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Sample records for lung cancer compared

  1. Comparative reading support system for lung cancer CT screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsuru; Saita, Shinsuke; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Eguchi, Kenji; Kaneko, Masahiro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The comparative reading is performed using current and past images of the same case obtained from lung cancer CT screening. The result of this is useful for the early detection of lung cancer. Our paper describes the efficiency improvement of comparative reading using 10 mm slice thickness CT images by developing the system consists of slice registration method, pulmonary nodule registration method, and quantitative evaluation method of pulmonary nodule's degree of change. The proposed system is applied to CT images scanned for 1107 times of 85 cases with 198 pulmonary nodules and is evaluated by comparing it with the reading result of the doctors. We show the effectiveness of the system. (author)

  2. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisner, J.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Pathology of Lung Cancer; Radiotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Cancer of the Lung; Chemotherapy for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; Immunotherapy in the Management of Lung Cancer; Preoperative Staging and Surgery for Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer; and Prognostic Factors in Lung Cancer

  3. Nutrition for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Lung Cancer www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > ... Cancer Learn About Lung Cancer What Is Lung Cancer Lung Cancer Basics Causes & Risk Factors Lung Cancer Staging ...

  4. Lung Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Screening Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  5. Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  6. Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghfoor, Irfan; Perry, M.C.

    2005-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Since tobacco smoking is the cause in vast majority of cases, the incidence of lung cancer is expected to rise in those countries with high or rising incidence of tobacco smoking. Even though population at a risk of developing lung cancer are easily identified, mass screening for lung cancer is not supported by currently available evidence. In case of non-small cell lung cancer, a cure may be possible with surgical resection followed by post-operative chemotherapy in those diagnosed at an early stage. A small minority of patients who present with locally advanced disease may also benefit from preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to down stage the tumor to render it potentially operable. In a vast majority of patients, however, lung cancer presents at an advanced stage and a cure is not possible with currently available therapeutic strategies. Similarly small cell lung cancer confined to one hemi-thorax may be curable with a combination of chemotherapy and thoracic irradiation followed by prophylactic cranial irradiation, if complete remission is achieved at the primary site. Small cell lung cancer that is spread beyond the confines of one hemi-thorax is however, considered incurable. In this era of molecular targeted therapies, new agents are constantly undergoing pre-clinical and clinical testing with the aim of targeting the molecular pathways thought to involved in etiology and pathogenesis of lung cancer. (author)

  7. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  8. What Is Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shareable Graphics Infographics “African-American Men and Lung Cancer” “Lung Cancer Is the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both ... starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread ...

  9. Lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causing chemicals such as uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust Exposure to radon gas Family history of lung cancer ...

  10. Lung cancer - small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - small cell; Small cell lung cancer; SCLC ... About 15% of all lung cancer cases are SCLC. Small cell lung cancer is slightly more common in men than women. Almost all cases of SCLC are ...

  11. Lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H H; Rørth, M

    1999-01-01

    The results of the many clinical trials published in 1997 had only modest impact on the treatment results using either cytostatic agents alone or combined with radiotherapy in lung cancer. In SCLC, combination chemotherapy including platin-compounds (cisplatin, carboplatin) and the podophyllotoxins...

  12. Lung Cancer: Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional support team today. Learn More . Find more lung cancer resources. Learn More Donate Today! What is Lung ... to Give How Your Support Helps Events Lung Cancer Awareness © Lung Cancer Alliance. The information presented in this website ...

  13. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next three ...

  14. Lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    Based on the own experience and world literatures, contribution of radiation in the treatment of lung cancer was reviewed and discussed. Although the patients with advanced cancer were referred to radiation usually, the results of radiotherapy were superior to those by chemotherapy. Of course the radiotherapy was a local one, radiation combined with chemotherapy was highly recommended, besides systemic administration of chemotherapeutics, special methods such as bronchial arterial infusion (BAI) and chemoembolization would be more favourable in selected patients. Treatment of undifferentiated small cell carcinoma was becoming more dependent on chemotherapy, radiation showed as excellent local control as ever. To treat locally extended cancer patients with involvement of the thoracic wall and Pancoast's syndrome, external radiation alone were not successful, interstitial radiation or a single exposure with a large dose during the thoracotomy would be promising. Finally, data indicated that aged and poor risk patients in early stage of cancer might be treated by radiation instead of unjustifiable operation. (author)

  15. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Lung cancer Lung cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... cancer, childhood Additional NIH Resources (3 links) National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Overview National Cancer Institute: Lung Cancer Prevention ...

  16. The lung cancer breath signature: a comparative analysis of exhaled breath and air sampled from inside the lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Rosamaria; Santonico, Marco; Pennazza, Giorgio; Ghezzi, Silvia; Martinelli, Eugenio; Roscioni, Claudio; Lucantoni, Gabriele; Galluccio, Giovanni; Paolesse, Roberto; di Natale, Corrado; D'Amico, Arnaldo

    2015-11-01

    Results collected in more than 20 years of studies suggest a relationship between the volatile organic compounds exhaled in breath and lung cancer. However, the origin of these compounds is still not completely elucidated. In spite of the simplistic vision that cancerous tissues in lungs directly emit the volatile metabolites into the airways, some papers point out that metabolites are collected by the blood and then exchanged at the air-blood interface in the lung. To shed light on this subject we performed an experiment collecting both the breath and the air inside both the lungs with a modified bronchoscopic probe. The samples were measured with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and an electronic nose. We found that the diagnostic capability of the electronic nose does not depend on the presence of cancer in the sampled lung, reaching in both cases an above 90% correct classification rate between cancer and non-cancer samples. On the other hand, multivariate analysis of GC-MS achieved a correct classification rate between the two lungs of only 76%. GC-MS analysis of breath and air sampled from the lungs demonstrates a substantial preservation of the VOCs pattern from inside the lung to the exhaled breath.

  17. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  18. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Oncological treatment of lung cancer has been available in Greenland since 2004. We evaluated patient characteristics and survival rates for the first six years of local lung cancer treatment. METHODS: From September 2004 to August 2010, a total of 173 patients with lung cancer were...... referred to treatment at Queen Ingrid's Hospital. On 1 February 2014, treatment results, survival, and prognostic variables were analysed. RESULTS: The mean age at diagnosis was 63 years. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was diagnosed in 145 patients (84%); 56% had squamous cell carcinoma, 34% had...... adenocarcinoma, 2% had large cell carcinoma and 8% had NSCLC not otherwise specified (NOS). In all, 28 (16%) had small cell lung cancer. A total of 142 patients (82%) received treatment; 20 underwent surgery (ten stage Ib, one stage IIa, five stage IIb, four stage IIIa); palliative chemotherapy was given to 122...

  19. Employment status and work-related difficulties in lung cancer survivors compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Ae; Yun, Young Ho; Chang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Moon Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sung; Zo, Jae Ill; Kim, Jhingook; Choi, Yong Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the employment status of lung cancer survivors and the work-related problems they face. Although the number of lung cancer survivors is increasing, little is known about their employment and work-related issues. We enrolled 830 lung cancer survivors 12 months after lung cancer curative surgery (median time after diagnosis, 4.11 years) and 1000 volunteers from the general population. All participants completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Core 30-item and a questionnaire that included items relating to their jobs. We used logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of unemployment. The employment rate of lung cancer survivors decreased from 68.6% at the time of diagnosis to 38.8% after treatment, which was significantly lower than the employment rate of the general population (63.5%; adjusted odds ratio = 2.31, 95% confidence interval: 1.66-3.22). The posttreatment unemployment rate was higher for women than for men. Among survivors, employment was inversely associated with older age, household income, number of comorbidities, and poor social functioning. Fatigue (78.6%) was the most common work-related problem reported by survivors. Lung cancer survivors experienced more difficulties in employment than did the general population. Age, monthly household income, number of comorbidities, and social functioning appear to be important factors influencing employment status. These findings suggest that lung cancer survivors need support to cope with the financial impact of cancer.

  20. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LUNG CANCER MINI-SERIES #2 Staging of Lung Cancer Once your lung cancer is diagnosed, staging tells you and your health care provider about ... at it under a microscope. The stages of lung cancer are listed as I, II, III, and IV ...

  1. Models for comparing lung-cancer risks in radon- and plutonium-exposed experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Cross, F.T.; Sanders, C.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1990-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies of radon-exposed underground miners have provided the primary basis for estimating human lung-cancer risks resulting from radon exposure. These studies are sometimes used to estimate lung-cancer risks resulting from exposure to other alpha- emitters as well. The latter use, often referred to as the dosimetric approach, is based on the assumption that a specified dose to the lung produces the same lung-tumor risk regardless of the substance producing the dose. At Pacific Northwest Laboratory, experiments have been conducted in which laboratory rodents have been given inhalation exposures to radon and to plutonium ( 239 PuO 2 ). These experiments offer a unique opportunity to compare risks, and thus to investigate the validity of the dosimetric approach. This comparison is made most effectively by modeling the age-specific risk as a function of dose in a way that is comparable to analyses of human data. Such modeling requires assumptions about whether tumors are the cause of death or whether they are found incidental to death from other causes. Results based on the assumption that tumors are fatal indicate that the radon and plutonium dose-response curves differ, with a linear function providing a good description of the radon data, and a pure quadratic function providing a good description of the plutonium data. However, results based on the assumption that tumors are incidental to death indicate that the dose-response curves for the two exposures are very similar, and thus support the dosimetric approach. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  3. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  4. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  5. Telomerase in lung cancer diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovkarova, E.; Stefanovski, T.; Dimov, A.; Naumovski, J.

    2003-01-01

    Background. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein that looks after the telomeric cap of the linear chromosomes maintaining its length. It is over expressed in tumour tissues, but not in normal somatic cells. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the telomerase activity in lung cancer patients as novel marker for lung cancer detection evaluating the influence of tissue/cell obtaining technique. Material and methods. Using the TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), telomerase activity was determined in material obtained from bronchobiopsy (60 lung cancer patients compared with 20 controls) and washings from transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy performed in 10 patients with peripheral lung tumours. Results. Telomerase activity was detected in 75% of the lung cancer bronchobyopsies, and in 100% in transthoracic needle washings. Conclusions. Measurement of telomerase activity can contribute in fulfilling the diagnosis of lung masses and nodules suspected for lung cancer. (author)

  6. A comparative estimation of the adrenal function in surgical and combined treatment of lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, I.A.; Berntstejn, M.I.; Evtyukhin, A.I.; Shul'ga, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The functional state of the adrenal glands during surgical and combinated treatment was examined in 38 radically operated patients with pulmonary cancer. Irradiation of lung cancer patients was found to stimulate the adrenal glands activity followed by reduction of their potentialities, manifested in a less marked increase of the catecholamines level and decreased 11-OCS level in blood during surgical treatment

  7. Systematic Compared With Targeted Staging with Endobronchial Ultrasound in Patients with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Santos, José; Serra, Pere; Torky, Mohamed; Andreo, Felipe; Centeno, Carmen; Mendiluce, Leire; Martínez-Barenys, Carlos; López de Castro, Pedro; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2018-04-06

    To evaluate the accuracy of systematic mediastinal staging by endobronchial ultrasound transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) (sampling of all visible nodes measuring ≥5mm from stations N3 to N1 regardless of their positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) features) and compare this staging approach with targeted EBUS-TBNA staging (sampling only 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid nodes) in patients with N2 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on PET/CT. Retrospective study of 107 patients who underwent systematic EBUS-TBNA mediastinal staging. The results were compared with those of a hypothetical scenario where only FDG-avid nodes on PET/CT would be sampled. Systematic EBUS-TBNA sampling demonstrated N3 disease in 3 patients, N2 disease in 60 (42 single-station or N2a, 18 multiple-station or N2b) and N0/N1 disease in 44. Of these 44, seven underwent mediastinoscopy, which did not show mediastinal disease; six of the seven proceeded to lung resection, which also showed no mediastinal disease. Thirty-four N0/N1 patients after EBUS-TBNA underwent lung resection directly: N0/N1 was found in 30 and N2 in four (one N2b with a PET/CT showing N2a disease, three N2a). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and overall accuracy of systematic EBUS-TBNA were 94%, 100%, 90%, 100% and 96%, respectively. Compared to targeted EBUS-TBNA, systematic EBUS-TBNA sampling provided additional important clinical information in 14 cases (13%): three N3 cases would have passed unnoticed, and 11 N2b cases would have been staged as N2a. In clinical practice, systematic sampling of the mediastinum by EBUS-TBNA, regardless of PET/CT features, is to be recommended over targeted sampling. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Lung Cancer Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Trends for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) Ovarian Prostate Skin Cancer Home Lung Cancer Trends Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ...

  9. Lung cancer in younger patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasowa, Leda; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death. The incidence increases with age and the occurrence in young patients is relatively low. The clinicopathological features of lung cancer in younger patients have not been fully explored previously. METHODS: To assess the age...... differences in the clinical characteristics of lung cancer, we conducted a retrospective analysis comparing young patients ≤ 65 years of age with an elderly group > 65 years of age. Among 1,232 patients evaluated due to suspicion of lung cancer in our fast-track setting from January-December 2013, 312 newly...... diagnosed lung cancer patients were included. RESULTS: Patients ≤ 65 years had a significantly higher representation of females (p = 0.0021), more frequent familial cancer aggregation (p = 0.028) and a lower incidence of squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.0133). When excluding pure carcinoid tumours...

  10. Lung cancer in elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagnerova, M.

    2007-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Europe and USA. The median age of diagnosis is currently 69 years, however this is gradually increasing with the aging population. Patients over age of 70 represent 40 % of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Age alone has not been found to be a significant prognostic factor in many malignancies, including lung cancer with performance status and stage being of greater importance. In lung cancer it is also evident that older patients gain equivalent benefit from cancer therapies as their younger counterparts. Elderly patients are under-treated in all aspects of their disease course from histological diagnosis to active therapy with surgical resection, radiotherapy or chemotherapy, irrespective of performance status or co-morbidities. Elderly patients are also underrepresented in lung cancer clinical trials. In this review is presented knowledge about lung cancer in elderly. (author)

  11. Chemoprevention of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Eva; Mao, Jenny T.; Lam, Stephen; Reid, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor. Former smokers are at a substantially increased risk of developing lung cancer compared with lifetime never smokers. Chemoprevention refers to the use of specific agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent the process of carcinogenesis. This article reviews the major agents that have been studied for chemoprevention. Methods: Articles of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention trials were reviewed and summarized to obtain recommendations. Results: None of the phase 3 trials with the agents β-carotene, retinol, 13-cis-retinoic acid, α-tocopherol, N-acetylcysteine, acetylsalicylic acid, or selenium has demonstrated beneficial and reproducible results. To facilitate the evaluation of promising agents and to lessen the need for a large sample size, extensive time commitment, and expense, surrogate end point biomarker trials are being conducted to assist in identifying the most promising agents for later-stage chemoprevention trials. With the understanding of important cellular signaling pathways and the expansion of potentially important targets, agents (many of which target inflammation and the arachidonic acid pathway) are being developed and tested which may prevent or reverse lung carcinogenesis. Conclusions: By integrating biologic knowledge, additional early-phase trials can be performed in a reasonable time frame. The future of lung cancer chemoprevention should entail the evaluation of single agents or combinations that target various pathways while working toward identification and validation of intermediate end points. PMID:23649449

  12. Comparative study between computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Christopher; Saraiva, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Objective: to analyze the role of computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer, evaluating the effectiveness of these techniques in the presence of this disease. Parameters such as age, gender, smoking habits, histological types, staging and treatment were also analyzed. Materials and methods: the sample of the present study included 70 patients assisted at the Department of Pneumology of Hospital Distrital da Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, Portugal, who were submitted to both diagnostic methods, namely, computed tomography and bronchoscopy, to confirm the presence or the absence of lung cancer. Results: thirty-seven patients (23 men and 14 women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. Histologically 40.54% were adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous carcinoma (32.43% cases) and small-cell lung cancer (18.92%). Staging showed 6.70% stage IB disease, 23.30% stage IIIA and 36.70% stage IIIB, and 33.30% stage IV. Chemotherapy alone was the first treatment of choice for 75.7% of patients. Bronchoscopy sensitivity was 83.8%, specificity 81.8%, and accuracy 82.8%. Computed tomography sensitivity was 81.1%, specificity 63.6%, and accuracy 72.8%. Conclusion: bronchoscopy results corroborated the relevance of the method in the diagnosis of lung cancer, considering its dependence on the anatomopathological study of tissue or cells obtained through different biopsy techniques. Computed tomography presented good sensitivity (81.1%), however the specificity of only 63.6% is related to the rate of false-positive results (36.4%). (author)

  13. Comparative study between computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Christopher; Saraiva, Antonio, E-mail: asaraiva@estescoimbra.p [Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saude de Coimbra (ESTeSC), Coimbra (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: to analyze the role of computed tomography and bronchoscopy in the diagnosis of lung cancer, evaluating the effectiveness of these techniques in the presence of this disease. Parameters such as age, gender, smoking habits, histological types, staging and treatment were also analyzed. Materials and methods: the sample of the present study included 70 patients assisted at the Department of Pneumology of Hospital Distrital da Figueira da Foz, Coimbra, Portugal, who were submitted to both diagnostic methods, namely, computed tomography and bronchoscopy, to confirm the presence or the absence of lung cancer. Results: thirty-seven patients (23 men and 14 women) were diagnosed with lung cancer. Histologically 40.54% were adenocarcinoma, followed by squamous carcinoma (32.43% cases) and small-cell lung cancer (18.92%). Staging showed 6.70% stage IB disease, 23.30% stage IIIA and 36.70% stage IIIB, and 33.30% stage IV. Chemotherapy alone was the first treatment of choice for 75.7% of patients. Bronchoscopy sensitivity was 83.8%, specificity 81.8%, and accuracy 82.8%. Computed tomography sensitivity was 81.1%, specificity 63.6%, and accuracy 72.8%. Conclusion: bronchoscopy results corroborated the relevance of the method in the diagnosis of lung cancer, considering its dependence on the anatomopathological study of tissue or cells obtained through different biopsy techniques. Computed tomography presented good sensitivity (81.1%), however the specificity of only 63.6% is related to the rate of false-positive results (36.4%). (author)

  14. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  15. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...... with vitamins A, C and E and beta-carotene offers no protection against the development of lung cancer. On the contrary, beta-carotene supplementation has, in two major randomised intervention trials, resulted in an increased mortality. Smoking remains the leading cause of lung cancer. The adverse effects...

  16. Lung Cancer Indicators Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes prognostic factors for lung cancer spread and recurrence, as well as subsequent risk of death from the disease. The investigators observed that regardless of cancer stage, grade, or type of lung cancer, patients in the study were more

  17. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Ann G; Cote, Michele L

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer continues to be one of the most common causes of cancer death despite understanding the major cause of the disease: cigarette smoking. Smoking increases lung cancer risk 5- to 10-fold with a clear dose-response relationship. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among nonsmokers increases lung cancer risk about 20%. Risks for marijuana and hookah use, and the new e-cigarettes, are yet to be consistently defined and will be important areas for continued research as use of these products increases. Other known environmental risk factors include exposures to radon, asbestos, diesel, and ionizing radiation. Host factors have also been associated with lung cancer risk, including family history of lung cancer, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and infections. Studies to identify genes associated with lung cancer susceptibility have consistently identified chromosomal regions on 15q25, 6p21 and 5p15 associated with lung cancer risk. Risk prediction models for lung cancer typically include age, sex, cigarette smoking intensity and/or duration, medical history, and occupational exposures, however there is not yet a risk prediction model currently recommended for general use. As lung cancer screening becomes more widespread, a validated model will be needed to better define risk groups to inform screening guidelines.

  18. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  19. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  20. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8), with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5), females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5), White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4) or Black people (0.90, 0

  1. Diet and lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, P; Lange, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews and l...... are only ameliorated to a minor degree by a healthy diet.......Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. While cigarette smoking is of key importance, factors such as diet also play a role in the development of lung cancer. MedLine and Embase were searched with diet and lung cancer as the key words. Recently published reviews...... and large well designed original articles were preferred to form the basis for the present article. A diet rich in fruit and vegetables reduces the incidence of lung cancer by approximately 25%. The reduction is of the same magnitude in current smokers, ex-smokers and never smokers. Supplementation...

  2. Comparative Study of Esophageal Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion and Gastrostomy Feeding for Dysphagia Caused by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2018-03-25

    Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013). SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.

  3. Lung cancer in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrera-Rodriguez R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Raúl Barrera-Rodriguez,1 Jorge Morales-Fuentes2 1Biochemistry and Environmental Medicine Laboratory, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, 2Lung Cancer Medical Service, National Institute of Respiratory Disease, Tlalpan, Mexico City, Distrito Federal, Mexico Both authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Recent biological advances in tumor research provide clear evidence that lung cancer in females is different from that in males. These differences appear to have a direct impact on the clinical presentation, histology, and outcomes of lung cancer. Women are more likely to present with lung adenocarcinoma, tend to receive a diagnosis at an earlier age, and are more likely to be diagnosed with localized disease. Women may also be more predisposed to molecular aberrations resulting from the carcinogenic effects of tobacco, but do not appear to be more susceptible than men to developing lung cancer. The gender differences found in female lung cancer make it mandatory that gender stratification is used in clinical trials in order to improve the survival rates of patients with lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, adenocarcinoma, women, genetic susceptibility, genetic differences, tobacco

  4. A comparative study of pulmonary hypoperfusion secondary to cancerous invasion of central pulmonary artery in lung cancer with CT and DSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dajing; Miao Jingtao; Lu Wusheng; Bai Hongli

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study CT features of pulmonary hypoperfusion in lung cancer with cancerous invasion of central pulmonary artery (CICPA) and the diagnostic value of CT. Methods: The pre-operative pulmonary DSA and contrast-enhanced spiral CT (including HRCT) findings in 20 cases of lung cancer with CICPA were carried out prospectively and comparatively. On DSA and CT, the distribution and quantitative variation of subpleural terminal pulmonary arterioles (pulmonary vessel signs), the filling degree of lung capillary, the post-contrast density changes of lung parenchyma, and the fluctuations of the time-density curve (pulmonary parenchymal signs) were blindly observed. The CT and DSA findings and their consistence were analyzed statistically. The diagnostic values of CT in secondary pulmonary hypoperfusion in lung cancer with CICPA were evaluated. Results: There were 30 lobar arteries with cancerous invasion among the 20 cases and 90% (27/30) of them presented pulmonary hypoperfusion on DSA. For diagnosing pulmonary hypoperfusion, CT had a sensitivity of 78%(21/27), a specificity of 100% (3/3), and an accuracy of 80%(24/30). There were no statistical correlation between pulmonary hypoperfusion and the degree of central pulmonary artery (CPA) stenosis (r s =0.40, P=0.073). Pulmonary vessel signs on CT had a good consistence with that on DSA (Kappa=0.69, P<0.001), while that of pulmonary parenchymal signs was lower (Kappa=0.37, P=0.011). Conclusion: Pulmonary hypoperfusion is one of the common findings in lung cancer with CICPA. CT is of great value in qualitative diagnosis on it, while for quantitative diagnosis, its value is limited to a certain degree

  5. Phase III trial comparing vinflunine with docetaxel in second-line advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with platinum-containing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krzakowski, Maciej; Ramlau, Rodryg; Jassem, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.......To compare vinflunine (VFL) to docetaxel in patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who have experienced treatment failure with first-line platinum-based chemotherapy....

  6. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  7. Lung cancer imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, James G

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a guide to the diagnosis, staging and overview of the management of lung cancer relevant to practicing radiologists so that they can better understand the decision making issues and provide more useful communication to treating physicians.

  8. Can Lung Nodules Be Cancerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung nodules be cancerous? Answers from Eric J. Olson, M.D. Yes, lung nodules can be cancerous, ... to determine if it's cancerous. With Eric J. Olson, M.D. AskMayoExpert. Pulmonary nodules. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo ...

  9. Rare lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2013-01-01

    The RARECARE Project (Rare Cancers in the Europe) supported by the European Union defined the rare cancers by the incidence rate of less than 6/100 000. There are several variants of lung cancer which are rare according to this definition. From the clinical point of view the most interesting are the rare adenocarcinomas and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. There are important differences in the diagnostic probability of EGFR and ALK mutations in the mutinous and non-mucin ous adenocarcinomas, in the signet ring cell adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The optimal chemotherapy for neuroendocrine large cell carcinomas remains undefined. There is only very limited number of clinical trials aimed on the rare lung cancers and actually none phase III trial. Rare lung cancers continue to be a challenge both for the laboratory and the clinical research. (author)

  10. Attitudes and Stereotypes in Lung Cancer versus Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sriram

    Full Text Available Societal perceptions may factor into the high rates of nontreatment in patients with lung cancer. To determine whether bias exists toward lung cancer, a study using the Implicit Association Test method of inferring subconscious attitudes and stereotypes from participant reaction times to visual cues was initiated. Participants were primarily recruited from an online survey panel based on US census data. Explicit attitudes regarding lung and breast cancer were derived from participants' ratings (n = 1778 regarding what they thought patients experienced in terms of guilt, shame, and hope (descriptive statements and from participants' opinions regarding whether patients ought to experience such feelings (normative statements. Participants' responses to descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer were compared with responses to statements about breast cancer. Analyses of responses revealed that the participants were more likely to agree with negative descriptive and normative statements about lung cancer than breast cancer (P<0.001. Furthermore, participants had significantly stronger implicit negative associations with lung cancer compared with breast cancer; mean response times in the lung cancer/negative conditions were significantly shorter than in the lung cancer/positive conditions (P<0.001. Patients, caregivers, healthcare providers, and members of the general public had comparable levels of negative implicit attitudes toward lung cancer. These results show that lung cancer was stigmatized by patients, caregivers, healthcare professionals, and the general public. Further research is needed to investigate whether implicit and explicit attitudes and stereotypes affect patient care.

  11. Increased mean lung density: Another independent predictor of lung cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sverzellati, Nicola, E-mail: nicola.sverzellati@unipr.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Randi, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgia.randi@marionegri.it [Department of Epidemiology, Mario Negri Institute, Via La Masa 19, 20156 Milan (Italy); Spagnolo, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.spagnolo@unimore.it [Respiratory Disease Unit, Center for Rare Lung Disease, Department of Oncology, Hematology and Respiratory Disease, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via del Pozzo 71, 44124 Modena (Italy); Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Radiology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Silva, Mario, E-mail: mac.mario@hotmail.it [Department of Department of Surgical Sciences, Section of Diagnostic Imaging, University of Parma, Padiglione Barbieri, University Hospital of Parma, V. Gramsci 14, 43100 Parma (Italy); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin, E-mail: Jan-Martin.Kuhnigk@mevis.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Universitaetsallee 29, 28359 Bremen (Germany); La Vecchia, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.lavecchia@marionegri.it [Department of Occupational Health, University of Milan, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Zompatori, Maurizio, E-mail: maurizio.zompatori@unibo.it [Department of Radiology, Cardio-Thoracic Section, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Via Albertoni 15, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Pastorino, Ugo, E-mail: ugo.pastorino@istitutotumori.mi.it [Department of Surgery, Section of Thoracic Surgery, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Venezian 1, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between emphysema phenotype, mean lung density (MLD), lung function and lung cancer by using an automated multiple feature analysis tool on thin-section computed tomography (CT) data. Methods: Both emphysema phenotype and MLD evaluated by automated quantitative CT analysis were compared between outpatients and screening participants with lung cancer (n = 119) and controls (n = 989). Emphysema phenotype was defined by assessing features such as extent, distribution on core/peel of the lung and hole size. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate independent associations of CT densitometric measurements and pulmonary function test (PFT) with lung cancer risk. Results: No emphysema feature was associated with lung cancer. Lung cancer risk increased with decreasing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV{sub 1}) independently of MLD (OR 5.37, 95% CI: 2.63–10.97 for FEV{sub 1} < 60% vs. FEV{sub 1} ≥ 90%), and with increasing MLD independently of FEV{sub 1} (OR 3.00, 95% CI: 1.60–5.63 for MLD > −823 vs. MLD < −857 Hounsfield units). Conclusion: Emphysema per se was not associated with lung cancer whereas decreased FEV{sub 1} was confirmed as being a strong and independent risk factor. The cross-sectional association between increased MLD and lung cancer requires future validations.

  12. Comparative assessment of the spreading of central lung cancer by the results of tomography and bronchological investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovyagin, E.V.; Moerman, B.A.; Tereshchenko, O.I.

    1987-01-01

    The results of tomographic and bronchological investigations were compared in 100 patients with central lung cancer. Bronchofibroscopy (BFS) was shown to play a leading role in the assessment of tumor involvement of the proximal parts of the bronchial tree. In 38% of the cases additional information on the bronchial status permitted a more precise definition of the disease stage (T factor). Tomography was superior with respect to the assessment of the intrathoratic lymph nodes giving a preliminary idea of the bronchial state. Tomography potentialities could be expanded by using an equalizer network for better differentiation of the mediastinal structures including small increases in the lymph nodes

  13. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  14. Staging of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Patricia M; Carter, Brett W; Betancourt Cuellar, Sonia L; Erasmus, Jeremy J

    2015-06-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. Thorough clinical staging of patients with lung cancer is important, because therapeutic options and management are to a considerable degree dependent on stage at presentation. Radiologic imaging is an essential component of clinical staging, including chest radiography in some cases, computed tomography, MRI, and PET. Multiplanar imaging modalities allow assessment of features that are important for surgical, oncologic, and radiation therapy planning, including size of the primary tumor, location and relationship to normal anatomic structures in the thorax, and existence of nodal and/or metastatic disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. General Information about Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  16. Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Small ...

  17. Metachronous Lung Cancer: Clinical Characteristics and Effects of Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzechonek, Adam; Błasiak, Piotr; Muszczyńska-Bernhard, Beata; Pawełczyk, Konrad; Pniewski, Grzegorz; Ornat, Maciej; Grzegrzółka, Jędrzej; Brzecka, Anna

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of a second lung tumor after surgical removal of lung cancer usually indicates a lung cancer metastasis, but sometimes a new lesion proves to be a new primary lung cancer, i.e., metachronous lung cancer. The goal of the present study was to conduct a clinical evaluation of patients with metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis, and to compare the early and distant outcomes of surgical treatment in both cancer types. There were 26 age-matched patients with lung cancer metastases and 23 patients with metachronous lung cancers, who underwent a second lung cancer resection. We evaluated the histological type of a resected cancer, the extent of thoracosurgery, the frequency of early postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after the second operation. The findings were that metachronous lung cancer was adenocarcinoma in 52% of patients, with a different histopathological pattern from that of the primary lung cancer in 74% of patients. In both cancer groups, mechanical resections were the most common surgery type (76% of all cases), with anatomical resections such as segmentectomy, lobectomy, or pneumectomy being much rarer conducted. The incidence of early postoperative complications in metachronous lung cancer and lung cancer metastasis (30% vs. 31%, respectively) and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of either cancer tumor (60.7% vs. 50.9%, respectively) were comparable. In conclusion, patients undergoing primary lung cancer surgery require a long-term follow-up due to the risk of metastatic or metachronous lung cancer. The likelihood of metachronous lung cancer and pulmonary lung cancer metastases, the incidence of postoperative complications, and the probability of 5-year survival after resection of metachronous lung cancer or lung cancer metastasis are similar.

  18. Preanalytics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Arne; Muley, Thomas; Meister, Michael; Weichert, Wilko

    2015-01-01

    Preanalytic sampling techniques and preparation of tissue specimens strongly influence analytical results in lung tissue diagnostics both on the morphological but also on the molecular level. However, in contrast to analytics where tremendous achievements in the last decade have led to a whole new portfolio of test methods, developments in preanalytics have been minimal. This is specifically unfortunate in lung cancer, where usually only small amounts of tissue are at hand and optimization in all processing steps is mandatory in order to increase the diagnostic yield. In the following, we provide a comprehensive overview on some aspects of preanalytics in lung cancer from the method of sampling over tissue processing to its impact on analytical test results. We specifically discuss the role of preanalytics in novel technologies like next-generation sequencing and in the state-of the-art cytology preparations. In addition, we point out specific problems in preanalytics which hamper further developments in the field of lung tissue diagnostics.

  19. Tumour auto-contouring on 2d cine MRI for locally advanced lung cancer: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Martin F; Eiben, Björn; Menten, Martin J; Wetscherek, Andreas; Hawkes, David J; McClelland, Jamie R; Oelfke, Uwe

    2017-12-01

    Radiotherapy guidance based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is currently becoming a clinical reality. Fast 2d cine MRI sequences are expected to increase the precision of radiation delivery by facilitating tumour delineation during treatment. This study compares four auto-contouring algorithms for the task of delineating the primary tumour in six locally advanced (LA) lung cancer patients. Twenty-two cine MRI sequences were acquired using either a balanced steady-state free precession or a spoiled gradient echo imaging technique. Contours derived by the auto-contouring algorithms were compared against manual reference contours. A selection of eight image data sets was also used to assess the inter-observer delineation uncertainty. Algorithmically derived contours agreed well with the manual reference contours (median Dice similarity index: ⩾0.91). Multi-template matching and deformable image registration performed significantly better than feature-driven registration and the pulse-coupled neural network (PCNN). Neither MRI sequence nor image orientation was a conclusive predictor for algorithmic performance. Motion significantly degraded the performance of the PCNN. The inter-observer variability was of the same order of magnitude as the algorithmic performance. Auto-contouring of tumours on cine MRI is feasible in LA lung cancer patients. Despite large variations in implementation complexity, the different algorithms all have relatively similar performance. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with lung cancer are benefiting from the boom in targeted and immune-based therapies. With a series of precision medicine trials, NCI is keeping pace with the rapidly changing treatment landscape for lung cancer.

  1. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  2. Lung cancer in HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is two to four times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the most common histological subtype, and the majority of patients are diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic carcinoma. Because pulmonary infections are common among HIV-infected individuals, clinicians may not suspect lung cancer in this younger patient population. Surgery with curative intent remains the treatment of choice for early-stage disease. Although there is increasing experience in using radiation and chemotherapy for HIV-infected patients who do not have surgical options, there is a need for prospective studies because this population is frequently excluded from participating in cancer trials. Evidence-based treatments for smoking-cessation with demonstrated efficacy in the general population must be routinely incorporated into the care of HIV-positive smokers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Curbing the burden of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urman, Alexandra; Hosgood, H Dean

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer contributes substantially to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. New screening modalities using low-dose computerized tomography are promising tools for early detection leading to curative surgery. However, the screening and follow-up diagnostic procedures of these techniques may be costly. Focusing on prevention is an important factor to reduce the burden of screening, treatment, and lung cancer deaths. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has identified several lung carcinogens, which we believe can be considered actionable when developing prevention strategies. To curb the societal burden of lung cancer, healthcare resources need to be focused on early detection and screening and on mitigating exposure(s) of a person to known lung carcinogens, such as active tobacco smoking, household air pollution (HAP), and outdoor air pollution. Evidence has also suggested that these known lung carcinogens may be associated with genetic predispositions, supporting the hypothesis that lung cancers attributed to differing exposures may have developed from unique underlying genetic mechanisms attributed to the exposure of interest. For instance, smokingattributed lung cancer involves novel genetic markers of risk compared with HAP-attributed lung cancer. Therefore, genetic risk markers may be used in risk stratification to identify subpopulations that are at a higher risk for developing lung cancer attributed to a given exposure. Such targeted prevention strategies suggest that precision prevention strategies may be possible in the future; however, much work is needed to determine whether these strategies will be viable.

  4. Lung cancer - non-small cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - lung - non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma - lung; Squamous cell carcinoma - lung ... Research shows that smoking marijuana may help cancer cells grow. But there is no direct link between ...

  5. Patient satisfaction after pulmonary resection for lung cancer: a multicenter comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Cecilia; Brunelli, Alessandro; Rocco, Gaetano; Salvi, Rosario; Xiumé, Francesco; La Rocca, Antonello; Sabbatini, Armando; Martucci, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Patient satisfaction reflects the perception of the customer about the level of quality of care received during the episode of hospitalization. To compare the levels of satisfaction of patients submitted to lung resection in two different thoracic surgical units. Prospective analysis of 280 consecutive patients submitted to pulmonary resection for neoplastic disease in two centers (center A: 139 patients; center B: 141 patients; 2009-2010). Patients' satisfaction was assessed at discharge through the EORTC-InPatSat32 module, a 32-item, multi-scale self-administered anonymous questionnaire. Each scale (ranging from 0 to 100 in score) was compared between the two units. Multivariable regression and bootstrap were used to verify factors associated with the patients' general satisfaction (dependent variable). Patients from unit B reported a higher general satisfaction (91.5 vs. 88.3, p = 0.04), mainly due to a significantly higher satisfaction in the doctor-related scales (doctors' technical skill: p = 0.001; doctors' interpersonal skill: p = 0.008; doctors' availability: p = 0.005, and doctors information provision: p = 0.0006). Multivariable regression analysis and bootstrap confirmed that level of care in unit B (p = 0.006, bootstrap frequency 60%) along with lower level of education of the patient population (p = 0.02, bootstrap frequency 62%) were independent factors associated with a higher general patient satisfaction. We were able to show a different level of patient satisfaction in patients operated on in two different thoracic surgery units. A reduced level of patient satisfaction may trigger changes in the management policy of individual units in order to meet patients' expectations and improve organizational efficiency. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Ethnic variations in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeger, A M; Mueller, M R; Odocha, O; Dekan, G; Salat, A; Röthy, W; Esposito, V; Caputi, M; Wolner, E; Kaiser, H E

    1997-01-01

    Cancer of the lung is the most frequent cancer in the world, but with wide geographical variation in risk. It is most spread among males of all races worldwide, the only exception being its incidence among Chinese women aged 70 years and older. When comparing the different ethnic groups we have to consider that besides inhaling cigarette smoke actively or as a passive smoker the exposure to occupational carcinogens varies considerably according to different work places. In our study we compared 10 years of data from African-Americans in Howard University Hospital, Washington D.C. with 20 years of data from the white population in the University Hospital of Vienna, Austria. Ethnic patterns are generally consistent within each group in terms of both incidence and mortality. The difference in susceptibility between the sexes, the three major racial groups and already proven differences in genetic variations indicate the difference between individuals concerning the initiation and progression of lung cancer.

  7. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Carla F

    2017-06-30

    The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  8. Intersections of lung progenitor cells, lung disease and lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla F. Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of stem cell biology approaches to study adult lung progenitor cells and lung cancer has brought a variety of new techniques to the field of lung biology and has elucidated new pathways that may be therapeutic targets in lung cancer. Recent results have begun to identify the ways in which different cell populations interact to regulate progenitor activity, and this has implications for the interventions that are possible in cancer and in a variety of lung diseases. Today's better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate lung progenitor cell self-renewal and differentiation, including understanding how multiple epigenetic factors affect lung injury repair, holds the promise for future better treatments for lung cancer and for optimising the response to therapy in lung cancer. Working between platforms in sophisticated organoid culture techniques, genetically engineered mouse models of injury and cancer, and human cell lines and specimens, lung progenitor cell studies can begin with basic biology, progress to translational research and finally lead to the beginnings of clinical trials.

  9. "EXHALE": exercise as a strategy for rehabilitation in advanced stage lung cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of 12 weeks supervised exercise intervention versus usual care for advanced stage lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, Morten; Langer, SW; Rørth, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate that physi......BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in North America and Western Europe. Patients with lung cancer in general have reduced physical capacity, functional capacity, poor quality of life and increased levels of anxiety and depression. Intervention studies indicate...... that physical training can address these issues. However, there is a lack of decisive evidence regarding the effect of physical exercise in patients with advanced lung cancer. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of a twelve weeks, twice weekly program consisting of: supervised, structured training...... in a group of advanced lung cancer patients (cardiovascular and strength training, relaxation). METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial will test the effects of the exercise intervention in 216 patients with advanced lung cancer (non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIb-IV and small cell lung...

  10. The Danish Lung Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...

  11. Diagnostic Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Kara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer related death in men and women. It is frequently seen among men than in women and male-female ratio is 1.5:1. Common epidemiological factors that increase risk of lung cancer is smoking. Early age to start smoking, high number of smoking cigarettes per a day and depth of inhalation increase risk of lung cancer. 25% of patients with lung cancer are nonsmokers that passively exposed to cigarette smoke. Occupational exposure to substances such as asbestos, arsenic, nickel, beryllium, mustard gas increases the risk of lung cancer. The well defined risk factor is exposure to asbestos. In addition advanced age, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and genetic predisposition are the risk factors that increases lung cancer. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 749-756

  12. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jeremy P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Murphy, James D. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Science, University of California– San Diego, Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, California (United States); Hanlon, Alexandra L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Loo, Billy W., E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Diehn, Maximilian, E-mail: diehn@Stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  13. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  14. Estrogen Signaling in Lung Cancer: An Opportunity for Novel Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Christina S.; Eaton, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in U.S. and represents a major public health burden. Epidemiologic data have suggested that lung cancer in women may possess different biological characteristics compared to men, as evidenced by a higher proportion of never-smokers among women with lung cancer. Emerging data indicate that female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone play a significant role in lung carcinogenesis. It has been reported that estrogen and progesterone receptors are expressed in lung cancer cell lines as well as in patient-derived tumors. Hormone related risk factors such as hormone replacement therapy have been implicated in lung carcinogenesis and several preclinical studies show activity of anti-estrogen therapy in lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence for the role of reproductive hormones in lung cancer and implications for lung cancer therapy

  15. Pain management in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Syahruddin, Elisna; Yunus, Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Not only burdened by the limited overall survival, lung cancer patient also suffer from various symptoms, such as pain, that implicated in the quality of life. Cancer pain is a complicated and transiently dynamic symptom that results from multiple mechanisms. This review will describe the pathophysiology of cancer pain and general approach in managing a patient with lung cancer pain. The use of opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and adjuvant analgesia, as part of the pharmacology therapy along with interventional strategy, will also be discussed.

  16. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  17. Chemoradiotherapy for youngster lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tingfeng; Jiang Guoliang; Fu Xiaolong; Wang Lijuan; Qian Hao; Zhao Sen

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define the clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival of young-robust patients ( 2 vs 70 mg/m 2 , P<0.001), and more cycles of chemotherapy 6 vs 4, P<0.001) were observed in the youngster group. There was no difference between the two groups in family history of cancer, cigarette smoking, weight loss, and KPS. The median survival intervals of all stages (10 months vs 12 months), and the 2-and 5-year survival rates (11.1% vs 23.1% and 3.1% vs 5.4%) were comparable (P=0.090) between them. For stage IIIb, there was a trend that young patients would give better outcome than the older ones with median survivals of 11 months to 9 months and the 2-year survivals of 3.8% to 0% (P=0.071). Conclusions: The different clinico-pathologic features of the young lung cancer patients are confirmed from that of old patients, but without any survival disparity. In order to enhance our understanding and reduce the mis-diagnosis rate, it is rational to define the lung cancer in relative young people as the youngster lung cancer, which may be beneficial to the clinical practice

  18. Effect of 3D radiotherapy planning compared to 2D planning within a conventional treatment schedule of advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraube, P.; Spahn, U.; Oetzel, D.; Wannenmacher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Background: The effect of 3D radiotherapy planning (3D RTP) in comparison to 2D radiotherapy planning (2D RTP) was evaluated in a usually practiced treatment schedule (starting by v./d. opposing portals, continued with computer-planned portals) for non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients and Methods: In 20 patients with locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer the computer-planned part of the treatment schedule was calculated 2- and 3-dimensionally. Target volume were the primary tumor, the involved and the electively irradiated mediastinal lymph nodes. The results of the 2D RTP were recalculated 3-dimensionally and the mean doses to target volume and organs at risk were defined. Further, the normal tissue complications were calculated. Results: Under the prerequisite of 44 Gy maximally allowed to the spinal cord and a dose to the reference point of 50 Gy a small, but significant advantage with 2.1 Gy to the target (p=0.004) and a reduction of 3.6 Gy to the heart (p=0.05) was achievable for 3D RTP. The dose to the lungs did not differ significantly (19.7 Gy for 2D RTP, 20.3 Gy for 3D RTP). The dose to the heart was not estimated critical by NTCP (normal tissue complication probability). The NTCP for the ipsilateral lung was 16.1 and 18.7% for 2D RTP and 3D RTP, respectively. Regarding the simulator-planned ap/pa fields at the start of the radiotherapy the advantage of 3D RTP was further reduced but remained significant. Favorable with respect to the mean lung dose and the NTCP (18.7% NTCP ipsilateral lung for early onset of 3D planned radiotherapy vs 31.7% for late onset of 3D planned radiotherapy) but not significantly measurable is the early start of the treatment by computerized RTP. Conclusion: The main advantage of 3D RTP in treatment of advanced lung cancer is the better coverage of the target volume. A reduction of the mean lung dose cannot be expected. A dose escalation by 3D RTP to target volumes as described here seems not to be possible because of

  19. Lung Cancer Rates by State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by State for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by State Language: English (US) ...

  20. Limits of dose escalation in lung cancer: a dose-volume histogram analysis comparing coplanar and non-coplanar techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derycke, S; Van Duyse, B; Schelfhout, J; De Neve, W

    1995-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of dose escalation in radiotherapy of inoperable lung cancer, a dose-volume histogram analysis was performed comparing standard coplanar (2D) with non-coplanar (3D) beam arrangements on a non-selected group of 20 patients planned by Sherouse`s GRATISTM 3D-planning system. Serial CT-scanning was performed and 2 Target Volumes (Tvs) were defined. Gross Tumor Volume (GTV) defined a high-dose Target Volume (TV-1). GTV plus location of node stations with > 10% probability of invasion (Minet et al.) defined an intermediate-dose Target Volume (TV-2). However, nodal regions which are incompatible with cure were excluded from TV-2. These are ATS-regions 1, 8, 9 and 14 all left and right as well as heterolateral regions. For 3D-planning, Beam`s Eye View selected (by an experienced planner) beam arrangements were optimised using Superdot, a method of target dose-gradient annihilation developed by Sherouse. A second 3D-planning was performed using 4 beam incidences with maximal angular separation. The linac`s isocenter for the optimal arrangement was located at the geometrical center of gravity of a tetraheder, the tetraheder`s comers being the consecutive positions of the virtual source. This ideal beam arrangement was approximated as close as possible, taking into account technical limitations (patient-couch-gantry collisions). Criteria for tolerance were met if no points inside the spinal cord exceeded 50 Gy and if at least 50% of the lung volume received less than 20Gy. If dose regions below 50 Gy were judged acceptable at TV-2, 2D- as well as 3D-plans allow safe escalation to 80 Gy at TV-1. When TV-2 needed to be encompassed by isodose surfaces exceeding 50Gy, 3D-plans were necessary to limit dose at the spinal cord below tolerance. For large TVs dose is limited by lung tolerance for 3D-plans. An analysis (including NTCP-TCP as cost functions) of rival 3D-plans is being performed.

