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and effects of "subjective disability" on today's workforce and employers. As employees feel out of control with both their careers and demands placed upon them, the number of claims characterized by self-reported symptoms are increasing. Subjective disabilities include chronic syndrome, fibromyalgia, psychiatric claims and chronic pain. The author discusses creative strategies in case studies that have helped employers contain the costs of disability claims, while empowering the employee to take control of their own situation and return to work sooner.

  7. Pulmonary function in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. R.; Isaksen, Jonas Lynggaard; Jemec, G. B.

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease associated with comorbidities, e.g. cardiometabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and depression that may share an inflammatory origin. Smoking increases the risk of psoriasis and the disease has also been linked to chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, with evidence of shared inflammatory cytokine-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, subjects with psoriasis display increased risk of infections, especially respiratory infections including pneumonia. However, only a small single-center study of pulmonary function in subjects...... with psoriasis is available. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  8. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Virginie Van Wassenhove; Bud Craig; Martin P Paulus; Martin P Paulus

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the...

  9. The Neural Substrates of Subjective Time Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Marc; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This ”time dilation effect” has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration exce...

  10. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  11. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  12. Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In recognition of the growing need to better address cyber risk and cyber management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) held a Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity Research Gaps and Needs of the Nation’s Water and Wastewater Systems Sector on March 30th and 31st, 2016, at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The workshop was designed to create a forum for subject matter experts (SMEs) to exchange ideas and address important cybersecurity challenges facing the water sector.

  13. JPEG XS call for proposals subjective evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Bruylants, Tim; Willème, Alexandre; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Schelkens, Peter; Macq, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    In March 2016 the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), formally known as ISO/IEC SC29 WG1, issued a call for proposals soliciting compression technologies for a low-latency, lightweight and visually transparent video compression scheme. Within the JPEG family of standards, this scheme was denominated JPEG XS. The subjective evaluation of visually lossless compressed video sequences at high resolutions and bit depths poses particular challenges. This paper describes the adopted procedures, the subjective evaluation setup, the evaluation process and summarizes the obtained results which were achieved in the context of the JPEG XS standardization process.

  14. Reliability assessment based on subjective inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    The reliability information which comes from subjective analysis is often incomplete prior. This information can be generally assumed to exist in the form of either a stated prior mean of R (reliability) or a stated prior credibility interval on R. An efficient approach is developed to determine a complete beta prior distribution from the subjective information according to the principle of maximum entropy, and the the reliability of survival/failure product is assessed via Bayes theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the methods

  15. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  16. Transformation-induced plasticity in multiphase steels subjected to thermomechanical loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjahjanto, D.D.; Turteltaub, S.R.; Suiker, A.S.J.; Zwaag, van der S.

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of transformation-induced plasticity steels subjected to combined thermomechanical loading is studied at the microscale by means of numerical simulations. The microstructure is composed of an austenitic phase that may deform plastically and/or transform into martensite, and a ferritic

  17. Neuro fuzzy control of the FES assisted freely swinging leg of paraplegic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, J.H.; Velthuis, W.J.R.; Veltink, Petrus H.; de Vries, Theodorus J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The authors designed a neuro fuzzy control strategy for control of cyclical leg movements of paraplegic subjects. The cyclical leg movements were specified by three `swing phase objectives', characteristic of natural human gait. The neuro fuzzy controller is a combination of a fuzzy logic controller

  18. Prostacyclin (epoprostenol) induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wienecke, Troels; Olesen, Jes; Oturai, Peter S

    2008-01-01

    on the placebo day (p=0.002). During epoprostenol (0-30 min) and in the post-infusion phase (30-90 min), the area under the curve (AUC) for headache score was significantly larger than during and after placebo (p=0.005). PGI(2) caused headache associated with the dilatation of STA (AUC, p

  19. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  20. Diffusionless phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vejman, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffusionless phase transformations in metals and alloys in the process of which atomic displacements occur at the distances lower than interatomic ones and relative correspondence of neighbour atoms is preserved, are considered. Special attention is paid to the mechanism of martensitic transformations. Phenomenologic crystallographical theory of martensitic transformations are presented. Two types of martensitic transformations different from the energy viewpoint are pointed out - thermoelastic and non-thermoelastic ones - which are characterized by transformation hysteresis and ways of martensite - initial phase reverse transformation realization. Mechanical effect in the martensitic transformations have been analyzed. The problem of diffusionless formation of ω-phases and the effect of impurities and vacancies on the process are briefly discussed. The role of charge density waves in phase transformations of the second type (transition of initial phase into noncommensurate one) and of the first type (transition of noncommensurate phase into commensurate one) is considered

  1. Phase Contrast Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed intensity pattern based on phase contrast imaging that is not based on the assumption of prior art methods that the pahase shift phi is less than 1 radian. An improved method based on a simple imaging operation...... phasors attain predetermined values for predetermined spatial frequencies, and the phasor value of the specific resolution element of the spatial phase mask corresponds to a distinct intensity level of the image of the resolution element in the intensity pattern, and a spatial phase filter for phase...... shifting of a part of the electromagntic radiation, in combination with an imaging system for generation of the intensity pattern by interference in the image plane of the imaging system between the part of the electromagnetic raidation that has been phase shifted by the phase filter and the remaining part...

