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Sample records for lung heterogeneity estudo

  1. Study of the heterogeneity effects of lung in the evaluation of absorbed dose in radiotherapy; Estudo dos efeitos da heterogeneidade de pulmao na avaliacao da dose absorvida em radioterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Luciana Tourinho

    2006-02-15

    The main objective of radiotherapy is to deliver the highest possible dose to the tumour, in order to destroy it, reducing as much as possible the doses to healthy tissues adjacent to the target volume. Therefore, it is necessary to do a planning of the treatment. The more complex is the treatment, the more difficult the planning will be, demanding computation sophisticated methods in its execution, in order to consider the heterogeneities present in the human body. Additionally, with the appearing of new radiotherapeutic techniques, that used irradiation fields of small area, for instance, the intensity modulated radiotherapy, the difficulties for the execution of a reliable treatment planning, became still larger. In this work it was studied the influence of the lung heterogeneity in the planning of the curves of percentage depth dose, PDP, obtained with the Eclipse{sup R} planning system for different sizes of irradiation fields, using the correction algorithms for heterogeneities available in the planning system: modified Batho, general Batho and equivalent tissue-air ratio. A thorax phantom, manufactured in acrylic, containing a region made of cork to simulate the lung tissue, was used. The PDP curves generated by the planning system were compared to those obtained by Monte Carlo simulation and with the use of thermoluminescent, TL, dosimetry. It was verified that the algorithms used by the Eclipse{sup R} system for the correction of heterogeneity effects are not able to generate correct results for PDP curves in the case of small fields, occurring differences of up to 100%, when the 1x1 cm{sup 2} treatment field is considered. These differences can cause a considerable subdosage in the lung tissue, reducing the possibility of the patient cure. (author)

  2. Metabolic heterogeneity in human lung tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Christopher T.; Faubert, Brandon; Yuan, Qing; Lev-Cohain, Naama; Jin, Eunsook; Kim, Jiyeon; Jiang, Lei; Ko, Bookyung; Skelton, Rachael; Loudat, Laurin; Wodzak, Michelle; Klimko, Claire; McMillan, Elizabeth; Butt, Yasmeen; Ni, Min; Oliver, Dwight; Torrealba, Jose; Malloy, Craig R.; Kernstine, Kemp; Lenkinski, Robert E.; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is heterogeneous in the genetic and environmental parameters that influence cell metabolism in culture. Here, we assessed the impact of these factors on human NSCLC metabolism in vivo using intra-operative 13C-glucose infusions in nine NSCLC patients to compare metabolism between tumors and benign lung. While enhanced glycolysis and glucose oxidation were common among these tumors, we observed evidence for oxidation of multiple nutrients in each of them, including lactate as a potential carbon source. Moreover, metabolically heterogeneous regions were identified within and between tumors, and surprisingly, our data suggested potential contributions of non-glucose nutrients in well-perfused tumor areas. Our findings not only demonstrate the heterogeneity in tumor metabolism in vivo but also highlight the strong influence of the microenvironment on this feature. PMID:26853473

  3. Analysis of intratumor heterogeneity unravels lung cancer evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bruin, Elza C de; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with dismal outcome. We recently reported a detailed intratumor heterogeneity analysis in 7 non-small cell lung cancer samples, revealing spatially separated driver events as well as the temporal dynamics of mutational processes and demonstrating an important role for APOBEC-mediated heterogeneity later in disease evolution.

  4. Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractInterstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of illnesses with different pathogeneses. In interstitial lung diseases there often is an increased influx of cells from the peripheral blood (PB) to the interstitium and alveoli. Besides the increase in total cell numbers, often marke

  5. Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Hoogsteden (Henk)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractInterstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of illnesses with different pathogeneses. In interstitial lung diseases there often is an increased influx of cells from the peripheral blood (PB) to the interstitium and alveoli. Besides the increase in total cell numbers, often

  6. Effects of lung inflation on airway heterogeneity during histaminergic bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczka, David W; Mitzner, Wayne; Brown, Robert H

    2013-09-01

    Lung inflation has been shown to dilate airways by altering the mechanical equilibrium between opposing airway and parenchymal forces. However, it is not known how heterogeneously such dilation occurs throughout the airway tree. In six anesthetized dogs, we measured the diameters of five to six central airway segments using high-resolution computed tomography, along with respiratory input impedance (Zrs) during generalized aerosol histamine challenge, and local histamine challenge in which the agonist was instilled directly onto the epithelia of the imaged central airways. Airway diameters and Zrs were measured at 12 and 25 cmH2O. The Zrs spectra were fitted with a model that incorporated continuous distributions of airway resistances. Airway heterogeneity was quantified using the coefficient of variation for predefined airway distribution functions. Significant reductions in average central airway diameter were observed at 12 cmH2O for both aerosolized and local challenges, along with significant increases upon inflation to 25 cmH2O. No significant differences were observed for the coefficient of variation of airway diameters under any condition. Significant increases in effective airway resistance as measured by Zrs were observed only for the aerosolized challenge at 12 cmH2O, which was completely reversed upon inflation. We conclude that the lung periphery may be the most dominant contributor to increases in airway resistance and tissue elastance during bronchoconstriction induced by aerosolized histamine. However, isolated constriction of only a few central airway segments may also affect tissue stiffness via interdependence with their surrounding parenchyma.

  7. Simulating ventilation distribution in heterogenous lung injury using a binary tree data structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Ashley A; Amini, Reza; Kaczka, David W

    2011-10-01

    To determine the impact of mechanical heterogeneity on the distribution of regional flows and pressures in the injured lung, we developed an anatomic model of the canine lung comprised of an asymmetric branching airway network, which can be stored as binary tree data structure. The entire tree can be traversed using a recursive flow divider algorithm, allowing for efficient computation of acinar flow and pressure distributions in a mechanically heterogeneous lung. These distributions were found to be highly dependent on ventilation frequency and the heterogeneity of tissue elastances, reflecting the preferential distribution of ventilation to areas of lower regional impedance.

  8. Dosimetric verification of the anisotropic analytical algorithm in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities

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    Ono, Kaoru; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hirokawa, Yutaka [Department of Radiation Physics, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan); Quantum Energy Applications, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, 4-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 730-8527 (Japan); Center of Medical Education, Sapporo Medical University, 17 Minami 1 Jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Heiwa Clinic, 1-31 Kawaramachi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 730-0856 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: In this study, the authors evaluated the accuracy of dose calculations performed by the convolution/superposition based anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) in lung equivalent heterogeneities with and without bone equivalent heterogeneities. Methods: Calculations of PDDs using the AAA and Monte Carlo simulations (MCNP4C) were compared to ionization chamber measurements with a heterogeneous phantom consisting of lung equivalent and bone equivalent materials. Both 6 and 10 MV photon beams of 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} field sizes were used for the simulations. Furthermore, changes of energy spectrum with depth for the heterogeneous phantom using MCNP were calculated. Results: The ionization chamber measurements and MCNP calculations in a lung equivalent phantom were in good agreement, having an average deviation of only 0.64{+-}0.45%. For both 6 and 10 MV beams, the average deviation was less than 2% for the 4x4 and 10x10 cm{sup 2} fields in the water-lung equivalent phantom and the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field in the water-lung-bone equivalent phantom. Maximum deviations for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field in the lung equivalent phantom before and after the bone slab were 5.0% and 4.1%, respectively. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated an increase of the low-energy photon component in these regions, more for the 10x10 cm{sup 2} field compared to the 4x4 cm{sup 2} field. Conclusions: The low-energy photon by Monte Carlo simulation component increases sharply in larger fields when there is a significant presence of bone equivalent heterogeneities. This leads to great changes in the build-up and build-down at the interfaces of different density materials. The AAA calculation modeling of the effect is not deemed to be sufficiently accurate.

  9. EGFR Mutation Heterogeneity and the Mixed Response to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors of Lung Adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhi-yong; Zhong, Wen-Zhao; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Su, Jian; Yang, Xue-Ning; Chen, Zhi-Hong; Yang, Jin-Ji; Zhou, Qing; Yan, Hong-Hong; An, She-Juan; Chen, Hua-Jun; JIANG, BEN-YUAN; Mok, Tony S.; Wu, Yi-Long

    2012-01-01

    Direct sequencing was used to identify EGFR mutations in 180 pairs of lung adenocarcinoma samples from the primary tumor and one metastatic site in 3,071 patients. Correlations between EGFR genetic heterogeneity and patient characteristics were examined.

  10. Effect of regional lung inflation on ventilation heterogeneity at different length scales during mechanical ventilation of normal sheep lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Costa, Eduardo L V; Musch, Guido; Harris, R Scott; Venegas, Jose G; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2012-09-01

    Heterogeneous, small-airway diameters and alveolar derecruitment in poorly aerated regions of normal lungs could produce ventilation heterogeneity at those anatomic levels. We modeled the washout kinetics of (13)NN with positron emission tomography to examine how specific ventilation (sV) heterogeneity at different length scales is influenced by lung aeration. Three groups of anesthetized, supine sheep were studied: high tidal volume (Vt; 18.4 ± 4.2 ml/kg) and zero end-expiratory pressure (ZEEP) (n = 6); low Vt (9.2 ± 1.0 ml/kg) and ZEEP (n = 6); and low Vt (8.2 ± 0.2 ml/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP; 19 ± 1 cmH(2)O) (n = 4). We quantified fractional gas content with transmission scans, and sV with emission scans of infused (13)NN-saline. Voxel (13)NN-washout curves were fit with one- or two-compartment models to estimate sV. Total heterogeneity, measured as SD[log(10)(sV)], was divided into length-scale ranges by measuring changes in variance of log(10)(sV), resulting from progressive filtering of sV images. High-Vt ZEEP showed higher sV heterogeneity at 36-mm (r = -0.72) length scales (P < 0.001). We conclude that sV heterogeneity at length scales <60 mm increases in poorly aerated regions of mechanically ventilated normal lungs, likely due to heterogeneous small-airway narrowing and alveolar derecruitment. PEEP reduces sV heterogeneity by maintaining lung expansion and airway patency at those small length scales.

  11. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of airflow inside lungs using heterogenous anisotropic lung tissue elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilegbusi, Olusegun; Li, Ziang; Min, Yugang; Meeks, Sanford; Kupelian, Patrick; Santhanam, Anand P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to model the airflow inside lungs during breathing and its fluid-structure interaction with the lung tissues and the lung tumor using subject-specific elastic properties. The fluid-structure interaction technique simultaneously simulates flow within the airway and anisotropic deformation of the lung lobes. The three-dimensional (3D) lung geometry is reconstructed from the end-expiration 3D CT scan datasets of humans with lung cancer. The lung is modeled as a poro-elastic medium with anisotropic elastic property (non-linear Young's modulus) obtained from inverse lung elastography of 4D CT scans for the same patients. The predicted results include the 3D anisotropic lung deformation along with the airflow pattern inside the lungs. The effect is also presented of anisotropic elasticity on both the spatio-temporal volumetric lung displacement and the regional lung hysteresis.

  12. Linking Ventilation Heterogeneity Quantified via Hyperpolarized 3He MRI to Dynamic Lung Mechanics and Airway Hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Justin K; Parameswaran, Harikrishnan; Albert, Mitchell S; Lutchen, Kenneth R

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in hyperpolarized helium-3 MRI (HP 3He-MRI) have introduced the ability to render and quantify ventilation patterns throughout the anatomic regions of the lung. The goal of this study was to establish how ventilation heterogeneity relates to the dynamic changes in mechanical lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic subjects. In four healthy and nine mild-to-moderate asthmatic subjects, we measured dynamic lung resistance and lung elastance from 0.1 to 8 Hz via a broadband ventilation waveform technique. We quantified ventilation heterogeneity using a recently developed coefficient of variation method from HP 3He-MRI imaging. Dynamic lung mechanics and imaging were performed at baseline, post-challenge, and after a series of five deep inspirations. AHR was measured via the concentration of agonist that elicits a 20% decrease in the subject's forced expiratory volume in one second compared to baseline (PC20) dose. The ventilation coefficient of variation was correlated to low-frequency lung resistance (R = 0.647, P ventilation heterogeneity. Also, the degree of AHR appears to be dependent on the degree to which baseline airway constriction creates baseline ventilation heterogeneity. HP 3He-MRI imaging may be a powerful predictor of the degree of AHR and in tracking the efficacy of therapy.

  13. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated....... Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...... in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung....

  14. Effect of methacholine on peripheral lung mechanics and ventilation heterogeneity in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Sue R; Salome, Cheryl M; Verbanck, Sylvia; Thompson, Bruce R; Berend, Norbert; King, Gregory G

    2013-03-15

    The forced oscillation technique (FOT) and multiple-breath nitrogen washout (MBNW) are noninvasive tests that are potentially sensitive to peripheral airways, with MBNW indexes being especially sensitive to heterogeneous changes in ventilation. The objective was to study methacholine-induced changes in the lung periphery of asthmatic patients and determine how changes in FOT variables of respiratory system reactance (Xrs) and resistance (Rrs) and frequency dependence of resistance (Rrs5-Rrs19) can be linked to changes in ventilation heterogeneity. The contributions of air trapping and airway closure, as extreme forms of heterogeneity, were also investigated. Xrs5, Rrs5, Rrs19, Rrs5-Rrs19, and inspiratory capacity (IC) were calculated from the FOT. Ventilation heterogeneity in acinar and conducting airways, and trapped gas (percent volume of trapped gas at functional residual capacity/vital capacity), were calculated from the MBNW. Measurements were repeated following methacholine. Methacholine-induced airway closure (percent change in forced vital capacity) and hyperinflation (change in IC) were also recorded. In 40 mild to moderate asthmatic patients, increase in Xrs5 after methacholine was predicted by increases in ventilation heterogeneity in acinar airways and forced vital capacity (r(2) = 0.37, P ventilation heterogeneity in conducting airway increase or IC decrease. Increases in Rrs5 and Rrs5-Rrs19 after methacholine were not correlated with increases in ventilation heterogeneity, trapped gas, hyperinflation, or airway closure. Increased reactance in asthmatic patients after methacholine was indicative of heterogeneous changes in the lung periphery and airway closure. By contrast, increases in resistance and frequency dependence of resistance were not related to ventilation heterogeneity or airway closure and were more indicative of changes in central airway caliber than of heterogeneity.

  15. New heterogeneous acid catalysts in the synthesis of biodiesel; Estudo de novos catalisadores heterogeneous acidos na sintese de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldi, Rafael A.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos], e-mail: mafco@quimica.ufpr.br; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Ramos, Luiz P. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Centro de Pesquisa em Quimica Aplicada (CEPESQ)

    2007-07-01

    In this work, sulfonated polystyrene compounds (PSS) were synthesized from linear polystyrene (PS). Several methods and experimental conditions were investigated for the sulfonation of PS, producing catalytically active polymeric materials with sulfonation degrees in the range of 5.0-6.2 mmol -SO{sub 3}H/g of dry polymer. The performance of these catalysts was evaluated in transesterification reactions of beef tallow and vegetable oils with ethanol and methanol. For the sake of comparison, the same reaction conditions employed for the PSS catalysts were also used for an Amberlyst 15 (3,7 mmol SO{sub 3}H/g - Aldrich). The PSS samples were shown to be insoluble in the reaction media, leading to conversion rates of 85%, 75% and 80% of the refined soybean oil, beef tallow and crude corn oil in to ethyl esters, respectively, and 94% of the refined soybean oil methyl esters. Amberlyst 15 was studied as an alternative to the process, but its conversion rate to alkyl esters was very low in the employed conditions. These results demonstrated that our synthetic PSS materials have a great potential to act as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification. (author)

  16. Ventilation heterogeneity in the acinar and conductive zones of the normal ageing lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbanck, Sylvia; Thompson, Bruce R; Schuermans, Daniel; Kalsi, Harpal; Biddiscombe, Martyn; Stuart-Andrews, Chris; Hanon, Shane; Van Muylem, Alain; Paiva, Manuel; Vincken, Walter; Usmani, Omar

    2012-09-01

    Small airways function studies in lung disease have used three promising multiple breath washout (MBW) derived indices: indices of ventilation heterogeneity in the acinar (S(acin)) and conductive (S(cond)) lung zones, and the lung clearance index (LCI). Since peripheral lung structure is known to change with age, ventilation heterogeneity is expected to be affected too. However, the age dependence of the MBW indices of ventilation heterogeneity in the normal lung is unknown. The authors systematically investigated S(acin), S(cond) or LCI as a function of age, testing also the robustness of these relationships across two laboratories. MBW tests were performed by never-smokers (50% men) in the age range 25-65 years, with data gathered across two laboratories (n=120 and n=60). For comparison with the literature, the phase III slopes from classical single breath washout tests were also acquired in one group (n=120). All three MBW indices consistently increased with age, representing a steady worsening of ventilation heterogeneity in the age range 25-65. Age explained 7-16% of the variability in S(acin) and S(cond) and 36% of the variability in LCI. There was a small but significant gender difference only for S(acin). Classical single breath washout phase III slopes also showed age dependencies, with gender effects depending on the normalisation method used. With respect to the clinical response, age is a small but consistent effect that needs to be factored in when using the MBW indices for the detection of small airways abnormality in disease.

  17. Intratumor Heterogeneity of ALK-Rearrangements and Homogeneity of EGFR-Mutations in Mixed Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Zito Marino

    Full Text Available Non Small Cell Lung Cancer is a highly heterogeneous tumor. Histologic intratumor heterogeneity could be 'major', characterized by a single tumor showing two different histologic types, and 'minor', due to at least 2 different growth patterns in the same tumor. Therefore, a morphological heterogeneity could reflect an intratumor molecular heterogeneity. To date, few data are reported in literature about molecular features of the mixed adenocarcinoma. The aim of our study was to assess EGFR-mutations and ALK-rearrangements in different intratumor subtypes and/or growth patterns in a series of mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas.590 Non Small Cell Lung Carcinomas tumor samples were revised in order to select mixed adenocarcinomas with available tumor components. Finally, only 105 mixed adenocarcinomas and 17 adenosquamous carcinomas were included in the study for further analyses. Two TMAs were built selecting the different intratumor histotypes. ALK-rearrangements were detected through FISH and IHC, and EGFR-mutations were detected through IHC and confirmed by RT-PCR.10/122 cases were ALK-rearranged and 7 from those 10 showing an intratumor heterogeneity of the rearrangements. 12/122 cases were EGFR-mutated, uniformly expressing the EGFR-mutated protein in all histologic components.Our data suggests that EGFR-mutations is generally homogeneously expressed. On the contrary, ALK-rearrangement showed an intratumor heterogeneity in both mixed adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas. The intratumor heterogeneity of ALK-rearrangements could lead to a possible impact on the therapeutic responses and the disease outcomes.

  18. Large scale validation of the M5L lung CAD on heterogeneous CT datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez Torres, E., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [CEADEN, Havana 11300, Cuba and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Fiorina, E.; Pennazio, F.; Peroni, C. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Saletta, M.; Cerello, P., E-mail: Ernesto.Lopez.Torres@cern.ch, E-mail: cerello@to.infn.it [INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Camarlinghi, N.; Fantacci, M. E. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Pisa 56127, Italy and INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa 56127 (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: M5L, a fully automated computer-aided detection (CAD) system for the detection and segmentation of lung nodules in thoracic computed tomography (CT), is presented and validated on several image datasets. Methods: M5L is the combination of two independent subsystems, based on the Channeler Ant Model as a segmentation tool [lung channeler ant model (lungCAM)] and on the voxel-based neural approach. The lungCAM was upgraded with a scan equalization module and a new procedure to recover the nodules connected to other lung structures; its classification module, which makes use of a feed-forward neural network, is based of a small number of features (13), so as to minimize the risk of lacking generalization, which could be possible given the large difference between the size of the training and testing datasets, which contain 94 and 1019 CTs, respectively. The lungCAM (standalone) and M5L (combined) performance was extensively tested on 1043 CT scans from three independent datasets, including a detailed analysis of the full Lung Image Database Consortium/Image Database Resource Initiative database, which is not yet found in literature. Results: The lungCAM and M5L performance is consistent across the databases, with a sensitivity of about 70% and 80%, respectively, at eight false positive findings per scan, despite the variable annotation criteria and acquisition and reconstruction conditions. A reduced sensitivity is found for subtle nodules and ground glass opacities (GGO) structures. A comparison with other CAD systems is also presented. Conclusions: The M5L performance on a large and heterogeneous dataset is stable and satisfactory, although the development of a dedicated module for GGOs detection could further improve it, as well as an iterative optimization of the training procedure. The main aim of the present study was accomplished: M5L results do not deteriorate when increasing the dataset size, making it a candidate for supporting radiologists on large

  19. Vasomotor tone does not affect perfusion heterogeneity and gas exchange in normal primate lungs during normoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenny, R. W.; Robertson, H. T.; Hlastala, M. P.

    2000-01-01

    To determine whether vasoregulation is an important cause of pulmonary perfusion heterogeneity, we measured regional blood flow and gas exchange before and after giving prostacyclin (PGI(2)) to baboons. Four animals were anesthetized with ketamine and mechanically ventilated. Fluorescent microspheres were used to mark regional perfusion before and after PGI(2) infusion. The lungs were subsequently excised, dried inflated, and diced into approximately 2-cm(3) pieces (n = 1,208-1,629 per animal) with the spatial coordinates recorded for each piece. Blood flow to each piece was determined for each condition from the fluorescent signals. Blood flow heterogeneity did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Two other measures of spatial blood flow distribution, the fractal dimension and the spatial correlation, did not change with PGI(2) infusion. Alveolar-arterial O(2) differences did not change with PGI(2) infusion. We conclude that, in normal primate lungs during normoxia, vasomotor tone is not a significant cause of perfusion heterogeneity. Despite the heterogeneous distribution of blood flow, active regulation of regional perfusion is not required for efficient gas exchange.

  20. A functional role for tumor cell heterogeneity in a mouse model of small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbo, Joaquim; van Montfort, Erwin; Proost, Natalie; van Drunen, Ellen; Beverloo, H Berna; Meuwissen, Ralph; Berns, Anton

    2011-02-15

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the lung neoplasia with the poorest prognosis, due to its high metastatic potential and chemoresistance upon relapse. Using the previously described mouse model for SCLC, we found that the tumors are often composed of phenotypically different cells with either a neuroendocrine or a mesenchymal marker profile. These cells had a common origin because they shared specific genomic aberrations. The transition from neuroendocrine to mesenchymal phenotype could be achieved by the ectopic expression of oncogenic Ras(V12). Crosstalk between mesenchymal and neuroendocrine cells strongly influenced their behavior. When engrafted as a mixed population, the mesenchymal cells endowed the neuroendocrine cells with metastatic capacity, illustrating the potential relevance of tumor cell heterogeneity in dictating tumor properties.

  1. Regional Heterogeneity in Murine Lung Fibroblasts from Normal Mice or Mice Exposed Once to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preobrazhenska, Olena; Wright, Joanne L.; Churg, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) is characterized by matrix deposition in the small airways but matrix loss from the parenchyma, phenomena which must depend on the ability of local fibroblasts to produce matrix after smoke exposure. To investigate this idea, we exposed C57Bl/6 mice once to cigarette smoke or to air (control) and prepared primary cultures of lung fibroblasts by microdissecting large airways (trachea, LAF), medium size airways (major bronchi, MAF) and parenchyma (PF). Control PF showed the lowest rate of wound closure and wound closure was depressed in all lines by a single in vivo smoke exposure. Gene expression of matrix proteins differed considerably among the sites; decorin, which may sequester TGFβ, was markedly higher in PF. PF showed higher intrinsic ratios of pSmad2/Smad2. Smoke caused much greater increases in secreted and matrix deposited collagens 1 and 3 in PF than in LAF or MAF. Expression of Thy-1, a gene that suppresses myofibroblast differentiation, was increased by smoke in PF. We conclude that there is considerable regional heterogeneity in murine lung fibroblasts in terms of matrix production, either basally or after in vivo smoke exposure; that PF have lower ability to repair wounds and higher intrinsic TGFβ signaling; and that a single exposure to smoke produces lasting changes in the pattern of matrix production and wound repair, changes that may be mediated in part by smoke-induced release of TGFβ. However, PF still retain the ability to repair by producing new matrix after a single in vivo smoke exposure. PMID:22761892

  2. Comparison of distinctive models for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index in patients prior to endoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theilig D

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Theilig,1 Felix Doellinger,1 Alexander Poellinger,1 Vera Schreiter,1 Konrad Neumann,2 Ralf-Harto Hubner31Department of Radiology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2Institute of Biometrics and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Pneumology, Charité Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, GermanyBackground: The degree of interlobar emphysema heterogeneity is thought to play an important role in the outcome of endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR therapy of patients with advanced COPD. There are multiple ways one could possibly define interlobar emphysema heterogeneity, and there is no standardized definition.Purpose: The aim of this study was to derive a formula for calculating an interlobar emphysema heterogeneity index (HI when evaluating a patient for ELVR. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify a threshold for relevant interlobar emphysema heterogeneity with regard to ELVR.Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 50 patients who had undergone technically successful ELVR with placement of one-way valves at our institution and had received lung function tests and computed tomography scans before and after treatment. Predictive accuracy of the different methods for HI calculation was assessed with receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, assuming a minimum difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 100 mL to indicate a clinically important change.Results: The HI defined as emphysema score of the targeted lobe (TL minus emphysema score of the ipsilateral nontargeted lobe disregarding the middle lobe yielded the best predicative accuracy (AUC =0.73, P=0.008. The HI defined as emphysema score of the TL minus emphysema score of the lung without the TL showed a similarly good predictive accuracy (AUC =0.72, P=0.009. Subgroup

  3. Combination effects of tissue heterogeneity and geometric targeting error in stereotactic body radiotherapy for lung cancer using CyberKnife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ki Mun; Jeong, Bae Kwon; Choi, Hoon-Sik; Yoo, Seung Hoon; Hwang, Ui-Jung; Lim, Young Kyung; Jeong, Hojin

    2015-09-08

    We have investigated the combined effect of tissue heterogeneity and its variation associated with geometric error in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung cancer. The treatment plans for eight lung cancer patients were calculated using effective path length (EPL) correction and Monte Carlo (MC) algorithms, with both having the same beam configuration for each patient. These two kinds of plans for individual patients were then subsequently recalculated with adding systematic and random geometric errors. In the ordinary treatment plans calculated with no geometric offset, the EPL calculations, compared with the MC calculations, largely overestimated the doses to PTV by ~ 21%, whereas the overestimation were markedly lower in GTV by ~ 12% due to relatively higher density of GTV than of PTV. When recalculating the plans for individual patients with assigning the systematic and random geometric errors, no significant changes in the relative dose distribution, except for overall shift, were observed in the EPL calculations, whereas largely altered in the MC calculations with a consistent increase in dose to GTV. Considering the better accuracy of MC than EPL algorithms, the present results demonstrated the strong coupling of tissue heterogeneity and geometric error, thereby emphasizing the essential need for simultaneous correction for tissue heterogeneity and geometric targeting error in SBRT of lung cancer.

  4. Paradigm shift in LUNG SBRT dose calculation associated with Heterogeneity correction; Cambio de paradigma en SBRT pulmonar asociada al calculo de dosis con correccion de heterogeneidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Pinto Monedero, M.; Marti Asensjo, J.; Alonso Iracheta, L.

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of lung injury SBRT requires great dosimetric accuracy, the increasing clinical importance of dose calculation heterogeneities introducing algorithms that adequately model the transport of particles narrow beams in media of low density, as with Monte Carlo calculation. (Author)

  5. Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung ventilation determined by electrical impedance tomography during pulmonary function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Barbara; Pulletz, Sven; Elke, Gunnar; Zhao, Zhanqi; Zabel, Peter; Weiler, Norbert; Frerichs, Inéz

    2012-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a functional imaging modality capable of tracing continuously regional pulmonary gas volume changes. The aim of our study was to determine if EIT was able to assess spatial and temporal heterogeneity of ventilation during pulmonary function testing in 14 young (37 ± 10 yr, mean age ± SD) and 12 elderly (71 ± 9 yr) subjects without lung disease and in 33 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (71 ± 9 yr). EIT and spirometry examinations were performed during tidal breathing and a forced vital capacity (FVC) maneuver preceded by full inspiration to total lung capacity. Regional inspiratory vital capacity (IVC); FVC; forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)); FEV(1)/FVC; times required to expire 25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% of FVC (t(25), t(50), t(75), t(90)); and tidal volume (V(T)) were determined in 912 EIT image pixels in the chest cross section. Coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated from all pixel values of IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) to characterize the ventilation heterogeneity. The highest values were found in patients, and no differences existed between the healthy young and elderly subjects. Receiver-operating characteristics curves showed that CV of regional IVC, FVC, FEV(1), and V(T) discriminated the young and elderly subjects from the patients. Frequency distributions of pixel FEV(1)/FVC, t(25), t(50), t(75), and t(90) identified the highest ventilation heterogeneity in patients but distinguished also the healthy young from the elderly subjects. These results indicate that EIT may provide additional information during pulmonary function testing and identify pathologic and age-related spatial and temporal heterogeneity of regional lung function.

  6. Bronchoscopic Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment of Patients With Severe Heterogeneous Emphysema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slebos, Dirk-Jan; Klooster, Karin; Ernst, Armin; Herth, Felix J. F.; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The lung volume reduction coil (LVR-coil), a new experimental device to achieve lung volume reduction by bronchoscopy in patients with severe emphysema, works in a manner unaffected by collateral airflow. We investigated the safety and efficacy of LVR-coil treatment in patients with hete

  7. Intratumor heterogeneity and chemotherapy-induced changes in EGFR status in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2012-01-01

    Biomarker expression is increasingly being used to customize treatment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The choice of systemic treatment usually depends on biomarker expression in the initial diagnostic biopsy taken before initiation of first-line treatment. Chemotherapy induces DNA damages...... in the tumor cells, and thus, biomarker expression in the tumor after systemic treatment might not be identical to biomarker expression in the diagnostic biopsy. NSCLC is highly heterogeneous and biomarker expression may vary in different areas within the same tumor. This review explores the tumor...

  8. Heterogeneity of lung mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia: contribution of chemokine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lanlin; Zhang, Zhimin; Barletta, Kathryn E; Burdick, Marie D; Mehrad, Borna

    2013-11-15

    Bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous illness. Mononuclear phagocytes, which comprise monocyte, resident and recruited macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets, are critical to antimicrobial defenses, but the dynamics of their recruitment to the lungs in pneumonia is not established. We hypothesized that chemokine-mediated traffic of mononuclear phagocytes is important in defense against bacterial pneumonia. In a mouse model of Klebsiella pneumonia, circulating Ly6C(hi) and, to a lesser extent, Ly6C(lo) monocytes expanded in parallel with accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and CD11b(hi) dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the lungs, whereas numbers of alveolar macrophages remained constant. CCR2 was expressed by Ly6C(hi) monocytes, recruited macrophages, and airway dendritic cells; CCR6 was prominently expressed by airway dendritic cells; and CX3CR1 was ubiquitously expressed by blood monocytes and lung CD11b(hi) dendritic cells during infection. CCR2-deficient, but not CCL2-, CX3CR1-, or CCR6-deficient animals exhibited worse outcomes of infection. The absence of CCR2 had no detectable effect on neutrophils but resulted in reduction of all subsets of lung mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs, including alveolar macrophages and airway and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, absence of CCR2 skewed the phenotype of lung mononuclear phagocytes, abrogating the appearance of M1 macrophages and TNF-producing dendritic cells in the lungs. Taken together, these data define the dynamics of mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia.

  9. Tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung carcinoma assessed by CT texture analysis: a potential marker of survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, Balaji; Miles, Ken [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Division of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, Brighton, East Sussex (United Kingdom); Panayiotou, Elleny; Burnand, Kate [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Sussex County Hospital, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-15

    To establish the potential for tumour heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as assessed by CT texture analysis (CTTA) to provide an independent marker of survival for patients with NSCLC. Tumour heterogeneity was assessed by CTTA of unenhanced images of primary pulmonary lesions from 54 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-CT for staging of NSCLC. CTTA comprised image filtration to extract fine, medium and coarse features with quantification of the distribution of pixel values (uniformity) within the filtered images. Receiver operating characteristics identified thresholds for PET and CTTA parameters that were related to patient survival using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The median (range) survival was 29.5 (1-38) months. 24, 10, 14 and 6 patients had tumour stages I, II, III and IV respectively. PET stage and tumour heterogeneity assessed by CTTA were significant independent predictors of survival (PET stage: Odds ratio 3.85, 95% confidence limits 0.9-8.09, P = 0.002; CTTA: Odds ratio 56.4, 95% confidence limits 4.79-666, p = 0.001). SUV was not a significantly associated with survival. Assessment of tumour heterogeneity by CTTA of non-contrast enhanced images has the potential for to provide a novel, independent predictor of survival for patients with NSCLC. (orig.)

  10. Bioinformatics Methods for Learning Radiation-Induced Lung Inflammation from Heterogeneous Retrospective and Prospective Data

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between physical and biological factors, reflecting both treatment conditions and underlying genetics. Recent advances in radiotherapy and biotechnology provide new opportunities and challenges for predicting radiation-induced toxicities, particularly radiation pneumonitis (RP), in lung cancer patients. In this work, we utilize datamining methods based on machine learning to build a predictive model of lung injury by retrospectiv...

  11. Heterogeneity of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in lung adenocarcinoma harboring anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiong; Wu, Jian-Yu; Jiao, Shun-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Lung cancer is a heterogeneous and complex disease that remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements has changed the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer, creating a personalized treatment era that is based on the appropriate molecular selection of patients. In spite of the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), acquired resistance remains inevitable due to various mechanisms. The present study reports the case of a 30-year-old patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma initially harboring an EGFR mutation. However, following disease progression and a series of treatments, the wild-type EGFR gene was observed and the ALK rearrangements were revealed. Erlotinib administration resulted in a good response in the patient initially, but crizotinib did not. This indicated an association between the secondary mutations in kinases and the drug resistance to TKIs. This case should also highlight the clinical significance of repeat biopsies for the subsequent therapeutic choices at the onset of clinical progression.

  12. Automatic classification of lung tumour heterogeneity according to a visual-based score system in dynamic contrast enhanced CT sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Alessandro; Baiocco, Serena

    2016-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) technologies have been considered for a long time as one of the most effective medical imaging tools for morphological analysis of body parts. Contrast Enhanced CT (CE-CT) also allows emphasising details of tissue structures whose heterogeneity, inspected through visual analysis, conveys crucial information regarding diagnosis and prognosis in several clinical pathologies. Recently, Dynamic CE-CT (DCE-CT) has emerged as a promising technique to perform also functional hemodynamic studies, with wide applications in the oncologic field. DCE-CT is based on repeated scans over time performed after intravenous administration of contrast agent, in order to study the temporal evolution of the tracer in 3D tumour tissue. DCE-CT pushes towards an intensive use of computers to provide automatically quantitative information to be used directly in clinical practice. This requires that visual analysis, representing the gold-standard for CT image interpretation, gains objectivity. This work presents the first automatic approach to quantify and classify the lung tumour heterogeneities based on DCE-CT image sequences, so as it is performed through visual analysis by experts. The approach developed relies on the spatio-temporal indices we devised, which also allow exploiting temporal data that enrich the knowledge of the tissue heterogeneity by providing information regarding the lesion status.

  13. Dose verification of radiotherapy for lung cancer by using plastic scintillator dosimetry and a heterogeneous phantom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Wiviann; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    Bone, air passages, cavities, and lung are elements present in patients, but challenging to properly correct for in treatment planning dose calculations. Plastic scintillator detectors (PSDs) have proven to be well suited for dosimetry in non-reference conditions such as small fields. The objective...... of this study was to investigate the performance of a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) using a PSD and a specially designed thorax phantom with lung tumor inserts. 10 treatment plans of different complexity and phantom configurations were evaluated. Although the TPS agreed well with the measurements...

  14. Bronchoscopic lung volumen reduction is a treatment offered to patients with severe heterogenous emphysema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Hilberg, Ole

    2014-01-01

    interstitial pneumonia on high resolution computed tomography or specific combinations of radiological and histopathological patterns. All patients should be evaluated for lung transplantation, and treatment with the anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone is recommended for patients with a forced vital capacity > 50...

  15. Heterogeneity in coal composition and implications for lung cancer risk in Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downward, George S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412435667; Hu, Wei; Large, David; Veld, Harry; Xu, Jun; Reiss, Boris|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314119205; Wu, Guoping; Wei, Fusheng; Chapman, Robert S.; Rothman, Nat; Qing, Lan; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620

    2014-01-01

    Background: Xuanwei and Fuyuan counties in Yunnan Province, China have among the highest lung cancer rates in the country. This has been associated with the domestic combustion of bituminous coal (referred to as "smoky" coal). Additionally, significant geographical variation in cancer rates among

  16. Multiregion sequencing reveals the intratumor heterogeneity of driver mutations in TP53-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le-Le; Kan, Mengyuan; Zhang, Man-Man; Yu, Sha-Sha; Xie, Hui-Jun; Gu, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Ning; Zhao, Shuang-Xia; Zhou, Guang-Biao; Song, Huai-Dong; Zheng, Cui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) may account for resistance after a period of targeted therapies because drugs destroy only a portion of tumor cells. The recognition of ITH helps identify high-risk patients to make effective treatment decisions. However, ITH studies are confounded by interpatient heterogeneity in NSCLC and a large amount of passenger mutations. To address these issues, we recruited NSCLC patients carrying TP53 mutations and selected driver mutations within recurrently mutated genes in NSCLC. A total of 12-paired normal-tumor tissues were subjected to whole-genome/whole-exome sequencing. From these, 367 non-silent mutations were selected as driver mutations and deeply sequenced in 61 intratumoral microdissections. We identified a universal prevalence of heterogeneity in all 12 tumors, indicating branched evolution. Although TP53 mutations were observed in single biopsy of all 12 tumors, most tumors consist of both TP53 mutated and non-mutated cells in separate regions within the same tumor. This suggests the late molecular timing of the acquisition of TP53 mutations; therefore, the detection of TP53 mutations in a single biopsy may simply not reflect the early malignant potential. In addition, we identified regions of loss of heterozygosity surrounding TP53 and CDKN2A mutations in tumor 711, which also exhibited heterogeneity in different regional samples. Because the ITH of driver mutations likely has clinical consequences, further efforts are needed to limit the impact of ITH and to improve therapeutic efficiency, which will benefit NSCLC patients receiving targeted treatments.

  17. Heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex demonstrated by the selective antagonist AF-DX 116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, J.W.; Halonen, M.; Seaver, N.A.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-07-27

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the majority of muscarinic receptors in rabbit peripheral lung homogenates bind pirenzepine with high affinity (putative M1 subtype). In experiments of AF-DX 116 inhibiting (TH)(-)quinuclidinyl benzilate or (TH)pirenzepine, the authors found similar inhibitory constants for AF-DX 116 binding in rat heart and rabbit peripheral lung that were 4-fold smaller (i.e. of higher affinity) than the inhibitory constant for rat cerebral cortex. This results demonstrates heterogeneity of the M1 muscarinic receptor subtype between peripheral lung and cerebral cortex. 20 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  18. Bioinformatics Methods for Learning Radiation-Induced Lung Inflammation from Heterogeneous Retrospective and Prospective Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah J.; Almiron Bonnin, Damian; Deasy, Joseph O.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; El Naqa, Issam

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy outcomes are determined by complex interactions between physical and biological factors, reflecting both treatment conditions and underlying genetics. Recent advances in radiotherapy and biotechnology provide new opportunities and challenges for predicting radiation-induced toxicities, particularly radiation pneumonitis (RP), in lung cancer patients. In this work, we utilize datamining methods based on machine learning to build a predictive model of lung injury by retrospective analysis of treatment planning archives. In addition, biomarkers for this model are extracted from a prospective clinical trial that collects blood serum samples at multiple time points. We utilize a 3-way proteomics methodology to screen for differentially expressed proteins that are related to RP. Our preliminary results demonstrate that kernel methods can capture nonlinear dose-volume interactions, but fail to address missing biological factors. Our proteomics strategy yielded promising protein candidates, but their role in RP as well as their interactions with dose-volume metrics remain to be determined. PMID:19704920

  19. Quantitative computed tomographic descriptors associate tumor shape complexity and intratumor heterogeneity with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olya Grove

    Full Text Available Two CT features were developed to quantitatively describe lung adenocarcinomas by scoring tumor shape complexity (feature 1: convexity and intratumor density variation (feature 2: entropy ratio in routinely obtained diagnostic CT scans. The developed quantitative features were analyzed in two independent cohorts (cohort 1: n = 61; cohort 2: n = 47 of patients diagnosed with primary lung adenocarcinoma, retrospectively curated to include imaging and clinical data. Preoperative chest CTs were segmented semi-automatically. Segmented tumor regions were further subdivided into core and boundary sub-regions, to quantify intensity variations across the tumor. Reproducibility of the features was evaluated in an independent test-retest dataset of 32 patients. The proposed metrics showed high degree of reproducibility in a repeated experiment (concordance, CCC≥0.897; dynamic range, DR≥0.92. Association with overall survival was evaluated by Cox proportional hazard regression, Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the log-rank test. Both features were associated with overall survival (convexity: p = 0.008; entropy ratio: p = 0.04 in Cohort 1 but not in Cohort 2 (convexity: p = 0.7; entropy ratio: p = 0.8. In both cohorts, these features were found to be descriptive and demonstrated the link between imaging characteristics and patient survival in lung adenocarcinoma.

  20. The Impact of Homogeneous Versus Heterogeneous Emphysema on Dynamic Hyperinflation in Patients With Severe COPD Assessed for Lung Volume Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutou, Afroditi K; Zoumot, Zaid; Nair, Arjun; Davey, Claire; Hansell, David M; Jamurtas, Athanasios; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic hyperinflation (DH) is a pathophysiologic hallmark of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of emphysema distribution on DH during a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with severe COPD. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data among severe COPD patients who underwent thoracic high-resolution computed tomography, full lung function measurements and maximal CPET with inspiratory manouvers as assessment for a lung volume reduction procedure. ΔIC was calculated by subtracting the end-exercise inspiratory capacity (eIC) from resting IC (rIC) and expressed as a percentage of rIC (ΔIC%). Emphysema quantification was conducted at 3 predefined levels using the syngo PULMO-CT (Siemens AG); a difference >25% between best and worse slice was defined as heterogeneous emphysema. Fifty patients with heterogeneous (62.7% male; 60.9 ± 7.5 years old; FEV1% = 32.4 ± 11.4) and 14 with homogeneous emphysema (61.5% male; 62.5 ± 5.9 years old; FEV1% = 28.1 ± 10.3) fulfilled the enrolment criteria. The groups were matched for all baseline variables. ΔIC% was significantly higher in homogeneous emphysema (39.8% ± 9.8% vs.31.2% ± 13%, p = 0.031), while no other CPET parameter differed between the groups. Upper lobe predominance of emphysema correlated positively with peak oxygen pulse, peak oxygen uptake and peak respiratory rate, and negatively with ΔIC%. Homogeneous emphysema is associated with more DH during maximum exercise in COPD patients.

  1. Clinical heterogeneity of dominant chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease: presenting as treatment-resistant candidiasis and chronic lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotta, Laura; Scomodon, Omar; Padoan, Rita; Timpano, Silviana; Plebani, Alessandro; Soresina, Annarosa; Lougaris, Vassilios; Concolino, Daniela; Nicoletti, Angela; Giardino, Giuliana; Licari, Amelia; Marseglia, Gianluigi; Pignata, Claudio; Tamassia, Nicola; Facchetti, Fabio; Vairo, Donatella; Badolato, Raffaele

    2016-03-01

    In gain-of-function STAT1 mutations, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) represents the phenotypic manifestation of a complex immunodeficiency characterized by clinical and immunological heterogeneity. We aimed to study clinical manifestations, long-term complications, molecular basis, and immune profile of patients with dominant CMCD. We identified nine patients with heterozygous mutations in STAT1, including novel amino acid substitutions (L283M, L351F, L400V). High risk of azole-resistance was observed, particularly when intermittent regimens of antifungal treatment or use of suboptimal dosage occurs. We report a case of Cryptococcosis and various bacterial and viral infections. Risk of developing bronchiectasis in early childhood or gradually evolving to chronic lung disease in adolescent or adult ages emerges. Lymphopenia is variable, likely progressing by adulthood. We conclude that continuous antifungal prophylaxis associated to drug monitoring might prevent resistance to treatment; prompt diagnosis and therapy of lung disease might control long-term progression; careful monitoring of lymphopenia-related infections might improve prognosis.