  1. Drugs Approved for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for lung cancer. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters.

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Operable Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Can SBRT Be Comparable to Surgery?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Hiroshi, E-mail: honishi@yamanashi.ac.jp [School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Shirato, Hiroki [School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Nagata, Yasushi [School of Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiraoka, Masahiro [School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujino, Masaharu [School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan); Gomi, Kotaro [Cancer Institute Suwa Red-Cross Hospital, Suwa (Japan); Karasawa, Katsuyuki [Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Yuzuru [Kitasato University, Kanagawa (Japan); Takai, Yoshihiro [School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, Hirosaki (Japan); Kimura, Tomoki [School of Medicine, Kagawa University, Hiroshima (Japan); Takeda, Atsuya [Ofuna Chuo Hospital, Kanagawa (Japan); Ouchi, Atsushi [Keijinkai Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo (Japan); Kokubo, Masaki [Institute of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Kozuka, Takuyo [School of Cancer Institute Ariake Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Arimoto, Takuro [Kitami Red Cross Hospital, Kitami (Japan); Hara, Ryusuke [National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba (Japan); Itami, Jun [National Cancer Center, Tokyo (Japan); Araki, Tsutomu [School of Medicine, Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To review treatment outcomes for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in medically operable patients with Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), using a Japanese multi-institutional database. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2004, a total of 87 patients with Stage I NSCLC (median age, 74 years; T1N0M0, n = 65; T2N0M0, n = 22) who were medically operable but refused surgery were treated using SBRT alone in 14 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. Total dose was 45-72.5 Gy at the isocenter, administered in 3-10 fractions. Median calculated biological effective dose was 116 Gy (range, 100-141 Gy). Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), cumulative local control rates for T1 and T2 tumors at 5 years after SBRT were 92% and 73%, respectively. Pulmonary complications above Grade 2 arose in 1 patient (1.1%). Five-year overall survival rates for Stage IA and IB subgroups were 72% and 62%, respectively. One patient who developed local recurrences safely underwent salvage surgery. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy is safe and promising as a radical treatment for operable Stage I NSCLC. The survival rate for SBRT is potentially comparable to that for surgery.

  3. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Operable Stage I Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Can SBRT Be Comparable to Surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Shirato, Hiroki; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Fujino, Masaharu; Gomi, Kotaro; Karasawa, Katsuyuki; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Niibe, Yuzuru; Takai, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Tomoki; Takeda, Atsuya; Ouchi, Atsushi; Hareyama, Masato; Kokubo, Masaki; Kozuka, Takuyo; Arimoto, Takuro; Hara, Ryusuke; Itami, Jun; Araki, Tsutomu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To review treatment outcomes for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in medically operable patients with Stage I non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), using a Japanese multi-institutional database. Patients and Methods: Between 1995 and 2004, a total of 87 patients with Stage I NSCLC (median age, 74 years; T1N0M0, n = 65; T2N0M0, n = 22) who were medically operable but refused surgery were treated using SBRT alone in 14 institutions. Stereotactic three-dimensional treatment was performed using noncoplanar dynamic arcs or multiple static ports. Total dose was 45–72.5 Gy at the isocenter, administered in 3–10 fractions. Median calculated biological effective dose was 116 Gy (range, 100–141 Gy). Data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), cumulative local control rates for T1 and T2 tumors at 5 years after SBRT were 92% and 73%, respectively. Pulmonary complications above Grade 2 arose in 1 patient (1.1%). Five-year overall survival rates for Stage IA and IB subgroups were 72% and 62%, respectively. One patient who developed local recurrences safely underwent salvage surgery. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy is safe and promising as a radical treatment for operable Stage I NSCLC. The survival rate for SBRT is potentially comparable to that for surgery.

  4. Preferred Place of Care and Death in Terminally Ill Patients with Lung and Heart Disease Compared to Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skorstengaard, Marianne H; Neergaard, Mette A; Andreassen, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    with these diagnoses. Background: Previous research on end-of-life preferences focuses on cancer patients, most of whom identify home as their PPOC and PPOD. These preferences may, however, not mirror those of patients suffering from nonmalignant fatal diseases. Design: The study was designed as a cross......, all patients had a higher level of anxiety than the average Danish population; patients with heart diseases had a much higher level of anxiety than patients with lung diseases and cancer. Conclusion: Patient preferences for PPOC and PPOD vary according to their diagnoses; tailoring palliative needs...

  5. Epigenetic Therapy in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Liu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic dysregulation of gene function has been strongly implicated in carcinogenesis and is one of the mechanisms contributing to the development of lung cancer. The inherent reversibility of epigenetic alterations makes them viable therapeutic targets. Here, we review the therapeutic implications of epigenetic changes in lung cancer, and recent advances in therapeutic strategies targeting DNA methylation and histone acetylation.

  6. What You Need to Know about Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer ... Publications Reports What You Need To Know About™ Lung Cancer This booklet is about lung cancer. Learning about ...

  7. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of 5 Treatment Strategies for Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in the Elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvani, Shervin M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jiang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics and Applied Mathematics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y.; Welsh, James W.; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Swisher, Stephen [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Buchholz, Thomas A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Smith, Benjamin D., E-mail: bsmith3@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: The incidence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among older adults is expected to increase because of demographic trends and computed tomography-based screening; yet, optimal treatment in the elderly remains controversial. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort spanning 2001-2007, we compared survival outcomes associated with 5 strategies used in contemporary practice: lobectomy, sublobar resection, conventional radiation therapy, stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR), and observation. Methods and Materials: Treatment strategy and covariates were determined in 10,923 patients aged {>=}66 years with stage IA-IB NSCLC. Cox regression, adjusted for patient and tumor factors, compared overall and disease-specific survival for the 5 strategies. In a second exploratory analysis, propensity-score matching was used for comparison of SABR with other options. Results: The median age was 75 years, and 29% had moderate to severe comorbidities. Treatment distribution was lobectomy (59%), sublobar resection (11.7%), conventional radiation (14.8%), observation (12.6%), and SABR (1.1%). In Cox regression analysis with a median follow-up time of 3.2 years, SABR was associated with the lowest risk of death within 6 months of diagnosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.38-0.63; referent is lobectomy). After 6 months, lobectomy was associated with the best overall and disease-specific survival. In the propensity-score matched analysis, survival after SABR was similar to that after lobectomy (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.45-1.12; referent is SABR). Conventional radiation and observation were associated with poor outcomes in all analyses. Conclusions: In this population-based experience, lobectomy was associated with the best long-term outcomes in fit elderly patients with early-stage NSCLC. Exploratory analysis of SABR early adopters suggests efficacy comparable with that of surgery in select populations

  9. Superiority of conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy over helical tomotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A comparative plan analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, C. [National Cancer Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of). Proton Therapy Center; Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Pyo, H.; Kim, J. [Sungkyunkwan Univ. School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Lim, Y.K.; Kim, D.W.; Cho, K.H. [National Cancer Center, Research Institute and Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of). Proton Therapy Center; Kim, W.C. [Inha Univ. School of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kim, H.J. [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To compare helical tomotherapy (HT) and conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) using a variety of dosimetric and radiobiologic indexes in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC). Patients and methods: A total of 20 patients with LA-NSCLC were enrolled. IMRT plans with 4-6 coplanar beams and HT plans were generated for each patient. Dose distributions and dosimetric indexes for the tumors and critical structures were computed for both plans and compared. Results: Both modalities created highly conformal plans. They did not differ in the volumes of lung exposed to > 20 Gy of radiation. The average mean lung dose, volume receiving {>=} 30 Gy, and volume receiving {>=} 10 Gy in HT planning were 18.3 Gy, 18.5%, and 57.1%, respectively, compared to 19.4 Gy, 25.4%, and 48.9%, respectively, with IMRT (p = 0.004, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001). The differences between HT and IMRT in lung volume receiving {>=} 10-20 Gy increased significantly as the planning target volume (PTV) increased. For 6 patients who had PTV greater than 700 cm{sup 3}, IMRT was superior to HT for 5 patients in terms of lung volume receiving {>=} 5-20 Gy. The integral dose to the entire thorax in HT plans was significantly higher than in IMRT plans. Conclusion: HT gave significantly better control of mean lung dose and volume receiving {>=} 30-40 Gy, whereas IMRT provided better control of the lung volume receiving {>=} 5-15 Gy and the integral dose to entire thorax. In most patients with PTV greater than 700 cm{sup 3}, IMRT was superior to HT in terms of lung volume receiving {>=} 5-20 Gy. It is therefore advised that caution should be exercised when planning LA-NSCLC using HT. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic performance of [18F] FDG PET-CT compared to bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases in lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RODRIGUES, Margarida; STARK, Hannes; RENDL, Gundula; RETTENBACHER, Lukas; PIRICH, Christian; DATZ, Lidwina; STUDNICKA, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Accurate staging of lung cancer is essential for effective patient management and selection of appropriate therapeutic strategy. The aim of this paper was to compare the value of bone scintigraphy and FDG PET-CT for detecting bone metastases in lung cancer patients and the impact of these modalities in disease staging. One hundred sixty-four lung cancer patients who had undergone both FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy within 14 days were included into this study. The analysis of FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy was carried out patient- and lesion-based. One hundred twenty-one patients were negative and 43 patients positive for bone metastases. FDG PET-CT found bone metastases in 42/43 patients and bone scintigraphy in 38/43 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of FDG PET-CT and bone scintigraphy for detecting bone metastases were 97.7%, 100% and 99.4%, and 87.8%, 97.5% and 94.2%, respectively. FDG PET-CT identified 430 bone metastases and bone scintigraphy 246 bone metastases. Skull was the only region where bone scintigraphy identified more lesions than FDG PET-CT. Based on both scintigraphic modalities disagreement concerning disease stage was found in 3 patients. In conclusion, FDG PET-CT yielded a higher sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than bone scintigraphy for identifying bone metastases in lung cancer patients. FDG PET-CT thus can be recommended for initial staging of lung cancer patients without applying bone scintigraphy for the detection of bone metastases.

  11. Comparative Survival in Patients With Postresection Recurrent Versus Newly Diagnosed Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xuwei; Xu Luying; Wang Li; Hayman, James A.; Chang, Andrew C.; Pickens, Allan; Cease, Kemp B.; Orringer, Mark B.; Kong, F.-M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the survival of postresection recurrent vs. newly diagnosed non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The study population consisted of 661 consecutive patients with NSCLC registered in the radiation oncology databases at two medical centers in the United States between 1992 and 2004. Of the 661 patients, 54 had postresection recurrent NSCLC and 607 had newly diagnosed NSCLC. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models were used for the survival analyses. Results: The distribution of relevant clinical factors between these two groups was similar. The median survival time and 5-year overall survival rates were 19.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.9-25.7) and 14.8% (95% confidence interval, 5.4-24.2%) vs. 12.2 months (95% CI, 10.8-13.6) and 11.0% (95% CI, 8.5-13.5%) for recurrent vs. newly diagnosed patients, respectively (p = .037). For Stage I-III patients, no significant difference was observed in the 5-year overall survival (p = .297) or progression-free survival (p = .935) between recurrent and newly diagnosed patients. For the 46 patients with Stage I-III recurrent disease, multivariate analysis showed that chemotherapy was a significant prognostic factor for 5-year progression-free survival (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.224-0.914; p = .027). Conclusion: Our institutional data have shown that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC achieved survival comparable to that of newly diagnosed NSCLC patients when they were both treated with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. These findings suggest that patients with postresection recurrent NSCLC should be treated as aggressively as those with newly diagnosed disease.

  12. Lung cancer-A global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Amanda; Ganti, Apar Kishor

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. While tobacco exposure is responsible for the majority of lung cancers, the incidence of lung cancer in never smokers, especially Asian women, is increasing. There is a global variation in lung cancer biology with EGFR mutations being more common in Asian patients, while Kras mutation is more common in Caucasians. This review will focus on the global variations in lung cancer and its treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  14. Optical and Functional Imaging in Lung Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. van der Leest (Cor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the second most common cancer in men and women, and is the leading cause of cancer related death. In industrialized countries the mortality rate of lung cancer is higher than the mortality rate of breast, colorectal and prostate cancer combined 1. When lung cancer is

  15. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Targeting apoptosis pathways in lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pore, Milind M.; Hiltermann, T. Jeroen N.; Kruyt, Frank A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is a devastating disease with a poor prognosis. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) represent different forms of lung cancer that are associated with distinct genetic causes and display different responses to therapy in the clinic. Whereas SCLC is often

  17. Staging Lung Cancer: Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Girish S; Viswanathan, Chitra; Carter, Brett W; Benveniste, Marcelo F; Truong, Mylene T; Sabloff, Bradley S

    2018-05-01

    The updated eighth edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) classification for lung cancer includes revisions to T and M descriptors. In terms of the M descriptor, the classification of intrathoracic metastatic disease as M1a is unchanged from TNM-7. Extrathoracic metastatic disease, which was classified as M1b in TNM-7, is now subdivided into M1b (single metastasis, single organ) and M1c (multiple metastases in one or multiple organs) descriptors. In this article, the rationale for changes in the M descriptors, the utility of preoperative staging with PET/computed tomography, and the treatment options available for patients with oligometastatic disease are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dilemmas in Lung Cancer Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Ioannis

    2018-05-01

    The advent of the 8th edition of the lung cancer staging system reflects a further meticulous evidence-based advance in the stratification of the survival of patients with lung cancer. Although addressing many limitations of earlier staging systems, several limitations in staging remain. This article reviews from a radiological perspective the limitations of the current staging system, highlighting the process of TNM restructuring, the residual issues with regards to the assignment of T, N, M descriptors, and their associated stage groupings and how these dilemmas impact guidance of multidisciplinary teams taking care of patients with lung cancer. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of the international comparability of population-based routine hospital data set derived comorbidity scores for patients with lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Morris, Eva J A; Tataru, Daniela; Coupland, Victoria H; Smith, Andrew; Milne, Roger L; Te Marvelde, Luc; Baker, Deborah; Young, Jane; Turner, Donna; Nishri, Diane; Earle, Craig; Shack, Lorraine; Gavin, Anna; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Lin, Yulan; Møller, Bjørn; Brewster, David H; Deas, Andrew; Huws, Dyfed W; White, Ceri; Warlow, Janet; Rashbass, Jem; Peake, Michael D

    2018-04-01

    The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) identified significant international differences in lung cancer survival. Differing levels of comorbid disease across ICBP countries has been suggested as a potential explanation of this variation but, to date, no studies have quantified its impact. This study investigated whether comparable, robust comorbidity scores can be derived from the different routine population-based cancer data sets available in the ICBP jurisdictions and, if so, use them to quantify international variation in comorbidity and determine its influence on outcome. Linked population-based lung cancer registry and hospital discharge data sets were acquired from nine ICBP jurisdictions in Australia, Canada, Norway and the UK providing a study population of 233 981 individuals. For each person in this cohort Charlson, Elixhauser and inpatient bed day Comorbidity Scores were derived relating to the 4-36 months prior to their lung cancer diagnosis. The scores were then compared to assess their validity and feasibility of use in international survival comparisons. It was feasible to generate the three comorbidity scores for each jurisdiction, which were found to have good content, face and concurrent validity. Predictive validity was limited and there was evidence that the reliability was questionable. The results presented here indicate that interjurisdictional comparability of recorded comorbidity was limited due to probable differences in coding and hospital admission practices in each area. Before the contribution of comorbidity on international differences in cancer survival can be investigated an internationally harmonised comorbidity index is required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Lung Cancer in uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chundi; Fan Jixiong; Wang Liuhu; Huang Yiehan; Nie Guanghua

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyese the clinical data of 39 uranium miners with lung cancer and of 20 patients with lung cancer who have not been exposed to uranium as control. The age of uranium miners with lung cancer was 36∼61 with an average of 48.8, nine years earlier than that of the control group (57.3). In the uranium miner patients the right lung was more susceptible to cancer than the left, the ratio being 2.5:1. However, in the control group the right lung had an equal incidence of cancer as the left lung. The relative frequency of small cell anaplastic carcinoma in uranium miner was higher than that in the control group. In the miner patients the mean occupation history was 11.1 ± 5.2 years; the exposure dose to radon and its daughters in 50% patients was 0.504J(120 WLM). The etiologic factor of lung cancer in uranium miners is strongly attributed, in addition to smoking, to the exposure to radon and its daughters in uranium mines

  1. CT imaging of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Yan; Xie Ruming; Zhou Xinhua; Zhou Zhen; Xu Jinping; He Wei; Guo Lifang; Ning Fenggang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer. Methods: One hundred and four patients of coexisting pulmonary tuberculosis and lung cancer proved by histology, cytology or clinical underwent CT examination. All patients were divided into two groups, group Ⅰ were the patients with the lung cancer after tuberculosis or both found simultaneously (group Ⅰ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅰ b with central lung cancer), group Ⅱ with tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy (group Ⅱ a with peripheral lung cancer and group Ⅱ b with central lung cancer). Imaging characteristics of tuberculosis and lung cancer were compared. χ"2 test and t test were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Of 104 patients, there were 92 patients (88.5%) in group Ⅰ and 12 patients (11.5%) in group Ⅱ. Seventy patients (76.1%) of lung cancer and tuberculosis were located in the same lobe and 22 patients (23.9%) in the different lobes in group Ⅰ. There was no significant difference in distribution of tuberculosis between group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ (χ"2 = 4.302, P = 0.507). The fibrous stripes, nodules of calcification and pleural adhesion of tuberculosis were statistically significant between the two groups (χ"2 = 22.737, 15.193, 27.792, P < 0.05). There were 33 central lung cancers and 71 peripheral lung cancers. In group Ⅰ a (64 patients of peripheral lung cancers), 39 patients (60.9%) had typical manifestations and most of the lesions were ≥ 3 cm (n = 49, 76.6%), solid lesions showed variable enhancement. Conclusions: Secondary tuberculosis during lung cancer chemotherapy has the same CT characteristics with the common active tuberculosis. The morphology, enhancement pattern of lesion and follow-up are helpful for the diagnosis of lung cancer after tuberculosis. (authors)

  2. Disseminated lung cancer presenting as a rectal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noergaard, Mia M; Stamp, Inger M H; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Primary lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally, and approximately 50% had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. A rectal mass and unintended weight loss are common manifestations of rectal cancer. Our case presented with a rectal mass, but workup revealed...... a metastatic lesion from lung cancer. Lung cancer metastases to the lower gastrointestinal tract imply reduced survival compared with the already poor mean survival of stage IV lung cancer. Despite relevant therapy, the patient died 5 months after referral....

  3. [A Comparative Study of Acute and Chronic Pain between Single Port and Triple Port Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caiwei; Xu, Meiqing; Xu, Guangwen; Xiong, Ran; Wu, Hanran; Xie, Mingran

    2018-04-20

    Through the comparative analysis of the acute and chronic pain postoperative between the single port and triple port video-assisted thoracic surgery to seek the better method which can reduce the incidence of acute and chronic pain in patients with lung cancer. Data of 232 patients who underwent single port -VATS (n=131) or triple port VATS (n=101) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) on January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017 in our hospital were analyzed. The clinical and operative data were assessed, numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate the mean pain score on the 1th, 2th, 3th, 7th, 14th days, 3th months and 6th months postoperative. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics, there were no perioperative death in two groups. In the 1th, 2th, 7th, 14th days and 3th, 6th months postoperative, the NRS score of the single port group was superior, and the difference was significant compared with the triple port (P0.05). Univariate and multivariate analysis of the occurrence on the chronic pain showed that the operation time, surgical procedure and the 14th NRS score were risk factors for chronic pain (Pport thoracoscopic surgery has an advantage in the incidence of acute and chronic pain in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Shorter operative time can reduce the occurrence of chronic pain. The 14th day NRS score is a risk factor for chronic pain postoperative.

  4. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Fang-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Methods Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH, reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR, and immunohistochemistry (IHC in more patients. Results We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1 functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1 involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3 functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1 involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (PP=0.06. In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of

  5. The database of chromosome imbalance regions and genes resided in lung cancer from Asian and Caucasian identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Fang-Yi; Nandi, Suvobroto; Salgia, Ravi; Wang, Yi-Ching; Chang, Jer-Wei; Chang, I-Shou; Chen, Yann-Jang; Hsu, Han-Shui; Huang, Shiu-Feng Kathy; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Jiang, Shih Sheng; Kanteti, Rajani

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-related genes show racial differences. Therefore, identification and characterization of DNA copy number alteration regions in different racial groups helps to dissect the mechanism of tumorigenesis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) was analyzed for DNA copy number profile in 40 Asian and 20 Caucasian lung cancer patients. Three methods including MetaCore analysis for disease and pathway correlations, concordance analysis between array-CGH database and the expression array database, and literature search for copy number variation genes were performed to select novel lung cancer candidate genes. Four candidate oncogenes were validated for DNA copy number and mRNA and protein expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH), reverse transcriptase-qPCR (RT-qPCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in more patients. We identified 20 chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 459 genes for Caucasian and 17 regions containing 476 genes for Asian lung cancer patients. Seven common chromosomal imbalance regions harboring 117 genes, included gain on 3p13-14, 6p22.1, 9q21.13, 13q14.1, and 17p13.3; and loss on 3p22.2-22.3 and 13q13.3 were found both in Asian and Caucasian patients. Gene validation for four genes including ARHGAP19 (10q24.1) functioning in Rho activity control, FRAT2 (10q24.1) involved in Wnt signaling, PAFAH1B1 (17p13.3) functioning in motility control, and ZNF322A (6p22.1) involved in MAPK signaling was performed using qPCR and RT-qPCR. Mean gene dosage and mRNA expression level of the four candidate genes in tumor tissues were significantly higher than the corresponding normal tissues (P<0.001~P=0.06). In addition, CISH analysis of patients indicated that copy number amplification indeed occurred for ARHGAP19 and ZNF322A genes in lung cancer patients. IHC analysis of paraffin blocks from Asian Caucasian patients demonstrated that the frequency of PAFAH1B1 protein overexpression was 68

  6. Bidi smoking and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra; Singhal, Sanjay; Garg, Rajiv

    2009-04-01

    This article discusses the role of bidi smoking as a risk factor for lung cancer. A review of the documented evidence is presented. The literature from Pubmed has been searched using the key words 'beedi smoking', 'bidi smoking' and 'lung cancer'. The bibliographies of all papers found were further searched for additional relevant articles. After this thorough search, eight studies were found. The evidence suggests that bidi smoking poses a higher risk for lung cancer than cigarette smoking and risk further increases with both the length of time and amount of bidi smoking. The focus of tobacco control programs should be expanded to all types of tobacco use, including bidis, to reduce the increasing problem of lung cancer.

  7. Concerns About Lung Cancer Among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Luc; Perrot, Emmanuel; Pradat, Eric; Bartoli, Christophe; Greillier, Laurent; Remacle-Bonnet, Anne; Telmon, Norbert; Mazières, Julien; Molinier, Laurent; Couraud, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Few studies have looked at lung cancer in prisoners, despite this population is possibly at increased risk of malignancy. In a previous study, we found an early onset of lung cancer in prisoners. Thus, the present CARCAN study was aimed at assessing the epidemiological characteristics, management, prognosis, and incidence of lung cancer in prisoners compared to a sample of non-prisoner patients. We performed a multi-center observational case-control study. Cases were prisoners diagnosed with lung cancer from 2005 to 2013. Controls were non-prisoner lung cancer patients selected from hospital databases and randomly matched to cases (targeted case-control ratio: 1:3). Incidence rates in both groups were calculated using national statistics. Seventy-two cases and 170 controls met inclusion criteria. Cases were mainly men (99%). Mean age at diagnosis was 52.9 (± 11.0) in cases and 64.3 (± 10.1) in controls (p < 0.0001). More case patients were current smokers compared to control patients (83% vs 53%; p < 0.0001). We found no significant differences between the two groups as concerns histologic types, TNM stages at diagnosis, initially-employed treatments, times to management or survival. Incidence rates (2008-2012) in male prisoners were higher than those in the general population in all concerned age groups. There is a shift of lung cancer toward young people in prisons. However, the presentation, management, and prognosis of lung cancer are similar between prisoners and non-prisoners. These finding could justify a specific screening policy for the incarcerated populations.

  8. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in lung cancer diagnosing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjikostova, H.

    1999-01-01

    As the lung cancer is the leading cause of death from cancer at males, the exact staging is essential. Monoclonal antibodies marked with radionuclides like 131 I, 111 In, 99m Tc, etc., allow detecting and staging the small cell lung cancer with sensibility 90%, specificity 45% and accuracy 85%. It is suggested this method to be applied simultaneously with computerized tomography. The diagnostic possibility of radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) in earlier detection, recurrence or metastasis as well as follow up the effect of therapy performed at patients with lung cancer are reviewed. RIS is performed with IODOMAB-R-2 (Sorin Biomedica) 131 I antiCEA Mob F(ab') 2 , dose 92.5-185 MBq. Planar images were performed 72 hours after i.v. injection. Four patients with epidermoid squamous cell cancer were examined. Positive results were obtained at 3 patients and one false negative. In general sensitivity of radioimmunoscintigraphy of lung cancer is 75-90%. However there are difficulties at its application linked with necessity of permanent availability of radiolabelled antibodies with high specific activity at the moment of their injection. Despite all radioimmunoscintigraphy is developing as an useful diagnostic method for evaluation and follow up of lung cancer patients

  9. Comparing a medical records-based and a claims-based index for measuring comorbidity in patients with lung or colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Kenneth L; Lamont, Elizabeth B; McNeil, Barbara J; Bozeman, Samuel R; Kelley, Michael J; Keating, Nancy L

    2015-05-01

    Ascertaining comorbid conditions in cancer patients is important for research and clinical quality measurement, and is particularly important for understanding care and outcomes for older patients and those with multi-morbidity. We compared the medical records-based ACE-27 index and the claims-based Charlson index in predicting receipt of therapy and survival for lung and colon cancer patients. We calculated the Charlson index using administrative data and the ACE-27 score using medical records for Veterans Affairs patients diagnosed with stage I/II non-small cell lung or stage III colon cancer from January 2003 to December 2004. We compared the proportion of patients identified by each index as having any comorbidity. We used multivariable logistic regression to ascertain the predictive power of each index regarding delivery of guideline-recommended therapies and two-year survival, comparing the c-statistic and the Akaike information criterion (AIC). Overall, 97.2% of lung and 90.9% of colon cancer patients had any comorbidity according to the ACE-27 index, versus 59.5% and 49.7%, respectively, according to the Charlson. Multivariable models including the ACE-27 index outperformed Charlson-based models when assessing receipt of guideline-recommended therapies, with higher c-statistics and lower AICs. Neither index was clearly superior in prediction of two-year survival. The ACE-27 index measured using medical records captured more comorbidity and outperformed the Charlson index measured using administrative data for predicting receipt of guideline-recommended therapies, demonstrating the potential value of more detailed comorbidity data. However, the two indices had relatively similar performance when predicting survival. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spine Metastases in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Stolyarova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and the objectives of the study were to determine the incidence of metastatic lesions to various parts of the spine, the assessment of the association with other clinical signs of lung cancer (localization, form, histology, degree of differentiation, staging, nature of extraosseous metastasis, to investigate the effect of these parameters on the survi­val of the patients. Material and methods. The study included 1071 patients with lung cancer aged 24 to 86 years. None of the examined patients has been operated previously for lung cancer, and after arriving at a diagnosis, all patients received radiation therapy, 73 % of them — combined radiochemothe­rapy. Results. Metastasis in the vertebral bodies and vertebral joints occurs in 13 % of patients with lung cancer and in 61 % of patients with bone form of the disease, the ratio of the defeat of thoracic, sacral, lumbar and cervical spine was 6 : 4 : 2 : 1. The development of metastases in the spine is mostly associa­ted with the localization of the tumor in the upper lobe of the lung, the peripheral form of the disease, with non-small cell histologic variants (adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The number of metastases in the spinal column directly correlates with the degree of metastatic involvement of the inguinal lymph nodes, abdominal wall and the liver, has an impact on the invasion of lung tumor into the esophagus and the trachea. The life expectancy of the deceased persons with spine metastases is less than that of other patients with the lung cancer, but the overall survival rate in these groups of patients is not very different. Conclusions. Clinical features of lung cancer with metastases in the spine necessitate the development of medical technology of rational radiochemotherapy in such patients.

  11. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Peptide hormones and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, T W

    2006-03-01

    Several peptide hormones have been identified which alter the proliferation of lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), which is a neuroendocrine cancer, produces and secretes gastrin releasing peptide (GRP), neurotensin (NT) and adrenomedullin (AM) as autocrine growth factors. GRP, NT and AM bind to G-protein coupled receptors causing phosphatidylinositol turnover or elevated cAMP in SCLC cells. Addition of GRP, NT or AM to SCLC cells causes altered expression of nuclear oncogenes, such as c-fos, and stimulation of growth. Antagonists have been developed for GRP, NT and AM receptors which function as cytostatic agents and inhibit SCLC growth. Growth factor antagonists, such as the NT1 receptor antagonist SR48692, facilitate the ability of chemotherapeutic drugs to kill lung cancer cells. It remains to be determined if GRP, NT and AM receptors will served as molecular targets, for development of new therapies for the treatment of SCLC patients. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells also have a high density of GRP, NT, AM and epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors. Several NSCLC patients with EGF receptor mutations respond to gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Gefitinib relieves NSCLC symptoms, maintaining stable disease in patients who are not eligible for systemic chemotherapy. It is important to develop new therapeutic approaches using translational research techniques for the treatment of lung cancer patients.

  13. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  14. Nucleomedical diagnosis of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate is most often used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. As judged from reported cases, the accuracy rate was 90%, with a false negative rate being about 5%. Lung ventilation and blood flow scintigraphy are valuable in assessing the degree of damage to lung function and the therapeutic effect rather than in finding lung cancer. In aerosol scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc labelled aerosols with different particle size depending on the purpose of diagnosis are used; the large particles deposit at the center of the trachea and small size aerosols on the periphery. Aerosol-inhaled scintigraphy is highly valuable for the diagnosis of hilus lung cancer. sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphate is used in bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastasis. But it sometimes gives false positive results such as in the case of senile bone changes. Another valuable method of diagnosis is emission CT by which various substances having affinity for the tumor can be detected by labelling them with a proton emitting nuclear species such as 11 C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O and /sup 18/F. Some cases of lung cancer, and the radionuclide methods used in the diagnosis are shown.

  15. Lung cancer in Hodgkin's disease: association with previous radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    List, A.F.; Doll, D.C.; Greco, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    Seven cases of lung cancer were observed in patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) since 1970. The risk ratio for the development of lung cancer among HD patients was 5.6 times that expected in the general population. The pertinent clinical data from these patients are described and compared to 28 additional patients reported from other institutions. Small-cell lung cancer represented the predominant histologic type of lung cancer encountered in both smoking and nonsmoking patients with HD, accounting for 42% of cases overall and greater than 55% of cases reported in reviews of second malignancies. Tobacco use was noted in only 53% of patients. Twenty-eight (94%) of 30 patients developing metachronous lung cancer received supradiaphragmatic irradiation as primary therapy for HD. Nineteen (68%) of these patients received subsequent chemotherapy salvage. The median age at diagnosis of HD and lung cancer was 39 and 45 years, respectively. The interval between diagnosis of HD and metachronous lung cancer averaged seven years but appeared to vary inversely with age. HD patients treated with supradiaphragmatic irradiation or combined modality therapy may be at increased risk for developing lung cancer. The high frequency of in-field malignancies that the authors observed and the prevalence of small-cell lung cancer in both smoking and nonsmoking patients suggests that chest irradiation may influence the development of metachronous lung cancer in these patients. The finding of a mean latent interval in excess of seven years emphasizes the need for close long-term observation

  16. Inflammatory Gene Polymorphisms in Lung Cancer Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Keith D; Romine, Perrin E; Goodman, Gary E; Thornquist, Mark D; Barnett, Matt J; Petersdorf, Effie W

    2018-05-01

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in carcinogenesis, with increasing evidence of its role in lung cancer. We aimed to evaluate the role of genetic polymorphisms in inflammation-related genes in the risk for development of lung cancer. A nested case-control study design was used, and 625 cases and 625 well-matched controls were selected from participants in the β-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, which is a large, prospective lung cancer chemoprevention trial. The association between lung cancer incidence and survival and 23 polymorphisms descriptive of 11 inflammation-related genes (interferon gamma gene [IFNG], interleukin 10 gene [IL10], interleukin 1 alpha gene [IL1A], interleukin 1 beta gene [IL1B], interleukin 2 gene [IL2], interleukin 4 receptor gene [IL4R], interleukin 4 gene [IL4], interleukin 6 gene [IL6], prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 gene [PTGS2] (also known as COX2), transforming growth factor beta 1 gene [TGFB1], and tumor necrosis factor alpha gene [TNFA]) was evaluated. Of the 23 polymorphisms, two were associated with risk for lung cancer. Compared with individuals with the wild-type (CC) variant, individuals carrying the minor allele variants of the IL-1β-511C>T promoter polymorphism (rs16944) (CT and TT) had decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.74, [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94] and OR = 0.71 [95% CI: 0.50-1.01], respectively, p = 0.03). Similar results were observed for the IL-1β-1464 C>G promoter polymorphism (rs1143623), with presence of the minor variants CG and CC having decreased odds of lung cancer (OR = 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.95] and OR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.46-1.03], respectively, p = 0.03). Survival was not influenced by genotype. This study provides further evidence that IL1B promoter polymorphisms may modulate the risk for development of lung cancer. Copyright © 2018 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [A Paired Case Controlled Study Comparing the Short-term Outcomes of Da Vinci RATS and VATS Approach for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Feng; Xu, Shiguang; Xu, Wei; Ding, Renquan; Liu, Bo; Meng, Hao; Kang, Yunteng; Meng, Xiangrui; Lin, Jie; Wang, Shumin

    2018-03-20

    Da Vinci Surgical System is one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, which represents the development direction of the precise minimally invasive surgical techniques, the aim of this study was to comparing the short-term outcomes between da Vinci robot-assisted lobectomy and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) lobectomy for non-small cell lung cancer. 45 pairs of non-small cell lung cancer patients underwent pulmonary lobectomy with da Vinci Robotic assisted thoracoscopic (RATS) and VATS approach during the same period from January 2014 to January 2017. The operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), total number and total groups of dissected lymph nodes, postoperative duration of drainage, the first day volume of drainage, total volume of drainage were compared. No perioperative death and convertion to thoracotomy occured in both groups. There were significant difference between RATS group and VATS group in EBL [(50.30±32.33) mL vs (208.60±132.63) mL], the first day volume of drainage [(275.00±145.42) mL vs (347.60±125.80) mL], the dissected total number [(22.67±9.67) vs (15.51±5.41)] and total team [(6.31±1.43) vs (4.91±1.04)] of lymph node. There were no significant difference in other outcomes. RATS is safe and effective and took better short-outcomes than VATS in non-small cell lung cancer.

  18. A Comparative Study of Acute and Chronic Pain between Single Port and Triple Port Video-assisted Thoracic Surgery for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiwei LI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Through the comparative analysis of the acute and chronic pain postoperative between the single port and triple port video-assisted thoracic surgery to seek the better method which can reduce the incidence of acute and chronic pain in patients with lung cancer. Methods Data of 232 patients who underwent single port -VATS (n=131 or triple port VATS (n=101 for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC on January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2017 in our hospital were analyzed. The clinical and operative data were assessed, numeric rating scale (NRS was used to evaluate the mean pain score on the 1th, 2th, 3th, 7th, 14th days, 3th months and 6th months postoperative. Results Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics, there were no perioperative death in two groups. In the 1th, 2th, 7th, 14th days and 3th, 6th months postoperative, the NRS score of the single port group was superior, and the difference was significant compared with the triple port (P0.05. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the occurrence on the chronic pain showed that the operation time, surgical procedure and the 14th NRS score were risk factors for chronic pain (P<0.05. Conclusion The single port thoracoscopic surgery has an advantage in the incidence of acute and chronic pain in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Shorter operative time can reduce the occurrence of chronic pain. The 14th day NRS score is a risk factor for chronic pain postoperative.

  19. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  20. Early diagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherrer, M.

    1982-01-01

    Unanimity does not exist about the utility and organisation of screening procedures for early diagnosis of lung cancer. We describe a low cost structue of screening, requiring only a minimum of compliance from the elderly smoker and ex-smoker. At 4 months interval, radiographs, sputum cytologies and eventual fiberbronchoscopies are realized in all that elderly smokers and ex-smokers which begin to present one of the first early lung cancer signs or symptoms (loss of weight, hemoptoe, thoracic pain and others). (orig.) [de

  1. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  2. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G., E-mail: kng@cardio-tomsk.ru [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Efimova, Nataliya Y., E-mail: efimova@cardio-tomsk.ru; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B. [Research Institute of Cardiology, Kievskaya Street 111a, Tomsk, 634012 (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  3. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Treatment planning study comparing proton therapy, RapidArc and intensity modulated radiation therapy for a synchronous bilateral lung cancer case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Rana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to perform a treatment planning study on a synchronous bilateral non-small cell lung cancer case using three treatment modalities: uniform scanning proton therapy, RapidArc, and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT. Methods: The maximum intensity projection (MIP images obtained from the 4 dimensional-computed tomography (4DCT scans were used for delineation of tumor volumes in the left and right lungs. The average 4D-CT was used for the treatment planning among all three modalities with identical patient contouring and treatment planning goal. A proton therapy plan was generated in XiO treatment planning system (TPS using 2 fields for each target. For a comparative purpose, IMRT and RapidArc plans were generated in Eclipse TPS. Treatment plans were generated for a total dose of 74 CGE or Gy prescribed to each planning target volume (PTV (left and right with 2 CGE or Gy per fraction. In IMRT and RapidArc plans, normalization was done based on PTV coverage values in proton plans. Results: The mean PTV dose deviation from the prescription dose was lower in proton plan (within 3.4%, but higher in IMRT (6.5% to 11.3% and RapidArc (3.8% to 11.5% plans. Proton therapy produced lower mean dose to the total lung, heart, and esophagus when compared to IMRT and RapidArc. The relative volume of the total lung receiving 20, 10, and 5 CGE or Gy (V20, V10, and V5, respectively were lower using proton therapy than using IMRT, with absolute differences of 9.71%, 22.88%, and 39.04%, respectively. The absolute differences in the V20, V10, and V5 between proton and RapidArc plans were 4.84%, 19.16%, and 36.8%, respectively, with proton therapy producing lower dosimetric values. Conclusion: Based on the results presented in this case study, uniform scanning proton therapy has a dosimetric advantage over both IMRT and RapidArc for a synchronous bi-lateral NSCLC, especially for the normal lung tissue, heart, and

  5. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images

    OpenAIRE

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resemble...

  6. Raw Garlic Consumption and Lung Cancer in a Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ajay A; Chang, Shen-Chih; Niu, Rungui; Liu, Li; Swanson, Mya K; Li, Jiawei; Su, Jia; Giovino, Gary A; Yu, Shunzhang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Mu, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Evidence of anticancer properties of garlic for different cancer sites has been reported previously in in vitro and in vivo experimental studies but there is limited epidemiologic evidence on the association between garlic and lung cancer. We examined the association between raw garlic consumption and lung cancer in a case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2007 in Taiyuan, China. Epidemiologic data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 399 incident lung cancer cases and 466 healthy controls. We used unconditional logistic regression models to estimate crude and adjusted ORs (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Adjusted models controlled for age, sex, average annual household income 10 years ago, smoking, and indoor air pollution. Compared with no intake, raw garlic intake was associated with lower risk of development of lung cancer with a dose-response pattern (aOR for garlic consumption with indoor air pollution and with any supplement use in association with lung cancer. The results of the current study suggest that raw garlic consumption is associated with reduced risk of lung cancer in a Chinese population. This study contributes to the limited research in human population on the association between garlic and lung cancer and advocates further investigation into the use of garlic in chemoprevention of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 624-33. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Planning for Stage III Lung Cancer: How Does It Compare With Intensity-Modulated Radio Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Enzhuo M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Chang, Joe Y.; Liao Zhongxing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xia Tingyi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beijing 301 Hospital, Beijing (China); Yuan Zhiyong [Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital and Institute, Tianjin (China); Liu Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan University Hospital, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiaoqiang; Wages, Cody A.; Mohan, Radhe [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhang Xiaodong, E-mail: xizhang@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 8 patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group 1, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group 2, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient: a rank of 1 was the best and 3 was the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results: Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group 1, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group 1 had 10% higher planning tumor volume (PTV) conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 (the volume receiving 70 Gy or more) than the manual IMRT plans; they also resulted in more than 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (P+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group 2, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher P+. Conclusions: mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual IMRT plans could achieve quality

  8. Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Treatment Planning for Stage III Lung Cancer: How Does It Compare With Intensity-Modulated Radio Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Enzhuo M.; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao Zhongxing; Xia Tingyi; Yuan Zhiyong; Liu Hui; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wages, Cody A.; Mohan, Radhe; Zhang Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) or intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans generated by an automated inverse planning system with that of dosimetrist-generated IMRT treatment plans for patients with stage III lung cancer. Methods and Materials: Two groups of 8 patients with stage III lung cancer were randomly selected. For group 1, the dosimetrists spent their best effort in designing IMRT plans to compete with the automated inverse planning system (mdaccAutoPlan); for group 2, the dosimetrists were not in competition and spent their regular effort. Five experienced radiation oncologists independently blind-reviewed and ranked the three plans for each patient: a rank of 1 was the best and 3 was the worst. Dosimetric measures were also performed to quantitatively evaluate the three types of plans. Results: Blind rankings from different oncologists were generally consistent. For group 1, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.6, 2.13, and 2.18, respectively. The auto-VMAT plans in group 1 had 10% higher planning tumor volume (PTV) conformality and 24% lower esophagus V70 (the volume receiving 70 Gy or more) than the manual IMRT plans; they also resulted in more than 20% higher complication-free tumor control probability (P+) than either type of IMRT plans. The auto- and manual IMRT plans in this group yielded generally comparable dosimetric measures. For group 2, the auto-VMAT, auto-IMRT, and manual IMRT plans received average ranks of 1.55, 1.75, and 2.75, respectively. Compared to the manual IMRT plans in this group, the auto-VMAT plans and auto-IMRT plans showed, respectively, 17% and 14% higher PTV dose conformality, 8% and 17% lower mean lung dose, 17% and 26% lower mean heart dose, and 36% and 23% higher P+. Conclusions: mdaccAutoPlan is capable of generating high-quality VMAT and IMRT treatment plans for stage III lung cancer. Manual IMRT plans could achieve quality

  9. Interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qixing; Jiang, Feng; Yin, Rong; Wang, Jie; Xia, Wenjie; Dong, Gaochao; Ma, Weidong; Yang, Yao; Xu, Lin; Hu, Jianzhong

    2018-02-28

    The human microbiome confers benefits or disease susceptibility to the human body through multiple pathways. Disruption of the symbiotic balance of the human microbiome is commonly found in systematic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and chronic gastric diseases. Emerging evidence has suggested that dysbiosis of the microbiota may also play vital roles in carcinogenesis at multiple levels, e.g., by affecting metabolic, inflammatory, or immune pathways. Although the impact of the gut microbiome on the digestive cancer has been widely explored, few studies have investigated the interplay between the microbiome and lung cancer. Some recent studies have shown that certain microbes and microbiota dysbiosis are correlated with development of lung cancer. In this mini-review, we briefly summarize current research findings describing the relationship between the lung microbiome and lung cancer. We further discuss the potential mechanisms through which the lung microbiome may play a role in lung carcinogenesis and impact lung cancer treatment. A better knowledge of the interplay between the lung microbiome and lung cancer may promote the development of innovative strategies for early prevention and personalized treatment in lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tuberculosis mimicking lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hammen

    2015-01-01

    Our case report presents two patients, who were referred to the Thorax diagnostic centre at the Department of Respiratory Medicine, Odense University Hospital, with presumptive diagnosis of neoplasm and had proved lung TB with no evidence of malignancy instead. In the first case diagnosis was confirmed after thoracotomy, in the second case after bronchoscopy.

  11. The possibility of heavy ion radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Takehiko

    2003-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among malignant tumors in Japan and statisticians predict that the death rate by lung cancer will increase twice or 2.5 times within 10 years. Early detection and early resection are the first task to decrease the death rate, and radiotherapy and chemotherapy should be improved. In this paper, the present status of surgical treatment for lung cancer was summarized and the possibility of heavy ion therapy for lung cancer was discussed in comparison with surgical result. Overall 5-year survival rates in stages I, II, III and IV were 78%, 42% 29% and 16% respectively. The survival rate in stage I was correlated with tumor size and that in lung cancer of tumor size 2 cm or less was about 90%. If lung cancer is found at early stage, lung cancer can be cured. Limitation of detection of lung cancer is 2.3 mm in hilar squamous cell carcinoma by autofluorescence bronchoscopy and 5-10 mm in peripheral adenocarcinoma by high resolution CT. Less invasive surgery by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was applied to stage I lung cancer and the result was satisfactory. However, most lung cancer patients are heavy smokers with underlying lung diseases including chronic obstructive plumonary disease (COPD) and there are many patients not indicative for less invasive surgery. Preliminary results of heavy ion therapy showed remarkable improvement compared with that with conventional radiation therapy. Three-year survival rate of stage I in Protocol 9802 is 80%, almost the same with that in surgical result, indicating the possibility becoming the established therapeutic modality in stage I lung cancers, in patients with marginal biological function for surgical treatment, in particular. (authors)

  12. Comparative Analysis of Local Control Prediction Using Different Biophysical Models for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Undergoing Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Tian Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The consistency for predicting local control (LC data using biophysical models for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT treatment of lung cancer is unclear. This study aims to compare the results calculated from different models using the treatment planning data. Materials and Methods. Treatment plans were designed for 17 patients diagnosed with primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC using 5 different fraction schemes. The Martel model, Ohri model, and the Tai model were used to predict the 2-year LC value. The Gucken model, Santiago model, and the Tai model were employed to estimate the 3-year LC data. Results. We found that the employed models resulted in completely different LC prediction except for the Gucken and the Santiago models which exhibited quite similar 3-year LC data. The predicted 2-year and 3-year LC values in different models were not only associated with the dose normalization but also associated with the employed fraction schemes. The greatest difference predicted by different models was up to 15.0%. Conclusions. Our results show that different biophysical models influence the LC prediction and the difference is not only correlated to the dose normalization but also correlated to the employed fraction schemes.