  2. Martensitic transformations in titanium nickelide subject to sock wave loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zel'dovich, V.I.; Shorokhov, E.V.; Gundyrev, V.M.; Khejfets, A.Eh.; Frolova, N.Yu.; Khomskaya, I.V.

    2000-01-01

    The plates of titanium nickelide (Ti-50.5 at. % Ni) rolled in an austenitic state and subjected to impact shock with pressure of 10 and 50 GPa are under study. Dilatometric and X-ray diffraction studied show that shock wave loading induces anisotropic martensitic transformations in the plates. The anisotropy of transformations is conditioned by directed motion of the substance of the plate in shock waves. Austenitic memory of specimens prior to loading is changed to martensitic one typical of deformation of martensite. Martensitic memory not preserve after the reserve martensitic transformation, the specimens recall the initial state with austenitic memory. The particles of Ti 3 N 4 precipitated phase and the dislocation structure formed in rolling are the carriers of memory [ru

  3. Phase transition temperatures of Sn-Zn-Al system and their comparison with calculated phase diagrams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smetana, B.; Zlá, S.; Kroupa, Aleš; Žaludová, M.; Drápala, J.; Burkovič, R.; Petlák, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 110, č. 1 (2012), s. 369-378 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC08053 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sn-Zn-Al system * DTA * phase transition temperatures Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.982, year: 2012

  4. Modeling of diffusional phase transformation in multi-component systems with stoichiometric phases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jiří; Fischer, F. D.; Abart, R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 8 (2010), s. 2905-2911 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10029 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Interdiffusion * Intermetallics * Phase transformation kinetics Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.781, year: 2010

  5. Phase behavior in diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checon, A.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical formulation of a straight edge diffraction shows a phase difference of π/2 between the incoming and diffracted waves. Experiments using two straight edges do not confirm the π/2 difference but suggest that the incoming wave is in phase with the wave diffracted into the shadowed region of the edge and out of phase by a factor of π with the wave diffracted into the illuminated region. (Author) [pt

  6. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  7. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  8. Novel Optical Processor for Phased Array Antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-20

    parallel glass slide into the signal beam optical loop. The parallel glass acts like a variable phase shifter to the signal beam simulating phase drift...A list of possible designs are given as follows , _ _ Velocity fa (100dB/cm) Lumit Wavelength I M2I1 TeO2 Longi 4.2 /m/ns about 3 GHz 1.4 4m 34 Fast...subject to achievable acoustic frequency, the preferred materials are the slow shear wave in TeO2 , the fast shear wave in TeO2 or the shear waves in

  9. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  10. Retroreflective Phase Retardation Prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    resonant cavity of a 1.064 Mm laser. This report shows that it is possible to coat the reflecting surfaces of a porro prism so that incident plane...with controlled phase retardation can be made by coating each reflecting surface of a porro prism with a single dielectric film. The amount of phase...of angle of incidence (n, < n2) S. Phase change on reflection as a function of angle of incidence (n" n ) [RL-0202-’R 6. Porro prism 7. Phase change

  11. Modeling of liquid phases

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is part of a set of books which offers advanced students successive characterization tool phases, the study of all types of phase (liquid, gas and solid, pure or multi-component), process engineering, chemical and electrochemical equilibria, and the properties of surfaces and phases of small sizes. Macroscopic and microscopic models are in turn covered with a constant correlation between the two scales. Particular attention has been given to the rigor of mathematical developments. This second volume in the set is devoted to the study of liquid phases.

  12. Photovoltaic Wire, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will investigate a new architecture for photovoltaic devices based on nanotechnology: photovoltaic wire. The...

  13. Phases of Holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the Sakai-Sugimoto model of large N QCD at nonzero temperature and baryon chemical potential and in the presence of background electric and magnetic fields. We studied the holographic representation of baryons and the deconfinement, chiral-symmetry breaking, and nuclear matter phase transitions. In a background electric field, chiral-symmetry breaking corresponds to an insulator-conductor transition. A magnetic field both catalyzes chiral-symmetry breaking and generates, in the confined phase, a pseudo-scalar gradient or, in the deconfined phase, an axial current. The resulting phase diagram is in qualitative agreement with studies of hot, dense QCD.

  14. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  15. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  16. On the subjectivity of personality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

    1976-04-01

    Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general.

  17. Reliability of structural systems subject to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    Concepts and computational procedures for the reliability calculation of structural systems subject to fatigue are outlined. Systems are dealt with by approximately computing componential times to first failure. So-called first-order reliability methods are then used to formulate dependencies between componential failures and to evaluate the system failure probability. (Author) [pt

  18. Subject-Author Index 989..1009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 38 2013. SUBJECT INDEX. 16S rRNA .... reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status ... of intestinal contraction and body size in rodents and rabbits. 391. Brain ...... Trans-generational immune memory. Plant innate ...

  19. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  20. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real Estate...