  2. [Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction is a treatment offered to patients with severe heterogenous emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perch, Michael; Titlestad, Ingrid L; Rychwicha-Kielek, Beata A; Bendstrup, Elisabeth; Iversen, Martin; Siemsen, Mette; Jørgensen, Ole D; Haahr, Poul Erik

    2014-07-14

    Introduction of bronchoscopic lung volume reduction as a treatment for severe emphysema has been defined as an area of development by The Danish Health and Medicines Authority. We here present the rationale for treatment, in- and exclusion criteria, and ultimately the organization for assessment, treatment and follow-up in Denmark. The treatment aim is to lower dyspnoea. There is a national protocol for patient selection according to in- and exclusion criteria. Different commercial devices are available, but endobronchial valves have been the devices mostly applied. A national database has been established to evaluate cost-effectiveness.

  3. Molecular heterogeneity assessment by next-generation sequencing and response to gefitinib of EGFR mutant advanced lung adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Amato, Eliana; Fassan, Matteo; Novello, Silvia; Peretti, Umberto; Vavalà, Tiziana; Kinspergher, Stefania; Righi, Luisella; Santo, Antonio; Brunelli, Matteo; Corbo, Vincenzo; Giglioli, Eliana; Sperduti, Isabella; Milella, Michele; Chilosi, Marco; Scarpa, Aldo; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2015-05-20

    Cancer molecular heterogeneity might explain the variable response of EGFR mutant lung adenocarcinomas to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We assessed the mutational status of 22 cancer genes by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in poor, intermediate or good responders to first-line gefitinib. Clinical outcome was correlated with Additional Coexisting Mutations (ACMs) and the EGFR Proportion of Mutated Alleles (PMA). Thirteen ACMs were found in 10/17 patients: TP53 (n=6), KRAS (n=2), CTNNB1 (n=2), PIK3CA, SMAD4 and MET (n=1 each). TP53 mutations were exclusive of poor/intermediate responders (66.7% versus 0, p=0.009). Presence of ACMs significantly affected both PFS (median 3.0 versus 12.3 months, p=0.03) and survival (3.6 months versus not reached, p=0.03). TP53 mutation was the strongest negative modifier (median PFS 4.0 versus 14.0 months). Higher EGFR PMA was present in good versus poor/intermediate responders. Median PFS and survival were longer in patients with EGFR PMA ≥0.36 (12.0 versus 4.0 months, p=0.31; not reached versus 18.0 months, p=0.59). Patients with an EGFR PMA ≥0.36 and no ACMs fared significantly better (p=0.03), with a trend towards increased survival (p=0.06). Our exploratory data suggest that a quantitative (PMA) and qualitative (ACMs) molecular heterogeneity assessment using NGS might be useful for a better selection of patients.

  4. Application of Voxel Phantoms to Study the Influence of Heterogeneous Distribution of Actinides in Lungs on In Vivo Counting Calibration Factors Using Animal Experimentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamart, S.; Pierrat, N.; De Carlan, L.; Franck, D. [IRSN/DRPH/SDI/LEDI, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Dudoignon, N. [IRSN/DRPH/SRBE/LRPAT, BP 17, F-92 262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Rateau, S.; Van der Meeren, A.; Rouit, E. [CEA/DSV/DRR/SRCA/LRT BP no 12, F-91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Bottlaender, M. [CEA/SHFJ, 4, place du General Leclerc F-91400 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    Calibration of lung counting system dedicated to retention assessment of actinides in the lungs remains critical due to large uncertainties in calibration factors. Among them, the detector positioning, the chest wall thickness and composition (muscle/fat) assessment, and the distribution of the contamination are the main parameters influencing the detector response. In order to reduce these uncertainties, a numerical approach based on the application of voxel phantoms (numerical phantoms based on tomographic images, CT or MRI) associated to a Monte-Carlo code (namely M.C.N.P.) was developed. It led to the development of a dedicated tool, called O.E.D.I.P.E., that allows to easily handle realistic voxel phantoms for the simulation of in vivo measurement (or dose calculation, application that will not be presented in this paper). The goal of this paper is to present our study of the influence of the lung distribution on calibration factors using both animal experimentations and our numerical method. Indeed, physical anthropomorphic phantoms used for calibration always consider a uniform distribution of the source in the lungs, which is not true in many contamination conditions. The purpose of the study is to compare the response of the measurement detectors using a real distribution of actinide particles in the lungs, obtained from animal experimentations, with the homogeneous one considered as the reference. This comparison was performed using O.E.D.I.P.E. that can almost simulate any source distribution. A non human primate was contaminated heterogeneously by intra-tracheal administration of actinide oxide. After euthanasia, gamma spectrometry measurements were performed on the pulmonary lobes to obtain the distribution of the contamination in the lungs. This realistic distribution was used to simulate an heterogeneous contamination in the numerical phantom of the non human primate, which was compared with a simulation of an homogeneous contamination presenting the

  5. The effect of rib and lung heterogeneities on the computed dose to lung in Ir-192 high-dose-rate breast brachytherapy: Monte Carlo versus a treatment planning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdi, Hossein Salehi; Shamsaei, Mojtaba; Jaberi, Ramin; Shabani, Hamid Reza; Allahverdi, Mahmoud; Vaezzadeh, Seyed Ali

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent the dose received by lungs from a commercially available treatment planning system, Ir-192 high-dose-rate (HDR), in breast brachytherapy, is accurate, with the emphasis on tissue heterogeneities, and taking into account the presence of ribs, in dose delivery to the lung. A computed tomography (CT) scan of a breast was acquired and transferred to the 3-D treatment planning system and was also used to construct a patient-equivalent phantom. An implant involving 13 plastic catheters and 383 programmed source dwell positions were simulated, using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The Monte Carlo calculations were compared with the corresponding commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the form of percentage isodose and cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH) in the breast, lungs, and ribs. The comparison of the Monte Carlo results and the TPS calculations showed that a percentage of isodose greater than 75% in the breast, which was located rather close to the implant or away from the breast curvature surface and lung boundary, were in good agreement. TPS calculations overestimated the dose to the lung for lower isodose contours that were lying near the breast surface and the boundary of breast and lung and were relatively away from the implant. Taking into account the ribs and entering the actual data for breasts, ribs, and lungs, revealed an average overestimation of the dose by a factor of 8% in the lung for TPS calculations. Therefore, the accuracy of the TPS results may be limited to regions near the implants where the treatment is planned, and is a more conservative approach for regions at boundaries with curvatures or tissues with a different material than that in the breast.

  6. SU-E-J-64: Evaluation of a Commercial EPID-Based in Vivo Dosimetric System in the Presence of Lung Tissue Heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimeno-Olmos, J; Palomo-Llinares, R; Candela-Juan, C; Carmona Meseguer, V; Lliso-Valverde, F [Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Garcia-Martinez, T [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain); Richart-Sancho, J [Clinica Benidorm, Benidorm, Alicante (Spain); Ballester, F [University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain); Perez-Calatayud, J [Hospital Universitari i Politecnic La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Clinica Benidorm, Benidorm, Alicante (Spain)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the performance of Dosimetry Check (DC), an EPID-based dosimetry software, which allows performing transit dosimetry, in low density medium, by comparing calculations in-phantom, and analysing results for 15 lung patients. Methods: DC software (v.3.8, pencil beam-based algorithm) has been tested, for plans (Eclipse v.10.0 TPS) delivered in two Varian Clinac iX equipped with aS1000 EPIDs.In the CIRS lung phantom, comparisons between DC and Eclipse (Acuros) were performed for several plans: (1) four field box; (2) square field delivered in arc mode; (3) RapidArc lung patient plan medially centred; (4) RapidArc lung patient plan centred in one lung. Reference points analysed: P1 (medial point, plans 1–3) and P2 (located inside one lung, plan 4).For fifteen lung patients treated with RapidArc, the isocentre and 9 additional points inside the PTV as well as the gamma passing rate (3%/3mm) for the PTV and at the main planes were studied. Results: In-phantom:P1: Per-field differences in plan 1: good agreement for AP-PA fields; discrepancy of 7% for the lateral fields. Global differences (plans 1–3): about 4%, showing a compensating effect of the individual differences.P2: Global difference (plan 4): 15 %. This represents the worst case situation as it is a point surrounded by lung tissue, where the DC pencil beam algorithm is expected to give the greater difference against Acuros.Lung patients: Mean point difference inside the PTV:(5.4±4.2) %. Gamma passing rate inside the PTV:(45±12) %. Conclusion: The performance of DC in heterogeneous lung medium was studied with a special phantom and the results for 15 patients were analysed. The found deviations show that even though DC is a highly promising in vivo dosimetry tool, there is a need of incorporating a more accurate algorithm mainly for plans with low density regions involved.

  7. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT heterogeneity quantification through textural features in the era of harmonisation programs: a focus on lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnon, Charline [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Majdoub, Mohamed; Lavigne, Brice; Visvikis, Dimitris [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Do, Pascal [Thoracic Oncology, Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Caen (France); Madelaine, Jeannick [Caen University Hospital, Pulmonology Department, Caen (France); Hatt, Mathieu [LaTIM, INSERM UMR 1101, Brest (France); CHRU Morvan, INSERM UMR 1101, Laboratoire de Traitement de l' Information Medicale (LaTIM), Groupe ' Imagerie multi-modalite quantitative pour le diagnostic et la therapie' , Brest (France); Aide, Nicolas [University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France); Biologie et Therapies Innovantes des Cancers Localement Agressifs, Universite de Caen Normandie, INSERM, Caen (France); Normandie University, Caen (France); Caen University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Caen (France)

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of tumour heterogeneity in PET images has recently gained interest, but has been shown to be dependent on image reconstruction. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the EANM/EARL accreditation program on selected {sup 18}F-FDG heterogeneity metrics. To carry out our study, we prospectively analysed 71 tumours in 60 biopsy-proven lung cancer patient acquisitions reconstructed with unfiltered point spread function (PSF) positron emission tomography (PET) images (optimised for diagnostic purposes), PSF-reconstructed images with a 7-mm Gaussian filter (PSF{sub 7}) chosen to meet European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) 1.0 harmonising standards, and EANM Research Ltd. (EARL)-compliant ordered subset expectation maximisation (OSEM) images. Delineation was performed with fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) algorithm on PSF images and reported on PSF{sub 7} and OSEM ones, and with a 50 % standardised uptake values (SUV){sub max} threshold (SUV{sub max50%}) applied independently to each image. Robust and repeatable heterogeneity metrics including 1st-order [area under the curve of the cumulative histogram (CH{sub AUC})], 2nd-order (entropy, correlation, and dissimilarity), and 3rd-order [high-intensity larger area emphasis (HILAE) and zone percentage (ZP)] textural features (TF) were statistically compared. Volumes obtained with SUV{sub max50%} were significantly smaller than FLAB-derived ones, and were significantly smaller in PSF images compared to OSEM and PSF{sub 7} images. PSF-reconstructed images showed significantly higher SUVmax and SUVmean values, as well as heterogeneity for CH{sub AUC}, dissimilarity, correlation, and HILAE, and a wider range of heterogeneity values than OSEM images for most of the metrics considered, especially when analysing larger tumours. Histological subtypes had no impact on TF distribution. No significant difference was observed between any of the considered metrics (SUV or heterogeneity features) that we

  8. Large-scale association analysis identifies new lung cancer susceptibility loci and heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across histological subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKay, James D; Hung, Rayjean J; Han, Younghun

    2017-01-01

    Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genomewide association s...

  9. Activity-Based Proteomics Reveals Heterogeneous Kinome and ATP-Binding Proteome Responses to MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Young; Stewart, Paul A; Borne, Adam L; Fang, Bin; Welsh, Eric A; Chen, Yian Ann; Eschrich, Steven A; Koomen, John M; Haura, Eric B

    2016-06-01

    One way cancer cells can escape from targeted agents is through their ability to evade drug effects by rapidly rewiring signaling networks. Many protein classes, such as kinases and metabolic enzymes, are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. We hypothesized that a system-level profiling of drug-induced alterations in ATP-binding proteomes could offer novel insights into adaptive responses. Here, we mapped global ATP-binding proteomes perturbed by two clinical MEK inhibitors, AZD6244 and MEK162, in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells as a model system harnessing a desthiobiotin-ATP probe coupled with LC-MS/MS. We observed strikingly unique ATP-binding proteome responses to MEK inhibition, which revealed heterogeneous drug-induced pathway signatures in each cell line. We also identified diverse kinome responses, indicating each cell adapts to MEK inhibition in unique ways. Despite the heterogeneity of kinome responses, decreased probe labeling of mitotic kinases and an increase of kinases linked to autophagy were identified to be common responses. Taken together, our study revealed a diversity of adaptive ATP-binding proteome and kinome responses to MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, and our study further demonstrated the utility of our approach to identify potential candidates of targetable ATP-binding enzymes involved in adaptive resistance and to develop rational drug combinations.

  10. Activity-Based Proteomics Reveals Heterogeneous Kinome and ATP-Binding Proteome Responses to MEK Inhibition in KRAS Mutant Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available One way cancer cells can escape from targeted agents is through their ability to evade drug effects by rapidly rewiring signaling networks. Many protein classes, such as kinases and metabolic enzymes, are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis. We hypothesized that a system-level profiling of drug-induced alterations in ATP-binding proteomes could offer novel insights into adaptive responses. Here, we mapped global ATP-binding proteomes perturbed by two clinical MEK inhibitors, AZD6244 and MEK162, in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells as a model system harnessing a desthiobiotin-ATP probe coupled with LC-MS/MS. We observed strikingly unique ATP-binding proteome responses to MEK inhibition, which revealed heterogeneous drug-induced pathway signatures in each cell line. We also identified diverse kinome responses, indicating each cell adapts to MEK inhibition in unique ways. Despite the heterogeneity of kinome responses, decreased probe labeling of mitotic kinases and an increase of kinases linked to autophagy were identified to be common responses. Taken together, our study revealed a diversity of adaptive ATP-binding proteome and kinome responses to MEK inhibition in KRAS mutant lung cancer cells, and our study further demonstrated the utility of our approach to identify potential candidates of targetable ATP-binding enzymes involved in adaptive resistance and to develop rational drug combinations.

  11. Clonal heterogeneity of small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung demonstrated by flow-cytometric DNA analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindeløv, L L; Hansen, H H; Christensen, I J

    1980-01-01

    Flow-cytometric DNA analysis yields information on ploidy and proliferative characteristics of a cell population. The analysis was implemented on small-cell anaplastic carcinoma of the lung using a rapid detergent technique for the preparation of fine-needle aspirates for DNA determination...

  12. SU-E-T-101: Determination and Comparison of Correction Factors Obtained for TLDs in Small Field Lung Heterogenous Phantom Using Acuros XB and EGSnrc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soh, R [Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Lee, J [National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore (Singapore); Harianto, F [Institute of Technology Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To determine and compare the correction factors obtained for TLDs in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in lung heterogenous phantom using Acuros XB (AXB) and EGSnrc. Methods: This study will simulate the correction factors due to the perturbation of TLD-100 chips (Harshaw/Thermoscientific, 3 × 3 × 0.9mm{sup 3}, 2.64g/cm{sup 3}) in small field lung medium for Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). A physical lung phantom was simulated by a 14cm thick composite cork phantom (0.27g/cm{sup 3}, HU:-743 ± 11) sandwiched between 4cm thick Plastic Water (CIRS,Norfolk). Composite cork has been shown to be a good lung substitute material for dosimetric studies. 6MV photon beam from Varian Clinac iX (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) with field size 2 × 2cm{sup 2} was simulated. Depth dose profiles were obtained from the Eclipse treatment planning system Acuros XB (AXB) and independently from DOSxyznrc, EGSnrc. Correction factors was calculated by the ratio of unperturbed to perturbed dose. Since AXB has limitations in simulating actual material compositions, EGSnrc will also simulate the AXB-based material composition for comparison to the actual lung phantom. Results: TLD-100, with its finite size and relatively high density, causes significant perturbation in 2 × 2cm{sup 2} small field in a low lung density phantom. Correction factors calculated by both EGSnrc and AXB was found to be as low as 0.9. It is expected that the correction factor obtained by EGSnrc wlll be more accurate as it is able to simulate the actual phantom material compositions. AXB have a limited material library, therefore it only approximates the composition of TLD, Composite cork and Plastic water, contributing to uncertainties in TLD correction factors. Conclusion: It is expected that the correction factors obtained by EGSnrc will be more accurate. Studies will be done to investigate the correction factors for higher energies where perturbation may be more pronounced.

  13. Estudo da preservação do pulmão de cão mantido em autoperfusão Lung preservation in dogs kept under autoperfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo D Fontes

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 14 blocos coração-pulmão (BCP, nos quais os pulmões foram mantidos em sistema de autoperfusão em período de duas até oito horas. Realizaram-se biópsias pulmonares a cada duas horas. Dez blocos mantiveram-se preservados até a quarta hora com pequena intensidade de alteração, demonstrada semiquantitativamente através de estudo estrutural. A partir desse tempo, edema intra-alveolar, hemorragia perivásculo-bronquial, hemorragia intra-alveolar, enfisema perivásculo-bronquia e rotura alveolar ocorreram com maior intensidade.Fourteen heart-lung blocks, kept in an autoperfusion system for a period of two to eight hours, were studied. Lung biopsies were performed each two hours. Ten lungs were preserved until four hours with slight degrees of alteration in the microscopic study. After the fourth hour, severe alterations developed and were represented by intra-alveolar edema, intra-alveolar haemorrhage, perivascular and peribronquial enfisema, and alveolar rupture.

  14. Intratumoral Metabolic Heterogeneity for Prediction of Disease Progression After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Inoperable Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Saeryung; Song, Hochun; Byun, Byung Hyun and others

    2014-03-15

    We evaluated the value of variable {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT parameters for the prediction of disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One hundred sixteen pretreatment FDG PET/CT scans of inoperable stage III NSCLC were retrospectively reviewed (stage IIIA: 51; stage IIIB: 65). The volume of interest was automatically drawn for each primary lung tumor, and PET parameters were assessed as follows: maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}), metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using the boundaries presenting SUV intensity exceeding 3.0, and the area under the curve of the cumulative SUV-volume histograms (AUC-CSH), which is known to reflect the tumor heterogeneity. Progression-free survival (PFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were compared with each PET and clinical parameters by univariate and multivariate survival analysis.In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff values of SUV{sub max}, MTV (cm{sup 3}), and AUC-CSH for prediction of PFS were determined as 21.5, 27.7, and 4,800, respectively. In univariate analysis, PFS was statistically significantly reduced in those with AUC-CSH<4,800 (p =0.004). In multivariate analysis, AUC-CSH and SUV{sub max} were statistically significant independent prognostic factors (HR 3.35, 95 % CI 1.79.6.28, p <0.001; HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.09.0.70, p =0.008, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that AUC-CSH was the most significant independent prognostic factor for LRFS and DMFS (HR 3.27, 95 % CI 1.54.6.94, p =0.002; HR 2.79, 95 % CI 1.42.5.50, p =0.003). Intratumoral metabolic heterogeneity of primary lung tumor in {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT can predict disease progression after CCRT in inoperable stage III NSCLC.

  15. Multistate Statistical Modeling: A Tool to Build a Lung Cancer Microsimulation Model That Includes Parameter Uncertainty and Patient Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Mathilda L; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Oberije, Cary; Lambin, Philippe; Uyl-de Groot, Carin A; Coupé, V M H

    2016-01-01

    With the shift toward individualized treatment, cost-effectiveness models need to incorporate patient and tumor characteristics that may be relevant to treatment planning. In this study, we used multistate statistical modeling to inform a microsimulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer. The model tracks clinical events over time and takes patient and tumor features into account. Four clinical states were included in the model: alive without progression, local recurrence, metastasis, and death. Individual patients were simulated by repeatedly sampling a patient profile, consisting of patient and tumor characteristics. The transitioning of patients between the health states is governed by personalized time-dependent hazard rates, which were obtained from multistate statistical modeling (MSSM). The model simulations for both the individualized and conventional radiotherapy strategies demonstrated internal and external validity. Therefore, MSSM is a useful technique for obtaining the correlated individualized transition rates that are required for the quantification of a microsimulation model. Moreover, we have used the hazard ratios, their 95% confidence intervals, and their covariance to quantify the parameter uncertainty of the model in a correlated way. The obtained model will be used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of individualized radiotherapy treatment planning, including the uncertainty of input parameters. We discuss the model-building process and the strengths and weaknesses of using MSSM in a microsimulation model for individualized radiotherapy in lung cancer.

  16. Tumor cell heterogeneity in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC: phenotypical and functional differences associated with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT and DNA methylation changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Krohn

    Full Text Available Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC is a specific subtype of lung cancer presenting as highly metastatic disease with extremely poor prognosis. Despite responding initially well to chemo- or radiotherapy, SCLC almost invariably relapses and develops resistance to chemotherapy. This is suspected to be related to tumor cell subpopulations with different characteristics resembling stem cells. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT is known to play a key role in metastatic processes and in developing drug resistance. This is also true for NSCLC, but there is very little information on EMT processes in SCLC so far. SCLC, in contrast to NSCLC cell lines, grow mainly in floating cell clusters and a minor part as adherent cells. We compared these morphologically different subpopulations of SCLC cell lines for EMT and epigenetic features, detecting significant differences in the adherent subpopulations with high levels of mesenchymal markers such as Vimentin and Fibronectin and very low levels of epithelial markers like E-cadherin and Zona Occludens 1. In addition, expression of EMT-related transcription factors such as Snail/Snai1, Slug/Snai2, and Zeb1, DNA methylation patterns of the EMT hallmark genes, functional responses like migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteases secretion, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drug treatment all differed significantly between the sublines. This phenotypic variability might reflect tumor cell heterogeneity and EMT during metastasis in vivo, accompanied by the development of refractory disease in relapse. We propose that epigenetic regulation plays a key role during phenotypical and functional changes in tumor cells and might therefore provide new treatment options for SCLC patients.

  17. Early Change in Metabolic Tumor Heterogeneity during Chemoradiotherapy and Its Prognostic Value for Patients with Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhe Dong

    Full Text Available To observe the early change of metabolic tumor heterogeneity during chemoradiotherapy and to determine its prognostic value for patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.From January 2007 to March 2010, 58 patients with NSCLC were included who were received 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET/CT before and following 40 Gy radiotherapy with the concurrent cisplatin-based chemotherapy (CCRT. Primary tumor FDG uptake heterogeneity was determined using global and local scale textural features extracted from standardized uptake value (SUV histogram analysis (coefficient of variation [COV], skewness, kurtosis, area under the curve of the cumulative SUV histogram [AUC-CSH] and normalized gray-level co-occurrence matrix (contrast, dissimilarity, entropy, homogeneity. SUVmax and metabolic tumor volume (MTV were also evaluated. Correlations were analyzed between parameters on baseline or during treatments with tumor response, progression-free survival (PFS, and overall survival (OS.Compared with non-responders, responders showed significantly greater pre-treatment COV, contrast and MTV (AUC = 0.781, 0.804, 0.686, respectively. Receiver-operating-characteristic curve analysis showed that early change of tumor textural analysis serves as a response predictor with higher sensitivity (73.2%~92.1% and specificity (80.0%~83.6% than baseline parameters. Change in AUC-CSH and dissimilarity during CCRT could also predict response with optimal cut-off values (33.0% and 28.7%, respectively. The patients with greater changes in contrast and AUC-CSH had significantly higher 5-year OS (P = 0.008, P = 0.034 and PFS (P = 0.007, P = 0.039. In multivariate analysis, only change in contrast was found as the independent prognostic factor of PFS (HR 0.476, P = 0.021 and OS (HR 0.519, P = 0.015.The metabolic tumor heterogeneity change during CCRT characterized by global and local scale textural features may be valuable for predicting treatment response

  18. Clinical outcomes of EGFR-TKI treatment and genetic heterogeneity in lung adenocarcinoma patients with EGFR mutations on exons 19 and 21

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Yong Yu; Si-Fan Yu; Shu-Hang Wang; Hua Bai; Jun Zhao; Tong-Tong An; Jian-Chun Duan; Jie Wang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations, including a known exon 19 deletion (19 del) and exon 21 L858R point mutation (L858R mutation), are strong predictors of the response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibi‑tor (EGFR‑TKI) treatment in lung adenocarcinoma. However, whether patients carrying EGFR 19 del and L858R muta‑tions exhibit different responsiveness to EGFR‑TKIs and what are the potential mechanism for this difference remain controversial. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of EGFR‑TKI treatment in patients with EGFR 19 del and L858R mutations and explore the genetic heterogeneity of tumors with the two mutation subtypes. Methods: Of 1127 patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR 19 del or L858R mutations, 532 received EGFR‑TKI treatment and were included in this study. EGFR 19 del and L858R mutations were detected by using denaturing high‑performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC). T790M mutation, which is a common resistant mutation on exon 20 of EGFR, was detected by amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS). Next‑generation sequencing (NGS) was used to explore the genetic heterogeneity of tumors with EGFR 19 del and L858R mutations. Results: Of the 532 patients, 319 (60.0%) had EGFR 19 del, and 213 (40.0%) had L858R mutations. The patients with EGFR 19 del presented a significantly higher overall response rate (ORR) for EGFR‑TKI treatment (55.2% vs. 43.7%, P = 0.017) and had a longer progression‑free survival (PFS) after first‑line EGFR‑TKI treatment (14.4 vs. 11.4 months,P= 0.034) compared with those with L858R mutations. However, no statistically significant difference in overall survival (OS) was observed between the two groups of patients. T790M mutation status was analyzed in 88 patients before EGFR‑TKI treatment and 134 after EGFR‑TKI treatment, and there was no significant difference in the co‑exist‑ence of T790M mutation with EGFR 19 del and L858R mutations

  19. Ressonância magnética de pulmão: um novo passo no estudo das doenças pulmonares Magnetic resonance of the lung: a step forward in the study of lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A ressonância magnética (RM de pulmão progrediu tremendamente nos últimos anos. Devido a melhorias na velocidade e na qualidade de imagens, a RM de pulmão hoje está pronta para a utilização clínica de rotina. A principal vantagem da RM de pulmão é a sua combinação exclusiva de avaliação estrutural e funcional em uma única sessão de imagens. Revisamos aqui as três principais indicações clínicas da RM de pulmão: o estadiamento de tumores pulmonares, a avaliação de doença vascular pulmonar e a investigação de anormalidades pulmonares em pacientes que não podem ser expostos à radiação.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lung has progressed tremendously in recent years. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use. The main advantage of MRI of the lung is its unique combination of structural and functional assessment in a single imaging session. We review the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lung: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular disease; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  20. Segurança e efetividade da fisioterapia respiratória em abscesso pulmonar: estudo de casos Safety and effectiveness of chest physiotherapy in lung abscess: a two-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josy Davidson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O abscesso pulmonar é uma lesão necrótica geralmente devida a germes piogênicos. A fisioterapia respiratória (FR é indicada, porém há poucos relatos na literatura, não havendo consenso quanto ao uso e às técnicas de FR para esse caso. O objetivo deste estudo de dois casos foi verificar a segurança e efetividade da FR no tratamento do abcesso pulmonar. O caso 1 foi um paciente de 30 anos, internado; a terapia consistiu em posicioná-lo em Trendelenburg semi-lateral direito para ventral por 30 minutos, três vezes ao dia, com saída de grande quantidade de secreção. Após 5 dias, o radiograma de tórax demonstrou redução de 90% do nível hidroaéreo, verificando-se o esvaziamento completo do abscesso após 14 dias de internação. O caso 2 foi uma paciente de 28 anos igualmente com diagnóstico de abscesso pulmonar, também tratada com drenagem postural, nos mesmos posicionamento e freqüência que o caso 1, sendo drenada grande quantidade de secreção amarelada e fluida. Após 7 dias de tratamento evidenciou-se redução importante do nível líquido do abscesso pulmonar. Conclui-se que a drenagem postural isoladamente é uma técnica de fisioterapia efetiva e segura no tratamento do abcesso pulmonar.Lung abscess is a necrotic lesion mostly caused by pyogenic germs. Chest physical therapy (CPT is indicated, but there are few studies available and no consensus on CPT use and techniques for theses cases. The purpose of this study was to assess safety and effectiveness of postural drainage in treating lung abscess in two cases. Patient 1, male, 30 years old, was laid in Trendelenburg, in semi-lateral to ventral decubitus for 30 minutes, three times a day. After five days of therapy, X-ray showed a 90% decrease of sputum, and on the 14th day full drainage was achieved. Case 2 was a female patient, 28 years old, treated at the same position and frequency as case 1. After seven days of therapy, exams showed a great decrease of pus from

  1. Estudo comparativo do diagnóstico de câncer pulmonar entre tomografia computadorizada e broncoscopia Comparative study between computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Oliveira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a tomografia computadorizada e a broncoscopia no diagnóstico do câncer pulmonar e verificar a eficácia destas técnicas perante a presença desta doença. Os parâmetros idade, gênero, hábitos tabágicos, tipos histológicos, estadiamento e terapêutica foram, igualmente, analisados. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 70 pacientes do Serviço de Pneumologia do Hospital Distrital da Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, Portugal, que realizaram ambas as técnicas em estudo, tendo-se confirmado ou não a presença de câncer pulmonar. RESULTADOS: Diagnosticaram-se 37 tumores pulmonares, 23 casos no gênero masculino e 14 no feminino. Histologicamente, 40,54% eram adenocarcinomas, seguido do carcinoma escamoso (32,43% dos casos e do carcinoma de pequenas células (18,92%. O estadiamento mostrou 6,70% no estádio IB, 23,30% no estádio IIIA comparativamente ao IIIB com 36,70%, encontrando-se 33,30% dos doentes no estádio IV. A quimioterapia isolada foi efetuada em 75,7% dos doentes. A sensibilidade da broncoscopia foi de 83,8%, a especificidade, de 81,8%, e a precisão, de 82,8%. A sensibilidade da tomografia computadorizada foi de 81,1%, a especificidade, de 63,6%, e a precisão, de 72,8%. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados da broncoscopia confirmaram a sua importância no diagnóstico do câncer pulmonar, pela dependência deste no exame anatomopatológico do tecido ou células, obtido por várias técnicas de biópsia. A tomografia computadorizada apresentou boa sensibilidade, de 81,1%, contudo, a sua especificidade, de apenas 63,6%, resulta do número de falso-positivos (36,4%.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the role of computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer, evaluating the effectiveness of these techniques in the presence of this disease. Parameters such as age, gender, smoking habits, histological types, staging and treatment were also analyzed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample of the present study included 70

  2. Trocador de calor e umidade: proteção contra infecções pulmonares? Estudo piloto Heat and moisture exchanger: protection against lung infections? Pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Alcoforado

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo bacteriológico comparativo entre os sistemas de umidificação aquoso aquecido (UAA e filtro trocador de calor e umidade (FTCU quanto à colonização bacteriana e a incidência de infecção respiratória em pacientes submetidos à ventilação mecânica (VM. Trata-se de uma pesquisa prospectiva, controlada e randomizada, na qual 15 pacientes internados na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI foram distribuídos em dois grupos. O primeiro fez uso de UAA (n=7 e o outro de FTCU (n=8. Foram coletadas amostras da secreção traqueal, condensado do circuito e FTCU na admissão do paciente, no quarto e oitavo dias, e realizada análise bacteriológica dos mesmos. Quanto às características antropométricas, não observou-se diferenças entre os grupos estudados. A prevalência de pneumonia associada à ventilação (PAV foi de 57,1% no UAA e 62,5% no FTCU. Ao realizar a análise bacteriológica quantitativa entre eles, não foram observadas variações, sugerindo não haver diferença na prevenção de PAV entre os sistemas de umidificação; porém a presença das mesmas bactérias na secreção traqueal e no condensado e ausência destas na membrana do FTCU podem indicar que a principal fonte de contaminação é o próprio paciente.The aim of this study was to conduct a bacteriological research comparing the aqueous heated humidification systems (HH and filter heat and moisture exchanger (FHME and to bacterial colonization and the incidence of respiratory infection in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. It is a prospective, controlled trial, in that 15 intensive care unit (ICU patients were divided into two groups. The first made use of HH (n=7 and the other, FHME (n=8. We collected samples of tracheal secretions, and condensate circuit FHME at admission in the fourth and eighth day and bacteriological analysis of the same place. Regarding the anthropometric characteristics, no differences

  3. The influence of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer may depend on the intratumor heterogeneity of the mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin Yup; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Hwangbo, Yup; Jeong, Ji Yun; Park, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Jin; Jin, Guang; Shin, Kyung Min; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Jaehee; Lee, Eung Bae; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-02-01

    A large number of studies have evaluated the impact of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the results of these studies are still controversial. Recently, considerable intratumor heterogeneity for genetic alterations has been demonstrated in various human cancers, including lung cancer. In the present study, we evaluated TP53 mutations in NSCLCs by direct sequencing and observed remarkable variation in the values of relative intensity (RI, the height of the peak of mutated allele/the height of the peak of non-mutated allele) of the mutations. We also examined whether the RI values were associated with intratumor heterogeneity of TP53 mutations. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between TP53 mutations and survival outcome. The patients with a TP53 mutation did not have significantly worse survival compared to those without the mutation. However, when tumors with a TP53 mutation were categorized into two groups, those with a low and those with a high RI, the latter group had significantly worse survival compared to those with wild-type TP53 (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-5.48, P = 0.01), whereas the former group did not. These results suggest that intratumor genetic heterogeneity may be an important factor in determining the role of TP53 mutations on the prognosis of NSCLC patients.

  4. Organ heterogeneity of host-derived matrix metalloproteinase expression and its involvement in multiple-organ metastasis by lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraga, Minoru; Yano, Seiji; Yamamoto, Akihiko; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Goto, Hisatsugu; Miki, Toyokazu; Miki, Keisuke; Zhang, Helong; Sone, Saburo

    2002-10-15

    Cancer metastasis is tightly regulated by the interaction of tumor cells and host organ microenvironments. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), produced by both tumor cells and host stromal cells, play a central role in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. We determined whether metastatic potential of lung cancer to multiple organs is dependent solely on the expression of MMPs by tumor cells, using two metastasis models of human lung cancer cell lines expressing various levels of MMPs and a MMP inhibitor (ONO-4817). In the lung metastasis model, tumor cells (PC14, PC14PE6, H226, A549) inoculated i.v. into nude or SCID mice metastasized only in the lung. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, tumor cells (RERF-LC-AI, SBC-3/DOX, H69/VP, which express low levels of MMPs) inoculated i.v. into natural killer cell-depleted SCID mice metastasized into the liver, kidneys, and systemic lymph nodes. Film in situ zymography analysis revealed that the nontumor parenchyma of the lung had no gelatinolytic activity, whereas gelatinolytic activity of the liver and kidney was high and low, respectively. In the lung metastasis model, gelatinolytic activity of lung nodules directly correlated with the in vitro expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by tumor cells. Inhibition of MMP activity by ONO-4817 suppressed lung metastasis by the cell lines that expressed MMPs, but not those that did not express MMP, via the inhibition of MMP activity of lung tumors. In the multiple-organ metastasis model, liver parenchyma, but not liver nodules, showed gelatinolytic activity. The MMP inhibition reduced metastasis to the liver, but not to the kidney or lymph nodes, via inhibition of MMP activity of liver parenchyma. These findings suggest that MMP expression varies among the host organ microenvironments and that stromal MMPs may promote metastasis of lung cancer. Therefore, antimetastatic effects based on MMP inhibition may be dependent on MMPs derived not only from tumor cells but also from organ

  5. Efeitos da quercetina na lesão pulmonar induzida por bleomicina: um estudo preliminar Effects of quercetin on bleomycin-induced lung injury: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antônio Baddini Martinez

    2008-07-01

    measured: transaminase levels; blood gases; lipoperoxidation, using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and chemiluminescence; and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD anti-oxidant activity. Anatomopathological examination of the lung was also performed. RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences between the BDL control and BDL experimental groups: aspartate aminotransferase (105.3 ± 43 vs. 500.5 ± 90.3 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (78.75 ± 37.7 vs. 162.75 ± 35.4 IU/L; alkaline phosphatase (160 ± 20.45 vs. 373.25 ± 45.44 IU/L; arterial oxygen tension (85.25 ± 8.1 vs. 49.9 ± 22.5 mmHg; and oxygen saturation (95 ± 0.7 vs. 73.3 ± 12.07%. Lipoperoxidation and antioxidant activity also differed significantly between the two BDL groups (control vs. experimental: TBARS (0.87 ± 0.3 vs. 2.01 ± 0.9 nmol/mg protein; chemiluminescence (16008.41 ± 1171.45 vs. 20250.36 ± 827.82 cps/mg protein; and SOD (6.66 ± 1.34 vs. 16.06 ± 2.67 IU/mg protein. The anatomopathological examination confirmed pulmonary vasodilatation in the BDL model. In the other models, there were no alterations that were characteristic of HPS. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained suggest that the BDL model can be used in future studies involving hepatic alterations related to oxidative stress and HPS.

  6. Heterogeneidade espacial da dengue em estudos locais, Niterói, RJ Heterogeneidad espacial del dengue en estudios locales, Niteroi, Sureste de Brasil Spatial heterogeneity of dengue fever in local studies, City of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Fernandes Flauzino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a ocorrência espacial e temporal da dengue e sua associação com a heterogeneidade de características do ambiente urbano. MÉTODOS: Foram georreferenciados 1.212 casos de dengue registrados no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação entre 1998 e 2006, no município de Niterói, RJ, segundo setores censitários. Os setores foram classificados em áreas homogêneas para a ocorrência da doença: favela, estaleiro e urbano. Os casos foram agrupados em cinco períodos: dois interepidêmicos 1998-2000 e 2003-2005; três epidêmicos 2001, 2002 e 2006 e analisados por meio de operações entre camadas em ambiente sistema de informação geográfica. Para identificação de conglomerados com maior intensidade de casos, utilizou-se o método de kernel. O método de varredura espacial de Kulldorff foi usado para confirmação estatística desses clusters. RESULTADOS: Do total de casos, 57% eram do sexo feminino. As faixas etárias com maior concentração de casos foram de 20-29 anos (20,5% e de 30-39 anos (17,7%. O setor favela morro apresentou somente 11% dos domicílios atendidos por serviço de coleta de lixo, o maior percentual de não alfabetizados (8,7% e de chefes de família com rendimentos menores de 1 salário mínimo (29,5%. Os casos permaneceram nos setores denominados favelas. No primeiro ano epidêmico e nos períodos interepidêmicos o maior número de casos estava situado nos setores favelas morro e favela plana; no segundo e terceiro ano de epidemia, situavam-se no setor favela plana. CONCLUSÕES: A parcela economicamente ativa foi a mais atingida na área de estudo. Os setores censitários mostram heterogeneidade espacial em relação às condições de vida e dentro de alguns setores, há diferenciais na distribuição espacial e temporal do risco de ocorrência da dengue.OBJETIVO: Analizar ocurrencia espacial y temporal del dengue y su asociación con la heterogeneidad de características del ambiente

  7. SU-E-T-57: A Novel Method to Improve Dose Heterogeneity of Target and Organs at Risk Sparing in the Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Stage III Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B-T; Lu, J-Y [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) treatment for lung cancer is difficult due to the heterogeneous dose distribution and excessive dose to the organs at risk (OARs). We introduce a simple method based on the base dose function (BDF) in Eclipse treatment planning system to overcome the difficulties. Methods: Thirteen patients suffered from stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were enrolled in the study. Three kinds of approaches were applied to obtain clinically acceptable treatment plans: 1) conventionally optimizing method with hot and cold spots re-optimization (CO); 2) target-divided optimizing method (TDO) in which the optimization objective in the lung density of planning target volume (PTV) was set to 2 to 4 Gy higher than in the soft tissue density; 3) base dose function (BDF) in which the treatment plan was produced based on the original plan for re-optimization. CO, TDO and BDF methods were then compared in terms of conformity index (CI), homogeneity index (HI), OARs sparing and monitor units (MUs). Additionally, delta4, portal dosimetry and IMSure were used to measure the dose delivering accuracy. Results: The BDF technique provided more superior CI and HI than the other two methods. Moreover, the new method also reduced the lung, esophagus, heart and spinal cord dose. However, the BDF plans needed extra 15% and 10% MUs than the CO and TDO methods. Dose verification results demonstrated good and comparable γ pass rates among the three methods. Conclusion: The proposed BDF method greatly improves the dose homogeneity and OARs sparing in the IMRT treatment for lung cancer.

  8. Dosimetric implications associated to heterogeneity dose correction in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer; Implicaciones dosimetricas asociadas al calculo de dosis con correccion de heterogeneidad en radioterapia estereotaxica extracraneal (SBRT) de pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca Aparicio, D.; Perez Moreno, J. M.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrila

    2016-10-01

    Treatment of lung lesions using stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) requires algorithms with corrections that adequately model the behavior of narrow beams in the presence of tissue heterogeneities, although protocols such as RTOG 0236 excluded these kind of corrections. 100 cases were evaluated retrospectively following the RTOG 0813 and RTOG 0915 guidelines, by obtaining the deviations of the relevant dosimetric indicators from Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB), maintaining the same configuration and monitor units (MU). Deviations between MC and PB have been classified according to the volume and density of the lesion. The greatest variations (up to 45% difference in D50%) are found for cases with lower volume and density, where the lesion is almost equivalent to lung tissue, given the higher proportion of air surrounding the periphery of the tumor, and the reduction of the radiation fields, resulting in a lack of electronic equilibrium that must be properly considered in the treatment planning system. These deviations involve dosimetric implications which are observable in clinical outcomes, determining how to proceed in treatment planning, to ensure that the actual dose delivered is performed accordingly to the prescription dose, while requiring the use of algorithms with a proper heterogeneity correction. (Author)

  9. WE-E-17A-05: Complementary Prognostic Value of CT and 18F-FDG PET Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumor Heterogeneity Features Quantified Through Texture Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desseroit, M; Cheze Le Rest, C; Tixier, F [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France); INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Majdoub, M; Visvikis, D; Hatt, M [INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Guillevin, R; Perdrisot, R [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Previous studies have shown that CT or 18F-FDG PET intratumor heterogeneity features computed using texture analysis may have prognostic value in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), but have been mostly investigated separately. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential added value with respect to prognosis regarding the combination of non-enhanced CT and 18F-FDG PET heterogeneity textural features on primary NSCLC tumors. Methods: One hundred patients with non-metastatic NSCLC (stage I–III), treated with surgery and/or (chemo)radiotherapy, that underwent staging 18F-FDG PET/CT images, were retrospectively included. Morphological tumor volumes were semi-automatically delineated on non-enhanced CT using 3D SlicerTM. Metabolically active tumor volumes (MATV) were automatically delineated on PET using the Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian (FLAB) method. Intratumoral tissue density and FDG uptake heterogeneities were quantified using texture parameters calculated from co-occurrence, difference, and run-length matrices. In addition to these textural features, first order histogram-derived metrics were computed on the whole morphological CT tumor volume, as well as on sub-volumes corresponding to fine, medium or coarse textures determined through various levels of LoG-filtering. Association with survival regarding all extracted features was assessed using Cox regression for both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: Several PET and CT heterogeneity features were prognostic factors of overall survival in the univariate analysis. CT histogram-derived kurtosis and uniformity, as well as Low Grey-level High Run Emphasis (LGHRE), and PET local entropy were independent prognostic factors. Combined with stage and MATV, they led to a powerful prognostic model (p<0.0001), with median survival of 49 vs. 12.6 months and a hazard ratio of 3.5. Conclusion: Intratumoral heterogeneity quantified through textural features extracted from both CT and FDG PET

  10. The effect of rib and lung heterogeneities on the computed dose to lung in Ir-192 High-Dose-Rate breast brachytherapy: Monte Carlo versus a treatment planning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salehi Yazdi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Taking into account the ribs and entering the actual data for breasts, ribs, and lungs, revealed an average overestimation of the dose by a factor of 8% in the lung for TPS calculations. Therefore, the accuracy of the TPS results may be limited to regions near the implants where the treatment is planned, and is a more conservative approach for regions at boundaries with curvatures or tissues with a different material than that in the breast.