  13. Lung cancer mimicking lung abscess formation on CT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Naohiro; Kawabata, Tsutomu; Gabe, Atsushi; Ichi, Takaharu; Kushi, Kazuaki; Yohena, Tomofumi; Kawasaki, Hidenori; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Male, 64 FINAL DIAGNOSIS: Lung pleomorphic carcinoma Symptoms: Cough • fever - Clinical Procedure: - Specialty: Oncology. Unusual clinical course. The diagnosis of lung cancer is often made based on computed tomography (CT) image findings if it cannot be confirmed on pathological examinations, such as bronchoscopy. However, the CT image findings of cancerous lesions are similar to those of abscesses.We herein report a case of lung cancer that resembled a lung abscess on CT. We herein describe the case of 64-year-old male who was diagnosed with lung cancer using surgery. In this case, it was quite difficult to distinguish between the lung cancer and a lung abscess on CT images, and a lung abscess was initially suspected due to symptoms, such as fever and coughing, contrast-enhanced CT image findings showing a ring-enhancing mass in the right upper lobe and the patient's laboratory test results. However, a pathological diagnosis of lung cancer was confirmed according to the results of a rapid frozen section biopsy of the lesion. This case suggests that physicians should not suspect both a lung abscesses and malignancy in cases involving masses presenting as ring-enhancing lesions on contrast-enhanced CT.

  14. Spirometry: a predictor of lung cancer among asbestos workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świątkowska, Beata; Szeszenia-Dąbrowska, Neonila

    2017-01-01

    The significance of lung function as an independent risk factor for lung cancer remains unclear. The objective of the study is to answer the question if spirometry can identify patients at risk for lung cancer among people occupationally exposed to asbestos dust in the past. In order to identify a group of individuals with the highest risk of lung cancer incidence based on lung function levels of FEV 1 % predicted value, we examined 6882 subjects enrolled in the health surveillance program for asbestos related diseases over the years 2000-2014. We found a total of 110 cases confirmed as primary lung cancer. Using Cox's proportional hazards model after adjustment for age, gender, number of cigarettes, duration of smoking and cumulative asbestos exposure, we estimated that compared with the subjects with FEV 1 ≥90% pred, the HR of lung cancer was 1.40 (95%CI: 0.94-2.08) for the subjects with FEV 1 less than 90% and 1.95 (HR = 1.86; 95%CI: 1.12-3.08) for those with FEV 1 less than 70%. In addition, probability of the occurrence of lung cancer for FEV 1 spirometry and cancer diagnosis was three years or less. The results strongly support the hypothesis that spirometry can identify patients at a risk of lung cancer development. Regular spirometry should be offered to all patients with a history of asbestos exposure, at least once every three years.

  15. [THE ROLE OF ESTROGENS IN THE CARCINOGENESIS OF LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikova, E; Uchikov, A; Dimitrakova, E; Uchikov, P

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality from lung cancer has dramatically increased in women as compared to men over the past few years. Historically, smoking has been considered the major risk factor for lung cancer regardless of gender. Several recent lines of evidence implicate gender differences in the observed differences in prevalence and histologic type which cannot be explained based on the carcinogenic action of nicotine. Several recent studies underscore the importance of reproductive and hormonal factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer Lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Bulgaria was 16.2/100000 women and 14.6/ 100000 women, resp. Lung cancer morbidity in Europe was 39/100000 women. Lung cancer is extremely sensitive to estrogens. The latter act directly or as effect modifiers for the relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Further research examining the relationship between serum estrogen levels and the estrogen receptor expression in normal and tumor lung tissue samples can help elucidate the importance of reproductive and hormonal (exogenous and endogenous) factors in the carcinogenesis of lung cancer.

  16. Factors affecting 30-month survival in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, P A; Archana, S; Jayaraj, B S; Patil, Shekar; Chaya, S K; Shashidhar, H P; Sunitha, B S; Prabhakar, A K

    2012-10-01

    Age adjusted incidence rate of lung cancer in India ranges from 7.4 to 13.1 per 100,000 among males and 3.9 to 5.8 per 100,000 among females. The factors affecting survival in lung cancer patients in India are not fully understood. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting survival in patients diagnosed with lung cancer attending a tertiary care cancer institute in Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Consecutive patients with primary lung cancer attending Bangalore Institute of Oncology, a tertiary care centre at Bangalore, between 2006 and 2009 were included. Demographic, clinical, radiological data were collected retrospectively from the medical records. A total of 170 consecutive subjects (128 males, 42 females) diagnosed to have lung cancer; 151 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 19 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) were included. A higher proportion of never-smokers (54.1%) were observed, mostly presenting below the age of 60 yr. Most subjects were in stage IV and III at the time of diagnosis. More than 50 per cent of patients presented with late stage lung cancer even though the duration of symptoms is less than 2 months. The 30-month overall survival rates for smokers and never-smokers were 32 and 49 per cent, respectively. No significant differences were observed in 30 month survival based on age at presentation, gender and type of lung cancer. Cox proportional hazards model identified never-smokers and duration of symptoms less than 1 month as factors adversely affecting survival. Our results showed that lung cancer in Indians involved younger subjects and associated with poorer survival as compared to other ethnic population. Studies on large sample need to be done to evaluate risk factors in lung cancer patients.

  17. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery lobectomy for lung cancer is associated with a lower 30-day morbidity compared with lobectomy by thoracotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lykke Østergaard; Petersen, René Horsleben; Hansen, Henrik Jessen

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Survival is highly dependent on surgery. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is increasingly chosen over open thoracotomy (OT) because of the possible benefits of the minimally invasive approach. Conseque...

  18. Isolated lung events following radiation for early stage breast cancer: incidence and predictors for primary lung vs metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Buren, Teresa A; Harris, Jay R; Sugarbaker, David J; Schneider, Lindsey; Healey, Elizabeth A

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: 1) To define the incidence of isolated lung events in a cohort of women treated with conservative surgery (CS) and radiation therapy (RT) for early stage breast cancer. 2) Among such patients, to define the relative distribution of primary lung cancer, metastatic breast cancer, and indeterminate lesions; and to identify any predictors for a diagnosis of lung vs metastatic breast cancer. 3) To examine the cohort with respect to whether a higher than expected incidence of lung cancer is seen following breast irradiation. Materials and Methods: Between 1968 and 1986, 1865 patients with clinical stage I-II breast cancer were treated with CS and RT; the median follow-up for surviving patients is 129 months. The study population was limited to patients who developed a subsequent isolated lung event as the first site of distant disease. Isolated lung event was defined as disease limited to the thoracic cavity, without evidence of either uncontrolled local breast disease or metastatic disease elsewhere. Diagnosis of the lung event as a primary lung cancer, a metastatic breast lesion, or an indeterminate lesion was documented from the viewpoint of 1) the pathologic analysis and 2) the clinical impression at the time of the lung event. Results: Sixty six of the 1865 patients (3.5%) developed an isolated lung event. The relative distribution of the pathologic and clinical diagnoses is shown below: The 66 lung events were characterized either as a solitary pulmonary nodule (27), multiple nodules (23), pleural effusion alone (10), unknown (2), or miscellaneous other findings (4). Among the 47 patients for whom pathology was available, the diagnosis remained indeterminate for 24 (51%). For patients with a definitive pathologic diagnosis, 69% ((9(13))) of smokers had a new lung cancer compared to 20% ((2(10))) of non-smokers (p=0.036), and 67% ((10(15))) of patients with a solitary pulmonary nodule had lung cancer compared to 14% ((1(7))) for other lung presentations (p

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE RADIATION EXPOSURE ON THE TARGET AND CRITICAL ORGANS WITH 2D AND 3D PLANNING OF RADIATION THERAPY FOR LUNG CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Gulidov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate feasibility, safety and efficacy of radiotherapy for inoperable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Various radiotherapy planning methods have been proposed to decrease normal tissue toxicity. We compared 2D-RT with 3D-RT for NSCLC. Parameters assessed included dose to PTV and organ-at-risk (OAR, multiple conformity and homogeneity indices. Material and methods. Initial and re-simulation CT images from 52 consecutive patients with IIB – IIIB NSCLC were used to quantify dosimetric differences between 2D and 3D conformal radiotherapy. Contouring was performed on both CTs, and plans (n=104 plans and dose-volume histograms were generated. Results. All plans provided comparable PTV coverage. Compared with 2D-RT, 3D-RT significantly reduced the maximum dose to heart (p<0.01, spinal cord (p<0.01, whole lung (p<0.01, esophagus (p<0.02 – Wilcoxon test.

  20. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  1. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  2. Estrogen, Estrogen Receptor and Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Han Hsu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen has been postulated as a contributor for lung cancer development and progression. We reviewed the current knowledge about the expression and prognostic implications of the estrogen receptors (ER in lung cancer, the effect and signaling pathway of estrogen on lung cancer, the hormone replacement therapy and lung cancer risk and survival, the mechanistic relationship between the ER and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and the relevant clinical trials combining the ER antagonist and the EGFR antagonist, to investigate the role of estrogen in lung cancer. Estrogen and its receptor have the potential to become a prognosticator and a therapeutic target in lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco smoking aggravates the effect of estrogen and endocrine disruptive chemicals from the environment targeting ER may well contribute to the lung carcinogenesis. They have gradually become important issues in the course of preventive medicine.

  3. Photodynamic therapy for multiple primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Sakai, H.; Furukawa, K.; Hayata, Y.; Kato, H.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, multiple primary lung cancers have been reported with greater frequency. As for the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, operative excision is usually difficult for all lesions due to problems of pulmonary function. PDT is a good therapeutic modality in the treatment of multiple primary lung cancer, especially central type lung cancer, for preservation of lung function. Since 1980, 50 patients of endoscopically-evaluated early stage lung cancers have been treated with PDT at Tokyo Medical College. Within this group, 16 patients were classified as having multiple primary lung cancers. This paper evaluates the effectiveness of PDT in the treatment of these patients with multiple primary bronchogenic carcinoma. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  4. Gene therapy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Eric M; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-09-01

    Lung cancer patients suffer a 15% overall survival despite advances in chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. This unacceptably low survival rate is due to the usual finding of advanced disease at diagnosis. However, multimodality strategies using conventional therapies only minimally improve survival rates even in early stages of lung cancer. Attempts to improve survival in advanced disease using various combinations of platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated that no regimen is superior, suggesting a therapeutic plateau and the need for novel, more specific, and less toxic therapeutic strategies. Over the past three decades, the genetic etiology of cancer has been gradually delineated, albeit not yet completely. Understanding the molecular events that occur during the multistep process of bronchogenic carcinogenesis may make these tasks more surmountable. During these same three decades, techniques have been developed which allow transfer of functional genes into mammalian cells. For example, blockade of activated tumor-promoting oncogenes or replacement of inactivated tumor-suppressing or apoptosis-promoting genes can be achieved by gene therapy. This article will discuss the therapeutic implications of these molecular changes associated with bronchogenic carcinomas and will then review the status of gene therapies for treatment of lung cancer. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Lung cancer in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzmann, Kornelia; Kropfmüller, Roland; Schinko, Herwig; Bogner, Stephan; Fellner, Franz; Arzt, Wolfgang; Lamprecht, Bernd

    2015-08-01

    In the 26th week of gestation, a 29-year-old pregnant office employee was referred to the pulmonary department of Linz General Hospital (AKH) under the suspicion of tuberculosis. She complained of a cough with intermittent hemoptysis and pain in the thoracic spine from which she had been suffering the past 9 weeks. A plain chest X-ray showed a dense infiltrate on the right side and multiple smaller shadows in both lungs. Laboratory testing revealed anemia, leukocytosis, and an increase of C-reactive protein. All tests for tuberculosis were negative.A bronchoscopy was performed and biopsies were taken from the right upper and middle lobe. The histopathological examination found cells of an adenocarcinoma. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a large tumor and surrounding atelectasis were seen in the right upper and middle lobe, as well as multiple intrapulmonary metastases in both lungs. In addition, not only metastases in the thoracic spine (level Th2/3) but also at other osseous locations and multiple cerebral metastases were detected. The patient received one cycle of chemotherapy consisting of docetaxel and carboplatin (AUC5) in the 27th week of gestation. Additional radiotherapy was applied to the involved thoracic spine. Due to positive epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, therapy with gefitinib 250 mg/day was started 2 days after a Caesarean section (preceded by treatment for fetal lung maturation). A healthy girl was delivered in the 30th week of pregnancy. Staging with computed tomography (CT) after delivery revealed an unstable fracture of Th2 with compression of the spinal cord. Neurosurgery was performed, consisting of a ventral corporectomy of Th1-2 followed by an anterior and posterior osteosynthesis for stabilization. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits within 1 week. Subsequent treatment with gefitinib improved the performance status of the patient, and CT scans of the chest and an MRI of the brain showed the size of

  6. Cryotherapy in Treating Patients With Lung Cancer That Has Spread to the Other Lung or Parts of the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    Advanced Malignant Mesothelioma; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Malignant Mesothelioma; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  7. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative assessment of PM2.5 exposures in light-rail, subway, freeway, and surface street environments in Los Angeles and estimated lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie; Delfino, Ralph J; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, C

    2013-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 570000+ commuters in Los Angeles travel for over 60 minutes to work. Studies have shown that a substantial portion of particulate matter (PM) exposure can occur during this commute. This study represents the integration of the results from five commute environments in Los Angeles. Personal PM exposures are discussed for the: (1) METRO gold line, a ground-level light-rail route, (2) METRO red line, a subway line, (3) the 110, a high volume freeway with low heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) fraction, (4) the 710, a major corridor for HDVs from the Port of Los Angeles, and (5) Wilshire/Sunset Boulevards, major surface streets. Chemical analysis including total and water-soluble metals and trace elements, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed. The focus of this study is to compare the composition and estimated lung cancer risk of PM2.5 (dp subway), most likely from abrasion processes between the rail and brakes; elements associated with tire and brake wear and oil additives (Ca, Ti, Sn, Sb, and Pb) were elevated on roadways. Elemental concentrations on the gold line (light-rail) were the lowest. For water-solubility, metals observed on the red line (subway) were the least soluble. PAHs are primarily derived from vehicular emissions. Overall, the 710 exhibited high levels of PAHs (3.0 ng m−3), most likely due to its high volume of HDVs, while the red and gold lines exhibited low PAH concentrations (0.6 and 0.8 ng m−3 for red and gold lines, respectively). Lastly, lung cancer risk due to inhalation of PAHs was calculated based on a commuter lifetime (45 years for 2 hours per workday). Results showed that lung cancer risk for the 710 is 3.8 and 4.5 times higher than the light-rail (gold line) and subway (red line), respectively. With low levels of both metal and PAH pollutants, our results indicate that commuting on the light-rail (gold line) may have potential health benefits when

  9. Clinical significance of preoperative serum albumin level for prognosis in surgically resected patients with non-small cell lung cancer: Comparative study of normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kentaro; Hamanaka, Kazutoshi; Koizumi, Tomonobu; Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nakamura, Daisuke; Kumeda, Hirotaka; Agatsuma, Hiroyuki; Hyogotani, Akira; Kawakami, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Asaka, Shiho; Ito, Ken-Ichi

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to clarify whether preoperative serum albumin level is related to the prognosis of non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing surgical resection, and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics of lung cancer patients with emphysema or pulmonary fibrosis. We retrospectively evaluated 556 patients that underwent surgical resection for non-small cell lung cancer. The correlation between preoperative serum albumin level and survival was evaluated. Patients were divided into three groups according to the findings on chest high-resolution computed tomography (normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis), and the relationships between serum albumin level and clinicopathological characteristics, including prognosis, were evaluated. The cut-off value of serum albumin level was set at 4.2g/dL. Patients with low albumin levels (albumin emphysema group (n=48) and pulmonary fibrosis group (n=45) were significantly lower than that in the normal lung group (n=463) (p=0.009 and pulmonary fibrosis groups, but not in the emphysema group. Preoperative serum albumin level was an important prognostic factor for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with resected non-small cell lung cancer. Divided into normal lung, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis groups, serum albumin level showed no influence only in patients in the emphysema group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Lung Cancer Awareness Week

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennon, Catherine; Laczko, Lori

    2003-01-01

    Smoking is the most preventable cause of death in our society. Tobacco use is responsible for nearly one in five deaths in the United States and the cause of premature death of approximately 2 million individuals in developed countries. Smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths and is a major cause of heart disease, cerebrovascular…

  12. small Cell Lung Cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples were analyzed for CTC count before and after chemotherapy. Clinical relevance of. CTCs with ... reduction (p < 0.001) in CTC count was also observed after one cycle of chemotherapy. Conclusion: Patients with low CTC ... type of cancer in China with 21.7 % of males and. 14.3 % of females. The incidence of ...

  13. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denzel Woode

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  14. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine, E-mail: jmd12@cumc.columbia.edu [Department of Anesthesiology, Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10033 (United States)

    2015-02-05

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD.

  15. Collagenolytic Matrix Metalloproteinases in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woode, Denzel; Shiomi, Takayuki; D’Armiento, Jeanine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer result in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In addition to the role of environmental smoke exposure in the development of both diseases, recent epidemiological studies suggests a connection between the development of COPD and lung cancer. Furthermore, individuals with concomitant COPD and cancer have a poor prognosis when compared with individuals with lung cancer alone. The modulation of molecular pathways activated during emphysema likely lead to an increased susceptibility to lung tumor growth and metastasis. This review summarizes what is known in the literature examining the molecular pathways affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process as well as external factors such as smoke exposure that have an impact on tumor growth and metastasis. Increased expression of MMPs provides a unifying link between lung cancer and COPD

  16. Cancer of lung in miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Volckova, A.; Zimacek, J.

    1995-01-01

    In the period of 1983-1994 was registered at Clinic of occupational diseases 87 cases of professional cancer of lung. Mostly /85/ of cases was related to miners, by whom act as risk factor alpha ionisation from radon. Average age group was 60.2 y, average time of exposition was 21.6 y. Epidermoid carcinoma was the most frequent type of tumor /46.5 %/ of cases/. Smoking plays a supportive role. (authors)

  17. HIV-Associated Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiderlen, Til R; Siehl, Jan; Hentrich, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most common non-AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome)-defining malignancies. It occurs more frequently in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) than in the HIV-negative population. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, patients are usually younger and diagnosed at more advanced stages. The pathogenesis of LC in PLWHIV is not fully understood, but immunosuppression in combination with chronic infection and the oncogenic effects of smoking and HIV itself all seem to play a role. Currently, no established preventive screening is available, making smoking cessation the most promising preventive measure. Treatment protocols and standards are the same as for the general population. Notably, immuno-oncology will also become standard of care in a significant subset of HIV-infected patients with LC. As drug interactions and hematological toxicity must be taken into account, a multidisciplinary approach should include a physician experienced in the treatment of HIV. Only limited data is available on novel targeted therapies and checkpoint inhibitors in the setting of HIV. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Naujokaitis, P.; Jackevicius, A. and others

    2002-01-01

    Objective of our work was to evaluate efficacy of bronchoplastic operations for lung cancer and time to progression in combined treatment. From 1997 till 2001, 57pts were operated for early I-IIB stages of lung cancer. Operations were: tracheal resections in 3pts (5.2%), window right pneumonectomies in 5pts (8.7%), window left pneumonectomies in 2pts (3.5%), window right upper lobe in 22pts (38.5%), bifurcation resections 2pts (3.5%), sleeve right upper lobe resections 7pts (12.2%), sleeve left upper lobe resections in 11pts (19.2%). We had complications: in 7pts (12.2%) suture failure, 26pts (45.6%) obstructive pneumonia, 3pts (5.2%) kinking of anastomosis, 2pts (3.7%) bronchial bleeding, 6pts (10.5%) covered bronchial fistulas, 5pts (8.7%) died after operations. 32pts (56%) underwent radiation after surgery, 13pts (22.8%) radiation and chemotherapy. Three-year survival was in 82.4% (47pts), in 10pts (17.4%) disease progressed. Bronchoplastic operations are sufficient for early lung cancer treatment. Three-year was in survival 82.7% of pts. Seventeen percent of patients failed after combined treatment. (author)

  19. Proton Arc Reduces Range Uncertainty Effects and Improves Conformality Compared With Photon Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seco, Joao, E-mail: jseco@partners.org [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Gu, Guan; Marcelos, Tiago; Kooy, Hanne; Willers, Henning [Francis H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To describe, in a setting of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the theoretical dosimetric advantages of proton arc stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in which the beam penumbra of a rotating beam is used to reduce the impact of range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Thirteen patients with early-stage NSCLC treated with proton SBRT underwent repeat planning with photon volumetric modulated arc therapy (Photon-VMAT) and an in-house-developed arc planning approach for both proton passive scattering (Passive-Arc) and intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT-Arc). An arc was mimicked with a series of beams placed at 10° increments. Tumor and organ at risk doses were compared in the context of high- and low-dose regions, represented by volumes receiving >50% and <50% of the prescription dose, respectively. Results: In the high-dose region, conformality index values are 2.56, 1.91, 1.31, and 1.74, and homogeneity index values are 1.29, 1.22, 1.52, and 1.18, respectively, for 3 proton passive scattered beams, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT. Therefore, proton arc leads to a 30% reduction in the 95% isodose line volume to 3-beam proton plan, sparing surrounding organs, such as lung and chest wall. For chest wall, V30 is reduced from 21 cm{sup 3} (3 proton beams) to 11.5 cm{sup 3}, 12.9 cm{sup 3}, and 8.63 cm{sup 3} (P=.005) for Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. In the low-dose region, the mean lung dose and V20 of the ipsilateral lung are 5.01 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]), 4.38 Gy(RBE), 4.91 Gy(RBE), and 5.99 Gy(RBE) and 9.5%, 7.5%, 9.0%, and 10.0%, respectively, for 3-beam, Passive-Arc, IMPT-Arc, and Photon-VMAT, respectively. Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy with proton arc and Photon-VMAT generate significantly more conformal high-dose volumes than standard proton SBRT, without loss of coverage of the tumor and with significant sparing of nearby organs, such as chest wall. In addition

  20. RANK rewires energy homeostasis in lung cancer cells and drives primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Shuan; Sigl, Verena; Wimmer, Reiner Alois; Novatchkova, Maria; Jais, Alexander; Wagner, Gabriel; Handschuh, Stephan; Uribesalgo, Iris; Hagelkruys, Astrid; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Tortola, Luigi; Nitsch, Roberto; Cronin, Shane J; Orthofer, Michael; Branstetter, Daniel; Canon, Jude; Rossi, John; D'Arcangelo, Manolo; Botling, Johan; Micke, Patrick; Fleur, Linnea La; Edlund, Karolina; Bergqvist, Michael; Ekman, Simon; Lendl, Thomas; Popper, Helmut; Takayanagi, Hiroshi; Kenner, Lukas; Hirsch, Fred R; Dougall, William; Penninger, Josef M

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Besides smoking, epidemiological studies have linked female sex hormones to lung cancer in women; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kB (RANK), the key regulator of osteoclastogenesis, is frequently expressed in primary lung tumors, an active RANK pathway correlates with decreased survival, and pharmacologic RANK inhibition reduces tumor growth in patient-derived lung cancer xenografts. Clonal genetic inactivation of KRas G12D in mouse lung epithelial cells markedly impairs the progression of KRas G12D -driven lung cancer, resulting in a significant survival advantage. Mechanistically, RANK rewires energy homeostasis in human and murine lung cancer cells and promotes expansion of lung cancer stem-like cells, which is blocked by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. Our data also indicate survival differences in KRas G12D -driven lung cancer between male and female mice, and we show that female sex hormones can promote lung cancer progression via the RANK pathway. These data uncover a direct role for RANK in lung cancer and may explain why female sex hormones accelerate lung cancer development. Inhibition of RANK using the approved drug denosumab may be a therapeutic drug candidate for primary lung cancer. © 2017 Rao et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. acetyltransferases: Influence on Lung Cancer Susceptibility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lung cancer remains a major health challenge in the world. It is the commonest cause of cancer mortality in men, it has been suggested that genetic susceptibility may contribute to the major risk factor, with increasing prevalence of smoking. Lung cancer has reached epidemic proportions in India. Recently indoor air ...

  2. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  3. Results of a multicentric in silico clinical trial (ROCOCO): comparing radiotherapy with photons and protons for non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Erik; Engelsman, Martijn; Rasch, Coen; Persoon, Lucas; Qamhiyeh, Sima; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Verhaegen, Frank; Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Lambin, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This multicentric in silico trial compares photon and proton radiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer patients. The hypothesis is that proton radiotherapy decreases the dose and the volume of irradiated normal tissues even when escalating to the maximum tolerable dose of one or more of the organs at risk (OAR). Twenty-five patients, stage IA-IIIB, were prospectively included. On 4D F18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography-computed tomography scans, the gross tumor, clinical and planning target volumes, and OAR were delineated. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) photon and passive scattered conformal proton therapy (PSPT) plans were created to give 70 Gy to the tumor in 35 fractions. Dose (de-)escalation was performed by rescaling to the maximum tolerable dose. Protons resulted in the lowest dose to the OAR, while keeping the dose to the target at 70 Gy. The integral dose (ID) was higher for 3DCRT (59%) and IMRT (43%) than for PSPT. The mean lung dose reduced from 18.9 Gy for 3DCRT and 16.4 Gy for IMRT to 13.5 Gy for PSPT. For 10 patients, escalation to 87 Gy was possible for all 3 modalities. The mean lung dose and ID were 40 and 65% higher for photons than for protons, respectively. The treatment planning results of the Radiation Oncology Collaborative Comparison trial show a reduction of ID and the dose to the OAR when treating with protons instead of photons, even with dose escalation. This shows that PSPT is able to give a high tumor dose, while keeping the OAR dose lower than with the photon modalities.

  4. Radiodiagnosis of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akira

    1981-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the lung occurring in the periphery grows as superficial spreading and/or deeply invading parts in the alveolar area. The superficial spreading part develops on the internal surface of alveoli, and when this part shows a monolayer arrangement of tumor cells and is low in height, not accompanied by mucus production, the shadow is faint, and does not cause deformation or deviation of the pre-existing structures. When tumor cell have amultilayer, substantial or polyoid arrangement and marked mucus production, the shadow is dense with a clear margin and no change or occasional compression of the pre-existing architecture. The deeply invading part develops on the alveolar wall, manifesting itself primarily as interstitial hyperplasia and fibrosis. Roentogenologically, the part shows a slightly high density and convergence in the pre-existing structures. Each adenocarcinoma shows an architecture consisting of these progressing parts combined and is similar roentogenologically. Therefore, X-ray features such as the density of tumor shadow, marginal properties and presence or absence and the intensity of convergence demonstrate the rough architecture and mode and stage of tumors. (Chiba, N.)

  5. Preoperative radiological approach for hilar lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Yoshiharu; Higashino, Takanori; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Yoshimura, Masahiro; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2003-01-01

    Recent advances in CT, MR, and nuclear medicine have made it possible to evaluate morphological and functional information in hilar lung cancer patients more accurately and quantitatively. In this review, we describe recent advances in the radiological approach to hilar lung cancer, focusing on mediastinal invasion, lymph node metastasis, and pulmonary functional imaging. We believe that further basic studies as well as clinical applications of newer MR techniques will play an important role in the management of patients with lung cancer. (author)

  6. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  7. Fludeoxyglucose F-18-PET in Planning Lung Cancer Radiation Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-19

    Stage I Lung Cancer; Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage II Lung Cancer; Stage II Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIB Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma AJCC v7

  8. Clinical characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients associated with multiple primary malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Shan

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics and survival of lung cancer patients with additional malignant primary cancers.Records of lung cancer patients newly diagnosed in Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital between January 2000 and January 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with second primary lung cancer and those with lung cancer only were included for detailed analysis.Of 27642 newly diagnosed lung cancer patients, 283 patients (1.02% suffered previous additional primary cancers. Compared with single primary lung cancer, patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary cancers were more often women (female to male ratio 1:1.72 vs 1:2.58, P = 0.018, older (64.2 vs 60.5 years old, P<0.001, more squamous cell type (30.7% vs 20.5%, P = 0.004, less small cell (3.9% vs 15.5%, P<0.001 type, at earlier stages (17.7% vs 11.0% for stage I, P = 0.014, and more frequently with family history of cancers (7.8% vs 3.9%, P = 0.038. The most common previous primary cancers observed were colorectal (22.0%, breast (18.4%, gastric (14.4% and larynx cancers (11.9%. Approximately 42.9% of patients were diagnosed with lung cancer 2 to 6 years after diagnosis of initial primary cancers. The survival of patients with secondary lung cancer associated other malignancies was not significantly different from those with single lung cancer (P = 0.491, while synchronous multiple primary malignancies showed worse prognosis compared with those with metachronous ones or single lung cancer (p = 0.012.The possibility of second primary lung cancer should always be considered during the follow-up of related cancer types, especially those with family history of cancers. Patients with secondary lung cancer associated other primary malignancies have non-inferior survival than those with single lung cancer.

  9. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  10. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  11. Immune and Inflammatory Cell Composition of Human Lung Cancer Stroma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G-Andre Banat

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that the abnormal microenvironment of tumors may play a critical role in carcinogenesis, including lung cancer. We comprehensively assessed the number of stromal cells, especially immune/inflammatory cells, in lung cancer and evaluated their infiltration in cancers of different stages, types and metastatic characteristics potential. Immunohistochemical analysis of lung cancer tissue arrays containing normal and lung cancer sections was performed. This analysis was combined with cyto-/histomorphological assessment and quantification of cells to classify/subclassify tumors accurately and to perform a high throughput analysis of stromal cell composition in different types of lung cancer. In human lung cancer sections we observed a significant elevation/infiltration of total-T lymphocytes (CD3+, cytotoxic-T cells (CD8+, T-helper cells (CD4+, B cells (CD20+, macrophages (CD68+, mast cells (CD117+, mononuclear cells (CD11c+, plasma cells, activated-T cells (MUM1+, B cells, myeloid cells (PD1+ and neutrophilic granulocytes (myeloperoxidase+ compared with healthy donor specimens. We observed all of these immune cell markers in different types of lung cancers including squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma, metastatic adenocarcinoma, and bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. The numbers of all tumor-associated immune cells (except MUM1+ cells in stage III cancer specimens was significantly greater than those in stage I samples. We observed substantial stage-dependent immune cell infiltration in human lung tumors suggesting that the tumor microenvironment plays a critical role during lung carcinogenesis. Strategies for therapeutic interference with lung cancer microenvironment should consider the complexity of its immune cell composition.

  12. Chemoradiotherapy for lung cancer. Current status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Yuichiro

    2004-01-01

    For many years, thoracic radiotherapy had been regarded as the standard treatment for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, meta-analyses show that cisplatin-containing chemoradiotherapy is significantly superior to radiotherapy alone in terms of survival. Moreover, concurrent chemoradiotherapy yields a significantly increased response rate and enhanced survival duration when compared with the sequential approach. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiotherapy yields a 5-year survival rate of approximately 15% for patients with unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer is considered to be four cycles of combination chemotherapy with cisplatin plus etoposide combined with early concurrent twice-daily thoracic irradiation (45 Gy). If patients achieve complete remission, prophylactic cranial irradiation should be administered. A 5-year survival rate of approximately 25% is expected with the state-of-the-art treatment for limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Chemoradiotherapy is considered to be a standard treatment for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. Several new strategies are currently being investigated to improve the survival of these patients. The incorporation of target-based drugs such as gefitinib is considered to be the most promising strategy for unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The incorporation of irinotecan is also a promising strategy to improve the survival of patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer. The Japan Clinical Oncology Group is conducting clinical trials to develop new treatment strategies for both unresectable locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer and limited-stage small cell lung cancer. (author)

  13. Crizotinib for Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III clinical trial that compared crizotinib versus chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced lung cancer whose tumors have an EML4-ALK fusion gene.

  14. Targeted Therapies for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E

    Targeted therapies have become standard therapies for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A phase III trial of carboplatin and paclitaxel with and without bevacizumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with non-squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in efficacy. In patients with NSCLC with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation (defined as exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R point mutation), phase III trials of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) compared to platinum-based chemotherapy have demonstrated superior efficacy in the first-line setting. In patients with NSCLC with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, phase III trials of crizotinib have demonstrated superior efficacy compared to platinum-pemetrexed in the first-line setting and standard chemotherapy in the second-line setting. A second-generation ALK inhibitor, ceritinib, is available for patients who have progressed after or were intolerant of crizotinib. Crizotinib has also demonstrated activity on patients with ROS1 rearrangements, and BRAF inhibitors (dabrafenib, vemurafenib) have demonstrated activity in patients with NSCLC with BRAF V600E mutation. The oncogenic mutations that are susceptible to targeted therapy are mainly found in non-squamous NSCLC. The development of targeted therapy in patients with squamous NSCLC has been more challenging due to the genomic complexity observed in the squamous histology and the low prevalence of EGFR, ALK, and ROS1 molecular alterations. A phase III trial of cisplatin and gemcitabine with and without necitumumab in patients with advanced NSCLC with squamous histology demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free and overall survival.

  15. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  16. [Development of the lung cancer diagnostic system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, You-Jiang; Yu, Shou-Yi

    2009-07-01

    To develop a lung cancer diagnosis system. A retrospective analysis was conducted in 1883 patients with primary lung cancer or benign pulmonary diseases (pneumonia, tuberculosis, or pneumonia pseudotumor). SPSS11.5 software was used for data processing. For the relevant factors, a non-factor Logistic regression analysis was used followed by establishment of the regression model. Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 system development platform and VB.Net corresponding language were used to develop the lung cancer diagnosis system. The non-factor multi-factor regression model showed a goodness-of-fit (R2) of the model of 0.806, with a diagnostic accuracy for benign lung diseases of 92.8%, a diagnostic accuracy for lung cancer of 89.0%, and an overall accuracy of 90.8%. The model system for early clinical diagnosis of lung cancer has been established.

  17. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  18. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  19. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  20. Body mass index and lung cancer risk in never smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagohashi, K.; Satoh, H.; Kurishima, K.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.

    2006-01-01

    Background. A relationship between body mass index (BMI) and lung cancer risk in never smokers has not been reported precisely. To evaluate the risk of lung cancer associated with BMI in never smokers, we conducted a case-control study. Methods. The relationship between BMI and the risk of lung cancer in never smokers was investigated in a study of 204 lung cancer cases and 398 controls admitted between 1987 and 2005. Controls were selected from hospitalized age-matched never-smoking patients with non-malignant respiratory disease. Results. When compared with BMI of the leanest group (BMI<20.8) in men, no inverse association between BMI and lung cancer was observed after the adjustment for age (the second BMI group: BMI≥ 20.8 to < 22.9; p=0.683, the third BMI group: BMI≥ 22.9 to < 24.9; p=0.745, and the highest BMI group: BMI≥ 25.0; p=0.327). Similarly, no association in women was found between BMI and lung cancer in these three BMI groups (the second group, p=0.639; the third group, p=0.667; the highest group, p=0.978) when compared with that of the leanest BMI group. Conclusions. Our present study indicated that the association between leanness and the risk of lung cancer might be influenced by other factors such as smoking. (author)

  1. Multicentric evaluation of the impact of central tumour location when comparing rates of N1 upstaging in patients undergoing video-assisted and open surgery for clinical Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decaluwé, Herbert; Petersen, René Horsleben; Brunelli, Alex

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Large retrospective series have indicated lower rates of cN0 to pN1 nodal upstaging after video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) compared with open resections for Stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The objective of our multicentre study was to investigate whether the presumed...

  2. Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Bergsma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC typically presents at an advanced stage, which is often felt to be incurable, and such patients are usually treated with a palliative approach. Accumulating retrospective and prospective clinical evidence, including a recently completed randomized trial, support the existence of an oligometastatic disease state wherein select individuals with advanced NSCLC may experience historically unprecedented prolonged survival with aggressive local treatments, consisting of radiotherapy and/or surgery, to limited sites of metastatic disease. This is reflected in the most recent AJCC staging subcategorizing metastatic disease into intra-thoracic (M1a, a single extra thoracic site (M1b, and more diffuse metastases (M1c. In the field of radiation oncology, recent technological advances have allowed for the delivery of very high, potentially ablative, doses of radiotherapy to both intra- and extra-cranial disease sites, referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (or SABR, in much shorter time periods compared to conventional radiation and with minimal associated toxicity. At the same time, significant improvements in systemic therapy, including platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, molecular agents targeting oncogene-addicted NSCLC, and immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors, have led to improved control of micro-metastatic disease and extended survival sparking newfound interest in combining these agents with ablative local therapies to provide additive, and in the case of radiation and immunotherapy, potentially synergistic, effects in order to further improve progression-free and overall survival. Currently, despite the tantalizing potential associated with aggressive local therapy in the setting of oligometastatic NSCLC, well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials sufficiently powered to detect and measure the possible added benefit afforded by this approach are

  3. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  4. Prognosis of Lung Cancer: Heredity or Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    and white patients in an equal access health system. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2012;21:1841–1847. 19. Hardy D, Xia R, Liu CC, Cormier JN...Nurgalieva Z, Du XL. Racial dis- parities and survival for nonsmall-cell lung cancer in a large cohort of black and white elderly patients. Cancer 2009;115...P. In lung cancer patients, age, race-ethnicity, gender and smoking predict adverse comor- bidity, which in turn predicts treatment and survival. J

  5. Evidence for tankyrases as antineoplastic targets in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Alexander M; Johnson, Kevin C; Stan, Radu V; Sanglikar, Aarti; Ahmed, Yashi; Dmitrovsky, Ethan; Freemantle, Sarah J

    2013-01-01

    New pharmacologic targets are urgently needed to treat or prevent lung cancer, the most common cause of cancer death for men and women. This study identified one such target. This is the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, which is deregulated in cancers, including those lacking adenomatous polyposis coli or β-catenin mutations. Two poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) enzymes regulate canonical Wnt activity: tankyrase (TNKS) 1 and TNKS2. These enzymes poly-ADP-ribosylate (PARsylate) and destabilize axin, a key component of the β-catenin phosphorylation complex. This study used comprehensive gene profiles to uncover deregulation of the Wnt pathway in murine transgenic and human lung cancers, relative to normal lung. Antineoplastic consequences of genetic and pharmacologic targeting of TNKS in murine and human lung cancer cell lines were explored, and validated in vivo in mice by implantation of murine transgenic lung cancer cells engineered with reduced TNKS expression relative to controls. Microarray analyses comparing Wnt pathway members in malignant versus normal tissues of a murine transgenic cyclin E lung cancer model revealed deregulation of Wnt pathway components, including TNKS1 and TNKS2. Real-time PCR assays independently confirmed these results in paired normal-malignant murine and human lung tissues. Individual treatments of a panel of human and murine lung cancer cell lines with the TNKS inhibitors XAV939 and IWR-1 dose-dependently repressed cell growth and increased cellular axin 1 and tankyrase levels. These inhibitors also repressed expression of a Wnt-responsive luciferase construct, implicating the Wnt pathway in conferring these antineoplastic effects. Individual or combined knockdown of TNKS1 and TNKS2 with siRNAs or shRNAs reduced lung cancer cell growth, stabilized axin, and repressed tumor formation in murine xenograft and syngeneic lung cancer models. Findings reported here uncovered deregulation of specific components of the Wnt pathway in both

  6. Clinical chest CAD system for lung cancer, COPD, and osteoporosis based on MDCT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhiro, Mikio; Suzuki, Hidenobu; Saita, Shinsuke

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. Lung cancer screening using low-dose CT have been performed in many countries. Comparative reading of current and past CT images is important for evaluation of pulmonary nodules in lung cancer CT screening. However, primary problem in comparative reading is mismatch of slice and nodule positions caused by lung variation. It is hard for physicians to manually match slice positions, nodule positions, and evaluate the nodule's degree of change. A system to assist smooth comparative reading is necessary. We proposed a comparative reading system for lung cancer CT screening. A distinctive feature is highly accurate matching method of region of interest based on thoracic organs registration. Pulmonary blood vessels registration using analysis of the tree structure is performed. The system is evaluated by 1 mm and 2 mm slice thickness CT images obtained from lung cancer CT screening. We show how it is useful for lung cancer CT screening. (author)

  7. Lung Cancer Clinical Trials: Advances in Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    New treatments for lung cancer and aspects of joining a clinical trial are discussed in this 30-minute Facebook Live event, hosted by NCI’s Dr. Shakun Malik, head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, and Janet Freeman-Daily, lung cancer patient activist and founding member of #LCSM.

  8. Transesophageal Ultrasonography for Lung Cancer Staging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Annema, Jouke; Vilmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Accurate mediastinal nodal staging is essential for patients with resectable non-small-cell lung cancer and is achieved by combined endobronchial ultrasound and transesophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Training requirements for EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) for lung cancer staging...

  9. Predicting death from surgery for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Dowd, Emma L; Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Baldwin, David R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current British guidelines advocate the use of risk prediction scores such as Thoracoscore to estimate mortality prior to radical surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A recent publication used the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA) to produce a score to predict 90day mortali...

  10. Pulmonary Rehabilitation in Improving Lung Function in Patients With Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Undergoing Chemoradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Cachexia; Fatigue; Pulmonary Complications; Radiation Toxicity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

  11. Statistical control process to compare and rank treatment plans in radiation oncology: impact of heterogeneity correction on treatment planning in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Balosso, Jacques

    2016-12-01

    This study proposes a statistical process to compare different treatment plans issued from different irradiation techniques or different treatment phases. This approach aims to provide arguments for discussion about the impact on clinical results of any condition able to significantly alter dosimetric or ballistic related data. The principles of the statistical investigation are presented in the framework of a clinical example based on 40 fields of radiotherapy for lung cancers. Two treatment plans were generated for each patient making a change of dose distribution due to variation of lung density correction. The data from 2D gamma index (γ) including the pixels having γ≤1 were used to determine the capability index (Cp) and the acceptability index (Cpk) of the process. To measure the strength of the relationship between the γ passing rates and the Cp and Cpk indices, the Spearman's rank non-parametric test was used to calculate P values. The comparison between reference and tested plans showed that 95% of pixels have γ≤1 with criteria (6%, 6 mm). The values of the Cp and Cpk indices were lower than one showing a significant dose difference. The data showed a strong correlation between γ passing rates and the indices with P>0.8. The statistical analysis using Cp and Cpk, show the significance of dose differences resulting from two plans in radiotherapy. These indices can be used for adaptive radiotherapy to measure the difference between initial plan and daily delivered plan. The significant changes of dose distribution could raise the question about the continuity to treat the patient with the initial plan or the need for adjustments.

  12. Radionuclide molecular target therapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fuhai; Meng Zhaowei; Tan Jian

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer harms people's health or even lives severely. Currently, the morbidity and mortality of lung cancer are ascending all over the world. Accounting for 38.08% of malignant tumor caused death in male and 16% in female in cities,ranking top in both sex. Especially, the therapy of non-small cell lung cancer has not been obviously improved for many years. Recently, sodium/iodide transporter gene transfection and the therapy of molecular target drugs mediated radionuclide are being taken into account and become the new research directions in treatment of advanced lung cancer patients with the development of technology and theory for medical molecular biology and the new knowledge of lung cancer's pathogenesis. (authors)

  13. Profile of lung cancer in kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basmy, Amani

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most frequent site in females, worldwide. This study is the first to explore the profile of lung cancer in Kuwait. Cases of primary lung cancer (Kuwaiti) in Kuwait cancer Registry (KCR) were grouped in 4 periods (10 years each) from 1970-2009. Epidemiological measures; age standardized incidence rate (ASIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), Standardized rate ratio (SRR) and Cumulative risk and Forecasting to year 2020-2029 used for analysis. Between years, 2000-2009 lung cancer ranked the 4th and the 9th most frequent cancer in males and females respectively. M:F ratio 1:3. Mean age at diagnosis (95%CI) was 65.2 (63.9-66.4) years. The estimated risk of developing lung cancer before the age of 75 years in males is 1.8% (1/56), and 0.6 (1/167) in females. The ASIR for male cases was 11.7, 17.1, 17.0, 14.0 cases/100,000 population in the seventies, eighties, nineties and in 2000-2009 respectively. Female ASIR was 2.3, 8.4, 5.1, 4.4 cases/100,000 population in the same duration. Lung cancer is the leading cause cancer death in males 168 (14.2%) and the fifth cause of death due to cancer in females accounting for 6.1% of all cancer deaths. The ASMR (95%CI) was 8.1 (6.6-10.0) deaths/100,000 population and 2.8 (1.3-4.3) deaths/100,000 population in males and females respectively. The estimated Mortality to incidence Ratio was 0.6. The incidence of lung cancer between years 2000-2009 is not different from that reported in the seventies. KCR is expecting the number of lung cancer cases to increase.