  11. A dosimetric study of a heterogeneous phantom for lung stereotactic body radiation therapy comparing Monte Carlo and pencil beam calculations to dose distributions measured with a 2-D diode array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curley, Casey Michael

    Monte Carlo (MC) and Pencil Beam (PB) calculations are compared to their measured planar dose distributions using a 2-D diode array for lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT). The planar dose distributions were studied for two different phantom types: an in-house heterogeneous phantom and a homogeneous phantom. The motivation is to mimic the human anatomy during a lung SBRT treatment and incorporate heterogeneities into the pre-treatment Quality Assurance process, where measured and calculated planar dose distributions are compared before the radiation treatment. Individual and combined field dosimetry has been performed for both fixed gantry angle (anterior to posterior) and planned gantry angle delivery. A gamma analysis has been performed for all beam arrangements. The measurements were obtained using the 2-D diode array MapCHECK 2(TM). MC and PB calculations were performed using the BrainLAB iPlan RTRTM Dose software. The results suggest that with the heterogeneous phantom as a quality assurance device, the MC calculations result in closer agreements to the measured values, when using the planned gantry angle delivery method for composite beams. For the homogeneous phantom, the results suggest that the preferred delivery method is at the fixed anterior to posterior gantry angle. Furthermore, the MC and PB calculations do not show significant differences for dose difference and distance to agreement criteria 3%/3mm. However, PB calculations are in better agreement with the measured values for more stringent gamma criteria when considering individual beam whereas MC agreements are closer for composite beam measurements.

  12. Isotoxic dose escalation in the treatment of lung cancer by means of heterogeneous dose distributions in the presence of respiratory motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Nielsen, Morten; Hansen, Olfred;

    2011-01-01

    To test, in the presence of intrafractional respiration movement, a margin recipe valid for a homogeneous and conformal dose distribution and to test whether the use of smaller margins combined with heterogeneous dose distributions allows an isotoxic dose escalation when respiratory motion is con...

  13. Genomic simulation for the study of data transformation efficiency in the genetic evaluation of cattle in the presence of heterogeneity=Simulação genômica para estudo da eficiência da transformação de dados para avaliação genética de bovinos na presença de heterogeneidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of data transformation strategies is evaluated to correct heterogeneity among cattle in the genetic evaluation of bulls, cows and progenies. Four data structures of bovine weaning weights were simulated: herds with and without heterogeneity for means and variances, and herds with and without genetic connectedness. In the genetic evaluations, data were used in the original scale and transformed (Logarithmic, Square root, standardization and ratio by phenotypic standard deviation. The evaluated data transformation strategies were not efficient in eliminating the negative effects of heterogeneity among cattle in the genetic evaluation of bulls, cows and progenies.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficiência de estratégias de transformação de dados para correção da heterogeneidade entre rebanhos na avaliação genética de touros, vacas e progênies. Quatro estruturas de dados relativos a peso à desmama de bovinos foram simuladas: rebanhos com e sem heterogeneidade para médias e variâncias, e rebanhos com e sem conexidade genética. Nas avaliações genéticas, utilizaram-se dados na escala original e transformados (Logarítmica, Raiz quadrada, Padronização e Razão pelo desvio-padrão fenotípico. As estratégias de transformação de dados avaliadas não foram eficientes para eliminar os efeitos negativos da heterogeneidade entre rebanhos sobre a avaliação genética de touros, vacas e progênies.

  14. Time-Adjusted Internal Target Volume: A Novel Approach Focusing on Heterogeneity of Tumor Motion Based on 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography Imaging for Radiation Therapy Planning of Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishibuchi, Ikuno [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kimura, Tomoki, E-mail: tkkimura@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nakashima, Takeo; Ochi, Yusuke [Division of Radiation Therapy, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Takahashi, Ippei; Doi, Yoshiko; Kenjo, Masahiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Ozawa, Syuichi; Murakami, Yuji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Wadasaki, Koichi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: To consider nonuniform tumor motion within the internal target volume (ITV) by defining time-adjusted ITV (TTV), a volume designed to include heterogeneity of tumor existence on the basis of 4-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT). Methods and Materials: We evaluated 30 lung cancer patients. Breath-hold CT (BH-CT) and free-breathing 4D-CT scans were acquired for each patient. The tumors were manually delineated using a lung CT window setting (window, 1600 HU; level, −300 HU). Tumor in BH-CT images was defined as gross tumor volume (GTV), and the sum of tumors in 4D-CT images was defined as ITV-4D. The TTV images were generated from the 4D-CT datasets, and the tumor existence probability within ITV-4D was calculated. We calculated the TTV{sub 80} value, which is the percentage of the volume with a tumor existence probability that exceeded 80% on ITV-4D. Several factors that affected the TTV{sub 80} value, such as the ITV-4D/GTV ratio or tumor centroid deviation, were evaluated. Results: Time-adjusted ITV images were acquired for all patients, and tumor respiratory motion heterogeneity was visualized. The median (range) ITV-4D/GTV ratio and median tumor centroid deviation were 1.6 (1.0-4.1) and 6.3 mm (0.1-30.3 mm), respectively. The median TTV{sub 80} value was 43.3% (2.9-98.7%). Strong correlations were observed between the TTV{sub 80} value and the ITV-4D/GTV ratio (R=−0.71) and tumor centroid deviation (R=−0.72). The TTV images revealed the tumor motion pattern features within ITV. Conclusions: The TTV images reflected nonuniform tumor motion, and they revealed the tumor motion pattern features, suggesting that the TTV concept may facilitate various aspects of radiation therapy planning of lung cancer while incorporating respiratory motion in the future.

  15. Estudo imunohistoquímico do remodelamento pulmonar em camundongos expostos à fumaça de cigarro Immunohistochemical study of lung remodeling in mice exposed to cigarette smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Santos Valença

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Muitos estudos sobre enfisema são realizados com exposição de animais à fumaça de cigarro durante um longo tempo, focando o tipo de célula envolvida no desequilíbrio protease/antiprotease e a degradação da matriz extracelular. A expressão aumentada de metaloproteinases no enfisema está associado com citocinas e evidências sugerem um papel importante da metaloproteinase de matriz-12 (MMP-12. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a detecção de inibidor tissular de metaloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2, fator de necrose tumoral alfa (TNF-α e interleucina-6 (IL-6 por métodos imunohistoquímicos no pulmão de camundongos. MÉTODOS: Camundongos C57BL/6 machos foram expostos 3 vezes ao dia a fumaça de 3 cigarros por um período de 10, 20, 30 ou 60 dias através de uma câmara de inalação (grupos CS10, CS20, CS30 e CS60, respectivamente. O grupo controle foi exposto às mesmas condições ao ar ambiente. RESULTADOS: Nós observamos um aumento progressivo de macrófagos alveolares no lavado broncoalveolar dos grupos expostos. O diâmetro alveolar médio, um indicador de destruição alveolar, aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. O índice imunohistoquímico (II para MMP-12 aumentou nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30 em paralelo a uma redução do II para TIMP-2 nos grupos CS10, CS20 e CS30. O II para as citocinas TNF-α e IL-6 aumentou em todos os grupos expostos quando comparado ao grupo controle. Enfisema foi observado no grupo CS60, com alterações na densidade de volume de fibras colágenas e elásticas. CONCLUSÕES: Estes achados sugerem que a fumaça de cigarro induz enfisema com uma participação importante do TNF-α e da IL-6 sem a participação de neutrófilos.OBJECTIVE: Various studies of emphysema involve long-term exposure of animals to cigarette smoke, focusing on the cell type involved in the protease/antiprotease imbalance and on extracellular matrix degradation. In emphysema, increased expression of

  16. Lung metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastases to the lung; Metastatic cancer to the lung; Lung cancer - metastases ... Metastatic tumors in the lungs are cancers that developed at other places in the body (or other parts of the lungs). They then spread through ...

  17. Multiparametric imaging of patient and tumour heterogeneity in non-small-cell lung cancer: quantification of tumour hypoxia, metabolism and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmpt, Wouter van; Zegers, Catharina M.L.; Reymen, Bart; Even, Aniek J.G.; Oellers, Michel; Troost, Esther G.C.; Lambin, Philippe [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Dingemans, Anne-Marie C. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E.; Das, Marco [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Mottaghy, Felix M. [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, GROW - School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital RWTH Aachen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multiple imaging techniques are nowadays available for clinical in-vivo visualization of tumour biology. FDG PET/CT identifies increased tumour metabolism, hypoxia PET visualizes tumour oxygenation and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) CT characterizes vasculature and morphology. We explored the relationships among these biological features in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at both the patient level and the tumour subvolume level. A group of 14 NSCLC patients from two ongoing clinical trials (NCT01024829 and NCT01210378) were scanned using FDG PET/CT, HX4 PET/CT and DCE CT prior to chemoradiotherapy. Standardized uptake values (SUV) in the primary tumour were calculated for the FDG and hypoxia HX4 PET/CT scans. For hypoxia imaging, the hypoxic volume, fraction and tumour-to-blood ratio (TBR) were also defined. Blood flow and blood volume were obtained from DCE CT imaging. A tumour subvolume analysis was used to quantify the spatial overlap between subvolumes. At the patient level, negative correlations were observed between blood flow and the hypoxia parameters (TBR >1.2): hypoxic volume (-0.65, p = 0.014), hypoxic fraction (-0.60, p = 0.025) and TBR (-0.56, p = 0.042). At the tumour subvolume level, hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes showed an overlap of 53 ± 36 %. Overlap between hypoxic sub-volumes and those with high blood flow and blood volume was smaller: 15 ± 17 % and 28 ± 28 %, respectively. Half of the patients showed a spatial mismatch (overlap <5 %) between increased blood flow and hypoxia. The biological imaging features defined in NSCLC tumours showed large interpatient and intratumour variability. There was overlap between hypoxic and metabolically active subvolumes in the majority of tumours, there was spatial mismatch between regions with high blood flow and those with increased hypoxia. (orig.)

  18. Comprometimento do interstício pulmonar em portadores de esclerose sistêmica progressiva: estudo de uma série de 58 casos Interstitial lung disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis: a study of 58 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fernandes de Oliveira Jezler

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a freqüência de doença intersticial pulmonar em um grupo de indivíduos com esclerose sistêmica progressiva e descrever suas características clínicas, funcionais e radiológicas. MÉTODOS: Após confirmação diagnóstica, 58 pacientes com esclerose sistêmica progressiva foram estudados com tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução, provas de função pulmonar, bem como pesquisa do anti-Scl 70. Foram feitas comparações entre os pacientes com e sem comprometimento intersticial pulmonar e pesquisados possíveis fatores preditivos deste acometimento através de análise multivariada. RESULTADOS: Do total, 51,7% apresentaram evidências de doença intersticial pulmonar na tomografia computadorizada de alta resolução. Dispnéia e tosse foram os sintomas mais relatados, (65,5% e 39,7%, respectivamente. Bronquiolectasias e faveolamento foram as anormalidades tomográficas mais comuns (83,3% e 80,0% respectivamente. Quando comparados com os indivíduos sem doença intersticial pulmonar, os pacientes com este acometimento apresentaram freqüência semelhante de sintomas pulmonares e extrapulmonares, porém apresentaram esclerose sistêmica progressiva de maior duração, estertores crepitantes mais freqüentes, maior positividade de anti-Scl 70, e capacidade vital forçada e pulmonar total reduzidas. Somente uma capacidade vital forçada OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of interstitial lung disease in a group of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis, and to describe the clinical, functional and radiological characteristics of the patients studied. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients diagnosed with progressive systemic sclerosis were submitted to high-resolution computed tomography of the chest, pulmonary function tests and a blood test for anti-Scl 70 antibodies. Comparisons were drawn between patients with interstitial lung disease and those without. Logistic regression with multivariate analysis was used to

  19. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergencies Cardiac Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at ... should be considered an emergency. Symptoms of sudden lung collapse (pneumothorax) Symptoms of a sudden lung collapse ...

  20. Heterogeneity of CD8(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in non-small-cell lung cancer: impact on patient prognostic assessments and comparison of quantification by different sampling strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Joseph M; Wages, Nolan A; Hu, Yinin; Deacon, Donna H; Slingluff, Craig L

    2017-01-01

    Infiltration of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by CD8(+) T lymphocytes predicts improved patient survival; however, heterogeneity of intratumoral localization complicates this assessment. Strategies for tumor sampling may not accurately represent the whole tumor. We hypothesized that sampling strategies may alter the identification of tumors with high CD8 density and affect the prognostic significance. Twenty-three primary NSCLC tumors were immunohistochemically stained for CD8 and were assessed using automated software with eight different sampling strategies or the whole tumor. Results of all sampling strategies were compared to the whole tumor counts (paired t tests, Pearson's r). Associations between CD8 densities and overall survival were assessed (log-rank test). Counts from all eight sampling strategies significantly correlated with whole tumor counts (p ≤ 0.001). However, the magnitude of CD8(+) cell counts and categorization into high vs low infiltrate groups were affected by the sampling strategy. The most concordant values were derived from random sampling of 20 % of the tumor, a simulated core biopsy, or from sampling the tumor center. TIL infiltration was associated with survival when sampling the center (p = 0.038), but not the invasive margin (p > 0.2) or other strategies. Different tumor sampling strategies may yield discordant TIL density results and different stratification for risk assessment. Small biopsies may be particularly unrepresentative. Random sampling of larger tumor areas is recommended. Enumerating CD8(+) T cells in the tumor center may have prognostic value.

  1. Heterogeneous Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dakka, J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Sanderson, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract of GB 2309655 (A) Heterogeneous catalysts comprising one or more metal compounds selected from the group consisting of tin, molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium and selenium compounds deposited on the surface of a silicalite are provided. Preferably Sn(IV) and/or Mo(VI) are employed. The cat

  2. Estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar ativa utilizando a tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (18F-FDG PET Evaluation of glucose metabolism in active lung tuberculosis by positron-emission tomography (18F-FDG PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDNEY BOMBARDA

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os métodos de imagem utilizados na avaliação da tuberculose pulmonar incluem a radiografia e a tomografia computadorizada do tórax. As imagens obtidas pelos métodos de medicina nuclear permitem estudos funcionais e metabólicos dos órgãos de interesse, através do uso de radiofármacos específicos. Alterações do metabolismo da glicose podem ser detectadas pela tomografia por emissão de pósitrons (PET utilizando-se o 18F-fluorodesoxiglicose (18F-FDG. Essas alterações estão presentes nas doenças neoplásicas, inflamatórias e infecciosas. A tuberculose é uma doença granulomatosa causada pelo Mycobacterium tuberculosis, que se utiliza de glicose como fonte de energia. Objetivo: O estudo do metabolismo da glicose na tuberculose pulmonar através da PET e sua comparação com a tomografia computadorizada de tórax. Material e métodos: Foram avaliados 20 pacientes portadores de tuberculose pulmonar. Todos foram submetidos à PET e à tomografia computadorizada de tórax, em até 30 dias após o início do tratamento. Resultados: Todos os pacientes apresentaram captação positiva do 18F-FDG na PET. Na tomografia computadorizada do tórax, todos os pacientes apresentaram sinais compatíveis com atividade de tuberculose. A sensibilidade dos dois métodos foi de 100%. Houve concordância entre os achados do 18F-FDG PET e da tomografia computadorizada (K = 0,27 e p Current methods to evaluate lung tuberculosis include chest radiography and computed tomography. Nuclear medicine imaging techniques are performed after administration of specific radiopharmaceuticals that accumulate in the organs of interest. Alterations of glucose metabolism can be observed by positron-emission tomography, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG PET. These findings are present in the neoplasms, but also in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Tuberculosis is a granulomatous disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis , that uses glucose as an energy source

  3. um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cátia Filipa Pereira da

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica As situações de abuso sexual de crianças nas quais o perpetrador pertence ao sexo feminino obtiveram ao longo dos últimos anos um acrescido reconhecimento por parte da comunidade científica, evidenciado pelo significativo incremento das investigações no âmbito desta temática consistindo na sua maioria estudos de caso. Um conjunto de particularidades encont...

  4. Lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000066.htm Lung disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... fibrosis and sarcoidosis are examples of lung tissue disease. Lung circulation diseases -- These diseases affect the blood vessels ...

  5. Lung transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solid organ transplant - lung ... the chance that the body will reject the transplant . Lungs can also be given by living donors. ... the person who is receiving it. During lung transplant surgery, you are asleep and pain-free (under ...

  6. Collapsed Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collapsed lung happens when air enters the pleural space, the area between the lung and the chest wall. If it is a ... is called pneumothorax. If only part of the lung is affected, it is called atelectasis. Causes of ...

  7. Lung morphology and growth of rats exposed to tobacco smoke and alcohol Estudo morfológico dos pulmões e crescimento de ratos expostos à fumaça do cigarro e ao álcool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Luciana Magnani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Investigate the morphological effects of chronic exposure to tobacco smoke inhalation and alcohol consumption on the lungs and on the growth of rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control, tobacco, alcohol, tobacco + alcohol, for a period of study 260 days. Morphological analysis was conducted by optical and electron microscopy. Rat growth was investigated by measuring the snout-anus length, body mass index and body weight. RESULTS: The three groups exposed to the drugs presented lower growth and lower weight than the control group. The percentages of alveolitis, bronchiolitis and the mean alveolar diameter were greater, particularly in the groups exposed to tobacco smoke, but were not significantly different from the control group. Electron microscopy revealed more intense apoptotic and degenerative lesions in the smoking group, while degenerative lesions in the lamellar bodies were more intense with the association of both drugs. CONCLUSIONS: This experimental model showed morphological alterations observed by electron microscopy, principally due to tobacco smoke exposure. Alcohol and tobacco hindered the growth of rats, such that tobacco showed a greater effect on body length and alcohol on body weight.OBJETIVO: Investigar os efeitos morfológicos da exposição crônica à inalação de fumaça do tabaco e o do consumo de álcool nos pulmões e no crescimento de ratos. MÉTODOS: Sessenta ratos Wistar machos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: controle, tabaco, álcool e tabaco + álcool, e acompanhados por um período de 260 dias. No final do periodo foi realizada análise morfológica dos pulmões por microscopia óptica e eletrônica. O crescimento dos ratos foi investigado através da medição do comprimento focinho-ânus, peso corporal e índice de massa corporal. RESULTADOS: Os três grupos expostos às drogas apresentaram peso e comprimento significativamente menores que os do grupo controle

  8. Facts and promises on lung biomarkers in interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Ilaria; Zorzetto, Michele; Bonella, Francesco

    2015-08-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of >100 pulmonary disorders. ILDs are characterized by an irreversible architectural distortion and impaired gas exchange; however, there is great variability in the clinical course. ILD diagnosis requires a combination of clinical data, radiological imaging and histological findings (when a lung biopsy is required). At the same time, successful management of ILD patients strictly depends on an accurate and confident diagnosis. In this context, the detection of reliable biomarkers able to identify ILD subtypes, avoiding lung biopsy, as well as the capacity to stratify patients and predict over time the disease course, has become a primary aim for all research studies in this field.

  9. Lung Cancer and Interstitial Lung Diseases: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Archontogeorgis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs represent a heterogeneous group of more than two hundred diseases of either known or unknown etiology with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Lung cancer, which is the major cause of cancer death in the developed countries, is mainly attributed to cigarette smoking and exposure to inhaled carcinogens. Different studies suggest a link between ILDs and lung cancer, through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as inflammation, coagulation, dysregulated apoptosis, focal hypoxia, activation, and accumulation of myofibroblasts as well as extracellular matrix accumulation. This paper reviews current evidence on the association between lung cancer and interstitial lung diseases such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, systemic sclerosis, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and pneumoconiosis.

  10. Genetic adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis: strong and weak mutators with heterogeneous genetic backgrounds emerge in mucA and/or lasR mutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciofu, Oana; Mandsberg, Lotte F.; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    During the chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods due to adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Hypermutability is considered to play an important role in this adaptive evolution and it has been demonstrated tha...... evolutionary pathways concordant with adaptive radiation were observed in different clonal lineages of P. aeruginosa from CF patients.......During the chronic lung infection of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive for long periods due to adaptive evolution mediated by genetic variation. Hypermutability is considered to play an important role in this adaptive evolution and it has been demonstrated...... that mutator populations are amplified in the CF lung by hitchhiking with adaptive mutations. Two of the genes that are frequently mutated in isolates from chronic infection are mucA and lasR. Loss-of-function mutations in these genes determine the phenotypic switch to mucoidy and loss of quorum sensing, which...

  11. Regional tidal lung strain in mechanically ventilated normal lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Luis Felipe; Wellman, Tyler J; Winkler, Tilo; Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Venegas, Jose G; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Carvalho, Alysson R; Vidal Melo, Marcos F

    2016-12-01

    Parenchymal strain is a key determinant of lung injury produced by mechanical ventilation. However, imaging estimates of volumetric tidal strain (ε = regional tidal volume/reference volume) present substantial conceptual differences in reference volume computation and consideration of tidally recruited lung. We compared current and new methods to estimate tidal volumetric strains with computed tomography, and quantified the effect of tidal volume (VT) and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on strain estimates. Eight supine pigs were ventilated with VT = 6 and 12 ml/kg and PEEP = 0, 6, and 12 cmH2O. End-expiratory and end-inspiratory scans were analyzed in eight regions of interest along the ventral-dorsal axis. Regional reference volumes were computed at end-expiration (with/without correction of regional VT for intratidal recruitment) and at resting lung volume (PEEP = 0) corrected for intratidal and PEEP-derived recruitment. All strain estimates demonstrated vertical heterogeneity with the largest tidal strains in middependent regions (P < 0.01). Maximal strains for distinct estimates occurred at different lung regions and were differently affected by VT-PEEP conditions. Values consistent with lung injury and inflammation were reached regionally, even when global measurements were below critical levels. Strains increased with VT and were larger in middependent than in nondependent lung regions. PEEP reduced tidal-strain estimates referenced to end-expiratory lung volumes, although it did not affect strains referenced to resting lung volume. These estimates of tidal strains in normal lungs point to middependent lung regions as those at risk for ventilator-induced lung injury. The different conditions and topography at which maximal strain estimates occur allow for testing the importance of each estimate for lung injury.

  12. Lung surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pneumonectomy; Lobectomy; Lung biopsy; Thoracoscopy; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery; VATS ... You will have general anesthesia before surgery. You will be asleep and unable to feel pain. Two common ways to do surgery on your lungs are thoracotomy and video- ...

  13. Heterogeneity and Microeconometrics Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Carro, Jesus

    Presented at the 2005 Econometric Society World Congress Plenary Session on "Modelling Heterogeneity". We survey the treatment of heterogeneity in applied microeconometrics analyses. There are three themes. First, there is usually much more heterogeneity than empirical researchers allow for. Seco...

  14. Spectrum of fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, Adam S; Padilla, Maria L

    2009-02-01

    The interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by inflammation and/or fibrosis of the pulmonary interstitium. In 2002, the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society revised the classification of interstitial lung diseases and introduced the term diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are a subtype of diffuse parenchymal lung disease. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are subdivided into usual interstitial pneumonia (with its clinical counterpart idiopathic interstitial pneumonia), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis interstitial lung disease, and lymphocytic pneumonia. Sarcoidosis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis are the 2 most common granulomatous diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, and dermatomyositis/polymyositis (causing antisynthetase syndrome) are diffuse parenchymal lung diseases of known association because these conditions are associated with connective tissue disease. Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome is a rare genetic diffuse parenchymal lung disease characterized by the clinical triad of pulmonary disease, oculocutaneous albinism, and bleeding diathesis. This review provides an overview of the chronic fibrosing diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. Its primary objective is to illuminate the clinical challenges encountered by clinicians who manage the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases regularly and to offer potential solutions to those challenges. Treatment for the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases is limited, and for many patients with end-stage disease, lung transplantation remains the best option. Although much has been learned about the diffuse parenchymal lung diseases during the past decade, research in these diseases is urgently needed.

  15. Lung function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005200 The effect of body position changes on lung function, lung CT imaging and pathology in an oleic acid induced acute lung injury model. JI Xin-ping (戢新平), et al. Dept Emergency, 1st Affili Hosp, China Med Univ, Shenyang 110001. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis, 2005;28(1) :33-36. Objective: To study the effect of body position changes on lung mechanics, oxygenation, CT images and pathology in an oleic acid-induced acute lung injury (ALl) model. Methods: The study groups con-

  16. Lung Organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, David; El-Hashash, Ahmed; Carraro, Gianni; Tiozzo, Caterina; Sala, Frederic; Rogers, Orquidea; De Langhe, Stijn; Kemp, Paul J.; Riccardi, Daniela; Torday, John; Bellusci, Saverio; Shi, Wei; Lubkin, Sharon R; Jesudason, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    Developmental lung biology is a field that has the potential for significant human impact: lung disease at the extremes of age continues to cause major morbidity and mortality worldwide. Understanding how the lung develops holds the promise that investigators can use this knowledge to aid lung repair and regeneration. In the decade since the “molecular embryology” of the lung was first comprehensively reviewed, new challenges have emerged—and it is on these that we focus the current review. Firstly, there is a critical need to understand the progenitor cell biology of the lung in order to exploit the potential of stem cells for the treatment of lung disease. Secondly, the current familiar descriptions of lung morphogenesis governed by growth and transcription factors need to be elaborated upon with the reinclusion and reconsideration of other factors, such as mechanics, in lung growth. Thirdly, efforts to parse the finer detail of lung bud signaling may need to be combined with broader consideration of overarching mechanisms that may be therapeutically easier to target: in this arena, we advance the proposal that looking at the lung in general (and branching in particular) in terms of clocks may yield unexpected benefits. PMID:20691848

  17. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  18. Open lung biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT scan Disseminated tuberculosis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis Lung cancer - small cell Lung disease Lung needle biopsy Malignant mesothelioma Pulmonary tuberculosis Rheumatoid lung disease Sarcoidosis Simple pulmonary eosinophilia ...

  19. Attenuation study of 6MV beam in post-mastectomy breast radiotherapy due to metallic heterogeneity of tissue expanders; Estudo da atenuacao do feixe de 6MV em tratamentos radioterapicos de mama pos-mastectomia devido a heterogeneidade metalica de expansores de tecido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trombetta, Debora M.; Silva, Ademir X. da, E-mail: dtrombetta@con.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Energia Nuclear; Cardoso, Simone C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Facure, Alessandro [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosa, Luiz A.R. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-06-15

    In this work, the effects produced in attenuation of 6 MV radiotherapic beam as consequence of metallic heterogeneities present in some types of tissue expanders, used in the process of mammary reconstruction, were studied. The study was developed through the quantification relative transmission making use of computer simulations with Monte Carlo method, using the code MCNPX. The results showed that the presence of this metallic heterogeneity alters the transmission of the beam, causing a reduction up to 20% in the geometric shadowed region. According to dosimetry protocols, the reduction in the dose should be lower of 5%. Therefore the difference found in the study could be relevant to consider the presence of heterogeneity in the irradiation field for the treatment planning. (author)

  20. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  1. Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    When you breathe, your lungs take in oxygen from the air and deliver it to the bloodstream. The cells in your body need oxygen to ... you breathe nearly 25,000 times. People with lung disease have difficulty breathing. Millions of people in ...

  2. Lung transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, José Eduardo; Werebe, Eduardo de Campos; Carraro, Rafael Medeiros; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Fernandes, Lucas Matos; Abdalla, Luis Gustavo; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lung transplantation is a globally accepted treatment for some advanced lung diseases, giving the recipients longer survival and better quality of life. Since the first transplant successfully performed in 1983, more than 40 thousand transplants have been performed worldwide. Of these, about seven hundred were in Brazil. However, survival of the transplant is less than desired, with a high mortality rate related to primary graft dysfunction, infection, and chronic graft dysfunction, particularly in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. New technologies have been developed to improve the various stages of lung transplant. To increase the supply of lungs, ex vivo lung reconditioning has been used in some countries, including Brazil. For advanced life support in the perioperative period, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and hemodynamic support equipment have been used as a bridge to transplant in critically ill patients on the waiting list, and to keep patients alive until resolution of the primary dysfunction after graft transplant. There are patients requiring lung transplant in Brazil who do not even come to the point of being referred to a transplant center because there are only seven such centers active in the country. It is urgent to create new centers capable of performing lung transplantation to provide patients with some advanced forms of lung disease a chance to live longer and with better quality of life. PMID:26154550

  3. Interstitial lung disease in scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Sara R; Castelino, Flavia V

    2015-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a heterogeneous disease of unknown etiology with limited effective therapies. It is characterized by autoimmunity, vasculopathy, and fibrosis and is clinically manifested by multiorgan involvement. Interstitial lung disease is a common complication of systemic sclerosis and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease hinges on careful clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests and high-resolution computed tomography. Effective therapeutic options are still limited. Several experimental therapies are currently in early-phase clinical trials and show promise.

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease ...

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  6. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  7. Espectroscopia de impedância eletroquímica aplicada ao estudo das reações heterogêneas em ânodos dimensionalmente estáveis Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy applied in the study of heterogeneous reactions at dimensionally stable anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane A. de Carvalho

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses different aspects related to the application of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS in the study of heterogeneous electrochemical reactions occurring on Dimensionally Stable anodes (DSA®. The most relevant aspects of the semiconductor/electrolyte interface, the application of the EIS classical equivalent circuit approach and the ac porous model in DSA are presented. The paper shows that DSA type electrodes can be consistently investigated by using the ac porous model and an analysis is presented showing the advantage of applying this kind of approach to study heterogeneous reactions on DSA electrodes. Furthermore, some preliminary results on Ti/Ru0,3Ti(0,7-xSn x O2 based electrodes are presented to exemplify the use of the ac porous model analysis.

  8. A dominated and resistant subpopulation causes regrowth after response to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea treatment of a heterogeneous small cell lung cancer xenograft in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, K; Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L

    1994-01-01

    ) and a resistant (NYH) tumor were used to produce mixed solid tumors in nude mice. Mixtures of 592/NYH (9:1 and 1:1) were inoculated s.c. After 3-4 weeks of tumor growth, the mice were stratified according to tumor size and randomized to treatment with BCNU 40 mg/kg i.p. (10% of lethal dose) or no treatment. Tumor...... growth curves were used to calculate the effect of the treatment, and changes in the relative proportions of 592 and NYH in the mixed tumors were monitored by flow cytometric DNA analysis by which the two cell lines were distinguishable due to differences in DNA content. A significant response...... was eradicated. These results indicate that resistant and undetectable (dominated) subpopulations in heterogeneous tumors may be responsible for relapse and that the fractional size and the growth characteristics of the resistant subpopulation may determine the magnitude of the clinical response to cytotoxic...

  9. Lung Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will recover in the hospital’s intensive care unit (ICU) before moving to a hospital room for one to three weeks. Your doctor may recommend pulmonary rehabilitation after your lung transplant surgery to help you ...

  10. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiologic findings provide the initial basis for prioritizing diagnostic possibilities for a patient with ILD. An accurate prognosis and optimal treatment strategy for patients with ILDs can only be after an accurate diagnosis. This review will assist pulmonary physicians and medicine specialist in recognition of ILD. Extensive literature search has been made through PubMed and also Book References has been used for writing this review.

  11. Rheumatoid lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung disease - rheumatoid arthritis; Rheumatoid nodules; Rheumatoid lung ... They often cause no symptoms. The cause of lung disease associated with rheumatoid arthritis is unknown. Sometimes, the ...

  12. Imaging of macrophage-related lung diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, Katharina; Hansell, David M. [Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    Macrophage-related pulmonary diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by macrophage accumulation, activation or dysfunction. These conditions include smoking-related interstitial lung diseases, metabolic disorders such as Niemann-Pick or Gaucher disease, and rare primary lung tumors. High-resolution computed tomography abnormalities include pulmonary ground-glass opacification secondary to infiltration by macrophages, centrilobular nodules or interlobular septal thickening reflecting peribronchiolar or septal macrophage accumulation, respectively, emphysema caused by macrophage dysfunction, and honeycombing following macrophage-related lung matrix remodeling. (orig.)

  13. Reliability of PET/CT shape and heterogeneity features in functional and morphological components of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer tumors: a repeatability analysis in a prospective multi-center cohort

    CERN Document Server

    Desseroit, Marie-Charlotte; Weber, Wolfgang; Siegel, Barry A; Rest, Catherine Cheze Le; Visvikis, Dimitris; Hatt, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of shape and heterogeneity features in both Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and low-dose Computed Tomography (CT) components of PET/CT. A secondary objective was to investigate the impact of image quantization.Material and methods: A Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -compliant secondary analysis of deidentified prospectively acquired PET/CT test-retest datasets of 74 patients from multi-center Merck and ACRIN trials was performed. Metabolically active volumes were automatically delineated on PET with Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian algorithm. 3DSlicerTM was used to semi-automatically delineate the anatomical volumes on low-dose CT components. Two quantization methods were considered: a quantization into a set number of bins (quantizationB) and an alternative quantization with bins of fixed width (quantizationW). Four shape descriptors, ten first-order metrics and 26 textural features were computed. Bland-Altman analysi...

  14. Sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung: Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KEFELİ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare tumor group accounting for 0.3-1.3% of all malignant lung neoplasms. It is a heterogeneous group of nonsmall cell lung carcinomas containing a sarcoma or sarcoma-like component. In this paper, we describe three cases of sarcomatoid carcinoma of the lung and the histopathologic and clinical features of this rare tumor are discussed.

  15. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  16. Tracking the Evolution of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Wilson, Gareth A.; McGranahan, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Background Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), data on intratumor heterogeneity and cancer genome evolution have been limited to small retrospective cohorts. We wanted to prospectively investigate intratumor heterogeneity in relation to clinical outcome and to determine...... as a prognostic predictor. (Funded by Cancer Research UK and others; TRACERx ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01888601 .)....

  17. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  18. Lung Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Lungs Lung involvement in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) has ... testing. (Krueger et al., 2013) What Are the Lung Features of TSC? Two forms of lung involvement ...

  19. Lung Nodules: Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research & Science Education & Training Home Conditions Lung Nodules Lung Nodules Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask ... Kern, MD (June 01, 2016) What is a lung nodule? A lung nodule is also called a ...

  20. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  1. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  2. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukotynski, Katherine A; Gerbaudo, Victor H

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine allows tailoring of preventive or therapeutic interventions to avoid the expense and toxicity of futile treatment given to those who will not respond. Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease functionally and morphologically. PET is a sensitive molecular imaging technique with a major role in the precision medicine algorithm of patients with lung cancer. It contributes to the precision medicine of lung neoplasia by interrogating tumor heterogeneity throughout the body. It provides anatomofunctional insight during diagnosis, staging, and restaging of the disease. It is a biomarker of tumoral heterogeneity that helps direct selection of the most appropriate treatment, the prediction of early response to cytotoxic and cytostatic therapies, and is a prognostic biomarker in patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Humidifier lung].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, P; de Haller, R; Pyrozynski, W J; Sturzenegger, E R; Brändli, O

    1981-02-07

    Breathing air from a humidifier or an air conditioning unit contaminated by various microorganisms can cause an acute lung disease involving fever, cough and dyspnea, termed "humidifier fever". This type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis was first described in 1959 by PESTALOZZI in the Swiss literature and subsequently by BANASZAK et al. in the Anglo-American. Here a chronic form of this disease which led to pulmonary fibrosis is described: A 37-year-old woman who works in a cheese shop presented with dyspnea which had been progressive over two years, weight loss, a diffuse reticular pattern radiographically and a severe restrictive defect in lung function tests. Open lung biopsy revealed chronic interstitial and alveolar inflammation with non-caseating granulomas and fibrotic changes. Circulating immune complexes and precipitins against the contaminated humidifier water and cheese mites were found, but no antibodies suggesting legionnaires' disease. Two out of five otherwise healthy employees of this cheese shop, where a new humidifying system had been installed 7 years earlier, also had precipitins against the contaminated water from the humidifier and the cheese mites. Despite ending of exposure and longterm steroid and immunosuppressive therapy, the signs and symptoms of pulmonary fibrosis persisted. Contrary to the acute disease, this chronic form is termed "humidifier lung". The importance is stressed of investigating the possibility of exposure to contaminated humidifiers or air conditioning units in all cases of newly detected pulmonary fibrosis.

  4. Welders’ lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izidor Kern

    2010-02-01

    Conclusions: h is study coni rms that longterm welders may have symptoms with no functional disorders, but with prominent morphological changes. h e key to correct diagnosis is an occupational history of the patient. Diagnostic work-up includes funda-mental procedures in suspected interstitial lung disease. h e best therapy is cessation of exposure.

  5. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  6. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  7. Genetic heterogeneity of noncompaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josef Finsterer; Claudia St(o)llberger

    2007-01-01

    @@ To the Editor: With interest we read the article by Wu et al1 on a 53-year male with agenesia of the right lung and left-ventricular hypertrabeculation / noncompaction (LVHT). The paper raises the following concerns.

  8. Estudos sôbre índice de siclemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Martins da Silva

    1945-04-01

    profilaxia da doença. Seriam de grande alcance medidas idênticas em outras doenças hereditárias...The A. presents the results of preliminary studies on sicklemia. The methods recommended to put sicklemia into evidence are: a Carbon dioxide (Hahn & Gillespie's method when an immediate result is desired; b Beck & Hertz's for experimental studies (sicklization phenomenon; c Emmel's for producing evidence on a large scale. It is a practical method allowing the use of coagulated blood or of blood containing anticoagulative substances if isotonicity maintained. Agglutination of red blood corpuscles by the sera anti-A and anti-B does not check sicklization: thus, with a single preparation two tests are practicable: determination of blood group, and sicklemia; d maceration of tissues preserved in formol or absolute alcohol. The best results are obtained by macerating spleen, liver, lung, kidney or pancreas. Use has been made of material preserved for even 26 years. By means of this method it becomes possible to draw up a retrospective index of sicklemic individuals and its appliance to anthropologic and etnographic studies. The index of sicklemic individuals met with, was of 10%, on examining a heterogeneous grouping of 1130 negroids or cross-breeds of this etnia, thus distributed: Negroids ..... 890 10.4%, Cross-breeds of negroids and caucasoids (mulattoes ..... 140 8.0%, Cross-breads of negroids, caucasoids ande mongoloids..... 100 9.0%. The investigation was negative in 30 mongoloid and 100 caucasoid individuals. in 58 sicklemic individuals, carriers of morbid conditions producing circulatory stasis, no anatomicopathological, changes of sickle cell anemia was observed. These findings contradict the hypothesis that stasis is a sufficient factor for the transition from a sicklemic to an anemic condition. In 8 cases of infection by P. falciparum, 2 cases by P. falciparum and P. vivax and 3 cases by P. vivax in sicklemic individuals no symptom of sickle-cell anemia was observed

  9. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  10. Scintigraphy at 3 months after single lung transplantation and observations of primary graft dysfunction and lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belmaati, Esther Okeke; Iversen, Martin; Kofoed, Klaus F;

    2012-01-01

    procedure 3 months after single lung transplantation (SLTX). A total of 41 patients were included in the study: 20 women and 21 men with the age span of patients at transplantation being 38-66 years (mean ± SD: 54.2 ± 6.0). Patient records also included lung function tests and chest X-ray images. We found......, and to investigate whether scintigraphic findings at 3 months were predictive for the outcome at 12 months in relation to primary graft dysfunction (PGD) and lung function. A retrospective study was carried out on all patients who prospectively and consecutively were referred for a routine lung scintigraphy...... no significant correlation between lung function distribution at 3 months and PGD at 72 h. There was also no significant correlation between PGD scores at 72 h and lung function at 6 and 12 months. The same applied to scintigraphic scores for heterogeneity at 3 months compared with lung function at 6 and 12...

  11. Teaching Heterogeneous Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millrood, Radislav

    2002-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching heterogeneous English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language classes. Draws on classroom research data to describe the features of a success-building lesson context. (Author/VWL)

  12. Interstitial lung disease - adults - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease - discharge; Alveolitis - discharge; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis - discharge; IPP - discharge; Chronic interstitial lung - discharge; Chronic respiratory interstitial lung - discharge; Hypoxia - interstitial lung - discharge

  13. Disturbios da olfacao: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lobato Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O olfato, fenômeno subjetivo de grande importância, é pouco compreendido e estudado no ser humano. Médicos com maior conhecimento sobre os distúrbios desse sentido tendem a considerar a doença mais importante e manejar melhor o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Objetivo: Descrever a amostra dos pacientes com queixa principal de distúrbios do olfato e mostrar a experiência do serviço no manejo e tratamento. Delineamento: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte histórica com corte transversal. Materiais e métodos: Descrição da amostra e avaliação de resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com queixa principal de hiposmia ou anosmia atendidos no ambulatório de Rinologia no período de janeiro de 2005 a outubro de 2011. Resultados: Dos 38 pacientes com distúrbio da olfação, 68,4% dos pacientes apresentaram queixa de hiposmia e 31,5% de anosmia, com duração média de 30,8 meses. Os diagnósticos etiológicos principais foram idiopática (31,5%, rinopatia alérgica (28,9% e RSC com pólipos (10,5%. As respostas ao tratamento com corticosteroide tópico e ácido alfa-lipoico foram variáveis, assim como na literatura. Conclusão: Maior importância deve ser dada aos distúrbios do olfato na prática do otorrinolaringologista, uma vez que o diagnóstico diferencial é amplo e pode trazer grande morbidade ao paciente, com impacto na sua qualidade de vida.

  14. Reflux and Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Eating Reflux and Lung Disease Reflux and Lung Disease Make an Appointment Ask a Question Find a Doctor Many people with chronic lung disease also suffer from gastroesophageal reflux (GERD). In this ...

  15. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Do I Stay Healthy Share this page: Nutrition for Lung Cancer Key Points There is no ... lung cancer symptoms, making them worse or better. Nutrition Goals Each person's nutritional needs during lung cancer ...

  16. Análise da correlação do índice de Helkimo com a função respiratória no pré e pós-operatório de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca: estudo piloto Correlation analysis of Helkimo index with lung function in pre-and postoperative patients undergoing cardiac surgery: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Delgado Alves Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliar a articulação temporomandibular (ATM e a função respiratória no pré e pós-operatório de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca eletiva, com intubação orotraqueal (IOT e verificar se há correlação entre o Índice de disfunção clínica craniomandibular (IDCCM com a função respiratória. Foram avaliados pacientes no pré, primeiro e segundo dias de pós-operatório (PO1, PO2 de cirurgia cardíaca com até 24 horas IOT. Na avaliação da ATM foi utilizado o IDCCM e para a avaliação respiratória foram utilizados a cirtometria axilar, xifoideana e umbilical, ventilometria, incluindo capacidade vital (CV, volume minuto (VM e frequência respiratória (FR. Completaram o estudo 13 pacientes. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre o IDCCM nos diferentes períodos de avaliação. Houve diminuição significativa dos valores de cirtometria nas três medidas e da CV com pTo evaluate the temporomandibular joint (TMJ and respiratory function in pre-and postoperative patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery with tracheal intubation (TI and verifying the correlation between Clinical dysfunction index (CDI with lung function. Patients were evaluated during the first and second days after surgery (PO1, PO2 of cardiac surgery with 24 hours of intubation. For the evaluation of the TMJ was used CDI and for respiratory function were used cirtometry axillary, xiphoid and umbilical, and respirometry, including vital capacity (VC, minute volume (MV and respiratory rate (RR. Thirteen patients completed the study. There was no statistical difference between the CDI at different stages of evaluation, and when evaluated the 5 sub-items, only the item assessing function showed significant result, p = 0.01. There was a significant decrease of the values of circumferences in the three measures and CV p <0.001. Negative correlation was found between the CDI and circumference in PO1 axillary; negative correlation between the CDI in

  17. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950304 The diagnosis and treatment of pulmonaryaspergilloma in the aged—a report of 17 cases.LI Di-anqin(李殿清),et al.Henan Provincial Pulmon DisHosp,Zhengzhou,450003.Chin J Geriatr 1994;13(6):338-339.Seventeen cases of pulmonary aspergilloma in theaged were reported.The primary diseases were pul-monary tuberculosis in 14 cases and pulmonary cyst,cancer of lung and pulmonary abscess in one each.In14 cases,the clinical manifestation was frequenthemoptysis;the occurrence rate was 82.4%.Among

  18. Heterogeneity in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Kornelia

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease. There is a high degree of diversity between and within tumors as well as among cancer-bearing individuals, and all of these factors together determine the risk of disease progression and therapeutic resistance. Advances in technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and functional viability screens now allow us to analyze tumors at unprecedented depths. However, translating this increasing knowledge into clinical practice remains a challenge in part due to tumor evolution driven by the diversity of cancer cell populations and their microenvironment. The articles in this Review series discuss recent advances in our understanding of breast tumor heterogeneity, therapies tailored based on this knowledge, and future ways of assessing and treating heterogeneous tumors.

  19. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  20. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  1. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    rounds amongst others. d. How were the results disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing to report. e. What do you plan to do during the next...additional funding to complete the project. 4. IMPACT: a. What was the impact on the development of the principal discipline(s) of the project? Nothing ...to report. b. What was the impact on other disciplines? Nothing to report. c. What was the impact on technology transfer? Nothing to report

  2. Cellular Plasticity and Heterogeneity of EGFR Mutant Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    transition occurs is unknown. In this proposal, we are studying the molecular and cellular mechanisms that cause this transition to occur in...weekly cancer center and pathology grand rounds amongst others. d. How were the results disseminated to communities of interest? Nothing to report...process and obtain high quality data recently. Therefore, we will be performing RNA sequencing on samples of EGFR mutant SCLC in the next couple of

  3. Interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffuse parenchymal lung disease; Alveolitis; Idiopathic pulmonary pneumonitis (IPP) ... The lungs contain tiny air sacs (alveoli), which is where oxygen is absorbed. These air sacs expand with each ...

  4. Strategies for lung regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Petersen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited ability of the adult lung to regenerate and the frequency of lung disease, the lung is a tissue that can especially benefit from regenerative medicine. Prospects for lung regeneration have made great strides in the past year. In this review, we summarize recent progress and key challenges for approaches in lung regenerative medicine. With a focus on the matrix components critical for the development of regenerative lung tissues, we discuss possible cell sources for lung regeneration, key matrix effects on cell repopulation, and physical stimuli that will aid in the growth of lung tissues in vitro.

  5. Needle Biopsy of the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Needle Biopsy of the Lung Needle biopsy of the lung ... Needle Biopsy of Lung Nodules? What is Needle Biopsy of the Lung? A lung nodule is relatively ...

  6. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to help. HELPFUL WEB SITES ON LUNG CANCER American Lung Association www.lung.org Lungcancer.org www.lungcancer.org Lung Cancer Alliance www.lungcanceralliance.org Lung Cancer Online www. ...

  8. Heterogeneous Uncertainty Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-08

    probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about collections of moving objects. S...heterogeneous temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agents, the concept of probabilistic version of XML and RDF, and probabilistic methods to reason about...temporal probabilistic ( HTP ) agent. HTP agents can build temporal probabilistic reasoning capabilities on top of multiple databases and software

  9. Heterogeneous Computing in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, M.P.; Grassi, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (J Econ Dyn...

  10. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...

  11. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-c

  12. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital and the...

  13. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  14. Receiver Heterogeneity Helps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Erika R.; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani;

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity amongst devices and desired service are commonly seen as a source of additional challenges for setting up an efficient multi-layer multicast service. In particular, devices requiring only the base layer can become a key bottleneck to the performance for other devices. This paper...

  15. Outcomes of Adolescent and Adult Patients with Lung Metastatic Osteosarcoma and Comparison of Synchronous and Metachronous Lung Metastatic Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gok Durnali

    Full Text Available Osteosarcomas with lung metastases are rather heterogenous group. We aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes of osteosarcoma patients with lung metastases and to compare the synchronous and metachronous lung metastatic groups. A total of 93 adolescent and adult patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma, from March 1995 to July 2011, in a single center, were included. Sixty-five patients (69.9% were male. The median age was 19 years (range, 14-74. Thirty-nine patients (41.9% had synchronous lung metastases (Group A and 54 patients (58.1% had metachronous lung metastases (Group B. The 5-year and 10-year post-lung metastases overall survival (PLM-OS was 17% and 15%, respectively. In multivariate analysis for PLM-OS, time to lung metastases (p = 0.010, number of metastatic pulmonary nodules (p = 0.020, presence of pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.007 and presence of chemotherapy for lung metastases (p< 0.001 were found to be independent prognostic factors. The median PLM-OS of Group A and Group B was 16 months and 9 months, respectively. In Group B, the median PLM-OS of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months was 6 months, whereas that of the patients who developed lung metastases later was 16 months. Time to lung metastases, number and laterality of metastatic pulmonary nodules, chemotherapy for lung metastatic disease and pulmonary metastasectomy were independent prognostic factors for patients with lung metastatic osteosarcoma. The best PLM-OS was in the subgroup of patients treated both surgery and chemotherapy. The prognosis of the patients who developed lung metastases within 12 months after diagnosis was worst.

  16. Finite element modeling of blast lung injury in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melissa M; Dang, Xinglai; Adkins, Mark; Powell, Brian; Chan, Philemon

    2015-04-01

    A detailed 3D finite element model (FEM) of the sheep thorax was developed to predict heterogeneous and volumetric lung injury due to blast. A shared node mesh of the sheep thorax was constructed from a computed tomography (CT) scan of a sheep cadaver, and while most material properties were taken from literature, an elastic-plastic material model was used for the ribs based on three-point bending experiments performed on sheep rib specimens. Anesthetized sheep were blasted in an enclosure, and blast overpressure data were collected using the blast test device (BTD), while surface lung injury was quantified during necropsy. Matching blasts were simulated using the sheep thorax FEM. Surface lung injury in the FEM was matched to pathology reports by setting a threshold value of the scalar output termed the strain product (maximum value of the dot product of strain and strain-rate vectors over all simulation time) in the surface elements. Volumetric lung injury was quantified by applying the threshold value to all elements in the model lungs, and a correlation was found between predicted volumetric injury and measured postblast lung weights. All predictions are made for the left and right lungs separately. This work represents a significant step toward the prediction of localized and heterogeneous blast lung injury, as well as volumetric injury, which was not recorded during field testing for sheep.

  17. Phase 2 trial of the use of neo adjuvant carboplatin, mitomcyn C and etoposide plus radiotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced non-small cell carcinoma of the lung; Estudo de fase 2 do uso de quimioterapia neo-adjuvante combinado carboplatina, mitomicina C e etoposido a radioterapia no tratamento do carcinoma broncogenico de celulas nao-pequenas localmente avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murad, Andre M.; Saldanha, T.M.; Pereira, S.P. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Moura, J.E. [Hospital Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Xavier, O.G. [Instituto Joao Resende Alves, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-three patients (22 male and 1 female) with stage III non-small carcinoma of the lung without pleural effusion, age less than 70, adequate cardiac, renal, hematological and pulmonary functions, with Karnofsky performance status {>=} 60 were treated with 3 cycles 28-32 day cycles of carboplatin - 300 mg/m{sup 2} day 1, mitomycin C- 6 mg/m{sup 2} day 1 e etoposide-120 mg/m{sup 2} days 1,2,3. By the end of chemotherapy the patients were submitted to radiation (total dose of 54 Gy in 5 weeks). Median age was 60 (range 38-70). Median Karnofsky performance status was 70. Pathology: 16 squanous, 6 adenocarcinoma, and 1 large cell. Fifteen (65%) patients attained objective responses, including 3 (13%) complete responders. One patient had the complete response pathologically documented by thoracotomy. The median overall survival was 12 months (range 3-24). The 12 month overall survival was 50%. The toxicity was considered acceptable and manageable. The median nadir of thrombocytopenia was 79 x 10{sup 9}. There was no death due to treatment. This regimen seems to be effective in inducing some complete and prolonged tumor responses, with acceptable toxicity profile in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, the results are still modest and needed to be improved. (author) 14 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and scarring make it hard to ... air is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among ...

  19. Lung gallium scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallium 67 lung scan; Lung scan; Gallium scan - lung; Scan - lung ... Gallium is injected into a vein. The scan will be taken 6 to 24 hours after the gallium is injected. (Test time depends on whether your condition is acute or chronic .) ...

  20. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Weber, Michael; Hoermann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Herold, Christian J.; Prayer, Daniela [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Medical University of Vienna, Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Vienna (Austria); Csapo, Bence [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and Gyneocology, Vienna (Austria); Bammer, Roland [University of Stanford, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2008-04-15

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 {+-} 0.44 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the apex, 1.99 {+-} 0.42 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 {+-} 0.41 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms (mean {+-} SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity. (orig.)

  1. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the normal fetal lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassy, Csilla; Kasprian, Gregor; Brugger, Peter C; Csapo, Bence; Weber, Michael; Hörmann, Marcus; Bankier, Alexander; Bammer, Roland; Herold, Christian J; Prayer, Daniela

    2008-04-01

    To quantify apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) changes in fetuses with normal lungs and to determine whether ADC can be used in the assessment of fetal lung development. In 53 pregnancies (20-37th weeks of gestation), we measured ADC on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the apical, middle, and basal thirds of the right lung. ADCs were correlated with gestational age. Differences between the ADCs were assessed. Fetal lung volumes were measured on T2-weighted sequences and correlated with ADCs and with age. ADCs were 2.13 +/- 0.44 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the apex, 1.99 +/- 0.42 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the middle third, and 1.91 +/- 0.41 microm(2)/ms (mean +/- SD) in the lung base. Neither the individual ADC values nor average ADC values showed a significant correlation with gestational age or with lung volumes. Average ADCs decreased significantly from the lung apex toward the base. Individual ADCs showed little absolute change and heterogeneity. Lung volumes increased significantly during gestation. We have not been able to identify a pattern of changes in the ADC values that correlate with lung maturation. Furthermore, the individual, gravity-related ADC changes are subject to substantial variability and show nonuniform behavior. ADC can therefore not be used as an indicator of lung maturity.

  2. Heterogeneous Voter Models

    CERN Document Server

    Masuda, Naoki; Redner, S

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the heterogeneous voter model (HVM), in which each agent has its own intrinsic rate to change state, reflective of the heterogeneity of real people, and the partisan voter model (PVM), in which each agent has an innate and fixed preference for one of two possible opinion states. For the HVM, the time until consensus is reached is much longer than in the classic voter model. For the PVM in the mean-field limit, a population evolves to a "selfish" state, where each agent tends to be aligned with its internal preference. For finite populations, discrete fluctuations ultimately lead to consensus being reached in a time that scales exponentially with population size.

  3. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...

  4. Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongcheng; Gaza-Bulseco, Georgeen; Faldu, Dinesh; Chumsae, Chris; Sun, Joanne

    2008-07-01

    Heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies is common due to the various modifications introduced over the lifespan of the molecules from the point of synthesis to the point of complete clearance from the subjects. The vast number of modifications presents great challenge to the thorough characterization of the molecules. This article reviews the current knowledge of enzymatic and nonenzymatic modifications of monoclonal antibodies including the common ones such as incomplete disulfide bond formation, glycosylation, N-terminal pyroglutamine cyclization, C-terminal lysine processing, deamidation, isomerization, and oxidation, and less common ones such as modification of the N-terminal amino acids by maleuric acid and amidation of the C-terminal amino acid. In addition, noncovalent associations with other molecules, conformational diversity and aggregation of monoclonal antibodies are also discussed. Through a complete understanding of the heterogeneity of monoclonal antibodies, strategies can be employed to better identify the potential modifications and thoroughly characterize the molecules.

  5. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  6. Electrokinetics of heterogeneous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembala, Maria

    2004-12-31

    The influence of surface heterogeneity of various types on electrokinetic parameters is reviewed. The scope of the paper covers classical electrokinetic phenomena characterized by linear dependence of electrokinetic parameters vs. related driving forces. Neither non-linear effects nor the effects of non-equilibrium electric double layer are considered. A historical description of hydrodynamic aspect of electrokinetic phenomena exploiting the slip plane idea is briefly outlined. Attempts to estimate the slip plane location by comparing the diffuse layer and zeta potential values for some model systems are presented. The surface heterogeneity was divided into three categories. Heterogeneity of the first type was related to geometrical morphology of an interfacial region characterized by a considerable surface development producing a three-dimensional interfacial region. The effects of solid roughness, hairy surface, dense polymer layers and gel-like layers are discussed here. The very high surface conductivity detected for such interfaces seems to be a good indicator of the presence of structured layers of this type. Heterogeneous interfaces of the second class cover systems exhibiting non-uniform distribution of surface charge. The non-uniform surface charge distribution can be either of a molecular (discrete charges) or of a microscale (two-dimensional micropatches or three-dimensional structures formed by polyelectrolyte multilayers). The last class of systems examined includes interfaces composed of charged substrate covered by charged bulky objects (particles). In comparison to the homogeneous surfaces, adsorbed charged particles modify both hydrodynamic flow and the electrostatic field significantly altering the electrokinetic parameters. The new description of electrokinetics of composed interfaces presented here takes into account both hydrodynamic and electric field modification and is free of the previously assumed slip plane shift caused by adsorbed

  7. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...... or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...

  8. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Hui; Gross, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that heterogeneity can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. Here, we point out that for real world applications, this result should not be regarded independently of the intra-individual heterogeneity between people. Our results show that, if heterogeneity among people is taken into account, networks that are more heterogeneous in connectivity can be more resistant to epidemic spreading. We study a susceptible-infected-susceptible model with adaptive disease avoidance. Results from this model suggest that this reversal of the effect of network heterogeneity is likely to occur in populations in which the individuals are aware of t...

  9. O desamparo aprendido revisitado: estudos com animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Leite Hunziker

    Full Text Available O desamparo aprendido tem sido definido como a dificuldade de aprendizagem apresentada por indivíduos que tiveram experiência prévia com estímulos aversivos incontroláveis. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão crítica dos estudos sobre o desamparo aprendido, com animais. Nessa análise, são considerados aspectos conceituais e metodológicos dos estudos em questão e as interpretações teóricas sobre esse efeito comportamental. Aborda-se a evolução histórica desses estudos, bem como alguns aspectos controversos das publicações que se acumularam ao longo de quatro décadas de pesquisa. A associação do desamparo aprendido com a depressão clínica é analisada criticamente, destacando-se a necessidade de maior rigor metodológico e conceitual nos estudos da área.

  10. Update in diagnosis and management of interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolasch, Theresia A; Garthwaite, Helen S; Porter, Joanna C

    2016-12-01

    The field of interstitial lung disease (ILD) has undergone significant evolution in recent years, with an increasing incidence and more complex, ever expanding disease classification. In their most severe forms, these diseases lead to progressive loss of lung function, respiratory failure and eventually death. Despite notable advances, progress has been challenged by a poor understanding of pathological mechanisms and patient heterogeneity, including variable progression. The diagnostic pathway is thus being continually refined, with the introduction of tools such as transbronchial cryo lung biopsy and a move towards genetically aided, precision medicine. In this review, we focus on how to approach a patient with ILD and the diagnostic process.

  11. Trends in lung cancer in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Charlotte; Schytte, Tine; Holmskov, Karin

    2016-01-01

    of lung cancer is closely linked to the pattern of tobacco smoking with the differences between gender and age groups reflecting smoking behavior in birth cohorts. Elderly patients with lung cancer are a heterogeneous group in whom treatment should be offered according to comorbidity and a geriatric...

  12. SU-E-T-283: Dose Perturbations Near Heterogeneity Junctions for Modulated-Scanning Protons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Y; Li, Y; Sheng, Y; Zhao, F; Huang, Z; Sun, L; Zhao, J; Moyers, M; Hsi, W; Shahnazi, K [Shanghai Proton and Heavy Ion Center, Shanghai (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To compare calculated and measured doses near heterogeneity junctions of tissue-substitute materials for modulated-scanning protons. Methods: Three heterogeneous phantoms were configured using slabs of various plastics to simulate lung, fat, soft-tissue (polystyrene), and bone with known relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Each phantom consisted of soft-tissue and a single heterogeneity of a 5 or 10 cm thickness of a non-soft-tissue material. CT images were loaded into a Syngo treatment planning system and each material contoured and assigned its RLSP. Planning target volumes (PTVs) were drawn such that a beam would partially traverse the heterogeneity and partially only soft-tissue. Lateral profiles were measured using EDR2 films at a minimum of six depths between the phantom surface and the depth corresponding to the beam range. Absolute doses were measured inside and distal to the PTV in all phantoms using either a parallel plate or thimble chamber. Additional dose measurements were made between two lung slabs. Results: Profiles measured by film generally agreed with calculations except for depths distal to lung and fat junctions. Measured lateral penumbras for depths at the distal junction of lung were found to be wider than calculated ones. Compared with calculated doses, measured doses in the PTVs were 5.19% and 2.51% lower for lung and fat respectively but for bone were 0.2% higher. Measured doses for depths distal to the PTV were up to 29.65% and 10.58% higher for lung and fat, respectively but 6.30% lower for bone. Conclusion: The low measured doses in the PTVs for lung and fat might be due to underestimation of lateral scattering of protons. The higher measured doses distal to the PTV for the lung and fat are a Result of a shortened calculated beam range whereas the higher dose distal to the bone junction is within uncertainties.

  13. A descriptive epidemiological study of interstitial lung disease in the United Kingdom general population

    OpenAIRE

    Amar, Rajeev K.

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders having varied histopathologies. Although histologically different, the ILDs have rather similar clinical presentations consisting of increasing dyspnea, a restrictive lung function, impaired gas exchange, and widespread shadowing on chest radiography. Approximately two-thirds of ILD cases have no known etiology. The remaining one-third is either associated with connective tissue disease (CTD) or caused by v...

  14. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...... the characterisation of research activities within firmsin the biotechnology sector. Although the H-index grew out of research on biotechfirms, the metric carries broader relevance for all patent-intensive industries. Themeasurement and calculation of the H-index is illustrated using some empiricalexamples from our...

  15. Functional vascularized lung grafts for lung bioengineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrello, N. Valerio; Guenthart, Brandon A.; O’Neill, John D.; Kim, Jinho; Cunningham, Katherine; Chen, Ya-Wen; Biscotti, Mauer; Swayne, Theresa; Wobma, Holly M.; Huang, Sarah X. L.; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Bacchetta, Matthew; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    End-stage lung disease is the third leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 400,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. To reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with lung disease, new therapeutic strategies aimed at promoting lung repair and increasing the number of donor lungs available for transplantation are being explored. Because of the extreme complexity of this organ, previous attempts at bioengineering functional lungs from fully decellularized or synthetic scaffolds lacking functional vasculature have been largely unsuccessful. An intact vascular network is critical not only for maintaining the blood-gas barrier and allowing for proper graft function but also for supporting the regenerative cells. We therefore developed an airway-specific approach to removing the pulmonary epithelium, while maintaining the viability and function of the vascular endothelium, using a rat model. The resulting vascularized lung grafts supported the attachment and growth of human adult pulmonary cells and stem cell–derived lung-specified epithelial cells. We propose that de-epithelialization of the lung with preservation of intact vasculature could facilitate cell therapy of pulmonary epithelium and enable bioengineering of functional lungs for transplantation. PMID:28875163

  16. Heterogeneous photonic integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Alexander W.; Fish, Gregory; Hall, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Photonic Integrated Circuits (PICs) have been dichotomized into circuits with high passive content (silica and silicon PLCs) and high active content (InP tunable lasers and transceivers) due to the trade-off in material characteristics used within these two classes. This has led to restrictions in the adoption of PICs to systems in which only one of the two classes of circuits are required to be made on a singular chip. Much work has been done to create convergence in these two classes by either engineering the materials to achieve the functionality of both device types on a single platform, or in epitaxial growth techniques to transfer one material to the next, but have yet to demonstrate performance equal to that of components fabricated in their native substrates. Advances in waferbonding techniques have led to a new class of heterogeneously integrated photonic circuits that allow for the concurrent use of active and passive materials within a photonic circuit, realizing components on a transferred substrate that have equivalent performance as their native substrate. In this talk, we review and compare advances made in heterogeneous integration along with demonstrations of components and circuits enabled by this technology.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neoplasm of lung malignant tumor of lung pulmonary cancer pulmonary carcinoma pulmonary neoplasms respiratory carcinoma Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes named? Additional Information & Resources ... Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Non-Small Cell Encyclopedia: Lung Cancer--Small Cell ...

  18. Lung problems and volcanic smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... releases gases into the atmosphere. Volcanic smog can irritate the lungs and make existing lung problems worse. ... deep into the lungs. Breathing in volcanic smog irritates the lungs and mucus membranes. It can affect ...

  19. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  20. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... even smaller tubes called bronchioles. Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. Each lung houses about 300-400 million alveoli. The lungs also ...

  1. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Washington DC West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Impacted by Hurricane Harvey? We're here to help. Call our Lung ... more events Latest News Protecting Your Health After Hurricane Harvey August 31, 2017 For Download: Keeping Your Lungs ...

  2. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  3. Automatic lung nodule classification with radiomics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingchen; Wang, Qian; Ren, Yacheng; Hu, Haibo; Zhao, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer is the first killer among the cancer deaths. Malignant lung nodules have extremely high mortality while some of the benign nodules don't need any treatment .Thus, the accuracy of diagnosis between benign or malignant nodules diagnosis is necessary. Notably, although currently additional invasive biopsy or second CT scan in 3 months later may help radiologists to make judgments, easier diagnosis approaches are imminently needed. In this paper, we propose a novel CAD method to distinguish the benign and malignant lung cancer from CT images directly, which can not only improve the efficiency of rumor diagnosis but also greatly decrease the pain and risk of patients in biopsy collecting process. Briefly, according to the state-of-the-art radiomics approach, 583 features were used at the first step for measurement of nodules' intensity, shape, heterogeneity and information in multi-frequencies. Further, with Random Forest method, we distinguish the benign nodules from malignant nodules by analyzing all these features. Notably, our proposed scheme was tested on all 79 CT scans with diagnosis data available in The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) which contain 127 nodules and each nodule is annotated by at least one of four radiologists participating in the project. Satisfactorily, this method achieved 82.7% accuracy in classification of malignant primary lung nodules and benign nodules. We believe it would bring much value for routine lung cancer diagnosis in CT imaging and provide improvement in decision-support with much lower cost.

  4. Disordered hyperuniform heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    2016-10-01

    Disordered hyperuniform many-body systems are distinguishable states of matter that lie between a crystal and liquid: they are like perfect crystals in the way they suppress large-scale density fluctuations and yet are like liquids or glasses in that they are statistically isotropic with no Bragg peaks. These systems play a vital role in a number of fundamental and applied problems: glass formation, jamming, rigidity, photonic and electronic band structure, localization of waves and excitations, self-organization, fluid dynamics, quantum systems, and pure mathematics. Much of what we know theoretically about disordered hyperuniform states of matter involves many-particle systems. In this paper, we derive new rigorous criteria that disordered hyperuniform two-phase heterogeneous materials must obey and explore their consequences. Two-phase heterogeneous media are ubiquitous; examples include composites and porous media, biological media, foams, polymer blends, granular media, cellular solids, and colloids. We begin by obtaining some results that apply to hyperuniform two-phase media in which one phase is a sphere packing in d-dimensional Euclidean space {{{R}}d} . Among other results, we rigorously establish the requirements for packings of spheres of different sizes to be ‘multihyperuniform’. We then consider hyperuniformity for general two-phase media in {{{R}}d} . Here we apply realizability conditions for an autocovariance function and its associated spectral density of a two-phase medium, and then incorporate hyperuniformity as a constraint in order to derive new conditions. We show that some functional forms can immediately be eliminated from consideration and identify other forms that are allowable. Specific examples and counterexamples are described. Contact is made with well-known microstructural models (e.g. overlapping spheres and checkerboards) as well as irregular phase-separation and Turing-type patterns. We also ascertain a family of

  5. Heart-lung transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Bartley P.; Magliato, Kathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Heart-lung transplantation itself is not a particularly difficult operation technically. It is the setting in which this procedure is performed which is difficult. The three issues of importance in a successful outcome are appropriate harvest of the heart-lung bloc from the donor, careful explant of the heart and lungs of the recipient, and finally the implant of the heart-lung bloc into the recipient. None of this requires extraordinary technical skill, but does require careful coordination ...

  6. Brachytherapy dose measurements in heterogeneous tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva F, G.; Luvizotto, J.; Salles C, T.; Guimaraes A, P. C.; Dalledone S, P. de T.; Yoriyaz, H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rubo, R., E-mail: gabrielpaivafonseca@gmail.com [Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05403-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Recently, Beau lieu et al. published an article providing guidance for Model-Based Dose Calculation Algorithms (MBDCAs), where tissue heterogeneity considerations are addressed. It is well-known that T G-43 formalism which considers only water medium is limited and significant dose differences have been found comparing both methodologies. The aim of the present work is to experimentally quantify dose values in heterogeneous medium using different dose measurement methods and techniques and compare them with those obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. Experiments have been performed using a Nucletron micro Selectron-Hdr Ir-192 brachytherapy source and a heterogeneous phantom composed by PMMA and different tissue equivalent cylinders like bone, lungs and muscle. Several dose measurements were obtained using tissue equivalent materials with height 1.8 cm and 4.3 cm positioned between the radiation source and the detectors. Radiochromic films, TLDs and MOSFET S have been used for the dose measurements. Film dosimetry has been performed using two methodologies: a) linearization for dose-response curve based on calibration curves to create a functional form that linearize s the dose response and b) 177 multichannel analysis dosimetry where the multiple color channels are analyzed allowing to address not only disturbances in the measurements caused by thickness variation in the film layer, but also, separate other external influences in the film response. All experiments have been simulated using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Comparison of experimental results are in good agreement with calculated dose values with differences less than 6% for almost all cases. (Author)

  7. Heterogenous networks and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Su-En

    the existing generation of technology and presents new technological performance breakthroughs. It is difficult to predict which radical technologies or innovations will result in a market disruption early on in their life cycles. Based on Clayton Christensen’s (Christensen 1997) definition of a disruptive...... of the market. If mainstream technology firms do not address the disruption, it is likely they will fail and the new disruptive firm will grow in size and importance in the industry. As we move to 3G (3rd Generation Mobile Services) and beyond 3G, one of the biggest challenges is to bridge network heterogeneity...... products and services. Schumpeter described the motor of development as the innovation itself. However, business and financial aspects must also be considered as they provide the bottom line for firms in the industry. Standardisation is increasingly required due to the number of different technologies...

  8. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  9. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...... of a presumed logic of competition within EU law, whereas the second part focuses on particular legal logics. In this respect, the so-called ‘real link criterion’ (determining the access to transnational social rights for certain groups of unemployed people) is given special attention. What is particularly...

  10. Noise and Neuronal Heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    We consider signal transaction in a simple neuronal model featuring intrinsic noise. The presence of noise limits the precision of neural responses and impacts the quality of neural signal transduction. We assess the signal transduction quality in relation to the level of noise, and show it to be maximized by a non-zero level of noise, analogous to the stochastic resonance effect. The quality enhancement occurs for a finite range of stimuli to a single neuron; we show how to construct networks of neurons that extend the range. The range increases more rapidly with network size when we make use of heterogeneous populations of neurons with a variety of thresholds, rather than homogeneous populations of neurons all with the same threshold. The limited precision of neural responses thus can have a direct effect on the optimal network structure, with diverse functional properties of the constituent neurons supporting an economical information processing strategy that reduces the metabolic costs of handling a broad...

  11. Heterogeneity in recombinant protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Johanson, Ted; Lundin, Luisa;

    2012-01-01

    contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors...... are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by analysing single cells with flow cytometry. This can give new insights to cell physiology and recombinant protein production at the industrial scale....

  12. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  13. Exploring the uncertainties of early detection results: model-based interpretation of mayo lung project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Barbara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mayo Lung Project (MLP, a randomized controlled clinical trial of lung cancer screening conducted between 1971 and 1986 among male smokers aged 45 or above, demonstrated an increase in lung cancer survival since the time of diagnosis, but no reduction in lung cancer mortality. Whether this result necessarily indicates a lack of mortality benefit for screening remains controversial. A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the observed outcome, including over-diagnosis, screening sensitivity, and population heterogeneity (initial difference in lung cancer risks between the two trial arms. This study is intended to provide model-based testing for some of these important arguments. Method Using a micro-simulation model, the MISCAN-lung model, we explore the possible influence of screening sensitivity, systematic error, over-diagnosis and population heterogeneity. Results Calibrating screening sensitivity, systematic error, or over-diagnosis does not noticeably improve the fit of the model, whereas calibrating population heterogeneity helps the model predict lung cancer incidence better. Conclusions Our conclusion is that the hypothesized imperfection in screening sensitivity, systematic error, and over-diagnosis do not in themselves explain the observed trial results. Model fit improvement achieved by accounting for population heterogeneity suggests a higher risk of cancer incidence in the intervention group as compared with the control group.

  14. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  15. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema: A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, K.; Hacken, N. Ten; Franz, I.; Kerstjens, H.; Rikxoort, E.M. van; Slebos, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction ({LVR}) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic {LVR} coil treatment has been show

  16. Lung Volume Reduction Coil Treatment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients with Homogeneous Emphysema : A Prospective Feasibility Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klooster, Karin; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; Franz, Ina; Kerstjens, Huib A. M.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background: In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, surgical and bronchoscopic lung volume reduction (LVR) treatments are available. However, for patients with homogeneous emphysema these treatments are hardly investigated and seem less effective. Bronchoscopic LVR coil treatment has been shown to

  17. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Lega

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM is a group of rare connective tissue diseases (CTDs characterised by muscular and extramuscular signs, in which lung involvement is a challenging issue. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the hallmark of pulmonary involvement in IIM, and causes morbidity and mortality, resulting in an estimated excess mortality of 50% in some series. Except for inclusion body myositis, these extrapulmonary disorders are associated with the general and visceral involvement frequently found in other CTDs including fever, Raynaud's phenomenon, arthralgia, nonspecific cutaneous modifications and ILD, for which the prevalence is estimated to be up to 65%. Substantial heterogeneity exists within the spectrum of IIMs, and each condition is associated with various frequencies and subtypes of pulmonary involvement. This heterogeneity is partly related to the presence of various autoantibodies encompassing anti-synthetase, anti-MDA5 and anti-PM/Scl. ILD is present in all subsets of IIM including juvenile myositis, but is more frequent in dermatomyositis and overlap myositis. IIM can also be associated with other presentations of respiratory involvement, namely pulmonary arterial hypertension, pleural disease, infections, drug-induced toxicity, malignancy and respiratory muscle weakness. Here, we critically review the current knowledge about adult and juvenile myositis-associated lung disease with a detailed description of therapeutics for chronic and rapidly progressive ILD.

  18. Micro-heterogeneity metrics for diffusion in soft matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellnik, John; Vasquez, Paula A; McKinley, Scott A; Witten, Jacob; Hill, David B; Forest, M Gregory

    2014-10-21

    Passive particle tracking of diffusive paths in soft matter, coupled with analysis of the path data, is firmly established as a fundamental methodology for characterization of both diffusive transport properties (the focus here) and linear viscoelasticity. For either focus, particle time series are typically analyzed by ensemble averaging over paths, a perfectly natural protocol for homogeneous materials or for applications where mean properties are sufficient. Many biological materials, however, are heterogeneous over length scales above the probe diameter, and the implications of heterogeneity for biologically relevant transport properties (e.g. diffusive passage times through a complex fluid layer) motivate this paper. Our goals are three-fold: first, to detect heterogeneity as reflected by the ensemble path data; second, to further decompose the ensemble of particle paths into statistically distinct clusters; and third, to fit the path data in each cluster to a model for the underlying stochastic process. After reviewing current best practices for detection and assessment of heterogeneity in diffusive processes, we introduce our strategy toward the first two goals with methods from the statistics and machine learning literature that have not found application thus far to passive particle tracking data. We apply an analysis based solely on the path data that detects heterogeneity and yields a decomposition of particle paths into statistically distinct clusters. After these two goals are achieved, one can then pursue model-fitting. We illustrate these heterogeneity metrics on diverse datasets: for numerically generated and experimental particle paths, with tunable and unknown heterogeneity, on numerical models for simple diffusion and anomalous sub-diffusion, and experimentally on sucrose, hyaluronic acid, agarose, and human lung culture mucus solutions.

  19. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  20. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Hommes; J. Lustenhouwer; K. Mavromatis

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in t

  1. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...

  2. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  3. Heterogeneity: multilingualism and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Krumm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.

  4. Heterogeneous recording media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Vitaly I.

    1991-02-01

    The paper summarizes the results of investigations performed to obtain deep 3-D holograms with 102 i0 mkm physical thickness allowing the postexposure amplification and the a posteriori changing of the grating parameters. This aim has been achieved by developing heterogeneous systems on the basis of porous glass with light-sensitive compositions introduced into it. 1. INTRODUCTION. LIGHT-SENSITIVE MEDIA FOR 3-D HOLOGRAMS RECORDING. The 3-D holograms have many useful properties: very high diffraction efficiency angular and spectral selectivity but low level of noise. It shoud be noted that in this case deep 3-D holograms are dealt with whose physical thickness is as high as 102 -i mkm. Such hologram recording is usually done using homogeneous light-sensitive media for example dyed acid-halide and electrooptical crystals photochrome glass photostructurized polimer compositions and so on. The nature of photophisical and photochemical processes responsible for the light sensitivity of these materials exclude the possibility of post-exposure treatment. This does not allow to enhance the recorded holograms and considerably hampers their fixing or makes it practically impossible. The object of our work is to create the media which are quite suitable for two-stage processes of the deep hologram formation with post-exposure processing. Such material must satisfy the following requirements: a)they must have high permeability for the developing substances in order to make the development duration suitable for practical applications b)they must be shrinkproof to prevent deformation of the

  5. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  6. ESTUDO SOBRE O IMPACTO DOS PROCESSADORES HOSPEDEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba S. B. Lopes

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Arquiteturas reconfiguráveis são dispositivos de hardware capazes de modificar sua estrutura de hardware de acordo com a aplicação a ser executada. Tais dispositivos surgiram como uma alternativa às soluções de hardware tradicionais na tentativa de equilibrar flexibilidade e desempenho. Uma das principais formas de utilização de arquiteturas reconfiguráveis corresponde a um bloco reconfigurável anexado a um processador hospedeiro. Esse processador é responsável por executar diversas tarefas críticas, incluindo o particionamento hardware/software e indicar o momento do bloco reconfigurável executar. Apesar de existirem diversas propostas de arquiteturas reconfiguráveis na literatura, pouco se estudou sobre o impacto do processador hospedeiro na arquitetura. Nesse contexto, esse artigo apresenta um estudo sobre o impacto do processador hospedeiro no desempenho da arquitetura reconfigurável híbrida. Como estudo de caso foi realizada uma avaliação sobre o uso dos processadores SPARC V8 da Sun Microsystems e Nios II da Altera como processadores hospedeiros da arquitetura reconfigurável híbrida RoSA. O objetivo deste estudo é realizar a comparação entre o desempenho desses processadores e identificar qual deles é o mais adequado para anexar a arquitetura em questão. Os resultados mostraram que foi possível alcançar até 47% de ganho de desempenho com o uso do processador Nios II em comparação ao SPARC V8, indicando o primeiro como mais adequado para a arquitetura RoSA. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: arquiteturas reconfiguráveis, processador hospedeiro, desempenho.

  7. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  8. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  9. Verification of absorbed dose to the lung SBRT treatments; Verificacion de dosis absorbida en los tratamientos de SBRT de pulmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, J.; Modolell Farre, I.

    2011-07-01

    The hypo fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy technique applied to the lung, also known as lung SBRT is a technique that small volumes irradiated to high doses using photon beams, usually not coplanar, with energies of 6 and 15 MV. Because of the uncertainties associated with the small field dosimetry calculation in heterogeneous media comes the need to verify the absorbed dose.

  10. Smoking-related interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmeyer, Lars; Randerath, Winfried

    2015-01-23

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SR-ILDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases with major clinical significance. Reliable epidemiological data are not yet available. Review of pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. The available data on many aspects of SR-ILDs are sparse, but recent studies on the pathophysiology and targeted treatment of these conditions have revealed ways in which clinical outcomes can be improved. Highresolution computerized tomography should be used for differential diagnosis; lung biopsy is often unnecessary. Oncogenic mutations play a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (PLCH). In the future, cladribine and vemurafenib may be treatment options for PLCH. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) may be difficult to distinguish from respiratorybronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD); DIP is treated with steroids and sometimes with immune suppressants. In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the antifibrotic drugs pirfenidone and nintedanib can delay disease progression. Smoking is also a risk factor for combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE), rheumatoid-arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD), pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP), and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) in Goodpasture syndrome. In smokers with exertional dyspnea and/or a nonproductive cough, SR-ILDs must be considered in the differential diagnosis. If an SR-ILD is suspected, the patient should be referred to a pulmonary specialist. Early treatment and smoking cessation can improve clinical outcomes, particularly in the acute and chronically progressive types of SR-ILD.

  11. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet....

  12. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  13. Heterogeneity, correlations and financial contagion

    OpenAIRE

    FABIO CACCIOLI; Thomas A. Catanach; J Doyne Farmer

    2011-01-01

    We consider a model of contagion in financial networks recently introduced in Gai, P. and Kapadia, S. [Contagion in financial networks, Proc. R. Soc. A 466(2120) (2010) 2401–2423], and we characterize the effect of a few features empirically observed in real networks on the stability of the system. Notably, we consider the effect of heterogeneous degree distributions, heterogeneous balance sheet size and degree correlations between banks. We study the probability of contagion conditional on t...

  14. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Complications in Transbronchial Lung Biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hue, Sung Ho

    1987-01-01

    Transbronchial lung biopsy was performed in 68 patients with various lung diseases. As an inital diagnostic procedure in diffuse and localized lung diseases, trasbronchial lung biopsy offers an attractive alternative to open lung biopsy. Recently imporvement in the development of medical technology has greatly facilitated this technique, but it must be kept in mind that a transbronchial lung biopsy is not without complication and sometimes potentially serious complications may occur. This stu...

  16. Lung alveolar epithelium and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvol, Harriet; Flamein, Florence; Epaud, Ralph; Clement, Annick; Guillot, Loic

    2009-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) comprise a group of lung disorders characterized by various levels of inflammation and fibrosis. The current understanding of the mechanisms underlying the development and progression of ILD strongly suggests a central role of the alveolar epithelium. Following injury, alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) may actively participate in the restoration of a normal alveolar architecture through a coordinated process of re-epithelialization, or in the development of fibrosis through a process known as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Complex networks orchestrate EMT leading to changes in cell architecture and behaviour, loss of epithelial characteristics and gain of mesenchymal properties. In the lung, AECs themselves may serve as a source of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts by acquiring a mesenchymal phenotype. This review covers recent knowledge on the role of alveolar epithelium in the pathogenesis of ILD. The mechanisms underlying disease progression are discussed, with a main focus on the apoptotic pathway, the endoplasmic reticulum stress response and the developmental pathway.

  17. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  18. Lung needle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biopsy Lung tissue biopsy References Ettinger DS. Lung cancer and other pulmonary neoplasms. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ... 2010:chap 47. Read More Aspiration ... by: Denis Hadjiliadis, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, ...

  19. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  20. Lung Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Lung Diseases and Conditions Breathing is a complex process. If ... to a disease called COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). COPD prevents proper airflow in and out of your lungs and can hinder gas exchange in the air ...

  1. MRI of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich (ed.) [University Clinic Heidelberg (Germany). Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2009-07-01

    For a long time, only chest X-ray and CT were used to image lung structure, while nuclear medicine was employed to assess lung function. During the past decade significant developments have been achieved in the field of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), enabling MRI to enter the clinical arena of chest imaging. Standard protocols can now be implemented on up-to-date scanners, allowing MRI to be used as a first-line imaging modality for various lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and even lung cancer. The diagnostic benefits stem from the ability of MRI to visualize changes in lung structure while simultaneously imaging different aspects of lung function, such as perfusion, respiratory motion, ventilation and gas exchange. On this basis, novel quantitative surrogates for lung function can be obtained. This book provides a comprehensive overview of how to use MRI for imaging of lung disease. Special emphasis is placed on benign diseases requiring regular monitoring, given that it is patients with these diseases who derive the greatest benefit from the avoidance of ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  2. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  3. Lung transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100120.htm Lung transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The lungs, which reside in the thorax, or chest cavity, ...

  4. Lycopene and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although epidemiological studies have shown dietary intake of lycopene is associated with decreased risk of lung cancer, the effect of lycopene on lung carcinogenesis has not been well studied. A better understanding of lycopene metabolism and the mechanistic basis of lycopene chemoprevention must ...

  5. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  6. Immunotherapy in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Emily H; Horn, Leora

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has not traditionally been viewed as an immune-responsive tumor. However, it is becoming evident that tumor-induced immune suppression is vital to malignant progression. Immunotherapies act by enhancing the patient's innate immune response and hold promise for inducing long-term responses in select patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Immune checkpoint inhibitors, in particular, inhibitors to cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have shown promise in early studies and are currently in clinical trials in both small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer patients. Two large randomized phase III trials recently demonstrated superior overall survival (OS) in patients treated with anti-PD-1 therapy compared to chemotherapy in the second-line setting.

  7. Estudo do teor de alicina em alho

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Patrícia Alexandra Pinto

    2008-01-01

    A alicina (dialil-tiosulfinato) é o componente biológico mais activo no alho com inúmeras aplicações a nível da saúde, já conhecida desde décadas. Existem actualmente diversos métodos publicados para a determinação do teor de alicina no alho por HPLC e espectrofotometria. No entanto, os resultados mostram discordância no teor de alicina medido pelos vários métodos. Este estudo tem por objectivo a determinação do teor de alicina por métodos de HPLC e espectrofotometria; e com...

  8. O estudo do comportamento verbal no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pineiro Fidalgo

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho realizou uma revisão histórica de dissertações de mestrado e teses de doutorado brasileiras sobre comportamento verbal, com base na proposta Skinneriana (1957/1992, produzidas entre 1968 e 2012. Foram investigados: a tipo de trabalho (dissertação ou tese, b universidades em que os trabalhos foram defendidos, c orientadores, d linha de pesquisa (básica, aplicada ou histórico-conceitual, e metodologia (descritiva ou experimental, e f temas de investigação. No total, 177 dissertações e 53 teses sobre comportamento verbal foram identificadas. Os resultados indicam que o estudo do comportamento verbal, no Brasil, estabeleceu-se como programa de pesquisa e cresceu ao longo dos anos.

  9. Estudo forense do sémen

    OpenAIRE

    Vaz, Josiana A.; Chelas, S.; S Santos; Queirós, B.; Gonçalves, A.; Pereira, M.; Alves, Maria José

    2009-01-01

    O estudo dos fluidos seminais na cena do crime está directamente ligado a crimes de índole sexual, sendo este de importância vital aquando da reconstrução do acto do crime e na identificação do agressor. O sémen é segregado pelos órgãos reprodutores masculinos, sendo o suporte líquido dos espermatozóides. Segundo Pinheiro (2008), este vestígio pode ser encontrado em manchas no vestuário, lençóis, almofadas, móveis, chão, veículos, tapetes, entre outros. O sémen, antes de secar, possui um o...

  10. Cartography of Pathway Signal Perturbations Identifies Distinct Molecular Pathomechanisms in Malignant and Chronic Lung Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Arsen; Nersisyan, Lilit; Petrek, Martin; Löffler-Wirth, Henry; Binder, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases are described by a wide variety of developmental mechanisms and clinical manifestations. Accurate classification and diagnosis of lung diseases are the bases for development of effective treatments. While extensive studies are conducted toward characterization of various lung diseases at molecular level, no systematic approach has been developed so far. Here we have applied a methodology for pathway-centered mining of high throughput gene expression data to describe a wide range of lung diseases in the light of shared and specific pathway activity profiles. We have applied an algorithm combining a Pathway Signal Flow (PSF) algorithm for estimation of pathway activity deregulation states in lung diseases and malignancies, and a Self Organizing Maps algorithm for classification and clustering of the pathway activity profiles. The analysis results allowed clearly distinguish between cancer and non-cancer lung diseases. Lung cancers were characterized by pathways implicated in cell proliferation, metabolism, while non-malignant lung diseases were characterized by deregulations in pathways involved in immune/inflammatory response and fibrotic tissue remodeling. In contrast to lung malignancies, chronic lung diseases had relatively heterogeneous pathway deregulation profiles. We identified three groups of interstitial lung diseases and showed that the development of characteristic pathological processes, such as fibrosis, can be initiated by deregulations in different signaling pathways. In conclusion, this paper describes the pathobiology of lung diseases from systems viewpoint using pathway centered high-dimensional data mining approach. Our results contribute largely to current understanding of pathological events in lung cancers and non-malignant lung diseases. Moreover, this paper provides new insight into molecular mechanisms of a number of interstitial lung diseases that have been studied to a lesser extent.

  11. Your Lung Operation: After Your Operation

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD After Your Operation Back to Your Lung Operation Your Lung Operation DVD Welcome Your Lung ...

  12. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Smoking causes most cases (around 90%) of lung cancer. The risk depends on the number of cigarettes ...

  13. Estimation of Lung Ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kai; Cao, Kunlin; Du, Kaifang; Amelon, Ryan; Christensen, Gary E.; Raghavan, Madhavan; Reinhardt, Joseph M.

    Since the primary function of the lung is gas exchange, ventilation can be interpreted as an index of lung function in addition to perfusion. Injury and disease processes can alter lung function on a global and/or a local level. MDCT can be used to acquire multiple static breath-hold CT images of the lung taken at different lung volumes, or with proper respiratory control, 4DCT images of the lung reconstructed at different respiratory phases. Image registration can be applied to this data to estimate a deformation field that transforms the lung from one volume configuration to the other. This deformation field can be analyzed to estimate local lung tissue expansion, calculate voxel-by-voxel intensity change, and make biomechanical measurements. The physiologic significance of the registration-based measures of respiratory function can be established by comparing to more conventional measurements, such as nuclear medicine or contrast wash-in/wash-out studies with CT or MR. An important emerging application of these methods is the detection of pulmonary function change in subjects undergoing radiation therapy (RT) for lung cancer. During RT, treatment is commonly limited to sub-therapeutic doses due to unintended toxicity to normal lung tissue. Measurement of pulmonary function may be useful as a planning tool during RT planning, may be useful for tracking the progression of toxicity to nearby normal tissue during RT, and can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment post-therapy. This chapter reviews the basic measures to estimate regional ventilation from image registration of CT images, the comparison of them to the existing golden standard and the application in radiation therapy.