  14. [Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqun; Wan, Xia; Chen, Gongbo; Ma, Xiangyun; Ning, Bofu; Yang, Gonghuan

    2017-08-20

    Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors), and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney. Only 20% families in high lung cancer area now use 2 tons or

  15. Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Xuanwei, Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Since 1970s, Xuanwei in Yunnan province has been one of the towns with highest lung cancer mortality in China. Moreover, the characters of high female lung cancer mortality and sub-regional clustering high lung cancer mortality have not changed. In this study, we further described the exposure situation of risk factors of lung cancer in Xuanwei nowadays, in order to explore the trend of the distribution of lung cancer there. Methods Firstly we divided the 26 towns of Xuanwei city to high-, median- and low- lung cancer areas by the lung cancer mortality in 2010-2012. We chose 2 towns within each area according to topography and orientation, and randomly picked 4 villages in each town to be our study area. We did a questionnaire about lung cancer related risk factors upon the sample population in the study area. We calculated the exposure percentages of each risk factor, in whole sample population and subgroups, for nowadays and for 10 years ago (only living environmental risk factors, and compared them between areas or time points using standardized rates and the statistical test of standardized rate comparison, or chi-square test. Results 65%-80% male in the study area has a history of smoking; 60%-90% non-smoker has been exposed to second hand smoke. These situations are worse in high and median lung cancer areas. 50% male in median lung cancer area have coal mining work experience, which is 2 times of the percentages in the other two areas; while 15%-25% people in high lung cancer area have other occupational exposure history to particulate air pollution, which is 3-5 times of the percentages in the other two areas. From ten years ago until nowadays, 80% families in median lung cancer area use 2 tons or more smoky coal per year; more than 90% families burn coal for household heating; more than 60% families suffer from smog in the kitchen during cook; 60% families most frequently use stove in the ground with chimney

  16. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3: a randomised trial to determine the efficacy of adding a complex intervention for major depressive disorder (Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer to usual care, compared to usual care alone in patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharpe Michael

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer is a complex intervention delivered by specially trained cancer nurses, under the supervision of a psychiatrist. It is given as a supplement to the usual care for depression, which patients receive from their general practitioner and cancer service. The third Symptom Management Research Trial in Oncology (SMaRT Oncology-3 Trial will test its efficacy when compared to usual care alone. Design A two arm parallel group multi-centre randomised controlled trial. 200 patients will be recruited through established systematic Symptom Monitoring Services, which screen patients for depression. Patients will have: a diagnosis of lung cancer; an estimated life expectancy of three months or more and a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder. Patients will be randomised to usual care or usual care plus Depression Care for People with Lung Cancer. Randomisation will be carried out by telephoning a secure computerised central randomisation system or by using a secure web interface. The primary outcome measure is average depression severity. This will be assessed using scores on the 20-item Symptom Hopkins Checklist (SCL-20D, collected every four weeks over 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes include severity of anxiety, pain and fatigue; self-rated improvement of depression; quality of life and satisfaction with depression care. Trial Registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN75905964

  17. Apoptotic efficiency of aqueous extracts of turmeric, garlic and their active compounds in combination with Tamoxifen in lung and oral cancers: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kumar Vemuri

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Anticancer treatment against oral and lung cancers has caught the eye of oncologist and researchers worldwide as most common cause deaths in India and worldwide is due to these cancers and most of the treatment strategies employed are not showing any effectiveness against neoplastic ability of the cancers. One of the reasons for cancer deaths could be because of poor prognosis and associated therapies. The existing cancer agents are being re-evaluated and development of new mechanisms of treatment being explored continuously, but it’s inadequate in offering treatment. Therefore, endeavors for new anticancer agents with high efficacy and considerable side effects still going on. The literature reviews shows numerous medicinal plants exhibiting anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic properties and these effects were reported by conducting both in vitro experiments and animal studies. Use of natural phytochemical compounds in cancer chemoprevention is an emerging strategy to forestall the cancer progression or cure cancer.In the present study we have attempted to evaluate the efficacy of Curcumin longa and Allium sativum aqueous extracts individually and in combination with its active compounds (Curcumin and Quercetin and also with Tamoxifen hydrochloride. Our results suggest that aqueous extracts of Curcumin longa and Allium sativum were effective in inducing apoptosis and cell death in two immortal cell lines i.e. A549 and SCC-9 (Adeno carcinoma of lung, squamous cell carcinoma of tongue, but there was no apoptosis or cell senescence in normal cell line (HEK 293. There was significant increase in apoptosis and cell senescence in combination therapy. Hence a combination of natural extracts along with Tamoxifen can be considered an alternate in cancer treatments but this requires more research. Keywords: Curcumin longa, Allium sativum, Tamoxifen hydrochloride, A549, SCC-9, HEK 293 cell lines

  18. HIV-associated lung cancer: survival in an unselected cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian; Kohrs, Fabienne; Sabranski, Michael; Wolf, Eva; Jaeger, Hans; Wyen, Christoph; Siehl, Jan; Baumgarten, Axel; Hensel, Manfred; Jessen, Arne; Schaaf, Bernhard; Vogel, Martin; Bogner, Johannes; Horst, Heinz-August; Stephan, Christoph

    2013-10-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies in HIV-infected patients. However, data on clinical outcome and prognostic factors are scarce. This was a national German multicentre, retrospective cohort analysis of all cases of lung cancer seen in HIV-infected individuals from 2000 through 2010. Survival was analyzed with respect to the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART), specific lung cancer therapies, and other potential prognostic factors. A total of 72 patients (mean age 55.5 y, CD4 T-cells 383/μl) were evaluated in this analysis. At time of lung cancer diagnosis, 86% were on ART. Of these, 79% had undetectable HIV-1 RNA (cancer stage of I-IIIA was associated with better overall survival when compared with the advanced stages IIIb/IV (p = 0.0003). Other factors predictive of improved overall survival were better performance status, CD4 T-cells > 200/μl, and a non-intravenous drug use transmission risk for HIV. Currently, most cases of lung cancer occur in the setting of limited immune deficiency and a long-lasting viral suppression. As in HIV-negative cases, the clinical stage of lung cancer is highly predictive of survival, and long-term overall survival can only be achieved at the limited stages. The still high mortality underscores the importance of smoking cessation strategies in HIV-infected patients.

  19. Protein signature of lung cancer tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Mehan

    Full Text Available Lung cancer remains the most common cause of cancer-related mortality. We applied a highly multiplexed proteomic technology (SOMAscan to compare protein expression signatures of non small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC tissues with healthy adjacent and distant tissues from surgical resections. In this first report of SOMAscan applied to tissues, we highlight 36 proteins that exhibit the largest expression differences between matched tumor and non-tumor tissues. The concentrations of twenty proteins increased and sixteen decreased in tumor tissue, thirteen of which are novel for NSCLC. NSCLC tissue biomarkers identified here overlap with a core set identified in a large serum-based NSCLC study with SOMAscan. We show that large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression can be used to develop novel histochemical probes. As expected, relative differences in protein expression are greater in tissues than in serum. The combined results from tissue and serum present the most extensive view to date of the complex changes in NSCLC protein expression and provide important implications for diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Vasculature surrounding a nodule: A novel lung cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Leader, Joseph K; Wang, Renwei; Wilson, David; Herman, James; Yuan, Jian-Min; Pu, Jiantao

    2017-12-01

    To investigate whether the vessels surrounding a nodule depicted on non-contrast, low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) can discriminate benign and malignant screen detected nodules. We collected a dataset consisting of LDCT scans acquired on 100 subjects from the Pittsburgh Lung Screening study (PLuSS). Fifty subjects were diagnosed with lung cancer and 50 subjects had suspicious nodules later proven benign. For the lung cancer cases, the location of the malignant nodule in the LDCT scans was known; while for the benign cases, the largest nodule in the LDCT scan was used in the analysis. A computer algorithm was developed to identify surrounding vessels and quantify the number and volume of vessels that were connected or near the nodule. A nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed based on a single nodule per subject to assess the discriminability of the surrounding vessels to provide a lung cancer diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) were computed to determine the probability of a nodule being lung cancer based on the vessel features. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) for vessel count and vessel volume were 0.722 (95% CI=0.616-0.811, plung cancer group 9.7 (±9.6) compared to the non-lung cancer group 4.0 (±4.3) CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results showed that malignant nodules are often surrounded by more vessels compared to benign nodules, suggesting that the surrounding vessel characteristics could serve as lung cancer biomarker for indeterminate nodules detected during LDCT lung cancer screening using only the information collected during the initial visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  2. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Beelen, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations.......Ambient air pollution is suspected to cause lung cancer. We aimed to assess the association between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and lung cancer incidence in European populations....

  3. Cost Analyses in the US and Japan: A Cross-Country Comparative Analysis Applied to the PRONOUNCE Trial in Non-Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Lisa M; Rajan, Narayan; Winfree, Katherine; Davey, Peter; Ball, Mark; Knox, Hediyyih; Graham, Christopher

    2015-12-01

    Health technology assessment is not required for regulatory submission or approval in either the United States (US) or Japan. This study was designed as a cross-country evaluation of cost analyses conducted in the US and Japan based on the PRONOUNCE phase III lung cancer trial, which compared pemetrexed plus carboplatin followed by pemetrexed (PemC) versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab followed by bevacizumab (PCB). Two cost analyses were conducted in accordance with International Society For Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research good research practice standards. Costs were obtained based on local pricing structures; outcomes were considered equivalent based on the PRONOUNCE trial results. Other inputs were included from the trial data (e.g., toxicity rates) or from local practice sources (e.g., toxicity management). The models were compared across key input and transferability factors. Despite differences in local input data, both models demonstrated a similar direction, with the cost of PemC being consistently lower than the cost of PCB. The variation in individual input parameters did affect some of the specific categories, such as toxicity, and impacted sensitivity analyses, with the cost differential between comparators being greater in Japan than in the US. When economic models are based on clinical trial data, many inputs and outcomes are held consistent. The alterable inputs were not in and of themselves large enough to significantly impact the results between countries, which were directionally consistent with greater variation seen in sensitivity analyses. The factors that vary across jurisdictions, even when minor, can have an impact on trial-based economic analyses. Eli Lilly and Company.

  4. Lung cancer during pregnancy: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Mitrou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.

  5. Advances in combination therapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lan; Leng, Donglei; Cun, Dongmei

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is a complex disease caused by a multitude of genetic and environmental factors. The progression of lung cancer involves dynamic changes in the genome and a complex network of interactions between cancer cells with multiple, distinct cell types that form tumors. Combination therapy......, including small molecule drugs and biopharmaceuticals, which make the optimization of dosing and administration schedule challenging. This article reviews the recent advances in the design and development of combinations of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of lung cancer. Focus is primarily on rationales...... for the selection of specific combination therapies for lung cancer treatment, and state of the art of delivery technologies and dosage regimens for the combinations, tested in preclinical and clinical trials....

  6. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  7. Molecular biology of the lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, S.Z.

    2005-01-01

    Background. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases and leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The advances in molecular biology and genetics, including the modern microarray technology and rapid sequencing techniques, have enabled a remarkable progress into elucidating the lung cancer ethiopathogenesis. Numerous studies suggest that more than 20 different genetic and epigenetic alterations are accumulating during the pathogenesis of clinically evident pulmonary cancers as a clonal, multistep process. Thus far, the most investigated alterations are the inactivational mutations and losses of tumour suppressor genes and the overexpression of growth-promoting oncogenes. More recently, the acquired epigenetic inactivation of tumour suppressor genes by promoter hypermethylation has been recognized. The early clonal genetic abnormalities that occur in preneoplastic bronchial epithelium damaged by smoking or other carcinogenes are being identified. The molecular distinctions between small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), as well as between tumors with different clinical outcomes have been described. These investigations lead to the h allmarks of lung cancer . Conclusions. It is realistic to expect that the molecular and cell culture-based investigations will lead to discoveries of new clinical applications with the potential to provide new avenues for early diagnosis, risk assessment, prevention, and most important, new more effective treatment approaches for the lung cancer patients. (author)

  8. Perceptions of lung cancer and potential impacts on funding and patient care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kim; Delicaet, Kendra; Tang, Theresa; Ashley, Leslie Beard; Morra, Dante; Abrams, Howard

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore health-care professionals', health administrators', and not-for-profit cancer organization representatives' perceptions of lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism and the perceived impacts on funding and patient care. This is a qualitative descriptive study using semi-structured interviews, which was conducted in Ontario, Canada. Seventy-four individuals from medical oncology, radiation oncology, thoracic surgery, respirology, pathology, radiology, primary care, palliative care, nursing, pharmacy, social work, genetics, health administration, and not-for-profit cancer organizations participated in this study. Participants described lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism and its negative impact on patients' psychological health, lung cancer funding, and patient care. The feeling of guilt and shame experienced by lung cancer patients as a result of the stigma associated with the disease was described. In terms of lung cancer funding, stigma was described as a reason lung cancer receives significantly less research funding compared to other cancers. In terms of patient care, lung cancer-related nihilism was credited with negatively impacting physician referral patterns with the belief that lung cancer patients were less likely to receive referrals for medical treatment. Health-care professionals, health administrators, and not-for-profit cancer organization representatives described lung cancer-related stigma and nihilism with far-reaching consequences. Further work is needed to increase education and awareness about lung cancer to reduce the stigma and nihilism associated with the disease.

  9. Missed lung cancer: when, where, and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Ciello, Annemilia; Franchi, Paola; Contegiacomo, Andrea; Cicchetti, Giuseppe; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Larici, Anna Rita

    2017-01-01

    Missed lung cancer is a source of concern among radiologists and an important medicolegal challenge. In 90% of the cases, errors in diagnosis of lung cancer occur on chest radiographs. It may be challenging for radiologists to distinguish a lung lesion from bones, pulmonary vessels, mediastinal structures, and other complex anatomical structures on chest radiographs. Nevertheless, lung cancer can also be overlooked on computed tomography (CT) scans, regardless of the context, either if a clinical or radiologic suspect exists or for other reasons. Awareness of the possible causes of overlooking a pulmonary lesion can give radiologists a chance to reduce the occurrence of this eventuality. Various factors contribute to a misdiagnosis of lung cancer on chest radiographs and on CT, often very similar in nature to each other. Observer error is the most significant one and comprises scanning error, recognition error, decision-making error, and satisfaction of search. Tumor characteristics such as lesion size, conspicuity, and location are also crucial in this context. Even technical aspects can contribute to the probability of skipping lung cancer, including image quality and patient positioning and movement. Albeit it is hard to remove missed lung cancer completely, strategies to reduce observer error and methods to improve technique and automated detection may be valuable in reducing its likelihood. PMID:28206951

  10. Other cancers in lung cancer families are overwhelmingly smoking-related cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyao Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial risks of lung cancer are well-established, but whether lung cancer clusters with other discordant cancers is less certain, particularly beyond smoking-related sites, which may provide evidence on genetic contributions to lung cancer aetiology. We used a novel approach to search for familial associations in the Swedish Family-Cancer Database. This involved assessment of familial relative risk for cancer X in families with increasing numbers of lung cancer patients and, conversely, relative risks for lung cancer in families with increasing numbers of patients with cancers X. However, we lacked information on smoking. The total number of lung cancers in the database was 125 563. We applied stringent statistical criteria and found that seven discordant cancers were associated with lung cancer among family members, and six of these were known to be connected with smoking: oesophageal, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, cervical, kidney and urinary bladder cancers. A further novel finding was that cancer of unknown primary also associated with lung cancer. We also factored in histological evidence and found that anal and connective tissue cancers could be associated with lung cancer for reasons other than smoking. For endometrial and prostate cancers, suggestive negative associations with lung cancer were found. Although we lacked information on smoking it is prudent to conclude that practically all observed discordant associations of lung cancer were with cancers for which smoking is a risk factor.

  11. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  12. Lung Cancer in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozicic Mirela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although the incidence of malignancy has increased after solid organ transplantation, data on lung cancer in this group of patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients who developed lung cancer after renal transplantation. Methods. Among a cohort of 1658 patients who received a transplant at our institution and were followedup between 1973 and 2014, five patients developed lung cancer. We analyzed risk factors, transplantation characteristics, treatment options and survival. Results. Lung cancer was diagnosed in 5 patients (0.3%. Time to diagnosis after the transplant procedure ranged from 26 to 156 months (mean 115 months. All of them had a smoking history. Tumors were classified as IIB (20%, IIIA (40%, and IV (40%. Histological types included adenocarcinoma (80% and there was one case of sarcomatoid carcinoma (20%. One patient had concomitant thyroid papillary carcinoma. Radiotherapy was applied in 2 patients, 2 underwent chemotherapy (erlotinib and combination of carboplatinum and etopozide in one patient each, and 2 died within one month after the diagnosis from disseminated malignant disease. Patients with stage IIIA survived 14 and 24 months after the diagnosis. The patient with sarcomatoid cancer underwent thoracotomy with a complete resection, lost his graft function and died 7 months after the diagnosis. Conclusion. Lung cancer is relatively rare malignancy in renal transplant recipients, but associated with high mortality. Smoking is a significant risk factor, thus smoking cessation should be promoted among renal transplant recipients, as well as regular screening for lung cancer.

  13. Invasive Aspergillosis Mimicking Metastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel J. E. G. W. Vanfleteren

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with a medical history of cancer, the most probable diagnosis of an 18FDG-avid pulmonary mass combined with intracranial abnormalities on brain imaging is metastasized cancer. However, sometimes a differential diagnosis with an infectious cause such as aspergillosis can be very challenging as both cancer and infection are sometimes difficult to distinguish. Pulmonary aspergillosis can present as an infectious pseudotumour with clinical and imaging characteristics mimicking lung cancer. Even in the presence of cerebral lesions, radiological appearance of abscesses can look like brain metastasis. These similarities can cause significant diagnostic difficulties with a subsequent therapeutic delay and a potential adverse outcome. Awareness of this infectious disease that can mimic lung cancer, even in an immunocompetent patient, is important. We report a case of a 65-year-old woman with pulmonary aspergillosis disseminated to the brain mimicking metastatic lung cancer.

  14. Endobronchial Tuberculosis Simulating Lung Cancer and Healing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endobroncheal tuberculosis is defined as tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree with microbial and histopathological evidence. The disease is usually mistaken for other lung diseases including lung cancer. Bronchial stenosis is a common complication of this type of tuberculosis despite the use of effective ...

  15. EGFR Exon 18 Mutations in Lung Cancer: Molecular Predictors of Augmented Sensitivity to Afatinib or Neratinib as Compared with First- or Third-Generation TKIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshihisa; Togashi, Yosuke; Yatabe, Yasushi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Jangchul, Park; Kondo, Chiaki; Shimoji, Masaki; Sato, Katsuaki; Suda, Kenichi; Tomizawa, Kenji; Takemoto, Toshiki; Hida, Toyoaki; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancers harboring common EGFR mutations respond to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), whereas exon 20 insertions (Ins20) are resistant to them. However, little is known about mutations in exon 18. Mutational status of lung cancers between 2001 and 2015 was reviewed. Three representative mutations in exon 18, G719A, E709K, and exon 18 deletion (Del18: delE709_T710insD) were retrovirally introduced into Ba/F3 and NIH/3T3 cells. The 90% inhibitory concentrations (IC90s) of first-generation (1G; gefitinib and erlotinib), second-generation (2G; afatinib, dacomitinib, and neratinib), and third-generation TKIs (3G; AZD9291 and CO1686) were determined. Among 1,402 EGFR mutations, Del19, L858R, and Ins20 were detected in 40%, 47%, and 4%, respectively. Exon 18 mutations, including G719X, E709X, and Del18, were present in 3.2%. Transfected Ba/F3 cells grew in the absence of IL3, and NIH/3T3 cells formed foci with marked pile-up, indicating their oncogenic abilities. IC90s of 1G and 3G TKIs in G719A, E709K, and Del18 were much higher than those in Del19 (by >11-50-fold), whereas IC90s of afatinib were only 3- to 7-fold greater than those for Del19. Notably, cells transfected with G719A and E709K exhibited higher sensitivity to neratinib (by 5-25-fold) than those expressing Del19. Patients with lung cancers harboring G719X exhibited higher response rate to afatinib or neratinib (∼ 80%) than to 1G TKIs (35%-56%) by compilation of data in the literature. Lung cancers harboring exon 18 mutations should not be overlooked in clinical practice. These cases can be best treated with afatinib or neratinib, although the currently available in vitro diagnostic kits cannot detect all exon 18 mutations. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained...... by differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... with stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients...

  17. Cigarette smoking and risk of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Julian A; Lee, Paul C; Port, Jeffrey L; Altorki, Nasser K; Neugut, Alfred I

    2008-10-01

    Whereas extensive research has explored the effect of environmental factors on the etiology of specific cancers, the influence of exposures such as smoking on risk of site-specific metastasis is unknown. We investigated the association of cigarette smoking with lung metastasis in esophageal cancer. We conducted a case-control study of esophageal cancer patients from two centers, comparing cases with lung metastases to controls without lung metastases. Information was gathered from medical records on smoking history, imaging results, site(s) of metastasis, and other patient and tumor characteristics. We used logistic regression to assess association. We identified 354 esophageal cancer cases; smoking status was known in 289 (82%). Among patients with lung metastases, 73.6% (39 of 53) were ever smokers, versus 47.8% (144 of 301) of patients without lung metastases [P=0.001; summary odds ratio (OR), 2.52; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.17-5.45; stratified by histology]. Smoking was associated with a nonsignificant increased adjusted odds of lung metastasis (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 0.80-4.46). Upper esophageal subsite (OR, 4.71; 95% CI, 1.20-18.5), but not histology (squamous OR 0.65,95% CI 0.27-1.60), was associated with lung metastasis. Compared with the combined never/unknown smoking status group, smoking was associated with a significantly increased odds of lung metastasis (OR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.11-4.97). There was no association between liver metastasis and smoking (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.42-1.83). Smoking is associated with increased odds of lung metastasis from esophageal cancer, and this relationship seems to be site specific. Future studies are needed to determine whether smoking affects the tumor cell or the site of metastasis, and whether this changes the survival outcome.

  18. Roentgenological diagnoss of central segmental lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.A.; Fedchenko, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Basing on an analysis of the results of clinicoroentgenological examination of 268 patments roentgenological semiotics of segmental lung cancer is presented. Some peculiarities of the X-ray picture of cancer of different segments of the lungs were revealed depending on tumor site and growth type. For the syndrome of segmental darkening the comprehensive X-ray methods where the chief method is tomography of the segmental bronchi are proposed

  19. Randomized phase II study of gefitinib compared with placebo in chemotherapy-naive patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and poor performance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A

    2009-05-01

    To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors.

  20. Randomized Phase II Study of Gefitinib Compared With Placebo in Chemotherapy-Naive Patients With Advanced Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer and Poor Performance Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Glenwood; Ferry, David; Wierzbicki, Rafal; Laurie, Scott A.; Thompson, Joyce; Biesma, Bonne; Hirsch, Fred R.; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Duffield, Emma; Ataman, Ozlem U.; Zarenda, Marc; Armour, Alison A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To compare gefitinib with placebo in chemotherapy naïve patients with advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and poor performance status. Patients and Methods NSCLC patients (chemotherapy naïve, WHO performance status 2 or 3; unfit for chemotherapy; stage IIIB/IV) were randomly assigned to gefitinib (250 mg/d) plus best supportive care (BSC; n = 100) or placebo plus BSC (n = 101). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), quality of life (QOL), pulmonary symptom improvement (PSI), and safety. Correlation of gefitinib efficacy with EGFR gene copy number (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH]) was explored. Results Hazard ratios (HRs; gefitinib:placebo) were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.60 to 1.12; P = .217) for PFS and 0.84 (95% CI, 0.62 to 1.15; P = .272) for OS. As expected for this patient population, OS for both arms was poor, at about 3 months. ORRs were 6.0% (gefitinib) and 1.0% (placebo). QOL and PSI rates were 21.1% and 28.3% (gefitinib) and 20.0% and 28.3% (placebo), respectively. In EGFR FISH-positive patients (n = 32), HRs were 0.29 (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.73) for PFS and 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17 to 1.12) for OS. No unexpected adverse events occurred. Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in PFS, OS, and ORRs after treatment with gefitinib or placebo, in the overall population; improvements in QOL and symptoms were similar in both groups. Tolerability profile of gefitinib was consistent with previous studies. PFS was statistically significantly improved for gefitinib-treated patients with EGFR FISH-positive tumors. PMID:19289623

  1. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) vs. involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A comparative analysis of toxicities and clinical outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T.; Shen, Jason; Finlay, Jarod; Mitra, Nandita; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Lin, Lilie; Hahn, Stephen; Glatstein, Eli; Rengan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) are definitive radiotherapeutic approaches used to treat patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ENI delivers prophylactic radiation to clinically uninvolved lymph nodes, while IFRT only targets identifiable gross nodal disease. Because clinically uninvolved nodal stations may harbor microscopic disease, IFRT raises concerns for increased nodal failures. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluates failure rates and treatment-related toxicities in patients treated at a single institution with ENI and IFRT. Methods: We assessed all patients with stage III locally advanced or stage IV oligometastatic NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy from 2003 to 2008. Each physician consistently treated with either ENI or IFRT, based on their treatment philosophy. Results: Of the 108 consecutive patients assessed (60 ENI vs. 48 IFRT), 10 patients had stage IV disease and 95 patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 18.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients treated with IFRT demonstrated a significantly lower risk of high grade esophagitis (Odds ratio: 0.31, p = 0.036). The differences in 2-year local control (39.2% vs. 59.6%), elective nodal control (84.3% vs. 84.3%), distant control (47.7% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (40.1% vs. 43.7%) rates were not statistically significant between ENI vs. IFRT. Conclusions: Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients.

  2. Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) vs. involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A comparative analysis of toxicities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Annemarie T; Shen, Jason; Finlay, Jarod; Mitra, Nandita; Evans, Tracey; Stevenson, James; Langer, Corey; Lin, Lilie; Hahn, Stephen; Glatstein, Eli; Rengan, Ramesh

    2010-05-01

    Elective nodal irradiation (ENI) and involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) are definitive radiotherapeutic approaches used to treat patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ENI delivers prophylactic radiation to clinically uninvolved lymph nodes, while IFRT only targets identifiable gross nodal disease. Because clinically uninvolved nodal stations may harbor microscopic disease, IFRT raises concerns for increased nodal failures. This retrospective cohort analysis evaluates failure rates and treatment-related toxicities in patients treated at a single institution with ENI and IFRT. We assessed all patients with stage III locally advanced or stage IV oligometastatic NSCLC treated with definitive radiotherapy from 2003 to 2008. Each physician consistently treated with either ENI or IFRT, based on their treatment philosophy. Of the 108 consecutive patients assessed (60 ENI vs. 48 IFRT), 10 patients had stage IV disease and 95 patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up time for survivors was 18.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients treated with IFRT demonstrated a significantly lower risk of high grade esophagitis (Odds ratio: 0.31, p = 0.036). The differences in 2-year local control (39.2% vs. 59.6%), elective nodal control (84.3% vs. 84.3%), distant control (47.7% vs. 52.7%) and overall survival (40.1% vs. 43.7%) rates were not statistically significant between ENI vs. IFRT. Nodal failure rates in clinically uninvolved nodal stations were not increased with IFRT when compared to ENI. IFRT also resulted in significantly decreased esophageal toxicity, suggesting that IFRT may allow for integration of concurrent systemic chemotherapy in a greater proportion of patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How does iliac crest bone marrow biopsy compare with imaging in the detection of bone metastases in small cell lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin-Resche, I.; Bizais, Y.; Buhe, T.; Fiche, M.

    1993-01-01

    Iliac crest bone marrow biopsy (BMB) has often been used as the gold standard for the detection of bone marrow metastases in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). However, it is likely to lead to numerous false-negative results. For this reason, we compared the results of bone scintigraphy (BS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and BMB in 48 sequential patients affected with pathologically confirmed SCLC (47 were evaluable; mean age, 58.4 years). The three procedures were carried out within 1 week, no treatment being performed during this period. Whole-body scans and spot views were obtained in the anterior and posterior projections. For MRI, only the thoracolumbar spine, the sternum and the pelvis were scanned, using spin-echo T1-weighted sequences, resulting in an acquisition time of less than 45 min. Only five BMBs were rated as positive. In these cases, both BS and MRI were also positive. The other 42 biopsies were negative. Among them, in ten cases both BS and MRI were positive. In 21 cases, both BS and MRI were negative. In five cases MRI was positive while BS was negative. Finally, in six cases MRI was negative whilst BS was positive. In most cases in which either BS or MRI was positive, follow-up scans confirmed the initial findings. This study suggests that BMB is more invasive and less sensitive than BS or MRI in detecting bone metastases. MRI seems to be more sensitive than BS in detecting small spinal or pelvic metastases. Whole-body bone scintigraphy is more sensitive in detecting skull, costal or peripheral metastases. BS and MRI should be used in combination and may replace BMB in the detection of bone metastases in SCLC. (orig.)

  4. Sci-Thur PM: YIS - 03: Comparing 4D-VMAT, Gated-VMAT and 3D-VMAT in SBRT treatment of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, E; Loewen, S; Nichol, A; Otto, K

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the treatment plan qualities of 4D-VMAT, gated-VMAT and 3D-VMAT in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). 4D-VMAT is a motion compensation strategy that aims to exploit relative target and OAR motion to increase OAR sparing over 3D-VMAT without the long treatment times associated with gated-VMAT. The 4D-VMAT algorithm incorporates the entire patient respiratory cycle and 4D-CT in the optimization process. Resulting treatment plans synchronize the delivery of each MLC aperture to a specific phase of the target motion. Using software developed in Matlab™, SBRT treatment plans for 4D-VMAT, gated-VMAT and 3D-VMAT were generated on 3 patients with NSCLC. Tumour motion ranged from 1.4-3.4 cm. The fractionation scheme was 48Gy in 4 fractions with the GTV receiving 100% of the prescribed dose. For gated-VMAT, the treatment window constrained residual tumour motion to 3 mm or less corresponding to duty cycles of 40-60%. In 3D-VMAT, the ITV was generated by merging the GTV from all phases. A b-spline transformation model was used to register the 4D-CT images and DVHs were calculated from total dose accumulated on the max expiration phase. For the majority of OARs, gated-VMAT provided the greatest radiation sparing but significantly extended treatment times (25-35 gantry interruptions/arc). For 3D-VMAT, only 2 patients had clinically acceptable plans that met all the strict dose limits. OAR sparing in 4D-VMAT was comparable to gated-VMAT but with significantly improved delivery efficiency. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Positron emission tomography with selected mediastinoscopy compared to routine mediastinoscopy offers cost and clinical outcome benefits for pre-operative staging of non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Kelvin K.; Yap, Kenneth S.K.; Byrne, Amanda J.; Berlangieri, Salvatore U.; Poon, Aurora; Harris, Anthony; Tauro, Andrew; Mitchell, Paul; Knight, Simon R.; Clarke, Peter C.; Rowe, Christopher C.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is an important staging procedure in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We aimed to demonstrate, through a decision tree model and the incorporation of real costs of each component, that routine FDG-PET imaging as a prelude to curative surgery will reduce requirements for routine mediastinoscopy and overall hospital costs. A decision tree model comparing routine whole-body FDG-PET imaging to routine staging mediastinoscopy was used, with baseline variables of sensitivity, specificity and prevalence of non-operable and metastatic disease obtained from institutional data and a literature review. Costings for hospital admissions for mediastinoscopy and thoracotomy of actual patients with NSCLC were determined. The overall and average cost of managing patients was then calculated over a range of FDG-PET costs to derive projected cost savings to the community. The prevalence of histologically proven mediastinal involvement in patients with NSCLC presenting for surgical assessment at our institution is 20%, and the prevalence of distant metastatic disease is 6%. Based on literature review, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for detection of mediastinal spread are 84% and 89% respectively, and for mediastinoscopy, 81% and 100%. The average cost of mediastinoscopy for NSCLC in our institution is AUD$4,160, while that of thoracotomy is AUD$15,642. The cost of an FDG-PET scan is estimated to be AUD$1,500. Using these figures and the decision tree model, the average cost saving is AUD$2,128 per patient. Routine FDG-PET scanning with selective mediastinoscopy will save AUD$2,128 per patient and will potentially reduce inappropriate surgery. These cost savings remain robust over a wide range of disease prevalence and FDG-PET costs. (orig.)

  6. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled...

  7. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pintos, Javier; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Danieli, Coraline; Richardson, Lesley; Bourbonnais, Robert; Gauvin, Lise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that recreational physical activities (PA) may reduce lung cancer risk, there is little evidence concerning the possible role of a potentially more important source of PA, namely occupational PA. We investigated both recreational and lifetime occupational PA in relation to lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (N CASES  = 727; N CONTROLS  = 1,351). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), separately for men and women, adjusting for smoking, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both sexes, increasing recreational PA was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (OR MEN  = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.92; OR WOMEN  = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles). For occupational PA, no association was observed among women, while increasing occupational PA was associated with increased risk among men (OR MEN  = 1.96, 95% CI 1.27-3.01). ORs were not modified by occupational lung carcinogen exposure, body mass index, and smoking level; results were similar across lung cancer histological types. Our results support the previous findings for recreational PA and lung cancer risk. Unexpectedly, our findings suggest a positive association for occupational PA; this requires replication and more detailed investigation.

  8. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  9. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  10. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  11. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierada, David S.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Duan, Fenghai; Garg, Kavita; Hart, Eric M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  12. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierada, David S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Pinsky, Paul F. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Garg, Kavita [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F726, Box 6510, Aurora, CO (United States); Hart, Eric M. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kazerooni, Ella A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R. [University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Radiology-JTN370, Birmingham, AL (United States); Aberle, Denise R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  13. Lung cancer in the Kashmir valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koul Parvaiz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lung cancer has been found to be the second commonest cancer according to a hospital-based data from Kashmir, India. However, no incidence studies are available. Objective: To ascertain the incidence of lung cancer in Kashmir. Materials and Methods: All newly histologically diagnosed cases of lung cancer seen in various hospital and private laboratories of the Kashmir valley were registered over a period of two years (January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2005. Also included were patients attending the various oncological service areas of the institute and those diagnosed from any other laboratory outside the state. The incidence rate was calculated using the January 2005 population as the reference population estimated using the census-based projected populations. Results: Four hundred and sixty-two incident cases of lung cancer were seen during the study period. The crude incidence rate, age standardized (world and truncated age adjusted (40-69 years, world incidence rates for lung cancer per 100 000 population were 4.01, 6.48 and 15.28 respectively (males 6.55, 10.09 and 23.94 respectively and females 1.19, 2.14 and 4.65. The age adjusted rates for males in district Srinagar was 19.34 per 100 000. One hundred and fifty nine (69.8% of the 221 had a history of Hukkah smoking. Conclusions: Even though Kashmir as a whole is a low incidence area for lung cancer (ASR of < 15, Srinagar district has the highest incidence of lung cancer among the males in Kashmir. The data presented is assumed to be the closest approximation to a population-based data registry and the geographical incidence maps of ICMR need appropriate updating

  14. Lung cancer after internal alpha-exposure of the lung from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhail, S.

    2004-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies among workers of first Russian nuclear complex Mayak which produced weapon-grade plutonium showed significant increase of lung cancer mortality. The estimated shape of the dose-response was linear with both alpha and gamma dose but risk coefficients for gamma-exposure are on the edge of the significance level. This study was performed in the cohort of male Mayak nuclear workers initially hired in 1948-1958 with known levels of plutonium exposure. Number of observed lung cancer cases available for analyses in this cohort was 217. The relative risk of death from lung cancer among smokers was 10.7 (5.5-25.2) comparatively to non-smokers. This is in good correspondence with results of other studies. The excess relative risk per one Gray was 63. (4.1-9.7) for internal alpha-exposure and 0.18 (0.01-0.5) for external gamma-exposure. According to a model this gives 16:112:60:29 cases of lung cancer attributed to background, smoking, internal alpha-and external gamma-exposure, correspondingly. The relative risks of death from lung cancer were also estimated in a nested case-control study with lung cancer deaths as cases. Controls were selected from the cohort and matched for birth year to account for trend in lung cancer mortality with time. The analyses with nested case-control approach gave relative risks for smoking 14.7 (6.8-38.9). Relative risk of lung cancer among non-smokers after accumulating 0.34 Gy of alpha-exposure to lung was 3.7 (1.7-9.0). It should be emphasized that in fact after accumulation 0.3-0.4 Gy of absorbed dose 3-4 fold increase in lung cancer mortality was observed. This dose is very close to the dose which would be produced after intake of plutonium in quantities which are permissible today. (Author)

  15. Lung cancer risk associated with Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guochun; Lu, Hongna; Feng, Jifeng; Shu, Jian; Zheng, Datong; Hou, Yayi

    2008-04-01

    The incidence of lung cancer has been increasing over recent decades. Previous studies showed that polymorphisms of the genes involved in carcinogen-detoxication, DNA repair and cell cycle control comprise risk factors for lung cancer. Recent observations revealed that the growth hormone receptor (GHR) might play important roles in carcinogenesis and Rudd et al. found that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was strongly associated with lung cancer risk in Caucasians living in the UK (OR = 12.98, P = 0.0019, 95% CI: 1.77-infinity). To test whether this variant of GHR would modify the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population, we compared the polymorphism between 778 lung cancer patients and 781 healthy control subjects. Our results indicate that the frequency of 495Thr (2.8%) allele in cases was significantly higher than in controls (OR = 2.04, P = 0.006, 95% CI: 1.21-3.42) which indicated this allele might be a risk factor for lung cancer. Further analyses revealed Thr495Pro variant was associated with lung cancer in the subpopulation with higher risk for lung cancer: male subpopulation, still-smokers subpopulation and the subpopulation with familial history of cancer. In different histological types of lung cancer, Thr495Pro SNP was significantly associated with small cell and squamous cell lung cancer, but not with adenocarcinoma, which suggested a potential interaction between this polymorphism and metabolic pathways related to smoking. The potential gene-environment interaction on lung cancer risk was evaluated using MDR software. A significant redundant interaction between Thr495Pro polymorphism and smoking dose and familial history of cancer was identified and the combination of genetic factors and smoking status or familial history of cancer barely increased the cancer risk prediction accuracy. In conclusion, our results suggested that the Thr495Pro polymorphism of GHR was associated with the risk of lung cancer in a redundant interaction with smoking and

  16. A New Serum Biomarker for Lung Cancer - Transthyretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun LIU

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and very few specific biomarkers could be used in clinical diagnosis at present. The aim of this study is to find novel potential serum biomarkers for lung cancer using Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionization (SELDI technique. Methods Serumsample of 227 cases including 146 lung cancer, 13 pneumonia, 28 tuberculous pleurisy and 40 normal individuals were analyzed by CM10 chips. The candidate biomarkers were identified by ESI/MS-MS and database searching, and further confirmed by immunoprecipitation. The same sets of serum sample from all groups were re-measured by ELISA assay. Results Three protein peaks with the molecular weight 13.78 kDa, 13.90 kDa and 14.07 kDa were found significantlydecreased in lung cancer serum compared to the other groups and were all automatically selected as specific biomarkers by Biomarker Wizard software. The candidate biomarkers obtained from 1-D SDS gel bands by matching the molecular weight with peaks on CM10 chips were identified by Mass spectrometry as the native transthyretin (nativeTTR, cysTTR and glutTTR, and the identity was further validated by immunoprecipitation using commercial TTR antibodies. Downregulated of TTR was found in both ELISA and SELDI analysis. Conclusion TTRs acted as the potentially useful biomarkers for lung cancer by SELDI technique.

  17. Identification of Immunogenic Targets for Lung Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution...AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 11... quantitative proteomic analysis to identify proteins overexpressed in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines compared with normal lung epithelial

  18. Frequency of breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use articles in women's magazines from 1987 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Kyle J; Wilson, Philip K; Napolitano, Peter G

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the frequency of articles in women's magazines that address breast cancer, lung cancer, and tobacco use from 1987-2003 and to ascertain whether the annual number of articles reflected corresponding cancer mortality rates from breast cancer and lung cancer and the number of female smokers throughout this time period. We reviewed 13 women's magazines published in the United States from 1987-2003 using the search terms breast cancer, lung cancer, smoking, and tobacco. We reviewed the abstracts or entire articles to determine relevance. A total of 1044 articles addressed breast cancer, lung cancer, or tobacco use: 681 articles related to breast cancer, 47 related to lung cancer, and 316 related to tobacco use. The greater number of breast cancer articles compared to lung cancer articles was statistically significant (P value magazines from 1987-2003 despite the increase in lung cancer mortality, a decrease in breast cancer mortality, and an insignificant change in the number of female smokers.

  19. Epidemiology Characteristics and Trends of Lung Cancer Incidence in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Zeinab; Salehiniya, Hamid; Amoori, Neda; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world and a major cause of death from cancer. One of the important indicators to compare the prevalence and incidence of the disease is a change in the trend. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the incidence of lung cancer in Iran. This study was conducted based on existing data obtained from a national registry of cancer cases and the Disease Management Center of Ministry of Health in Iran. All cases registered in the country were included during 2003-2008. Incidence rates were reported based on the direct method and standard population of World Health Organization. The study also examined the morphology of common lung cancers. Trends in incidence underwent joinpoint regression analysis. Based on the results of this study, 14,403 cases of lung cancer have been recorded of which 10,582 cases were in men and 3,821 in women. Highest incidence rates were observed in the 80-84 age group. Considerable variation across provinces was evident. In females squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) demonstrated a reduction from 24% to 16% of lesions over the period of study, while adenocarcinoma rose from 21% to 29%. In males a similar reduction in SCC was apparent (42% to 29%, again with increase in AC (13 % to 18%). The results show that the increase in the incidence of lung cancer the trend is that more men than women and in men and may be caused by changes in smoking pattern. The incidence of lung cancer in the North West and West provinces was higher than in other regions.

  20. Biomarker Identification and Pathway Analysis by Serum Metabolomics of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer death, for which no validated tumor biomarker is sufficiently accurate to be useful for diagnosis. Additionally, the metabolic alterations associated with the disease are unclear. In this study, we investigated the construction, interaction, and pathways of potential lung cancer biomarkers using metabolomics pathway analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database and the Human Metabolome Database to identify the top altered pathways for analysis and visualization. We constructed a diagnostic model using potential serum biomarkers from patients with lung cancer. We assessed their specificity and sensitivity according to the area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves, which could be used to distinguish patients with lung cancer from normal subjects. The pathway analysis indicated that sphingolipid metabolism was the top altered pathway in lung cancer. ROC curve analysis indicated that glycerophospho-N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (GpAEA and sphingosine were potential sensitive and specific biomarkers for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Compared with the traditional lung cancer diagnostic biomarkers carcinoembryonic antigen and cytokeratin 19 fragment, GpAEA and sphingosine were as good or more appropriate for detecting lung cancer. We report our identification of potential metabolic diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of lung cancer and clarify the metabolic alterations in lung cancer.

  1. Lung cancer, genetic predisposition and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmborg, Jacob; Korhonen, Tellervo; Holst, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Background: We aimed to disentangle genetic and environmental causes in lung cancer while considering smoking status. Methods: Four Nordic twin cohorts (43 512 monozygotic (MZ) and 71 895 same sex dizygotic (DZ) twin individuals) had smoking data before cancer diagnosis. We used time...

  2. Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and lung cancer: the BTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J M; Johnston, I D A; Rudd, R; Taylor, A J Newman; Cullinan, P

    2010-01-01

    The risk of lung cancer is often reported to be increased for patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA). Vital status was sought for all 588 members of the British Thoracic Society (BTS) cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis (CFA) study 11 years after entry to the cohort. Observed deaths due to lung cancer were compared with expected deaths using age-, sex- and period-adjusted national rates. The roles of reported asbestos exposure and smoking were also investigated. 488 cohort members (83%) had died; 46 (9%) were certified to lung cancer (ICD9 162). The standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 7.4 (95% CI 5.4 to 9.9). Stratified analysis showed increased lung cancer mortality among younger subjects, men and ever smokers. Using an independent expert panel, 25 cohort members (4%) were considered to have at least moderate exposure to asbestos; the risk of lung cancer was increased for these subjects (SMR 13.1 (95% CI 3.6 to 33.6)) vs 7.2 (95% CI 5.2 to 9.7) for those with less or no asbestos exposure). Ever smoking was reported by 448 (73%) of the cohort and was considerably higher in men than in women (92% vs 49%; p<0.001). Most persons who died from lung cancer were male (87%), and all but two (96%) had ever smoked. Ever smokers presented at a younger age (mean 67 vs 70 years; p<0.001) and with less breathlessness (12% smokers reported no breathlessness vs 5% never smokers; p = 0.02). These findings confirm an association between CFA and lung cancer although this relationship may not be causal. The high rate of smoking and evidence that smokers present for medical attention earlier than non-smokers suggest that smoking could be confounding this association.

  3. 28 CFR 79.54 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.54... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  4. 28 CFR 79.64 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.64... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... claimant. A conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical...

  5. 28 CFR 79.45 - Proof of primary lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Proof of primary lung cancer. 79.45... cancer. (a) In determining whether a claimant developed primary lung cancer following pertinent... conclusion that a claimant developed primary lung cancer must be supported by medical documentation. To prove...

  6. The IASLC Lung Cancer Staging Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chansky, Kari; Detterbeck, Frank C; Nicholson, Andrew G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Revisions to the TNM stage classifications for lung cancer, informed by the international database (N = 94,708) of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Staging and Prognostic Factors Committee, need external validation. The objective was to externally...... demonstrated consistent ability to discriminate TNM categories and stage groups for clinical and pathologic stage. CONCLUSIONS: The IASLC revisions made for the eighth edition of lung cancer staging are validated by this analysis of the NCDB database by the ordering, statistical differences, and homogeneity...... validate the revisions by using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons. METHODS: Cases presenting from 2000 through 2012 were drawn from the NCDB and reclassified according to the eighth edition stage classification. Clinically and pathologically staged subsets of NSCLC...

  7. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  8. Cognitive and brain structural changes in a lung cancer population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Marta; Root, James C; Vaquero, Lucía; Ripollés, Pablo; Jové, Josep; Ahles, Tim; Navarro, Arturo; Cardenal, Felipe; Bruna, Jordi; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    No study has examined structural brain changes specifically associated with chemotherapy in a lung cancer population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess differences in brain structure between small-cell lung cancer patients (C+) following chemotherapy, non-small-cell lung cancer patients (C-) before chemotherapy and healthy controls (HC). Twenty-eight small-cell lung cancer patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment and a structural magnetic resonance imaging, including T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging to examine gray matter density and white matter (WM) integrity, respectively, 1 month following completion of platinum-based chemotherapy. This group was compared with 20 age and education-matched non-small-cell lung cancer patients before receiving chemotherapy and 20 HC. Both C+ and C- groups exhibited cognitive impairment compared with the HC group. The C+ group performed significantly worse than HC in verbal fluency and visuospatial subtests; C- performed significantly worse than both C+ and HC in verbal memory. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed lower gray matter density in the insula and parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally, and left anterior cingulate cortex in C+ compared with HC. Diffusion tensor imaging indices showed focal decreased WM integrity in left cingulum and bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus in the C+ group and more widespread decreased integrity in the C- group compared with the HC group. This study demonstrates that lung cancer patients exhibit cognitive impairment before and after chemotherapy. Before the treatment, C- showed verbal memory deficits as well as a widespread WM damage. Following treatment, the C+ group performed exhibited lower visuospatial and verbal fluency abilities, together with structural gray matter and WM differences in bilateral regions integrating the paralimbic system.