  14. Dealing with spatial heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsily, Gh.; Delay, F.; Gonçalvès, J.; Renard, Ph.; Teles, V.; Violette, S.

    2005-03-01

    Heterogeneity can be dealt with by defining homogeneous equivalent properties, known as averaging, or by trying to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markov chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. The conclusion is that future work should be focused on improving the facies models, comparing them, and designing new in situ testing procedures (including geophysics) that would help identify the facies geometry and properties. A world-wide catalog of aquifer facies geometry and properties, which could combine site genesis and description with methods used to assess the system, would be of great value for practical applications. On peut aborder le problème de l'hétérogénéité en s'efforçant de définir une perméabilité équivalente homogène, par prise de moyenne, ou au contraire en décrivant la variation dans l'espace des propriétés des roches à partir des observations géologiques et des mesures locales. Les techniques disponibles pour une telle description sont soit continues, comme l'approche Géostatistique, soit discontinues, comme les modèles de faciès, Booléens, ou bien par Indicatrices ou Gaussiennes Seuillées, ou enfin Markoviens. Ces modèles de faciès sont mieux capables de prendre en compte la connectivité des strates géologiques, telles que les chenaux enfouis à forte perméabilité, ou au contraire les faci

  15. Tracking Genomic Cancer Evolution for Precision Medicine: The Lung TRACERx Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal-Hanjani, Mariam; Hackshaw, Alan; Ngai, Yenting; Shaw, Jacqueline; Dive, Caroline; Quezada, Sergio; Middleton, Gary; de Bruin, Elza; Le Quesne, John; Shafi, Seema; Falzon, Mary; Horswell, Stuart; Blackhall, Fiona; Khan, Iftekhar; Janes, Sam; Nicolson, Marianne; Lawrence, David; Forster, Martin; Fennell, Dean; Lee, Siow-Ming; Lester, Jason; Kerr, Keith; Muller, Salli; Iles, Natasha; Smith, Sean; Murugaesu, Nirupa; Mitter, Richard; Salm, Max; Stuart, Aengus; Matthews, Nik; Adams, Haydn; Ahmad, Tanya; Attanoos, Richard; Bennett, Jonathan; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Booton, Richard; Brady, Ged; Buchan, Keith; Capitano, Arrigo; Chetty, Mahendran; Cobbold, Mark; Crosbie, Philip; Davies, Helen; Denison, Alan; Djearman, Madhav; Goldman, Jacki; Haswell, Tom; Joseph, Leena; Kornaszewska, Malgorzata; Krebs, Matthew; Langman, Gerald; MacKenzie, Mairead; Millar, Joy; Morgan, Bruno; Naidu, Babu; Nonaka, Daisuke; Peggs, Karl; Pritchard, Catrin; Remmen, Hardy; Rowan, Andrew; Shah, Rajesh; Smith, Elaine; Summers, Yvonne; Taylor, Magali; Veeriah, Selvaraju; Waller, David; Wilcox, Ben; Wilcox, Maggie; Woolhouse, Ian; McGranahan, Nicholas; Swanton, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The importance of intratumour genetic and functional heterogeneity is increasingly recognised as a driver of cancer progression and survival outcome. Understanding how tumour clonal heterogeneity impacts upon therapeutic outcome, however, is still an area of unmet clinical and scientific need. TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy [Rx]), a prospective study of patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aims to define the evolutionary trajectories of lung cancer in both space and time through multiregion and longitudinal tumour sampling and genetic analysis. By following cancers from diagnosis to relapse, tracking the evolutionary trajectories of tumours in relation to therapeutic interventions, and determining the impact of clonal heterogeneity on clinical outcomes, TRACERx may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for NSCLC and may also serve as a model applicable to other cancer types. PMID:25003521

  16. Tracking genomic cancer evolution for precision medicine: the lung TRACERx study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Jamal-Hanjani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of intratumour genetic and functional heterogeneity is increasingly recognised as a driver of cancer progression and survival outcome. Understanding how tumour clonal heterogeneity impacts upon therapeutic outcome, however, is still an area of unmet clinical and scientific need. TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy [Rx], a prospective study of patients with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC, aims to define the evolutionary trajectories of lung cancer in both space and time through multiregion and longitudinal tumour sampling and genetic analysis. By following cancers from diagnosis to relapse, tracking the evolutionary trajectories of tumours in relation to therapeutic interventions, and determining the impact of clonal heterogeneity on clinical outcomes, TRACERx may help to identify novel therapeutic targets for NSCLC and may also serve as a model applicable to other cancer types.

  17. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  18. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  19. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  20. Characterisation of COPD heterogeneity in the ECLIPSE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusti Alvar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a complex condition with pulmonary and extra-pulmonary manifestations. This study describes the heterogeneity of COPD in a large and well characterised and controlled COPD cohort (ECLIPSE. Methods We studied 2164 clinically stable COPD patients, 337 smokers with normal lung function and 245 never smokers. In these individuals, we measured clinical parameters, nutritional status, spirometry, exercise tolerance, and amount of emphysema by computed tomography. Results COPD patients were slightly older than controls and had more pack years of smoking than smokers with normal lung function. Co-morbidities were more prevalent in COPD patients than in controls, and occurred to the same extent irrespective of the GOLD stage. The severity of airflow limitation in COPD patients was poorly related to the degree of breathlessness, health status, presence of co-morbidity, exercise capacity and number of exacerbations reported in the year before the study. The distribution of these variables within each GOLD stage was wide. Even in subjects with severe airflow obstruction, a substantial proportion did not report symptoms, exacerbations or exercise limitation. The amount of emphysema increased with GOLD severity. The prevalence of bronchiectasis was low (4% but also increased with GOLD stage. Some gender differences were also identified. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of COPD are highly variable and the degree of airflow limitation does not capture the heterogeneity of the disease.

  1. [Lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation to treat emphysema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Junqueira, Jader Joel Machado; Teixeira, Ricardo Henrique de Oliveira Braga; Caramori, Marlova Luzzi; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo Manuel; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli

    2010-01-01

    Despite preventive measures, lung hyperinflation is a relatively common complication following single lung transplantation to treat pulmonary emphysema. The progressive compression of the graft can cause mediastinal shift and respiratory failure. In addition to therapeutic strategies such as independent ventilation, the treatment consists of the reduction of native lung volume by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery. We report two cases of native lung hyperinflation after single lung transplantation. Both cases were treated by means of lobectomy or lung volume reduction surgery.

  2. Lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazerooni, E.A. [Univ. of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2005-11-15

    Lung cancer screening with CT remains controversial. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. To date, no screening test has been demonstrated to reduce mortality. Given the large population of adult cigarette smokers and former smokers worldwide, there is a large population at risk for lung cancer. While a lot has been learned from prospective single-arm cohort studies about the feasibility of performing annual CT to screen for lung cancer, many questions have also been raised. While we know that screening for lung cancer with CT detects many small nodules, with up to half the subjects having a positive baseline screen, and up to 75% of subjects having a positive screen at least once if screened annually for 5 years, the great majority of these nodules exhibit benign biologic behavior. The innumerable small nodules detected with screening CT, and diagnostic chest CT in general, present a daily clinical challenge, and result in extensive medical resource utilization and additional radiation exposure. Algorithms for how and when to follow small nodules detected on CT are in evolution. Ongoing studies are designed to determine if lung cancer screening with CT reduces lung cancer mortality. (orig.)

  3. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results......This paper discusses the determinants of the retirement decision and the implications of retirement on economic well-being. The main contribution of the paper is to formulate the role of individual heterogeneity explicitly. We argue that individual heterogeneity in 1) productivity of market work...

  4. Bioengineering Lungs for Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, Sarah E; Charest, Jonathan M; Ren, Xi; Ott, Harald C

    2016-05-01

    Whole lung extracellular matrix scaffolds can be created by perfusion of cadaveric organs with decellularizing detergents, providing a platform for organ regeneration. Lung epithelial engineering must address both the proximal airway cells that function to metabolize toxins and aid mucociliary clearance and the distal pneumocytes that facilitate gas exchange. Engineered pulmonary vasculature must support in vivo blood perfusion with low resistance and intact barrier function and be antithrombotic. Repopulating the native lung matrix with sufficient cell numbers in appropriate anatomic locations is required to enable organ function.

  5. Microgravity and the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  6. Insulin and the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Suchita; Prakash, Y S; Linneberg, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , molecular understanding is necessary. Insulin resistance is a strong, independent risk factor for asthma development, but it is unknown whether a direct effect of insulin on the lung is involved. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding the effect of insulin on cellular components of the lung...... and highlights the molecular consequences of insulin-related metabolic signaling cascades that could adversely affect lung structure and function. Examples include airway smooth muscle proliferation and contractility and regulatory signaling networks that are associated with asthma. These aspects of insulin...

  7. Cyclophosphamide in diffuse lung damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiatowicz, B; Sulkowska, M; Sulik, M; Famulski, W; Dziecioł, J; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Baltaziak, M; Arciuch, L; Rółkowski, R; Jabłońska, E

    1997-01-01

    Some cyclophosphamide toxic effects on lung tissue are presented. Cyclophosphamide metabolism, pathogenesis of lung damage and morphological lung tissue changes caused by that agent were characterized. Attention was focused on BAL evaluation as a useful method in the monitoring of lung tissue damage degree.

  8. Herniation of malignant lung cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh Kumar Singh; Rakesh Bhargava; Zuber Ahmad; Deepak K.Pandey; Shirin Naaz; Vibhanshu Gupta

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hernia of the lung is defined as a protrusion of lung tissue,covered by parietal and visceral pleurae,through an abnormal opening in the chest wall,diaphragm or mediastinum.1 It is a relatively uncommon condition.We report a case of lung hernia following cavitation in malignant lung mass.

  9. [Role of functional imaging in the definition of target volumes for lung cancer radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thureau, S; Hapdey, S; Vera, P

    2016-10-01

    Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) is interesting to optimize lung radiotherapy planning, and probably to deliver a heterogeneous dose or adapt the radiation dose during treatment. Only fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET-computed tomography (CT) is validated for staging lung cancer and planning radiotherapy. The optimal segmentation methods remain to be defined as well as the interest of "dose painting" from pre-treatment PET (metabolism: FDG) or hypoxia (fluoromisonidazole: FMISO) and the interest of replanning based on pertherapeutic PET.

  10. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  11. Job Heterogeneity and Coordination Frictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Daniel

    the job ladder, how the identification of assortative matching is fundamentally different in directed and undirected search models, how our theory accounts for business cycle facts related to inter-temporal changes in job offer distributions, and how our model could also be used to identify......We develop a new directed search model of a frictional labor market with a continuum of heterogenous workers and firms. We estimate two versions of the model - auction and price posting - using Danish data on wages and productivities. Assuming heterogenous workers with no comparative advantage, we...

  12. ESTUDO PROSPECTIVO SOBRE ENCAPSULAMENTO DE COMPOSTOS BIOATIVOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Assunção

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o advento da nanotecnologia, houve o desenvolvimento de técnicas envolvendo processamento, fabricação e aplicação de estruturas, com forma e tamanho controlados, sendo que na indústria de alimentos, estas formulações, tanto na faixa micrométrica como nanométrica, vêm sendo utilizadas com o objetivo de favorecer o produto final. Tendo em vista a importância tecnológica dessa técnica e do grande interesse nacional e internacional, principalmente no ramo da indústria alimentícia, sobre os benefícios do encapsulamento, o presente estudo prospectivo teve como objetivo avaliar o panorama mundial relativo ao tema em questão, correlacionando-o com os documentos de patentes depositados. Para tanto, realizou-se uma pesquisa das patentes na base de dados europeia Espacenet®, utilizando os descritores do tema em estudo associados aos códigos de classificação. As informações encontradas foram compiladas em gráficos e discutidas. Pôde-se observar que o maior número de patentes referiu-se ao código A23L1/00 - alimentos ou produtos alimentícios: a sua preparação ou tratamento e houve um crescimento exponencial em relação ao depósito de patentes nos últimos 10 anos, sendo os Estados Unidos o país líder em número de patentes depositadas (60%. A Firmenich e CIE lidera o ranking com mais patentes depositadas. Em relação à área de atuação, predomina a indústria alimentícia (69%. No que diz respeito ao Brasil, o país aparece com apenas 1 patente detentora desta tecnologia, sendo um número bastante reduzido o que mostra a falta de incentivo neste setor. Diante dos resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que, apesar de ser uma tecnologia recente, observa-se uma tendência ao crescimento de depósito de patentes.

  13. Measurement of intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity and its importance in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert H; Togias, Alkis

    2016-07-01

    While airways have some degree of baseline tone, the level and variability of this tone is not known. It is also unclear whether there is a difference in airway tone or in the variability of airway tone between asthmatic and healthy individuals. This study examined airway tone and intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity (variance of airway tone) in vivo in 19 individuals with asthma compared with 9 healthy adults. All participants underwent spirometry, body plethysmography, and high-resolution computed tomography at baseline and after maximum bronchodilation with albuterol. Airway tone was defined as the percent difference in airway diameter after albuterol at total lung capacity compared with baseline. The amount of airway tone in each airway varied both within and between subjects. The average airway tone did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.09), but the intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity did (P = 0.016). Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity was strongly correlated with airway tone (r = 0.78, P tone heterogeneity and conventional lung function outcomes. Intraindividual airway tone heterogeneity appears to be an important characteristic of airway pathophysiology in asthma.

  14. Update on Nonsurgical Lung Volume Reduction Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alberto Neder

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a surge of interest in endoscopic lung volume reduction (ELVR strategies for advanced COPD. Valve implants, coil implants, biological LVR (BioLVR, bronchial thermal vapour ablation, and airway stents are used to induce lung deflation with the ultimate goal of improving respiratory mechanics and chronic dyspnea. Patients presenting with severe air trapping (e.g., inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity (TLC 225% predicted and thoracic hyperinflation (TLC > 150% predicted have the greatest potential to derive benefit from ELVR procedures. Pre-LVRS or ELVR assessment should ideally include cardiological evaluation, high resolution CT scan, ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy, full pulmonary function tests, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. ELVR procedures are currently available in selected Canadian research centers as part of ethically approved clinical trials. If a decision is made to offer an ELVR procedure, one-way valves are the first option in the presence of complete lobar exclusion and no significant collateral ventilation. When the fissure is not complete, when collateral ventilation is evident in heterogeneous emphysema or when emphysema is homogeneous, coil implants or BioLVR (in that order are the next logical alternatives.

  15. RUDOLF LABAN, A COREOLOGIA E OS ESTUDOS COREOLÓGICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho visa examinar como a necessidade de Laban conhecer as leis que regem o movimento humano o levou ao desenvolvimento de um método científico de estudo a que ele chamou de Coreologia. E de como a necessidade de aplicar o método coreológico, de maneira específica à Dança, conduziu ao surgimento de uma área específica de estudos, denominada Estudos Coreológicos. Este processo é aqui analisado através de um breve resumo biográfico de Laban. Essa biografia mostra como as in...

  16. Polonium and lung cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma...

  17. Protecting Your Lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... occurred while processing XML file."); } }); $.ajax({ type: "GET", url: "http://www.lung.org/related-content.xml?related_ ... eventdate = ''; } var title = $(this).find('title').text(); var url = $(this).find('link').text(); var html = ' Event: ' + title + ...

  18. Immunotherapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Antonius; Fisher, Scott A; Robinson, Bruce W

    2016-07-01

    Treatment of lung cancer remains a challenge, and lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Immunotherapy has previously failed in lung cancer but has recently emerged as a very effective new therapy, and there is now growing worldwide enthusiasm in cancer immunotherapy. We summarize why immune checkpoint blockade therapies have generated efficacious and durable responses in clinical trials and why this has reignited interest in this field. Cancer vaccines have also been explored in the past with marginal success. Identification of optimal candidate neoantigens may improve cancer vaccine efficacy and may pave the way to personalized immunotherapy, alone or in combination with other immunotherapy such as immune checkpoint blockade. Understanding the steps in immune recognition and eradication of cancer cells is vital to understanding why previous immunotherapies failed and how current therapies can be used optimally. We hold an optimistic view for the future prospect in lung cancer immunotherapy.

  19. PEComa of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayabhaskar R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa, also called clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of the lung, is a rare benign tumor arising from perivascular epithelioid cells (PECs. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who presented with right lower lobe lesion which turned out to be a clear cell tumor of the lung. An [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG - positron emission tomography (PET scan revealed mild FDG uptake in the lung lesion (SUV< 1 with no active uptake elsewhere in the body. We discuss the clinical, radiologic and immunohistochemical features of clear cell ′′sugar′′ tumor of lung and compare them with published literature.

  20. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  1. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma...

  2. Lung Carcinoid Tumor: Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sleeve above and below the stain and sewing the cuff back onto the shortened sleeve. A ... because it requires a great deal of technical skill. Possible risks and side effects of lung surgery ...

  3. Lung surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung biopsy - discharge; Thoracoscopy - discharge; Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery - discharge; VATS - discharge ... milk) for 2 weeks after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and 6 to 8 weeks after open surgery. ...

  4. How Lungs Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Must Resume Work on Bipartisan Healthcare Improvements Blog: Yoga, Tai Chi and Your Lungs: The Benefits of ... number of items"); $("#local_list_xml").quickPagination(); }, error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML ...

  5. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010. Online Version Reviewed September 2013 ATS Patient Education Series © 2010 American Thoracic Society LIVER BONE www.thoracic.org ATS PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES How will my lung cancer be staged? ...

  6. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008429 The predictive factors and unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease in patients with polymyositis/dermatomyositis. WANG Peizhen(王培珍), et al. Dept Rheumatol & Immunol, Changhai Hosp, Milit Med Univ, Shanghai 200433. Chin J Tuberc Respir Dis 2008;31(6):417-420. Objective To analyze the predictive factors and the unfavourable prognostic factors of interstitial lung disease (ILD) in patients with polymyositis

  7. Wnt/β-catenin signaling accelerates mouse lung tumorigenesis by imposing an embryonic distal progenitor phenotype on lung epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Pinedo, Eugenia C; Durham, Amy C; Stewart, Kathleen M; Goss, Ashley M; Lu, Min Min; Demayo, Francesco J; Morrisey, Edward E

    2011-05-01

    Although mutations in Kras are present in 21% of lung tumors, there is a high level of heterogeneity in phenotype and outcome among patients with lung cancer bearing similar mutations, suggesting that other pathways are important. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is a known oncogenic pathway that plays a well-defined role in colon and skin cancer; however, its role in lung cancer is unclear. We have shown here that activation of Wnt/β-catenin in the bronchiolar epithelium of the adult mouse lung does not itself promote tumor development. However, concurrent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling and expression of a constitutively active Kras mutant (KrasG12D) led to a dramatic increase in both overall tumor number and size compared with KrasG12D alone. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling altered the KrasG12D tumor phenotype, resulting in a phenotypic switch from bronchiolar epithelium to the highly proliferative distal progenitors found in the embryonic lung. This was associated with decreased E-cadherin expression at the cell surface, which may underlie the increased metastasis of tumors with active Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Together, these data suggest that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling can combine with other oncogenic pathways in lung epithelium to produce a more aggressive tumor phenotype by imposing an embryonic distal progenitor phenotype and by decreasing E-cadherin expression.

  8. Wireless Internet on Heterogeneous Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, G.

    2001-01-01

    The wide proliferation of wireless systems and the use of software radio technologies enable the employment of a heterogeneous network. In this concept services are delivered via the network that is most efficient for that service. The solution is based on a common core network that interconnects ac

  9. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  10. Dynamic heterogeneity and life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli

    2010-01-01

    of the variation among individual characteristics that is generated by dynamic heterogeneity. We conclude by discussing our ongoing and planned work on animals and humans. We also discuss the connections between our work and recent work on human mortality, disability and health, and life course theory....

  11. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  12. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  13. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luis Moraga-Gonzalez, Jose; Sandor, Zsolt; Wildenbeest, Matthijs R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins-the intensive search margin (or se

  14. Floodplain heterogeneity and meander migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of horizontal heterogeneity of floodplain soils on rates and patterns of meander migration is analyzed with a Ikeda et al. (1981)-type model for hydrodynamics and bed morphodynamics, coupled with a physically-based bank erosion model according to the approach developed by Motta et al. (20...

  15. Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this frame

  16. Heterogeneous catalysis through microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruell, Jason M.; Sheriff, Bonnie A.; Rozkiewicz, D.I.; Dichtel, William R.; Rohde, Rosemary D.; Reinhoudt, David; Stoddart, Fraser; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Minting a Stamp: The preparation of copper metal-coated elastomeric stamps and their use in catalyzing the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction heterogeneously through microcontact printing is described. This StampCat process is compared to other conventional surface-functionalization te

  17. REPLIKASI UNIDIRECTIONAL PADA HETEROGEN DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2013-11-01

    where development can be done quickly and testing of working models of the interaction process is done through repeated. From this research it is obtained that the database replication technology using Oracle Golden Gate can be applied in heterogeneous environments in real time as well.

  18. Surface science of heterogeneous reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J M

    1982-10-29

    Some of the present and future directions for surface science as a growing and naturally interdisciplinary subject are reviewed. Particular attention is given to surface reaction chemistry as it is related to heterogenous catalysis, a subject area where there are abundant opportunities for detailed measurements of structure and dynamics at the molecular level.

  19. Measuring and predicting heterogeneous recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Cakmakli; R. Paap; D. van Dijk

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts an empirical analysis of the heterogeneity of recessions in monthly U.S. coincident and leading indicator variables. Univariate Markovswitching models indicate that it is appropriate to allow for two distinct recession regimes, corresponding with ‘mild’ and ‘severe’ recessions. A

  20. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70% e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%. Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%, pápula eritematosa (21% e edema discreto (17%, e os sistêmicos foram dor em membros inferiores (29%, tremores e contraturas (29%, sudorese (28% parestesia em membros (21% e dor abdominal (17%. O tratamento foi sintomático em 67% dos casos e específico em 21%. O tempo de permanência hospitalar após o uso do soro antilatrodectus foi menor que 24 horas em 64% dos casos.

  1. Habilidades Sociais em Alcoolistas: Um Estudo Comparativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviane Bevilaqua Felicissimo

    Full Text Available RESUMO O presente estudo objetivou comparar o repertório de habilidades sociais (HS de dependentes e não dependentes de álcool a fim de verificar se um menor repertório de HS constitui uma característica dessa população. Foram entrevistados 123 alcoolistas e 114 usuários de serviços de saúde com baixo ou nenhum consumo de álcool, utilizando questionário sociodemográfico, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview e o Inventário de Habilidades Sociais. Os dados foram analisados quantitativamente e indicaram uma diferença significativa no repertório de HS, especificamente no fator de autocontrole da agressividade, indicando um pior desempenho dessa habilidade em alcoolistas. Os resultados sugerem que a avaliação dessa característica deva ser considerada no tratamento do alcoolismo e associada ao plano terapêutico.

  2. Paralisia periodica familiar: estudo de oito casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lamartine De Assis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados oito pacientes com Paralisia Periódica Familiar sob os aspectos clínico, hidro-eletrolítico, eletrofisiológico, histológico e terapêutico. Houve predomínio significante em pacientes do sexo masculino. A idade média do início da moléstia foi de 15 anos. As manifestações clínicas foram concor-dantes com as referidas na literatura. Todos os pacientes tinham a forma hipocalêmica exceto um que evoluiu com hipercalemia. Alguns pacientes (21,4% tinham natremias no limite superior da normalidade enquanto em um número igual de pacientes as natremias estavam elevadas, o que sugeria liberação de aldosterona. Os achados eletrofisiológicos foram concordantes com os da literatura. O estudo histológico de músculos realizado em cinco pacientes foi normal em 30% deles e, naqueles com crises repetidas e freqüentes, foram encontradas atrofias de fibras musculares. Foram feitos tratamentos preventivos, e nos pacientes com hipocalemia foram administradas doses suplementares de potássio em solução aquosa de 10-25% diariamente.

  3. Replication of lung cancer susceptibility loci at chromosomes 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, T.; Hung, R.J.; Amos, C.I.; Wu, X.; Bickeboller, H.; Rosenberger, A.; Sauter, W.; Illig, T.; Wichmann, H.E.; Risch, A.; Dienemann, H.; Kaaks, R.; Yang, P.; Jiang, R.; Wiencke, J.K.; Wrensch, M.; Hansen, H.; Kelsey, K.T.; Matsuo, K.; Tajima, K.; Schwartz, A.G.; Wenzlaff, A.; Seow, A.; Ying, C.; Staratschek-Jox, A.; Nurnberg, P.; Stoelben, E.; Wolf, J.; Lazarus, P.; Muscat, J.E.; Gallagher, C.J.; Zienolddiny, S.; Haugen, A.; Heijden, H.F. van der; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Isla, D.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Rafnar, T.; Stefansson, K.; Zhang, Z.F.; Chang, S.C.; Kim, J.H.; Hong, Y.C.; Duell, E.J.; Andrew, A.S.; Lejbkowicz, F.; Rennert, G.; Muller, H.; Brenner, H.; Marchand, L. le; Benhamou, S.; Bouchardy, C.; Teare, M.D.; Xue, X.; McLaughlin, J.; Liu, G.; McKay, J.D.; Brennan, P.; Spitz, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies have identified three chromosomal regions at 15q25, 5p15, and 6p21 as being associated with the risk of lung cancer. To confirm these associations in independent studies and investigate heterogeneity of these associations within specific subgroups, we cond

  4. Multiple cystic lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Angélica Ferreira Francisco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cystic lung disease represents a diverse group of uncommon disorders that can present a diagnostic challenge due to the increasing number of diseases associated with this presentation. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest helps to define the morphological aspects and distribution of lung cysts, as well as associated findings. The combination of appearance upon imaging and clinical features, together with extrapulmonary manifestations, when present, permits confident and accurate diagnosis of the majority of these diseases without recourse to open-lung biopsy. The main diseases in this group that are discussed in this review are lymphangioleiomyomatosis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis and folliculin gene-associated syndrome (Birt–Hogg–Dubé; other rare causes of cystic lung disease, including cystic metastasis of sarcoma, are also discussed. Disease progression is unpredictable, and understanding of the complications of cystic lung disease and their appearance during evolution of the disease are essential for management. Correlation of disease evolution and clinical context with chest imaging findings provides important clues for defining the underlying nature of cystic lung disease, and guides diagnostic evaluation and management.

  5. Identifying and Assessing Interesting Subgroups in a Heterogeneous Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojoo Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological heterogeneity is common in many diseases and it is often the reason for therapeutic failures. Thus, there is great interest in classifying a disease into subtypes that have clinical significance in terms of prognosis or therapy response. One of the most popular methods to uncover unrecognized subtypes is cluster analysis. However, classical clustering methods such as k-means clustering or hierarchical clustering are not guaranteed to produce clinically interesting subtypes. This could be because the main statistical variability—the basis of cluster generation—is dominated by genes not associated with the clinical phenotype of interest. Furthermore, a strong prognostic factor might be relevant for a certain subgroup but not for the whole population; thus an analysis of the whole sample may not reveal this prognostic factor. To address these problems we investigate methods to identify and assess clinically interesting subgroups in a heterogeneous population. The identification step uses a clustering algorithm and to assess significance we use a false discovery rate- (FDR- based measure. Under the heterogeneity condition the standard FDR estimate is shown to overestimate the true FDR value, but this is remedied by an improved FDR estimation procedure. As illustrations, two real data examples from gene expression studies of lung cancer are provided.

  6. I-125 seed dose estimates in heterogeneous phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branco, Isabela S.L.; Antunes, Paula C.G.; Cavalieri, Tassio A.; Moura, Eduardo S.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Yoriyaz, Helio, E-mail: isabela.slbranco@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Brachytherapy plays an important role in the healing process involving tumors in a variety of diseases. Several studies are currently conducted to examine the heterogeneity effects of different tissues and organs in brachytherapy clinical situations and a great effort has been made to incorporate new methodologies to estimate doses with greater accuracy. The objective of this study is to contribute to the assessment of heterogeneous effects on dose due to I-125 brachytherapy source in the presence of different materials with different densities and chemical compositions. The study was performed in heterogeneous phantoms using materials that simulate human tissues. Among these is quoted: breast, fat, muscle, lungs (exhaled and inhaled) and bones with different densities. Monte Carlo simulations for dose calculation in these phantoms were held and subsequently validated. The model 6711 I-125 seed was considered because it is widely used as a brachytherapy permanent implant and the one used in clinics and hospitals in Brazil. Thermoluminescent dosimeters TLD-700 (LiF: Mg, Ti) were simulated for dose assess. Several tissue configurations and positioning of I-125 sources were studied by simulations for future dose measurements. The methodology of this study so far shall be suitable for accurate dosimetric evaluation for different types of brachytherapy treatments, contributing to brachytherapy planning systems complementation allowing a better assessment of the dose actually delivered to the patient. (author)

  7. Malignant phyllodes tumor with chondro and osteosarcomatous differentiation and secondaries in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Narayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phyllodes tumor is a rare breast tumor, with neoplastic epithelial and stromal components for 10 cm in size and firm in consistency. She underwent left mastectomy. The histopathology revealed a malignant phyllodes tumor with sarcomatous stromal overgrowth and heterogeneous chondro and osteosarcomatous differentiation. At 2 months after surgery, she reported to us with secondaries in bilateral lungs. We planned palliative chemotherapy in view of good general condition of the patient and lung metastasis. Chemotherapy included ifosfamide, adriamycin and cisplatin as per standard regimen every 3 weekly. After three cycles, her lung metastasis cleared completely. It was planned to continue same chemotherapy for six cycles.

  8. Screening for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  9. The aging lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowery EM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Lowery,1 Aleah L Brubaker,2 Erica Kuhlmann,1 Elizabeth J Kovacs31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine at Loyola University Medical Center, 2Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, 3Department of Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USAAbstract: There are many age-associated changes in the respiratory and pulmonary immune system. These changes include decreases in the volume of the thoracic cavity, reduced lung volumes, and alterations in the muscles that aid respiration. Muscle function on a cellular level in the aging population is less efficient. The elderly population has less pulmonary reserve, and cough strength is decreased in the elderly population due to anatomic changes and muscle atrophy. Clearance of particles from the lung through the mucociliary elevator is decreased and associated with ciliary dysfunction. Many complex changes in immunity with aging contribute to increased susceptibility to infections including a less robust immune response from both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Considering all of these age-related changes to the lungs, pulmonary disease has significant consequences for the aging population. Chronic lower respiratory tract disease is the third leading cause of death in people aged 65 years and older. With a large and growing aging population, it is critical to understand how the body changes with age and how this impacts the entire respiratory system. Understanding the aging process in the lung is necessary in order to provide optimal care to our aging population. This review focuses on the nonpathologic aging process in the lung, including structural changes, changes in muscle function, and pulmonary immunologic function, with special consideration of obstructive lung disease in the elderly.Keywords: aging, lung, pulmonary immunology, COPD

  10. The fetal MR appearance of 'nutmeg lung': findings in 8 cases linked to pulmonary lymphangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Andronikou, Savvas [University of the Witwatersrand, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2014-10-15

    A pattern of abnormal signal at fetal MRI may be seen in the setting of primary or secondary congenital lymphangiectasia, manifested as a heterogeneous appearance of the lung parenchyma and the presence of subtle T2-hyperintense branching tubular structures that emanate from the hila. We have named this pattern the nutmeg lung. We describe the nutmeg lung appearance seen in fetal MRI scans, with discussion of possible etiologies and outcomes in a series of eight fetuses. We retrospectively reviewed imaging from a database of patients demonstrating features of nutmeg lung on fetal MRI. Medical records were used to determine the postnatal diagnosis, clinical course and outcome. Among the eight fetal cases of nutmeg lung, two had postnatal confirmation of primary lymphangiectasia and the remaining six had secondary lymphangiectasia, presumably secondary to congenital cardiac anomalies. There were various-size pleural effusions in all cases. Only one of the cases demonstrated hydrops fetalis. We present the description of the nutmeg lung sign on fetal MRI as T2-hyperintense heterogeneous lungs with fluid-filled, serpiginous branching structures that extend from the pulmonary hila to the periphery of the lung, often accompanied by pleural effusions. The sign denotes findings of primary or secondary lymphangiectasia. Findings of secondary lymphangiectasia in our series were a result of cardiac insufficiency. Recognizing this sign might be helpful in the diagnostic algorithm of the fetus with abnormal lung parenchyma. (orig.)

  11. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%, em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70% e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%. Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%, pápula eritematosa (21% e edema discreto (17%, e os sistêmicos foram dor em membros inferiores (29%, tremores e contraturas (29%, sudorese (28% parestesia em membros (21% e dor abdominal (17%. O tratamento foi sintomático em 67% dos casos e específico em 21%. O tempo de permanência hospitalar após o uso do soro antilatrodectus foi menor que 24 horas em 64% dos casos.This work is a retrospective study of latrodectism in the State of Bahia, Brazil, from August 1980 to July 1990. The data concerning the accidents were obtained from file cards at the Antivenom Information Center of Bahia (AVICB. Latrodectus curacavienis was the ethiologic agent identified in 28% of the arachnid accidents. The major incidence was registered in urban area (57% affecting men (70% more than women, with 10 to 29year-old age group (58%. Local pain (56%, erythematous papula (29% and light oedema (17% were the principal local symptoms. Pain in the limbs (29%, tremor and rigidities (29%, sweating (28%, limbs and arms paresthesia (21% and abdominal pain (17% were systemic ones. The treatment was mainly symptomatic (67% and antivenin serum was used in 21% of the cases. After serotherapy, 64% of the patients left the hospital within less than 24 hours.

  12. Valor do estudo citogenetico no transexualismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. H. Saldanha

    1976-09-01

    Full Text Available O transexualismo é caracterizado como uma entidade psiquiátrica, distinta do homossexualismo e travestismo, revendo-se suas manifestações sindrômicas. Discutem-se as duas principais causas etiológicas plausíveis do transexualismo, a saber: a hipótese psicoanalítica fundamentada na regressão psicossexual com estampagem da figura materna e o modelo neuro-endócrino que pressupõe alterações nos centros de identidade sexual do hipotámo. Com base nesta última explicação propõe-se, a exemplo do que parece ocorrer na síndrome de Morris, cujas células (XY não respondem ao efeito masculinizante da testosterona plasmática, que os transexuais devem possuir mosaicismo detectável ou críptico, quanto aos cromossomos sexuais, nos centros hipotalâmicos de identidade sexual que não respondem à secreção androgênica produzida pela gônada primitiva. Esta possibilidade explicaria a excessiva prevalência da síndrome entre homens, bem como a sua manifestação com feições típicas no sexo masculino e ainda a ocorrência esporádica da síndrome. O estudo citogenético revelou que a frequência (32% de mosaicismo quanto aos cromossomos sexuais em 25 transexuais é estatisticamente superior aos valores observados em 14 homossexuais e 40 controles normais, nos quais a proporção de mosaicismo é praticamente nula. Considera-se a possibilidade do critério cariotípico constituir valioso subsídio na diagnose da síndrome.

  13. Histerectomias: estudo retrospectivo de 554 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Fernando Cândido Murta

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A histerectomia é uma operação muito realizada, entretanto há poucos trabalhos na literatura nacional sobre suas indicações, técnica e complicações. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar estes procedimentos realizados na Disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia da Faculdade de Medicina do Triângulo Mineiro. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo de 470 histerectomias abdominais e 84 vaginais foi conduzido analisando as indicações, tempo de cirurgia e internação, tipo de incisão e morbidez. RESULTADOS: As principais indicações foram o mioma uterino e o prolapso uterino para as histerectomias abdominais e vaginais, respectivamente. As complicações intra-operatórias aconteceram em 3,4% e as pós-operatórias em 2,4% do total de casos. Nenhuma diferença estatística foi encontrada no número de complicações em relação ao tipo de incisão (vertical ou transversal. O tempo de cirurgia e o de hospitalização foram estatisticamente maiores nas incisões verticais. A hemorragia foi a mais freqüente complicação intra-operatória e a infecção da incisão operatória foi a mais freqüente no pós-operatório. CONCLUSÕES: A histerectomia é um procedimento de baixo risco, no entanto, a realização de revisões sobre indicações e complicações, e a pesquisa de melhores técnicas cirúrgicas são necessárias para torná-la cada vez mais segura.

  14. Reticulossarcomas epidurais intraespinais: estudo de 34 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M. B. Coutinho

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de 34 casos de reticulossarcomas localizados no tecido epidural intraespinal. Assinala-se sua maior freqüência entre homens com mais de 50 anos, embora pacientes mais jovens possam ser acometidos, principalmente entre 15 e 29 anos. A distribuição segmentar dos tumores permite um diagnóstico diferencial, sendo a região torácica a sede mais freqüentes de sarcomas. O principal sintoma encontrado nos pacientes com reticulossarcoma foi a dor, do tipo radicular, que serve para diferenciar os tumores intra e extra-medulares, tendo sido de aparecimento precoce em 15 dos pacientes estudados, precedendo em muitos meses e até anos os demais sintomas. Classificou-se os tumores reticulohistiocitários epidurais do canal vertebral em três grupos, de acordo com seu aspecto tecidual e celular e, principalmente, com a presença e distribuição da reticulina. Relacionou-se o tempo de evolução desses tumores com seu aspecto histopatológico, chegando-se à conclusão que os tumores classificados no grupo III apresentam um período evolutivo maior que os demais, o que nos levou a pensar que crescem mais lentamente, apresentando, portanto, melhor prognóstico que os demais tipos, muito embora todos os tipos de reticulossarcomas possam apresentar um prognóstico mais favorável quando precocemente diagnosticados e tratados adequadamente.

  15. Posture-Dependent Human 3He Lung Imaging in an Open Access MRI System: Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, L L; Li, C -H; Rosen, M S; Patz, S; Walsworth, R L

    2007-01-01

    The human lung and its functions are extremely sensitive to orientation and posture, and debate continues as to the role of gravity and the surrounding anatomy in determining lung function and heterogeneity of perfusion and ventilation. However, study of these effects is difficult. The conventional high-field magnets used for most hyperpolarized 3He MRI of the human lung, and most other common radiological imaging modalities including PET and CT, restrict subjects to lying horizontally, minimizing most gravitational effects. In this paper, we briefly review the motivation for posture-dependent studies of human lung function, and present initial imaging results of human lungs in the supine and vertical body orientations using inhaled hyperpolarized 3He gas and an open-access MRI instrument. The open geometry of this MRI system features a "walk-in" capability that permits subjects to be imaged in vertical and horizontal positions, and potentially allows for complete rotation of the orientation of the imaging su...

  16. Texture feature extraction for the lung lesion density classification on computed tomography scan image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnely

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The radiology examination by computed tomography (CT scan is an early detection of lung cancer to minimize the mortality rate. However, the assessment and diagnosis by an expert are subjective depending on the competence and experience of a radiologist. Hence, a digital image processing of CT scan is necessary as a tool to diagnose the lung cancer. This research proposes a morphological characteristics method for detecting lung cancer lesion density by using the histogram and GLCM (Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices. The most well-known artificial neural network (ANN architecture that is the multilayers perceptron (MLP, is used in classifying lung cancer lesion density of heterogeneous and homogeneous. Fifty CT scan images of lungs obtained from the Department of Radiology of RSUP Dr. Sardjito Hospital, Yogyakarta are used as the database. The results show that the proposed method achieved the accuracy of 98%, sensitivity of 96%, and specificity of 96%.

  17. Estudos sobre a Esquistosomose em Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggeu Magalhães

    1940-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores referem os resultados dos estudos sobre esquistosomose realisados, em Pernambuco, de Novembro de 1938 a Dezembro de 1939. Não se extendem em discussão, nem comentarios, tampouco, relacionam suas verificações com o que já foi relatado sobre o assunto em trabalhos nacionais e estrangeiros, pelo fato de que, não se trata de um resultado definitivo e sim de atividades que irão proseguir. Os estudos sistematicos em torno da endemia esquistosomica foram executados em duas localidades diversas pela população e pela situação geografica e ecologica. Pontezinha é uma povoação de 1200 habitantes localizada proximo a um conjunto de charcos e lagõas de agua dôce onde pululam caramujos do tipo olivaceus de Spix, e apresenta uma taxa de infestação de 21,4% para individuos do sexo masculino, e de 14,7% para os do sexo feminino. A distribuição por grupos de idade mostra que a incidencia cresce até o grupo de 16 a 20 anos de idade, quando atinge a percentagem de 37,8%, para decrescer em seguida. Em Vitoria a incidencia foi maior nos indivíduos do sexo feminino, atingindo a taxa de 41,4%, dando o sexo masculino a taxa de 36,9%. Por idade a percentagem maxima é atingida pelo grupo de 11 a 15 anos. Vitoria é uma cidade de 1500 habitantes, construida á margem do rio Tapacurá, onde se encontram numerosos caramujos do tipo centimetralis Lutz. A divergencia de incidencia corre por conta dos habitos da população e pela utilização que ela faz do rio, sendo maior em Vitoria porque a proximidade do rio facilita o uso de suas aguas para banho e serviços domesticos, condicionando este ultimo fato, a maior infestação das mulheres. O estudo da frequencia da infestação dos caramujos por cercarias de diversos trematodios, permite suspeitar uma relação inversa entre a taxa de infestação e o diametro maximo atingido pelos caramujos, parecendo este fato confirmar os trabalhos de Vianna Martins sobre a identidade dos hospedeiros

  18. A Meta-analysis of Asbestos and Lung Cancer: Is Better Quality Exposure Assessment Associated with Steeper Slopes of the Exposure-Response Relationships?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.; Vermeulen, R.; Dogger, S.; Stayner, L.; Portengen, L.; Burdorf, A.; Heederik, D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asbestos is a well-recognized cause of lung cancer, but there is considerable between-study heterogeneity in the slope of the exposure-response relationship.Objective: We considered the role of quality of the exposure assessment to potentially explain heterogeneity in exposure-response

  19. Replikasi Unidirectional pada Heterogen Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of diverse database technology in enterprise today can not be avoided. Thus, technology is needed to generate information in real time. The purpose of this research is to discuss a database replication technology that can be applied in heterogeneous database environments. In this study we use Windows-based MS SQL Server database to Linux-based Oracle database as the goal. The research method used is prototyping where development can be done quickly and testing of working models of the interaction process is done through repeated. From this research it is obtained that the database replication technolgy using Oracle Golden Gate can be applied in heterogeneous environments in real time as well.

  20. Seepage Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ore dumps are heterogeneous bodies with anisotropic seepage characteristics because of the ore segregation.In an indoor experiment, a dump was constructed with three strata, where the horizontal and vertical seepage experiments were carried out.Horizontals flow are regarded as phreatic plan flows without penetration.Its seepage law satifies the Dupuit equation.With parallel lay seepage model, the equivalent seepage coefficient in the horizontal flow was obtained and was equivalent to the weighted mean of the seepage coefficient of each stratum.An unsaturated flow appeared in the vertical experiment, with a hydraulic gradient of 1.The vertical flow was equivalent to the seepage model that moved in vertical bedding; its equivalent seepage coefficient depended on the stratum with the minimum seepage coefficient.That the experiment showed clear anisotropy in a heterogeneous body was obvious with an anisotropic coefficient between 63 and 155, which is 25 to 100 times larger than that of a homogeneous body.

  1. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production.

  2. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MySQL running on Linux as the destination. The method applied in this research is prototyping in which the processes of development and testing can be done interactively and repeatedly. The key result of this research is that the replication technology applied, which is called Oracle GoldenGate, can successfully manage to do its task in replicating data in real-time and heterogeneous platforms.

  3. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  4. Mechanisms of lung aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberger, Christina; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Lung aging is associated with structural remodeling, a decline of respiratory function and a higher susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. Individual factors that modulate pulmonary aging include basic genetic configuration, environmental exposure, life-style and biography of systemic diseases. However, the actual aging of the lung takes place in pulmonary resident cells and is closely linked to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Therefore, this article reviews the current knowledge about the impact of aging on pulmonary cells and the immune system, without analyzing those factors that may accelerate the aging process in depth. Hallmarks of aging include alterations at molecular, cellular and cell-cell interaction levels. Because of the great variety of cell types in the lung, the consequences of aging display a broad spectrum of phenotypes. For example, aging is associated with more collagen and less elastin production by fibroblasts, thus increasing pulmonary stiffness and lowering compliance. Decreased sympathetic airway innervation may increase the constriction status of airway smooth muscle cells. Aging of resident and systemic immune cells leads to a pro-inflammatory milieu and reduced capacity of fighting infectious diseases. The current review provides an overview of cellular changes occurring with advancing age in general and in several cell types of the lung as well as of the immune system. Thereby, this survey not only aims at providing a better understanding of the mechanisms of pulmonary aging but also to identify gaps in knowledge that warrant further investigations.

  5. Immunotherapy for Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yi Ho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although treatment methods in surgery, irradiation, and chemotherapy have improved, prognosis remains unsatisfactory and developing new therapeutic strategies is still an urgent demand. Immunotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach wherein activated immune cells can specifically kill tumor cells by recognition of tumor-associated antigens without damage to normal cells. Several lung cancer vaccines have demonstrated prolonged survival time in phase II and phase III trials, and several clinical trials are under investigation. However, many clinical trials involving cancer vaccination with defined tumor antigens work in only a small number of patients. Cancer immunotherapy is not completely effective in eradicating tumor cells because tumor cells escape from host immune scrutiny. Understanding of the mechanism of immune evasion regulated by tumor cells is required for the development of more effective immunotherapeutic approaches against lung cancer. This paper discusses the identification of tumor antigens in lung cancer, tumor immune escape mechanisms, and clinical vaccine trials in lung cancer.

  6. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kowsarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  7. Accurate segmentation of lung fields on chest radiographs using deep convolutional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Agarwal, Chirag; Patel, Aalpan; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Accurate segmentation of lung fields on chest radiographs is the primary step for computer-aided detection of various conditions such as lung cancer and tuberculosis. The size, shape and texture of lung fields are key parameters for chest X-ray (CXR) based lung disease diagnosis in which the lung field segmentation is a significant primary step. Although many methods have been proposed for this problem, lung field segmentation remains as a challenge. In recent years, deep learning has shown state of the art performance in many visual tasks such as object detection, image classification and semantic image segmentation. In this study, we propose a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) framework for segmentation of lung fields. The algorithm was developed and tested on 167 clinical posterior-anterior (PA) CXR images collected retrospectively from picture archiving and communication system (PACS) of Geisinger Health System. The proposed multi-scale network is composed of five convolutional and two fully connected layers. The framework achieved IOU (intersection over union) of 0.96 on the testing dataset as compared to manual segmentation. The suggested framework outperforms state of the art registration-based segmentation by a significant margin. To our knowledge, this is the first deep learning based study of lung field segmentation on CXR images developed on a heterogeneous clinical dataset. The results suggest that convolutional neural networks could be employed reliably for lung field segmentation.

  8. Temperature chaos and quenched heterogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barucca, Paolo; Parisi, Giorgio; Rizzo, Tommaso

    2014-03-01

    We present a treatable generalization of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model which introduces correlations in the elements of the coupling matrix through multiplicative disorder on the single variables and investigate the consequences on the phase diagram. We define a generalized qEA parameter and test the structural stability of the SK results in this correlated case evaluating the de Almeida-Thouless line of the model. As a main result we demonstrate the increase of temperature chaos effects due to heterogeneities.

  9. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  10. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  11. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Hovenga, S; Vellenga, E; Bos, NA

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma ( MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome. Althoug

  12. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, JEJ; Hovenga, S; Vellenga, E; Bos, NA

    Multiple Myeloma ( MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome.

  13. Molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma: potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Renee Parker

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastomas, (grade 4 astrocytomas, are aggressive primary brain tumors characterized by histopathological heterogeneity. High resolution sequencing technologies have shown that these tumors also feature significant inter-tumoral molecular heterogeneity. Molecular subtyping of these tumors has revealed several predictive and prognostic biomarkers. However, intra-tumoral heterogeneity may undermine the use of single biopsy analysis for determining tumor genotype and has implications for potential targeted therapies. The clinical relevance and theories of tumoral molecular heterogeneity in glioblastoma are discussed.

  14. Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon R. Pine

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related lethality because of high incidence and recurrence in spite of significant advances in staging and therapies. Recent data indicates that stem cells situated throughout the airways may initiate cancer formation. These putative stem cells maintain protumorigenic characteristics including high proliferative capacity, multipotent differentiation, drug resistance and long lifespan relative to other cells. Stem cell signaling and differentiation pathways are maintained within distinct cancer types, and destabilization of this machinery may participate in maintenance of cancer stem cells. Characterization of lung cancer stem cells is an area of active research and is critical for developing novel therapies. This review summarizes the current knowledge on stem cell signaling pathways and cell markers used to identify the lung cancer stem cells.

  15. Lung mass, right upper lung - chest x-ray (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chest x-ray of a person with a lung mass. This is a front view, where the lungs are the two dark areas and the heart ... ray shows a mass in the right upper lung, indicated with the arrow (seen on the left ...

  16. Estudos organizacionais, (descolonialidade e estudos da dependência: as contribuições da Cepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Wanderley

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é (revisitar o conceito de dependência como categoria de investigação da (e a partir da América Latina, por meio de uma perspectiva histórica crítica descolonial, a fim de ampliar o espaço de debates em estudos organizacionais e promover alternativas à ordem neoliberal. Este ensaio terá como foco os estudos da dependência realizados pela Comissão Econômica para a América Latina e o Caribe (Cepal durante a década de 1950 e o início dos anos 1960. A perspectiva descolonial é um constructo teórico de autores latino-americanos que se consideram herdeiros da longa tradição do pensamento social crítico da região, na qual a teoria da dependência está inserida. As propostas dos autores da dependência confrontaram as principais teorias ortodoxas do Norte produzidas à época. A partir do conceito de centro-periferia, da denúncia de assimetrias nas relações entre essas regiões, do reconhecimento da interdependência entre desenvolvimento e subdesenvolvimento, o conceito de dependência foi sendo (reelaborado nas décadas de 1950 e 1960 por diversos autores latino-americanos como uma categoria de investigação da realidade da (e a partir da região. Essas investigações tinham por objetivo não somente elaborar constructos teóricos, mas, também, transformar a realidade por meio da criação de diversas organizações e instituições que deveriam servir ao propósito de superar o subdesenvolvimento. A denúncia da historicidade da situação de subdesenvolvimento desnudou o caráter de neutralidade do economicismo das teorias produzidas no Norte e promoveu um encontro teórico entre economia e política que muito tem a contribuir com a área dos estudos organizacionais.

  17. ESTUDOS NUTRICIONAIS COM ARROZ (Oryza sativa, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo LAM-SÁNCHEZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    RESUMO: Estudos com arroz (Oryza sativa, L. foram realizados a fim de determinar a variabilidade do teor de proteína em coleções de cultivares e a possibilidade de utilizar as camadas periféricas do grão na alimentação humana. Foram analisadas 626 linhagens e cultivares de arroz que mostraram uma variação quanto ao teor de proteína de 4.00 a 14.31 g/100 g de amostra. Para se extrair as camadas periféricas do grão, foi desenvolvida uma máquina experimental, que removia as camadas superficiais dos grãos de arroz integral (inteiros somente com a casca removida. Verificou-se que a quantidade de proteína do grão diminui de fora para dentro. O resíduo, que era constituído de grande parte de restos de endosperma com um teor protéico menor mas incluía o embrião, que é a primeira estrutura a se deslocar de grão no beneficiamento e contém proteínas, vitaminas, sais minerais e lípides, tinha um bom valor nutritivo. Desenvolveu-se também uma fórmula para alimentação infantil a partir da mistura de leite de vaca com arroz, com composição semelhante à do leite materno, a ser utilizada sob a forma de bebida ou mingau. Formulações com 40%-20% arroz + 60%-80% leite de vaca proporcionaram valores de Coeficiente de Eficiência Protéica (2,39 e 2,38, respectivamente que não diferiam estatisticamente do valor de 2,43 obtido na fórmula com 100% de leite de vaca. Seus preços foram 59% e 65% do obtido para o leite de vaca integral. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Arroz; qualidade do grão; proteína; camadas periféricas; misturas arroz-leite; nutrição humana.

  18. Estudo de caso: disfonia psicogênica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bergamini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Disfonia funcional psicogênica possui relação com aspectos psicológicos. O tipo de voz, a articulação e a fluência são sensíveis às oscilações psicológicas. Uma voz em ajuste de falsete paralítico, caracterizada como uma voz de pitch extremamente agudo pode ser encontrada em casos de disfonias psicogênicas. Em qualquer quadro psicogênico é essencial um diagnóstico diferencial, a fim de viabilizar um tratamento fonoaudiológico e médico adequados e efetivos. O prognóstico de uma alteração psicogênica geralmente é bom. O quadro de disfonia psicogênica é mais comum no sexo feminino. O objetivo desse estudo é apresentar a evolução terapêutica de um indivíduo com disfonia psicogênica. A.J.O., 45 anos, sexo masculino, compareceu ao Ambulatório de Avaliação e Terapia de Voz encaminhado por médico otorrinolaringologista. Trouxe a queixa vocal "pela manhã a voz está perfeita, conforme o dia passa, a voz fica fina". Realizou avaliação fonoaudiológica em 18 de abril de 2013, com laudo médico de "mobilidade reduzida de prega vocal esquerda". Tratamento com técnica de sons disparadores, com modificação direta nos sintomas e evolução rápida. Demonstrou-se satisfeito com sua qualidade vocal. Em casos de suspeita de disfonias psicogênicas de conversão, devem-se descartar alterações orgânicas, sendo essencial uma avaliação fonoaudiológica que auxilie no diagnóstico diferencial e provas terapêuticas que incentivem o paciente.

  19. Seniors' Lungs Can Tackle Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167082.html Seniors' Lungs Can Tackle Exercise Researchers find older adults' respiratory systems keep up ... News) If seniors want to start a vigorous exercise program, there's a good chance their lungs can ...

  20. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH FLAVORINGS-RELATED LUNG DISEASE Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... practices that place workers at risk. Flavorings-Related Lung Disease Microwave popcorn plant and flavoring plant workers have ...

  1. What Are Lung Function Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include tests that measure lung size and air flow, such as spirometry and lung volume tests. Other tests measure how well gases such as oxygen get in and out of your blood. These tests include pulse oximetry and arterial blood ...

  2. National Lung Screening Trial (NLST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), a research study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute that used low-dose helical CT scans or chest X-ray to screen men and women at risk for lung cancer.

  3. Lung-MAP Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of material about the Lung-MAP study, which will examine treatment outcomes for patients with squamous cell lung cancer assigned to different targeted drugs based on the results of genomic tumor profiling.

  4. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) Españ ... incidence data are currently available. Rates of Getting Lung Cancer by State The number of people who ...

  5. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by the ... listed here. Drugs Approved for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Abitrexate (Methotrexate) Abraxane (Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation) ...

  6. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  7. Poverty and lung health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusen, I D; Squire, S Bertel; Billo, Nils E

    2010-04-01

    The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (The Union) held its 40th World Conference on Lung Health in Cancun, Mexico, between 3 and 7 December 2009. It was attended by over 2000 delegates from 104 countries around the world. The conference featured four stimulating plenary sessions and an extensive selection of scientific symposia. A total of 1125 abstracts were also presented from five broad categories: clinical trials and TB basic science, clinical research for treatment and care, epidemiology, education, advocacy and social issues, and policy and program implementation. In addition, the conference was preceded by a series of well-attended postgraduate courses and workshops.

  8. Transfers in heterogeneous environments; Transferts en milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesselles, J.M. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France); Gouesbet, G.; Mees, L.; Roze, C.; Girasole, Th.; Grehan, G. [Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires (LESP), UMR CNRS 6614, CORIA. Universite de Rouen et INSA de Rouen, 76 - Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Goyheneche, J.M.; Vignoles, G.; Coindreau, O. [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux (LCTS), UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Moyne, Ch. [LEMTA (UMR 7563) CNRS-INPL-UHP, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Coussy, O. [Institut Navier - ENPC, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Lassabatere, Th. [Electricite de France Les Renardieres, Dept. Materiaux Mecanique des Composants, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Tadrist, L. [IUSTI - UMR 6595, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the invited talks given at the 2004 French congress of thermal engineering about transfers in heterogeneous environment. Content: transfer phenomena in industrial glass furnaces; simple and multiple scattering diagnosis by femto-second pulsed laser: application to particulate diagnoses; thermal modeling of thermo-structural composites; hybrid mixtures theory, average volumic measurement, periodical or stochastic homogenization: advance in scale change processes; thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical coupling in porous medium: application to young concrete structures and to clay barriers of disposal facilities; transfers and flows in fluidization: recent advances and future challenges. (J.S.)

  9. [Severe interstitial lung disease from pathologic gastroesophageal reflux in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, P; Weimer, B; Hofmann, D

    1999-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of pulmonary conditions that cause restrictive lung disease of poor prognosis, especially if growth failure, pulmonary hypertension and fibrosis appears. We report on the case of a girl of 11 years of age who suffered from severe nonallergic asthma in early childhood and who developed severe interstitial pulmonary disease caused by gastro-oesophageal reflux at the age of 8 years. This diagnosis was established by lung biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage and a high amount of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages, 2-level pH measurement and oesophageal biopsy. Because therapy with oral and inhaled steroids failed and Omeprazol showed benificial effects, hemifundoplication according to THAL was performed. At present the lung function is clearly normal and there is no need of any medicaments. Following the history, we can assume the pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to be the cause of the disease. It is important to state that there were no typical symptoms at any time pointing to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The development of pulmonary disease by pathological reflux is very often caused by "silent aspiration". Very typically there are no symptoms such as vomiting, heartburn and pain but only signs of chronic lung disease.

  10. Changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression during chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab, may potentially improve outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high EGFR expression. The EGFR expression may be heterogeneously distributed within tumors, and small biopsies may thus...

  11. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling of non-small cell lung carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Carvalho (Rejane Hughes); V. Haberle (Vanja); J. Hou (Jun); T. van Gent (Teus); S. Thongjuea (Supat); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); C. Kockx (Christel); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); E.J. Rijkers; A.M. Sieuwerts (Anieta); J.A. Foekens (John); M. van Vroonhoven (Mirjam); J.G.J.V. Aerts (Joachim); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); B. Lenhard (Boris); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is a complex malignancy that owing to its heterogeneity and poor prognosis poses many challenges to diagnosis, prognosis and patient treatment. DNA methylation is an important mechanism of epigenetic regulation involved in normal developm

  12. Convergent Akt activation drives acquired EGFR inhibitor resistance in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirstine; Bertran-Alamillo, Jordi; Molina, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    phospho-Akt levels to therapeutically combat the heterogeneity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance mechanisms.EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer are often resistant to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. In this study, the authors show that resistant tumors display high Akt activation...

  13. miR-638 regulates gene expression networks associated with emphysematous lung destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christenson, Stephanie A.; Brandsma, Corry-Anke; Campbell, Joshua D.; Knight, Darryl A.; Pechkovsky, Dmitri V.; Hogg, James C.; Timens, Wim; Postma, Dirkje S.; Lenburg, Marc; Spira, Avrum

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by varying degrees of emphysematous lung destruction and small airway disease, each with distinct effects on clinical outcomes. There is little known about how microRNAs contribute specifically to the e

  14. LINKING LUNG AIRWAY STRUCTURE TO PULMONARY FUNCTION VIA COMPOSITE BRIDGE REGRESSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Hoffman, Eric A.; Seetharaman, Indu; Jiao, Feiran; Lin, Ching-Long; Chan, Kung-Sik

    2017-01-01

    The human lung airway is a complex inverted tree-like structure. Detailed airway measurements can be extracted from MDCT-scanned lung images, such as segmental wall thickness, airway diameter, parent-child branch angles, etc. The wealth of lung airway data provides a unique opportunity for advancing our understanding of the fundamental structure-function relationships within the lung. An important problem is to construct and identify important lung airway features in normal subjects and connect these to standardized pulmonary function test results such as FEV1%. Among other things, the problem is complicated by the fact that a particular airway feature may be an important (relevant) predictor only when it pertains to segments of certain generations. Thus, the key is an efficient, consistent method for simultaneously conducting group selection (lung airway feature types) and within-group variable selection (airway generations), i.e., bi-level selection. Here we streamline a comprehensive procedure to process the lung airway data via imputation, normalization, transformation and groupwise principal component analysis, and then adopt a new composite penalized regression approach for conducting bi-level feature selection. As a prototype of composite penalization, the proposed composite bridge regression method is shown to admit an efficient algorithm, enjoy bi-level oracle properties, and outperform several existing methods. We analyze the MDCT lung image data from a cohort of 132 subjects with normal lung function. Our results show that, lung function in terms of FEV1% is promoted by having a less dense and more homogeneous lung comprising an airway whose segments enjoy more heterogeneity in wall thicknesses, larger mean diameters, lumen areas and branch angles. These data hold the potential of defining more accurately the “normal” subject population with borderline atypical lung functions that are clearly influenced by many genetic and environmental factors.

  15. Molecular Determinants of Lung Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, Edward E.; Cardoso, Wellington V.; Lane, Robert H.; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Abman, Steven H.; Ai, Xingbin; Albertine, Kurt H.; Bland, Richard D.; Chapman, Harold A.; Checkley, William; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Kintner, Christopher R.; Kumar, Maya; Minoo, Parviz; Mariani, Thomas J.; McDonald, Donald M.; Mukouyama, Yoh-suke; Prince, Lawrence S.; Reese, Jeff; Rossant, Janet; Shi, Wei; Sun, Xin; Werb, Zena; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.; Gail, Dorothy; Blaisdell, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Development of the pulmonary system is essential for terrestrial life. The molecular pathways that regulate this complex process are beginning to be defined, and such knowledge is critical to our understanding of congenital and acquired lung diseases. A recent workshop was convened by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute to discuss the developmental principles that regulate the formation of the pulmonary system. Emerging evidence suggests that key developmental pathways not only regulate proper formation of the pulmonary system but are also reactivated upon postnatal injury and repair and in the pathogenesis of human lung diseases. Molecular understanding of early lung development has also led to new advances in areas such as generation of lung epithelium from pluripotent stem cells. The workshop was organized into four different topics, including early lung cell fate and morphogenesis, mechanisms of lung cell differentiation, tissue interactions in lung development, and environmental impact on early lung development. Critical points were raised, including the importance of epigenetic regulation of lung gene expression, the dearth of knowledge on important mesenchymal lineages within the lung, and the interaction between the developing pulmonary and cardiovascular system. This manuscript describes the summary of the discussion along with general recommendations to overcome the gaps in knowledge in lung developmental biology. PMID:23607856

  16. NELSON lung cancer screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhao (Yingru); X. Xie (Xueqian); H.J. de Koning (Harry); W.P. Mali (Willem); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study) was designed to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk subjects will lead to a decrease in 10-year lung cancer mortality of at

  17. Cellular heterogeneity and molecular evolution in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Marusyk, Andriy; Polyak, Kornelia

    2013-01-24

    Intratumor heterogeneity represents a major obstacle to effective cancer treatment and personalized medicine. However, investigators are now elucidating intratumor heterogeneity at the single-cell level due to improvements in technologies. Better understanding of the composition of tumors, and monitoring changes in cell populations during disease progression and treatment, will improve cancer diagnosis and therapeutic design. Measurements of intratumor heterogeneity may also be used as biomarkers to predict the risk of progression and therapeutic resistance. We summarize important considerations related to intratumor heterogeneity during tumor evolution. We also discuss experimental approaches that are commonly used to infer intratumor heterogeneity and describe how these methodologies can be translated into clinical practice.

  18. Uma ferramenta para planejamento de estudos para concursos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pimentel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available De acordo com a constituição brasileira, a única forma de se tornar um empregado do governo é passar em um concurso público. O exame de conhecimento do cargo é um dos componentes mais importantes de um concurso. Estudar para esse exame é uma tarefa que requer planejamento. Um meio de obter um bom planejamento é construir uma grade de horários que relacione as matérias a serem estudadas com os respectivos horários disponíveis para o estudo. Esse tipo de problema se assemelha bastante à gerência de projetos, em que se procura estabelecer a distribuição das atividades ao longo do tempo disponível. Assim, torna-se interessante explorar a dinâmica de estudos para concursos como um projeto. O presente trabalho apresenta a ferramenta de apoio ao estudos - Passe-me, baseada no ciclo PDCA (do inglês, Plan-Do-Check-Act. Por se tratar de uma ferramenta web, o tempo de resposta para produzir uma grade de estudos é fundamental. A ferramenta faz uso de algoritmo genético para calcular a grade de horários priorizando a velocidade de resposta. A ferramenta foi avaliada em diferentes cenários de uso e obteve desempenho satisfatório durante a produção da grade de estudos.

  19. Cognitive heterogeneity in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Melanie A; Coltheart, Max

    2005-01-01

    This study used the Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised to investigate a wide range of cognitive abilities in people with Williams syndrome (WS). It involved a comparatively large sample of 31 people with WS, but took a case-series approach. The study addressed the widespread claims of a characteristic "WS cognitive profile" by looking for heterogeneity rather than homogeneity. People with WS showed a variety of preserved (significantly above mental age [MA]), expected (at MA), and significantly impaired (significantly below MA) levels of functioning. Such results provide clear evidence for heterogeneity in cognitive functions within WS. We found the most homogeneity on a test of phonological processing and a test of phonological short-term memory, with half of the WS sample performing at MA levels on these tests. Interestingly, no WS individual showed a weakness on a test of nonverbal reasoning, and only one WS individual showed a weakness on a test of verbal comprehension. In addition, we found that strengths on analysis-synthesis and verbal analogies occurred only for WS individuals with an MA less than 5.5 years (our sample median MA); people with an MA greater than 5.5 years performed at MA level on these 2 tests. Results also provided preliminary evidence for distinct subgroups of WS people based on their cognitive strengths and weaknesses on a broad range of cognitive functions. On the basis of the findings, caution should be made in declaring a single cognitive profile that is characteristic of all individuals with WS. Just as there is heterogeneity in genetic and physical anomalies within WS, not all WS individuals share the same cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Also, not all WS individuals show the profile of a strength in verbal abilities and a weakness in spatial functions.

  20. Analysis of regional compliance in a porcine model of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaplik, Michael; Biener, Ingeborg; Dembinski, Rolf; Pelosi, Paolo; Soodt, Thomas; Schroeder, Wolfgang; Leonhardt, Steffen; Marx, Gernot; Rossaint, Rolf; Bickenbach, Johannes

    2012-10-15

    Lung protective ventilation in acute lung injury (ALI) focuses on using low tidal volumes and adequate levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP). Identifying optimal pressure is difficult because pressure-volume (PV) relations differ regionally. Precise analysis demands local measurements of pressures and related alveolar morphologies. In a porcine model of surfactant depletion (n=24), we combined measuring static pressures with endoscopic microscopy and electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to examine regional PV loops and morphologic heterogeneities between healthy (control group; CON) and ALI lungs ventilated with low (LVT) or high tidal volumes (HVT). Quantification included indices for microscopy (Volume Air Index (VAI), Heterogeneity and Circularity Index), EIT analysis and calculation of regional compliances due to generated PV loops. We found that: (1) VAI decreased in lower lobe after ALI, (2) electrical impedance decreased in dorsal regions and (3) PV loops differed regionally. Further studies should prove the potentials of these techniques on individual respiratory settings and clinical outcome.

  1. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment response in a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methodology: A single-center ..... groupings in the forthcoming (7th) edition of the TNM. Classification of ... overall survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol ...

  2. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  3. Matrikines and the lungs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K; Weckmann, Markus

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a complex network of fibrous and nonfibrous molecules that not only provide structure to the lung but also interact with and regulate the behaviour of the cells which it surrounds. Recently it has been recognised that components of the extracellular matrix proteins are re

  4. Fundamental concepts in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts.   Features include:First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysisBasis for understanding and designing experiments in the field   Allows reader to understand catalyst design principlesIntroduction to important elements of energy transformation technologyTest driven at Stanford University over several semesters

  5. Heterogeneous photocatalysts in organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatskaya, M.; König, B.

    2014-03-01

    The review deals with the application of inorganic semiconductors in organic synthesis. Although the majority of reported reactions still aim at the photocatalytic decomposition of organic compounds, the number of examples in synthetic applications is growing. The principal mechanisms of heterogeneous semiconductor photocatalysis are considered and examples illustrating the use of inorganic semiconductors in organic synthesis are given. The discussion is arranged according to the required excitation wavelength (UV or visible light) and to the new bond that is formed (carbon-carbon or carbon-heteroatom bond). The bibliography includes 47 references.

  6. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  7. Computer Aided Design Modeling for Heterogeneous Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Vikas; Tandon, Puneet

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneous object design is an active research area in recent years. The conventional CAD modeling approaches only provide geometry and topology of the object, but do not contain any information with regard to the materials of the object and so can not be used for the fabrication of heterogeneous objects (HO) through rapid prototyping. Current research focuses on computer-aided design issues in heterogeneous object design. A new CAD modeling approach is proposed to integrate the material information into geometric regions thus model the material distributions in the heterogeneous object. The gradient references are used to represent the complex geometry heterogeneous objects which have simultaneous geometry intricacies and accurate material distributions. The gradient references helps in flexible manipulability and control to heterogeneous objects, which guarantees the local control over gradient regions of developed heterogeneous objects. A systematic approach on data flow, processing, computer visualizat...

  8. Developmental defects of the lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DaCosta, H.; Pathak, A.; Noronha, O.; Dalal, S.; Shah, K.; Merchant, S.

    1981-06-01

    Poor lung development was first noted on scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phytate in 32 children. They had all been referred for a hepatosplenic scan but the initial circulatory phase of the radiopharmaceutical was also recorded as a routine procedure. In 3 patients it revealed aplasia of an entire lung; bilateral pulmonary hypolplasia was observed in 14 of 16 patients with diaphragmatic herniae. Six patients with congenital heart enlargement showed a poorly developed ipsilateral lung; 5 of 6 patients with dextrocardia without an intracardiac defect had a larger left lung compared with the right lung; both pulmonary beds appeared equal in a patient with mesocardia.

  9. Desenvolvimento da Tanatologia: estudos sobre a morte e o morrer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Julia Kovács

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os principais temas e pesquisas na área da Tanatologia, estudos sobre a morte e o morrer. São apresentados os autores pioneiros que escreveram as primeiras obras de sistematização da Tanatologia entre os quais: Herman Feifel, Robert Kastenbaum e Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, e os principais temas de estudo: luto, violência e guerra, a morte e a TV, cuidados a pacientes gravemente enfermos, além da formação de profissionais da área de saúde e educação para lidar com pessoas vivendo situações de perdas e morte. São feitas propostas de estudos para o futuro desenvolvimento da Tanatologia em nosso país.

  10. BASES DO COMPROMETIMENTO ORGANIZACIONAL: UM ESTUDO COMPARATIVO EM EMPRESAS JUNIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José da Silva Feitosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos intensificaram-se os estudos referentes às bases do comprometimento organizacional, contempladas no modelo Meyer e Allen. Nessa perfectiva, o presente estudo objetiva verificar as bases afetiva, normativa e instrumental em duas empresas de consultoria. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem quantitativa. Os resultados apontam que a base afetiva se destacou em ambas as empresas, tanto em uma análise por gênero, quanto em uma perspectiva geral. Esse resultado pode estar relacionado à possibilidade de que os estudantes que ingressam em empresas juniores se entusiasmem com a oportunidade de aplicar seus conhecimentos e se comprometam de forma afetiva com a organização. No entanto, para testar essa relação sugere-se a realização de novos estudos.

  11. Heterogeneous Transmutation Sodium Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. E. Bays

    2007-09-01

    The threshold-fission (fertile) nature of Am-241 is used to destroy this minor actinide by capitalizing upon neutron capture instead of fission within a sodium fast reactor. This neutron-capture and its subsequent decay chain leads to the breeding of even neutron number plutonium isotopes. A slightly moderated target design is proposed for breeding plutonium in an axial blanket located above the active “fast reactor” driver fuel region. A parametric study on the core height and fuel pin diameter-to-pitch ratio is used to explore the reactor and fuel cycle aspects of this design. This study resulted in both non-flattened and flattened core geometries. Both of these designs demonstrated a high capacity for removing americium from the fuel cycle. A reactivity coefficient analysis revealed that this heterogeneous design will have comparable safety aspects to a homogeneous reactor of comparable size. A mass balance analysis revealed that the heterogeneous design may reduce the number of fast reactors needed to close the current once-through light water reactor fuel cycle.

  12. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  13. The CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism contributes to lung cancer risk: evidence from 6501 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Qiu, Li-Xin; Li, Yan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xue-Li; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Wu, Jian-Qing

    2010-12-01

    The polymorphism of cytochrome P4501B1 (CYP1B1) codon 432 (rs1056836, CYP1B1*3, or Leu432Val) is thought to have a significant effect on lung cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, we assessed 9 published studies involving 6501 subjects that investigated the association between the CYP1B1 codon 432 polymorphism and risk of lung cancer. Overall, the CYP1B1 Leu/Val and Val/Val-variant genotypes were associated with a significantly increased risk of lung cancer in different genetic models (heterozygote comparison: OR=1.22; 95% CI=1.02-1.45, P(heterogeneity)=0.068; homozygote comparison: OR=1.41; 95% CI=1.08-1.85, P(heterogeneity)=0.071; dominant model comparison: OR=1.26; 95% CI=1.04-1.51, P(heterogeneity)=0.019; and recessive model comparison: OR=1.17; 95% CI=1.02-1.34, P(heterogeneity)=0.429). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found among Caucasians for Leu/Val vs Leu/Leu (OR=1.30; 95% CI=1.03-1.64; P(heterogeneity)=0.092), and dominant model (OR=1.35; 95% CI=1.03-1.77; P(heterogeneity)=0.015). However, no significant associations were found in both Europeans and African-Americans for all genetic models. In the subgroup analyses by smoking status, a significantly increased risk of lung cancer was found among smokers (dominant model: OR=1.46; 95% CI=1.08-1.83; P(heterogeneity)=0.175). However, we did not find any statistically significant association by subgroup analyses of pathological type. This meta-analysis suggests that the CYP1B1 Val allele is a low-penetrant risk factor for developing lung cancer.

  14. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  15. LUNGEOMETRY- GEOMETRICAL INVESTIGATION OF LUNGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Vinodh Rajkumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapists must learn the biomechanics of lunge in detail to clearly understand its significance in human life and implement effective training measures to overcome the limiting factors of proper lunge of their clientele. To understand the biomechanical value of every movement, interesting experimental learning methods must be employed to kindle the Physiotherapists to actively take part in research activities from the under-graduate level onwards. Lungeometry is a novel, simple and inexpensive experimental investigation of lunge, applying basic geometrical methods taking near normal lower limb length dimensions and rationale approaches into consideration. Lungeometry can give a foundation to learn other forms of lunges like forward lunge, weighted lunges, lateral lunges. This model of learning biomechanics of movements using fundamental geometry techniques is expected to strongly connect with any futuristic Physiotherapy curricular structure.

  16. Obesity Paradox in Lung Cancer Prognosis: Evolving Biological Insights and Clinical Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueli; Liu, Yamin; Shao, Hua; Zheng, Xiao

    2017-10-01

    The survival rate of lung cancer remains low despite the progress of surgery and chemotherapy. With the increasing comorbidity of obesity in patients with lung cancer, new challenges are emerging in the management of this patient population. A key issue of interest is the prognostic effect of obesity on surgical and chemotherapeutic outcomes in patients with lung cancer, which is fueled by the growing observation of survival benefits in overweight or obese patients. This unexpected inverse relationship between obesity and lung cancer mortality, called the obesity paradox, remains poorly understood. The evolving insights into the heterogeneity of obesity phenotypes and associated biological connections with lung cancer progression in recent years may help explain some of the seemingly paradoxical relationship, and well-designed clinical studies looking at the causal role of obesity-associated molecules are expected. Here, we examine potential biological mechanisms behind the protective effects of obesity in lung cancer. We highlight the need to clarify the clinical implications of this relationship toward an updated intervention strategy in the clinical care of patients with lung cancer and obesity. Copyright © 2017 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Proton magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of lung function and respiratory dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichinger, Monika [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.eichinger@dkfz.de; Tetzlaff, Ralf; Puderbach, Michael [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Woodhouse, Neil [Unit of Academic Radiology, University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Since many pulmonary diseases present with a variable regional involvement, modalities for assessment of regional lung function gained increasing attention over the last years. Together with lung perfusion and gas exchange, ventilation, as a result of the interaction of the respiratory pump and the lungs, is an indispensable component of lung function. So far, this complex mechanism is still mainly assessed indirectly and globally. A differentiation between the individual determining factors of ventilation would be crucial for precise diagnostics and adequate treatment. By dynamic imaging of the respiratory pump, the mechanical components of ventilation can be assessed regionally. Amongst imaging modalities applicable to this topic, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as a tool not relying on ionising radiation, is the most attractive. Recent advances in MRI technology have made it possible to assess diaphragmatic and chest wall motion, static and dynamic lung volumes, as well as regional lung function. Even though existing studies show large heterogeneity in design and applied methods, it becomes evident that MRI is capable to visualise pulmonary function as well as diaphragmatic and thoracic wall movement, providing new insights into lung physiology. Partly contradictory results and conclusions are most likely caused by technical limitations, limited number of studies and small sample size. Existing studies mainly evaluate possible imaging techniques and concentrate on normal physiology. The few studies in patients with lung cancer and emphysema already give a promising outlook for these techniques from which an increasing impact on improved and quantitative disease characterization as well as better patient management can be expected.

  18. Socioeconomic Status and Lung Cancer: Unraveling the Contribution of Genetic Admixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvin, Steve; Wrensch, Margaret R.; Sison, Jennette D.; Hansen, Helen M.; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Seldin, Michael F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Wiencke, John K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship between genetic ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES), and lung cancer among African Americans and Latinos. Methods. We evaluated SES and genetic ancestry in a Northern California lung cancer case–control study (1998–2003) of African Americans and Latinos. Lung cancer case and control participants were frequency matched on age, gender, and race/ethnicity. We assessed case–control differences in individual admixture proportions using the 2-sample t test and analysis of covariance. Logistic regression models examined associations among genetic ancestry, socioeconomic characteristics, and lung cancer. Results. Decreased Amerindian ancestry was associated with higher education among Latino control participants and greater African ancestry was associated with decreased education among African lung cancer case participants. Education was associated with lung cancer among both Latinos and African Americans, independent of smoking, ancestry, age, and gender. Genetic ancestry was not associated with lung cancer among African Americans. Conclusions. Findings suggest that socioeconomic factors may have a greater impact than genetic ancestry on lung cancer among African Americans. The genetic heterogeneity and recent dynamic migration and acculturation of Latinos complicate recruitment; thus, epidemiological analyses and findings should be interpreted cautiously. PMID:23948011

  19. Quantifying single microvessel permeability in isolated blood-perfused rat lung preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Kathirvel; Parthasarathi, Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    The isolated blood-perfused lung preparation is widely used to visualize and define signaling in single microvessels. By coupling this preparation with real time imaging, it becomes feasible to determine permeability changes in individual pulmonary microvessels. Herein we describe steps to isolate rat lungs and perfuse them with autologous blood. Then, we outline steps to infuse fluorophores or agents via a microcatheter into a small lung region. Using these procedures described, we determined permeability increases in rat lung microvessels in response to infusions of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. The data revealed that lipopolysaccharide increased fluid leak across both venular and capillary microvessel segments. Thus, this method makes it possible to compare permeability responses among vascular segments and thus, define any heterogeneity in the response. While commonly used methods to define lung permeability require postprocessing of lung tissue samples, the use of real time imaging obviates this requirement as evident from the present method. Thus, the isolated lung preparation combined with real time imaging offers several advantages over traditional methods to determine lung microvascular permeability, yet is a straightforward method to develop and implement.

  20. Genomic instability of gold nanoparticle treated human lung fibroblast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jasmine J; Lo, Soo-Ling; Ng, Cheng-Teng; Gurung, Resham Lal; Hartono, Deny; Hande, Manoor Prakash; Ong, Choon-Nam; Bay, Boon-Huat; Yung, Lin-Yue Lanry

    2011-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most versatile and widely researched materials for novel biomedical applications. However, the current knowledge in their toxicological profile is still incomplete and many on-going investigations aim to understand the potential adverse effects in human body. Here, we employed two dimensional gel electrophoresis to perform a comparative proteomic analysis of AuNP treated MRC-5 lung fibroblast cells. In our findings, we identified 16 proteins that were differentially expressed in MRC-5 lung fibroblasts following exposure to AuNPs. Their expression levels were also verified by western blotting and real time RT-PCR analysis. Of interest was the difference in the oxidative stress related proteins (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase (NDUFS1), protein disulfide isomerase associate 3 (PDIA3), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleus protein C1/C2 (hnRNP C1/C2) and thioredoxin-like protein 1 (TXNL1)) as well as proteins associated with cell cycle regulation, cytoskeleton and DNA repair (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleus protein C1/C2 (hnRNP C1/C2) and Secernin-1 (SCN1)). This finding is consistent with the genotoxicity observed in the AuNP treated lung fibroblasts. These results suggest that AuNP treatment can induce oxidative stress-mediated genomic instability.

  1. Chorioamnionitis and Lung Injury in Preterm Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a strong evidence that histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with a reduction of incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS. Short-term maturational effects on the lungs of extremely premature infants seem to be, however, accompanied by a greater susceptibility of the lung, eventually contributing to an increased risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD. Genetic susceptibility to BPD is an evolving area of research and several studies have directly related the risk of BPD to genomic variants. There is a substantial heterogeneity across the studies in the magnitude of the association between chorioamnionitis and BPD, and whether or not the association is statistically significant. Considerable variation is largely dependent on differences of inclusion and exclusion criteria, as well as on clinical and histopathological definitions. The presence of significant publication bias may exaggerate the magnitude of the association. Controlling for publication bias may conduct to adjusted results that are no longer significant. Recent studies generally seem to confirm the effect of chorioamnionitis on RDS incidence, while no effect on BPD is seen. Recent data suggest susceptibility for subsequent asthma to be increased on long-term followup. Additional research on this field is needed.

  2. Personalized Targeted Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C.S. Cho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer has long been recognized as an extremely heterogeneous disease, since its development is unique in every patient in terms of clinical characterizations, prognosis, response and tolerance to treatment. Personalized medicine refers to the use of markers to predict which patient will most likely benefit from a treatment. In lung cancer, the well-developed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and the newly emerging EML4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK are important therapeutic targets. This review covers the basic mechanism of EGFR and EML4-ALK activation, the predictive biomarkers, the mechanism of resistance, and the current targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The efficacy of EGFR and ALK targeted therapies will be discussed in this review by summarizing the prospective clinical trials, which were performed in biomarker-based selected patients. In addition, the revolutionary sequencing and systems strategies will also be included in this review since these technologies will provide a comprehensive understanding in the molecular characterization of cancer, allow better stratification of patients for the most appropriate targeted therapies, eventually resulting in a more promising personalized treatment. The relatively low incidence of EGFR and ALK in non-Asian patients and the lack of response in mutant patients limit the application of the therapies targeting EGFR or ALK. Nevertheless, it is foreseeable that the sequencing and systems strategies may offer a solution for those patients.

  3. Desenvolvimento da Tanatologia: estudos sobre a morte e o morrer

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Julia Kovács

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo discute os principais temas e pesquisas na área da Tanatologia, estudos sobre a morte e o morrer. São apresentados os autores pioneiros que escreveram as primeiras obras de sistematização da Tanatologia entre os quais: Herman Feifel, Robert Kastenbaum e Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, e os principais temas de estudo: luto, violência e guerra, a morte e a TV, cuidados a pacientes gravemente enfermos, além da formação de profissionais da área de saúde e educação para lidar com pessoas vivend...

  4. Estudo patográfico de Fernando Pessoa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Fernando Pessoa, incontestavelmente um dos maiores gênios da literatura universal, é objeto deste estudo patográfico. Através da análise de sua biografia e obra, os autores buscam delinear seus perfis psicológico e psicopatológico e caracterizar uma associação entre sua evidente bipolaridade e seu padrão criativo. Os dados do estudo revelam claramente um componente bipolar e sugerem haver influência de seu humor de base sobre a atividade literária, quanto ao conteúdo, número de po...

  5. Desenvolvimento da Tanatologia: estudos sobre a morte e o morrer

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Julia Kovács

    2008-01-01

    Este artigo discute os principais temas e pesquisas na área da Tanatologia, estudos sobre a morte e o morrer. São apresentados os autores pioneiros que escreveram as primeiras obras de sistematização da Tanatologia entre os quais: Herman Feifel, Robert Kastenbaum e Elizabeth Kübler-Ross, e os principais temas de estudo: luto, violência e guerra, a morte e a TV, cuidados a pacientes gravemente enfermos, além da formação de profissionais da área de saúde e educação para lidar com pessoas vivend...

  6. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  7. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  8. Pyrosequencing Unveils Cystic Fibrosis Lung Microbiome Differences Associated with a Severe Lung Function Decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bacci

    Full Text Available Chronic airway infection is a hallmark feature of cystic fibrosis (CF disease. In the present study, sputum samples from CF patients were collected and characterized by 16S rRNA gene-targeted approach, to assess how lung microbiota composition changes following a severe decline in lung function. In particular, we compared the airway microbiota of two groups of patients with CF, i.e. patients with a substantial decline in their lung function (SD and patients with a stable lung function (S. The two groups showed a different bacterial composition, with SD patients reporting a more heterogeneous community than the S ones. Pseudomonas was the dominant genus in both S and SD patients followed by Staphylococcus and Prevotella. Other than the classical CF pathogens and the most commonly identified non-classical genera in CF, we found the presence of the unusual anaerobic genus Sneathia. Moreover, the oligotyping analysis revealed the presence of other minor genera described in CF, highlighting the polymicrobial nature of CF infection. Finally, the analysis of correlation and anti-correlation networks showed the presence of antagonism and ecological independence between members of Pseudomonas genus and the rest of CF airways microbiota, with S patients showing a more interconnected community in S patients than in SD ones. This population structure suggests a higher resilience of S microbiota with respect to SD, which in turn may hinder the potential adverse impact of aggressive pathogens (e.g. Pseudomonas. In conclusion, our findings shed a new light on CF airway microbiota ecology, improving current knowledge about its composition and polymicrobial interactions in patients with CF.

  9. Respiratory Viral Infections in Chronic Lung Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Brady, Virginia; Lee, Seiwon; Dela Cruz, Charles S

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD), affect many individuals worldwide. Patients with these chronic lung diseases are susceptible to respiratory lung infections and some of these viral infections can contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the associations of lung infections and the respective chronic lung diseases and how infection in the different lung diseases affects disease exacerbation and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilders, Kim A A; Eenjes, Evelien; van Riet, Sander; Poot, André A; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, Roman; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Rottier, Robbert J

    2016-04-23

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as understanding the biomechanical properties to build artificial lung devices. In addition, the continuing efforts to better define the disease origin, progression and pathology by basic scientists and clinicians contributes to insights in the basic principles of lung biology. However, the use of different model systems, experimental approaches and readout systems may generate somewhat conflicting or contradictory results. In an effort to summarize the latest developments in the lung epithelial stem cell biology, we provide an overview of the current status of the field. We first describe the different stem cells, or progenitor cells, residing in the homeostatic lung. Next, we focus on the plasticity of the different cell types upon several injury-induced activation or repair models, and highlight the regenerative capacity of lung cells. Lastly, we summarize the generation of lung mimics, such as air-liquid interface cultures, organoids and lung on a chip, that are required to test emerging hypotheses. Moreover, the increasing collaboration between distinct specializations will contribute to the eventual development of an artificial lung device capable of assisting reduced lung function and capacity in human patients.