  9. Long non-coding RNAs may serve as biomarkers in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Weimin; Chen, Bo; Yang, Shifeng; Ding, Xiaowen; Zou, Dehong; Mo, Wenju; He, Xiangming; Zhang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play important regulatory role in certain type of cancers biology, including breast and lung cancers. However, the lncRNA expression in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer remains unknown. In this study, databases of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the lncRNA profiler of contained candidate 192 lncRNAs were utilized. 11 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in breast cancer, 9 candidate lncRNAs were differentially expressed in lung cancer. In order to find the aberrant expression of lncRNAs in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer, seven samples of primary breast cancer and lung cancer were studied for the expression of selected lncRNAs. The results showed that SNHG6 and NEAT1 were reversely expressed in breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer compared with primary breast or lung cancer. In addition, a significant correlation of lncRNAs was found in the patients whose age was above 56 in breast cancer. What's more, PVT1 expression was negatively correlated with the pathological stage, and the level of ER, PR, HER2, p53 in breast cancer. Furthermore, lncRNA expression did not have significant relationship with the 5-year survival of patients with breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. The findings revealed that PVT1, SNHG6, NEAT1 may serve as a prognostic marker for breast cancer combined with primary lung cancer. Therefore, these lncRNAs are potential molecular indicators in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer in the future. PMID:28938549

  10. SAMHD1 is down regulated in lung cancer by methylation and inhibits tumor cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-lei; Lu, Fan-zhen; Shen, Xiao-Yong; Wu, Yun; Zhao, Li-ting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • SAMHD1 expression level is down regulated in lung adenocarcinoma. • The promoter of SAMHD1 is methylated in lung adenocarcinoma. • Over expression of SAMHD1 inhibits the proliferation of lung cancer cells. - Abstract: The function of dNTP hydrolase SAMHD1 as a viral restriction factor to inhibit the replication of several viruses in human immune cells was well established. However, its regulation and function in lung cancer have been elusive. Here, we report that SAMHD1 is down regulated both on protein and mRNA levels in lung adenocarcinoma compared to adjacent normal tissue. We also found that SAMHD1 promoter is highly methylated in lung adenocarcinoma, which may inhibit its gene expression. Furthermore, over expression of the SAMHD1 reduces dNTP level and inhibits the proliferation of lung tumor cells. These results reveal the regulation and function of SAMHD1 in lung cancer, which is important for the proliferation of lung tumor cells

  11. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1976-01-01

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  12. The next generation of immunotherapy: keeping lung cancer in check

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Somasundaram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the deadliest malignancy with more cancer deaths per year than the next three cancers combined. Despite remarkable advances in targeted therapy, advanced lung cancer patients have not experienced a significant improvement in mortality. Lung cancer has been shown to be immunogenic and responsive to checkpoint blockade therapy. Checkpoint signals such as CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 dampen T cell activation and allow tumors to escape the adaptive immune response. Response rates in patients with pretreated, advanced NSCLC were much higher and more durable with PD-1 blockade therapy compared to standard-of-care, cytotoxic chemotherapy. Therefore, PD-1 inhibitors such as nivolumab and pembrolizumab were rapidly approved for both squamous and nonsquamous lung cancer in the pretreated population. The advent of these new therapies have revolutionized the treatment of lung cancer; however, the majority of NSCLC patients still do not respond to PD-1/PD-L1 inhibition leaving an unmet need for a large and growing population. Immunotherapy combinations with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or novel immunomodulatory agents are currently being examined with the hope of achieving higher response rates and improving overall survival rate. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been theorized to increase the release of tumor antigen leading to increased responses with immunotherapy. However, cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy may also destroy actively proliferating T cells. The correct combination and order of therapy is under investigation. The majority of patients who do respond to immunotherapy have a durable response attributed to the effect of adaptive immune system’s memory. Unfortunately, some patients’ tumors do progress afterward and investigation of checkpoint blockade resistance is still nascent. This review will summarize the latest efficacy and safety data for early and advanced NSCLC in both the treatment-naïve and

  13. Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data on Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in Elderly Patients Compared With Younger Patients Who Participated in US National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcombe, Thomas E; Zhang, Ying; Vokes, Everett E; Schiller, Joan H; Bradley, Jeffrey D; Kelly, Karen; Curran, Walter J; Schild, Steven E; Movsas, Benjamin; Clamon, Gerald; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Blumenschein, George R; Socinski, Mark A; Ready, Neal E; Akerley, Wallace L; Cohen, Harvey J; Pang, Herbert H; Wang, Xiaofei

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy is standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small-cell lung cancer. Elderly patients may experience increased rates of adverse events (AEs) or less benefit from concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Patients and Methods Individual patient data were collected from 16 phase II or III trials conducted by US National Cancer Institute-supported cooperative groups of concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone or with consolidation or induction chemotherapy for stage III non-small-cell lung cancer from 1990 to 2012. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival, and AEs were compared between patients age ≥ 70 (elderly) and those younger than 70 years (younger). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for survival time and CIs were estimated by single-predictor and multivariable frailty Cox models. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (ORs) for AEs and CIs were obtained from single-predictor and multivariable generalized linear mixed-effect models. Results A total of 2,768 patients were classified as younger and 832 as elderly. In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly patients had worse OS (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.31 and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.29, respectively). In unadjusted and multivariable models, elderly and younger patients had similar progression-free survival (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.10 and HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.09, respectively). Elderly patients had a higher rate of grade ≥ 3 AEs in unadjusted and multivariable models (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.70 and OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.74, respectively). Grade 5 AEs were significantly higher in elderly compared with younger patients (9% v 4%; P < .01). Fewer elderly compared with younger patients completed treatment (47% v 57%; P < .01), and more discontinued treatment because of AEs (20% v 13%; P < .01), died during treatment (7.8% v 2.9%; P < .01), and refused further treatment (5.8% v 3.9%; P = .02). Conclusion Elderly patients in concurrent

  14. [Landscape of Lung Cancer with Oligometastasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Yasushi; Sato, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer with a few to several metastases is so-called oligometastatic disease. Patient with recurrence only to limited site is also known as oligo-recurrence, and may be included as oligometastatic disease. From biological aspect, any existence of metastases is a sign of systemic disease. Due to the reports of long survival with only local treatment and without systemic disease in oligometastatic lung cancer, word of oligometastasis is used with fascinating expectation of cure to advanced lung cancer. Most of the previous reports are retrospective and no comprehensive data exists for selecting patient for local treatment to oligometastasis. Recent positive result of randomize phase II study is followed up with phase III study. Progress in treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer with targeted therapy to oncogenic-driver(EGFR, ALK, ROS1 and others) and immune-checkpoint inhibitor(PD-1 pathway inhibitors)makes it difficult to define the appropriate indication of local treatment to oligometastatic lung cancer.

  15. Do Lung Cancer Eligibility Criteria Align with Risk among Blacks and Hispanics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fiscella

    Full Text Available Black patients have higher lung cancer risk despite lower pack years of smoking. We assessed lung cancer risk by race, ethnicity, and sex among a nationally representative population eligible for lung cancer screening based on Medicare criteria.We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 to assess lung cancer risk by sex, race and ethnicity among persons satisfying Medicare age and pack-year smoking eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening. We assessed Medicare eligibility based on age (55-77 years and pack-years (≥ 30. We assessed 6-year lung cancer risk using a risk prediction model from Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening trial that was modified in 2012 (PLCOm2012. We compared the proportions of eligible persons by sex, race and ethnicity using Medicare criteria with a risk cut-point that was adjusted to achieve comparable total number of persons eligible for screening.Among the 29.7 million persons aged 55-77 years who ever smoked, we found that 7.3 million (24.5% were eligible for lung cancer screening under Medicare criteria. Among those eligible, Blacks had statistically significant higher (4.4% and Hispanics lower lung cancer risk (1.2% than non-Hispanic Whites (3.2%. At a cut-point of 2.12% risk for lung screening eligibility, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics showed statistically significant changes. Blacks eligible rose by 48% and Hispanics eligible declined by 63%. Black men and Hispanic women were affected the most. There was little change in eligibility among Whites.Medicare eligibility criteria for lung cancer screening do not align with estimated risk for lung cancer among Blacks and Hispanics. Data are urgently needed to determine whether use of risk-based eligibility screening improves lung cancer outcomes among minority patients.

  16. [Utility of Multiple Increased Lung Cancer Tumor Markers in Treatment of Patients with Advanced Lung Adenocarcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Li, Junling; Liu, Yutao; Wang, Hongyu

    2017-10-20

    Among frequently-used tumor markers in lung cancer, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), cytokeratin 19 (CYFRA21-1) and squamous carcinoma antigen (SCC), neuron specific enolase (NSE) and pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP) are respectively expressed highly in lung adenocarcinoma, lung squamous carcinoma and small cell lung cancer. By comparing patients with multiple increased tumor markers (group A) and patients with increase of CEA and/or CA125 (group B), this study aims to investigate the utility of multiple increased tumor markers in therapeutic evaluation and prediction of disease relapsing in patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Patients with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who receiving the first line chemotherapy in Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed. Clinical characteristic, serum tumor markers before chemotherapy, efficacy evaluation, progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed. Except CEA and CA125, the highest ratio of increased tumor markersin group A was CYFRA21-1 (93%), then was NSE (36%), SCC (13%) and ProGRP (12%). Patients with multiple increased tumor markers tend to have more distant metastasis (Ptumor markers have high risk of relapse, and maintenance therapy can reduce relapse risk.

  17. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention strategies include quitting or avoiding exposure to smoking, occupational carcinogens, and radon. Get detailed information about risk factors and lung cancer prevention in this summary for clinicians.

  18. Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer prevention approaches include avoiding exposure to risk factors like tobacco smoke, radon, radiation, asbestos, and other substances. Learn more about preventing lung cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. New genes linked to lung cancer susceptibility in Asian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    An international group of scientists has identified three genes that predispose Asian women who have never smoked to lung cancer. The discovery of specific genetic variations, which have not previously been associated with lung cancer risk in other popul

  20. Interest in internet lung cancer support among rural cardiothoracic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quin, Jacquelyn; Stams, Victor; Phelps, Beth; Boley, Theresa; Hazelrigg, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    The Internet may provide an alternative option for rural lung cancer patients who lack access to on-site cancer support; however, Internet access and use among rural patients is unknown. An anonymous waiting-room survey was administered to all outpatient cardiothoracic surgery patients over 3 mo. Survey questions included age, gender, and diagnosis, possession of a home computer and Internet service, estimated Internet use, and use of the Internet for health information. Patients with known or suspected lung cancer were asked to indicate their interest in on-site and Internet cancer support. There were 597 returned surveys (response rate 96%). The mean age was 64.6 y (SE 0.55), and 58% were men. Diagnoses included known or possible lung cancer (15.4%), lung disease (9.5%), heart disease (30.4%), other diagnoses (13.9%), and undetermined (30.6%). There were 343 patients (57.4%) with a home computer and 299 (50.1%) with home Internet service. Average Internet use was 8.5 h per wk (n = 298), and 225 patients used the Internet for health information. Of the 92 patients with lung cancer, 10 indicated interest in on-site support services while 37 expressed interest in Internet-based support. Based on survey results, a slight majority of rural patients have a home computer and Internet access. Internet use for health information appears relatively common. Overall interest for support services among lung cancer patients appears modest with a greater interest in Internet-based services compared with on-site support. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 controls who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17–1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10–1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99–1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89–2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62–5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for non-small cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11–4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. PMID:24615328

  2. Exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke and lung cancer by histological type: a pooled analysis of the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; McNallan, Sheila R; Cote, Michele L; Lim, Wei-Yen; Chang, Shen-Chih; Kim, Jin Hee; Ugolini, Donatella; Chen, Ying; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Andrew, Angeline S; Onega, Tracy; Duell, Eric J; Field, John K; Lazarus, Philip; Le Marchand, Loic; Neri, Monica; Vineis, Paolo; Kiyohara, Chikako; Hong, Yun-Chul; Morgenstern, Hal; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Christiani, David C; McLaughlin, John R; Bencko, Vladimir; Holcatova, Ivana; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Fabianova, Eleonora; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Rudnai, Peter; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Mukeria, Anush; Zaridze, David; Seow, Adeline; Schwartz, Ann G; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2014-10-15

    While the association between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer risk is well established, few studies with sufficient power have examined the association by histological type. In this study, we evaluated the secondhand smoke-lung cancer relationship by histological type based on pooled data from 18 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO), including 2,504 cases and 7,276 control who were never smokers and 10,184 cases and 7,176 controls who were ever smokers. We used multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and study. Among never smokers, the odds ratios (OR) comparing those ever exposed to secondhand smoke with those never exposed were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.17-1.45) for all histological types combined, 1.26 (95% CI: 1.10-1.44) for adenocarcinoma, 1.41 (95% CI: 0.99-1.99) for squamous cell carcinoma, 1.48 (95% CI: 0.89-2.45) for large cell lung cancer, and 3.09 (95% CI: 1.62-5.89) for small cell lung cancer. The estimated association with secondhand smoke exposure was greater for small cell lung cancer than for nonsmall cell lung cancers (OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.11-4.04). This analysis is the largest to date investigating the relation between exposure to secondhand smoke and lung cancer. Our study provides more precise estimates of the impact of secondhand smoke on the major histological types of lung cancer, indicates the association with secondhand smoke is stronger for small cell lung cancer than for the other histological types, and suggests the importance of intervention against exposure to secondhand smoke in lung cancer prevention. © 2014 UICC.

  3. The relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhao, Yunfeng; Xu, Mei; Guo, Jian; Pudasaini, Bigyan; Wu, Xueling; Liu, Jinming

    2017-06-20

    Tumor markers (TMs) and D-Dimer are both hallmarks of severity and prognosis of lung cancer. Tumor markers could be related to pulmonary embolism (PE) in lung cancer. The number of abnormal tumor markers of lung cancer patients with pulmonary embolism (3.9 ± 1.1vs1.6 ± 0.6,P 0.005) was more than that in patients without pulmonary embolism. TMs panel (P trend tumor markers, TMs panel (OR5.98, P Tumor markers were compared between lung cancer patients complicated with pulmonary embolism and those without pulmonary embolism Then the correlation between each tumor marker as well as panel of combined TMs and D-Dimer as well as pulmonary embolism were analyzed for patients with pulmonary embolism. There is a relationship between tumor markers and pulmonary embolism in patients with lung cancer. The panel of combined tumor markers is a valuable diagnostic marker for pulmonary embolism in lung cancer.

  4. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  5. Distribution of lung cancer and bronchitis in England and Wales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, D J.B.

    1967-01-01

    Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer and bronchitis decreased with population gradient from urban to rural areas. When this was controlled, SO/sub 2/ and smoke concentration were highly correlated with each other and with bronchitis but not with lung cancer. Conversely, lung cancer was correlated with population density whereas bronchitis was not. This study postulates that bronchitis offers some form of immunological protection against lung cancer.

  6. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    , the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through......The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference...

  7. 1st ESMO Consensus Conference in lung cancer; Lugano 2010: small-cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahel, R; Thatcher, N; Früh, M

    2011-01-01

    The 1st ESMO Consensus Conference on lung cancer was held in Lugano, Switzerland on 21st and 22nd May 2010 with the participation of a multidisciplinary panel of leading professionals in pathology and molecular diagnostics and medical, surgical and radiation oncology. Before the conference......, the expert panel prepared clinically relevant questions concerning five areas as follows: early and locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), first-line metastatic NSCLC, second-/third-line NSCLC, NSCLC pathology and molecular testing, and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) to be addressed through...

  8. Radiotherapeutic results for primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitomo, Osamu; Shinozaki, Jun; Suzuki, Yoshihiko; Niibe, Hideo; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Nakajima, Nobuaki.

    1988-01-01

    From June 1978 to March 1984, 311 patients with lung cancer were registered at the radiological department of National Takasaki Hospital. One hundred fifty-one of them, who had been verified histologically and irradiated with total doses of more than 60 Gy for the primary lung tumor, were analized. Many patients were more than 60 years old (82 %) and had squamous cell carcinoma (64 %). These percentages may be associated with distributions of patients treated by radiotherapy because of inoperability. The five-year-relative survival rate was 13 % in all patients (54 % for Stage I, 32 % for Stage II, 0 % for Stage III, 10 % for Stage IV). Comparing squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, the latter had a better prognosis for two years, but over three years, squamous cell carcinoma did. The five-year survival rate was 10 % for squamous cell carcinoma and 6 % for adenocarcinoma, showing no statistically significant difference. No predominant differences of prognosis between the older group (more than 70 years old) and the younger group (less than 70 years old) was demonstrated. Thus, old age is not always a factor in bad prognosis. (author)

  9. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  10. Lung cancer risk among construction workers in California, 1988-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Luckhaupt, Sara; Lee, Soo-Jeong; Cress, Rosemary; Schumacher, Pam; Shen, Rui; Tak, SangWoo; Deapen, Dennis

    2012-05-01

    Although lung cancer risks can vary by race/ethnicity and by construction occupation, these risks have not been examined extensively. This study analyzed 110,937 lung cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry between 1988 and 2007. Mean age at diagnosis, proportion diagnosed at an advanced stage, and proportion with 3-year survival were calculated for lung cancer cases employed in the construction industry. Case-control methodology was also used to assess the risk of lung cancer. Morbidity odds ratios (MORs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Construction workers were found to have a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined (MOR = 1.57) and for each lung cancer histologic subtype examined. All construction occupations, except managers/engineers and supervisors, had a significantly elevated risk for all lung cancer combined. Roofers and welders had the highest risks for total lung cancer and for each of the histologic subtypes. Construction workers in each of the four race/ethnicity groups also had significantly increased lung cancer risks. Compared to non-construction workers, construction workers were diagnosed at an earlier age, at a more advanced stage, and had significantly lower 3-year survival, though differences were modest. These findings justify additional reductions in carcinogenic exposures in construction, and increased support for smoking cessation programs at construction sites. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Treatment planning of radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerbi, B.J.; Levitt, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinomas of the lung is the most common form of cancer in men in the United States and many other countries. In the American Cancer Society Survey 1986, cancer of the lung made up 22% of all cancer in men and 11% of all cancer in women. The age-adjusted incidence rate was 70.6 and 14.4 for white men and women, respectively, and 89.6 and 14.4 for black men and women/100,000 population. The disease is more common in older individuals, particularly in the 5th and 6th decade, but rises to its highest incidence in the 7th decade. The proportion of women with carcinoma of the lung has been increasing steadily, while that of the males has been decreasing somewhat. Pathologic classification of carcinoma of the lung includes squamous cell, small-cell, adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma. Most of the patients, practically 48%, have squamous cell carcinoma, 16% adenocarcinoma and 15% large-cell and 19.9% small-cell carcinoma. Recent studies have shown an increase in incidence of adenocarcinoma so that it may be the most common histologic type

  13. Long Noncoding RNAs in Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Anna; Diederichs, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Despite great progress in research and treatment options, lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Oncogenic driver mutations in protein-encoding genes were defined and allow for personalized therapies based on genetic diagnoses. Nonetheless, diagnosis of lung cancer mostly occurs at late stages, and chronic treatment is followed by a fast onset of chemoresistance. Hence, there is an urgent need for reliable biomarkers and alternative treatment options. With the era of whole genome and transcriptome sequencing technologies, long noncoding RNAs emerged as a novel class of versatile, functional RNA molecules. Although for most of them the mechanism of action remains to be defined, accumulating evidence confirms their involvement in various aspects of lung tumorigenesis. They are functional on the epigenetic, transcriptional, and posttranscriptional level and are regulators of pathophysiological key pathways including cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis. Long noncoding RNAs are gaining increasing attention as potential biomarkers and a novel class of druggable molecules. It has become clear that we are only beginning to understand the complexity of tumorigenic processes. The clinical integration of long noncoding RNAs in terms of prognostic and predictive biomarker signatures and additional cancer targets could provide a chance to increase the therapeutic benefit. Here, we review the current knowledge about the expression, regulation, biological function, and clinical relevance of long noncoding RNAs in lung cancer.

  14. Circulating tumor cells in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Rachel; Pailler, Emma; Billiot, Fanny; Drusch, Françoise; Barthelemy, Amélie; Oulhen, Marianne; Besse, Benjamin; Soria, Jean-Charles; Farace, Françoise; Vielh, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have emerged as potential biomarkers in several cancers such as colon, prostate, and breast carcinomas, with a correlation between CTC number and patient prognosis being established by independent research groups. The detection and enumeration of CTCs, however, is still a developing field, with no universal method of detection suitable for all types of cancer. CTC detection in lung cancer in particular has proven difficult to perform, as CTCs in this type of cancer often present with nonepithelial characteristics. Moreover, as many detection methods rely on the use of epithelial markers to identify CTCs, the loss of these markers during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in certain metastatic cancers can render these methods ineffective. The development of personalized medicine has led to an increase in the advancement of molecular characterization of CTCs. The application of techniques such as FISH and RT-PCR to detect EGFR, HER2, and KRAS abnormalities in lung, breast, and colon cancer, for example, could be used to characterize CTCs in real time. The use of CTCs as a 'liquid biopsy' is therefore an exciting possibility providing information on patient prognosis and treatment efficacy. This review summarizes the state of CTC detection today, with particular emphasis on lung cancer, and discusses the future applications of CTCs in helping the clinician to develop new strategies in patient treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Chae-Ok [Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Deok-Jong [Department of Surgery, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Young, E-mail: choieun@ulsan.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-04

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  16. Del-1 overexpression potentiates lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Young; Jing, Feifeng; Kim, Hyesoon; Yun, Chae-Ok; Han, Deok-Jong; Choi, Eun Young

    2015-01-01

    Developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) is an endogenous anti-inflammatory molecule that is highly expressed in the lung and the brain and limits leukocyte migration to these tissues. We previously reported that the expression of Del-1 is positively regulated by p53 in lung endothelial cells. Although several reports have implicated the altered expression of Del-1 gene in cancer patients, little is known about its role in tumor cells. We here investigated the effect of Del-1 on the features of human lung carcinoma cells. Del-1 mRNA was found to be significantly decreased in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines A549 (containing wild type of p53), H1299 (null for p53) and EKVX (mutant p53), compared to in human normal lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells and MRC-5 fibroblasts. The decrease of Del-1 expression was dependent on the p53 activity in the cell lines, but not on the expression of p53. Neither treatment with recombinant human Del-1 protein nor the introduction of adenovirus expressing Del-1 altered the expression of the apoptosis regulators BAX, PUMA and Bcl-2. Unexpectedly, the adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Del-1 gene into the lung carcinoma cell lines promoted proliferation and invasion of the lung carcinoma cells, as revealed by BrdU incorporation and transwell invasion assays, respectively. In addition, overexpression of the Del-1 gene enhanced features of epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), such as increasing vimentin while decreasing E-cadherin in A549 cells, and increases in the level of Slug, an EMT-associated transcription regulator. Our findings demonstrated for the first time that there are deleterious effects of high levels of Del-1 in lung carcinoma cells, and suggest that Del-1 may be used as a diagnostic or prognostic marker for cancer progression, and as a novel therapeutic target for lung carcinoma. - Highlights: • Developmental Endothelial Locus-1 (Del-1) expression is downregulated in human lung cancer cells.

  17. Stochastic rat lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny: a surrogate for the human lung for lung cancer risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler-Heil, R.; Hofmann, W. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Hussain, M. [University of Salzburg, Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Research and Physics, Salzburg (Austria); Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2015-05-15

    Laboratory rats are frequently used in inhalation studies as a surrogate for human exposures. The objective of the present study was therefore to develop a stochastic dosimetry model for inhaled radon progeny in the rat lung, to predict bronchial dose distributions and to compare them with corresponding dose distributions in the human lung. The most significant difference between human and rat lungs is the branching structure of the bronchial tree, which is relatively symmetric in the human lung, but monopodial in the rat lung. Radon progeny aerosol characteristics used in the present study encompass conditions typical for PNNL and COGEMA rat inhalation studies, as well as uranium miners and human indoor exposure conditions. It is shown here that depending on exposure conditions and modeling assumptions, average bronchial doses in the rat lung ranged from 5.4 to 7.3 mGy WLM{sup -1}. If plotted as a function of airway generation, bronchial dose distributions exhibit a significant maximum in large bronchial airways. If, however, plotted as a function of airway diameter, then bronchial doses are much more uniformly distributed throughout the bronchial tree. Comparisons between human and rat exposures indicate that rat bronchial doses are slightly higher than human bronchial doses by about a factor of 1.3, while lung doses, averaged over the bronchial (BB), bronchiolar (bb) and alveolar-interstitial (AI) regions, are higher by about a factor of about 1.6. This supports the current view that the rat lung is indeed an appropriate surrogate for the human lung in case of radon-induced lung cancers. Furthermore, airway diameter seems to be a more appropriate morphometric parameter than airway generations to relate bronchial doses to bronchial carcinomas. (orig.)

  18. Reduced lung dose and improved inspiration level reproducibility in visually guided DIBH compared to audio coached EIG radiotherapy for breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, Sidsel Marie Skov; Aznar, Marianne Camille; Pedersen, Anders Navrsted

    2013-01-01

    Patients with left-sided breast cancer with lymph node involvement have routinely been treated with enhanced inspiration gating (EIG) for a decade at our institution. In a transition from EIG to deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) we compared the two techniques with focus on target coverage, dose...... to organs at risk and reproducibility of the inspiration level (IL)....

  19. Adjustment to Life with Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerw, Aleksandra I; Religioni, Urszula; Deptała, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    In Poland, lung cancer is the most common type of cancer in males (20% of all cases) and third most common type of cancer in females (9% of all cases), right behind breast and colorectal cancers. Recently, 28,000 new cases of lung cancer per year were reported in both genders. The objective of the study was to asses coping strategies, pain management, acceptance of illness and adjustment to cancer in patients diagnosed with pulmonary carcinoma and the effect of socioeconomic variables on the abovementioned issues. The study included 243 patients diagnosed with lung cancer during outpatient chemotherapy (classical chemotherapy and molecularly targeted therapies) at the Center of Oncology, Maria Skłodowska-Curie Institute in Warszawa. We applied the Paper and Pencil Interview (PAPI) technique. The questionnaire interview was composed of demographic questions and the following four psychometric tests: BPCQ measuring the influence of factors affecting pain management in patients, CSQ designed to evaluate pain coping strategies, AIS questionnaire, measuring disease acceptance, and the mini-Mac scale, assessing psychological adjustment to disease. The highest mean score recorded in the BPCQ was recorded in the powerful doctors subscale (16.79) and the lowest in the internal factors section (15.64). Education, professional status and income were the variables which differentiated the scores. We recorded the top average score in CSQ in the coping self statements subscale (mean = 19.64), and the lowest score in the reinterpreting pain sensations subscale (mean score = 10.32). The results of the test were differentiated by education and income. Patients had the highest Mini-MAC scale scores in the fighting spirit section (21.91). In the case of patients affected with lung cancer, education and professional status affect the way patients treat doctors in the disease process. These variables are also critical in patients' approach to disease and methods of coping with it.

  20. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab

  1. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Interventional Analgesic Management of Lung Cancer Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Uri; Elgueta, Maria Francisca; Perez, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the four most prevalent cancers worldwide. Comprehensive patient care includes not only adherence to clinical guidelines to control and when possible cure the disease but also appropriate symptom control. Pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in patients diagnosed with lung cancer; it can arise from local invasion of chest structures or metastatic disease invading bones, nerves, or other anatomical structures potentially painful. Pain can also be a consequence of therapeutic approaches like surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Conventional medical management of cancer pain includes prescription of opioids and coadjuvants at doses sufficient to control the symptoms without causing severe drug effects. When an adequate pharmacological medical management fails to provide satisfactory analgesia or when it causes limiting side effects, interventional cancer pain techniques may be considered. Interventional pain management is devoted to the use of invasive techniques such as joint injections, nerve blocks and/or neurolysis, neuromodulation, and cement augmentation techniques to provide diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes resistant to conventional medical management. Advantages of interventional approaches include better analgesic outcomes without experiencing drug-related side effects and potential for opioid reduction thus avoiding central side effects. This review will describe various pain syndromes frequently described in lung cancer patients and those interventional techniques potentially indicated for those cases.

  3. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jala, Venkatakrishna Rao; Radde, Brandie N; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods (at protein levels). The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues) were performed. Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression

  4. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Namazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers.

  5. The wind god promotes lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Steven M; Schaller, Michael D

    2014-05-12

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, Li and colleagues demonstrate that the hematopoietic transcription factor Aiolos (named after the Wind God of Greek mythology) confers anoikis resistance in lung tumor cells through repression of cell adhesion-related genes including the mechanosensor p66Shc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Current therapy of small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M; Lassen, U; Hansen, H H

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the most important recent clinical trials on the treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Two randomized studies addressing the timing of thoracic radiotherapy in limited stage SCLC are discussed. In the smaller of the two studies (n = 103), a survival benefit was associated...

  7. Lung cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer was conducted in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, to evaluate risk factors for this common neoplasm, with special attention given to assessing the potentially interactive roles of cigarette smoking and atomic radiation. The investigation involved interviews with 428 patients with primary lung cancer and 957 matched controls, or with their next of kin in the event of death or disability. The interview information was supplemented by data on atomic bomb radiation exposure for each individual and on smoking and other factors from prior surveys of subsets of the population studied. Separate effects of smoking and high dose (greater than 100 rad) radiation were found, with the two exposures combining to affect lung cancer risk in an approximate additive fashion. The additive rather than multiplicative model was favored whether the smoking variable was dichotomized (ever vs. never smoked), categorized into one of several groups based on amount smoked, or treated as a discrete variable. The findings are contrasted with those for Colorado uranium miners and other cohorts occupationally exposed to radon and its daughter products, where smoking and radiation have been reported to combine multiplicatively to enhance lung cancer risk

  8. History of Depression in Lung Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iachina, M; Brønserud, M M; Jakobsen, E

    2017-01-01

    . To estimate the effect of depression on the diagnostic process and the choice of treatment in lung cancer we fitted a logistic regression model and a Cox regression model adjusting for age, gender, resection and stage. RESULTS: Depression in a patient's anamnesis had no significant effect on the delay...

  9. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  10. Risk of lung cancer associated with domestic use of coal in Xuanwei, China: retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barone-Adesi, F.; Chapman, R.S.; Silverman, D.T.; He, X.; Hu, W.; Vermeulen, R.; Ning, B.; Fraumeni, J.F.; Rothman, N.; Lan, Q.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of lung cancer associated with the use of different types of coal for household cooking and heating. SETTING: Xuanwei County, Yunnan Province, China. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study (follow-up 1976-96) comparing mortality from lung cancer between lifelong users of

  11. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  12. Community-Based Multidisciplinary Computed Tomography Screening Program Improves Lung Cancer Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel L; Mayfield, William R; Luu, Theresa D; Helms, Gerald A; Muster, Alan R; Beckler, Vickie J; Cann, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Overall survival is less than 20%, with the majority of patients presenting with advanced disease. The National Lung Screening Trial, performed mainly in academic medical centers, showed that cancer mortality can be reduced with computed tomography (CT) screening compared with chest radiography in high-risk patients. To determine whether this survival advantage can be duplicated in a community-based multidisciplinary thoracic oncology program, we initiated a CT scan screening program for lung cancer within an established health care system. In 2008, we launched a lung cancer CT screening program within the WellStar Health System (WHS) consisting of five hospitals, three health parks, 140 outpatient medical offices, and 12 imaging centers that provide care in a five-county area of approximately 1.4 million people in Metro-Atlanta. Screening criteria incorporated were the International Early Lung Cancer Action Program (2008 to 2010) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines (2011 to 2013) for moderate- and high-risk patients. A total of 1,267 persons underwent CT lung cancer screening in WHS from 2008 through 2013; 53% were men, 87% were 50 years of age or older, and 83% were current or former smokers. Noncalcified indeterminate pulmonary nodules were found in 518 patients (41%). Thirty-six patients (2.8%) underwent a diagnostic procedure for positive findings on their CT scan; 30 proved to have cancer, 28 (2.2%) primary lung cancer and 2 metastatic cancer, and 6 had benign disease. Fourteen patients (50%) had their lung cancer discovered on their initial CT scan, 11 on subsequent scans associated with indeterminate pulmonary nodules growth and 3 patients who had a new indeterminate pulmonary nodules. Only 15 (54%) of these 28 patients would have qualified as a National Lung Screening Trial high-risk patient; 75% had stage I or II disease. Overall 5-year survival was 64% and 5-year

  13. Significant reduction of normal tissue dose by proton radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation therapy in Stage I or Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Joe Y.; Zhang Xiaodong; Wang Xiaochun; Kang Yixiu; Riley, Beverly C.; Bilton, Stephen C.; Mohan, Radhe; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare dose-volume histograms (DVH) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated by photon or proton radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Dose-volume histograms were compared between photon, including three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and proton plans at doses of 66 Gy, 87.5 Gy in Stage I (n = 10) and 60-63 Gy, and 74 Gy in Stage III (n 15). Results: For Stage I, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 31.8%, 24.6%, and 15.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 66 Gy, whereas they were 13.4%, 12.3%, and 10.9%, respectively, with proton with dose escalation to 87.5 cobalt Gray equivalents (CGE) (p = 0.002). For Stage III, the mean total lung V5, V10, and V20 were 54.1%, 46.9%, and 34.8%, respectively, for photon 3D-CRT with 63 Gy, whereas they were 39.7%, 36.6%, and 31.6%, respectively, for proton with dose escalation to 74 CGE (p = 0.002). In all cases, the doses to lung, spinal cord, heart, esophagus, and integral dose were lower with proton therapy even compared with IMRT. Conclusions: Proton treatment appears to reduce dose to normal tissues significantly, even with dose escalation, compared with standard-dose photon therapy, either 3D-CRT or IMRT

  14. The effect of irradiation on lung function and perfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abratt, Raymond P.; Willcox, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively study the changes in lung function in patients with lung carcinoma treated with relatively high doses of irradiation. Methods and Materials: Lung function was assessed prior to and at 6 and 12 months following radiation therapy by a clinical dyspnea score, formal pulmonary function tests (lung volume spirometry and diffusion capacity) as well as an ipsilateral hemithorax lung perfusion scan. Changes in dyspnea score were evaluated by the chi-square and the Fishers exact test. Changes in formal lung function tests were compared with the t-test for dependent data and correlations with the t-test for independent data. Fifty-one patients were entered into the study. There were 42 evaluable patients at 6 months after irradiation and 22 evaluable patients at 12 months after irradiation. Results: A worsening of dyspnea score from 1 to 2, which is clinically acceptable, occurred in 50% or more of patients. However, a dyspnea score of 3, which is a serious complication, developed in only 5% of patients. The diffusion capacity (DLCO) decreased by 14% at 6 months and 12% at 12 months) (p < 0.0001). The forced vital capacity and total lung capacity decreased between 6% and 8% at 6 month and 12 months, which was statistically significant. The forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased between 2 and 3% at 6 month and 12 months, which was not statistically significant. The ipsilateral hemithorax perfusion decreased by 17 and 20% at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). There was no correlation between the initial hemithorax perfusion, or its decrease at follow up and the decrease in DLCO. Conclusion: Lung irradiation results in some loss of lung function in patients with lung cancer with a projected survival of 6 months or more. The pretreatment DLCO assessment should be useful in predicting clinical tolerance to irradiation

  15. A heat conduction simulator to estimate lung temperature distribution during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futami, Hikaru; Arai, Tsunenori; Yashiro, Hideki; Nakatsuka, Seishi; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Izumi, Youtaro; Tsukada, Norimasa; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2006-01-01

    To develop an evaluation method for the curative field when using X-ray CT imaging during percutaneous transthoracic cryoablation for lung cancer, we constructed a finite-element heat conduction simulator to estimate temperature distribution in the lung during cryo-treatment. We calculated temperature distribution using a simple two-dimensional finite element model, although the actual temperature distribution spreads in three dimensions. Temperature time-histories were measured within 10 minutes using experimental ex vivo and in vivo lung cryoablation conditions. We adjusted specific heat and thermal conductivity in the heat conduction calculation and compared them with measured temperature time-histories ex vivo. Adjusted lung specific heat was 3.7 J/ (g·deg C) for unfrozen lung and 1.8 J/ (g·deg C) for frozen lung. Adjusted lung thermal conductivity in our finite element model fitted proportionally to the exponential function of lung density. We considered the heat input by blood flow circulation and metabolic heat when we calculated the temperature time-histories during in vivo cryoablation of the lung. We assumed that the blood flow varies in inverse proportion to the change in blood viscosity up to the maximum blood flow predicted from cardiac output. Metabolic heat was set as heat generation in the calculation. The measured temperature time-histories of in vivo cryoablation were then estimated with an accuracy of ±3 deg C when calculated based on this assumption. Therefore, we successfully constructed a two-dimensional heat conduction simulator that is capable of estimating temperature distribution in the lung at the time of first freezing during cryoablation. (author)

  16. Integrin αβ3-Targeted Imaging of Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycineaspartic acid (RGD peptide ligands for cell adhesion molecule integrin αβ3-targeted tumor angiogenesis targeting are being developed in our laboratory. In this study, this effort continues by applying a positron emitter 64Cu-labeled PEGylated dimeric RGD peptide radiotracer 64Cu-DOTA-PEG-E[c(RGDyK]2 for lung cancer imaging. The PEGylated RGD peptide indicated integrin αβ3 avidity, but the PEGylation reduced the receptor binding affinity of this ligand compared to the unmodified RGD dimer. The radiotracer revealed rapid blood clearance and predominant renal clearance route. The minimum nonspecific activity accumulation in normal lung tissue and heart rendered high-quality orthotopic lung cancer tumor images, enabling clear demarcation of both the primary tumor at the upper lobe of the left lung, as well as metastases in the mediastinum, contralateral lung, diaphragm. As a comparison, fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG scans on the same mice were only able to identify the primary tumor, with the metastatic lesions masked by intense cardiac uptake and high lung background. 64Cu-DOTA-PEGE[c(RGDyK]2 is an excellent positron emission tomography (PET tracer for integrin-positive tumor imaging. Further studies to improve the receptor binding affinity of the tracer and subsequently to increase the magnitude of tumor uptake without comprising the favorable in vivo kinetics are currently in progress.

  17. HIV infection is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer, independent of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Gregory D; Merlo, Christian; O' Driscoll, Peter; Mehta, Shruti H; Galai, Noya; Vlahov, David; Samet, Jonathan; Engels, Eric A

    2007-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons have an elevated risk for lung cancer, but whether the increase reflects solely their heavy tobacco use remains an open question. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Link to the Intravenous Experience Study has prospectively observed a cohort of injection drug users in Baltimore, Maryland, since 1988, using biannual collection of clinical, laboratory, and behavioral data. Lung cancer deaths were identified through linkage with the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the effect of HIV infection on lung cancer risk, controlling for smoking status, drug use, and clinical variables. Among 2086 AIDS Link to the Intravenous Experience Study participants observed for 19,835 person-years, 27 lung cancer deaths were identified; 14 of the deaths were among HIV-infected persons. All but 1 (96%) of the patients with lung cancer were smokers, smoking a mean of 1.2 packs per day. Lung cancer mortality increased during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, compared with the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy period (mortality rate ratio, 4.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-16). After adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, and calendar period, HIV infection was associated with increased lung cancer risk (hazard ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-7.9). Preexisting lung disease, particularly noninfectious diseases and asthma, displayed trends for increased lung cancer risk. Illicit drug use was not associated with increased lung cancer risk. Among HIV-infected persons, smoking remained the major risk factor; CD4 cell count and HIV load were not strongly associated with increased lung cancer risk, and trends for increased risk with use of highly active antiretroviral therapy were not significant. HIV infection is associated with significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer, independent of smoking status.

  18. Outcome and treatment strategy in female lung cancer: a single institution experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicenas, S.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Smailyte, G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the survival rate of female lung cancer treated at the Institute of Oncology of the Vilnius University, Lithuania during the period between 1996-2005. Materials and Methods: During the period between 1996-2005, 471 women diagnosed with lung cancer were treated at the Department of Thoracic Surgery and Oncology of the Institute of Oncology, Vilnius University. Data on morphology, stage and treatment was collected from the medical records. All lung cancer cases by histology were classified in two groups: non-small cell lung cancer (includes squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and other less common types) and small cell lung cancer. The vital status of the study group was assessed as of December 31, 2007, by passive follow-up, using data from the population registry. It was found that 411 (87.3%) of the patients had died. Survival was estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The median survival of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show to be 8.7 months (8.4 (95% CI 7.2-10.8) months with non-small cell lung cancer and 9.3 (95% CI 6.3-13.0) months with small-cell lung cancer). Survival was more than 20 months in resectable non-small cell lung cancer (stages I, II, IIIA). Non-small cell lung cancer survival in advanced stages was less than 7 months. Small-cell lung cancer patients median survival at limited and extended stages of the disease were 9.5 (95% CI 2.9-18.4) compared to 9.2 (95% CI 6.2-13.7) months. Non-small cell lung cancer patients most frequently were treated by surgery (27.0%), surgery and chemotherapy or radiotherapy (19.6%). Small cell lung cancer patient treatment included chemo and radiotherapy (27.0%), chemotherapy (19.0%), radiotherapy (17.5%), surgery (27.9%). Conclusions: The single center study of female lung cancer diagnosed during 1996-2005 in Lithuania show a significantly better chance of survival in resectable non-small cell lung cancer. Advanced stages of

  19. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Colon, Pancreatic, or Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Recurrent Colon Cancer; Extensive Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IVB Pancreatic Cancer; Stage II Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Pancreatic Cancer

  20. Greater efficacy of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab compared to chemo- and targeted therapy alone on non-small cell lung cancer patients with brain metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Guo, Jun; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yali; Wang, Zhehai

    2016-01-19

    Control of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with brain metastasis is clinically challenging. This study retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of different adjuvant therapies for 776 cases of advanced NSCLCs with brain metastasis who treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) alone, or supportive care. The median progression-free survival (mPFS) and median overall survival (mOS) of patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were 8.5 and 10.5 months, respectively, which were better than those of patients treated with other three therapies(P chemotherapy plus bevacizumab but was significantly better than that of other therapies. Moreover, for patients with EGFR wild-type NSCLC, the mPFS and mOS after chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were greater than those with other two therapies (P Chemotherapy plus bevacizumab was more effective for NSCLC patients with brain metastasis. Further studies will investigate the benefit of TKI alone for patients with EGFR-mutated. For patients with EGFR wild-type, chemotherapy plus bevacizumab did improve PFS and OS. Furthermore, regimens including pemetrexed led to a greater RR.

  1. The European initiative for quality management in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, Torsten G; Rich, Anna; Baldwin, David

    2014-01-01

    . The Task Force undertook four projects: 1) a narrative literature search on quality management of lung cancer; 2) a survey of national and local infrastructure for lung cancer care in Europe; 3) a benchmarking project on the quality of (inter)national lung cancer guidelines in Europe; and 4) a feasibility...... study of prospective data collection in a pan-European setting. There is little peer-reviewed literature on quality management in lung cancer care. The survey revealed important differences in the infrastructure of lung cancer care in Europe. The European guidelines that were assessed displayed wide...... countries. The European Initiative for Quality Management in Lung Cancer Care has provided the first comprehensive snapshot of lung cancer care in Europe....

  2. Radiation therapy in aged lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Eiji; Tobari, Chitose; Matsui, Kengo; Iio, Masahiro.

    1982-01-01

    The results and problems of radiotherapy were analyzed in 57 lung cancer patients more than 65 years of age (average age: 74.8 years). Of these, 45 (79%) were irradiated with a total dose exceeding 40 Gy. In these patients, the median survival was 13 months for Stages I and II, 6.5 months for Stage III, and 5 months for Stage IV. The results of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy were better than those of radiotherapy alone. Also, slightly better results were obtained in patients treated with split-course than continuous-course irradiation. In aged lung cancer patients the prognosis was highly influenced by their respiratory function. Double cancers were present in 9 (16%) of the 57 patients. (author)

  3. Disparities in the treatment and outcomes of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S.; Melville, Sharon K.; Williams, Melanie A.; Rengan, Ramesh; Engels, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected people have elevated risk for lung cancer and higher mortality following cancer diagnosis than HIV-uninfected individuals. It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals with lung cancer receive similar cancer treatment as HIV-uninfected individuals. Design/methods We studied adults more than 18 years of age with lung cancer reported to the Texas Cancer Registry (N = 156 930) from 1995 to 2009. HIV status was determined by linkage with the Texas enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. For nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, we identified predictors of cancer treatment using logistic regression. We used Cox regression to evaluate effects of HIV and cancer treatment on mortality. Results Compared with HIV-uninfected lung cancer patients (N = 156 593), HIV-infected lung cancer patients (N = 337) were more frequently young, black, men, and with non-Hispanic distant stage disease. HIV-infected NSCLC patients less frequently received cancer treatment than HIV-uninfected patients [60.3 vs. 77.5%; odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.52, after adjustment for diagnosis year, age, sex, race, stage, and histologic subtype]. HIV infection was associated with higher lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.15–1.56, adjusted for demographics and tumor characteristics). Inclusion of cancer treatment in adjusted models slightly attenuated the effect of HIV on lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.06–1.47). Also, there was a suggestion that HIV was more strongly associated with mortality among untreated than among treated patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 vs. 1.16, P-interaction = 0.34). Conclusion HIV-infected NSCLC patients were less frequently treated for lung cancer than HIV-uninfected patients, which may have affected survival. PMID:23079809

  4. Predictions of lung cancer based on county averages for indoor radon versus the historic incidence of regional lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Chrosniak, C.E.; Mushrush, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    After a decade of effort to determine the health risk associated with indoor radon, the efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency have prevailed in the US, and 4 pCi/1 is commonly used as an Action Level. Proposals by other groups supporting lower or higher Action Levels have failed, largely due to paucity of information supporting any particular level of indoor radon. The authors' studies have compared indoor radon for zip code and county size areas with parameters such as geology, precipitation and home construction. Their attempts to verify the relative levels of lung cancer using US-EPA estimates of radon-vs-cancer have not been supportive of the EPA risk estimates. In general, when they compare the number of lung cancer cases in particular geological or geographical areas with the indoor radon levels in that area, they find the EPA predicted number of lung cancer cases to exceed the total number of lung cancer cases from all causes. Comparisons show a correlation between the incidence of lung cancer and indoor radon, but the level of risk is about 1/10 that proposed by the US-EPA. Evidently the assumptions used in their studies are flawed. Even though they find lower risk estimates using many counties in several states, fundamental flaws must be present in this type of investigation. Care must be taken in presenting health risks to the general population in cases, such as in indoor radon, where field data do not support risk estimates obtained by other means

  5. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    OpenAIRE

    Aditya Navile Murali; Venkatraman Radhakrishnan; Trivadi S. Ganesan; Rejiv Rajendranath; Prasanth Ganesan; Ganesarajah Selvaluxmy; Rajaraman Swaminathan; Shirley Sundersingh; Arvind Krishnamurthy; Tenali Gnana Sagar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 ye...

  6. The Azygous Lobe of the Lung: in the Case of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlong, L M; Ram, Dharma; Sharma, Ashwani; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Iqbal, Sayed Assif; Nagar, Anand; Hazarika, Dibyamohan

    2017-06-01

    The azygous lobe of the lung is an uncommon developmental anomaly. Its surgical importance is hardly being described in literature. Here, we are presenting a case of lung cancer with incidental azygous lobe, with its surgical relevance during lung cancer surgery.

  7. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.B. Shaker (Saher); A. Dirksen (Asger); P. Lo (Pechin); L.T. Skovgaard (Lene); M. de Bruijne (Marleen); J.H. Pedersen (Jerry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using computed tomography (CT) lung density as a surrogate parameter. In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were

  8. Acute exacerbation of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia complicated by lung cancer, caused by treatment for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaka, Kiyoshi; Okano, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Akinobu

    1999-01-01

    In 64 patients with lung cancer complicated by idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), we retrospectively studied the outcome of the treatment for lung cancer and clinical features of acute exacerbation of IIP after treatment for lung cancer. The incidence of acute exacerbation of IIP was 8.7% (2 of 23 patients) after anticancer chemotherapy, 14.3% (2 of 14 patients) after operation, and 25% (2 of 8 patients) after radiation therapy. Serum C-reactive protein level was significantly higher in the patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP than in those who did not (CRP=5.12±2.27, 2.26±2.29, respectively). On the contrary, there were no differences in the levels of serum lactate dehydrogenase, white blood cell count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, PaO 2 , and %VC between the two groups. Pathologic presentations of surgically resected lungs did not show significant differences in the activity of IIP between the two groups. Five of 6 patients who developed acute exacerbation of IIP died within 3 months after the treatment for lung cancer. We conclude that we should evaluate the activity of IIP more precisely using new markers for activity of IIP and on that basis select patients to be treated for lung cancer. (author)

  9. MHC class II expression in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yayi; Rozeboom, Leslie; Rivard, Christopher J; Ellison, Kim; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Yu, Hui; Zhou, Caicun; Hirsch, Fred R

    2017-10-01

    Immunotherapy is an exciting development in lung cancer research. In this study we described major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II protein expression in lung cancer cell lines and patient tissues. We studied MHC Class II (DP, DQ, DR) (CR3/43, Abcam) protein expression in 55 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, 42 small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and 278 lung cancer patient tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Seven (12.7%) NSCLC cell lines were positive for MHC Class II. No SCLC cell lines were found to be MHC Class II positive. We assessed 139 lung cancer samples available in the Hirsch Lab for MHC Class II. There was no positive MHC Class II staining on SCLC tumor cells. MHC Class II expression on TILs in SCLC was significantly lower than that on TILs in NSCLC (P<0.001). MHC Class II was also assessed in an additional 139 NSCLC tumor tissues from Medical University of Gdansk, Poland. Patients with positive staining of MHC Class II on TILs had longer regression-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) than those whose TILs were MHC Class II negative (2.980 years, 95% CI 1.628-4.332 vs. 1.050 years, 95% CI 0.556-1.554, P=0.028) (3.230 years, 95% CI 2.617-3.843 vs. 1.390 years, 95% CI 0.629-2.151, P=0.014). MHC Class II was expressed both in NSCLC cell lines and tissues. However, MHC Class II was not detected in SCLC cell lines or tissue tumor cells. MHC Class II expression was lower on SCLC TILs than on NSCLC TILs. Loss of expression of MHC Class II on SCLC tumor cells and reduced expression on SCLC TILs may be a means of escaping anti-cancer immunity. Higher MHC Class II expression on TILs was correlated with better prognosis in patients with NSCLC. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Dong; Feng, Qing-Chuan; Qi, Yu; Cui, Guanghui; Zhao, Song

    2017-10-15

    Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  12. Uncovering growth-suppressive MicroRNAs in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xi; Sempere, Lorenzo F; Galimberti, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profiles improve classification, diagnosis, and prognostic information of malignancies, including lung cancer. This study uncovered unique growth-suppressive miRNAs in lung cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: miRNA arrays were done on normal lung tissues...... and adenocarcinomas from wild-type and proteasome degradation-resistant cyclin E transgenic mice to reveal repressed miRNAs in lung cancer. Real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays validated these findings. Lung cancer cell lines were derived from each......-malignant human lung tissue bank. RESULTS: miR-34c, miR-145, and miR-142-5p were repressed in transgenic lung cancers. Findings were confirmed by real-time and semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR as well as in situ hybridization assays. Similar miRNA profiles occurred in human normal versus malignant lung...

  13. Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Ismail; Gallicchio, Lisa; Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve; Tao Xuguang; Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward; Chen Liwei; Robinson, Karen A.; Caulfield, Laura E.; Herman, James G.; Guallar, Eliseo; Alberg, Anthony J.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 μg/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain

  14. Selected trends in lung cancer epidemiology in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Psenkova, M.; Berzinec, P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The lung cancer is still among the dominant malignant tumors despite declining trend of incidence, especially in men, and also its adverse prognosis remains. Aim: The aim of the study was to analyse the development of long-term trends in incidence and mortality and to produce a prospective estimate of prevalence and overall burden of lung cancer in the population in the Slovak Republic. Results: A significant drop of incidence of the disease in men has been seen in Slovakia since 1988 by a mean annual percentage change of -2.16%, whereby mortality is declining a little faster (by an annual percentage change of -2.87%). Adverse trend has been registered in both indicators in case of lung cancer in women, with incidence rising since 2001 by 5.31% annually and mortality rising by 1.3% for the whole monitored period. Conclusion: The adverse rising trend in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer in women in the Slovak Republic, as well as the slower decline in incidence and mortality in men compared with some countries of Western Europe, will have an impact in future also on total costs for management of this disease. (author)

  15. Comparative evaluation of CT-based and respiratory-gated PET/CT-based planning target volume (PTV) in the definition of radiation treatment planning in lung cancer: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, Luca; Elisei, Federica [San Gerardo Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy); Meregalli, Sofia; Niespolo, Rita [San Gerardo Hospital, Radiotherapy, Monza (Italy); Zorz, Alessandra; De Ponti, Elena; Morzenti, Sabrina; Crespi, Andrea [San Gerardo Hospital, Medical Physics, Monza (Italy); Brenna, Sarah [University of Milan-Bicocca, School of Radiation Oncology, Monza (Italy); Gardani, Gianstefano [San Gerardo Hospital, Radiotherapy, Monza (Italy); University of Milan-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Messa, Cristina [San Gerardo Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Monza (Italy); University of Milan-Bicocca, Tecnomed Foundation, Milan (Italy); National Research Council, Institute for Bioimaging and Molecular Physiology, Milan (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The aim of this study was to compare planning target volume (PTV) defined on respiratory-gated positron emission tomography (PET)/CT (RG-PET/CT) to PTV based on ungated free-breathing CT and to evaluate if RG-PET/CT can be useful to personalize PTV by tailoring the target volume to the lesion motion in lung cancer patients. Thirteen lung cancer patients (six men, mean age 70.0 years, 1 small cell lung cancer, 12 non-small cell lung cancer) who were candidates for radiation therapy were prospectively enrolled and submitted to RG-PET/CT. Ungated free-breathing CT images obtained during a PET/CT study were visually contoured by the radiation oncologist to define standard clinical target volumes (CTV1). Standard PTV (PTV1) resulted from CTV1 with the addition of 1-cm expansion of margins in all directions. RG-PET/CT images were contoured by the nuclear medicine physician and radiation oncologist according to a standardized institutional protocol for contouring gated images. Each CT and PET image of the patient's respiratory cycle phases was contoured to obtain the RG-CT-based CTV (CTV2) and the RG-PET/CT-based CTV (CTV3), respectively. RG-CT-based and RG-PET/CT-based PTV (PTV2 and PTV3, respectively) were then derived from gated CTVs with a margin expansion of 7-8 mm in head to feet direction and 5 mm in anterior to posterior and left to right direction. The portions of gated PTV2 and PTV3 geometrically not encompassed in PTV1 (PTV2 out PTV1 and PTV3 out PTV1) were also calculated. Mean ± SD CTV1, CTV2 and CTV3 were 30.5 ± 33.2, 43.1 ± 43.2 and 44.8 ± 45.2 ml, respectively. CTV1 was significantly smaller than CTV2 and CTV3 (p = 0.017 and 0.009 with Student's t test, respectively). No significant difference was found between CTV2 and CTV3. Mean ± SD of PTV1, PTV2 and PTV3 were 118.7 ± 94.1, 93.8 ± 80.2 and 97.0 ± 83.9 ml, respectively. PTV1 was significantly larger than PTV2 and PTV3 (p = 0.038 and 0.043 with Student's t test, respectively). No

  16. Lung cancer symptoms and pulse oximetry in the prognostic assessment of patients with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harada Cecilia M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical oncologists continue to use performance status as a proxy for quality of life (QOL measures, as completion of QOL instruments is perceived as time consuming, may measure aspects of QOL not affected by cancer therapy, and interpretation may be unclear. The pulse oximeter is widely used in clinical practice to predict cardiopulmonary morbidity after lung resection in cancer patients, but little is known on its role outside the surgical setting. We evaluated whether the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale and pulse oximetry may contribute to the evaluation of lung cancer patients who received standard anticancer therapy. Methods We enrolled forty-one consecutive, newly diagnosed, patients with locally advanced or metastatic lung cancer in this study. We developed a survival model with the variables gender, age, histology, clinical stage, Karnofsky performance status, wasting, LCSS symptom scores, average symptom burden index, and pulse oximetry (SpO2. Results Patient and observer-rated scores were correlated, except for the fatigue subscale. The median SpO2 was 95% (range: 86 to 98, was unrelated to symptom scores, and was weakly correlated with observer cough scores. In a multivariate survival model, SpO2 > 90% and patient scores on the LCSS appetite and fatigue subscales were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion LCSS fatigue and appetite rating, and pulse oximetry should be studied further as prognostic factors in lung cancer patients.

  17. Testing lung cancer drugs and therapies in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) investigators have designed a genetically engineered mouse for use in the study of human lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is a type of non-small cell lung carcinoma, one of the most common types of lung cancer, with

  18. Lung cancer: Current status and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, C.F.; Carr, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 32 papers. Some of the titles are: Activation of cellular ras genes in human neoplasms; The valve of definitive radiation therapy of unresectable squamous cell carcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma of the lung; Current concepts of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for small cell lung cancer, and Current status of immunotherapy for lung cancer

  19. Choroidal Metastases as the Initial Presentation of Lung Cancer: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the case of a 49-year-old female patient who presented with ... nonsmall cell carcinoma of the right lung, which had multiple distant metastases. KEYWORDS: ... metastasis in lung cancer is very low, reported to be ... Kolkata, West Bengal, India. E-mail: .... awareness regarding this rare presentation of lung cancer.

  20. Analysis of histological type and CT features on patients with haemoptysis in primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yixing; Huang Jinhuo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the CT features and histological types of haemoptysis patients with primary lung cancer. Methods: 50 haemoptysis patients (group A) with primary lung cancer confirmed by bronchoendoscopic examination or operation were analyzed. 50 cases of primary lung cancer without haemoptysis were studied as the contrast group (group B). The tumor size, shape, cavity, as well as location and pathological type were compared. Results: The proportions of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma were 48%, 26% in Group A and 23%, 31% in Group B respectively. The occurrent rate of adenocarcinoma showed significant difference between Group A and B (P>0.05). The proportion of central lung cancer and peripheral lung cancer were 54%, 50% and 46%, 50% in Group A and B respectively. No significant difference occurred in both two types of cancer between two groups (P>0.05). The average size of cancer mass were 30±2.54 mm in Group A and 32±1.93mm in group B. The occurrence rate of lung cavity was 18% and 15% respectively in Group A and B. No significant difference existed in size and the occurrence rate of lung cancer mass between Group A and B (P>0.05). Conclusion: Haemoptysis in patients of primary lung cancer was correlated with pathology type, instead of location, size and cavities. (authors)

  1. The detection, diagnosis and therapy of human lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Cancergram covers clinical aspects of cancers of the lung and tracheo-bronchial tree, i.e., the lower respiratory tract. This includes primary lung cancer in both early and advanced disease status. The topic includes clinically relevant aspects of the prevention, detection, diagnosis, evaluation, and therapy of lung cancer. Certain aspects of metastatic lung disease treatment or therapy which involve aspects of interest to primary lung cancer are included. With certain exceptions, general pre-clinical or animal studies not directly related to the primary human disease are excluded

  2. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  3. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  4. Fluorescence photodiagnosis of early stage lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.; Sakai, H.; Konaka, C.; Okunaka, T.; Furukawa, K.; Saito, Y.; Aizawa, K.; Hayata, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Sputum cytology examination is the most effective method to detect early stage central type squamous cell carcinoma. As sputum-positive early stage lung cancer usually does not show any abnormal findings on chest X-ray film, fiberoptic bronchoscopy is subsequently performed for localization. However, sometimes cases do not show any abnormal findings of cancer endoscopically because they are very early stage cases. For the purpose of localization of invisible lesions the photodynamic reaction was employed in this study. Photodynamic reaction is achieved by transfer of energy of an excited photo-sensitizer induced by photoradiation of light. This phenomenon was already recognized in the beginning of this century. Study of tumor localization of the bronchial tree using hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and a mercury arc lamp was first performed in the Mayo Clinic in 1960s. In 1978, krypton laser was used first as a light source by Profio and Doiron. Authors have been doing research on early localization of such endoscopically occult early lung cancer since 1978. They recently developed an image processing system using an excimer dye laser for early localization of lung cancer. (author). 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Uranium miner lung cancer study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccomanno, G.

    1986-06-01

    This study on uranium miners was started in 1957 and extended through June 30, 1986. It consisted of the routine screening of sputum from uranium miners of the Colorado Plateau, and collection of surgical and autopsy material from uranium miners who developed lung cancer. The projects resulted in: (1) Proof, for the first time, that cancer takes from 10 to 15 years to develop from the maximum accumulated carcinogenic insult and can be demonstrated through progressive cellular changes of the bronchial tree; (2) Development of a method for preserving, concentrating, and processing sputum samples. This is known as the Saccomanno Technique, and is used worldwide in diagnosing lung cancer; (3) Publication of the 1st and 2nd editions of a full-color textbook entitled ''Diagnostic Pulmonary Cytology;'' (4) Presentation of conclusive data on the effects of cigarette smoking and alpha progeny radiation on uranium miners, and information on safe radiation exposure levels; (5) Development of a brush-wash tube for collecting, concentrating, and preparing bronchial brushings and washings; (6) Development of cytological criteria which has improved sensitivity from 30% to about 60%; (7) Development of criteria for cytologic identification of carcinoma in situ, making it possible to diagnose lung cancer before it can be detected on chest x-ray

  6. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality......, and pooled analysis of European CT screening trials, we discuss the main topics that will need consideration. These unresolved issues are risk prediction models to identify patients for CT screening; radiological protocols that use volumetric analysis for indeterminate nodules; options for surgical resection...

  7. Suppression subtractive hybridization identified differentially expressed genes in lung adenocarcinoma: ERGIC3 as a novel lung cancer-related gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Mingsong; Tu, Tao; Huang, Yunchao; Cao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To understand the carcinogenesis caused by accumulated genetic and epigenetic alterations and seek novel biomarkers for various cancers, studying differentially expressed genes between cancerous and normal tissues is crucial. In the study, two cDNA libraries of lung cancer were constructed and screened for identification of differentially expressed genes. Two cDNA libraries of differentially expressed genes were constructed using lung adenocarcinoma tissue and adjacent nonmalignant lung tissue by suppression subtractive hybridization. The data of the cDNA libraries were then analyzed and compared using bioinformatics analysis. Levels of mRNA and protein were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-RT-PCR) and western blot respectively, as well as expression and localization of proteins were determined by immunostaining. Gene functions were investigated using proliferation and migration assays after gene silencing and gene over-expression. Two libraries of differentially expressed genes were obtained. The forward-subtracted library (FSL) and the reverse-subtracted library (RSL) contained 177 and 59 genes, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis demonstrated that these genes were involved in a wide range of cellular functions. The vast majority of these genes were newly identified to be abnormally expressed in lung cancer. In the first stage of the screening for 16 genes, we compared lung cancer tissues with their adjacent non-malignant tissues at the mRNA level, and found six genes (ERGIC3, DDR1, HSP90B1, SDC1, RPSA, and LPCAT1) from the FSL were significantly up-regulated while two genes (GPX3 and TIMP3) from the RSL were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05). The ERGIC3 protein was also over-expressed in lung cancer tissues and cultured cells, and expression of ERGIC3 was correlated with the differentiated degree and histological type of lung cancer. The up-regulation of ERGIC3 could promote cellular migration and proliferation in vitro. The

  8. A Randomized, Controlled, Multicenter Clinical Trial Comparing Pemetrexed/Cisplatin and Gemcitabine/Cisplatin as First-line Treatment for Advanced Nonsquamous Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan HUANG

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Platinum-based doublet chemotherapy is still the standard first-line treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Previous studies have demonstrated that pemetrexed combined with platinum had promising efficacy and safety profile in NSCLC, especially in patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. This trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed made in China as first-line treatment. Methods The present study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1 to receive cisplatin plus pemetrexed chemotherapy (PC group or gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC group every 3 weeks. The primary end point was progression free survival (PFS and the secondary end points included 1 year survival rate, objective response rate (ORR, survival without grade 3/4 toxicity (SWT3/4 and safety profile. Results A total of 288 patients from 20 institutions across China were enrolled into the study. Based on the Full Analyses Set (FAS, the PFS was 168 days (5.6 months vs 140 days (4.7 months (P=0.16, one year survival rate was 50.0% vs 54.9% (P=0.47, ORR was 24.4% vs 14.2% (P=0.06 in the PC group and the GC group, respectively; Survival without grade 3/4 toxicity was 11.3 months in GC group vs 8.1 months in PC group (P=0.23. In terms of the safety, side effects were less observed on the PC group (81.95% vs 93.75%, P=0.003. The main side effects included leukopenia, neutropenia, emesis, anemia, thrombopenia. Conclusion The both regimens have similar efficacy as the treatment for advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, but pemetrexed plus cisplatin regimen has better safety profile and seems to have longer PFS, which makes it a new option as the first line setting.

  9. Breathing symptoms in-patient with lung cancer: A comparison of the time of consultation between smoker and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Carlos Eli; Moron Fanny, Emilia; Melendez, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    There is a controversy around the timing of diagnosis of lung cancer and it's relation with smoking habit. Objective, to compare the time with pulmonary indicator symptoms between smokers and non-smokers with lung cancer

  10. Experience with perioperative pirfenidone for lung cancer surgery in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takekazu; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Nagato, Kaoru; Nakajima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidemi; Tagawa, Tetsuzo; Mizobuchi, Teruaki; Ota, Satoshi; Nakatani, Yukio; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2015-10-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive diffuse lung disease associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Patients with IPF sometimes develop a life-threatening acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) after lung cancer surgery. In this retrospective study, pirfenidone, an antifibrotic agent, was perioperatively administered to IPF patients with lung cancer with the aim of preventing postoperative AE-IPF, and the feasibility and clinical outcomes were investigated. Twelve IPF patients with concomitant lung cancer who received perioperative pirfenidone treatment (PPT) for lung cancer surgery were retrospectively investigated. Sixteen IPF patients undergoing lung cancer surgery without PPT were analyzed as historical controls. Compared to the controls, the PPT patients had a more severely impaired preoperative pulmonary function and a larger number of limited pulmonary resections. There was a significant preoperative decrease in the serum KL-6 levels of the PPT patients. No severe pirfenidone-related complications or IPF-related events occurred in the PPT patients, while six control patients developed AE-IPF (P = 0.0167). A quantitative histopathological evaluation of resected lung specimens found that tissue changes associated with IPF were significantly fewer in the PPT patients (P = 0.021). PPT is a feasible perioperative treatment for IPF patients with lung cancer. Its effectiveness in preventing postoperative AE-IPF thus warrants prospective verification.

  11. Correlation between familial cancer history and epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in Taiwanese never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Po-Chung; Cheng, Yun-Chung

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Cigarette smoking remains a prominent risk factor, but lung cancer incidence has been increasing in never smokers. Genetic abnormalities including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations predominate in never smoking lung cancer patients. Furthermore, familial aggregations of patients with these mutations reflect heritable susceptibility to lung cancer. The correlation between familial cancer history and EGFR mutations in never smokers with lung cancer requires investigation. This was a retrospective case-control study that evaluated the prevalence of EGFR mutations in lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Never smokers with lung cancer treated at a hospital in Taiwan between April 2012 and May 2014 were evaluated. Inclusion criteria were never smokers with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Exclusion criteria involved patients without records of familial cancer history or tumor genotype. This study included 246 never smokers with lung cancer. The study population mainly involved never smoking women with a mean age of 60 years, and the predominant tumor histology was adenocarcinoma. Lung cancer patients with familial cancer history had an increased prevalence of EGFR mutations compared to patients without family history [odds ratio (OR): 5.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-10.6; Pnon-pulmonary cancers (OR: 5.0; 95% CI: 2.5-10.0; Pnever smoking lung cancer patients with familial cancer history. Moreover, a sizable proportion of never smoking cancer patients harbored these mutations. These observations have implications for the treatment of lung cancer in never smokers.

  12. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  13. Epidemiological study on lung cancer of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Liyun; Gu Juanjuan

    1994-01-01

    Lung cancer among 13360 male workers of 5 uranium mines were investigated. During the period of observation (Jan, 1971-Dec. 1985) 35 lung cancers were registered; among them 24 were in exposed group and 11 in control group. Standard mortality of lung cancer for these two groups were 21.42·10 -5 and 15.94·10 -5 , respectively. SMR were 1.83 (exposed group) and 1.44 (control group) (P<0.01). The average latent period of lung cancer in exposed group was 17.5 years, and the average cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters was 168 WLM. The average age of workers dead of lung cancer was 47.83 years. The excess RR coefficient of lung cancer was 1.07%/WLM. SMR increased with increasing cumulative exposure dose to radon daughters. The adjusted mortality of long cancer of smokers in exposed group was obviously higher than that of nonsmokers

  14. Chapter 7: Description of miscan-lung, the erasmus mc lung cancer microsimulation model for evaluating cancer control interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.W. Schultz (Frank); R. Boer (Rob); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe MISCAN-lung model was designed to simulate population trends in lung cancer (LC) for comprehensive surveillance of the disease, to relate past exposure to risk factors to (observed) LC incidence and mortality, and to estimate the impact of cancer-control interventions. MISCAN-lung

  15. Differential Serum Cytokine Levels and Risk of Lung Cancer between African and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Sharon R.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Enewold, Lindsey; Bowman, Elise D.; Ryan, Bríd M.; Cote, Michele L.; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Loffredo, Christopher A.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Chaturvedi, Anil; Caporaso, Neil E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Harris, Curtis C.

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans have a higher risk of developing lung cancer than European Americans. Previous studies suggested that certain circulating cytokines were associated with lung cancer. We hypothesized that variations in serum cytokine levels exist between African Americans and European Americans, and increased circulating cytokine levels contribute to lung cancer differently in the two races. Methods Differences in ten serum cytokine levels, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF), interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α between 170 African-American and 296 European-American controls from the National Cancer Institute-Maryland (NCI-MD) case-control study were assessed. Associations of the serum cytokine levels with lung cancer were analyzed. Statistically significant results were replicated in the prospective Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Wayne State University (WSU) Karmanos Cancer Institute case-control study. Results Six cytokines: IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IFNγ, and TNFα, were significantly higher among European-American as compared to African-American controls. Elevated IL-6 and IL-8 levels were associated with lung cancer among both races in all three studies. Elevated IL-1β, IL-10 and TNFα levels were associated with lung cancer only among African Americans. The association between elevated TNFα levels and lung cancer among European Americans was significant after adjustment for additional factors. Conclusions Serum cytokine levels vary by race and might contribute to lung cancer differently between African Americans and European Americans. Impact Future work examining risk prediction models of lung cancer can measure circulating cytokines to accurately characterize risk within racial groups. PMID:26711330

  16. Characterizing the cancer genome in lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Barbara A.; Woo, Michele S.; Getz, Gad; Perner, Sven; Ding, Li; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lin, William M.; Province, Michael A.; Kraja, Aldi; Johnson, Laura A.; Shah, Kinjal; Sato, Mitsuo; Thomas, Roman K.; Barletta, Justine A.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Broderick, Stephen; Chang, Andrew C.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Chirieac, Lucian R.; Cho, Jeonghee; Fujii, Yoshitaka; Gazdar, Adi F.; Giordano, Thomas; Greulich, Heidi; Hanna, Megan; Johnson, Bruce E.; Kris, Mark G.; Lash, Alex; Lin, Ling; Lindeman, Neal; Mardis, Elaine R.; McPherson, John D.; Minna, John D.; Morgan, Margaret B.; Nadel, Mark; Orringer, Mark B.; Osborne, John R.; Ozenberger, Brad; Ramos, Alex H.; Robinson, James; Roth, Jack A.; Rusch, Valerie; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Shepherd, Frances; Sougnez, Carrie; Spitz, Margaret R.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Twomey, David; Verhaak, Roel G. W.; Weinstock, George M.; Wheeler, David A.; Winckler, Wendy; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Yu, Soyoung; Zakowski, Maureen F.; Zhang, Qunyuan; Beer, David G.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Watson, Mark A.; Garraway, Levi A.; Ladanyi, Marc; Travis, William D.; Pao, William; Rubin, Mark A.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Varmus, Harold E.; Wilson, Richard K.; Lander, Eric S.; Meyerson, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers1. The prospect of targeted therapies2 and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches3–8 are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis of a large collection of tumors (n = 371) using dense single nucleotide polymorphism arrays, we identify a total of 57 significantly recurrent events. We find that 26 of 39 autosomal chromosome arms show consistent large-scale copy-number gain or loss, of which only a handful have been linked to a specific gene. We also identify 31 recurrent focal events, including 24 amplifications and 7 homozygous deletions. Only six of these focal events are currently associated with known mutations in lung carcinomas. The most common event, amplification of chromosome 14q13.3, is found in ~12% of samples. On the basis of genomic and functional analyses, we identify NKX2-1 (NK2 homeobox 1, also called TITF1), which lies in the minimal 14q13.3 amplification interval and encodes a lineage-specific transcription factor, as a novel candidate proto-oncogene involved in a significant fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. More generally, our results indicate that many of the genes that are involved in lung adenocarcinoma remain to be discovered. PMID:17982442

  17. Hypo fractionated radiotherapy in advanced lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Carvalho, Heloisa de; Saito, Newton Heitetsu; Gomes, Herbeni Cardoso; Aguilar, Patricia Bailao; Nadalin, Wladimir

    1996-01-01

    Patients with advanced lung cancers have bad prognosis and, many times, are submitted to prolonged and not always efficient treatments. We present a study where 51 patients were treated with hypo fractionated radiotherapy, based on two distinct schemes, according to the performance status and social conditions of each patient: continuous treatment: 30 Gy, 10 fractions of 3 Gy, 5 days/week (37 cases); weekly treatment: 30 Gy, 6 fractions of 5 Gy, once a week (14 cases). Symptoms relief and impact in survival were evaluated. In both groups, we observed improvement of symptoms in about 70% of the occurrences with a medium survival of three months. We conclude that hypo fractionation is an effective palliative treatment for lung cancers, in patients with short life-expectancy and must be considered as a option in advanced cases, in patients with short life-expectancy that deserve some kind of treatment. (author). 37 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Small cell lung cancer: chemo- and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drings, P.

    1992-01-01

    Small-Cell Lung Cancer - Chemo- and Radiotherapy: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) should be regarded as a systematic disease for which systematic therapy, i.e. chemotherapy, is considered as the cornerstone of treatment. Combination chemotherapy consisting of 2 or mostly 3 active drugs, given at an adequate dose, should be used. Thoracic radiation therapy promises both survival and local-regional control benefits to patients though its optimal role remains to be definitively established. The results of treatment have reached a plateau with a remission rate of up to 90% in stage 'limited disease' and 60% in stage 'extensive disease'. But considering long-term results diseasefree survival and cure only seem possible in 5-10% of patients with limited disease. (orig.) [de

  19. Effect of primarily cultured human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts on radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xiaoqin; Ji Jiang; Chen Yongbing; Shan Fang; Lu Xueguan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of human lung cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) on the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when CAF is placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer cells. Methods: Human lung CAF was obtained from fresh human lung adenocarcinoma tissue specimens by primary culture and subculture and was then identified by immunofluorescence staining. The CAF was placed in direct contact co-culture with lung cancer A 549 and H 1299 cells, and the effects of CAF on the radiosensitivity of A 549 and H 1299 cells were evaluated by colony-forming assay. Results: The human lung CAF obtained by adherent culture could stably grow and proliferate, and it had specific expression of α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and fibroblast activation protein,but without expression of cytokeratin-18. The plating efficiency (PE, %) of A 549 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.0 ± 3.9)% when cultured alone versus (32.3 ± 5.5)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=3.16, P<0.05), and the PE of H 1299 cells at 0 Gy irradiation was (20.6 ± 3.1)% when cultured alone versus (35.2 ± 2.3)% when co-cultured with CAF (t=6.55, P<0.05). The cell survival rate at 2 Gy irradiation (SF 2 ) of A 549 cells was 0.727 ±0.061 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.089 when co-cultured with CAF (t=0.88, P>0.05), and the SF 2 of H 1299 cells was 0.692 ±0.065 when cultured alone versus 0.782 ± 0.037 when co-cultured with CAF (t=2.08, P>0.05). The protection enhancement ratios of human lung CAF for A 549 cells and H 1299 cells were 1.29 and 1.25, respectively. Conclusions: Human lung CAF reduces the radiosensitivity of lung cancer cells when placed in direct contact co-culture with them, and the radioprotective effect may be attributed to CAF promoting the proliferation of lung cancer cells. (authors)

  20. The lung cancer risk from inhalation of radon-222 decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1975-05-01

    The results of surveys in the USA and the CSSR on the lung cancer mortality among uranium miners are compared. The relation between the observed excess lung cancer mortality and the cumulative exposure of these miners by inhaled Rn-daughters is discussed and the risk coefficients for radiation-induced lung cancer are estimated. The relative risk coefficients of both study groups of U-miners agree within the confidence limits and are in the range of 0.001 to 0.005 WLM -1 . The derived absolute risk coefficients of 20 +- 10 (USA group) and 150 +- 50 (CSSR group) additional lung cancer deaths per WLM and 10 6 miners are, however, significantly different. The influence of synergistic or cocancerogenic actions is discussed. The increase of lung cancer mortality with Rn-exposure is significantly correlated with an increase of the small-cell, undifferentiated type of carcinoma. (author)

  1. Current questions in HIV-associated lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, Marina; Shuter, Jonathan; Haigentz, Missak

    2013-09-01

    In this review, we explore current questions regarding risk factors contributing to frequent and early onset of lung cancer among populations with HIV infection, treatment, and outcomes of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients as well as challenges in a newly evolving era of lung cancer screening. Lung cancer, seen in three-fold excess in HIV-infected populations, has become the most common non-AIDS defining malignancy in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. HIV-associated lung cancer appears to be associated with young age at diagnosis, cigarette smoking, advanced stage at presentation, and a more aggressive clinical course. There is no unified explanation for these observations, and aside from traditional risk factors, HIV-related immunosuppression and biological differences might play a role. In addition to smoking cessation interventions, screening and early cancer detection in HIV-infected populations are of high clinical importance, although evidence supporting lung cancer screening in this particularly high-risk subset is currently lacking, as are prospective studies of lung cancer therapy. There is an urgent need for prospective clinical trials in HIV-associated lung cancer to improve understanding of lung cancer pathogenesis and to optimize patient care. Several clinical trials are in progress to address questions in cancer biology, screening, and treatment for this significant cause of mortality in persons with HIV infection.

  2. Metabolic Signaling and Therapy of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by...which makes them attractive therapeutic targets. However, the development of targeted agents in lung cancer is still in its infancy, despite the...notion that metabolites can act as signaling molecules in distant metabolic pathways is gaining significant attentionand support (Figure 1A). Some of the

  3. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  4. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer: a clinical and pathogenesis update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Katerina M; Tomassetti, Sara; Tsitoura, Eliza; Vancheri, Carlo

    2015-11-01

    About one out of 10 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) develop lung cancer. This review provides an epidemiology and clinical update of the association of these two lethal diseases. In addition, we focus on the emerging overlapping epigenetic mechanisms in both diseases. In a vast majority of cases, lung cancer is diagnosed during the clinical and radiological follow-up for the fibrosis. The risk of development of lung cancer in IPF is higher for older male smokers and there is a significantly higher prevalence of lung cancer in the combined IPF and emphysema syndrome compared with fibrosis only. The association of two lethal diseases, such as IPF and lung cancer, carries a very poor outcome and the correct treatment strategy, particularly for advanced forms of lung cancer, is still unclear. The two novel drugs approved for IPF, pirfenidone and nintedanib, open a new scenario in which treated patients with fibrosis will live longer, and possibly have a lower incidence of lung cancer. However, prospective studies are urgently needed to definitively clarify the role of lung cancer treatment in the management of IPF patients. Furthermore, common epigenetic alterations may represent a promising target for therapeutic approaches in the near future.

  5. A case of squamous cell lung cancer after treating with radiation for small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toshinari; Ide, Hiroshi; Siomi, Katsuhiko; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Tada, Shinya; Kageyama, Hiroshi; Kido, Masamitsu

    1999-01-01

    A 77-year-old man was admitted due to an abnormal shadow on a chest X-ray film in September 1993. Small cell lung cancer was diagnosed by transbronchial lung biopsy of left S 3 . Because of his pulmonary and renal dysfunction, he received only 40 Gy irradiation alone, and the tumor shadow disappeared. After 38 months' observation, a new nodular shadow was detected in the left upper lung field in March 1997. A tumor was found in left B 3 by bronchoscopy, and biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Because of his advanced age and hypoxia, he has had no active treatment. This was a rare case of small cell lung cancer with long term survival, treated only by radiation, in which a different histologic type of carcinoma appeared in the same radiation field. (author)

  6. Czech studies of lung cancer and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2002-01-01

    According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there is a significant evidence to classify radon as a carcinogen. Using extrapolations from occupational studies, it can be shown that for some countries environmental exposure to radon is the second most important cause of lung cancer in the general population after cigarette smoking. Czech studies among uranium miners, established in 1970 by Josef Sevc, and in the general population aim to contribute to knowledge on the risk from radon, particularly by evaluating temporal factors and interaction of radon exposure and smoking

  7. [Lung Cancer as an Occupational Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Woitowitz, H-J

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most frequently encountered cancer types. According to the latest WHO data, about 10 % of this disease are due to occupational exposure to cancerogens. Asbestos is still the number one carcinogen. Further frequent causes include quarz and ionizing radiation (uranium mining). Probable causes of the disease can be identified only with the help of detailed occupational history taken by a medical specialist and qualified exposure assessment. Without clarifying the cause of the disease, there is neither a correct insurance procedure nor compensation for the victim, and furthermore, required preventive measures cannot be initiated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Silica and lung cancer: a controversial issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairon, J C; Brochard, P; Jaurand, M C; Bignon, J

    1991-06-01

    The role of crystalline silica in lung cancer has long been the subject of controversy. In this article, we review the main experimental and epidemiological studies dealing with this problem. Some evidence for a genotoxic potential of crystalline silica has been obtained in the rare in vitro studies published to date. In vivo studies have shown that crystalline silica is carcinogenic in the rat; the tumour types appear to vary according to the route of administration. In addition, an association between carcinogenic and fibrogenic potency has been observed in various animal species exposed to crystalline silica. An excess of lung cancer related to occupational exposure to crystalline silica is reported in many epidemiological studies, regardless of the presence of silicosis. However, most of these studies are difficult to interpret because they do not correctly take into account associated carcinogens such as tobacco smoke and other occupational carcinogens. An excess of lung cancer is generally reported in studies based on silicosis registers. Overall, experimental and human studies suggest an association between exposure to crystalline silica and an excess of pulmonary malignancies. Although the data available are not sufficient to establish a clear-cut causal relationship in humans, an association between the onset of pneumoconiosis and pulmonary malignancies is probable. In contrast, experimental observations have given rise to a pathophysiological mechanism that might account for a putative carcinogenic potency of crystalline silica.

  9. [Right lung cancer with right aortic arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Noriyuki, T; Kuroda, Y; Kuranishi, F; Nakahara, M; Fukuda, T; Ishizaki, Y; Hotta, R; Akimoto, E; Mori, H

    2008-02-01

    An abnormal shadow was detected on chest X-ray mass screening in an asymptomatic 63-year-old man. The further examinations revealed the shadow to be primary lung cancer (Rt. S6. adenocarcinoma, cT2N0M0, c-stage IB) with right aortic arch. We used 3 dimentional-computed tomography (3D-CT) to assess an anatomical feature of vessels in detail. The right lower lobectomy and the dissection of medi astinal lymph nodes was performed. We confirmed no abnormal anatomy of pulmonary artery and vein at surgery, and it was possible to perform right lower lobectomy with the common procedure. Since lymph node was found by intraopetrative pathological examination, since no metastasis from interlobar to subcarinal lymph node was found, we did not perform dissection of upper mediastinal dissection, which was equivalent to ND2a lymph nodes dissection of the left lung cancer in General Rule for Clinical and Pathological Record of Lung Cancer. The patient with right aortic arch is known to have variant anatomy of other intrathoracic vessels occasionally. 3D-CT was quite useful in assessing anatomical feature, and enabled us to perform safe operation.

  10. Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial comparing Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction with treatment as usual in reducing psychological distress in patients with lung cancer and their partners: the MILON study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, M.P.J.; Hurk, D.G.M. van den; Prins, J.B.; Molema, J.; Donders, A.R.T.; Woertman, W.H.; Drift, M.A. van der; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and characterized by a poor prognosis. It has a major impact on the psychological wellbeing of patients and their partners. Recently, it has been shown that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is effective in reducing

  11. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  12. Prognosis in advanced lung cancer--A prospective study examining key clinicopathological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Claribel P; Koinis, Filippos; Fallon, Marie T; Fearon, Kenneth C; Bowden, Jo; Solheim, Tora S; Gronberg, Bjorn Henning; McMillan, Donald C; Gioulbasanis, Ioannis; Laird, Barry J

    2015-06-01

    In patients with advanced incurable lung cancer deciding as to the most appropriate treatment (e.g., chemotherapy or supportive care only) is challenging. In such patients the TNM classification system has reached its ceiling therefore other factors are used to assess prognosis and as such, guide treatment. Performance status (PS), weight loss and inflammatory biomarkers (Glasgow Prognostic Score (mGPS)) predict survival in advanced lung cancer however these have not been compared. This study compares key prognostic factors in advanced lung cancer. Patients with newly diagnosed advanced lung cancer were recruited and demographics, weight loss, other prognostic factors (mGPS, PS) were collected. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods were used to compare these prognostic factors. 390 patients with advanced incurable lung cancer were recruited; 341 were male, median age was 66 years (IQR 59-73) and patients had stage IV non-small cell (n=288) (73.8%) or extensive stage small cell lung cancer (n=102) (26.2%). The median survival was 7.8 months. On multivariate analysis only performance status (HR 1.74 CI 1.50-2.02) and mGPS (HR 1.67, CI 1.40-2.00) predicted survival (padvanced lung cancer. In combination, these improved survival prediction compared with either alone. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  14. Death Concerns among Individuals Newly Diagnosed with Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Rebecca; Therrien, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Confronting the reality of death is an important challenge for individuals facing life-threatening illness such as lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death. Few studies, however, document the nature of death-related concerns in individuals newly diagnosed with lung cancer. The aims of this exploratory study were to examine unsolicited…

  15. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  16. Anthropometry and the Risk of Lung Cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Torhild Gram, Inger; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María-José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  17. Anthropometry and the risk of lung cancer in EPIC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewi, Nikmah Utami; Boshuizen, Hendriek C.; Johansson, Mattias; Vineis, Paolo; Kampman, Ellen; Steffen, Annika; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Overvad, Kim; Severi, Gianluca; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Kaaks, Rudolf; Li, Kuanrong; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Klinaki, Eleni; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Tagliabue, Giovanna; Peeters, Petra H.; Vermeulen, Roel; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Gram, Inger Torhild; Huerta, José María; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María José; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Quirós, José Ramón; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Mikael; Grankvist, Kjell; Key, Tim; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nick; Cross, Amanda J.; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Fanidi, Anouar; Muller, David; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H. Bas

    2016-01-01

    The associations of body mass index (BMI) and other anthropometric measurements with lung cancer were examined in 348,108 participants in the European Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) between 1992 and 2010. The study population included 2,400 case patients with incident lung cancer,

  18. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  19. Nutrition habits, physical activity, and lung cancer: an authoritative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsokera, Alexandra; Kiagia, Maria; Saif, Muhammad W; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Syrigos, Kostas N

    2013-07-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Because of high incidence rates and low survival rates, it is important to study the risk factors that may help prevent the disease from developing. It has been well established that cigarette smoking is the most important risk factor for lung cancer. Nonetheless it is likely that there are other modifiable risk factors that would assist in the prevention of lung cancer. Research on factors such as nutrition and physical activity and their influence on lung cancer has been carried out for nearly 3 decades. A systematic review in the MEDLINE database of published studies was conducted, focusing on systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and large prospective studies. The association between physical activity and lung cancer has been conflicting. Among the researched studies, 10 showed an inverse association, whereas 11 reported no association. A meta-analysis that was conducted from 1996 to October 2003 showed that leisure physical activity (LPA) prevents lung cancer. Data from 11 cohort and case-control studies showed an inverse relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and lung cancer. Evidence from case-control studies suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer, although several more recent studies have presented doubts about these findings. The possible association of physical activity, nutrition, and the risk of lung cancer development remains controversial. Further prospective studies should be conducted to determine the potential influence of these 2 risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical management of non-small-cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamousa Ahmed

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Surgery plays a major role in the management of patients with lung cancer. Surgery is not only the main curative treatment modality in patients with early-stage lung cancer but it also has a significant role in the initial workup for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. This article describes the surgical management of patients with lung cancer. Surgical resection for lung cancer is still regarded as the most effective method for controlling the primary tumor, provided it is resectable for cure and the risks of the procedure are low. The 5-year survival rare following complete resection (R0 of a lung cancer is stage dependent [Table 1]. [1-3] Incomplete resection (R1, R2 rarely, if ever, cures the patient.

  1. The preparation and characterization of peptide's lung cancer imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianfeng; Chu Liping; Wang Yan; Wang Yueying; Liu Jinjian; Wu Hongying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen in vivo lung cancer specific binding seven peptides by T7 phage display peptide library, so as to prepare peptide's lung cancer early diagnostic agent. Methods: Use phage display in vivo technology, the 7-peptide phage that binding the lung cancer specifically was obtained, then the DNA sequence was measured and the seven peptide was synthesized. After labeled by 125 I, the seven peptide was injected into mice via vein and the distribution was observed. Results: One peptide was obtained by four rounds screening, and the peptide can bind lung cancer tissue specifically. Two hours after injection get the best imaging of lung cancer, metabolism of peptide in mice is fast, the distribution in vivo is decrease six hours and almost disappear 20 hours after injection. Conclusion: The peptide can image and diagnose lung cancer better. (authors)

  2. Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0161 TITLE: Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Avrum E. Spira...W81XWH-11-2-0161 Detection of Early lung Cancer Among Military Personnel (DECAMP) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0161 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biomarkers found in blood, tissues, or other bodily fluids, which may be used for the early detection of lung cancer among military personnel and

  3. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, H M; Zhang, Q F

    1994-01-01

    Recent progress in risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and its correlation with occupational lung cancer in nickel-exposed workers is reviewed. Epidemiological investigations provide reliable data indicating the close relation between nickel exposure and high lung cancer risk, especially in nickel refineries. The nickel species-specific effects and the dose-response relationship between nickel exposure and lung cancer are among the main questions that are explored extensively. It is als...

  4. Noninvasive detection of lung cancer by analysis of exhaled breath

    OpenAIRE

    Bajtarevic, Amel; Ager, Clemens; Pienz, Martin; Klieber, Martin; Schwarz, Konrad; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Filipiak, Wojciech; Denz, Hubert; Fiegl, Michael; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Weiss, Wolfgang; Lukas, Peter; Jamnig, Herbert; Hackl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the western world. At present, diagnosis of lung cancer very often happens late in the course of the disease since inexpensive, non-invasive and sufficiently sensitive and specific screening methods are not available. Even though the CT diagnostic methods are good, it must be assured that "screening benefit outweighs risk, across all individuals screened, not only those with lung cancer". An early non-invasive...

  5. Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crapo JD

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Robert P Young1,4, Raewyn J Hopkins1, Gregory D Gamble1, Carol Etzel2, Randa El-Zein2, James D Crapo31Department of Medicine and School of Biological Sciences, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 2Department of Epidemiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 3National Jewish Health, Denver, CO, USA; 4Synergenz Biosciences Ltd, Auckland, New ZealandAbstract: Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%–30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping “susceptibility” loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified “COPD-related” genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.Keywords: lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, association study, single nucleotide polymorphism, risk model

  6. SU-E-J-87: Ventilation Weighting Effect On Mean Doses of Both Side Lungs for Patients with Advanced Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, H; Xia, P; Yu, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To study ventilation weighting effect on radiation doses to both side lungs for patients with advanced stage lung cancer. Methods: Fourteen patients with advanced stage lung cancer were included in this retrospective study. Proprietary software was developed to calculate the lung ventilation map based on 4DCT images acquired for radiation therapy. Two phases of inhale (0%) and exhale (50%) were used for the lung ventilation calculations. For each patient, the CT images were resampled to the same dose calculation resolution of 3mmx3mmx3mm. The ventilation distribution was then normalized by the mean value of the ventilation. The ventilation weighted dose was calculated by applying linearly weighted ventilation to the dose of each pixel. The lung contours were automatically delineated from patient CT image with lung window, excluding the tumor and high density tissues. For contralateral and ipsilateral lungs, the mean lung doses from the original plan and ventilation weighted mean lung doses were compared using two tail t-Test. Results: The average of mean dose was 6.1 ±3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs, and 26.2 ± 14.0Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The average of ventilation weighted dose was 6.3± 3.8Gy for the contralateral lungs and 24.6 ± 13.1Gy for the ipsilateral lungs. The statistics analysis shows the significance of the mean dose increase (p<0.015) for the contralateral lungs and decrease (p<0.005) for the ipsilateral lungs. Conclusion: Ventilation weighted doses were greater than the un-weighted doses for contralateral lungs and smaller for ipsilateral lungs. This Result may be helpful to understand the radiation dosimetric effect on the lung function and provide planning guidance for patients with advance stage lung cancer

  7. Clinical analysis of lung cancer complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugino, Keishi; Homma, Sakae; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Takaya, Hisashi; Sakamoto, Susumu; Kawabata, Masateru; Kishi, Kazuma; Tsuboi, Eiyasu; Yoshimura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristic clinical features of lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Among 1,028 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis admitted in our hospital between 1985 and 2005, 17 (15 men, 2 women; mean age 73±8) were diagnosed as having lung cancer. Patient characteristics, clinical features, radiographic images, treatment and prognosis were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were classified into 2 groups: group A (n=5), lung cancer complicated by active tuberculosis, and group B (n=12), lung cancer with tuberculosis sequelae. All patients in group A and 8 patients (33%) in group B had either stage III or IV lung cancer, whereas 4 patients in group B had stage I lung cancer. Coexistence of lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same segment or lobe was seen in 80% (n=4) or 60% (n=3) of group A cases, respectively, and in 67% (n=8) or 8% (n=1) respectively, in group B. Mean survival in group A and group B was 9.2 months and 26.8 months, respectively. More attention should be paid to the possibility of development of lung cancer in individuals with a history of pulmonary tuberculosis or who have had tuberculosis sequelae revealed by chest radiography. Also, the possible coexistence of lung cancer must be carefully examined in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  8. Effect of Thoracic Surgeons on Lung Cancer Patients’ Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning LI

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Surgeons are the direct decision-makers and performers in the surgical treatment of patients with lung cancer. Whether the differences among doctors affect the survival of patients is unclear. This study analyzed the five-year survival rates of different thoracic surgeries in patients undergoing surgery to assess the physician's impact and impact. Methods A retrospective analysis of five years between 2002-2007 in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, for surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. According to different surgeons grouping doctors to compare the basic information of patients, surgical methods, short-term results and long-term survival differences. Results A total of 712 patients treated by 11 experienced thoracic surgeons were included in this study. The patients have nosignificant difference with gender, age, smoking, pathological type between groups. There were significant differences in clinical staging, surgery type, operation time, blood transfusion rate, number of lymph node dissection, palliative resection rate, postoperative complications and perioperative mortality. There was a significant difference in five-year survival rates among patients treated by different doctors. This difference can be seen in all clinical stage analyzes with consistency. In the multivariate analysis, it was suggested that surgeon was an independent factor influencing the prognosis of patients. Conclusion Thoracic surgeon has a significant effect on the therapeutic effect of lung cancer patients.

  9. Participant selection for lung cancer screening by risk modelling (the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer [PanCan] study): a single-arm, prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammemagi, Martin C; Schmidt, Heidi; Martel, Simon; McWilliams, Annette; Goffin, John R; Johnston, Michael R; Nicholas, Garth; Tremblay, Alain; Bhatia, Rick; Liu, Geoffrey; Soghrati, Kam; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Hwang, David M; Laberge, Francis; Gingras, Michel; Pasian, Sergio; Couture, Christian; Mayo, John R; Nasute Fauerbach, Paola V; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Peacock, Stuart J; Cressman, Sonya; Ionescu, Diana; English, John C; Finley, Richard J; Yee, John; Puksa, Serge; Stewart, Lori; Tsai, Scott; Haider, Ehsan; Boylan, Colm; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Manos, Daria; Xu, Zhaolin; Goss, Glenwood D; Seely, Jean M; Amjadi, Kayvan; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S; Burrowes, Paul; MacEachern, Paul; Urbanski, Stefan; Sin, Don D; Tan, Wan C; Leighl, Natasha B; Shepherd, Frances A; Evans, William K; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Lam, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    ): one diagnosed between T0 and T1, and nine between T1 and T4. Cumulative incidence was significantly higher than that observed in NLST (4·0%; p<0·0001). Compared with 593 (57%) of 1040 lung cancers observed in NLST, 133 (77%) of 172 lung cancers in the PanCan Study were early stage (I or II; p<0·0001). The PanCan model was effective in identifying individuals who were subsequently diagnosed with early, potentially curable, lung cancer. The incidence of cancers detected and the proportion of early stage cancers in the screened population was higher than observed in previous studies. This approach should be considered for adoption in lung cancer screening programmes. Terry Fox Research Institute and Canadian Partnership Against Cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular pathways and therapeutic targets in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelman, Emma; Hensing, Thomas; Simon, George R.; Dennis, Phillip A.; Otterson, Gregory A.; Bueno, Raphael; Salgia, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is still the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Both histologically and molecularly lung cancer is heterogeneous. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the pathways involved in the various types of lung cancer with an emphasis on the clinical implications of the increasing number of actionable molecular targets. It describes the major pathways and molecular alterations implicated in the development and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (adenocarcinoma and squamous cancer), and of small cell carcinoma, emphasizing the molecular alterations comprising the specific blueprints in each group. The approved and investigational targeted therapies as well as the immune therapies, and clinical trials exploring the variety of targeted approaches to treatment of lung cancer are the main focus of this review. PMID:24722523

  11. Korean ethnicity as compared with white ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival in non-small cell lung cancer before and after the oral epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Myung-Ju; Lee, Jeeyun; Park, Yun-Hee; Ahn, Jin-Seok; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zell, Jason A; Park, Keunchil; Ou, Sai-Hong Ignatius

    2010-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated, using a regional California Cancer Registry database, that Asian ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Retrospective population-based analysis of Korean and US white patients with NSCLC with known smoking status from Samsung Cancer Center, Seoul, South Korea, and a Southern California Regional Cancer Registry between 1998 and 2005 with follow-up through February 2008 to allow for even case ascertainment periods before and after 2002, when epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors were introduced in Korea and considered as the year of reference. A total of 4622 Korean and 8846 US white patients were analyzed. Median age of diagnosis was 63 years versus 71 years for Korean and white patients, respectively (P white patients were never-smokers. There was significant OS improvement in never-smokers when compared with ever-smokers among either Korean patients (p white (p white patients (p = 0.5641). Except for stage II patients (p = 0.0723), univariate analysis revealed Korean patients had improved OS compared with US white patients among stages I, III, and IV, respectively (all p white; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.869; p white ethnicity improved during 2002-2005 (HR = 0.795; p white ethnicity is an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS in NSCLC. In addition, greater survival benefit among Korean patients with NSCLC was noted in the postepidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor era (2002 and after) compared with US white ethnicity.

  12. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; McKee, Andrea B; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer screening may provide a "teachable moment" for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012(®) high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715-1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143-0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477-0.877). Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates. A positive exam result correlated with reduced

  13. Prediction of postoperative respiratory function of lung cancer patients using quantitative lung scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative sup(99m)Tc-MISA inhalation scan and sup(99m)Tc-MAA perfusion scan were performed in 35 patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomies. Quantitative 133 Xe ventilation-perfusion scans were also performed in 34 patients with lung cancer who underwent lobectomies. To predict functional loss after lobectomy, the proportion of the No. of segments in the lobe to be resected to the No. of entire segments of that lung was provided for the study. Postoperative FVC, FEVsub(1.0) and MVV were predicted in the study, and which were compared to the respiratory function at one month after operation and more than four months after operation. The predicted postoperative respiratory function was highly correlated with the actually observed postoperative respiratory function (0.7413 lt r lt 0.9278, p lt 0.001). In this study, the postoperative respiratory function was proven to be quite accurately predicted preoperatively with combination of quantitative lung scans and spirometric respiratory function. Therefore this method is useful not only for judgement of operative indication but also for choice of operative method and for counterplan of postoperative respiratory insufficiency. (J.P.N.)

  14. Exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation and lung cancer risk in Florida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockwell, H.G.; Lyman, G.H.; Waltz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The phosphate deposits of central Florida contain levels of uranium and its daughter products 30-60 times greater than average soils. A case-control study was conducted to assess the risk of lung cancer associated with living on these phosphateic soils. Using the records of the state-wide Florida Cancer Data System to address this issue, all cases of lung cancer among Florida residents in 1981 were identified (n = 7049). Information was obtained regarding residence, age, sex, race, and smoking habits. Controls consisted of 6643 individuals with cancers of the colon or rectum. Residents of the central Florida phosphate region experienced a significant increase in lung cancer risk compared to other Florida residents (odds ratio (OR) = 1.4). Excess risks appeared concentrated among squamous cell cancer (OR = 1.6) and small cell cancer (OR = 1.6). When smoking habits as well as residential area was considered, no significant excess risk, associated with residence, was observed among nonsmokers or light smokers. Area residents smoking a pack or more per day experienced a 70% increase in lung cancer risk compared to individuals smoking a similar amount but living elsewhere. Highest risks were observed among persons with squamous cell cancer (OR = 2.1) and small cell cancer (OR = 2.5) who smoked more than 40 cigarettes a day. Results suggest exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation increases the lung cancer risk of residents of this area

  15. Digitalis use and lung cancer risk by histological type in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Xie, Shao-Hua; Tse, Lap-Ah; Lagergren, Jesper

    2017-11-15

    Lung cancer risk and tumor characteristics differ between sexes. Estrogen has been suggested to counteract lung cancer development. We aimed to test the hypothesis that digitalis use decreases lung cancer risk due to its estrogenic and other anticancer properties in men. This was a nationwide Swedish population-based cohort study between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2013. Data on the use of digitalis and organic nitrates in all male individuals were derived from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Registry. New lung cancer diagnoses among cohort participants were identified from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression was employed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of lung cancer in digitalis users (exposed participants) compared to users of organic nitrates without digitalis medication (unexposed participants). The study cohort contained 74,437 digitalis users and 297,301 organic nitrates users. Long-term use (≥2 years) of digitalis was associated with decreased HRs of total lung cancer (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39-0.79) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR 0.40, 95% CI 0.19-0.87). This large and population-based study suggests decreased risks of lung cancer overall and squamous cell carcinoma associated with long-term use of digitalis in men. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen : smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taeger, Dirk; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Dahmann, Dirk; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Mukeriya, Anush; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Field, John; Marcus, Michael W; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin; Paul Demers, Paul Demers; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Joachim Schüz, Joachim Schüz; Kurt Straif, Kurt Straif; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and

  17. Elevated levels of CXC chemokine connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP)-III in lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gina; Gardner, Brian K; Elashoff, David A; Purcell, Colleen M; Sandha, Harpavan S; Mao, Jenny T; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Lee, Jay M; Dubinett, Steven M

    2011-05-15

    Despite advances in treatments, lung cancer has been the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States for the past several decades. Recent findings from the National Lung Screening Trial reveal that low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) scan screening of high-risk individuals reduces lung cancer mortality. This suggests that early detection is of key importance to improving patient outcome. However, of those screened with CT scans, 25% had positive scans that require further follow-up studies which often involve more radiation exposure and invasive tests to reduce false positive results. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate plasma biomarkers to aid in diagnosis of lung cancer in at-risk individuals. We found increased expression of the CXC chemokine connective tissue-activating peptide (CTAP)-III from plasma specimens of lung cancer patients compared to at-risk control subjects. Identification of the peptide was confirmed by the addition of an anti-NAP-2 antibody that recognizes CTAP-III and NAP-2. We also quantified and verified the increased levels of plasma CTAP-III with ELISA in patients with lung cancer (mean ± SD, 1859 ± 1219 ng/mL) compared to controls (698 ± 434 ng/mL; Pcancer patients. Further studies are required to determine if this chemokine could be utilized in a blood-based biomarker panel for the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  18. MET and Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gelsomino

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC is one of the most aggressive lung tumors. The majority of patients with SCLC are diagnosed at an advanced stage. This tumor type is highly sensitive to chemo-radiation treatment, with very high response rates, but invariably relapses. At this time, treatment options are still limited and the prognosis of these patients is poor. A better knowledge of the molecular biology of SCLC allowed us to identify potential druggable targets. Among these, the MET/HGF axis seems to be one of the most aberrant signaling pathways involved in SCLC invasiveness and progression. In this review, we describe briefly all recent literature on the different molecular profiling in SCLC; in particular, we discuss the specific alterations involving c-MET gene and their implications as a potential target in SCLC.

  19. Alpinetin inhibits lung cancer progression and elevates sensitization drug-resistant lung cancer cells to cis-diammined dichloridoplatium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu L

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lin Wu, Wei Yang, Su-ning Zhang, Ji-bin Lu Department of Thoracic Surgery, Sheng Jing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China Objective: Alpinetin is a novel flavonoid that has demonstrated potent antitumor activity in previous studies. However, the efficacy and mechanism of alpinetin in treating lung cancer have not been determined. Methods: We evaluated the impact of different doses and durations of alpinetin treatment on the cell proliferation, the apoptosis of lung cancer cells, as well as the drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Results: This study showed that the alpinetin inhibited the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, and inhibited the PI3K/Akt signaling in lung cancer cells. Moreover, alpinetin significantly increased the sensitivity of drug-resistant lung cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic effect of cis-diammined dichloridoplatium. Taken together, this study demonstrated that alpinetin significantly suppressed the development of human lung cancer possibly by influencing mitochondria and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and sensitized drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Conclusion: Alpinetin may be used as a potential compound for combinatorial therapy or as a complement to other chemotherapeutic agents when multiple lines of treatments have failed to reduce lung cancer. Keywords: alpinetin, cell proliferation and apoptosis, drug resistance reversal, PI3K/Akt, lung cancer

  20. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement

  1. CT features of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Hyoung; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Jin Suh; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that the incidence of lung cancer is high in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF). We analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analyzed the CT features of lung cancer associated with IPF. Retrospective analysis was performed in 23 patients with lung cancer(24 lung cancers) associated with IPF. The diagnosis of IPF was made by clinical and CT findings, and lung cancer was confirmed pathologically. We divided the location of lung cancer by lobar distribution and central or peripheral lung zone, and measured the size of mass. We classified the mediastinal lymph node enlargement by American Thoracic Society (ATS) mapping scheme. We evaluated the CT pattern of IPF. The subjects consisted of 6 cases of small cell carcinoma and 18 cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Non-small cell lung cancers were located in the right upper lobe in 5 cases, left upper lobe in 6 cases, right middle lobe in 1 case, right lower lobe in 9 cases, and left lower lobe in 3 cases. Twenty cancers(85%) were located in the peripheral lung zone. Eighteen cancers(73%) were surrounded by fibrotic lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung. The size of the mass ranged from 1 to 12 cm, and in 12 cases it was below 3 cm in diameter. Mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 22 cases(92%) and classified as N2 or N3 in 15 cases out of 18 non-small cell lung cancers. CT patterns of underlying IPF were honey-combing in 18 patients(78%) and mixed honey-combing and ground-glass opacity in 5 patients(22%). The lung cancer associated with IPF shows variable cell types. Most of the lung cancers were located peripherally, surrounded by end-stage fibrosis, and were associated with mediastinal lymph node enlargement.

  2. Comparative modeling and docking studies of p16ink4/Cyclin D1/Rb pathway genes in lung cancer revealed functionally interactive residue of RB1 and its functional partner E2F1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    e Zahra Syeda Naqsh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer is the major cause of mortality worldwide. Major signalling pathways that could play significant role in lung cancer therapy include (1 Growth promoting pathways (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor/Ras/ PhosphatidylInositol 3-Kinase (2 Growth inhibitory pathways (p53/Rb/P14ARF, STK11 (3 Apoptotic pathways (Bcl-2/Bax/Fas/FasL. Insilico strategy was implemented to solve the mystery behind selected lung cancer pathway by applying comparative modeling and molecular docking studies. Results YASARA [v 12.4.1] was utilized to predict structural models of P16-INK4 and RB1 genes using template 4ELJ-A and 1MX6-B respectively. WHAT CHECK evaluation tool demonstrated overall quality of predicted P16-INK4 and RB1 with Z-score of −0.132 and −0.007 respectively which showed a strong indication of reliable structure prediction. Protein-protein interactions were explored by utilizing STRING server, illustrated that CDK4 and E2F1 showed strong interaction with P16-INK4 and RB1 based on confidence score of 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. In order to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the complex interactions between candidate genes with their functional interactors, GRAMM-X server was used. Protein-protein docking investigation of P16-INK4 revealed four ionic bonds illustrating Arg47, Arg80,Cys72 and Met1 residues as actively participating in interactions with CDK4 while docking results of RB1 showed four hydrogen bonds involving Glu864, Ser567, Asp36 and Arg861 residues which interact strongly with its respective functional interactor E2F1. Conclusion This research may provide a basis for understanding biological insights of P16-INK4 and RB1 proteins which will be helpful in future to design a suitable drug to inhibit the disease pathogenesis as we have determined the interacting amino acids which can be targeted in order to design a ligand in-vitro to propose a drug for clinical trials. Protein -protein docking of

  3. Comparative study on the analgesic effect of acute ipsilateral shoulder pain after open thoracotomy between preoperative ultrasound guided suprascapular nerve block (SNB) and intraoperative phrenic nerve infiltration (PNI) in cancer lung patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfokery, Bassel M; Tawfic, Sahar A; Abdelrahman, Abdelrahman M; Abbas, Dina N; Abdelghaffar, Ikramy M

    2018-03-01

    Acute ipsilateral shoulder pain (ISP) is a common complaint in patients after thoracotomy. The incidence ranges from 21% to 97%. Unfortunately, clinical studies did not put enough focus on ISP post thoracic surgery. This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of suprascapular nerve block (SNB) and phrenic nerve infiltration (PNI) for controlling ISP. One hundred and thirty-five lung cancer patients (135) scheduled for open-lung surgery were randomly allocated into three equal groups; control group: received thoracic epidural with general anesthesia, suprascapular group: (SNB) one hour before the operation with 10 ml bupivacaine plus thoracic epidural with general anesthesia and phrenic nerve group: (PNI) was performed by the operating surgeon with 10 ml bupivacaine plus thoracic epidural with general anesthesia. The visual analogue score (VAS) of ISP, rescue of ketorolac for break through shoulder pain, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and arterial blood gases were measured every 6 h postoperatively for 48 h. The VAS, rescue doses of ketorolc and PEFR were significantly lower in the phrenic nerve group (P-value 0.05). PNI is more effective than SNB for ISP. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  4. CD24 negative lung cancer cells, possessing partial cancer stem cell properties, cannot be considered as cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haineng; Mu, Jiasheng; Xiao, Jing; Wu, Xiangsong; Li, Maolan; Liu, Tianrun; Liu, Xinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) play vital role in lung cancer progression, resistance, metastasis and relapse. Identifying lung CSCs makers for lung CSCs targeting researches are critical for lung cancer therapy. In this study, utilizing previous identified lung CSCs as model, we compared the expression of CD24, CD133 and CD44 between CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. Increased ratio of CD24- cells were found in CSCs. CD24- cells were then sorted by flow cytometry and their proliferative ability, chemo-resistance property and in vivo tumor formation abilities were detected. A549 CD24- cells formed smaller colonies, slower proliferated in comparison to A549 CD24+ cells. Besides, A549 CD24- exhibited stronger resistance to chemotherapy drug. However, A549 CD24- didn't exert any stronger tumor formation ability in vivo, which is the gold standard of CSCs. These results showed that CD24- A549 cells showed some properties of CSCs but not actually CSCs. This study provides evidence that CD24 cannot be considered as lung CSCs marker.

  5. Lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion: An autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marel, Miloslav; Koubkova, Leona; Kovarikova, Zuzana; Grandcourtova, Alzbeta; Petrik, Frantisek; Hroudova, Hana; Capkova, Linda; Kodet, Roman; Fila, Libor

    2015-12-01

    To determine the exact incidence of lung cancer, pulmonary emphysema and pleural effusion we decided to carry out an autopsy study. In this autopsy study carried out over two years, we compared the results of autopsy findings with the clinical data in accompanying records of the deceased. Among the 708 deceased subjects, there were 398 males and 310 females with a median age of 71 years. At autopsy, 55 cases of lung carcinoma (BCA) were found, of which 24 have not been identified during life (44%). Among the deceased with BCA, emphysema was also observed at autopsy in 40% of the cases. Pulmonary emphysema was described macroscopically in 28% of the full set of 708 deceased, whereas the accompanying records of the deceased described this condition in only 12% of the cases. Microscopic changes compatible with emphysema were identified in 54% of the examined lungs. Pleural effusions were described in the accompanying records of 13% of the deceased, while the autopsies showed this condition in 33% of the deceased. BCA was accompanied by effusion in 25% of the cases. The obtained results show that the studied conditions are present in more cases than are reported by clinicians. The study confirms the commonly accepted association between lung cancer and emphysema.

  6. Immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Can it do another lung cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Priya; Dhandapani, Hemavathi; Jayakumar, Hascitha; Seetharaman, Abirami; Thangarajan, Rajkumar

    Cervical cancer, although preventable, is still the second most common cancer among women worldwide. In developing countries like India, where screening for cervical cancer is virtually absent, most women seek treatment only at advanced stages of the disease. Although standard treatment is curative in more than 90% of women during the early stages, for stage IIIb and above this rate drops to 50% or less. Hence, novel therapeutic adjuvants are required to improve survival at advanced stages. Lung cancer has shown the way forward with the use of Immunotherapeutic interventions as standard line of treatment in advanced stages. In this review, we provide an overview of mechanisms of immune evasion, strategies that can be employed to boost the immune system in order to improve the overall survival of the patients and summarize briefly the clinical trials that have been completed or that are underway to bring therapeutic vaccines for cervical cancer to the clinics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tangeretin sensitises human lung cancer cells to TRAIL- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Apoptosis, Death receptors, Lung cancer, Tangeretin, Reactive oxygen ... strategies that specifically target molecules .... concentrations were determined using a Bio-Rad ..... suppresses invasion of colon and pancreatic cancer.

  8. Radiothermometry indifferential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, L.I.; Kogan, E.A.; Yashunskaya, N.I.

    1991-01-01

    Methods of radiothermometry for differential diagnosis of peripheral lung formations using a radiometer operating within 10 cm-wave band were worked out. Altogether 59 patients (of them 45 men) were investigated. Temperature was measured on the chest surface in the area of a lung pathological formation projected on it. Placing its image on the heart and major vessel shadows was avoided. Mean temperature was calculated from 6-8 measurements. Temperature above a peripheral lung tumor was shown to be by 0.5 deg C higher than that of unchanged pulmonary tissue. Benign spheroidal formations (tuberculoma, hamartoma) were characterized by a decrease of 0.6-0.9 deg C as compared to unchanged pulmonary tissue. Comparison of operation of 2 radiometers (the second one operating in the 8 mm-wave band) has shown diagnostic advantages of the first one

  9. Incidence of lung cancer among subway drivers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Per; Bigert, Carolina; Pollán, Marina

    2008-07-01

    Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system in Stockholm. Subway particles are more toxic to DNA in cultured human lung cells than particles from ambient air. This cohort comprised all men in Stockholm County who were gainfully employed in 1970. They were followed for cancer incidence until 1989. Lung cancer cases were identified from the national cancer register. Subway drivers were identified from the census in 1970. The reference cohort comprised all transport and communication workers in Stockholm. There were nine cases of lung cancer among the subway drivers, giving a SIR of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.38-1.56). The lung cancer incidence was not increased among the subway drivers. The study gives some evidence against the hypothesis that subway particles would be more potent in inducing lung cancer than particles in ambient air. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Depression and under-treatment of depression: potential risks and outcomes in black lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Lara; Cannon, Sheila; Pirl, William F.; Park, Elyse R.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., black men are at higher risk than white men for lung cancer mortality whereas rates are comparable between black and white women. This paper draws from empirical work in lung cancer, mental health and health disparities to highlight that race and depression may overlap in predicting lower treatment access and utilization and poorer quality of life among patients. Racial barriers to depression identification and treatment in the general population may compound these risks. Prospective data are needed to examine whether depression plays a role in racial disparities in lung cancer outcomes. PMID:23514250

  11. Up-regulation of ALG-2 in hepatomas and lung cancer tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Winding, Pernille

    2003-01-01

    , a result confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Staining of four different lung cancer tissue microarrays including specimens of 263 patients showed that ALG-2 is mainly localized to epithelial cells and significantly up-regulated in small-cell lung cancers and in non-small-cell lung cancers. Our...... using Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Western blot analysis of 15 different adult mouse tissues demonstrated that ALG-2 is ubiquitously expressed. We found that ALG-2 was more than threefold overexpressed in rat liver hepatoma compared to normal rat liver using Western blot analysis...

  12. Relationship Between Radiation Therapy Dose and Outcome in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy and Surgery for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based, Comparative Effectiveness Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, David J.; Fidler, Mary Jo; Seder, Christopher W.; Liptay, Michael J.; Koshy, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To compare, using the National Cancer Database, survival, pathologic, and surgical outcomes in patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with differential doses of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, with the aim to discern whether radiation dose escalation was associated with a comparative effectiveness benefit and/or toxicity risk. Methods and Materials: Patients in the National Cancer Database with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and surgery between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed. Dose strata were divided between 36 to 45 Gy (low-dose radiation therapy, LD-RT), 45 to 54 Gy (inclusive, standard-dose, SD-RT), and 54 to 74 Gy (high-dose, HD-RT). Outcomes included overall survival, residual nodal disease, positive surgical margin status, hospital length of stay, and adverse surgical outcomes (30-day mortality or readmission). Results: The cohort consisted of 1041 patients: 233 (22%) LD-RT, 584 (56%) SD-RT, and 230 (22%) HD-RT. The median, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival outcomes were 34.9 months, 48%, and 37%, respectively. On univariable analysis, patients treated with SD-RT experienced prolonged overall survival (median 38.3 vs 31.8 vs 29.0 months for SD-RT, LD-RT, and HD-RT, respectively, P=.0089), which was confirmed on multivariable analysis (hazard ratios 0.77 and 0.81 vs LD and HD, respectively). Residual nodal disease was seen less often after HD-RT (25.5% vs 31.8% and 37.5% for HD-RT, LD-RT, and SD-RT, respectively, P=.0038). Patients treated with SD-RT had fewer prolonged hospital stays. There were no differences in positive surgical margin status or adverse surgical outcomes between the cohorts. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy between 45 and 54 Gy was associated with superior survival in comparison with doses above and below this threshold. Although this conclusion is limited by selection bias, clear candidates for trimodality therapy do not seem to

  13. Relationship Between Radiation Therapy Dose and Outcome in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Therapy and Surgery for Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Population-Based, Comparative Effectiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sher, David J., E-mail: david_sher@rush.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Fidler, Mary Jo [Section of Medical Oncology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Seder, Christopher W.; Liptay, Michael J. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Koshy, Matthew [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To compare, using the National Cancer Database, survival, pathologic, and surgical outcomes in patients with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with differential doses of neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy, with the aim to discern whether radiation dose escalation was associated with a comparative effectiveness benefit and/or toxicity risk. Methods and Materials: Patients in the National Cancer Database with stage IIIA non-small cell lung cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy and surgery between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed. Dose strata were divided between 36 to 45 Gy (low-dose radiation therapy, LD-RT), 45 to 54 Gy (inclusive, standard-dose, SD-RT), and 54 to 74 Gy (high-dose, HD-RT). Outcomes included overall survival, residual nodal disease, positive surgical margin status, hospital length of stay, and adverse surgical outcomes (30-day mortality or readmission). Results: The cohort consisted of 1041 patients: 233 (22%) LD-RT, 584 (56%) SD-RT, and 230 (22%) HD-RT. The median, 3-year, and 5-year overall survival outcomes were 34.9 months, 48%, and 37%, respectively. On univariable analysis, patients treated with SD-RT experienced prolonged overall survival (median 38.3 vs 31.8 vs 29.0 months for SD-RT, LD-RT, and HD-RT, respectively, P=.0089), which was confirmed on multivariable analysis (hazard ratios 0.77 and 0.81 vs LD and HD, respectively). Residual nodal disease was seen less often after HD-RT (25.5% vs 31.8% and 37.5% for HD-RT, LD-RT, and SD-RT, respectively, P=.0038). Patients treated with SD-RT had fewer prolonged hospital stays. There were no differences in positive surgical margin status or adverse surgical outcomes between the cohorts. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy between 45 and 54 Gy was associated with superior survival in comparison with doses above and below this threshold. Although this conclusion is limited by selection bias, clear candidates for trimodality therapy do not seem to

  14. Lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yoon Kyeong; Park, Hee Chul; Lee, Seung Il; Ryu, So Yeon; Kee, Keun Hong; Jeon, Ho Jong; Ha, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    This study was undertaken to retrospectively evaluate white blood cell kinetics, especially lymphocyte depression after different treatment, and to find the correlation between immunosuppression and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the mediastinal radiotherapy (RT) field in lung cancer. Thirty-four patients with lung cancer were retrospectively evaluated: 10 patients had only radiotherapy (RT group), 8 had chemotherapy (CT group) and 16 had chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT/CT group). The mean follow-up periods of the RT-including groups (RT group and RT/CT group) and the RT-excluding group (CT group) were 6 and 8 months, respectively. Complete blood cell count including lymphocyte percentage (%) were checked weekly during RT but less frequently during CT and after RT. Changes in total white blood cell counts were not significantly different among the three groups. The lymphocyte count and lymphocyte % were much lower in the RT-including groups than in the RT-excluding group. The difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte count and the difference between pre-treatment and final lymphocyte % were significant (ρ = 0.044 and ρ = 0.037) between the RT-including groups and the RT-excluding group. Lymphopenia was more marked after treatment containing RT than CT only. Lymphopenia may be one cause of a compromised immune system after mediastinal irradiation in lung cancer. We suggest cautiously that previous studies showing evidence of lymphocyte apoptosis after low-dose irradiation and large blood volume and dynamic blood flow within the RT fields could be somewhat related to lymphopenia after mediastinal irradiation

  15. Radiotherapic treatment of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, J.R.B.; Lederman, M.V.

    Patients under treatment exclusively by radiations are studied when a linear accelerator is used as a source, and 6.000 rad are supplied into the tumour area. The survival of the patients is observed during 12 months, using local control criteria, metastases evaluations as well as patients' tolerance to this kind of treatment. The results are consider good is compared with those found in the specialized literature [pt

  16. Lung cancers already produced by plutonium inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This chapter presents the basis for the author's estimate that plutonium particulates have already committed approximately 950,000 persons worldwide to a lung-cancer death, and that more will be so committed in the future, even if no more plutonium is dispersed in the environment. The author's calculations are based on fallout data from atmospheric bomb testing, and on two sets of workers exposed to plutonium: one group at the Rocky Flats Plant in Colorado, and the other at the Los Alamos Laboratory who were involved in the Manhattan Project

  17. Esophageal Metastasis From Occult Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Kuei Hsu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A 66-year-old man with dysphagia was found to have a poorly differentiated esophageal carcinoma by incision biopsy. Following esophagectomy, reconstruction with a gastric tube was performed. Pathological examination and immunohisto-chemistry showed infiltration of adenocarcinoma cells with positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining in the submucosal layer, which indicated metastatic esophageal carcinoma. Although no pulmonary lesion could be visualized by imaging or bronchoscopy, pulmonary origin was highly suspected as a result of positive thyroid transcription factor 1-staining. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of metastatic esophageal carcinoma from occult lung cancer (AJCC TNM stage TX.

  18. Potential impact of the MR spectroscopic cancer blood test on reducing the need for lung biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.; Fossel, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Lung biopsies are generally performed to identify or rule out malignancy. A clinical presumption of lung malignancy without biopsy proof may result in unjustified surgery. The authors sought to test the value of the MR cancer blood test (CBT) recently described. They obtained prebiopsy blood samples (2 mL) from 65 patients undergoing lung biopsy for radiologically identified lesions. The CBT was performed blinded, and the result was then compared with the pathologic diagnosis obtained from biopsy. Results are presented

  19. Expression and promoter DNA methylation of MLH1 in colorectal cancer and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunxia; Chen, Yuan; Petersen, Iver

    2017-04-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation is a common molecular feature in human cancer. The aims of this study were to analyze the methylation status of MLH1, one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes, in human colorectal and lung cancer and to evaluate its clinical relevance. The expression of MLH1 was analyzed in 8 colorectal cancer (CRC) and 8 lung cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. The MLH1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays including 121 primary CRC and 90 lung cancer patient samples. In cancer cell lines, the methylation status of MLH1 promoter and exon 2 was investigated by bisulfite sequencing (BS). Methylation-specific-PCR (MSP) was used to evaluate methylation status of MLH1. The expression of MLH1 mRNA was detected in 8 CRC cell lines as well as normal colonic fibroblast cells CCD-33Co. At protein levels, MLH1 was lost in one CRC cell line HCT-116 and normal cells CCD-33Co. No methylation was found in the promoter and exon 2 of MLH1 in CRC cell lines. MLH1 was expressed in 8 lung cancer cell lines at both mRNA and protein levels. Compared to cancer cells, normal bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) had lower expression of MLH1 protein. In primary CRC, 54.5% of cases exhibited positive staining, while 47.8% of lung tumors were positive for MLH1 protein. MSP analysis showed that 58 out of 92 (63.0%) CRC and 41 out of 73 (56.2%) lung cancer exhibited MLH1 methylation. In CRC, the MLH1 methylation was significantly associated with tumor invasion in veins (P=0.012). However, no significant links were found between MLH1 expression and promoter methylation in both tumor entities. MLH1 methylation is a frequent molecular event in CRC and lung cancer patients. In CRC, methylation of MLH1 could be linked to vascular invasiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Intermediate Megavoltage Photon Beams for Improved Lung Cancer Treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of intermediate megavoltage (3-MV photon beams on SBRT lung cancer treatments. To start with, a 3-MV virtual beam was commissioned on a commercial treatment planning system based on Monte Carlo simulations. Three optimized plans (6-MV, 3-MV and dual energy of 3- and 6-MV were generated for 31 lung cancer patients with identical beam configuration and optimization constraints for each patient. Dosimetric metrics were evaluated and compared among the three plans. Overall, planned dose conformity was comparable among three plans for all 31 patients. For 21 thin patients with average short effective path length (< 10 cm, the 3-MV plans showed better target coverage and homogeneity with dose spillage index R50% = 4.68±0.83 and homogeneity index = 1.26±0.06, as compared to 4.95±1.01 and 1.31±0.08 in the 6-MV plans (p < 0.001. Correspondingly, the average/maximum reductions of lung volumes receiving 20 Gy (V20Gy, 5 Gy (V5Gy, and mean lung dose (MLD were 7%/20%, 9%/30% and 5%/10%, respectively in the 3-MV plans (p < 0.05. The doses to 5% volumes of the cord, esophagus, trachea and heart were reduced by 9.0%, 10.6%, 11.4% and 7.4%, respectively (p < 0.05. For 10 thick patients, dual energy plans can bring dosimetric benefits with comparable target coverage, integral dose and reduced dose to the critical structures, as compared to the 6-MV plans. In conclusion, our study indicated that 3-MV photon beams have potential dosimetric benefits in treating lung tumors in terms of improved tumor coverage and reduced doses to the adjacent critical structures, in comparison to 6-MV photon beams. Intermediate megavoltage photon beams (< 6-MV may be considered and added into current treatment approaches to reduce the adjacent normal tissue doses while maintaining sufficient tumor dose coverage in lung cancer radiotherapy.

  1. [Occupational factors influencing lung cancer in women in epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiatkowska, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer in men, although the alarming statistics of recent years indicate that this pathology affects also more likely a group of women and in recent years has become the leading cause of cancer deaths among Polish women. This article presents the main issues relating to occupational determinants of lung cancer in women. The results of the analysis show that the number of neoplastic diseases, including the lung cancer, recognized as an occupational disease in Poland is low, particularly among women. A major factor hampering the certification of occupational etiology of lung cancer is a long latency period, no differences in terms of the clinical and morphological characteristics from lung cancer occurring in the general population, and relatively small number of identified occupational carcinogens. Analysis of the available literature on the adverse workplace conditions shows that only a few epidemiological studies focus on the problem of job-related risk among women, and only some of them provide detailed results for lung cancer. Moreover, the abundant literature on the subject concerning the male workers might not be fully relevant because of possible differences in hormonal, genetic and other gender-related biological differences that may significantly modify the risk of cancer in women. These aspects cause that the true contribution of occupational factors to the risk of lung cancer, particularly in women, is underestimated.

  2. Lung cancer risk and exposure from incorporated plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshurnikova, N.A.; Bolotnikova, M.G.; Il'in, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    Coefficients of risk of death from lung cancer caused by incorporated plutonium for the personnel of the Mayak plant, working there since its foundation are obtained. Values of mortality from lung cancer are analysed as well as individual incorporated dose per lung assessed from regular measurement of plutonium in the urine and radiometry of autopsy material and from the results of individual photocontrol of external exposure. It was shown that the risk of death from lung cancer caused by external gamma-irradiation is statistically unreliable, whereas that from disease caused by incorporated plutonium is dose-dependent. The risk of death from lung cancer is two times higher for the personnel with increased level of plutonium carriership as against the level stated in ICRP Publication 60. The conclusion is made that hygienic standards for lung exposure should be specified. 11 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  3. Impact of HIV Infection on Medicare Beneficiaries with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. Y.; Moore, P. C.; Lensing, S. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared to that among the general population. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and its impact on outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older and were diagnosed with non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1997 and 2008. Prevalence of HIV was estimated using the Poisson point estimate and its 95% confidence interval. Relative risks for potential risk factors were estimated using the log-binomial model. A total of 111,219 Medicare beneficiaries met the study criteria. The prevalence of HIV was 156.4 per 100,000 (95% CI: 140.8 to 173.8) and has increased with time. Stage at NSCLC diagnosis did not vary by HIV status. Mortality rates due to all causes were 44%, 76%, and 88% for patients with stage I/II, III, and IV NSCLC, respectively. Across stages of disease, there was no difference between those who were HIV-infected and those who were not with respect to overall mortality. HIV patients, however, were more likely to die of causes other than lung cancer than their immunocompetent counterparts.

  4. Alcohol intake and the risk of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M; Becker, U

    1999-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, but the antioxidants in wine may, in theory, provide protection. This association was studied in 28,160 men and women subjects from three prospective studies conducted in 1964-1992 in Copenhagen, Denmark. After...... adjustment for age, smoking, and education, a low to moderate alcohol intake (1-20 drinks per week) was not associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Men who consumed 21-41 and more than 41 drinks per week had relative risks of 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.74) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.......06-2.33), respectively. The risk of lung cancer differed according to the type of alcohol consumed: After abstainers were excluded, drinkers of 1-13 and more than 13 glasses of wine per week had relative risks of 0.78 (95% CI 0.63-0.97) and 0.44 (95% CI 0.22-0.86), respectively, as compared with nondrinkers of wine (p...

  5. Dual modality CT/PET imaging in lung cancer staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, Gabriel A.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic capability of PET-HCT image fusion and helical computed tomography (HCT) for nodal and distant metastases detection in patients with lung cancer. Material and methods: Between February, 2003 and March, 2004 sixty-six consecutive lung cancer patients (45 men and 21 women, mean ages: 63 years old, range: 38 to 96 years old) who underwent HCT and PET-HCT fusion imaging were evaluated retrospectively. All patients had histological confirmation of lung cancer and a definitive diagnosis established on the basis of pathology results and/or clinical follow-up. Results: For global nodal staging (hilar and mediastinal) HCT showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of 72%, 47%, 62% and 58% respectively, versus 94%, 77%, 83% and 92% corresponding to PET-HCT examination. For assessment of advanced nodal stage (N3) PET-HCT showed values of 92%, 100%, 100% and 98% respectively. For detection of distant metastasis, HCT alone had values of 67%, 93%, 84% and 83% respectively versus 100%, 98%, 96% and 100% for the PET-HCT fusion imaging. In 20 (30%) patients under-staged or over-staged on the basis of HCT results, PET-HCT allowed accurate staging. Conclusions: PET-HCT fusion imaging was more effective than HCT alone for nodal and distant metastasis detection and oncology staging. (author)

  6. Bayesian networks for clinical decision support in lung cancer care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Berkan Sesen

    Full Text Available Survival prediction and treatment selection in lung cancer care are characterised by high levels of uncertainty. Bayesian Networks (BNs, which naturally reason with uncertain domain knowledge, can be applied to aid lung cancer experts by providing personalised survival estimates and treatment selection recommendations. Based on the English Lung Cancer Database (LUCADA, we evaluate the feasibility of BNs for these two tasks, while comparing the performances of various causal discovery approaches to uncover the most feasible network structure from expert knowledge and data. We show first that the BN structure elicited from clinicians achieves a disappointing area under the ROC curve of 0.75 (± 0.03, whereas a structure learned by the CAMML hybrid causal discovery algorithm, which adheres with the temporal restrictions, achieves 0.81 (± 0.03. Second, our causal intervention results reveal that BN treatment recommendations, based on prescribing the treatment plan that maximises survival, can only predict the recorded treatment plan 29% of the time. However, this percentage rises to 76% when partial matches are included.

  7. Adsorption Properties of Typical Lung Cancer Breath Gases on Ni-SWCNTs through Density Functional Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Wan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of useful information is contained in the human breath gases, which makes it an effective way to diagnose diseases by detecting the typical breath gases. This work investigated the adsorption of typical lung cancer breath gases: benzene, styrene, isoprene, and 1-hexene onto the surface of intrinsic and Ni-doped single wall carbon nanotubes through density functional theory. Calculation results show that the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorb on intrinsic single wall carbon nanotubes surface by weak physisorption. Besides, the density of states changes little before and after typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption. Compared with single wall carbon nanotubes adsorption, single Ni atom doping significantly improves its adsorption properties to typical lung cancer breath gases by decreasing adsorption distance and increasing adsorption energy and charge transfer. The density of states presents different degrees of variation during the typical lung cancer breath gases adsorption, resulting in the specific change of conductivity of gas sensing material. Based on the different adsorption properties of Ni-SWCNTs to typical lung cancer breath gases, it provides an effective way to build a portable noninvasive portable device used to evaluate and diagnose lung cancer at early stage in time.

  8. Silicosis and lung cancer in U.S. metal miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amandus, H.; Costello, J.

    1991-01-01

    The association between silicosis and lung cancer mortality was estimated in 9,912 (369 silicotics and 9,543 nonsilicotics) white male metal miners. These miners were examined by the U.S. Public Health Service during 1959-1961 and were followed through 1975. Miners were excluded from this study if they were employed in a mine during 1959-1961 that used diesel equipment underground. The ores that were mined consisted of copper, lead-zinc, iron, mercury, lead silver, gold and gold-silver, tungsten, and molybdenum. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR, U.S. white male rates) for lung cancer was 1.73 (95% CI: .94-2.90) in silicotics and 1.18 (95% CI: .98-1.42) in nonsilicotics. Additionally, SMRs were higher in silicotics than in nonsilicotics, even in most subgroups stratified by cigarette smoking habit, type of ore mined, years of service in an underground job, radon exposure group, or year of hire. When lung cancer mortality between silicotics and nonsilicotics was compared, the age-adjusted rate ratio (95% CI) was 1.56 (.91-2.68), and the age- and smoking-adjusted rate ratio was 1.96 (.98-3.67). Corresponding figures for miners who were employed in mines with low levels of radon exposure were 1.90 (.98-3.67) and 2.59 (1.44-4.68), respectively. These findings indicate that lung cancer mortality risk was increased in silicotics, and this probably did not result from chance or bias. However, confounding from radon exposure could not be ruled out. The findings indicate that further follow-up of this cohort is needed

  9. Coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis in Czechoslovak uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, S.; Urbanova, S.

    1988-01-01

    27 patients with established coincidence of lung cancer and silicosis from a group of 1607 cases of lung cancer from radioactive compounds, and 166 cases of pneumoconiosis were reported by the Occupational Diseases Ward of the works Institute of National Health in Uranium Industry in the 1962 to 1986 years. Lung cancer was found in 16% of reported silicosis patients, in 81% it was simple silicosis, in 50% of cases in was an epidermoid type of cancer. In two cases the malignant process originated in the silicotic node, in one case from a tuberculoma. Lung cancer occurred most frequently in the right lower lung region. The mean age of the silicosis group was 48.6 years and 56.0 years for the lung cancer group. No difference was thus seen from the mean age of patients with lung cancer from radioactive compounds diagnosed in the years 1976 to 1980 but it was significantly lower that the reported average age of patients with coincidence of lung cancer and pneumoconiosis in the population not exposed to ionizing radiation. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  10. Total or partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer invading the spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichi Oka

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: In our experience, Lung cancer surgery combined with vertebrectomy is highly aggressive surgery associated with high morbidity. But, this procedure is a promising treatment option for selected patients, for example N0M0 disease with lung cancer invading the spine.

  11. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  12. Do patients with lung cancer benefit from physical exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas Holst; Vinther, Anders; Poulsen, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer are often burdened by dyspnoea, fatigue, decreased physical ability and loss of weight. Earlier studies of physical exercise of patients with COPD have shown promising results. The aim of this study was to investigate, if a well-documented COPD rehabilitation protocol can...... improve physical fitness and quality of life (QoL) in patients with lung cancer....

  13. Socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in 16 European populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, J. H. A.; Schaap, M. M.; Kunst, A. E.; Esnaola, S.; Borrell, C.; Cox, B.; Leinsalu, M.; Stirbu, I.; Kalediene, R.; Deboosere, P.; Mackenbach, J. P.; van Oyen, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to describe socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in Europe and to get further insight into socioeconomic inequalities in lung cancer mortality in different European populations by relating these to socioeconomic inequalities in overall mortality and smoking

  14. Smoking habits in lung cancer patients: a hospital based case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective, hospital based case-control study was designed to investigate the cigarette smoking history, the relationship between cigarette smoking and the risk of lung cancer in KHMC-Jordan. Six hundred cases with lung cancer (576 males, 24 females) and 600 controls were included in the study. The majority of ...

  15. Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: Primary Lung Cancer Mimicking Benign Entities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoeckx, Annemie; Dendooven, Amélie; Carp, Laurens; Desbuquoit, Damien; Spinhoven, Maarten J; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E; van Meerbeeck, Jan P; Parizel, Paul M

    2017-10-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide. On imaging, it typically presents as mass or nodule. Recognition of these typical cases is often straightforward, whereas diagnosis of uncommon manifestations of primary lung cancer is far more challenging. Lung cancer can mimic a variety of benign entities, including pneumonia, lung abscess, postinfectious scarring, atelectasis, a mediastinal mass, emphysema and granulomatous diseases. Correlation with previous history, clinical and biochemical parameters is necessary in the assessment of these cases, but often aspecific and inconclusive. Whereas 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) Positron Emission Tomography is the cornerstone in staging of lung cancer, its role in diagnosis of these uncommon manifestations is less straightforward since benign entities can present with increased 18 F-FDG-uptake and, on the other hand, a number of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations do not exhibit increased uptake. Chest Computed Tomography (CT) is the imaging modality of choice for both lesion detection and characterization. In this pictorial review we present the wide imaging spectrum of CT-findings as well as radiologic-pathologic correlation of these uncommon lung cancer manifestations. Knowledge of the many faces of lung cancer is crucial for early diagnosis and subsequent treatment. A multidisciplinary approach in these cases is mandatory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colella, Sara; Vilmann, Peter; Konge, Lars

    2014-01-01

    a good diagnostic accuracy in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. In the future, these techniques in combination with positron emission tomography/computed tomographic may replace surgical staging in patients with suspected and proven lung cancer, but until then surgical staging remains the gold...... standard for adequate preoperative evaluation....

  17. On Academician Behounek's paper ''Lung cancer induced by ionizing radiation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    The significance and scientific contribution are discussed of the paper ''Lung Cancer Induced by Ionizing Radiation'' submitted by Academician Frantisek Behounek to the nation-wide workshop of the Czechoslovak Society of Pneumology and Oncology in Prague, October 3 and 4, 1952 and published in the Proceedings in 1953. The paper discussed the problem which still remains topical, ie., lung exposure to radon daughters, which Academician Behounek considered to be the true cause of lung cancer in Jachymov miners. (B.S.)

  18. Lung cancer trends: smoking, obesity, and sex assessed in the Staten Island University’s lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta S

    2014-07-01

    males (30.26 versus females (25.25 in the never-smoker category (P=0.004. Current smokers, compared to others, had a lower BMI in males (26.4 versus 28.3; P=0.0001 and females (25.5 versus 26.9; P=0.013 but the mean BMI for all groups was in the overweight/obese range.Conclusion: Our population of lung cancer patients although demographically distinct, reflects a similar proportion of afflicted nonsmokers to the national population. Smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, but there is also a possible direct correlation with BMI that would support obesity as a potential risk factor for lung cancer.Keywords: lung, cancer, smoking, obesity, BMI, Staten Island

  19. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as tumor marker in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mie Grunnet; Sorensen, J B

    2012-01-01

    The use of CEA as a prognostic and predictive marker in patients with lung cancer is widely debated. The aim of this review was to evaluate the results from studies made on this subject. Using the search words "CEA", "tumor markers in lung cancer", "prognostic significance", "diagnostic...... significance" and "predictive significance", a search was carried out on PubMed. Exclusion criteria was articles never published in English, articles before 1981 and articles evaluating tumor markers in lung cancer not involving CEA. Initially 217 articles were found, and 34 were left after selecting those...... relevant for the present study. Four of these included both Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) and Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) patients, and 31 dealt solely with NSCLC patients. Regarding SCLC no studies showed that serum level of CEA was a prognostic marker for overall survival (OS). The use of CEA...

  20. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  1. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A systematic review of the impact of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chambers Suzanne K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study systematically reviewed the evidence on the influence of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer patterns of care; patients’ psychosocial and quality of life (QOL outcomes; and how this may link to public health programs. Methods Medline, EMBASE, ProQuest, CINAHL, PsycINFO databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: included lung cancer patients and/or partners or caregivers and/or health professionals (either at least 80% of participants had lung cancer or were partners or caregivers of lung cancer patients, or there was a lung cancer specific sub-group focus or analysis, assessed stigma or nihilism with respect to lung cancer and published in English between 1st January 1999 and 31st January 2011. Trial quality and levels of evidence were assessed. Results Eighteen articles describing 15 studies met inclusion criteria. The seven qualitative studies were high quality with regard to data collection, analysis and reporting; however most lacked a clear theoretical framework; did not address interviewer bias; or provide a rationale for sample size. The eight quantitative studies were generally of low quality with highly selected samples, non-comparable groups and low participation rates and employed divergent theoretical and measurement approaches. Stigma about lung cancer was reported by patients and health professionals and was related to poorer QOL and higher psychological distress in patients. Clear empirical explorations of nihilism were not evident. There is qualitative evidence that from the patients’ perspectives public health programs contribute to stigma about lung cancer and this was supported by published commentary. Conclusions Health-related stigma presents as a part of the lung cancer experience however there are clear limitations in the research to date. Future longitudinal and multi-level research is needed and this should be more clearly linked to relevant theory.

  3. A systematic review of the impact of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Suzanne K; Dunn, Jeffrey; Occhipinti, Stefano; Hughes, Suzanne; Baade, Peter; Sinclair, Sue; Aitken, Joanne; Youl, Pip; O'Connell, Dianne L

    2012-05-20

    This study systematically reviewed the evidence on the influence of stigma and nihilism on lung cancer patterns of care; patients' psychosocial and quality of life (QOL) outcomes; and how this may link to public health programs. Medline, EMBASE, ProQuest, CINAHL, PsycINFO databases were searched. Inclusion criteria were: included lung cancer patients and/or partners or caregivers and/or health professionals (either at least 80% of participants had lung cancer or were partners or caregivers of lung cancer patients, or there was a lung cancer specific sub-group focus or analysis), assessed stigma or nihilism with respect to lung cancer and published in English between 1st January 1999 and 31st January 2011. Trial quality and levels of evidence were assessed. Eighteen articles describing 15 studies met inclusion criteria. The seven qualitative studies were high quality with regard to data collection, analysis and reporting; however most lacked a clear theoretical framework; did not address interviewer bias; or provide a rationale for sample size. The eight quantitative studies were generally of low quality with highly selected samples, non-comparable groups and low participation rates and employed divergent theoretical and measurement approaches. Stigma about lung cancer was reported by patients and health professionals and was related to poorer QOL and higher psychological distress in patients. Clear empirical explorations of nihilism were not evident. There is qualitative evidence that from the patients' perspectives public health programs contribute to stigma about lung cancer and this was supported by published commentary. Health-related stigma presents as a part of the lung cancer experience however there are clear limitations in the research to date. Future longitudinal and multi-level research is needed and this should be more clearly linked to relevant theory.

  4. Time to diagnosis and time to therapy in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) compared to patients with lung cancer in Denmark 2007 to 2011. A quality assurance analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Chr. G.; Laursen, Christian B.; Olsen, Karen Ege

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark patients with pleural diseases are usually first seen by departments taking care of patients with suspected lung cancer. When "diagnostic packages" was published in 2008 by the National Board of Health a 28 days maximal time to diagnosis and a 42 days maximal time to treatment were sta...

  5. Emerging roles of RAC1 in treating lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T; Mao, X; Yin, J; Li, X; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, Q; Zhou, H; Liu, Z

    2017-04-01

    The Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1), a member of the Rho family of small guanosine triphosphatases, is critical for many cellular activities, such as phagocytosis, adhesion, migration, motility, cell proliferation, and axonal growth. In addition, RAC1 plays an important role in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and migration, and it has been reported to be related to most cancers, such as breast cancer, gastric cancer, testicular germ cell cancer, and lung cancer. Recently, the therapeutic target of RAC1 in cancer has been investigated. In addition, some investigations have shown that inhibition of RAC1 can reverse drug-resistance in non-small cell lung cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the role of RAC1 in lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms and discuss its value in clinical therapy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Differential microRNAs expression in serum of patients with lung cancer, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Fattah, Amal A; Sadik, Nermin Abdel Hamid; Shaker, Olfat Gamil; Aboulftouh, Mariam Lotfy

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play critical regulatory roles in the physiological and pathological processes. The high stability of miRNAs in human serum represents attractive novel diagnostic biomarkers of clinical conditions. Several studies have shown that aberrant expression of miRNAs in human cancer including lung cancer, but little is known about their effects on some infectious lung diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and pneumonia. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression pattern in serum of Egyptian patients with lung cancer, TB, and pneumonia compared with matched healthy controls. Using microarray-based expression profiling followed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation, we compared the levels of a series of circulating miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-182, and miR-197) in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 65), pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 29), pneumonia (n = 29), and transudate (n = 16) compared with matched healthy controls (n = 37). MiRNA SNORD68 was the housekeeping endogenous control. We found that the serum levels of miR-21, miR-155, and miR-197 were significantly elevated in the patients with lung cancer and pneumonia whereas miR-182 and miR-197 levels were increased only in patients with lung cancer and TB, respectively, compared with controls. Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that miR-182, miR-155, and miR-197 have superior diagnostic potential in discriminating patients with lung cancer, pneumonia, and TB, respectively, from controls. Our results conclude that the differential expression of the four studied miRNAs can be potential non-invasive biomarkers for patients with lung cancer, TB and pneumonia.

  7. Relationship between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of lung cancer and lymph node metastasis on FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Atsushi; Kato, Satoshi; Okuwaki, Hideto; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Araki, Tsutomu; Sato, Yoko; Saito, Akitoshi; Matsumoto, Keiko

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between standardized uptake value (SUV)max of primary lung cancers on fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and lymph node metastasis. The subjects were a total of consecutive 66 patients with lung cancer who were examined by FDG-PET and subsequently underwent surgery between October 2004 and January 2008. There were 41 males and 25 females, ranging in age from 45 to 83 years with an average of 68 years. The pathological subtypes of the lung cancers consisted of 49 adenocarcinomas, 11 squamous cell carcinomas, 2 adenosquamous carcinomas, 1 large cell carcinoma, 1 small cell carcinoma, 1 pleomorphic carcinoma and 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma. We statistically compared the mean SUVmax of lung cancer between the groups with and without lymph node metastasis, the frequency of lymph node metastasis between higher and lower SUVmax of lung cancer groups that were classified by using the median SUVmax of lung cancer, and evaluated the relationship between the SUVmax of lung cancer and frequency of lymph node metastases, and correlations between the SUVmax of lung cancer and number of the metastatic lymph nodes and pathological n stages. The difference in the average of the SUVmax of lung cancer between the cases with and without lymph node metastases was statistically significant (p=0.00513). Lymph node metastasis was more frequently seen in the higher SUVmax of lung cancer group (17/33, 52%) than in the lower SUVmax of lung cancer group (7/33, 21%) with a statistically significant difference. There was no lymph node metastasis in lung cancers with an SUVmax of lung cancer less than 2.5, and lung cancers with an SUVmax of lung cancer more than 12 had a 70% frequency of lymph node metastasis. There were moderate correlations between SUVmax of lung cancer, and the number of the metastatic lymph nodes (γ=0.404, p=0.001) and pathological n stage (γ=0.411, p=0.001). The likelihood of lymph node

  8. Prevalence of lung abnormalities in 55 patients with esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan, Tiago Alves de Brito; Cordeiro, Jose Antonio; Franca, Fabricio Correa de; Muniz, Marcos Pontes; Borim, Aldenis Albenese; Cury, Patricia Maluf

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to identify lung abnormalities in patients with esophageal cancer, to compare the obtained data and to demonstrate its relationship with smoking. This was a series of cases type of cross-sectional study. We studied 55 patients with esophageal carcinoma diagnosed between 1998 and 2001 at Hospital de Base de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil. Chest plain films and computed tomography scans were analyzed. The frequency of the tumors and other lung abnormalities in two groups of patients were compared: smokers and non-smokers. The results showed that forty-six (83%) patients had spinous cell carcinoma, seven (13%) adenocarcinomas, one (2%) carcinoma of small cells and one (2%) non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Forty-eight (87%) patients were smokers and seven (13%) were non-smokers. In the smokers group, 89% had spinous cell carcinoma, 9% adenocarcinoma and 2% small cells carcinoma. In the non-smokers group, 57% had adenocarcinoma, 28% spinous cell carcinoma and 15% non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Metastases were identified in four smokers and in two non-smokers. The prevalence of the lung abnormalities (interstitial infiltration, emphysema and pneumonia) was higher in the smokers group (73%) than in the non-smokers group (27%) (p = 0.03). We concluded that this fact reinforces the importance of evaluation of the lungs in patients with esophageal neoplasms. (author)

  9. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV. However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA still remains unclear. In addition, it remains unclear whether or not chemotherapy-induced changes in fibrinogen level relate to the prognosis. The aims of this study were to 1 further explore the relationship between the plasma fibrinogen concentration and the stage and metastases of lung cancer 2 evaluate the prognostic significance of the basal plasma fibrinogen level in patients with lung cancer 3 explore the prognostic value of the change in fibrinogen levels between pre and post-chemotherapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, the data from 370 patients with lung cancer were enrolled into this study. The plasma fibrinogen levels were compared with the clinical and prognostic significance of lung cancer. The association between the plasma fibrinogen level and clinical-prognostic characteristics were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 software. Results: 1 The median pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels were 4.20g/L. Pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen levels correlated significantly with gender (p = 0.013. A higher plasma fibrinogen concentration was associated with squamous cell carcinoma versus adenocarcinoma (4.83±1.50 g/L versus 4.15±1.30 g/L; P<0.001, there was a significant association between plasma fibrinogen level and metastases of lung cancer, pointing a higher plasma fibrinogen level in lymph nodes or distant organ metastases (p < 0.001. 2 Patients with low plasma fibrinogen concentration demonstrates higher overall survival compared with those with high plasma fibrinogen

  10. Treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer and limited-disease small-cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Sharouni, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns the treatment of stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and limited disease small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). We described a systematic review on the clinical results of radiotherapy, combined or not with chemotherapy, for inoperable NSCLC stage III with the aim to define the

  11. Lung cancer radiosensitization by CMNa in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xia; Ouyang Xienong; Ji Hongbing; Chen Zhonghua; Yang Rujun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To probe into the radiosensitization effect of CMNa on lung tumor cell lines after γ-irradiation combined with γ-knife to treat patients suffering from lung cancer. Methods: 1. Cells of small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H446 and non-small cell lung cancer cell line NCI-H596 irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays combined with or without CMNa were counted using trypan blue exclusion methods, and cell survival rate curves were depicted. 2. Patients suffering from lung cancer at different clinical stages were treated using γ-knife combined with or without CMNa, and the curative effect was evaluated 6 weeks after one cycle of treatment. Results: CMNa could significantly increase the sensitivity of lung cancer cell lines to γ-irradiation. Curative effect increased significantly by γ-knife treatment combined with CMNa i. e., the CR+PR rates for these two groups were 47.22% and 37.67% separately (P 0.05). Conclusion: CMNa could significantly increase the radiation sensitivity of lung cancer cell line cells in vitro and tumors in vivo, therefore, it could be used as a radiosensitization agent in clinical treatment of lung cancer. (authors)

  12. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampitsakos, Theodoros; Tzilas, Vasilios; Tringidou, Rodoula; Steiropoulos, Paschalis; Aidinis, Vasilis; Papiris, Spyros A; Bouros, Demosthenes; Tzouvelekis, Argyris

    2017-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis. Both disease entities present with major similarities in terms of pathogenetic pathways, as well as potential causative factors, such as smoking and viral infections. Besides disease pathogenesis, anti-cancer agents, including nintedanib, have been successfully applied in the treatment of patients with IPF while an oncologic approach with a cocktail of several pleiotropic anti-fibrotic agents is currently in the therapeutic pipeline of IPF. Nevertheless, epidemiologic association between IPF and lung cancer does not prove causality. Currently there is significant lack of knowledge supporting a direct association between lung fibrosis and cancer reflecting to disappointing therapeutic algorithms. An optimal therapeutic strategy for patients with both IPF and lung cancer represents an amenable need. This review article synthesizes the current state of knowledge regarding pathogenetic commonalities between IPF and lung cancer and focuses on clinical and therapeutic data that involve both disease entities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Squamous cell lung cancer in a male with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowroński, Marcin; Iwanik, Katarzyna; Halicka, Anna; Barinow-Wojewódzki, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are highly prevalent and representing major public health issues. They share common risk factors and clinical manifestations. It is also suggested that TB predicts raised lung cancer risk likely related to chronic inflammation in the lungs. However, it does not seem to influence the clinical course of lung cancer provided that it is properly treated. We present a case report of a 57-year old male with concurrent TB and lung cancer. He was diagnosed with positive sputum smear for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and subsequent culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Besides, his comorbid conditions were chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Later while on anti-tuberculous treatment (ATT) squamous cell lung cancer (SCC) was confirmed with computed tomography (CT) guided biopsy. Due to poor general condition the patient was not fit for either surgery or radical chemo- and radiotherapy. He was transferred to hospice for palliative therapy. We want to emphasize that both TB and lung cancer should be actively sought for in patients with either disorder. In addition, there is no doubt that these patients with lung cancer and with good response to TB treatment should be promptly considered for appropriate anticancer therapy.

  15. TP53 Mutations in Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Mogi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is frequently mutated in human cancers. Abnormality of the TP53 gene is one of the most significant events in lung cancers and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of lung epithelial cells. Human lung cancers are classified into two major types, small cell lung cancer (SCLC and nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC. The latter accounts for approximately 80% of all primary lung cancers, and the incidence of NSCLC is increasing yearly. Most clinical studies suggest that NSCLC with TP53 alterations carries a worse prognosis and may be relatively more resistant to chemotherapy and radiation. A deep understanding of the role of TP53 in lung carcinogenesis may lead to a more reasonably targeted clinical approach, which should be exploited to enhance the survival rates of patients with lung cancer. This paper will focus on the role of TP53 in the molecular pathogenesis, epidemiology, and therapeutic strategies of TP53 mutation in NSCLC.

  16. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  17. Autofluorescence Imaging and Spectroscopy of Human Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyan Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers, with high mortality rate worldwide. Autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy is a non-invasive, label-free, real-time technique for cancer detection. In this study, lung tissue sections excised from patients were detected by laser scan confocal microscopy and spectroscopy. The autofluorescence images demonstrated the cellular morphology and tissue structure, as well as the pathology of stained images. Based on the spectra study, it was found that the majority of the patients showed discriminating fluorescence in tumor tissues from normal tissues. Therefore, autofluorescence imaging and spectroscopy may be a potential method for aiding the diagnosis of lung cancer.

  18. The association between combined non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YW

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yeon Wook Kim,1 Kwang-Nam Jin,2 Eun Young Heo,3 Sung Soo Park,3 Hee Soon Chung,3 Deog Kyeom Kim31Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of KoreaBackground: Whereas the epidemiological association between lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, is well known, limited studies have examined the association between lung cancer and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, a representative chronic airway inflammatory disease. This study evaluated the association between bronchiectasis and lung cancer in patients with COPD.Methods: A matched case–control study was conducted in a referral hospital in South Korea. Among COPD patients with moderate to very severe airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity <0.7 and forced expiratory volume in one second ≤70% [% predicted] who underwent chest computed tomography (CT between January 1, 2010 and May 30, 2013, patients with lung cancer and controls matched for age, sex, and smoking history were selected. The risk of lung cancer was assessed according to the presence of underlying bronchiectasis confirmed by chest CT.Results: The study enrolled 99 cases and 198 controls. Combined bronchiectasis on chest CT was inversely associated with the risk of lung cancer compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] 0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.52, P<0.001. Significant associations were found in

  19. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Navile Murali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA, Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods: In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46% were positive. Results: Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion: Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries.

  20. Outcomes in Lung Cancer: 9-Year Experience From a Tertiary Cancer Center in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Aditya Navile; Ganesan, Trivadi S.; Rajendranath, Rejiv; Ganesan, Prasanth; Selvaluxmy, Ganesarajah; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Sundersingh, Shirley; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Sagar, Tenali Gnana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer mortality in the world. There are limited studies on survival outcomes of lung cancer in developing countries such as India. This study analyzed the outcomes of patients with lung cancer who underwent treatment at Cancer Institute (WIA), Chennai, India, between 2006 and 2015 to determine survival outcomes and identify prognostic factors. Patients and Methods In all, 678 patients with lung cancer underwent treatment. Median age was 58 years, and 91% of patients had non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Testing for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation was performed in 132 of 347 patients and 61 (46%) were positive. Results Median progression-free survival was 6.9 months and overall survival (OS) was 7.6 months for patients with NSCLC. Median progression-free survival was 6 months and OS was 7.2 months for patients with small-cell lung cancer. On multivariable analysis, the factors found to be significantly associated with inferior OS in NSCLC included nonadenocarcinoma histology, performance status more than 2, and stage. In small-cell lung cancer, younger age and earlier stage at presentation showed significantly better survival. Conclusion Our study highlights the challenges faced in treating lung cancer in India. Although median survival in advanced-stage lung cancer is still poor, strategies such as personalized medicine and use of second-line and maintenance chemotherapy may significantly improve the survival in patients with advanced-stage lung cancer in developing countries. PMID:29094084

  1. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer

  2. Drug development for breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancers from 1979 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Nancy A; Khan, Omar F; Imam, Hasiba; Tang, Patricia A; Monzon, Jose; Li, Haocheng; Sun, Gavin; Ezeife, Doreen; Parimi, Sunil; Dowden, Scot; Tam, Vincent C

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the drug development pathway is critical for streamlining the development of effective cancer treatments. The objective of the current study was to delineate the drug development timeline and attrition rate of different drug classes for common cancer disease sites. Drugs entering clinical trials for breast, colorectal, and non-small cell lung cancer were identified using a pharmaceutical business intelligence database. Data regarding drug characteristics, clinical trials, and approval dates were obtained from the database, clinical trial registries, PubMed, and regulatory Web sites. A total of 411 drugs met the inclusion criteria for breast cancer, 246 drugs met the inclusion criteria for colorectal cancer, and 315 drugs met the inclusion criteria for non-small cell lung cancer. Attrition rates were 83.9% for breast cancer, 87.0% for colorectal cancer, and 92.0% for non-small cell lung cancer drugs. In the case of non-small cell lung cancer, there was a trend toward higher attrition rates for targeted monoclonal antibodies compared with other agents. No tumor site-specific differences were noted with regard to cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunomodulatory, or small molecule kinase inhibitor drugs. Drugs classified as "others" in breast cancer had lower attrition rates, primarily due to the higher success of hormonal medications. Mean drug development times were 8.9 years for breast cancer, 6.7 years for colorectal cancer, and 6.6 years for non-small cell lung cancer. Overall oncologic drug attrition rates remain high, and drugs are more likely to fail in later-stage clinical trials. The refinement of early-phase trial design may permit the selection of drugs that are more likely to succeed in the phase 3 setting. Cancer 2017;123:4672-4679. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Measurement of asbestos bodies in lung tissue of autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, Yuka; Kamada, Satoe; Matsumoto, Shoji; Ohnishi, Kazuo; Kitazawa, Riko; Kitazawa, Sohei

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the relation between asbestos-related lung cancer and the concentration of asbestos bodies in lung tissue, we analyzed the concentration in 24 autopsy cases diagnosed with primary lung cancer, with regard to the gender, age, histological type of lung cancer and occupation of each case. The asbestos bodies were measured according to Kohyama's method. Positive cases (more than 5,000 bodies per 1 g of dry lung tissue) were further analyzed for asbestosis and pleural plaques by chest X-ray and chest CT. Two cases exhibited more than 5,000 bodies, five cases between 1,000 and 5,000, and seventeen cases less than 1,000. The occupation of the two positive cases was not informative: one demonstrated neither asbestosis nor pleural plaques, and the other showed only pleural plaques. Although the number of cases of asbestos-related lung cancer is minimal among all lung cancer cases, the number of the former may exceed that of mesothelioma patients. Not only physicians but also radiologists, surgeons and pathologists need to collaborate in the diagnosis of asbestos-related lung cancer. (author)

  4. Impact of low skeletal muscle mass on non-lung cancer mortality after stereotactic body radiotherapy for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Mitsuyoshi, Takamasa; Shintani, Takashi; Iizuka, Yusuke; Mizowaki, Takashi

    2018-05-17

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate impact of pre-treatment skeletal muscle mass (SMM) on overall survival and non-lung cancer mortality after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). One-hundred and eighty-six patients whose abdominal CT before the treatment was available were enrolled into this study. The patients were divided into two groups of SMM according to gender-specific thresholds for unilateral psoas area. Operability was judged by the treating physician or thoracic surgeon after discussion in a multi-disciplinary tumor board. Patients with low SMM tended to be elderly and underweight in body mass index compared with the high SMM. Overall survival in patients with the low SMM tended to be worse than that in the high SMM (41.1% and 55.9% at 5 years, P = 0.115). Cumulative incidence of non-lung cancer death was significantly worse in the low SMM (31.3% at 5 years compared with 9.7% in the high SMM, P = 0.006). Multivariate analysis identified SMM and operability as significant factors for non-lung cancer mortality. Impact of SMM on lung cancer death was not significant. No difference in rate of severe treatment-related toxicity was observed between the SMM groups. Low SMM is a significant risk factor for non-lung cancer death, which might lead to worse overall survival, after SBRT for stage I NSCLC. However, the low SMM does not increase lung cancer death or severe treatment-related toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lung Cancer, Questions to Ask Your Health Professional | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Questions to Ask Your Health Professional Past Issues / ... answer questions about cancer at 1-800-4-CANCER. The NCI Lung Cancer Home Page provides up-to-date information ...

  6. Validation of an elastic registration technique to estimate anatomical lung modification in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Tomotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faggiano, Elena; Cattaneo, Giovanni M; Ciavarro, Cristina; Dell'Oca, Italo; Persano, Diego; Calandrino, Riccardo; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    The study of lung parenchyma anatomical modification is useful to estimate dose discrepancies during the radiation treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) patients. We propose and validate a method, based on free-form deformation and mutual information, to elastically register planning kVCT with daily MVCT images, to estimate lung parenchyma modification during Tomotherapy. We analyzed 15 registrations between the planning kVCT and 3 MVCT images for each of the 5 NSCLC patients. Image registration accuracy was evaluated by visual inspection and, quantitatively, by Correlation Coefficients (CC) and Target Registration Errors (TRE). Finally, a lung volume correspondence analysis was performed to specifically evaluate registration accuracy in lungs. Results showed that elastic registration was always satisfactory, both qualitatively and quantitatively: TRE after elastic registration (average value of 3.6 mm) remained comparable and often smaller than voxel resolution. Lung volume variations were well estimated by elastic registration (average volume and centroid errors of 1.78% and 0.87 mm, respectively). Our results demonstrate that this method is able to estimate lung deformations in thorax MVCT, with an accuracy within 3.6 mm comparable or smaller than the voxel dimension of the kVCT and MVCT images. It could be used to estimate lung parenchyma dose variations in thoracic Tomotherapy

  7. Lung cancer epidemiology and risk factors in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.K.; White, N.W.; Chan-Yeung, M.M. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2004-07-01

    In Industrialized Countries, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer among males and it is growing among females. For both sexes, rates reflect smoking behaviours. The pattern appears to be different in Asia, particularly in China, where lung cancer rates in men reflect high smoking rates but high rates among non-smoking women appear to be related to other factors. The incidence of lung cancer is low in most African countries, but it is increasing. In addition to tobacco smoking, a number of aetiological factors have been identified for lung cancer: indoor exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, cooking oil vapour, coal burning or radon, outdoor air pollution and occupational exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens. Recent studies have shown that dietary factors may be important, with high consumption of vegetables and fruits being protective, while preserved foods and fatty foods are harmful, and certain infections such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, human papillomavirus and Microsporum canis are associated with a high risk of lung cancer. Among non-smokers, the probable role of genetic predisposition in lung cancer by increasing the individual's susceptibility to environmental carcinogens is currently being studied actively. As the single most important cause for lung cancer is tobacco smoke and, with increased sales, a major epidemic is predicted for both Asia and Africa, all health care professionals, government health authorities and national and international health organizations must join in a concerted effort against tobacco. 135 refs.

  8. Cost and effectiveness of lung lobectomy by video-assisted thoracic surgery for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafé, Juan J; Planelles, Beatriz; Asensio, Santos; Cerezal, Jorge; Inda, María-Del-Mar; Lacueva, Javier; Esteban, Maria-Dolores; Hernández, Luis; Martín, Concepción; Baschwitz, Benno; Peiró, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) emerged as a minimally invasive surgery for diseases in the field of thoracic surgery. We herein reviewed our experience on thoracoscopic lobectomy for early lung cancer and evaluated Health System use. A cost-effectiveness study was performed comparing VATS vs. open thoracic surgery (OPEN) for lung cancer patients. Demographic data, tumor localization, dynamic pulmonary function tests [forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), diffusion capacity (DLCO) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)], surgical approach, postoperative details, and complications were recorded and analyzed. One hundred seventeen patients underwent lung resection by VATS (n=42, 36%; age: 63±9 years old, 57% males) or OPEN (n=75, 64%; age: 61±11 years old, 73% males). Pulmonary function tests decreased just after surgery with a parallel increasing tendency during first 12 months. VATS group tended to recover FEV1 and FVC quicker with significantly less clinical and post-surgical complications (31% vs. 53%, P=0.015). Costs including surgery and associated hospital stay, complications and costs in the 12 months after surgery were significantly lower for VATS (P<0.05). The VATS approach surgery allowed earlier recovery at a lower cost than OPEN with a better cost-effectiveness profile.

  9. Lung cancer and angiogenesis imaging using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxia; Zhao Jun; Xu, Lisa X; Sun Jianqi; Gu Xiang; Liu Ping; Xiao Tiqiao

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer is the key to a cure, but a difficult task using conventional x-ray imaging. In the present study, synchrotron radiation in-line phase-contrast imaging was used to study lung cancer. Lewis lung cancer and 4T1 breast tumor metastasis in the lung were imaged, and the differences were clearly shown in comparison to normal lung tissue. The effect of the object-detector distance and the energy level on the phase-contrast difference was investigated and found to be in good agreement with the theory of in-line phase-contrast imaging. Moreover, 3D image reconstruction of lung tumor angiogenesis was obtained for the first time using a contrast agent, demonstrating the feasibility of micro-angiography with synchrotron radiation for imaging tumor angiogenesis deep inside the body.

  10. Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robert M; Stayner, Leslie T; Petersen, Martin R; Finley-Couch, Melissa; Hornung, Richard; Rice, Carol

    2012-05-01

    Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 μg/m(3) Cd.

  11. Time-Series Modeling and Simulation for Comparative Cost-Effective Analysis in Cancer Chemotherapy: An Application to Platinum-Based Regimens for Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisaki, Yugo; Nakamura, Nobuhiko; Yano, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a time-series modeling and simulation (M&S) strategy for probabilistic cost-effective analysis in cancer chemotherapy using a Monte-Carlo method based on data available from the literature. The simulation included the cost for chemotherapy, for pharmaceutical care for adverse events (AEs) and other medical costs. As an application example, we describe the analysis for the comparison of four regimens, cisplatin plus irinotecan, carboplatin plus paclitaxel, cisplatin plus gemcitabine (GP), and cisplatin plus vinorelbine, for advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The factors, drug efficacy explained by overall survival or time to treatment failure, frequency and severity of AEs, utility value of AEs to determine QOL, the drugs' and other medical costs in Japan, were included in the model. The simulation was performed and quality adjusted life years (QALY) and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) were calculated. An index, percentage of superiority (%SUP) which is the rate of the increased cost vs. QALY-gained plots within the area of positive QALY-gained and also below some threshold values of the ICER, was calculated as functions of threshold values of the ICER. An M&S process was developed, and for the simulation example, the GP regimen was the most cost-effective, in case of threshold values of the ICER=$70000/year, the %SUP for the GP are more than 50%. We developed an M&S process for probabilistic cost-effective analysis, this method would be useful for decision-making in choosing a cancer chemotherapy regimen in terms of pharmacoeconomic.

  12. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for oligometastatic lung tumors from colorectal cancer and other primary cancers in comparison with primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Atsuya; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ohashi, Toshio; Aoki, Yousuke; Koike, Naoyoshi; Takeda, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze local control of oligometastatic lung tumors (OLTs) compared with that of primary lung cancer after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Materials and methods: Retrospective record review of patients with OLTs who received SBRT with 50 Gy in 5 fractions. Local control rates (LCRs), toxicities, and factors of prognostic significance were assessed. Results: Twenty-one colorectal OLTs, 23 OLTs from other origins, and 188 primary lung cancers were included. Multivariate analysis revealed only tumor origin was prognostically significant (p < 0.05). The 1-year/2-year LCRs in colorectal OLTs and OLTs from other origins were 80%/72% and 94%/94%, respectively. The LCR in colorectal OLTs was significantly worse than that in OLTs from the other origins and primary lung cancers with pathological and clinical diagnosis (p < 0.05, p < 0.0001 and p < 0.005). Among 44 OLT patients, Grades 2 and 3 radiation pneumonitis were identified in 2 and 1 patients, respectively. No other toxicities of more than Grade 3 occurred. Conclusion: SBRT for OLTs is tolerable. The LCR for OLTs from origins other than colorectal cancer is excellent. However, LCR for colorectal OLTs is worse than that from other origins. Therefore dose escalation should be considered to achieve good local control for colorectal OLTs.

  13. CLINICAL PROFILE OF PRIMARY LUNG CANCER AND ROLE OF BRONCHOSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharate

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cancer is a Latin word meaning "A CRAB". The Greek word for a crab is "KARKINES" and Sanskrit word is "KARKARA ” . (1 Lung cancer is one of the commonest fatal neoplastic disease s in the world . It is at the first place at central and North India and at second place at south India. It is estimated that, every year in India, about 30,000 new lung cancer cases are registered .

  14. Quality of life of lung cancer patients receiving outpatient chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUDA, AYAKO; KOBAYASHI, MIKA; SAKAKIBARA, YUMI; TAMAOKA, MEIYO; FURUIYE, MASASHI; INASE, NAOHIKO; MATSUSHIMA, EISUKE

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of cancer patients receive outpatient chemotherapy as an alternative to inpatient chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether quality of life (QOL) during outpatient chemotherapy was better than QOL prior to hospital discharge, and to explore possible related factors prior to hospital discharge that affected the QOL of lung cancer patients who received outpatient chemotherapy. Lung cancer inpatients who were scheduled for outpatient chemotherapy were as...

  15. Visual assessment of early emphysema and interstitial abnormalities on CT is useful in lung cancer risk analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Mathilde M. W.; Thomsen, Laura H.; Petersen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Screening for lung cancer should be limited to a high-risk-population, and abnormalities in low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening images may be relevant for predicting the risk of lung cancer. Our aims were to compare the occurrence of visually detected emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities in subjects with and without lung cancer in a screening population of smokers. Methods: Low-dose chest CT examinations (baseline and latest possible) of 1990 participants from The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial were independently evaluated by two observers who scored emphysema and interstitial...... abnormalities. Emphysema (lung density) was also measured quantitatively. Results: Emphysema was seen more frequently and its extent was greater among participants with lung cancer on baseline (odds ratio (OR), 1.8, p = 0.017 and p = 0.002) and late examinations (OR 2.6, p

  16. Lung cancer incidence and long-term exposure to air pollution from traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Hvidberg, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown associations between air pollution and risk for lung cancer.Objective: We investigated whether traffic and the concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the residence are associated with risk for lung cancer.Methods: We identified 592 lung cancer cases...... for all addresses for each person. We used Cox models to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) after adjustment for smoking (status, duration, and intensity), environmental tobacco smoke, length of school attendance, occupation, and dietary intake of fruit.Results: For the highest compared with the lowest...... of stronger associations among nonsmokers, among those with a relatively low fruit intake, and among those with a longer school attendance; only length of school attendance modified the effect significantly.Conclusions: This study supports that risk for lung cancer is associated with different markers of air...

  17. Combination of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 with traditional serum tumor markers in lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y W; Zhou, Z G; Wang, M; Dong, J Q; Du, K P; Li, S; Liu, Y L; Lv, P J; Gao, J B

    2016-11-03

    Early detection and treatment is critically important for lung cancer patients. Inflammatory mediators such as IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 participate in lung cancer regulation. CEA, CA125, and ProGRP are commonly used serum tumor markers for lung cancer. In this study, we assessed the sensitivity and specificity of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP when used in combination with IL-6, IL-10, and MCP in lung cancer diagnosis. Serum from three different groups (healthy controls, individuals with high risk for lung cancer, and lung cancer patients) was collected. Electrochemiluminescence was used to detect expressions of CEA, CA125, and ProGRP; ELISA was used to examine serum levels of IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1. Specificity and sensitivity of single as well as combination markers in lung cancer diagnosis were determined. Results indicated that CEA, CA125, ProGRP, and MCP-1 were significantly up-regulated in lung cancer patients as compared to those in controls and high risk individuals. Higher IL-6 and IL-10 levels were observed in both lung cancer patients and high-risk individuals as compared to those in controls. Highest sensitivity (95.2%) in cancer diagnosis was achieved when all six markers were used. This was followed by a combination of IL-6, IL-10, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP (92.6%). The most sensitive (88.6%). Four-marker combination was composed of IL-6, CEA, CA125, and ProGRP. As the combined usage of CEA, CA125, ProGRP, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 significantly improved sensitivity of lung cancer detection; this biomarker arrangement may be beneficial for early diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of lung cancer.

  18. Angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in lungs of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Ales; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND.: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Angiogenesis is crucial process in cancer growth and progression. This prospective study evaluated expression of two central regulatory molecules: angiogenin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in patients with lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS.: Clinical data, blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) from 23 patients with primary lung carcinoma were collected. BAL fluid was taken from part of the lung with malignancy, and from corresponding healthy side of the lung. VEGF and angiogenin concentrations were analysed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dilution of bronchial secretions in the BAL fluid was calculated from urea concentration ratio between serum and BAL fluid. RESULTS.: We found no statistical correlation between angiogenin concentrations in serum and in bronchial secretions from both parts of the lung. VEGF concentrations were greater in bronchial secretions in the affected side of the lung than on healthy side. Both concentrations were greater than serum VEGF concentration. VEGF concentration in serum was in positive correlation with tumour size (p = 0,003) and with metastatic stage of disease (p = 0,041). There was correlation between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from healthy side of the lung and between VEGF and angiogenin concentrations in bronchial secretions from part of the lung with malignancy. CONCLUSION.: Angiogenin and VEGF concentrations in systemic, background and local samples of patients with lung cancer are affected by different mechanisms. Pro-angiogenic activity of lung cancer has an important influence on the levels of angiogenin and VEGF.

  19. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... diagnosis. RESULTS: Survival improved over the period studied. The use of active treatment varied between geographical areas, with inter-quintile ranges of 9%-17% for surgical resection, 4%-13% for radical radiotherapy, and 22%-35% for chemotherapy. At 2 years, there were 188 potentially avoidable deaths...

  20. Geographical variations in the use of cancer treatments are associated with survival of lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Henrik; Coupland, Victoria H; Tataru, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer outcomes in England are inferior to comparable countries. Patient or disease characteristics, healthcare-seeking behaviour, diagnostic pathways, and oncology service provision may contribute. We aimed to quantify associations between geographic variations in treatment...... and survival of patients in England. METHODS: We retrieved detailed cancer registration data to analyse the variation in survival of 176,225 lung cancer patients, diagnosed 2010-2014. We used Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression to investigate survival in the two-year period following...... to statistical adjustments for age, sex, socio-economic status, performance status and co-morbidity. CONCLUSION: The extent of use of different treatment modalities varies between geographical areas in England. These variations are not attributable to measurable patient and tumour characteristics, and more...

  1. [DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF TUMOROID-LIKE ABSCESS AND LUNG CANCER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churylin, R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of work is development and clarification of roentgenology displays of tumoroidea variant of abscess of lungs for differential diagnostics him with the cancer of lungs. Practically in most cases abscess of lungs there is a necessity of leadthrough of differential diagnostics with in a number of nosology forms, including with the cavernous form of peripheral cancer of lungs. The features of flow of roentgenologic picture of tumoroidea variant are resulted, alike symptoms, differ ences and signs which allow to set a correct diagnosis, are resulted, the value of follow-up of roent genologic research and use of computed tomography is underlined.

  2. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Arzu; Unal, Dilek; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karahan, Samet; Aykas, Fatma; Mutlu, Hasan; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

  3. Lung cancer detection with digital chest tomosynthesis: first round results from the SOS observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolaccini, Luca; Viti, Andrea; Tavella, Chiara; Priotto, Roberto; Ghirardo, Donatella; Grosso, Maurizio; Terzi, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Baseline results of the Studio OSservazionale (SOS), observational study, a single-arm observational study of digital chest tomosynthesis for lung cancer detection in an at-risk population demonstrated a detection rate of lung cancer comparable to that of studies that used low dose CT scan (LDCT). We present the results of the first round. Totally 1,703 out of 1,843 (92%) subjects who had a baseline digital chest tomosynthesis underwent a first round reevaluation after 1 year. At first round chest digital tomosynthesis, 13 (0.7%) subjects had an indeterminate nodule larger than 5 mm and underwent low-dose CT scan for nodule confirmation. PET/CT study was obtained in 10 (0.5%) subjects and 2 subjects had a low-dose CT follow up. Surgery, either video-assisted thoracoscopic or open surgery for indeterminate pulmonary nodules was performed in 10 (0.2%) subjects. A lung cancer was diagnosed and resected in five patients. The lung cancer detection rate at first round was 0.3% (5/1,703). The detection rate of lung cancer at first round for tomosynthesis is comparable to rates reported for CT. In addition, results of first round digital chest tomosynthesis confirm chest tomosynthesis as a possible first-line lung cancer-screening tool.

  4. Enhanced Heme Function and Mitochondrial Respiration Promote the Progression of Lung Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Maksudul; Shah, Ajit; Cao, Thai M.; Sullivan, Laura A.; Brekken, Rolf; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality, and about 85% of the cases are non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, recent advance in cancer research suggests that altering cancer cell bioenergetics can provide an effective way to target such advanced cancer cells that have acquired mutations in multiple cellular regulators. This study aims to identify bioenergetic alterations in lung cancer cells by directly measuring and comparing key metabolic activities in a pair of cell lines representing normal and NSCLC cells developed from the same patient. We found that the rates of oxygen consumption and heme biosynthesis were intensified in NSCLC cells. Additionally, the NSCLC cells exhibited substantially increased levels in an array of proteins promoting heme synthesis, uptake and function. These proteins include the rate-limiting heme biosynthetic enzyme ALAS, transporter proteins HRG1 and HCP1 that are involved in heme uptake, and various types of oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins such as cytoglobin and cytochromes. Several types of human tumor xenografts also displayed increased levels of such proteins. Furthermore, we found that lowering heme biosynthesis and uptake, like lowering mitochondrial respiration, effectively reduced oxygen consumption, cancer cell proliferation, migration and colony formation. In contrast, lowering heme degradation does not have an effect on lung cancer cells. These results show that increased heme flux and function are a key feature of NSCLC cells. Further, increased generation and supply of heme and oxygen-utilizing hemoproteins in cancer cells will lead to intensified oxygen consumption and cellular energy production by mitochondrial respiration, which would fuel cancer cell proliferation and progression. The results show that inhibiting heme and respiratory function can effectively arrest the progression of lung cancer cells. Hence, understanding heme function can positively impact on research in lung cancer

  5. Lung cancer brain metastases – the role of neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Aleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is mostly common occurring oncological disease in the developed countries. Currently lung cancers are subdivided into nonsmall-cell (adenocarcinoma, large-cell, squamous cell and small-cell. The difference in the clinical and morphological picture leads to the necessity of choosing therapeutic approaches to patients of various groups.Lung cancer should be referred to encephalotropic diseases since metastatic lesion of the central nervous system is sufficiently common complication. Successes of complex treatment of primary tumor result in increase of total longlivety currently ther is ageing of patients suffering lung cancer. These factors increase the risk of metastatic lesions of the brain.Interest to the problem of neurosurgical treatment of patients suffering lung cancer is determined by frequency of lesion, varicosity of morphological variants of the disease, requiring various algorithms of treatment and diagnosis.The main role of neurosurgical intervention in cerebral metastases of lung cancer consist in creation of the paled of carrying out combined therapy. Ideally, a neurosurgical operation should be carried out with clearcut observance of oncological principles of ablasty.Adequate comprehensive approach to treatment or patients with cerebral metastases of various forms of lung cancer with the developed of optimal tactics of and stages of treatment would make it possible to increase duration and quality of life of patients.

  6. The Treg/Th17 Paradigm in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chao Duan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of lung cancer are very complex and not yet entirely clarified. T lymphocytes and their immune-regulatory cytokines play a pivotal role in controlling tumor growth and metastasis. Following activation by unique cytokines, CD4+ T helper cells differentiate into Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cells (Tregs. Traditionally, research in lung cancer immunity has focused almost exclusively on Th1/Th2 cell balance. Recently, Th17 cells and Tregs represent an intriguing issue to be addressed in lung cancer pathogenesis. Tregs play an important role in the preservation of self-tolerance and modulation of overall immune responses against tumor cells. Th17 cells directly or via other proinflammatory cytokines modulate antitumor immune responses. Notably, there is a close relation between Tregs and Th17 cells. However, the possible interaction between these subsets in lung cancer remains to be elucidated. In this setting, targeting Treg/Th17 balance for therapeutic purposes may represent a useful tool for lung cancer treatment in the future. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings of the role of these novel populations in lung cancer immunity and to highlight the pleiotropic effects of these subsets on the development and regulation of lung cancer.

  7. Primary lung cancer coexisting with active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Y; Varol, U; Unlu, M; Kayaalp, I; Ayranci, A; Dereli, M S; Guclu, S Z

    2014-09-01

    Lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) comorbidity is a clinical problem that presents a challenge for the diagnosis and treatment of both diseases. To clarify the clinical and survival characteristics of cases with both lung cancer and active pulmonary TB. From 2008 to 2013, 3350 TB patients admitted to the TB Department of the Chest Diseases Hospital of Izmir, Turkey, were evaluated. In 38 (1.1%) male patients, lung cancer and TB were found to coexist. Almost all of the patients were diagnosed at Stage III (n = 14, 36.8%) or IV (n = 17, 44.7%) lung cancer, whereas four (10.6%) had Stage II and three (7.9%) had Stage I disease. Squamous cell lung cancer was the predominant histology (n = 23, 60.7%). The median overall survival among patients was 13.4 months (95%CI 8.09-18.8). One-year survival rates for patients with Stages I, II, III and IV were respectively 100%, 75%, 57% and 40%. The present study demonstrates that lung cancer combined with active pulmonary TB most frequently presents as squamous cell carcinoma, with a male predominance. The overall survival of lung cancer patients did not change even with concomitant active TB.

  8. Training and Validating a Portable Electronic Nose for Lung Cancer Screening.<