  11. Heterogeneous mechanics of the mouse pulmonary arterial network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Carlson, Brian E; Chesler, Naomi; Olufsen, Mette S; Qureshi, M Umar; Smith, Nicolas P; Sochi, Taha; Beard, Daniel A

    2016-10-01

    Individualized modeling and simulation of blood flow mechanics find applications in both animal research and patient care. Individual animal or patient models for blood vessel mechanics are based on combining measured vascular geometry with a fluid structure model coupling formulations describing dynamics of the fluid and mechanics of the wall. For example, one-dimensional fluid flow modeling requires a constitutive law relating vessel cross-sectional deformation to pressure in the lumen. To investigate means of identifying appropriate constitutive relationships, an automated segmentation algorithm was applied to micro-computerized tomography images from a mouse lung obtained at four different static pressures to identify the static pressure-radius relationship for four generations of vessels in the pulmonary arterial network. A shape-fitting function was parameterized for each vessel in the network to characterize the nonlinear and heterogeneous nature of vessel distensibility in the pulmonary arteries. These data on morphometric and mechanical properties were used to simulate pressure and flow velocity propagation in the network using one-dimensional representations of fluid and vessel wall mechanics. Moreover, wave intensity analysis was used to study effects of wall mechanics on generation and propagation of pressure wave reflections. Simulations were conducted to investigate the role of linear versus nonlinear formulations of wall elasticity and homogeneous versus heterogeneous treatments of vessel wall properties. Accounting for heterogeneity, by parameterizing the pressure/distention equation of state individually for each vessel segment, was found to have little effect on the predicted pressure profiles and wave propagation compared to a homogeneous parameterization based on average behavior. However, substantially different results were obtained using a linear elastic thin-shell model than were obtained using a nonlinear model that has a more

  12. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950308 Inhibition of mRNA expression of sillicoticcollagen gene by tetrandrine.HE Yuxian(何玉先),etal.Occup Med Instit,CAMS,Beijing,100050.Chin JPrev Med 1995;29(1):18-20.Effects of tetrandrine(TT) on types Ⅰ and Ⅱ col-lagen gene mRNA in lung tissues of silicotic rats werestudied with RNA dot blot and in situ hybridizatin bycDNA coding human and mouse Proα1(Ⅰ) and Proα1(Ⅲ) collagen.Results revealed that types Ⅰ and Ⅲcollagen gene mRNA content in lung tissues of rats ex-posed to silica dust for two to four months was obvi-

  13. Diffuse parenchymal lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Tomassetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Between September 2015 and August 2016 there were >1500 publications in the field of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs. For the Clinical Year in Review session at the European Respiratory Society Congress that was held in London, UK, in September 2016, we selected only five articles. This selection, made from the enormous number of published papers, does not include all the relevant studies that will significantly impact our knowledge in the field of DPLDs in the near future. This review article provides our personal view on the following topics: early diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, current knowledge on the multidisciplinary team diagnosis of DPLDs and the diagnostic role of transbronchial cryobiopsy in this diagnostic setting, insights on the new entity of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features, and new therapeutic approaches for scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease.

  14. Lung Cancer Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Pamela; Wistuba, Ignacio I

    2017-02-01

    The molecular characterization of lung cancer has changed the classification and treatment of these tumors, becoming an essential component of pathologic diagnosis and oncologic therapy decisions. Through the recognition of novel biomarkers, such as epidermal growth factor receptor mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase translocations, it is possible to identify subsets of patients who benefit from targeted molecular therapies. The success of targeted anticancer therapies and new immunotherapy approaches has created a new paradigm of personalized therapy and has led to accelerated development of new drugs for lung cancer treatment. This article focuses on clinically relevant cancer biomarkers as targets for therapy and potential new targets for drug development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Harvesting Information from Heterogeneous Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of information regarding any topic makes the Internet a very good resource. Even though searching the Internet is very easy, what remains difficult is to automate the process of information extraction from the available online information due to the lack of structure and the diversity...... in the sharing methods. Most of the times, information is stored in different proprietary formats, complying with different standards and protocols which makes tasks like data mining and information harvesting very difficult. In this paper, an information harvesting tool (heteroHarvest) is presented...... with objectives to address these problems by filtering the useful information and then normalizing the information in a singular non hypertext format. We also discuss state of the art tools along with the shortcomings and present the results of an analysis carried out over different heterogeneous formats along...

  16. Emerging heterogeneities in Italian customs

    CERN Document Server

    Agliari, Elena; Galluzzi, Andrea; Javarone, Marco Alberto; Pizzoferrato, Andrea; Tantari, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Since its unification, more than a century ago, Italy has experienced strong social and economical diversities between its southern and northern regions. In the last decades, Italy has undergone a severe economical and political crisis reflecting corruption at various levels of social stratification as well as a poor involvement of its population in the number of elections that occurred. This might be explained by a lack of confidence, or interest in the country as a whole, as if the primary social and political focus of its citizens could still lay at smaller regional scales, possibly evidencing the persistence of different cultural heritages. In order to shed lights on the possible existence of such heterogeneities, we perform a statistical-mechanics-driven analysis focusing on key social quantifiers, namely the evolution of autochthonous marriages (as family still plays as a fundamental brick in the edification of social aggregates) and of mixed marriages, namely those involving a foreign-born and a native...

  17. Heterogeneous Reburning By Mixed Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson Hall

    2009-03-31

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  18. HETEROGENEOUS REBURNING BY MIXED FUELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei-Yin Chen; Benson B. Gathitu

    2005-01-14

    Recent studies of heterogeneous reburning, i.e., reburning involving a coal-derived char, have elucidated its variables, kinetics and mechanisms that are valuable to the development of a highly efficient reburning process. Young lignite chars contain catalysts that not only reduce NO, but they also reduce HCN that is an important intermediate that recycles to NO in the burnout zone. Gaseous CO scavenges the surface oxides that are formed during NO reduction, regenerating the active sites on the char surface. Based on this mechanistic information, cost-effective mixed fuels containing these multiple features has been designed and tested in a simulated reburning apparatus. Remarkably high reduction of NO and HCN has been observed and it is anticipated that mixed fuel will remove 85% of NO in a three-stage reburning process.

  19. Heterogeneous fuel for hybrid rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, David B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Heterogeneous fuel compositions suitable for use in hybrid rocket engines and solid-fuel ramjet engines, The compositions include mixtures of a continuous phase, which forms a solid matrix, and a dispersed phase permanently distributed therein. The dispersed phase or the matrix vaporizes (or melts) and disperses into the gas flow much more rapidly than the other, creating depressions, voids and bumps within and on the surface of the remaining bulk material that continuously roughen its surface, This effect substantially enhances heat transfer from the combusting gas flow to the fuel surface, producing a correspondingly high burning rate, The dispersed phase may include solid particles, entrained liquid droplets, or gas-phase voids having dimensions roughly similar to the displacement scale height of the gas-flow boundary layer generated during combustion.

  20. Mesoscale poroelasticity of heterogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Siavash; Laubie, Hadrien; Radjai, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    Poroelastic behavior of heterogeneous media is revisited. Lattice Element Method (LEM) is used to model interaction between solid constituents due to a pressurized pore space. Exploring beyond mean-field based theories in continuum microporomechanics, local textural variations and its contribution to the global anisotropic poroelastic behavior of real multiphase porous media are captured. To this end, statistical distributions of mesoscale poroelastic coefficients from numerical simulations on X-ray microscopy scans of two different organic-rich shales with different microtextures are presented. The results are compared with predictions using mean-field based tools of continuum micromechanics. The textural dependency of strain localization and stress chain formation captured in this framework promises a powerful tool for modeling poroelastic response of complex porous composites and a path to incorporate local textural and elastic variations into a continuum description. Visiting Scientist, CNRS-MIT, MIT.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Lyon (France)); Kew, M. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Volkmann, M. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)); Zentgraf, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  2. Operando research in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groot, Irene

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging field of techniques for visualizing atomic-scale properties of active catalysts under actual working conditions, i.e. high gas pressures and high temperatures. It explains how to understand these observations in terms of the surface structures and dynamics and their detailed interplay with the gas phase. This provides an important new link between fundamental surface physics and chemistry, and applied catalysis. The book explains the motivation and the necessity of operando studies, and positions these with respect to the more traditional low-pressure investigations on the one hand and the reality of industrial catalysis on the other. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of new experimental and theoretical tools for operando studies of heterogeneous catalysis. The book has a strong emphasis on the new techniques and illustrates how the challenges introduced by the harsh, operando conditions are faced for each of these new tools. Therefore, one can also read th...

  3. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    versus housework, 2) preferences for leisure compared to consumption, and 3) marginal utility of wealth, is correlated with the retirement decision. Based on US consumption and time use data for 2001 and 2003 from the Consumptions and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS), we study the patterns of individual...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  4. [Heterogenous expression of antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shanshan; Hu, Guobin; Dong, Xianzhi

    2009-12-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a class of short proteins with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities, are isolated from a wide variety of animals, both vertebrates and invertebrates, and plants as well as from bacteria and fungi. They are a key component of the innate immune response in most multicellular organisms. Owing to their potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial activities and uneasy developing of drug resistance, these peptides are of great clinical significance. However, preparation of AMPs at a large scale is a severe challenge to the development of the commercial products. Undoubtedly, construction of high-level biological expression systems for the production of AMPs is the key in its clinical application process. Herein, we summarize the progress in researches on heterogenous expression of AMPs in prokaryotic expression systems and eukaryotic expression systems.

  5. Nutrition aspects of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranganu, Andreea; Camporeale, Jayne

    2009-12-01

    Lung cancer is the most common type of cancer, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer, and is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Notable carcinogens involved in the development of lung cancer include smoking, secondhand smoke, and radon. Lung cancer is divided into 2 major types: non-small-cell lung cancer, the most prevalent, and small-cell lung cancer. Treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, or a combination of the same. Medical nutrition therapy is often required for nutrition-related side effects of cancer treatment, which include but are not limited to anorexia, nausea and vomiting, and esophagitis. The best protection against lung cancer is avoidance of airborne carcinogens and increased consumption of fruits and vegetables. Studies have shown that smokers taking large amounts of beta-carotene and vitamin A supplements had increased lung cancer incidence and mortality. However, ingestion of beta-carotene from foods, along with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables, has a protective role against lung disease. The use of complementary and alternative medicine by lung cancer patients is prevalent; therefore, clinicians should investigate whether complementary and alternative therapies are used by patients and advise them on the use of these therapies to avoid any potential side effects and interactions with conventional therapies. The article concludes with a case study of a patient with non-small-cell lung cancer and illustrates the use of medical nutrition therapy in relation to cancer treatment side effects.

  6. Angiosarcoma of the lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafino, Monica; Alves, Paula; Almeida, Margarida Mendes de; Garrido, Patricia; Hasmucrai, Direndra; Teixeira, Encarnacao; Sotto-Mayor, Renato, E-mail: mgrafino@gmail.com [Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, EPE, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2016-06-01

    Angiosarcoma is a rare malignant vascular tumor. Pulmonary involvement is usually attributable to metastasis from other primary sites, primary pulmonary angiosarcoma therefore being quite uncommon. We report a case of angiosarcoma with pulmonary involvement, probably primary to the lung, which had gone untreated for more than two years. We describe this rare neoplasm and its growth, as well as the extensive local invasion and hematogenous metastasis at presentation. We also discuss its poor prognosis. (author)

  7. Intelligent Classification in Huge Heterogeneous Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    INTELLIGENT CLASSIFICATION IN HUGE HETEROGENEOUS DATA SETS JUNE 2015 FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...To) JUL 2013 – APR 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INTELLIGENT CLASSIFICATION IN HUGE HETEROGENEOUS DATA SETS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT...signals and through data dimension reduction, and to develop and tailor algorithms for the extraction of intelligence from several huge heterogeneous

  8. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  9. Demographic heterogeneity, cohort selection, and population growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce E. Kendall; Fox, Gordon A.; Fujiwara, Masami; Nogeire, Theresa M.

    2011-01-01

    Demographic heterogeneity—variation among individuals in survival and reproduction—is ubiquitous in natural populations. Structured population models address heterogeneity due to age, size, or major developmental stages. However, other important sources of demographic heterogeneity, such as genetic variation, spatial heterogeneity in the environment, maternal effects, and differential exposure to stressors, are often not easily measured and hence are modeled as stochasticity. Recent research ...

  10. Marijuana and lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Manish; Joshi, Anita; Bartter, Thaddeus

    2014-03-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is used throughout the world, and its use is increasing. In much of the world, marijuana is illicit. While inhalation of smoke generated by igniting dried components of the plant is the most common way marijuana is used, there is concern over potential adverse lung effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies that explore the impact upon the respiratory system of inhaling marijuana smoke. Smoking marijuana is associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms and large airway inflammation. Occasional use of marijuana with low cumulative use is not a risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The heavy use of marijuana alone may lead to airflow obstruction. The immuno-histopathologic and epidemiologic evidence in marijuana users suggests biological plausibility of marijuana smoking as a risk for the development of lung cancer; at present, it has been difficult to conclusively link marijuana smoking and cancer development. There is unequivocal evidence that habitual or regular marijuana smoking is not harmless. A caution against regular heavy marijuana usage is prudent. The medicinal use of marijuana is likely not harmful to lungs in low cumulative doses, but the dose limit needs to be defined. Recreational use is not the same as medicinal use and should be discouraged.

  11. Lungs in Heart Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Apostolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung function abnormalities both at rest and during exercise are frequently observed in patients with chronic heart failure, also in the absence of respiratory disease. Alterations of respiratory mechanics and of gas exchange capacity are strictly related to heart failure. Severe heart failure patients often show a restrictive respiratory pattern, secondary to heart enlargement and increased lung fluids, and impairment of alveolar-capillary gas diffusion, mainly due to an increased resistance to molecular diffusion across the alveolar capillary membrane. Reduced gas diffusion contributes to exercise intolerance and to a worse prognosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise test is considered the “gold standard” when studying the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and metabolic adaptations to exercise in cardiac patients. During exercise, hyperventilation and consequent reduction of ventilation efficiency are often observed in heart failure patients, resulting in an increased slope of ventilation/carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2 relationship. Ventilatory efficiency is as strong prognostic and an important stratification marker. This paper describes the pulmonary abnormalities at rest and during exercise in the patients with heart failure, highlighting the principal diagnostic tools for evaluation of lungs function, the possible pharmacological interventions, and the parameters that could be useful in prognostic assessment of heart failure patients.

  12. Propostas para o estudo dos protestantismos ibéricos

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, José António

    2004-01-01

    A propósito da edição da obra “Las minorias religiosas en España y Portugal: passado y presente”, número monográfico da revista “Anales de Historia Contemporanea” (Universidade de Múrcia), o Autor elenca algumas propostas para o estudo dos protestantismos ibéricos.

  13. ACREDITAÇÃO HOSPITALAR: UM ESTUDO DE CASO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a qualidade e acreditação hospitalar através do Manual das Organizações Prestadoras de Serviços Hospitalares, desenvolvido pela Organização Nacional de Acreditação (ONA. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é avaliar o processo de acreditação, identificando dificuldades e benefícios advindos da implantação deste  Manual. Após a realização de uma revisão bibliográfica sobre qualidade em hospitais e normas da qualidade aplicáveis a hospitais, é feita uma análise crítica teórica do Manual das Organizações Prestadoras de Serviços Hospitalares. Tal análise crítica inclui um estudo comparativo entre os requisitos do Manual e da norma NBR ISO 9001/2000. A seguir, a análise teórica é complementada através de um estudo de caso contemplando a implantação do Manual junto a um hospital de grande porte. Finalmente, são apresentadas as conclusões, baseadas tanto no estudo teórico como no estudo prático.

  14. Pragmatismo e os pragmáticos nos estudos organizacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Kanashiro Meneghetti

    Full Text Available O objetivo central deste ensaio teórico é avaliar as contribuições do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais e, os específicos, avaliar se as contribuições teóricas de Charles Peirce e John Dewey possibilitam afirmar o pragmatismo como senso comum, ciência ou teoria do conhecimento; analisar as contribuições - possibilidadese limites - do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico; compreender os percursos do pragmatismo nos Estudos Organizacionais. Chaga-se a conclusão de que ser pragmático é diferente de conceber estudos articulados no campo epistemológico do pragmatismo. O sujeito pragmático vê na sua utilidade e na necessidade deação, o ponto de tensão que coloca em dúvida a veracidade dos pressupostos do pragmatismo como ciência. O que ocorre nos Estudos Organizacionais éa conversão do pragmatismo como conhecimento científico emsubordinação irracional à utilidade e à ação prática, sobretudo, no campo da economia, da política, da ciência, da cultura, da educação, e assim por diante.

  15. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    -country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two...

  16. Lung volume reduction for severe emphysema: do we need a scalpel or a scope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Van Raemdonck

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resectional lung volume reduction has proven to be superior to medical treatment in reducing dyspnoea and in increasing lung function, survival and quality of life in a very well selected, low risk group of hyperinflated patients with heterogeneous emphysema predominantly in the upper lobe. Nevertheless, this intervention is hampered by an important pulmonary (30% and cardiovascular (20% morbidity, mainly as a result of prolonged (>7 days air leak, and a 5% risk of death as a result of the surgical intervention. Results from ongoing randomised trials are awaited in order to determine whether less invasive, non-resectional lung volume treatment of emphysema via the bronchoscope using endobronchial valves, airway bypass stents or biological adhesives/heated water vapour will yield similar improvement with less morbidity and reduced mortality, compared with surgical resection. Furthermore, it is hoped that endoscopic lung volume reduction techniques may help patients with homogeneous emphysema currently excluded by most teams for the resectional procedure.

  17. DREAMing: a simple and ultrasensitive method for assessing intratumor epigenetic heterogeneity directly from liquid biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanic, Thomas R; Athamanolap, Pornpat; Poh, Weijie; Chen, Chen; Hulbert, Alicia; Brock, Malcolm V; Herman, James G; Wang, Tza-Huei

    2015-12-15

    Many cancers comprise heterogeneous populations of cells at primary and metastatic sites throughout the body. The presence or emergence of distinct subclones with drug-resistant genetic and epigenetic phenotypes within these populations can greatly complicate therapeutic intervention. Liquid biopsies of peripheral blood from cancer patients have been suggested as an ideal means of sampling intratumor genetic and epigenetic heterogeneity for diagnostics, monitoring and therapeutic guidance. However, current molecular diagnostic and sequencing methods are not well suited to the routine assessment of epigenetic heterogeneity in difficult samples such as liquid biopsies that contain intrinsically low fractional concentrations of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and rare epigenetic subclonal populations. Here we report an alternative approach, deemed DREAMing (Discrimination of Rare EpiAlleles by Melt), which uses semi-limiting dilution and precise melt curve analysis to distinguish and enumerate individual copies of epiallelic species at single-CpG-site resolution in fractions as low as 0.005%, providing facile and inexpensive ultrasensitive assessment of locus-specific epigenetic heterogeneity directly from liquid biopsies. The technique is demonstrated here for the evaluation of epigenetic heterogeneity at p14(ARF) and BRCA1 gene-promoter loci in liquid biopsies obtained from patients in association with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN), respectively.

  18. Advances in Lung Stem Cells and Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijing YIN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs, including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2. Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K pathways. As CSC plays an critical role in tumor recurrence, metastasis and drug-resistance, understanding the difference between lung CSCs and normal lung SCs, identifying and targeting CSC markers or related signaling pathways may increase the efficacy of therapy on lung cancer and improved survival of lung cancer patients.

  19. Lung function; Lungenfunktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorichter, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Abteilung Pneumologie, Freiburg (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The term lung function is often restricted to the assessment of volume time curves measured at the mouth. Spirometry includes the assessment of lung volumes which can be mobilised with the corresponding flow-volume curves. In addition, lung volumes that can not be mobilised, such as the residual volume, or only partially as FRC and TLC can be measured by body plethysmography combined with the determination of the airway resistance. Body plethysmography allows the correct positioning of forced breathing manoeuvres on the volume-axis, e.g. before and after pharmacotherapy. Adding the CO single breath transfer factor (T{sub LCO}), which includes the measurement of the ventilated lung volume using He, enables a clear diagnosis of different obstructive, restrictive or mixed ventilatory defects with and without trapped air. Tests of reversibility and provocation, as well as the assessment of inspiratory mouth pressures (PI{sub max}, P{sub 0.1}) help to classify the underlying disorder and to clarify treatment strategies. For further information and to complete the diagnostic of disturbances of the ventilation, diffusion and/or perfusion (capillar-)arterial bloodgases at rest and under physical strain sometimes amended by ergospirometry are recommended. Ideally, lung function measurements are amended by radiological and nuclear medicine techniques. (orig.) [German] Unter dem Begriff Lungenfunktion wird die Bestimmung der Lungenvolumina am Mund verstanden. Dabei werden die mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina mit den zugehoerigen Fluss-Volumen-Kurven mittels Spirometrie und Ganzkoerperplethysmographie (GKP) und die nicht (RV) und teilweise mobilisierbaren Lungenvolumina (FRC, TLC) einschliesslich der Atemwegswiderstaende bestimmt. Die GKP ermoeglicht zusaetzlich die korrekte (Volumenachsen-)Positionierung der forcierten Atemmanoever. Dieses erlaubt eine uebersichtlichere graphische Darstellung z. B. vor und nach der Applikation pharmakologisch wirksamer Substanzen. Wird die GKP

  20. Abdominal Obesity and Lung Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Khemayanto; Du, Xuan; Chen, Guochong; Shi, Minhua; Shi, Bimin

    2016-12-15

    Several meta-analyses of observational studies have been performed to examine the association between general obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI), and lung cancer. These meta-analyses suggest an inverse relation between high BMI and this cancer. In contrast to general obesity, abdominal obesity appears to play a role in the development of lung cancer. However, the association between abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference (WC) (BMI adjusted) and waist to hip ratio (WHR)) and lung cancer is not fully understood due to sparse available evidence regarding this association. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and lung cancer up to October 2016. The summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with a random-effects model. Six prospective cohort studies with 5827 lung cancer cases among 831,535 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Each 10 cm increase in WC and 0.1 unit increase in WHR were associated with 10% (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04, 1.17; I² = 27.7%, p-heterogeneity = 0.198) and 5% (RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.00, 1.11; I² = 25.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211) greater risks of lung cancer, respectively. According to smoking status, greater WHR was only positively associated with lung cancer among former smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23). In contrast, greater WC was associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23), former smokers (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22) and current smokers (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.25). The summary RRs for highest versus lowest categories of WC and WHR were 1.32 (95% CI 1.13, 1.54; I² = 18.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.281) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.00, 1.23; I² = 24.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211), respectively. In summary, abdominal obesity may play an important role in the development of lung cancer.

  1. Abdominal Obesity and Lung Cancer Risk: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemayanto Hidayat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Several meta-analyses of observational studies have been performed to examine the association between general obesity, as measured by body mass index (BMI, and lung cancer. These meta-analyses suggest an inverse relation between high BMI and this cancer. In contrast to general obesity, abdominal obesity appears to play a role in the development of lung cancer. However, the association between abdominal obesity (as measured by waist circumference (WC (BMI adjusted and waist to hip ratio (WHR and lung cancer is not fully understood due to sparse available evidence regarding this association. PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for studies assessing the association between abdominal obesity and lung cancer up to October 2016. The summary relative risks (RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated with a random-effects model. Six prospective cohort studies with 5827 lung cancer cases among 831,535 participants were included in our meta-analysis. Each 10 cm increase in WC and 0.1 unit increase in WHR were associated with 10% (RR 1.10; 95% CI 1.04, 1.17; I2 = 27.7%, p-heterogeneity = 0.198 and 5% (RR 1.05; 95% CI 1.00, 1.11; I2 = 25.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211 greater risks of lung cancer, respectively. According to smoking status, greater WHR was only positively associated with lung cancer among former smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23. In contrast, greater WC was associated with increased lung cancer risk among never smokers (RR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.23, former smokers (RR 1.12; 95% CI 1.03, 1.22 and current smokers (RR 1.16; 95% CI 1.08, 1.25. The summary RRs for highest versus lowest categories of WC and WHR were 1.32 (95% CI 1.13, 1.54; I2 = 18.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.281 and 1.10 (95% CI 1.00, 1.23; I2 = 24.2%, p-heterogeneity = 0.211, respectively. In summary, abdominal obesity may play an important role in the development of lung cancer.

  2. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  3. The microbiome and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lijia; Morris, Alison; Huang, Laurence; Beck, James M; Twigg, Homer L; von Mutius, Erika; Ghedin, Elodie

    2014-08-01

    Investigation of the human microbiome has become an important field of research facilitated by advances in sequencing technologies. The lung, which is one of the latest body sites being explored for the characterization of human-associated microbial communities, has a microbiome that is suspected to play a substantial role in health and disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the basics of microbiome studies. Challenges in the study of the lung microbiome are highlighted, and further attention is called to the optimization and standardization of methodologies to explore the role of the lung microbiome in health and disease. We also provide examples of lung microbial communities associated with disease or infection status and discuss the role of fungal species in the lung. Finally, we review studies demonstrating that the environmental microbiome can influence lung health and disease, such as the finding that the diversity of microbial exposure correlates inversely with the development of childhood asthma.

  4. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  5. Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Landscape in Lung Cancer: Therapeutical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Quintanal-Villalonga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease responsible for the most cases of cancer-related deaths. The majority of patients are clinically diagnosed at advanced stages, with a poor survival rate. For this reason, the identification of oncodrivers and novel biomarkers is decisive for the future clinical management of this pathology. The rise of high throughput technologies popularly referred to as “omics” has accelerated the discovery of new biomarkers and drivers for this pathology. Within them, tyrosine kinase receptors (TKRs have proven to be of importance as diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive tools and, due to their molecular nature, as therapeutic targets. Along this review, the role of TKRs in the different lung cancer histologies, research on improvement of anti-TKR therapy, and the current approaches to manage anti-TKR resistance will be discussed.

  6. The genomic dynamics during progression of lung adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Luo, Longhai; Luo, Wen; Zhou, Yong; Yang, Chao; Xiong, Teng; Li, Xiangchun; Meng, Xuan; Li, Lin; Zhang, Xiaopin; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Zhixin

    2017-08-01

    Intra-tumor heterogeneity is a big barrier to precision medicine. To explore the underlying clonal diversity in lung adenocarcinomas, we selected nine individuals with whole-genome sequencing data from primary and matched metastatic tumors as a cohort for study. Similar global pattern of arm-level copy number changes and large variations of somatic single-nucleotide variant between the primary and metastasis are observed in the majority of cases. Importantly, we found breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles acting as an important mechanism for underlying cancer gene amplification, such as amplification of CDK4, CDKN3 and FGFR1 in early stage. We also identified recurrent focal amplification of gene CCNY derived from BFB in two metastatic tumors, but not in primary tumor. Clonal analysis of case 236T demonstrated that mutational processes are varying with tumor progression. Collectively, our data provide new insights into genetic diversity and potential therapeutic target in lung adenocarcinoma.

  7. Lung cancer: evaluation with MR imaging during and after irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankelevitz, D F; Henschke, C I; Batata, M; Kim, Y S; Chu, F

    1994-01-01

    We used magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to evaluate treatment response of 10 consecutive lung cancer patients while they were receiving radiation therapy. Patients were scanned before treatment, during treatment, at completion of treatment, and if possible, at 3-month intervals thereafter. The initial tumor response to radiation was increasing signal intensity and increasing heterogeneity, best seen on T2-weighted images. Small tumors virtually disappeared, whereas larger masses remained as complex cystic structures or developed cavities. The adjacent irradiated lung parenchyma had increased signal on both the T1- and T2-weighted images as early as 17 days after start of treatment. The signal intensity continued to increase for several months after treatment, but subsequently decreased.

  8. Peptide nanomedicines for treatment of acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) represent a heterogenous group of lung disease in critically ill patients. Despite the increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of ARDS, the mortality remains unacceptably high, ranging from 34% to 64%. Hence, ARDS represents an unmet medical need with an urgency to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Several promising targets that have been identified as potential therapies for ARDS have been limited because of difficulty with delivery. In particular, delivery of peptides and proteins to the lung is an ongoing challenge. Nanobiotechnology and nanoscience are the basis of innovative techniques to deliver drugs targeted to the site of inflamed organs, such as the lungs. Nanoscale drug delivery systems have the ability to improve the pharmacokinetics and pharmakodynamics of agents allowing an increase in the biodistribution of therapeutic agents to target organs, resulting in improved efficacy with reduction in drug toxicity. These systems are exploited for therapeutic purpose to carry the drug in the body in a controlled manner from the site of administration to the therapeutic target. Hence, it is an attractive strategy to test potential targets for ALI/ARDS using nanotechnology. To this end, we have identified several potential targets and proposed the delivery of these agents using nanomicelles to improve the drug delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lung Sounds in Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nagasaka

    2012-01-01

    In lung sound analysis, the narrower the airways are, the higher the frequency of breathing sounds is, and, if a patient has higher than normal breathing sounds, i.e., bronchial sounds, he or she may have airway narrowing or airway inflammation. It is sometimes difficult to detect subtle changes in lung sounds; therefore, we anticipate that automated analysis of lung sounds will be used to overcome these difficulties in the near future.

  10. PATHOGENETIC MECHANISMS OF LUNG INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Marushchak

    2016-05-01

    Results and conclusions. The topical issue of lung pathogenetic injury is to understand the signs and mechanisms responsible for regulation of free radical oxidation and antioxidant defense system, the role of pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules, the influence of active metabolites on the process of restoration and survival of the respiratory tract cells in cases of acute lung injury. The studies of this processes will help to obtain more knowledge on lung pathology.

  11. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeme, Allison E; Miller, Halli E; Robinson, Richard T

    2013-05-01

    IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CD11c(hi) cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11c(hi) lineages are absent.

  12. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  13. Advances of Immunotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing LIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is complex heterogeneous due to unclear biological characteristics in terms of cell origin, pathogenesis and driver genes etc. Diagnosis and treatment of SCLC has been slowly improved and few breakthroughs have been discovered up to now. Therefore new strategies are urgently needed to improve the efficacy of SCLC treatment. Tumor immunotherapy has potential to restore and trigger the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells, notably it has only minimal adverse impact on normal tissue. Cancer vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors have now been launched for clinical treatment of SCLC. Ipilimumab is the most promising medicine of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is expected to bring new vision to the treatment of SCLC. And further researches are needed on such problems affecting efficacy of immunotherapy as the heterogeneity of SCLC, the uncertainty of target for immunotherapy, the immune tolerance, etc.

  14. Lung volumes and airway resistance in patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Kenia; D'Aquino, Luiz Carlos; Soares, Maria Raquel; Gimenez, Andrea; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Many patients with proportional reductions in FVC and FEV1 on spirometry show no reduction in TLC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role that measuring lung volumes and airway resistance plays in the correct classification of patients with a possible restrictive pattern on spirometry. This was a prospective study involving adults with reduced FVC and FEV1, as well as an FEV1/FV(C) ratio within the predicted range. Restrictive lung disease (RLD) was characterized by TLC below the 5th percentile, as determined by plethysmography. Obstructive lung disease (OLD) was characterized by high specific airway resistance, significant changes in post-bronchodilator FEV1, or an FEF25-75% espirometria não têm CPT reduzida. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o papel da medida dos volumes pulmonares e da resistência das vias aéreas para a classificação correta de pacientes com possível restrição à espirometria. Estudo prospectivo de adultos com CVF e VEF1 reduzidos e relação VEF1/CV(F) na faixa prevista. Distúrbio ventilatório restritivo (DVR) foi definido por CPT espirometria. A obstrução ao fluxo aéreo é comum nesses casos.

  15. Purchasing Power Parity and Heterogeneous Mean Reversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.G. Koedijk (Kees); B. Tims (Ben); M.A. van Dijk (Mathijs)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the properties of multivariate tests of purchasing power parity (PPP) that fail to take heterogeneity in the speed of mean reversion across real exchange rates into account. We compare the performance of homogeneous and heterogeneous unit root testing methodologies.

  16. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two...

  17. Hybrid Interconnect Design for Heterogeneous Hardware Accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham-Quoc Cuong, P.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous multicore systems are becoming increasingly important as the need for computation power grows, especially when we are entering into the big data era. As one of the main trends in heterogeneous multicore, hardware accelerator systems provide application specific hardware circuits and

  18. Modelling income processes with lots of heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Ejrnæs, Mette; Alvarez, Javier

    2010-01-01

    this observable homogeneity, we find more latent heterogeneity than previous investigators. We show that allowance for heterogeneity makes substantial differences to estimates of model parameters and to outcomes of interest. Additionally, we find strong evidence against the hypothesis that any worker has a unit...

  19. Characterizing heterogeneous cellular responses to perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Michael D; Martinez, Elisabeth D; Wu, Lani F; Altschuler, Steven J

    2008-12-01

    Cellular populations have been widely observed to respond heterogeneously to perturbation. However, interpreting the observed heterogeneity is an extremely challenging problem because of the complexity of possible cellular phenotypes, the large dimension of potential perturbations, and the lack of methods for separating meaningful biological information from noise. Here, we develop an image-based approach to characterize cellular phenotypes based on patterns of signaling marker colocalization. Heterogeneous cellular populations are characterized as mixtures of phenotypically distinct subpopulations, and responses to perturbations are summarized succinctly as probabilistic redistributions of these mixtures. We apply our method to characterize the heterogeneous responses of cancer cells to a panel of drugs. We find that cells treated with drugs of (dis-)similar mechanism exhibit (dis-)similar patterns of heterogeneity. Despite the observed phenotypic diversity of cells observed within our data, low-complexity models of heterogeneity were sufficient to distinguish most classes of drug mechanism. Our approach offers a computational framework for assessing the complexity of cellular heterogeneity, investigating the degree to which perturbations induce redistributions of a limited, but nontrivial, repertoire of underlying states and revealing functional significance contained within distinct patterns of heterogeneous responses.

  20. Bandwidth sharing with heterogeneous service requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Núñez Queija, R.; Zwart, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider a system with two heterogeneous traffic classes. The users from both classes randomly generate service requests, one class having light-tailed properties, the other one exhibiting heavy-tailed characteristics. The heterogeneity in service requirements reflects the extreme variability in

  1. The composition of heterogeneous control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Benjamin; Astrom, Karl

    1991-01-01

    The fuzzy control literature and industrial practice provide certain nonlinear methods for combining heterogeneous control laws, but these methods have been very difficult to analyze theoretically. An alternate formulation and extension of this approach is presented that has several practical and theoretical benefits. An example of heterogeneous control is given and two alternate analysis methods are presented.

  2. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  3. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru;

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource...

  4. Hybrid Interconnect Design for Heterogeneous Hardware Accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham-Quoc Cuong, P.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous multicore systems are becoming increasingly important as the need for computation power grows, especially when we are entering into the big data era. As one of the main trends in heterogeneous multicore, hardware accelerator systems provide application specific hardware circuits and ar

  5. Heterogeneity in Health Care Computing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Soumitra

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses issues of heterogeneity in computer systems, networks, databases, and presentation techniques, and the problems it creates in developing integrated medical information systems. The need for institutional, comprehensive goals are emphasized. Using the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center's computing environment as the case study, various steps to solve the heterogeneity problem are presented.

  6. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  7. Towards an Organizational Economics of Heterogeneous Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    The notion of “capability” has long been influential in management research as an approach to address firm-level heterogeneity and heterogeneity in competitive outcomes. I discuss how recent advances in economics may allow for a more rigorous understanding and measurement of capability that take...

  8. Surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation we study the surface temperature excess in heterogeneous catalysis. For heterogeneous reactions, such as gas-solid catalytic reactions, the reactions take place at the interfaces between the two phases: the gas and the solid catalyst. Large amount of reaction heats are released

  9. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  10. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  11. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  12. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  13. Diagnosis of Interstitial Lung Diseases An Ideal Choice: Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Sayır

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Interstitial lung diseases are a heterogeneous group of diseases with a known or unknown etiology affecting the interstitium of the lung. In this study, our experience in the lung biopsy performed by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery and open lung biopsy for interstitial lung diseases is discussed. Material and Method: In this study, we reviewed 31 patients with a clinical diagnosis of interstitial lung disease who underwent open or thoracoscopic lung biopsy between the years of 2004 and 2010. The cases were examined retrospectively for the age, sex, radiological appearance, operative time, chest tube duration, postoperative hospital stay and the complications. Thoracotomy was performed to 19 of the patients (61.30% while twelve patients (38.70% underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. Result: Fourteen of the cases (45.16% were male while 17 patients were female (58.06% with a mean age of 40.83 15.537 (18-69. Nonspecific interstitial fibrosis constituted the most of the certain diagnoses (29.27%. Operative time, chest tube duration and postoperative hospital stay were significantly shorter in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery group (p values were 0.018, 0.001 and 0.011 respectively. The overall morbidity rate was 12.90% and there was no mortality. Discussion: In spite of recent advances in clinical diagnostic techniques, lung biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. In our opinion, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery should be the first choice in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases, since these patients can be discharged early as a result of shorter chest tube duration and hospital length of stay

  14. Lung density on high resolution computer tomography (HRCT) reflects degree of inflammation in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Smokers have increased cell concentration in the lower respiratory tract indicating a chronic inflammatory state, which in some individuals may lead to development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Computer tomography (CT) imaging provides means of quantifying pulmonary structure and early signs of disease. We investigated whether lung density on high resolution CT differs between smokers and never-smokers and if this were associated to intensity of inflammation. Methods Forty smoking volunteers with normal pulmonary function, 40 healthy never-smokers and 40 patients with COPD of GOLD stage I-II, were included. Mean lung attenuation and percentage of pixels in the lung with attenuation between −750 and −900 HU (percentage higher density spectrum (%HDS)) were calculated on inspiratory CT-scans. Markers of systemic inflammation in blood and cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were recorded. Results Lung density expressed as %HDS was increased in smokers (44.0 ± 5.8%) compared to both never-smokers (38.3 ± 5.8%) and patients with COPD (39.1 ± 5.8%), (p lungs than males, which was dependent on body height. Cell concentration in BAL were correlated to lung density in smokers (r = 0.50, p Lung density on CT is associated with cell concentration in BAL in smokers and may mirror an inflammatory response in the lung. Gender difference in lung density is dependent on height. In COPD with emphysema, loss of lung tissue may counterbalance the expected increase in density due to inflammation. The findings may help to interpret high resolution CT in the context of smoking and gender and highlight the heterogeneity of structural changes in COPD. PMID:24564813

  15. The Heterogeneity of Juvenile Myositis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Juvenile myositis is a heterogeneous group of systemic autoimmune diseases, in which clinical and serologic subgroups result in subsets of patients with distinct clinical manifestations, disease courses, immunogenetic associations, responses to therapy, and prognoses. A newly identified autoantibody of unknown specificity, anti-p155, is myositis-associated and seen in up to 20 – 30% of juvenile and adult DM patients. HLA DRB1*0301 and its linked allele DQA1*0501 have been identified as the major immunogenetic risk factor for juvenile and adult DM in both European- and African- American patients, and DQA1*0301 is an additional risk factor in European American patients. Several DQA1 alleles also are protective for juvenile DM. Environmental risk factors are poorly understood, but growing evidence suggests a role for infectious agents and ultraviolet radiation. The current therapy of juvenile DM consists of corticosteroids and other immunosuppressive agents, with the adjunctive treatment of cutaneous manifestations and rehabilitation. Therapeutic trials of biologic agents, including anti-TNFα and anti-CD20, may aid in developing promising new therapies for these disorders. PMID:17317616

  16. Collective foraging in heterogeneous landscapes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Kunal

    2013-01-01

    Animals foraging alone are hypothesized to optimize the encounter rates with resources through L\\'evy walks. However, the issue of how the interactions between multiple foragers influence their search efficiency is still not completely understood. To address this, we consider a model to study the optimal strategy for a group of foragers searching for targets distributed heterogeneously. In our model foragers move on a square lattice containing immobile but regenerative targets. At any instant a forager is able to detect only those targets that happen to be in the same site. However, we allow the foragers to have information about the state of other foragers. A forager who has not detected any target walks towards the nearest location, where another forager has detected a target, with probability $\\exp{\\left(-\\alpha d\\right)}$, where $d$ is the distance and $\\alpha$ is a parameter. The model reveals that neither overcrowding ($\\alpha\\to 0$) nor independent searching ($\\alpha\\to\\infty$) is beneficial for the gr...

  17. Operating a heterogeneous telescope network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Alasdair; Bischoff, Karsten; Burgdorf, Martin; Cavanagh, Brad; Christian, Damien; Clay, Neil; Dickens, Rob; Economou, Frossie; Fadavi, Mehri; Frazer, Stephen; Granzer, Thomas; Grosvenor, Sandy; Hessman, Frederic V.; Jenness, Tim; Koratkar, Anuradha; Lehner, Matthew; Mottram, Chris; Naylor, Tim; Saunders, Eric S.; Solomos, Nikolaos; Steele, Iain A.; Tuparev, Georg; Vestrand, W. Thomas; White, Robert R.; Yost, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    In the last few years the ubiquitous availability of high bandwidth networks has changed the way both robotic and non-robotic telescopes operate, with single isolated telescopes being integrated into expanding "smart" telescope networks that can span continents and respond to transient events in seconds. The Heterogeneous Telescope Networks (HTN)* Consortium represents a number of major research groups in the field of robotic telescopes, and together we are proposing a standards based approach to providing interoperability between the existing proprietary telescope networks. We further propose standards for interoperability, and integration with, the emerging Virtual Observatory. We present the results of the first interoperability meeting held last year and discuss the protocol and transport standards agreed at the meeting, which deals with the complex issue of how to optimally schedule observations on geographically distributed resources. We discuss a free market approach to this scheduling problem, which must initially be based on ad-hoc agreements between the participants in the network, but which may eventually expand into a electronic market for the exchange of telescope time.

  18. Lung mass in a 28-year-old male: a case report of a rare tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Robert M; Korniluk, M; Swidzinska, E; Dzieciol, J; Czaban, J; Panek, B; Chyczewska, E

    2010-11-01

    A twenty eight-year-old male presented with a two week history of dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, chest pain, and fever 38-39°C. He also complained of loss of appetite, general weakness and left leg pain for two months preceding admission. He was referred with suspicion of lung tumor to our institution. Chest X-ray showed almost total atelectasis of the right lung with compensatory overinflation of the contralateral lung. Using computed tomography (CT), a lesion of diameter of 19.3 x 14.1 x 19.1 cm in the right lung, pleuritis, Th3 osteolysis, and compensatory overinflation of the left lung was seen. Bronchoscopy revealed a total obstruction of the right main bronchus due to submucosal infiltration and compression of the right main bronchus with negative histology of bronchial biopsy specimens. Transthoracic fine needle aspiration revealed celullae suspectae probabiliter neoplasmaticae suggesting tumor fusocellularis. USG of the abdomen revealed liver with numerous heterogeneous, solid areas hypo- and hyperechogenic, some of them with features of liquid or the disintegration up to diameter of 74 mm. Subsequent fine needle aspirations of the thorax and liver revealed fibrolamellar hepatocarcinoma and carcinoma adenoides of the lung. Patient underwent chemotherapy with 5-FU/DDP/VCR with no response. This report presents a case of a rare lung metastasis from FL-HCC.

  19. Size matching in lung transplantation using predicted total lung capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; van der Mark, TW; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH

    2002-01-01

    Height is used in allocation of donor lungs as an indirect estimate of thoracic size. Total lung capacity (TLC), determined by both height and sex, could be a more accurate functional estimation of thoracic size. Size-matching criteria based on height versus predicted TLC was retrospectively evaluat

  20. Size matching in lung transplantation using predicted total lung capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; van der Mark, TW; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH

    2002-01-01

    Height is used in allocation of donor lungs as an indirect estimate of thoracic size. Total lung capacity (TLC), determined by both height and sex, could be a more accurate functional estimation of thoracic size. Size-matching criteria based on height versus predicted TLC was retrospectively

  1. Size matching in lung transplantation using predicted total lung capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, JP; van der Mark, TW; van der Bij, W; Koeter, GH

    2002-01-01

    Height is used in allocation of donor lungs as an indirect estimate of thoracic size. Total lung capacity (TLC), determined by both height and sex, could be a more accurate functional estimation of thoracic size. Size-matching criteria based on height versus predicted TLC was retrospectively evaluat

  2. Heterogeneity assessment of functional T cell avidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidou, Kalliopi; Baumgaertner, Petra; Gannon, Philippe O.; Speiser, Michel F.; Allard, Mathilde; Hebeisen, Michael; Rufer, Nathalie; Speiser, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    The potency of cellular immune responses strongly depends on T cell avidity to antigen. Yet, functional avidity measurements are rarely performed in patients, mainly due to the technical challenges of characterizing heterogeneous T cells. The mean functional T cell avidity can be determined by the IFN-γ Elispot assay, with titrated amounts of peptide. Using this assay, we developed a method revealing the heterogeneity of functional avidity, represented by the steepness/hillslope of the peptide titration curve, documented by proof of principle experiments and mathematical modeling. Our data show that not only natural polyclonal CD8 T cell populations from cancer patients, but also monoclonal T cells differ strongly in their heterogeneity of functional avidity. Interestingly, clones and polyclonal cells displayed comparable ranges of heterogeneity. We conclude that besides the mean functional avidity, it is feasible and useful to determine its heterogeneity (hillslope) for characterizing T cell responses in basic research and patient investigation. PMID:28287160

  3. Design Technology for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Ian; Piguet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Designing technology to address the problem of heterogeneous embedded systems, while remaining compatible with standard “More Moore” flows, i.e. capable of handling simultaneously both silicon complexity and system complexity, represents one of the most important challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. While the micro-electronics industry has built its own specific design methods to focus mainly on the management of complexity through the establishment of abstraction levels, the emergence of device heterogeneity requires new approaches enabling the satisfactory design of physically heterogeneous embedded systems for the widespread deployment of such systems. This book, compiled largely from a set of contributions from participants of past editions of the Winter School on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Technology (FETCH), proposes a broad and holistic overview of design techniques used to tackle the various facets of heterogeneity in terms of technology and opportunities at the physical ...

  4. Heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Egholm

    values for quantifiable variables are used. The reproducibility of an experiment could thus be affected by the presence of subpopulations or high levels of phenotypic variations. Ole Maaløe and colleagues did in the late 1950’ties observe that the growth rate, RNA, DNA and protein synthesis and cell...... of heterogeneity was slightly higher at intermediate inducer concentrations. Additionally, the effect of thermal stress on phenotypic heterogeneity was addressed by inflicting a heat stress to the B. subtilis GFP reporter strain. The increase in incubation temperature transient increased population heterogeneity....... Heterogeneity was investigated on a population level using a quantitative analysis of phenotypic variation in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The results obtained showed that the physiological state of the culture used for the analysis affected the phenotypic variation, as heterogeneity...

  5. Rheumatoid Arthritis: Can It Affect the Lungs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arthritis: Can it affect the lungs? Can rheumatoid arthritis affect your lungs? Answers from April Chang-Miller, M.D. Although rheumatoid arthritis primarily affects joints, it sometimes causes lung disease ...

  6. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  7. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are ... as the peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location ...

  8. Potential targets for lung squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified potential therapeutic targets in lung squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of lung cancer. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network study comprehensively characterized the lung squamous cell carcinoma gen

  9. [A meta-analysis of body mass index and the risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lanwei; Liu, Shuzheng; Zhang, Shaokai; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Meng; Quan, Peiliang; Lu, Jianbang; Sun, Xibin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the association between obesity and the risk of lung cancer and evaluate a dose-response relationship between body mass index (BMI) and incidence risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population. A systematic literature search for BMI and incidence risk of lung cancer in the Chinese population, as well as through the reference lists of retrieved articles. The literature databases including Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar. Time range was from the founding of each database to September 2014 and a total of 93 research papers were collected. Meta-analysis was conducted to calculate pooled odds ratio and corresponding 95% CI. Generalized least-squares regression methods were used to make a dose-response meta-analysis between BMI and incidence risk of lung cancer. Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis, with a number of 2 351 lung cancer cases. Results showed that obesity was inversely associated with lung cancer incidence (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.59-0.79) (heterogeneity test: I² = 0, P = 0.594). The association did not change with stratification by study design, sex, smoking status, BMI measurement method and study population. A linear dose-response association between BMI and risk of lung cancer was visually significant, and lung cancer risk would be reduced 21% for per 5 kg/m² BMI increase (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.89) (heterogeneity test: q = 22.43, P = 0.002). The results of this meta-analysis indicated that higher BMI was a protective factor against lung cancer, but smoking may play a stronger role as a confounding factor for the most important role with lung cancer incidence.

  10. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930512 Changes of interleukin—I released bypulmonary alveolar macrophage in patients withinterstitial lung disease.LI Zhenhua(李振华),etal.Respir Dis Instit,China Med Univ,Shengyang,110001.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis1993;16(2):90—92.To evaluate the activity of PAM,levels of IL-l released by PAM in patients with ILD(nonsmokers)were measured by usinglipopolysacharide(LPS)stimulation and thymo-cyte proliferation method,with healthy non-smokers as control group.The results showed

  11. Interstitial lung disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930124 The effect of glycosaminoglycans inthe genesis of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis.LIBaoyu(李保玉),et al.Dept Pathol,Jilin MedColl,132001.Chin J Tuberc & Respir Dis 1992;15(4):204-205.The pulmonary interstitial fibrosis was causedby injecting Bleomycin into mouse trachea.Afterthe injection,the volume of glycosaminoglycans(GAG)in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lungtissues was increased.The observation underhistochemical stain and electron microscopeshowed that the distribution of GAG in lung tis-sues was varied at different time after the injec-tion,and related to the volume of collagen pro-teins and the formation of pulmonary interstitialfibrosis.

  12. Immunologic lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harman, E.M.

    1985-07-01

    The term immunologic lung disease comprises a broad spectrum of disease. The authors have covered a few entities in which recent studies have been particularly helpful in elucidating pathophysiology though not in uncovering the inciting cause. Common to all of these entities is the problem of finding appropriate methods of defining disease activity and response to treatment. As exemplified by the improved outlook for Goodpasture's syndrome with elucidation of its underlying immunopathology, it is likely that better understanding of the immunologic basis of sarcoid and interstitial disease may be helpful in planning more effective treatment strategies. 44 references.

  13. The SNP rs931794 in 15q25.1 Is Associated with Lung Cancer Risk: A Hospital-Based Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common human malignant diseases and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The rs931794, a SNP located in 15q25.1, has been suggested to be associated with lung cancer risk. Nevertheless, several genetic association studies yielded controversial results.A hospital-based case-control study involving 611 cases and 1062 controls revealed the variant of rs931794 was related to increased lung cancer risk. Stratified analyses revealed the G allele was significantly associated with lung cancer risk among smokers. Following meta-analysis including 6616 cases and 7697 controls confirmed the relevance of rs931794 variant with increased lung cancer risk once again. Heterogeneity should be taken into account when interpreting the consequences. Stratified analysis found ethnicity, histological type and genotyping method were not the sources of between-study heterogeneity. Further sensitivity analysis revealed that the study "Hsiung et al (2010" might be the major contributor to heterogeneity. Cumulative meta-analysis showed the trend was increasingly obvious with adding studies, confirming the significant association.Results from our current case-control study and meta-analysis offered insight of association between rs931794 and lung cancer risk, suggesting the variant of rs931794 might be related with increased lung cancer risk.

  14. Lung adenocarcinoma with GGO nodules:HRCT radiological and pathological correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ACHARYA Prashanta; PAUDEL Rasmita; XU Qiu-zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background:Lung cancer is the most common cancer related death in the world for the both male and female as well .Adenocarcinoma is the most common pathological type which is in increasing trend .With recent ad-vancement of screening of lung cancer with HRCT , GGO lesion has been noted frequently .GGO is a nonspecific finding that may be caused by various disorders , including inflammatory diseases , focal fibrosis , atypical adenoma-tous hyperplasia , bronchoalveolar carcinoma ( BAC) , and adenocarcinoma .This study intends to analyze the corre-lation between high resolutions computed tomography ( HRCT) findings and the pathological findings of lung adeno-carcinoma.Material and methods:Retrospective review of 16 cases of lung adenocarcinoma lesions after surgical resection.Tumors were defined as air containing type based on ratio of maximum dimension of the tumor on medias-tinal window to the maximum diameter of the tumor on lung window was≤50%and as solid density if the ratio was >50%.The correlation between CT findings ( homogenous/heterogeneous , airbronchogram , pleural tag , specula-tion, vascular involvement , pleural thickening , margin, shape ) and pathological findings were investigated .Re-sults:Of 3 air containing 2 were pre-invasive type and 1 was invasive .Among 13 solid density type all 13 were in-vasive type .Presence of speculation , heterogeneous appearance was found significantly associated with pathological invasion .Conclusion:Air containing type of small cells lung adenocarcinomas are preinvasive whereas solid densi-ties are invasive .Speculation and heterogeneous are significant factor in invasive adenocarcinoma .

  15. Contribuição para o estudo da versão portuguesa da Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS): II – Estudo psicométrico

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Estudo da adaptação da Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS; Watson, Clark & Tellegen, 1988) para a população portuguesa. A metodologia do estudo procurou replicar o estudo de desenvolvimento da escala original. Tal como o estudo original, pediu-se a 348 estudantes universitários que respondessem em que medida experienciaram as 60 emoções (traduzidas para Português) propostas por Zevon e Tellegen (1982) “durante os últimos dias” e “durante as últimas semanas”, numa escala de 5 pontos....

  16. Second lung cancers in patients successfully treated for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B E; Cortazar, P; Chute, J P

    1997-08-01

    The rate of developing second lung cancers and other aerodigestive tumors in patients who have been treated for both small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is approximately 10-fold higher than other adult smokers. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving resection of NSCLC is approximately 1% to 2% per year. The series reported show that the patients who develop second NSCLCs tend to have early-stage NSCLC (predominantly stage I and II). The survival of patients after the second resection of lung cancer is similar to that of patients presenting with initial NSCLC. The risk of second lung cancers in patients surviving SCLC is 2% to 14% per patient per year and increases two- to seven-fold with the passage of time from 2 to 10 years. The risk of second lung cancers in patients treated for SCLC appears to be higher than that found in patients with NSCLC who were treated only with surgical resection. In addition, the chances of successful resection of second primary NSCLCs in patients who were treated for SCLC is much less than that for patients with metachronous lung cancers after an initial NSCLC. Patients treated for SCLC who continue to smoke cigarettes increase their rate of developing second lung cancers. The contribution of chest radiation and chemotherapy administration to the risk of developing second lung tumors remain to be defined but may be responsible for some of the increased risk in patients treated for SCLC compared to patients undergoing a surgical resection for NSCLC.

  17. Heterogeneity of Particle Deposition by Pixel Analysis of 2D Gamma Scintigraphy Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, William D; Xie, Miao; Zeman, Kirby; Hurd, Harry; Donaldson, Scott

    2015-06-01

    Heterogeneity of inhaled particle deposition in airways disease may be a sensitive indicator of physiologic changes in the lungs. Using planar gamma scintigraphy, we developed new methods to locate and quantify regions of high (hot) and low (cold) particle deposition in the lungs. Initial deposition and 24 hour retention images were obtained from healthy (n=31) adult subjects and patients with mild cystic fibrosis lung disease (CF) (n=14) following inhalation of radiolabeled particles (Tc99m-sulfur colloid, 5.4 μm MMAD) under controlled breathing conditions. The initial deposition image of the right lung was normalized to (i.e., same median pixel value), and then divided by, a transmission (Tc99m) image in the same individual to obtain a pixel-by-pixel ratio image. Hot spots were defined where pixel values in the deposition image were greater than 2X those of the transmission, and cold spots as pixels where the deposition image was less than 0.5X of the transmission. The number ratio (NR) of the hot and cold pixels to total lung pixels, and the sum ratio (SR) of total counts in hot pixels to total lung counts were compared between healthy and CF subjects. Other traditional measures of regional particle deposition, nC/P and skew of the pixel count histogram distribution, were also compared. The NR of cold spots was greater in mild CF, 0.221±0.047(CF) vs. 0.186±0.038 (healthy) (p<0.005) and was significantly correlated with FEV1 %pred in the patients (R=-0.70). nC/P (central to peripheral count ratio), skew of the count histogram, and hot NR or SR were not different between the healthy and mild CF patients. These methods may provide more sensitive measures of airway function and localization of deposition that might be useful for assessing treatment efficacy in these patients.

  18. Your Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing? If you guessed your lungs, you're right! Your lungs make up one of the largest organs in your body, and they work with your respiratory system to allow you to take in fresh air, get rid of stale air, and even talk. ...

  19. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  20. [Post-traumatic lung herniation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIjs, M.J. de; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic lung herniation due to a pathological defect in the chest wall is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 73-year-old polytrauma patient who had extensive chest wall trauma after an accident, resulting in traumatic herniation of the lung. The patient was initially treated acc

  1. Lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adler, Frederick R; Aurora, Paul; Barker, David H; Barr, Mark L; Blackwell, Laura S; Bosma, Otto H; Brown, Samuel; Cox, D R; Jensen, Judy L; Kurland, Geoffrey; Nossent, George D; Quittner, Alexandra L; Robinson, Walter M; Romero, Sandy L; Spencer, Helen; Sweet, Stuart C; van der Bij, Wim; Vermeulen, J; Verschuuren, Erik A M; Vrijlandt, Elianne J L E; Walsh, William; Woo, Marlyn S; Liou, Theodore G

    2009-01-01

    Lung transplantation is a complex, high-risk, potentially life-saving therapy for the end-stage lung disease of cystic fibrosis (CF). The decision to pursue transplantation involves comparing the likelihood of survival with and without transplantation as well as assessing the effect of wait-listing

  2. Heart-lung transplant - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100147.htm Heart-lung transplant - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The heart and lungs are located in the thorax, or chest cavity. ...

  3. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  4. A lung function information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); J. de Vries (Julius); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); A. Versprille (Adrian)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract A lung function information system (LFIS) was developed for the data analysis of pulmonary function tests at different locations. This system was connected to the hospital information system (HIS) for the retrieval of patient data and the storage of the lung function varia

  5. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a foc

  6. AUTOTRANSPLANTATION OF THE LUNG: EXPERIMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and lungs of a kitten to the neck vessels of an adult cat. The lungs soon ... adventitia to ensure a good blood supply. ... severe blood loss when the atrial clamp slipped. Not .... regeneration occurs, but it may be responsible for the gradual ...

  7. Interstitial lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Cottin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the most important articles published in interstitial lung disease, as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session at the 2012 annual European Respiratory Society Congress in Vienna, Austria. Since the recent international guidelines for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, important new evidence is available. The anti-fibrotic drug pirfenidone has been recently approved in Europe. Other pharmacological agents, especially nintedanib, are still being tested. The so-called triple combination therapy, anticoagulation therapy and endothelin receptor antagonists, especially ambrisentan, are either harmful or ineffective in IPF and are not recommended as treatment. Although the clinical course of IPF is highly variable, novel tools have been developed for individual prediction of prognosis. Acute exacerbations of IPF are associated with increased mortality and may occur with higher frequency in IPF patients with associated pulmonary hypertension. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease has been definitely established to have a better long-term survival than IPF. A subset of patients present with symptoms and/or biological autoimmune features, but do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for a given autoimmune disease; this condition is associated with a higher prevalence of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern, female sex and younger age, although survival relevance is unclear.

  8. Mitochondria in lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloonan, Suzanne M; Choi, Augustine M K

    2016-03-01

    Mitochondria are a distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Best known for their critical function in energy production via oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), mitochondria are essential for nutrient and oxygen sensing and for the regulation of critical cellular processes, including cell death and inflammation. Such diverse functional roles for organelles that were once thought to be simple may be attributed to their distinct heteroplasmic genome, exclusive maternal lineage of inheritance, and ability to generate signals to communicate with other cellular organelles. Mitochondria are now thought of as one of the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing systems. Specific signatures of mitochondrial dysfunction that are associated with disease pathogenesis and/or progression are becoming increasingly important. In particular, the centrality of mitochondria in the pathological processes and clinical phenotypes associated with a range of lung diseases is emerging. Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating the mitochondrial processes of lung cells will help to better define phenotypes and clinical manifestations associated with respiratory disease and to identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  9. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Zagà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210 is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226 and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210 and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  10. Polonium and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties.

  11. Polonium and Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagà, Vincenzo; Lygidakis, Charilaos; Chaouachi, Kamal; Gattavecchia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    The alpha-radioactive polonium 210 (Po-210) is one of the most powerful carcinogenic agents of tobacco smoke and is responsible for the histotype shift of lung cancer from squamous cell type to adenocarcinoma. According to several studies, the principal source of Po-210 is the fertilizers used in tobacco plants, which are rich in polyphosphates containing radio (Ra-226) and its decay products, lead 210 (Pb-210) and Po-210. Tobacco leaves accumulate Pb-210 and Po-210 through their trichomes, and Pb-210 decays into Po-210 over time. With the combustion of the cigarette smoke becomes radioactive and Pb-210 and Po-210 reach the bronchopulmonary apparatus, especially in bifurcations of segmental bronchi. In this place, combined with other agents, it will manifest its carcinogenic activity, especially in patients with compromised mucous-ciliary clearance. Various studies have confirmed that the radiological risk from Po-210 in a smoker of 20 cigarettes per day for a year is equivalent to the one deriving from 300 chest X-rays, with an autonomous oncogenic capability of 4 lung cancers per 10000 smokers. Po-210 can also be found in passive smoke, since part of Po-210 spreads in the surrounding environment during tobacco combustion. Tobacco manufacturers have been aware of the alpha-radioactivity presence in tobacco smoke since the sixties. PMID:21772848

  12. Molecular modeling of heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gislason, Jason Joseph

    A novel method for modeling heterogeneous catalysis was developed to further facilitate the understanding of catalytic reactor mechanisms. The method employs molecular dynamics simulations, statistical mechanical, and Unity Bond Index - Quadratic Exponential Potential (UBI-QEP) calculations to calculate the rate constants for reactions on metal surfaces. The primary difficulty of molecular dynamics simulations on metal surfaces has been the lack of reliable reactive potential energy surfaces. We have overcome this through the development of the Normalized Bond Index - Reactive Potential Function (NBI-RPF), which can accurately describe the reaction of adsorbates on metal surfaces. The first calculations of rate constants for a reaction on a metal surface using molecular dynamics simulations are presented. This method is applied to the determination of the mechanism for selective hydrogenation of acetylene in an ethylene rich flow. It was determined that the selectivity for acetylene hydrogenation is attributable to the higher reactivity of acetylene versus ethylene with respect to hydrogenation by molecular hydrogen. It was shown that hydrogen transfer from the carbonaceous layer to acetylene or ethylene is insignificant in the hydrogenation process. Molecular dynamics simulations and molecular mechanics calculations were used to determine the diffusion rate constants for dimethylnaphthalene isomers is mordenite. 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene were found to have similar diffusion rate constants. Grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations were performed on the competitive adsorption of 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene and 2,7-dimethylnaphthalene in type X zeolites exchanged individually with barium, calcium, potassium, and rubidium ions, calcium exchanged MCM-22, and hydrogen form mordenite (MOR), X zeolite, Y zeolite, hypBEB, ZSM- 12, and MCM-22. These calculations showed that barium exchanged X zeolite was the most selective toward 2

  13. Interoperability of heterogeneous distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaschke, C.; Essendorfer, B.; Kerth, C.

    2016-05-01

    To achieve knowledge superiority in today's operations interoperability is the key. Budget restrictions as well as the complexity and multiplicity of threats combined with the fact that not single nations but whole areas are subject to attacks force nations to collaborate and share information as appropriate. Multiple data and information sources produce different kinds of data, real time and non-real time, in different formats that are disseminated to the respective command and control level for further distribution. The data is most of the time highly sensitive and restricted in terms of sharing. The question is how to make this data available to the right people at the right time with the right granularity. The Coalition Shared Data concept aims to provide a solution to these questions. It has been developed within several multinational projects and evolved over time. A continuous improvement process was established and resulted in the adaptation of the architecture as well as the technical solution and the processes it supports. Coming from the idea of making use of existing standards and basing the concept on sharing of data through standardized interfaces and formats and enabling metadata based query the concept merged with a more sophisticated service based approach. The paper addresses concepts for information sharing to facilitate interoperability between heterogeneous distributed systems. It introduces the methods that were used and the challenges that had to be overcome. Furthermore, the paper gives a perspective how the concept could be used in the future and what measures have to be taken to successfully bring it into operations.

  14. Mechanical heterogeneities and lithospheric extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretz, Thibault; Petri, Benoit; Mohn, Geoffroy; Schenker, Filippo L.; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Detailed geological and geophysical studies of passive margins have highlighted the multi-stage and depth-dependent aspect of lithospheric thinning. Lithospheric thinning involves a variety of structures (normal faults, low angle detachments, extensional shear zones, extraction faults) and leads to a complex architecture of passive margins (with e.g. necking zone, mantle exhumation, continental allochthons). The processes controlling the generation and evolution of these structures as well as the impact of pre-rift inheritance are so far incompletely understood. In this study, we investigate the impact of pre-rift inheritance on the development of rifted margins using two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models of lithospheric thinning. To first order, we represent the pre-rift mechanical heterogeneities with lithological layering. The rheologies are kept simple (visco-plastic) and do not involve any strain softening mechanism. Our models show that mechanical layering causes multi-stage and depth-dependent extension. In the initial rifting phase, lithospheric extension is decoupled: as the crust undergoes thinning by brittle (frictional-plastic) faults, the lithospheric mantle accommodates extension by symmetric ductile necking. In a second rifting phase, deformation in the crust and lithospheric mantle is coupled and marks the beginning of an asymmetric extension stage. Low angle extensional shear zones develop across the lithosphere and exhume subcontinental mantle. Furthemore, crustal allochthons and adjacent basins develop coevally. We describe as well the thermal evolution predicted by the numerical models and discuss the first-order implications of our results in the context of the Alpine geological history.

  15. Heterochromatin heterogeneity and chromosome heteromorphism in Cerdocyon thous (Mammalia, Canidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumi Hatanaka

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Few cytogenetic studies have been conducted on South American canids. Cerdocyon thous is a representative of the Canidae, living in the forests, open wooded areas and savannahs of South America. Compared to other canid species, C. thous has a large proportion of metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes as well as a large amount of constitutive heterochromatin, especially along the short arm of submetacentric chromosomes. In the present study, different chromosome banding methods were used to characterize the heterogeneous nature of the large heterochromatic segments and to propose an organizational model for this segment that occupies the entire short arm of most two-armed chromosomes. Furthermore, chromosome heteromorphism related to the short arm of large submetacentric chromosome corresponding to no. 3 in male and female karyotypes is described.Os estudos citogenéticos em canídeos sul-americanos, de uma forma geral, são raros. Cerdocyon thous é um representante da família Canidae e habita florestas, matas abertas e savanas da américa do Sul. O seu cariótipo é formado por uma grande proporção de cromossomos metacêntricos e submetacêntricos quando comparado com outras espécies desta família e possui também uma grande quantidade de heterocromatina constitutiva, especialmente ao longo do braço curto dos cromossomos submetacêntricos. No presente estudo, diferentes métodos de bandamentos cromossômicos permitiram verificar o caráter heterogêneo dos grandes segmentos heterocromáticos e a proposição de um modelo de organização deste segmento que ocupa todo o braço curto da maioria dos cromossomos de dois braços. Além disso, é descrito um heteromorfismo cromossômico relacionado ao braço curto de um grande cromossomo submetacêntrico, equivalente ao no. 3 do cariótipo de animais de ambos os sexos.

  16. Estudos da formação de planetas terrestres

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, André Izidoro Ferreira da [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    O estudo da formação de planetas terrestres no Sistema Solar, é crucial para compre- endermos como outros sistemas planetários formam e também inferir as condições que poderiam ter influenciado a origem e evolução de vida na Terra. Esta Tese de douto- rado apresenta um estudo numérico da formação de planetas terrestres. Nosso objetivo principal é analisar o último estágio da formação desses planetas no Sistema Solar, em particular, a formação de Marte e a origem da água da Terra. Esses dois p...

  17. Detecting Radiation-Induced Injury Using Rapid 3D Variogram Analysis of CT Images of Rat Lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Rick E.; Murphy, Mark K.; Creim, Jeffrey A.; Carson, James P.

    2013-10-01

    A new heterogeneity analysis approach to discern radiation-induced lung damage was tested on CT images of irradiated rats. The method, combining octree decomposition with variogram analysis, demonstrated a significant correlation with radiation exposure levels, whereas conventional measurements and pulmonary function tests did not. The results suggest the new approach may be highly sensitive for assessing even subtle radiation-induced changes

  18. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  19. Biomarkers in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Kosutova, Petra

    2015-04-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and its milder form acute lung injury (ALI) may result from various diseases and situations including sepsis, pneumonia, trauma, acute pancreatitis, aspiration of gastric contents, near-drowning etc. ALI/ARDS is characterized by diffuse alveolar injury, lung edema formation, neutrophil-derived inflammation, and surfactant dysfunction. Clinically, ALI/ARDS is manifested by decreased lung compliance, severe hypoxemia, and bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. Severity and further characteristics of ALI/ARDS may be detected by biomarkers in the plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (or tracheal aspirate) of patients. Changed concentrations of individual markers may suggest injury or activation of the specific types of lung cells-epithelial or endothelial cells, neutrophils, macrophages, etc.), and thereby help in diagnostics and in evaluation of the patient's clinical status and the treatment efficacy. This chapter reviews various biomarkers of acute lung injury and evaluates their usefulness in diagnostics and prognostication of ALI/ARDS.

  20. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  1. Ana Carolina Escosteguy: Cenários dos estudos culturais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Cristina Bueno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autora do livro “Cartografia dos Estudos Culturais”, “Comunicação e recepção” (em coautoria com Nilda Jacks, “Leituras em comunicação, cultura e tecnologia”, além de coautora e organizadora em outras obras de referência sobre o tema cultura e comunicação no Brasil, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é hoje um dos nomes mais importantes quando se pensa em Estudos Culturais no país. Doutora em Ciências da Comunicação pela Universidade de São Paulo (2000, com pós-doutorado no CAMRI (Communication and Media Research Institute, associado ao Department of Journalism and Mass Communication da School of Media, Art and Design da University of Westminster (UK, Ana Carolina Escosteguy é professora titular da Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS e bolsista produtividade em pesquisa do CNPq, desde março 2001. Nesta entrevista ela discute pontos sensíveis da área, entre eles o pouco destaque das pesquisas desse campo têm tido no Jornalismo, o fato de a base teórica ser bem mais ampla que os tradicionais estudos de recepção a que são comumente aproximados, não se nega a tratar das confusões com a folkcomunicação, bem como as próprios limites e intersecções desse campo de estudos. Durante esta conversa, aproveita para apontar as obras que considera essenciais para adentrar na área e mostra coragem e segurança para se colocar como uma pesquisadora que busca entender o tempo atual, as tecnologias e as rupturas a partir da perspectiva do usuário. Confiram:

  2. Modeling heterogeneous chemical processes on aerosol surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junjun Deng; Tijian Wang; Li Liu; Fei Jiang

    2010-01-01

    To explore the possible impact of heterogeneous chemical processes on atmospheric trace components,a coupled box model including gas-phase chemical processes,aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium processes,and heterogeneous chemical processes on the surface of dust,black carbon(BC)and sea salt is set up to simulate the effects of heterogeneous chemistry on the aerosol surface,and analyze the primary factors affecting the heterogeneous processes.Results indicate that heterogeneous chemical processes on the aerosol surface in the atmosphere will affect the concentrations of trace gases such as H2O2,HO2,O3,NO2,NO3,HNO3 and SO2,and aerosols such as SO42-,NO3-and NH4+.Sensitivity tests suggest that the magnitude of the impact of heterogeneous processes strongly depends on aerosol concentration and the surface uptake coefficients used in the box model.However,the impact of temperature on heterogeneous chemical processes is considerably less.The"renoxification"of HNO3 will affect the components of the troposphere such as nitrogen oxide and ozone.

  3. Mean Organ Doses Resulting From Non-Human Primate Whole Thorax Lung Irradiation Prescribed to Mid-Line Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Charlotte; Kazi, Abdul; Bennett, Alexander; MacVittie, Thomas; Prado, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Multi-organ dose evaluations and the effects of heterogeneous tissue dose calculations have been retrospectively evaluated following irradiation to the whole thorax and lung in non-human primates (NHP). A clinical-based approach was established to evaluate actual doses received in the heart and lungs during whole thorax lung irradiation. Anatomical structure and organ densities have been introduced in the calculations to show the effects of dose distribution through heterogeneous tissue. Mean organ doses received by non-human primates undergoing whole thorax lung irradiations were calculated using a treatment planning system that is routinely used in clinical radiation oncology. The doses received by non-human primates irradiated following conventional dose calculations have been retrospectively reconstructed using computerized tomography-based, heterogeneity-corrected dose calculations. The use of dose volume descriptors for irradiation to organs at risk and tissue exposed to radiation is introduced. Mean and partial-volume doses to lung and heart are presented and contrasted. The importance of exact dose definitions is highlighted, and the relevance of precise dosimetry to establish organ-specific dose response relationships in NHP models of acute and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure is emphasized.

  4. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome and the nutmeg lung pattern in utero: a cause and effect relationship or prognostic indicator?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saul, David; Johnson, Ann M.; Victoria, Teresa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Degenhardt, Karl; Rychik, Jack [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Cardiac Center and Fetal Heart Program, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Iyoob, Suzanne D.; Johnson, Mark P. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Center for Fetal Diagnosis and Treatment, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Surrey, Lea F. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pathology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is the third most common cause of critical congenital heart disease in newborns, and one of the most challenging forms to treat. Secondary pulmonary lymphangiectasia has been recognized in association with HLHS, an appearance described on fetal MRI as the ''nutmeg lung.'' To investigate the association of fetal nutmeg lung with HLHS survival. A retrospective search of the fetal MRI database was performed. The nutmeg lung pattern was defined as T2 heterogeneous signal with tubular structures radiating peripherally from the hila. Postnatal echocardiograms and charts were reviewed. Forty-four fetal MR studies met inclusion criteria, of which 4 patients (9%) had the nutmeg lung pattern and 3 of whom also had restrictive lesions. Mortality in this nutmeg lung group was 100% by 5 months of age. Of the 40 patients without nutmeg lung, mortality/orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) was 35%. Of these 40 patients without nutmeg lung, 5 had restriction on echo, 3 of whom died/had OHT before 5 months of age (60% of patients with restriction and non-nutmeg lung). There was a significantly higher incidence of restrictive lesions (P = 0.02) and mortality/OHT (P = 0.02) in patients with nutmeg lung compared to those without. The nutmeg lung MR appearance in HLHS fetuses is associated with increased mortality/OHT (100% in the first 5 months of life compared to 35% with HLHS alone). Not all patients with restrictive lesions develop nutmeg lung, and outcome is not as poor when restriction is present in isolation. Dedicated evaluation for nutmeg lung pattern on fetal MR studies may be useful to guide prognostication and aid clinicians in counseling parents of fetuses with HLHS. (orig.)

  5. ABORDAGENS PARADIGMÁTICAS ALTERNATIVAS: POSSIBILIDADES PARA ESTUDOS EM ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine da Silva Schröeder

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nossa proposta é incentivar a apropriação de abordagens paradigmáticas alternativas para a pesquisa na área de Administração da Informação (ADI, a partir de perspectivas que se contrapõem à ontologia positivista-funcionalista – ou, de outro lado, podem complementá-la, oportunizando a realização de estudos reflexivos, não necessariamente performativos, e “desnaturalizados”. Adotamos os conceitos de reflexividade, não-performatividade e desnaturalização a partir de seu uso por Fournier e Grey (2007, ao referirem-se aos estudos críticos em Administração (ou Critical Management Studies - CMS. Atestamos que os três conceitos nos são valiosos porque nos auxiliam a definir condições pelas quais entendemos que se manifesta pensamento crítico – e, por assim dizer, inspiram a pesquisa multi e interparadigmática. Através das possibilidades deste tipo de pesquisa, podemos lançar olhares potencialmente ampliados sobre a teoria e a prática em Administração da Informação, que trazem implicações não apenas epistemológicas, mas, sobretudo, metodológicas para os estudos da área.

  6. Marketing do mercado de luxo: Estudo de caso Victoria's Secret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Francisca Giuliani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo teve por objetivo identificar quais são as estratégias de marketing utilizadas pela empresa varejista Victoria’s Secret para a fidelização do consumidor de luxo em nível global. O estudo caracterizou-se como uma pesquisa qualitativa, utilizando-se como estratégia de campo o estudo de caso de caráter ilustrativo. Para o alcance do objetivo proposto, dividiu-se o estudo em duas fases. Na primeira, denominada exploratória, buscou-se em dados secundários o embasamento para a construção do referencial teórico. Na segunda, adotou-se a técnica de pesquisa por observação, utilizando-se os sites da Victoria’s Secret, e analisou-se o composto de marketing aplicado ao mercado de luxo com base no modelo proposto por Nahás (2009. Concluiu-se que as estratégias da referida empresa se baseiam no luxo acessível, de modo que, além de conquistar o consumidor, a Victoria’s Secret consegue manter sua fidelidade por apresentar estratégias de forte apelo emocional.

  7. A sociologia funcionalista nos estudos organizacionais: foco em Durkheim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Cabral

    Full Text Available O tema que estrutura este ensaio é o da sociologia funcionalista, particularmente em termos de sua influência nos estudos organizacionais. O seu foco de análise é duplo. Em um primeiro momento, as obras de Durkheim. Em um segundo momento, o impacto e a supremacia dos enfoques funcionalistas nos estudos organizacionais. Embora seus segmentos estejam inter-relacionados, ele é composto de quatro partes. Na primeira, é feita uma análise histórica da emergência e sistematização das ciências sociais, de modo a traçar sua evolução até o surgimento dos trabalhos de Durkheim. Na segunda, tomando como referencial a obra de Burrell e Morgan (1979, é estudado o paradigma funcionalista em termos de sua origem e expoentes, com destaque para Comte e Spencer, visando chegar a uma compreensão inicial do pensamento de Durkheim e de sua sociologia. Na terceira, a vida e as principais obras de Durkheim são sumariadas e discutidas. Por fim, o status atual dos estudos organizacionais -vistos como um conjunto impreciso, elástico e eclético de teorias e pesquisas sociais voltados para os problemas das organizações -é analisado em termos de seus pressupostos epistemológicos e ontológicos subjacentes, como meio de explicitar a supremacia dos enfoques positivistas-funcionalistas.

  8. O caso do psicodiagnóstico: um estudo institucional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Guirado

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O psicodiagnóstico é uma prática recorrente de estudo de caso em Psicologia, independentemente de ser feito em consultórios particulares, escolas, hospitais, ambulatórios e/ou instituições para-educativas. O presente artigo discute a dimensão institucional desse atendimento na medida em que se trata de um dispositivo que, cada vez mais, legitima seu objeto: o conhecimento do psiquismo de quem se expõe aos serviços do psicólogo. Tal discussão parte do destaque de conceitos como discurso, sujeito, instituição e análise, tomados nos terrenos da Psicanálise e da análise de instituições concretas, para configurar uma possibilidade de estudo de caso que considere o contexto institucional do (ou, em que se fez o diagnóstico. Por fim, faz-se uma proposta de como proceder a um estudo de caso que suponha a força constitutiva desse contexto sobre o resultado do psicodiagnóstico de um cliente/paciente do psicólogo.

  9. Recrutamento de participantes no Estudo Longitudinal de Saude do Adulto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela M L Aquino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar as estratégias de comunicação e recrutamento no Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto (ELSA-Brasil e discutir os resultados alcançados na constituição da coorte. MÉTODOS: As estratégias foram voltadas à divulgação, à institucionalização e ao recrutamento propriamente dito. As ações de comunicação pretenderam promover o fortalecimento de imagem institucional positiva para o estudo, a gestão de conhecimentos e o diálogo eficaz com seu público-alvo. Foi criado web site oficial visando dialogar com diferentes públicos, funcionar como difusor científico e contribuir para a consolidação da imagem do estudo perante a sociedade. RESULTADOS: Foram recrutados 16.435 mulheres e homens, servidores ativos e aposentados de seis instituições públicas de ensino e pesquisa para constituir a coorte de 15.105 participantes. As metas de recrutamento foram plenamente alcançadas nos seis centros, com leve predomínio de mulheres e daqueles mais jovens, e um pouco menos de servidores com menor escolarização. CONCLUSÕES: As estratégias utilizadas se mostraram adequadas e essenciais para o sucesso da captação e participação dos servidores.

  10. ESTRATÉGIAS DE MARKETING: UM ESTUDO PRÁTICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Francisco Alcântara Fagundes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou o estudo da gestão da Cooperativa de Economia e Crédito Mútuo dos Profissionais da Saúde de Viçosa e Região (Unicred Viçosa, como forma de gerar uma melhoria nos negócios e assim ampliar o quadro social da cooperativa. Utilizou-se como metodologia a pesquisa descritiva e qualitativa por meio de estudo de caso. Os métodos de pesquisa utilizados foram a abordagem participativa e o questionário dirigido aos 430 cooperados da Unicred Viçosa – tamanho de amostra finita. O referencial teórico abordou bibliografia de marketing e estratégia, destacando a análise da matriz SWOT, a qual foi eleita como a mais adequada ferramenta de gestão para o caso da cooperativa. Concluiu-se com o estudo que a cooperativa Unicred Viçosa teria que estabelecer critérios mais eficazes para a comunicação de seus objetivos e metas aos cooperados, e que a matriz SWOT se mostrou eficiente no que tange ao suporte à tomada de decisão.

  11. LUNG CANCER AND PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukic, Vesna; Ustamujic, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Malignant diseases including lung cancer are the risk for development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Objective: To show the number of PTE in patients with lung cancer treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in three-year period: from 2012-2014. Material and methods: This is the retrospective study in which we present the number of various types of lung cancer treated in three-year period, number and per cent of PTE in different types of lung carcinoma, number and per cent of PTE of all diagnosed PTE in lung carcinoma according to the type of carcinoma. Results: In three-year period (from 2012 to 2014) 1609 patients with lung cancer were treated in Clinic for pulmonary diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” Clinical Centre of Sarajevo University. 42 patients: 25 men middle –aged 64.4 years and 17 women middle- aged 66.7 or 2.61% of all patients with lung cancer had diagnosed PTE. That was the 16. 7% of all patients with PTE treated in Clinic “Podhrastovi “in that three-year period. Of all 42 patients with lung cancer and diagnosed PTE 3 patients (7.14%) had planocellular cancer, 4 patients (9.53%) had squamocellular cancer, 9 (21.43%) had adenocarcinoma, 1 (2.38%) had NSCLC, 3 (7.14 %) had microcellular cancer, 1 (2.38%) had neuroendocrine cancer, 2 (4.76%) had large cell-macrocellular and 19 (45.24%) had histological non-differentiated lung carcinoma. Conclusion: Malignant diseases, including lung cancer, are the risk factor for development of PTE. It is important to consider the including anticoagulant prophylaxis in these patients and so to slow down the course of diseases in these patients. PMID:26622205

  12. Spatial Heterogeneity of Vegetation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity and ecological characteristics of 74 vegetation types and the lack of vegetation type within the 9.6 million km2 of Chinese territory were studied using data from the China vegetation map. The analysis used 877 large quadrats 10 mm×10 mm (actual size 100 km×100 km), which covered about 8.77 million km2. Each large-quadrat was divided into four small 5 mm×5 mm quadrats (actual size 50 km×50 km). The frequency of occurrence of all vegetation types was recorded in each small quadrat.The survey using the Shiyomi method of vegetation analysis based on the beta-binomial distribution was adopted to describe the frequency of occurrence and spatial heterogeneity for each kind of vegetation. The weighted average heterogeneity of all the vegetation types in the landscape provides a measure of the landscape level heterogeneity which describes the spatial intricacy of the existing vegetation composition.The maximum spatial vegetation heterogeneity was 0.8620 in the frigid-temperate coniferous forest of Larix(V1), which dominates cold moist northeast China. The minimum spatial heterogeneity with a low occurrence was the Caragana tibetica in the gravel desert in the western Yellow River Hetao area. The minimum occurrence with a low spatial heterogeneity was the Monsoon rainforest on rock in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. The vegetation types on the Qing-Zang Plateau were found to be representative of Chinese vegetation because of the very high occurrence and spatial heterogeneity of these vegetation types. The weighted average of the heterogeneity was 0.677, while the vegetation diversity index was 3.29.

  13. Control DHT maintenance costs with session heterogeneity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Fu-tai; WU Zeng-de; ZHANG Liang; MA Fan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    The maintaining overheads of Distributed Hash Table (DHT) topology have recently received considerable attention.This paper presents a novel SHT (Session Heterogeneity Topology) model, in which DHT is reconstructed with session heterogeneity. SHT clusters nodes by means of session heterogeneity among nodes and selects the stable nodes as the participants of DHT. With an evolving process, this model gradually makes DHT stable and reliable. Therefore the high maintaining overheads for DHT are effectively controlled. Simulation with real traces of session distribution showed that the maintaining overheads are reduced dramatically and that the data availability is greatly improved.

  14. Adsorption of gases on heterogeneous surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rudzinski, W

    1991-01-01

    All real solid surfaces are heterogeneous to a greater or lesser extent and this book provides a broad yet detailed survey of the present state of gas adsorption. Coverage is comprehensive and extends from basic principles to computer simulation of adsorption. Underlying concepts are clarified and the strengths and weaknesses of the various methods described are discussed.Key Features* Adsorption isotherm equations for various types of heterogeneous solid surfaces* Methods of determining the nature of surface heterogeneity and porosity from experimental data* Studies of pha

  15. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Garibay, Gorka; Herranz, Carmen; Llorente, Alicia; Boni, Jacopo; Serra-Musach, Jordi; Mateo, Francesca; Aguilar, Helena; Gómez-Baldó, Laia; Petit, Anna; Vidal, August; Climent, Fina; Hernández-Losa, Javier; Cordero, Álex; González-Suárez, Eva; Sánchez-Mut, José Vicente; Esteller, Manel; Llatjós, Roger; Varela, Mar; López, José Ignacio; García, Nadia; Extremera, Ana I.; Gumà, Anna; Ortega, Raúl; Plà, María Jesús; Fernández, Adela; Pernas, Sònia; Falo, Catalina; Morilla, Idoia; Campos, Miriam; Gil, Miguel; Román, Antonio; Molina-Molina, María; Ussetti, Piedad; Laporta, Rosalía; Valenzuela, Claudia; Ancochea, Julio; Xaubet, Antoni; Casanova, Álvaro; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM. PMID:26167915

  16. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 Reveal Heterogeneity in Pulmonary Neuroendocrine Tumors and Regulate Distinct Genetic Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Borromeo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC is a high-grade pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor. The transcription factors ASCL1 and NEUROD1 play crucial roles in promoting malignant behavior and survival of human SCLC cell lines. Here, we find that ASCL1 and NEUROD1 identify heterogeneity in SCLC, bind distinct genomic loci, and regulate mostly distinct genes. ASCL1, but not NEUROD1, is present in mouse pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, and only ASCL1 is required in vivo for tumor formation in mouse models of SCLC. ASCL1 targets oncogenic genes including MYCL1, RET, SOX2, and NFIB while NEUROD1 targets MYC. ASCL1 and NEUROD1 regulate different genes that commonly contribute to neuronal function. ASCL1 also regulates multiple genes in the NOTCH pathway including DLL3. Together, ASCL1 and NEUROD1 distinguish heterogeneity in SCLC with distinct genomic landscapes and distinct gene expression programs.

  17. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A.A. Schilders (Kim); Eenjes, E. (Evelien); Riet, S. (Sander van); Poot, A.A. (André A.); Stamatialis, D. (Dimitrios); Truckenmüller, R. (Roman); P.S. Hiemstra (Pieter); R.J. Rottier (Robbert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractInspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as

  18. Regeneration of the lung: Lung stem cells and the development of lung mimicking devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilders, K.; Eenjes, E.; van Riet, S.; Poot, Andreas A.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Hiemstra, P.; Rottier, R.

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as

  19. Computational Mechanics for Heterogeneous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechman, Jeremy B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Baczewski, Andrew David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bond, Stephen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Erikson, William W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lehoucq, Richard B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Noble, David R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pierce, Flint [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); van Swol, Frank B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yarrington, Cole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The subject of this work is the development of models for the numerical simulation of matter, momentum, and energy balance in heterogeneous materials. These are materials that consist of multiple phases or species or that are structured on some (perhaps many) scale(s). By computational mechanics we mean to refer generally to the standard type of modeling that is done at the level of macroscopic balance laws (mass, momentum, energy). We will refer to the flow or flux of these quantities in a generalized sense as transport. At issue here are the forms of the governing equations in these complex materials which are potentially strongly inhomogeneous below some correlation length scale and are yet homogeneous on larger length scales. The question then becomes one of how to model this behavior and what are the proper multi-scale equations to capture the transport mechanisms across scales. To address this we look to the area of generalized stochastic process that underlie the transport processes in homogeneous materials. The archetypal example being the relationship between a random walk or Brownian motion stochastic processes and the associated Fokker-Planck or diffusion equation. Here we are interested in how this classical setting changes when inhomogeneities or correlations in structure are introduced into the problem. Aspects of non-classical behavior need to be addressed, such as non-Fickian behavior of the mean-squared-displacement (MSD) and non-Gaussian behavior of the underlying probability distribution of jumps. We present an experimental technique and apparatus built to investigate some of these issues. We also discuss diffusive processes in inhomogeneous systems, and the role of the chemical potential in diffusion of hard spheres is considered. Also, the relevance to liquid metal solutions is considered. Finally we present an example of how inhomogeneities in material microstructure introduce fluctuations at the meso-scale for a thermal conduction problem

  20. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer