WorldWideScience

Sample records for lunar surface magnetometer

  1. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Quesnel, Y.; Lepaulard, C.; Lima, E. A.; Manfredi, M.; Rochette, P.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10-7 Am2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  2. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Gattacceca, J; Quesnel, Y; Lepaulard, C; Lima, E A; Manfredi, M; Rochette, P

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10 -7 Am 2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  3. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  4. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  5. A program of data synthesis from the ALSEP/CPLEE ALSEP/SIDE, and Explorer 35 magnetometer to investigate lunar terminator and nightside particle fluxes and surface interactions. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasoner, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Lunar nightside electron fluxes were studied with the aid of the ALSEP/CPLEE and other instruments. The flux events were shown to be due to (a) electrons propagating upstream from the earth's bow shock, (b) electrons thermalized and scattered to the lunar surface by disturbances along the boundary of the lunar solarwind cavity, and (c) solar wind electrons scattered to the lunar surface by lunar limb shocks and/or compressional disturbances. These electrons were identified as a cause of the high night surface negative potentials observed in tha ALSEP/SIDE ion data. A study was also made of the shadowing of magnetotail plasma sheet electrons by interactions between the lunar body and the ambient magnetic field and by interactions between charged particles and lunar remnant magnetic fields. These shadowing effects were shown to modify lunar surface and near-lunar potential distributions. (Author)

  6. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  7. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  8. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  9. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to these seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought fro earth should be less than 1000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  10. Lunar surface fission power supplies: Radiation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Lee, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    A lunar space fission power supply shield that uses a combination of lunar regolith and materials brought from earth may be optimal for early lunar outposts and bases. This type of shield can be designed such that the fission power supply does not have to be moved from its landing configuration, minimizing handling and required equipment on the lunar surface. Mechanisms for removing heat from the lunar regolith are built into the shield, and can be tested on earth. Regolith activation is greatly reduced compared with a shield that uses only regolith, and it is possible to keep the thermal conditions of the fission power supply close to those seen in free space. For a well designed shield, the additional mass required to be brought from earth should be less than 1,000 kg. Detailed radiation transport calculations confirm the feasibility of such a shield

  11. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  12. Petrologic Characteristics of the Lunar Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Pedrycz, Witold

    2015-11-27

    Petrologic analysis of the lunar surface is critical for determining lunar formation and evolution. Here, we report the first global petrologic map that includes the five most important lunar lithological units: the Ferroan Anorthositic (FAN) Unit, the Magnesian Suite (MS) Unit, the Alkali Suite (AS) Unit, the KREEP Basalt (KB) Unit and the Mare Basalt (MB) Unit. Based on the petrologic map and focusing on four long-debated and important issues related to lunar formation and evolution, we draw the following conclusions from the new insights into the global distribution of the five petrologic units: (1) there may be no petrogenetic relationship between MS rocks and KB; (2) there may be no petrogenetic link between MS and AS rocks; (3) the exposure of the KREEP component on the lunar surface is likely not a result of MB volcanism but is instead mainly associated with the combined action of plutonic intrusion, KREEP volcanism and celestial collision; (4) the impact size of the South Pole-Aitken basin is constrained, i.e., the basin has been excavated through the whole crust to exhume a vast majority of lower-crustal material and a very limited mantle components to the lunar surface.

  13. Lunar surface exploration using mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shin-Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Sachiko

    2012-06-01

    A lunar exploration architecture study is being carried out by space agencies. JAXA is carrying out research and development of a mobile robot (rover) to be deployed on the lunar surface for exploration and outpost construction. The main target areas for outpost construction and lunar exploration are mountainous zones. The moon's surface is covered by regolith. Achieving a steady traversal of such irregular terrain constitutes the major technical problem for rovers. A newly developed lightweight crawler mechanism can effectively traverse such irregular terrain because of its low contact force with the ground. This fact was determined on the basis of the mass and expected payload of the rover. This paper describes a plan for Japanese lunar surface exploration using mobile robots, and presents the results of testing and analysis needed in their development. This paper also gives an overview of the lunar exploration robot to be deployed in the SELENE follow-on mission, and the composition of its mobility, navigation, and control systems.

  14. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  15. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  16. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  17. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  18. Comparison of a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer and Toftness sensometer for body surface EMF measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, John; Toftness, Dave; Snyder, Brian; Nosco, Dennis; Balcavage, Walter; Nindl, Gabi

    2004-12-01

    The use of magnetic fields to treat disease has intrigued mankind since the time of the ancient Greeks. More recently it has been shown that electromagnetic field (EMF) treatment aids bone healing, and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) appears to be beneficial in treating schizophrenia and depression. Since external EMFs influence internal body processes, we hypothesized that measurement of body surface EMFs might be used to detect disease states and direct the course of subsequent therapy. However, measurement of minute body surface EMFs requires use of a sensitive and well documented magnetometer. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and frequency response of a fluxgate magnetometer with a triaxial probe for use in detecting body surface EMF and we compared the magnetometer readings with a signal from a Toftness Sensometer, operated by an experienced clinician, in the laboratory and in a clinical setting. A Peavy Audio Amplifier and variable power output Telulex signal generator were used to develop 50 microT EMFs in a three coil Merritt coil system. A calibrated magnetometer was used to set a 60 Hz 50 microT field in the coil and an ammeter was used to measure the current required to develop the 50 microT field. At frequencies other than 60 Hz, the field strength was maintained at 50 microT by adjusting the Telulex signal output to keep the current constant. The field generated was monitored using a 10 turn coil connected to an oscilloscope. The oscilloscope reading indicated that the field strength was the same at all frequencies tested. To determine if there was a correspondence between the signals detected by a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM1) and the Toftness Sensometer both devices were placed in the Merritt coil and readings were recorded from the FGM1 and compared with the ability of a highly experienced Toftness operator to detect the 50 microT field. Subsequently, in a clinical setting, FGM1 readings made by an FGM1 technician and

  19. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  20. A radiation analysis of lunar surface habitats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Wilson, J.W.; Tripathi, R.K.; Clowdsley, M.S.; Nealy, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to minimize the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time control the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process performs minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, considered in terms of time frame, equipment, location, crew characteristics and performance required, radiation exposure annual and career limit constraints (those proposed in NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle. In the lunar environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in detail (e.g. shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. The results for all scenarios clearly showed that the direct exposure to the space environment like in transfers and EVAs phases gives the most of the dose, with the proposed shielded habitats and shelters giving quite a good protection from radiation. Operational constraints on hardware and scenarios have all been considered by the optimization techniques. Within the limits of this preliminary analysis, the three Moon Base related mission scenarios are perfectly feasible from the astronaut radiation safety point of view with the currently adopted and proposed

  1. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; hide

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  2. Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is...

  3. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface...

  4. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  5. Development of a Modified Vacuum Cleaner for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Lee, Steve A.; Edgerly, Rachel D.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to expand space exploration will return humans to the Moon with the goal of maintaining a long-term presence. One challenge that NASA will face returning to the Moon is managing the lunar regolith found on the Moon's surface, which will collect on extravehicular activity (EVA) suits and other equipment. Based on the Apollo experience, the issues astronauts encountered with lunar regolith included eye/lung irritation, and various hardware failures (seals, screw threads, electrical connectors and fabric contamination), which were all related to inadequate lunar regolith mitigation. A vacuum cleaner capable of detaching, transferring, and efficiently capturing lunar regolith has been proposed as a method to mitigate the lunar regolith problem in the habitable environment on lunar surface. In order to develop this vacuum, a modified "off-the-shelf' vacuum cleaner will be used to determine detachment efficiency, vacuum requirements, and optimal cleaning techniques to ensure efficient dust removal in habitable lunar surfaces, EVA spacesuits, and air exchange volume. During the initial development of the Lunar Surface System vacuum cleaner, systematic testing was performed with varying flow rates on multiple surfaces (fabrics and metallics), atmospheric (14.7 psia) and reduced pressures (10.2 and 8.3 psia), different vacuum tool attachments, and several vacuum cleaning techniques in order to determine the performance requirements for the vacuum cleaner. The data recorded during testing was evaluated by calculating particulate removal, relative to the retained simulant on the tested surface. In addition, optical microscopy was used to determine particle size distribution retained on the surface. The scope of this paper is to explain the initial phase of vacuum cleaner development, including historical Apollo mission data, current state-of-the-art vacuum cleaner technology, and vacuum cleaner testing that has

  6. Visibility of lunar surface features - Apollo 14 orbital observations and lunar landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an in-flight visibility test conducted during the Apollo 14 mission for the purpose of validating and extending the mathematical visibility models used previously in the course of the Apollo program to examine the constraints on descent operations imposed by lunar visibility limitations. Following a background review of the effects on mission planning of the visibility limitations due to downsun lunar surface detail 'washout' and a discussion of the visibility prediction techniques previously used for studying lunar visibility problems, the visibility test rationale and procedures are defined and the test results presented. The results appear to confirm the validity of the visibility prediction techniques employed in lunar visibility problem studies. These results provide also a basis for improving the accuracy of the prediction techniques by appropriate modifications.

  7. Modelling of Lunar Dust and Electrical Field for Future Lunar Surface Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunlong

    Modelling of the lunar dust and electrical field is important to future human and robotic activities on the surface of the moon. Apollo astronauts had witnessed the maintaining of micron- and millimeter sized moon dust up to meters level while walked on the surface of the moon. The characterizations of the moon dust would enhance not only the scientific understanding of the history of the moon but also the future technology development for the surface operations on the moon. It has been proposed that the maintaining and/or settlement of the small-sized dry dust are related to the size and weight of the dust particles, the level of the surface electrical fields on the moon, and the impaction and interaction between lunar regolith and the solar particles. The moon dust distributions and settlements obviously affected the safety of long term operations of future lunar facilities. For the modelling of the lunar dust and the electrical field, we analyzed the imaging of the legs of the moon lander, the cover and the footwear of the space suits, and the envelope of the lunar mobiles, and estimated the size and charges associated with the small moon dust particles, the gravity and charging effects to them along with the lunar surface environment. We also did numerical simulation of the surface electrical fields due to the impaction of the solar winds in several conditions. The results showed that the maintaining of meters height of the micron size of moon dust is well related to the electrical field and the solar angle variations, as expected. These results could be verified and validated through future on site and/or remote sensing measurements and observations of the moon dust and the surface electrical field.

  8. Lunar atmosphere. How surface composition and meteoroid impacts mediate sodium and potassium in the lunar exosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaprete, A; Sarantos, M; Wooden, D H; Stubbs, T J; Cook, A M; Shirley, M

    2016-01-15

    Despite being trace constituents of the lunar exosphere, sodium and potassium are the most readily observed species due to their bright line emission. Measurements of these species by the Ultraviolet and Visible Spectrometer (UVS) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) have revealed unambiguous temporal and spatial variations indicative of a strong role for meteoroid bombardment and surface composition in determining the composition and local time dependence of the Moon's exosphere. Observations show distinct lunar day (monthly) cycles for both species as well as an annual cycle for sodium. The first continuous measurements for potassium show a more repeatable variation across lunations and an enhancement over KREEP (Potassium Rare Earth Elements and Phosphorus) surface regions, revealing a strong dependence on surface composition. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  10. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  11. The MASCOT Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herčík, David; Auster, Hans-Ulrich; Blum, Jürgen; Fornaçon, Karl-Heinz; Fujimoto, Masaki; Gebauer, Kathrin; Güttler, Carsten; Hillenmaier, Olaf; Hördt, Andreas; Liebert, Evelyn; Matsuoka, Ayako; Nomura, Reiko; Richter, Ingo; Stoll, Bernd; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2017-07-01

    The Mobile Asteroid Scout (MASCOT) is a small lander on board the Hayabusa2 mission of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency to the asteroid 162173 Ryugu. Among the instruments on MASCOT is a fluxgate magnetometer, the MASCOT Magnetometer (MasMag). The magnetometer is a lightweight (˜280 g) and low power (˜0.5 W) triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. Magnetic field measurements during the landing period and during the surface operational phase shall provide information about any intrinsic magnetic field of the asteroid and its remanent magnetization. This could provide important constraints on planet formation and the thermal and aqueous evolution of primitive asteroids.

  12. Lunar dusty plasma: A result of interaction of the solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisin, E A; Tarakanov, V P; Petrov, O F; Popel, S I

    2015-01-01

    One of the main problems of future missions to the Moon is associated with lunar dust. Solar wind flux and ultraviolet radiation interact with the lunar surface. As a result, there is a substantial surface change and a near-surface plasma sheath. Dust particles from the lunar regolith, which turned in this plasma because of any mechanical processes, can levitate above the surface, forming dust clouds. In preparing of the space experiments “Luna-Glob” and “Luna-Resource” particle-in-cell calculations of the near-surface plasma sheath parameters are carried out. Here we present some new results of particle-in-cell simulation of the plasma sheath formed near the surface of the moon as a result of interaction of the solar wind and ultraviolet radiation with the lunar surface. The conditions of charging and stable levitation of dust particles in plasma above the lunar surface are also considered. (paper)

  13. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Goldberg, R.H.; Burnett, D.S.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1974-04-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)O-16 was used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction was applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1 / 2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H 2 O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H 2 O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations were performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination. (U.S.)

  14. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  15. Mossbauer analysis of Luna 16 lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, D. L.; Cher, L.; Kulcsar, K.

    1974-01-01

    Samples of Apollo 11 lunar surface material were studied by the Mossbauer effect. Owing to the small number of other resonant isotopes, all measurements were made with Fe-57 nuclei. The principal constituents of the material were as follows: Iron containing silicates (olivine, pyroxene, and so on), ilmenite (FeTiO3), and metallic iron.

  16. Spectroscopic observations of the Moon at the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunzhao; Hapke, Bruce

    2018-02-01

    The Moon's reflectance spectrum records many of its important properties. However, prior to Chang'E-3 (CE-3), no spectra had previously been measured on the lunar surface. Here we show the in situ reflectance spectra of the Moon acquired on the lunar surface by the Visible-Near Infrared Spectrometer (VNIS) onboard the CE-3 rover. The VNIS detected thermal radiation from the lunar regolith, though with much shorter wavelength range than typical thermal radiometer. The measured temperatures are higher than expected from theoretical model, indicating low thermal inertia of the lunar soil and the effects of grain facet on soil temperature in submillimeter scale. The in situ spectra also reveal that 1) brightness changes visible from orbit are related to the reduction in maturity due to the removal of the fine and weathered particles by the lander's rocket exhaust, not the smoothing of the surface and 2) the spectra of the uppermost soil detected by remote sensing exhibit substantial differences with that immediately beneath, which has important implications for the remote compositional analysis. The reflectance spectra measured by VNIS not only reveal the thermal, compositional, and space-weathering properties of the Moon but also provide a means for the calibration of optical instruments that view the surface remotely.

  17. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  18. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  19. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poston, David I.; Kapernick, Richard J.; Dixon, David D.; Werner, James; Qualls, Louis; Radel, Ross

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO 2 -fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  20. Surface chemistry of selected lunar regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielefeld, M.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Metzger, A.E.; Trombka, J.I.; Arnold, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A completely new analysis has been carried out on the data from the Apollo 15 and 16 γ ray spectrometer experiments. The components of the continuum background have been estimated. The elements Th, K, Fe and Mg give useful results; results for Ti are significant only for a few high Ti regions. Errors are given, and the results are checked by other methods. Concentrations are reported for about sixty lunar regions; the ground track has been subdivided in various ways. The borders of the maria seem well-defined chemically, while the distribution of KREEP is broad. This wide distribution requires emplacement of KREEP before the era of mare formation. Its high concentration in western mare soils seems to require major vertical mixing

  1. Remote compositional mapping of lunar titanium and surface maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Larson, S. M.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    Lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) is a potential resource capable of providing oxygen for life support and spacecraft propellant for future lunar bases. Estimates of TiO2 content in mature mare soils can be made using an empirical relation between the 400/500 nm reflectance ratio and TiO2 wt percent. A TiO2 abundance map was constructed for the entire near-side lunar maria accurate to + or - 2 wt percent TiO2 using CCD images obtained at the Tumamoc Hill 0.5 m telescope in Tucson, employing bandpass filters centered at 400 and 560 nm. Highest TiO2 regions in the maria are located in western Mare Tranquillitatis. Greater contrast differences between regions on the lunar surface can be obtained using 400/730 nm ratio images. The relation might well be refined to accommodate this possibly more sensitive indicator of TiO2 content. Another potential lunar resource is solar wind-implanted He-3 which may be used as a fuel for fusion reactors. Relative soil maturity, as determined by agglutinate content, can be estimated from 950/560 nm ration images. Immature soils appear darker in this ratio since such soils contain abundant pyroxene grains which cause strong absorption centered near 950 nm due Fe(2+) crystal field transitions. A positive correlation exists between the amount of He-3 and TiO2 content in lunar soils, suggesting that regions high in TiO2 should also be high in He-3. Reflectance spectrophotometry in the region 320 to 870 nm was also obtained for several regions. Below about 340 nm, these spectra show variations in relative reflectance that are caused by as yet unassigned near-UV absorptions due to compositional differences.

  2. Long-term vacuum tests of single-mode vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes used for a scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, C.; Ellmeier, M.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.

    2017-11-01

    Scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the magnetic field, while vector magnetometers (mostly fluxgate magnetometers) produce three-component outputs proportional to the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. While scalar magnetometers have a high accuracy, vector magnetometers suffer from parameter drifts and need to be calibrated during flight. In some cases, full science return can only be achieved by a combination of vector and scalar magnetometers.

  3. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  4. Gardening process of lunar surface layer inferred from the galactic cosmic-ray exposure ages of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriyama, Jun; Honda, Masatake.

    1979-01-01

    From the cosmic-ray exposure age data, (time scale 10 7 - 10 8 years), of the lunar surface materials, we discuss the gardening process of the lunar surface layer caused by the meteoroid impact cratering. At steady state, it is calculated that, in the region within 10 - 50 m of the surface, a mixing rate of 10 -4 to 10 -5 mm/yr is necessary to match the exposure ages. Observed exposure ages of the lunar samples could be explained by the gardening effect calculated using a crater formation rate which is slightly modified from the current crater population data. (author)

  5. Lunar rock surfaces as detectors of solar processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung, J.B.; Hunter College, New York, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lunar rock surfaces exposed at or just below the lunar surface are considered as detectors of the solar wind, solar flares and solar-derived magnetic fields through their interactions with galactic cosmic rays. The degradation of the solar detector capabilities of lunar surface rocks by meteoroid impact erosion, accreta deposition, loose dust, and sputtering, amorphous layer formation and accelerated diffusion due to solar particles and illumination is discussed, and it is noted that the complex interactions of factors affecting the outer micron of exposed surface material has so far prevented the development of a satisfactory model for a particle detector on the submicron scale. Methods for the determination of surface exposure ages based on the accumulation of light solar wind noble gases, Fe and Mg, impact craters, solar flare tracks, and cosmogenic Kr isotopes are examined, and the systematic variations in the ages determined by the various clocks are discussed. It is concluded that a means of obtaining satisfactory quantitative rate or flux data has not yet been established

  6. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  7. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  8. A Lunar Surface System Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Taleghani, barmac K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the establishment of a Supportability Technology Development Roadmap as a guide for developing capabilities intended to allow NASA s Constellation program to enable a supportable, sustainable and affordable exploration of the Moon and Mars. Presented is a discussion of supportability, in terms of space facility maintenance, repair and related logistics and a comparison of how lunar outpost supportability differs from the International Space Station. Supportability lessons learned from NASA and Department of Defense experience and their impact on a future lunar outpost is discussed. A supportability concept for future missions to the Moon and Mars that involves a transition from a highly logistics dependent to a logistically independent operation is discussed. Lunar outpost supportability capability needs are summarized and a supportability technology development strategy is established. The resulting Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Strategy defines general criteria that will be used to select technologies that will enable future flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. This strategy also introduces the concept of exploiting flight hardware as a supportability resource. The technology roadmap involves development of three mutually supporting technology categories, Diagnostics Test and Verification, Maintenance and Repair, and Scavenging and Recycling. The technology roadmap establishes two distinct technology types, "Embedded" and "Process" technologies, with different implementation and thus different criteria and development approaches. The supportability technology roadmap addresses the technology readiness level, and estimated development schedule for technology groups that includes down-selection decision gates that correlate with the lunar program milestones. The resulting supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop a set

  9. Low-frequency Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface (LROLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, Robert; Network for Exploration and Space Science (NESS)

    2018-06-01

    A radio observatory on the lunar surface will provide the capability to image solar radio bursts and other sources. Radio burst imaging will improve understanding of radio burst mechanisms, particle acceleration, and space weather. Low-frequency observations (less than ~20 MHz) must be made from space, because lower frequencies are blocked by Earth’s ionosphere. Solar radio observations do not mandate an observatory on the farside of the Moon, although such a location would permit study of less intense solar bursts because the Moon occults the terrestrial radio frequency interference. The components of the lunar radio observatory array are: the antenna system consisting of 10 – 100 antennas distributed over a square kilometer or more; the system to transfer the radio signals from the antennas to the central processing unit; electronics to digitize the signals and possibly to calculate correlations; storage for the data until it is down-linked to Earth. Such transmission requires amplification and a high-gain antenna system or possibly laser comm. For observatories on the lunar farside a satellite or other intermediate transfer system is required to direct the signal to Earth. On the ground, the aperture synthesis analysis is completed to display the radio image as a function of time. Other requirements for lunar surface systems include the power supply, utilizing solar arrays with batteries to maintain the system at adequate thermal levels during the lunar night. An alternative would be a radioisotope thermoelectric generator requiring less mass. The individual antennas might be designed with their own solar arrays and electronics to transmit data to the central processing unit, but surviving lunar night would be a challenge. Harnesses for power and data transfer from the central processing unit to the antennas are an alternative, but a harness-based system complicates deployment. The concept of placing the antennas and harnesses on rolls of polyimide and

  10. Interplanetary and lunar surface SP-100 nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Smith, M.; Stephen, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) can be tailored to meet the specific requirements for a lunar surface power system to meet the needs of the consolidation and utilization phases outlined in the 90-day NASA SEI study report. This same basic power system can also be configured to obtain the low specific masses needed to enable robotic interplanetary science missions employing Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In both cases it is shown that the SP-100 SRPS can meet the specific requirements. For interplanetary NEP missions, performance upgrades currently being developed in the area of light weight radiators and improved thermoelectric material are assumed to be technology ready in the year 2000 time frame. For lunar applications, some system rearrangement and enclosure of critical components are necessary modifications to the present baseline design

  11. Multi-Beam Surface Lidar for Lunar and Planetary Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, Jack L.; Garvin, James B.

    1998-01-01

    Surface lidar techniques are now being demonstrated in low Earth orbit with a single beam of pulsed laser radiation at 1064 nm that profiles the vertical structure of Earth surface landforms along the nadir track of a spacecraft. In addition, a profiling laser altimeter, called MOLA, is operating in elliptical Martian orbit and returning surface topography data. These instruments form the basis for suggesting an improved lidar instrument that employs multiple beams for extension of sensor capabilities toward the goal of true, 3-dimensional mapping of the Moon or other similar planetary surfaces. In general the lidar waveform acquired with digitization of a laser echo can be used for laser distance measurement (i.e. range-to-the-surface) by time-of-flight measurement and for surface slope and shape measurements by examining the detailed lidar waveform. This is particularly effective when the intended target is the lunar surface or another planetary body free of any atmosphere. The width of the distorted return pulse is a first order measure of the surface incidence angle, a combination of surface slope and laser beam pointing. Assuming an independent and absolute (with respect to inertial space) measurement of laser beam pointing on the spacecraft, it is possible to derive a surface slope with-respect-to the mean planetary surface or its equipotential gravity surface. Higher-order laser pulse distortions can be interpreted in terms of the vertical relief of the surface or reflectivity variations within the area of the laser beam footprint on the surface.

  12. Evaluation of Surface Modification as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Waters, Deborah L.; Misconin, Robert M.; Banks, Bruce A.; Crowder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Three surface treatments were evaluated for their ability to lower the adhesion between lunar simulant dust and AZ93, AlFEP, and AgFEP thermal control surfaces under simulated lunar conditions. Samples were dusted in situ and exposed to a standardized puff of nitrogen gas. Thermal performance before dusting, after dusting, and after part of the dust was removed by the puff of gas, were compared to perform the assessment. None of the surface treatments was found to significantly affect the adhesion of lunar simulants to AZ93 thermal control paint. Oxygen ion beam texturing also did not lower the adhesion of lunar simulant dust to AlFEP or AgFEP. But a workfunction matching coating and a proprietary Ball Aerospace surface treatment were both found to significantly lower the adhesion of lunar simulants to AlFEP and AgFEP. Based on these results, it is recommended that all these two techniques be further explored as dust mitigation coatings for AlFEP and AgFEP thermal control surfaces.

  13. Fluxgate vector magnetometers: Compensated multi-sensor devices for ground, UAV and airborne magnetic survey for various application in near surface geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazzi, Bruno; Le Maire, Pauline; Munschy, Marc; Dechamp, Aline

    2017-04-01

    Fluxgate 3-components magnetometer is the kind of magnetometer which offers the lightest weight and lowest power consumption for the measurement of the intensity of the magnetic field. Moreover, vector measurements make it the only kind of magnetometer allowing compensation of magnetic perturbations due to the equipment carried with it. Unfortunately, Fluxgate magnetometers are quite uncommon in near surface geophysics due to the difficulty to calibrate them precisely. The recent advances in calibration of the sensors and magnetic compensation of the devices from a simple process on the field led Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg to develop instruments for georeferenced magnetic measurements at different scales - from submetric measurements on the ground to aircraft-conducted acquisition through the wide range offered by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - with a precision in the order of 1 nT. Such equipment is used for different kind of application: structural geology, pipes and UXO detection, archaeology.

  14. A Survey of Ballistic Transfers to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Rodney L.; Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In this study techniques are developed which allow an analysis of a range of different types of transfer trajectories from the Earth to the lunar surface. Trajectories ranging from those obtained using the invariant manifolds of unstable orbits to those derived from collision orbits are analyzed. These techniques allow the computation of trajectories encompassing low-energy trajectories as well as more direct transfers. The range of possible trajectory options is summarized, and a broad range of trajectories that exist as a result of the Sun's influence are computed and analyzed. The results are then classified by type, and trades between different measures of cost are discussed.

  15. Electrical conductivity of the lunar interior - Theory, error sources, and estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior were previously obtained by comparison of magnetometer data at the lunar surface and in near lunar space. In studies based on solar wind observations, IR was assumed that fields induced in the lunar interior by time-varying external fields are confined by the solar wind within the lunar interior on the dayside and within a cylindrical plasma cavity on the nightside. In the present paper, the induced fields are calculated for a more realistic conical plasma cavity geometry.

  16. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  17. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  18. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  19. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  20. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  1. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  2. Electron content near the lunar surface using dual-frequency VLBI tracking data in a single lunar orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen; Wang, Na; Ping, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    In VLBI observations of Vstar, a subsatellite of the Japanese lunar mission SELENE, there were opportunities for lunar grazing occultation when Vstar was very close to the limb of the Moon. This kind of chance made it possible to probe the thin plasma layer above the Moon's surface as a meaningful by-product of VLBI, by using the radio occultation method with coherent radio waves from the S/X bands. The dual-frequency measurements were carried out at Earth-based VLBI stations. In the line-of-sight direction between the satellite and the ground-based tracking station where VLBI measurements were made, the effects of the terrestrial ionosphere, interplanetary plasma and the thin lunar ionosphere mixed together in the combined observables of dual-frequency Doppler shift and phase shift. To separate the variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the surface of the Moon from the mixed signal, the influences of the terrestrial ionosphere and interplanetary plasma have been removed by using an extrapolation method based on a short-term trend. The lunar TEC is estimated from the dual-frequency observation for Vstar from UT 22:18 to UT 22:20 on 2008 June 28 at several tracking stations. The TEC results obtained from VLBI sites are identical, however, they are not as remarkable as the result obtained at the Usuda deep space tracking station. (paper)

  3. Development of a Lunar Surface Architecture Using the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, A. M.; Kitmanyen, V. A.; Prakash, A.

    2018-02-01

    Prior to sending crews to Mars, the ability to perform activities intended for martian missions must first be thoroughly tested and successfully demonstrated in a similar environment. This paper outlines a lunar surface architecture to meet this goal.

  4. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  5. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. Significant development is called for in the area of devices...

  6. Deep Space Gateway Support of Lunar Surface Ops and Tele-Operational Transfer of Surface Assets to the Next Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, D. A.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can support astronauts on the lunar surface, providing them a departure and returning rendezvous point, a communication relay from the lunar farside to Earth, and a transfer point to Orion for return to Earth.

  7. Ground Simulations of Near-Surface Plasma Field and Charging at the Lunar Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, J.; Ding, N.; Wang, J.; Craven, P.; Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Charging in the lunar terminator region is the most complex and is still not well understood. In this region, the surface potential is sensitively influenced by both solar illumination and plasma flow. The combined effects from localized shadow generated by low sun elevation angles and localized wake generated by plasma flow over the rugged terrain can generate strongly differentially charged surfaces. Few models currently exist that can accurately resolve the combined effects of plasma flow and solar illumination over realistic lunar terminator topographies. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lunar surface charging at the terminator region in simulated plasma environments in a vacuum chamber. The solar wind plasma flow is simulated using an electron bombardment gridded Argon ion source. An electrostatic Langmuir probe, nude Faraday probes, a floating emissive probe, and retarding potential analyzer are used to quantify the plasma flow field. Surface potentials of both conducting and dielectric materials immersed in the plasma flow are measured with a Trek surface potential probe. The conducting material surface potential will simultaneously be measured with a high impedance voltmeter to calibrate the Trek probe. Measurement results will be presented for flat surfaces and objects-on-surface for various angles of attack of the plasma flow. The implications on the generation of localized plasma wake and surface charging at the lunar terminator will be discussed. (This research is supported by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research program.)

  8. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, K; Iijima, Y; Sakatani, N; Otake, H; Tanaka, S

    2014-03-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime -200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a "regolith mound". Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  9. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S.; Sakatani, N.; Otake, H.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system

  10. A thermal control system for long-term survival of scientific instruments on lunar surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, K., E-mail: ogawa@astrobio.k.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Complexity Science and Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Tanaka, S. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Sakatani, N. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Otake, H. [JAXA Space Exploration Center, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    A thermal control system is being developed for scientific instruments placed on the lunar surface. This thermal control system, Lunar Mission Survival Module (MSM), was designed for scientific instruments that are planned to be operated for over a year in the future Japanese lunar landing mission SELENE-2. For the long-term operations, the lunar surface is a severe environment because the soil (regolith) temperature varies widely from nighttime −200 degC to daytime 100 degC approximately in which space electronics can hardly survive. The MSM has a tent of multi-layered insulators and performs a “regolith mound”. Temperature of internal devices is less variable just like in the lunar underground layers. The insulators retain heat in the regolith soil in the daylight, and it can keep the device warm in the night. We conducted the concept design of the lunar survival module, and estimated its potential by a thermal mathematical model on the assumption of using a lunar seismometer designed for SELENE-2. Thermal vacuum tests were also conducted by using a thermal evaluation model in order to estimate the validity of some thermal parameters assumed in the computed thermal model. The numerical and experimental results indicated a sufficient survivability potential of the concept of our thermal control system.

  11. Battery and Fuel Cell Development Goals for the Lunar Surface and Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    NASA is planning a return to the moon and requires advances in energy storage technology for its planned lunar lander and lunar outpost. This presentation describes NASA s overall mission goals and technical goals for batteries and fuel cells to support the mission. Goals are given for secondary batteries for the lander s ascent stage and suits for extravehicular activity on the lunar surface, and for fuel cells for the lander s descent stage and regenerative fuel cells for outpost power. An overall approach to meeting these goals is also presented.

  12. Application of automation and robotics to lunar surface human exploration operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.; Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Bares, Leona C.; Folsom, Rolfe; Mah, Robert; Lousma, Jack

    1990-01-01

    Major results of a study applying automation and robotics to lunar surface base buildup and operations concepts are reported. The study developed a reference base scenario with specific goals, equipment concepts, robot concepts, activity schedules and buildup manifests. It examined crew roles, contingency cases and system reliability, and proposed a set of technologies appropriate and necessary for effective lunar operations. This paper refers readers to four companion papers for quantitative details where appropriate.

  13. Yet Another Lunar Surface Geologic Exploration Architecture Concept (What, Again?): A Senior Field Geologist's Integrated View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    Lunar surface geological exploration should be founded on a number of key elements that are seemingly disparate, but which can form an integrated operational concept when properly conceived and deployed. If lunar surface geological exploration is to be useful, this integration of key elements needs to be undertaken throughout the development of both mission hardware, training and operational concepts. These elements include the concept of mission class, crew makeup and training, surface mobility assets that are matched with mission class, and field tools and IT assets that make data collection, sharing and archiving transparent to the surface crew.

  14. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  15. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  16. Effect of Space Radiation Processing on Lunar Soil Surface Chemistry: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.J.; Baragiola, R.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current understanding of the chemistry and microstructure of the surfaces of lunar soil grains is dominated by a reference frame derived mainly from electron microscopy observations [e.g. 1,2]. These studies have shown that the outermost 10-100 nm of grain surfaces in mature lunar soil finest fractions have been modified by the combined effects of solar wind exposure, surface deposition of vapors and accretion of impact melt products [1,2]. These processes produce surface-correlated nanophase Feo, host grain amorphization, formation of surface patinas and other complex changes [1,2]. What is less well understood is how these changes are reflected directly at the surface, defined as the outermost 1-5 atomic monolayers, a region not easily chemically characterized by TEM. We are currently employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the surface chemistry of lunar soil samples that have been previously studied by TEM. This work includes modification of the grain surfaces by in situ irradiation with ions at solar wind energies to better understand how irradiated surfaces in lunar grains change their chemistry once exposed to ambient conditions on earth.

  17. Plume Impingement to the Lunar Surface: A Challenging Problem for DSMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, Forrest; Marichalar, Jermiah; Piplica, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The President's Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of human exploration of the Moon. The plans are ambitious and call for the creation of a lunar outpost. Lunar Landers will therefore be required to land near predeployed hardware, and the dust storm created by the Lunar Lander's plume impingement to the lunar surface presents a hazard. Knowledge of the number density, size distribution, and velocity of the grains in the dust cloud entrained into the flow is needing to develop mitigation strategies. An initial step to acquire such knowledge is simulating the associated plume impingement flow field. The following paper presents results from a loosely coupled continuum flow solver/Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique for simulating the plume impingement of the Apollo Lunar module on the lunar surface. These cases were chosen for initial study to allow for comparison with available Apollo video. The relatively high engine thrust and the desire to simulate interesting cases near touchdown result in flow that is nearly entirely continuum. The DSMC region of the flow field was simulated using NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) and must begin upstream of the impingement shock for the loosely coupled technique to succeed. It was therefore impossible to achieve mean free path resolution with a reasonable number of molecules (say 100 million) as is shown. In order to mitigate accuracy and performance issues when using such large cells, advanced techniques such as collision limiting and nearest neighbor collisions were employed. The final paper will assess the benefits and shortcomings of such techniques. In addition, the effects of plume orientation, plume altitude, and lunar topography, such as craters, on the flow field, the surface pressure distribution, and the surface shear stress distribution are presented.

  18. Lunar remnant magnetic field mapping from orbital observations of mirrored electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, J E [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Houston, Tex. (USA). Johnson Space Center; Anderson, K A; Lin, R P; Howe, H C; McGuire, R E [California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Space Sciences Lab.

    1975-09-01

    Areas of lunar surface magnetic field are observed to ''mirror'' low energy electrons present in the normal lunar space environment. The ambient electrons provide, in effect, a probe along the ambient magnetic field lines down to the lunar surface for remote sensing of the presence of surface fields. Use of the on-board vector magnetometer measurements of the ambient magnetic field orientation allows accurate projection of such mapping onto the lunar surface. Preliminary maps of the lunar surface magnetic areas underlying the orbit of the ''Particles and Fields Satellite deployed from Apollo 16'' have been generated, obtaining 40% coverage from partial data to demonstrate feasibility of the technique. These maps reveal many previously unreported areas of surface magnetism. The method is sensitive to fields of less than 0.1..gamma.. at the surface. The surface field regions observed are generally due to sources smaller than 10-50km in size, although many individual regions are often so close together as to give much larger regions of effectively continuous mirroring. Absence of consistent mirroring by any global field places an upper limit on the size of any net lunar dipole moment of less than 10/sup 10/..gamma..km/sup 3/. Much additional information regarding the magnetic regions can be obtained by correlated analysis of both the electron return and vector magnetometer measurements at orbital altitude, the two techniques providing each other with directly complimentary measurements at the satellite and along the ambient field lines to the surface.

  19. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  20. Lunar surface remanent magnetic fields detected by the electron reflection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, R. P.; Anderson, K. A.; Bush, R.; Mcguire, R. E.; Mccoy, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    We present maps of the lunar surface remanent magnetic fields detected by the electron reflection method. These maps provide substantial coverage of the latitude band from 30 N southward to 30 S with a resolution of about 40 km and a sensitivity of about 0.2 gamma at the lunar surface. Regions of remanent magnetization are observed ranging in size from the resolution limit of 1.25 deg to above approximately 60 deg. The largest contiguous region fills the Big Backside Basin where it is intersected by the spacecraft orbital tracks. Preliminary analyses of the maps show that the source regions of lunar limb compressions correspond to regions of strong surface magnetism, and that there does not appear to be sharply discontinuous magnetization at the edges of maria. We also analyze the electron reflection observations to obtain information on the direction and distribution of magnetization in the Van de Graaff anomaly region.

  1. MOURA magnetometer for Mars MetNet Precursor Mission. Its potential for an in situ magnetic environment and surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Michelena, M.; Sanz, R.; Fernandez, A.B.; Manuel, V. de; Cerdan, M.F.; Apestigue, V.; Arruego, I.; Azcue, J.; Dominguez, J.A.; Gonzalez, M.; Guerrero, H.; Sabau, M.; Kilian, R.; Baeza, O.; Ros, F.; Vazquez, M.; Tordesillas, J.M.; Covisa, P.; Aguado, J.

    2016-07-01

    MOURA magnetometer and gradiometer is part of the scientific instrumentation for Mars MetNet Precursor mission. This work describes the objective of the investigation, summarizes the work done in the design and development of the sensor as well as its calibration, and shows the demonstration campaigns to show the potential of such instrument for planetary landers and rovers. (Author)

  2. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  3. LUNAR SURFACE AND DUST GRAIN POTENTIALS DURING THE EARTH’S MAGNETOSPHERE CROSSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaverka, J.; Richterová, I.; Pavlu, J.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z., E-mail: jana.safrankova@mff.cuni.cz [Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2016-07-10

    Interaction between the lunar surface and the solar UV radiation and surrounding plasma environment leads to its charging by different processes like photoemission, collection of charged particles, or secondary electron emission (SEE). Whereas the photoemission depends only on the angle between the surface and direction to the Sun and varies only slowly, plasma parameters can change rapidly as the Moon orbits around the Earth. This paper presents numerical simulations of one Moon pass through the magnetospheric tail including the real plasma parameters measured by THEMIS as an input. The calculations are concentrated on different charges of the lunar surface itself and a dust grain lifted above this surface. Our estimations show that (1) the SEE leads to a positive charging of parts of the lunar surface even in the magnetosphere, where a high negative potential is expected; (2) the SEE is generally more important for isolated dust grains than for the lunar surface covered by these grains; and (3) the time constant of charging of dust grains depends on their diameter being of the order of hours for sub-micrometer grains. In view of these results, we discuss the conditions under which and the areas where a levitation of the lifted dust grains could be observed.

  4. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-01-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for

  5. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  6. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN): Testing and Demonstration for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) designed for use with Lunar Surface applications. This is being done through the DTN experimental Network (DEN), that permit access and testing by other NASA centers, DTN team members and protocol developers. The objective of this work is to demonstrate DTN for high return applications in lunar scenarios, provide DEN connectivity with analogs of Constellation elements, emulators, and other resources from DTN Team Members, serve as a wireless communications staging ground for remote analog excursions and enable testing of detailed communication scenarios and evaluation of network performance. Three scenarios for DTN on the Lunar surface are reviewed: Motion imagery, Voice and sensor telemetry, and Navigation telemetry.

  7. AN INTEGRATED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC AND PHOTOCLINOMETRIC APPROACH FOR PIXEL-RESOLUTION 3D MODELLING OF LUNAR SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution 3D modelling of lunar surface is important for lunar scientific research and exploration missions. Photogrammetry is known for 3D mapping and modelling from a pair of stereo images based on dense image matching. However dense matching may fail in poorly textured areas and in situations when the image pair has large illumination differences. As a result, the actual achievable spatial resolution of the 3D model from photogrammetry is limited by the performance of dense image matching. On the other hand, photoclinometry (i.e., shape from shading is characterised by its ability to recover pixel-wise surface shapes based on image intensity and imaging conditions such as illumination and viewing directions. More robust shape reconstruction through photoclinometry can be achieved by incorporating images acquired under different illumination conditions (i.e., photometric stereo. Introducing photoclinometry into photogrammetric processing can therefore effectively increase the achievable resolution of the mapping result while maintaining its overall accuracy. This research presents an integrated photogrammetric and photoclinometric approach for pixel-resolution 3D modelling of the lunar surface. First, photoclinometry is interacted with stereo image matching to create robust and spatially well distributed dense conjugate points. Then, based on the 3D point cloud derived from photogrammetric processing of the dense conjugate points, photoclinometry is further introduced to derive the 3D positions of the unmatched points and to refine the final point cloud. The approach is able to produce one 3D point for each image pixel within the overlapping area of the stereo pair so that to obtain pixel-resolution 3D models. Experiments using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC images show the superior performances of the approach compared with traditional photogrammetric technique. The results and findings from this

  8. SiGe Based Low Temperature Electronics for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Blalock, Benjamin; Cressler, John

    2012-01-01

    The temperature at the permanently shadowed regions of the moon's surface is approximately -240 C. Other areas of the lunar surface experience temperatures that vary between 120 C and -180 C during the day and night respectively. To protect against the large temperature variations of the moon surface, traditional electronics used in lunar robotics systems are placed inside a thermally controlled housing which is bulky, consumes power and adds complexity to the integration and test. SiGe Based electronics have the capability to operate over wide temperature range like that of the lunar surface. Deploying low temperature SiGe electronics in a lander platform can minimize the need for the central thermal protection system and enable the development of a new generation of landers and mobility platforms with highly efficient distributed architecture. For the past five years a team consisting of NASA, university and industry researchers has been examining the low temperature and wide temperature characteristic of SiGe based transistors for developing electronics for wide temperature needs of NASA environments such as the Moon, Titan, Mars and Europa. This presentation reports on the status of the development of wide temperature SiGe based electronics for the landers and lunar surface mobility systems.

  9. The Design of Two Nano-Rovers for Lunar Surface Exploration in the Context of the Google Lunar X Prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, E.; Honfi Camilo, L.; Kuystermans, P.; Maas, A. S. B. B.; Buutfeld, B. A. M.; van der Pols, R. H.

    2008-09-01

    This paper summarizes a study performed by ten students at the Delft University of Technology on a lunar exploration vehicle suited for competing in the Google Lunar X Prize1. The design philosophy aimed at a quick and simple design process, to comply with the mission constraints. This is achieved by using conventional technology and performing the mission with two identical rovers, increasing reliability and simplicity of systems. Both rovers are however capable of operating independently. The required subsystems have been designed for survival and operation on the lunar surface for an estimated mission lifetime of five days. This preliminary study shows that it is possible for two nano-rovers to perform the basic exploration tasks. The mission has been devised such that after launch the rovers endure a 160 hour voyage to the Moon after which they will land on Sinus Medii with a dedicated lunar transfer/lander vehicle. The mission outline itself has the two nano-rovers travelling in the same direction, moving simultaneously. This mission characteristic allows a quick take-over of the required tasks by the second rover in case of one rover breakdown. The main structure of the rovers will consist of Aluminium 2219 T851, due to its good thermal properties and high hardness. Because of the small dimensions of the rovers, the vehicles will use rigid caterpillar tracks as locomotion system. The track systems are sealed from lunar dust using closed track to prevent interference with the mechanisms. This also prevents any damage to the electronics inside the tracks. For the movement speed a velocity of 0.055 m/s has been determined. This is about 90% of the maximum rover velocity, allowing direct control from Earth. The rovers are operated by a direct control loop, involving the mission control center. In order to direct the rovers safely, a continuous video link with the Earth is necessary to assess its immediate surroundings. Two forward pointing navigational cameras

  10. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  11. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  12. Widespread distribution of OH/H2O on the lunar surface inferred from spectral data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandfield, Joshua L; Poston, Michael J; Klima, Rachel L; Edwards, Christopher S

    2018-01-01

    Remote sensing data from lunar orbiters have revealed spectral features consistent with the presence of OH or H 2 O on the lunar surface. Analyses of data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper spectrometer onboard the Chandryaan-1 spacecraft have suggested that OH/H 2 O is recycled on diurnal timescales and persists only at high latitudes. However, the spatial distribution and temporal variability of the OH/H 2 O, as well as its source, remain uncertain. Here we incorporate a physics-based thermal correction into analysis of reflectance spectra from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper and find that prominent absorption features consistent with OH/H 2 O can be present at all latitudes, local times, and surface types examined. This suggests the widespread presence of OH/H 2 O on the lunar surface without significant diurnal migration. We suggest that the spectra are consistent with the production of OH in space weathered materials by the solar wind implantation of H + and formation of OH at crystal defect sites, as opposed to H 2 O sourced from the lunar interior. Regardless of the specific composition or formation mechanism, we conclude that OH/H 2 O can be present on the Moon under thermal conditions more wide-ranging than previously recognized.

  13. Contributions of solar-wind induced potential sputtering to the lunar surface erosion rate and it's exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnussirat, S. T.; Barghouty, A. F.; Edmunson, J. E.; Sabra, M. S.; Rickman, D. L.

    2018-04-01

    Sputtering of lunar regolith by solar-wind protons and heavy ions with kinetic energies of about 1 keV/amu is an important erosive process that affects the lunar surface and exosphere. It plays an important role in changing the chemical composition and thickness of the surface layer, and in introducing material into the exosphere. Kinetic sputtering is well modeled and understood, but understanding of mechanisms of potential sputtering has lagged behind. In this study we differentiate the contributions of potential sputtering from the standard (kinetic) sputtering in changing the chemical composition and erosion rate of the lunar surface. Also we study the contribution of potential sputtering in developing the lunar exosphere. Our results show that potential sputtering enhances the total characteristic sputtering erosion rate by about 44%, and reduces sputtering time scales by the same amount. Potential sputtering also introduces more material into the lunar exosphere.

  14. Magnetometer calibration and test procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squier, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear waste has been sluiced and pumped from storage tank 241-AX-104, leaving a contaminated heel volume. These operations did not include measurements of the removed waste volume leaving an unknown heel volume in the tank. A magnetometer transducer will be lowered through tank riser ports to rest on the heel's surface. The heel thickness will control the distance between the transducer and the tank's bottom The instrument's output varies with the distance from a magnetic mass, such as the tank's steel bottom, thereby enabling a measurement of the heel depth. Measurements at several tank locations will permit an estimate of the tank's heel volume. The magnetometer's output is influenced by adjacent magnetic materials, such as the tank walls, air lift circulators or other equipment installed in the tank. An adjacent vertical steel surface produces a voltage offset in the instrument's output. Measurements near a tank wall or other tank components may be corrected by noting the offset before the instrument's output is influenced by the tank bottom. An unlevel or uneven heel surface could orient the magnetometer transducer so that it is not vertically level. The magnetometer readings are influenced by these skewed transducer orientations. The magnitude of these errors and offsets must be characterized to bound the heel volume estimate range. The data collected by this activity will be statistically analyzed by SESC to state the confidence level of the heel volume estimates. A test report will document the results of the measurements

  15. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  16. Evidence for Surface Water Ice in the Lunar Polar Regions Using Reflectance Measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and Temperature Measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5 deg of latitude of theSouth Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near approximately 110K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5 deg from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10 deg to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al. 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200K and possibly at 300K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. 2015 based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  17. Evidence for surface water ice in the lunar polar regions using reflectance measurements from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter and temperature measurements from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Lucey, Paul G.; Lemelin, Myriam; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Siegler, Matthew A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Aharonson, Oded; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Hayne, Paul O.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Paige, David A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2017-08-01

    We find that the reflectance of the lunar surface within 5° of latitude of the South Pole increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, near ∼110 K, behavior consistent with the presence of surface water ice. The North polar region does not show this behavior, nor do South polar surfaces at latitudes more than 5° from the pole. This South pole reflectance anomaly persists when analysis is limited to surfaces with slopes less than 10° to eliminate false detection due to the brightening effect of mass wasting, and also when the very bright south polar crater Shackleton is excluded from the analysis. We also find that south polar regions of permanent shadow that have been reported to be generally brighter at 1064 nm do not show anomalous reflectance when their annual maximum surface temperatures are too high to preserve water ice. This distinction is not observed at the North Pole. The reflectance excursion on surfaces with maximum temperatures below 110 K is superimposed on a general trend of increasing reflectance with decreasing maximum temperature that is present throughout the polar regions in the north and south; we attribute this trend to a temperature or illumination-dependent space weathering effect (e.g. Hemingway et al., 2015). We also find a sudden increase in reflectance with decreasing temperature superimposed on the general trend at 200 K and possibly at 300 K. This may indicate the presence of other volatiles such as sulfur or organics. We identified and mapped surfaces with reflectances so high as to be unlikely to be part of an ice-free population. In this south we find a similar distribution found by Hayne et al. (2015) based on UV properties. In the north a cluster of pixels near that pole may represent a limited frost exposure.

  18. Stair-Step Particle Flux Spectra on the Lunar Surface: Evidence for Nonmonotonic Potentials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Newheart, Anastasia; Poppe, Andrew R.; Hills, H. Kent; Farrell, William M.

    2016-01-01

    We present examples of unusual "stair-step" differential flux spectra observed by the Apollo 14 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment on the lunar dayside surface in Earth's magnetotail. These spectra exhibit a relatively constant differential flux below some cutoff energy and then drop off precipitously, by about an order of magnitude or more, at higher energies. We propose that these spectra result from photoions accelerated on the lunar dayside by nonmonotonic potentials (i.e.,potentials that do not decay to zero monotonically) and present a model for the expected differential flux. The energy of the cutoff and the magnitude of the differential flux are related to the properties of the local space environment and are consistent with the observed flux spectra. If this interpretation is correct, these surface-based ion observations provide a unique perspective that both complements and enhances the conclusions obtained by remote-sensing orbiter observations on the Moon's exospheric and electrostatic properties.

  19. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  20. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  1. Tuned cavity magnetometer sensitivity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2009-09-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (magnetometer that utilizes a novel optical (interferometric) detection technique. Further miniaturization and low-power operation are key advantages of this magnetometer, when compared to systems using SQUIDs which require liquid Helium temperatures and associated overhead to achieve similar sensitivity levels.

  2. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  3. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  4. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  5. Path Loss Prediction Over the Lunar Surface Utilizing a Modified Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.

  6. Design and characterization of a low cost CubeSat multi-band optical receiver to map water ice on the lunar surface for the Lunar Flashlight mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier, Quentin; Crabtree, Karlton; Paine, Christopher G.; Hayne, Paul O.; Sellar, Glenn R.

    2017-08-01

    Lunar Flashlight is an innovative NASA CubeSat mission dedicated to mapping water ice in the permanently shadowed regions of the Moon, which may act as cold traps for volatiles. To this end, a multi-band reflectometer will be sent to orbit the Moon. This instrument consists of an optical receiver aligned with four lasers, each of which emits sequentially at a different wavelength in the near-infrared between 1 μm and 2 μm. The receiver measures the laser light reflected from the lunar surface; continuum/absorption band ratios are then analyzed to quantify water ice in the illuminated spot. Here, we present the current state of the optical receiver design. To optimize the optical signal-to-noise ratio, we have designed the receiver so as to maximize the laser signal collected, while minimizing the stray light reaching the detector from solarilluminated areas of the lunar surface outside the field-of-view, taking into account the complex lunar topography. Characterization plans are also discussed. This highly mass- and volume-constrained mission will demonstrate several firsts, including being one of the first CubeSats performing science measurements beyond low Earth orbit.

  7. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  8. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  9. Multi-rover navigation on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Borys; Banaszkiewicz, Marek

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents a method of determination an accurate position of a target (rover, immobile sensor, astronaut) on surface of the Moon or other celestial body devoid of navigation infrastructure (like Global Positioning System), by using a group of self-calibrating rovers, which serves as mobile reference points. The rovers are equipped with low-precision clocks synchronized by external broadcasting signal, to measure the moments of receiving radio signals sent by localized target. Based on the registered times, distances between transmitter and receivers installed on beacons are calculated. Each rover determines and corrects its own absolute position and orientation by using odometry navigation and measurements of relative distances and angles to other mobile reference points. Accuracy of navigation has been improved by the use of a calibration algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter, which uses internal encoder readings as inputs and relative measurements of distances and orientations between beacons as feedback information. The key idea in obtaining reliable values of absolute position and orientation of beacons is to first calibrate one of the rovers, using the remaining ones as reference points and then allow the whole group to move together and calibrate all the rovers in-motion. We consider a number of cases, in which basic modeling parameters such as terrain roughness, formation size and shape as well as availability of distance and angle measurements are varied.

  10. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  11. Assessment of Scheduling and Plan Execution of Apollo 14 Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.

    2010-01-01

    Although over forty years have passed since first landing on the Moon, there is not yet a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of Apollo extravehicular activities (EVAs). Quantitatively evaluating lunar EVAs will provide a better understanding of the challenges involved with surface operations. This first evaluation of a surface EVA centers on comparing the planned and the as-ran timeline, specifically collecting data on discrepancies between durations that were estimated versus executed. Differences were summarized by task categories in order to gain insight as to the type of surface operation activities that were most challenging. One Apollo 14 EVA was assessed utilizing the described methodology. Selected metrics and task categorizations were effective, and limitations to this process were identified.

  12. PHOTOMETRIC STEREO SHAPE-AND-ALBEDO-FROM-SHADING FOR PIXEL-LEVEL RESOLUTION LUNAR SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS techniques recover pixel-wise surface details based on the relationship between terrain slopes, illumination and imaging geometry, and the energy response (i.e., image intensity captured by the sensing system. Multiple images with different illumination geometries (i.e., photometric stereo can provide better SAfS surface reconstruction due to the increase in observations. Photometric stereo SAfS is suitable for detailed surface reconstruction of the Moon and other extra-terrestrial bodies due to the availability of photometric stereo and the less complex surface reflecting properties (i.e., albedo of the target bodies as compared to the Earth. Considering only one photometric stereo pair (i.e., two images, pixel-variant albedo is still a major obstacle to satisfactory reconstruction and it needs to be regulated by the SAfS algorithm. The illumination directional difference between the two images also becomes an important factor affecting the reconstruction quality. This paper presents a photometric stereo SAfS algorithm for pixel-level resolution lunar surface reconstruction. The algorithm includes a hierarchical optimization architecture for handling pixel-variant albedo and improving performance. With the use of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC photometric stereo images, the reconstructed topography (i.e., the DEM is compared with the DEM produced independently by photogrammetric methods. This paper also addresses the effect of illumination directional difference in between one photometric stereo pair on the reconstruction quality of the proposed algorithm by both mathematical and experimental analysis. In this case, LROC NAC images under multiple illumination directions are utilized by the proposed algorithm for experimental comparison. The mathematical derivation suggests an illumination azimuthal difference of 90 degrees between two images is recommended to achieve

  13. Observation of the lunar surface by GRS in KAGUYA (SELENE). To solve mystery of moon and manned landing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasebe, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2009-01-01

    The researches, resources and environment of the moon are reported. The main results such as the magma ocean hypothesis by the Apollo program, the lunar map by Clementine probe and the concentration of Th in the moon by Lunar Prospector probe are explained. B.L. Jolliff et al. proposed the moon consisted of three areas such as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), South-Pole Aitken Terrane (SPAT) and Feldspathic Highland Terrane (FHT). The radiations on the lunar surface contain the galactic cosmic ray, solar particle event, second particles produced by interaction between the high energy particles and the materials on the lunar surface, and natural radioactivity from U, Th and K. The gamma ray spectrum on the lunar surface observed by Kaguya gamma ray spectrometer (KGRS) showed the very sharp spectrum of O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, K, Ti, Fe, Th and U. The distribution of Th in PKT, SPAT and FHT was shown. The outline of KGRS, the energy resolutions of many kinds of gamma ray spectrometers, and the gamma ray energies of main elements are illustrated. (S.Y.)

  14. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  15. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  16. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter

    2010-11-02

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  17. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  18. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test

  19. GOES Space Environment Monitor, Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three orthogonal flux-gate magnetometer elements, (spinning twin fluxgate magnetometer prior to GOES-8) provide magnetic field measurements in three mutually...

  20. Scalar magnetometers for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz

    A survey of existing instrumentation and developments is presented emphasizing instrumentation for in-flight calibration of vector magnetometers on magnetic mapping missions. Proton free or forced precession magnetometers are at the focus as calibration references, because the proton gyromagnetic...

  1. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  2. A comparison of two systems for lunar surface remote and mobile power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, W.R.; Otting, W.D.; Hunt, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) is now being developed by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) and NASA-LeRC for space power applications. Some conceptualizations of an isotope powered FPSE have been proposed. The performance characteristics of the proposed 2.5-kWe Stirling Isotope Power (STIP) system were developed for lunar surface remote and mobile applications. The Stirling system configuration uses a nonredundant power conversion system coupled to an annular heat source assembly (HSA) using an array of sodium heat pipes which transfer energy from the annular general-purpose heat source (GPHS) stack within the HSA to the Stirling heater head. The Stirling engine uses a dual-opposed piston design with heater head coupling. The engine coolers are connected to a single-pumped coolant loop, which rejects the cycle's waste heat to a radiator. Quantitative information, such as mass, area, and efficiency, are reported for the system. The results of a qualitative evaluation of the proposed STIP system against the desirable attributes of a lunar-based isotope power system are presented. Alternate configurations are also presented

  3. Ceramics for Molten Materials Containment, Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standish, Evan; Stefanescu, Doru M.; Curreri, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a project on Molten Materials Transfer and Handling on the Lunar Surface, molten materials containment samples of various ceramics were tested to determine their performance in contact with a melt of lunar regolith simulant. The test temperature was 1600 C with contact times ranging from 0 to 12 hours. Regolith simulant was pressed into cylinders with the approximate dimensions of 1.25 dia x 1.25cm height and then melted on ceramic substrates. The regolith-ceramic interface was examined after processing to determine the melt/ceramic interaction. It was found that the molten regolith wetted all oxide ceramics tested extremely well which resulted in chemical reaction between the materials in each case. Alumina substrates were identified which withstood contact at the operating temperature of a molten regolith electrolysis cell (1600 C) for eight hours with little interaction or deformation. This represents an improvement over alumina grades currently in use and will provide a lifetime adequate for electrolysis experiments lasting 24 hours or more. Two types of non-oxide ceramics were also tested. It was found that they interacted to a limited degree with the melt resulting in little corrosion. These ceramics, Sic and BN, were not wetted as well as the oxides by the melt, and so remain possible materials for molten regolith handling. Tests wing longer holding periods and larger volumes of regolith are necessary to determine the ultimate performance of the tested ceramics.

  4. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  5. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Anderson, B. J.; Baumjohann, W.; Bromund, K. R.; Dearborn, D.; Fischer, D.; Le, G.; Leinweber, H. K.; Leneman, D.; Magnes, W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The success of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission depends on the accurate measurement of the magnetic field on all four spacecraft. To ensure this success, two independently designed and built fluxgate magnetometers were developed, avoiding single-point failures. The magnetometers were dubbed the digital fluxgate (DFG), which uses an ASIC implementation and was supplied by the Space Research Institute of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the analogue magnetometer (AFG) with a more traditional circuit board design supplied by the University of California, Los Angeles. A stringent magnetic cleanliness program was executed under the supervision of the Johns Hopkins University,s Applied Physics Laboratory. To achieve mission objectives, the calibration determined on the ground will be refined in space to ensure all eight magnetometers are precisely inter-calibrated. Near real-time data plays a key role in the transmission of high-resolution observations stored onboard so rapid processing of the low-resolution data is required. This article describes these instruments, the magnetic cleanliness program, and the instrument pre-launch calibrations, the planned in-flight calibration program, and the information flow that provides the data on the rapid time scale needed for mission success.

  6. Surface erosion and sedimentation caused by ejecta from the lunar crater Tycho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Basilevsky, A.; Kaydash, V.; Ivanov, B.; Korokhin, V.; Videen, G.

    2018-02-01

    We use Kaguya MI images acquired at wavelengths 415, 750, and 950 nm to map TiO2 and FeO content and the parameter of optical maturity OMAT in lunar regions Lubiniezky E and Taurus-Littrow with a spatial resolution of 20 m using the Lucey method [Lucey et al., JGR 2000, 105. 20,297]. We show that some ejecta from large craters, such as Tycho and Copernicus may cause lunar surface erosion, transportation of the eroded material and its sedimentation. The traces of the erosion resemble wind tails observed on Earth, Mars, and Venus, although the Moon has no atmosphere. The highland material of the local topographic prominences could be mobilized by Tycho's granolometrically fine ejecta and caused by its transportation along the ejecta way to adjacent mare areas and subsequent deposition. The tails of mobilized material reveal lower abundances of Ti and Fe than the surrounding mare surface. We have concluded that high-Ti streaks also seen in the Lubiniezky E site, which show unusual combinations of the TiO2 and FeO content on the correlation diagram, could be the result of erosion by Tycho's ejecta too. In these locations, Tycho's material did not form a consolidated deposit, but resulted in erosion of the mare surface material that became intermixed, consequently, diluting the ejecta. The Taurus-Littrow did provide evidence of the mechanical effect of Tycho's ejecta on the local landforms (landslide, secondary craters) and do not show the compositional signature of Tycho's ejecta probably due to intermixing with local materials and dilution.

  7. Silent Localization of Underwater Sensors Using Magnetometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Callmer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensor localization is a central problem for sensor networks. If the sensor positions are uncertain, the target tracking ability of the sensor network is reduced. Sensor localization in underwater environments is traditionally addressed using acoustic range measurements involving known anchor or surface nodes. We explore the usage of triaxial magnetometers and a friendly vessel with known magnetic dipole to silently localize the sensors. The ferromagnetic field created by the dipole is measured by the magnetometers and is used to localize the sensors. The trajectory of the vessel and the sensor positions are estimated simultaneously using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF. Simulations show that the sensors can be accurately positioned using magnetometers.

  8. A Study of Parallels Between Antarctica South Pole Traverse Equipment and Lunar/Mars Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Hoffman, Stephen, J.; Thur, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The parallels between an actual Antarctica South Pole re-supply traverse conducted by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Office of Polar Programs in 2009 have been studied with respect to the latest mission architecture concepts being generated by the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for lunar and Mars surface systems scenarios. The challenges faced by both endeavors are similar since they must both deliver equipment and supplies to support operations in an extreme environment with little margin for error in order to be successful. By carefully and closely monitoring the manifesting and operational support equipment lists which will enable this South Pole traverse, functional areas have been identified. The equipment required to support these functions will be listed with relevant properties such as mass, volume, spare parts and maintenance schedules. This equipment will be compared to space systems currently in use and projected to be required to support equivalent and parallel functions in Lunar and Mars missions in order to provide a level of realistic benchmarking. Space operations have historically required significant amounts of support equipment and tools to operate and maintain the space systems that are the primary focus of the mission. By gaining insight and expertise in Antarctic South Pole traverses, space missions can use the experience gained over the last half century of Antarctic operations in order to design for operations, maintenance, dual use, robustness and safety which will result in a more cost effective, user friendly, and lower risk surface system on the Moon and Mars. It is anticipated that the U.S Antarctic Program (USAP) will also realize benefits for this interaction with NASA in at least two areas: an understanding of how NASA plans and carries out its missions and possible improved efficiency through factors such as weight savings, alternative technologies, or modifications in training and

  9. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  10. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.

    2012-01-01

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  11. Cross-calibration of Medium Resolution Earth Observing Satellites by Using EO-1 Hyperion-derived Spectral Surface Reflectance from "Lunar Cal Sites"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, S.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, the Earth Observing-one (EO-1) Hyperion imaging spectrometer was used to slowly scan the lunar surface at a rate which results in up to 32X oversampling to effectively increase the SNR. Several strategies, including comparison against the USGS RObotic Lunar Observatory (ROLO) mode,l are being employed to estimate the absolute and relative accuracy of the measurement set. There is an existing need to resolve discrepancies as high as 10% between ROLO and solar based calibration of current NASA EOS assets. Although the EO-1 mission was decommissioned at the end of March 2017, the development of a well-characterized exoatmospheric spectral radiometric database, for a range of lunar phase angles surrounding the fully illuminated moon, continues. Initial studies include a comprehensive analysis of the existing 17-year collection of more than 200 monthly lunar acquisitions. Specific lunar surface areas, such as a lunar mare, are being characterized as potential "lunar calibration sites" in terms of their radiometric stability in the presence of lunar nutation and libration. Site specific Hyperion-derived lunar spectral reflectance are being compared against spectrographic measurements made during the Apollo program. Techniques developed through this activity can be employed by future high-quality orbiting imaging spectrometers (such as HyspIRI and EnMap) to further refine calibration accuracies. These techniques will enable the consistent cross calibration of existing and future earth observing systems (spectral and multi-spectral) including those that do not have lunar viewing capability. When direct lunar viewing is not an option for an earth observing asset, orbiting imaging spectrometers can serve as transfer radiometers relating that asset's sensor response to lunar values through near contemporaneous observations of well characterized stable CEOS test sites. Analysis of this dataset will lead to the development of strategies to ensure more

  12. THOR Fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Eastwood, Jonathan; Magnes, Werner; Carr, Christopher, M.; O'Brien, Helen, L.; Narita, Yasuhito; K, Chen, Christopher H.; Berghofer, Gerhard; Valavanoglou, Aris; Delva, Magda; Plaschke, Ferdinand; Cupido, Emanuele; Soucek, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The fluxgate Magnetometer (MAG) measures the background to low frequency magnetic field. The high sensitivity measurements of MAG enable to characterize the nature of turbulent fluctuations as well as the large-scale context. MAG will provide the reference system for determining anisotropy of field fluctuations, pitch-angle and gyro-phase of particles. The design of the magnetometer consists of two tri-axial sensors and the related magnetometer electronics; the electronics are hosted on printed circuit boards in the common electronics box of the fields and wave processor (FWP). A fully redundant two- sensor system mounted on a common boom and the new miniaturized low noise design based on MMS and Solar Orbiter instruments enable accurate measurement throughout the region of interest for THOR science. The usage of the common electronics hosted by FWP guarantees to fulfill the required timing accuracy with other fields measurements. These improvements are important to obtain precise measurements of magnetic field, which is essential to estimate basic plasma parameters and correctly identify the spatial and temporal scales of the turbulence. Furthermore, THOR MAG provides high quality data with sufficient overlap with the Search Coil Magnetometer (SCM) in frequency space to obtain full coverage of the wave forms over all the frequencies necessary to obtain the full solar wind turbulence spectrum from MHD to kinetic range with sufficient accuracy. We discuss the role of MAG in THOR key science questions and present the new developments during Phase A such as the finalised instrument design, MAG relevant requirement, and new calibraion schemes.

  13. The IRM fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehr, H.; Kloecker, N.; Oelschlaegel, W.; Haeusler, B.; Acuna, M.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the three-axis fluxgate magnetometer instrument on board the AMPTE IRM spacecraft. Important features of the instrument are its wide dynamic range (0.1-60,000 nT), a high resolution (16-bit analog to digital conversion) and the capability to operate automatically or via telecommand in two gain states. In addition, the wave activity is monitored in all three components up to 50 Hz. Inflight checkout proved the nominal functioning of the instrument in all modes.

  14. Cryostats for SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, O.A.; Locatelli, M.

    1982-05-01

    A non metallic and non magnetic cryostat, with a very low thermal budget and a container type autonomy was developed, to condition S.Q.U.I.D. magnetometers which maximum sensitivity reaches 10 -14 Tesla Hertzsup(-1/2). This instrumentation puts in hand new concepts of composite materials, thermal shock and vibration resistant, multilayer thermal radiative insulation also to the prouve of vibrations with thermal equivalent emissivity lower than 10 -3

  15. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  16. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  17. A Comparison of Fission Power System Options for Lunar and Mars Surface Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comparison of reactor and power conversion design options for 50 kWe class lunar and Mars surface power applications with scaling from 25 to 200 kWe. Design concepts and integration approaches are provided for three reactor-converter combinations: gas-cooled Brayton, liquid-metal Stirling, and liquid-metal thermoelectric. The study examines the mass and performance of low temperature, stainless steel based reactors and higher temperature refractory reactors. The preferred system implementation approach uses crew-assisted assembly and in-situ radiation shielding via installation of the reactor in an excavated hole. As an alternative, self-deployable system concepts that use earth-delivered, on-board radiation shielding are evaluated. The analyses indicate that among the 50 kWe stainless steel reactor options, the liquid-metal Stirling system provides the lowest mass at about 5300 kg followed by the gas-cooled Brayton at 5700 kg and the liquid-metal thermoelectric at 8400 kg. The use of a higher temperature, refractory reactor favors the gas-cooled Brayton option with a system mass of about 4200 kg as compared to the Stirling and thermoelectric options at 4700 kg and 5600 kg, respectively. The self-deployed concepts with on-board shielding result in a factor of two system mass increase as compared to the in-situ shielded concepts

  18. In Situ Lunar Surface Measurements Via Miniature Gas Chromatography, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) has placed a high priority on determining the nature, distribution and transport of volatiles on the moon. The objective...

  19. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  20. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  1. Scalar Calibration of Vector Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter; Primdahl, Fritz

    2000-01-01

    The calibration parameters of a vector magnetometer are estimated only by the use of a scalar reference magnetometer. The method presented in this paper differs from those previously reported in its linearized parametrization. This allows the determination of three offsets or signals in the absence...

  2. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  3. 100 kWe lunar/Mars surface power utilizing the SP-100 reactor with dynamic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.; Mason, L.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on an integration study which was performed coupling an SP-100 reactor with either a Brayton of Stirling power conversion subsystem. a power level of 100 kWe was selected for the study. The power system was to be compatible with both the lunar and Mars surface environment and require no site preparation. In addition, the reactor was to have integral shielding and be completely self-contained, including its own auxiliary power for start-up. Initial reliability studies were performed to determine power conversion redundancy and engine module size. For the lunar environment, the reactor and primary coolant loop would be contained in a guard vessel to protect from a loss of primary loop containment. For the Mars environment, all refractory components including the reactor, primary coolant, and power conversion components would be contained in a vacuum vessel for protection against the CO 2 environment

  4. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  5. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  6. High Accuracy Vector Helium Magnetometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed HAVHM instrument is a laser-pumped helium magnetometer with both triaxial vector and omnidirectional scalar measurement capabilities in a single...

  7. Optical Magnetometer Incorporating Photonic Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; Florescu, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    According to a proposal, photonic crystals would be used to greatly increase the sensitivities of optical magnetometers that are already regarded as ultrasensitive. The proposal applies, more specifically, to a state-of-the-art type of quantum coherent magnetometer that exploits the electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) method for determining a small change in a magnetic field indirectly via measurement of the shift, induced by that change, in the hyperfine levels of resonant atoms exposed to the field.

  8. A New Moonquake Catalog from Apollo 17 Seismic Data II: Lunar Surface Gravimeter: Implications of Expanding the Passive Seismic Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.; Dimech, J. L.; Weber, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    Apollo 17's Lunar Surface Gravimeter (LSG) was deployed on the Moon in 1972, and was originally intended to detect gravitational waves as a confirmation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Due to a design problem, the instrument did not function as intended. However, remotely-issued reconfiguration commands permitted the instrument to act effectively as a passive seismometer. LSG recorded continuously until Sept. 1977, when all surface data recording was terminated. Because the instrument did not meet its primary science objective, little effort was made to archive the data. Most of it was eventually lost, with the exception of data spanning the period March 1976 until Sept. 1977, and a recent investigation demonstrated that LSG data do contain moonquake signals (Kawamura et al., 2015). The addition of useable seismic data at the Apollo 17 site has important implications for event location schemes, which improve with increasing data coverage. All previous seismic event location attempts were limited to the four stations deployed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 sites. Apollo 17 extends the functional aperture of the seismic array significantly to the east, permitting more accurate moonquake locations and improved probing of the lunar interior. Using the standard location technique of linearized arrival time inversion through a known velocity model, Kawamura et al. (2015) used moonquake signals detected in the LSG data to refine location estimates for 49 deep moonquake clusters, and constrained new locations for five previously un-located clusters. Recent efforts of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package Data Recovery Focus Group have recovered some of the previously lost LSG data, spanning the time period April 2, 1975 to June 30, 1975. In this study, we expand Kawamura's analysis to the newly recovered data, which contain over 200 known seismic signals, including deep moonquakes, shallow moonquakes, and meteorite impacts. We have completed initial

  9. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; hide

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

  10. The evolution of impact basins - Viscous relaxation of topographic relief. [for lunar surface modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S. C.; Comer, R. P.; Head, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    A topographic profile of the young large lunar basin, Orientale, is presented in order to examine the effects of viscous relaxation on basin topography. Analytical models for viscous flow are considered, showing a wavelength-dependence of time constants for viscous decay on the decrease in viscosity with depth and on the extent of the isostatic compensation of the initial topography. Lunar rheological models which are developed include a half-space model for uniform Newtonian viscosity, density, and gravitational acceleration, a layer over inviscid half space model with material inviscid over geological time scales, and a layer with isostatic compensation where a uniformly viscous layer overlies an inviscid half space of higher density. Greater roughness is concluded, and has been observed, on the moon's dark side due to continued lower temperatures since the time of heavy bombardment.

  11. Solar Wind Implantation into Lunar Regolith II: Monte Carlo Simulations of Hydrogen Retention in a Surface with Defects and the Hydrogen (H, H2) Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, O. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Killen, R. M.; Hurley, D. M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the near-infrared observations of the OH veneer on the lunar surface by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) have been refined to constrain the OH content to 500-750 parts per million (ppm). The observations indicate diurnal variations in OH up to 200 ppm possibly linked to warmer surface temperatures at low latitude. We examine the M3 observations using a statistical mechanics approach to model the diffusion of implanted H in the lunar regolith. We present results from Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of implanted solar wind H atoms and the subsequently derived H and H2 exospheres.

  12. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  13. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  14. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  15. Magnetogama: an open schematic magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi; Khakhim, Nurul; Kuntoro, Tri; Mardiatno, Djati; Rakhman, Afif; Setyo Handaru, Anas; Akhmad Mufaqih, Adien; Marwan Irnaka, Theodosius

    2017-09-01

    Magnetogama is an open schematic hand-assembled fluxgate magnetometer. Compared to another magnetometer, Magnetogama has more benefit concerning its price and its ease of use. Practically Magnetogama can be utilized either in land or attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Magnetogama was designed to give open access to a cheap and accurate alternative to magnetometer sensor. Therefore it can be used as a standard design which is directly applicable to the low-budget company or education purposes. Schematic, code and several verification tests were presented in this article ensuring its reproducibility. Magnetogama has been tested with two kind of tests: a comparison with two nearest observatories at Learmonth (LRM) and Kakadu (KDU) and the response of magnetic substance.

  16. Magnetogama: an open schematic magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetogama is an open schematic hand-assembled fluxgate magnetometer. Compared to another magnetometer, Magnetogama has more benefit concerning its price and its ease of use. Practically Magnetogama can be utilized either in land or attached to an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. Magnetogama was designed to give open access to a cheap and accurate alternative to magnetometer sensor. Therefore it can be used as a standard design which is directly applicable to the low-budget company or education purposes. Schematic, code and several verification tests were presented in this article ensuring its reproducibility. Magnetogama has been tested with two kind of tests: a comparison with two nearest observatories at Learmonth (LRM and Kakadu (KDU and the response of magnetic substance.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti < 1) at 40-50 nm below the grain surface [1,3]. These compositional changes are not observed in the radiation-processed rims on silicates [4]. Several mechanism(s) to explain the overall relations in the ilmenite grain rims by radiation processing and/or additional space weathering processes were proposed by [1], and remain under current consideration [3]. A key issue has concerned the ability of ion radiation processing alone to produce some of the deeper- penetrating compositional changes. In order to provide some experimental constraints on these questions, we have performed a combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and field-emission scanning transmission electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  18. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-01-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed. (paper)

  19. Digital fluxgate magnetometer: design notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyayev, Serhiy; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-12-01

    We presented an approach to understanding the performance of a fully digital fluxgate magnetometer. All elements of the design are important for the performance of the instrument, and the presence of the digital feed-back loop introduces certain peculiarities affecting the noise and dynamic performance of the instrument. Ultimately, the quantisation noise of the digital to analogue converter is found to dominate the noise of the current design, although noise shaping alleviates its effect to some extent. An example of magnetometer measurements on board a sounding rocket is presented, and ways to further improve the performance of the instrument are discussed.

  20. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  1. Lunar Surface Scenarios: Habitation and Life Support Systems for a Pressurized Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Hanford, Anthony; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Pressurized rovers will be a critical component of successful lunar exploration to enable safe investigation of sites distant from the outpost location. A pressurized rover is a complex system with the same functions as any other crewed vehicle. Designs for a pressurized rover need to take into account significant constraints, a multitude of tasks to be performed inside and out, and the complexity of life support systems to support the crew. In future studies, pressurized rovers should be given the same level of consideration as any other vehicle occupied by the crew.

  2. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  3. Effects of illumination differences on photometric stereo shape-and-albedo-from-shading for precision lunar surface reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung Liu, Wai; Wu, Bo; Wöhler, Christian

    2018-02-01

    Photoclinometric surface reconstruction techniques such as Shape-from-Shading (SfS) and Shape-and-Albedo-from-Shading (SAfS) retrieve topographic information of a surface on the basis of the reflectance information embedded in the image intensity of each pixel. SfS or SAfS techniques have been utilized to generate pixel-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Moon and other planetary bodies. Photometric stereo SAfS analyzes images under multiple illumination conditions to improve the robustness of reconstruction. In this case, the directional difference in illumination between the images is likely to affect the quality of the reconstruction result. In this study, we quantitatively investigate the effects of illumination differences on photometric stereo SAfS. Firstly, an algorithm for photometric stereo SAfS is developed, and then, an error model is derived to analyze the relationships between the azimuthal and zenith angles of illumination of the images and the reconstruction qualities. The developed algorithm and error model were verified with high-resolution images collected by the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC). Experimental analyses reveal that (1) the resulting error in photometric stereo SAfS depends on both the azimuthal and the zenith angles of illumination as well as the general intensity of the images and (2) the predictions from the proposed error model are consistent with the actual slope errors obtained by photometric stereo SAfS using the LROC NAC images. The proposed error model enriches the theory of photometric stereo SAfS and is of significance for optimized lunar surface reconstruction based on SAfS techniques.

  4. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  5. Low Cost, Low Power, High Sensitivity Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    which are used to measure the small magnetic signals from brain. Other types of vector magnetometers are fluxgate , coil based, and magnetoresistance...concentrator with the magnetometer currently used in Army multimodal sensor systems, the Brown fluxgate . One sees the MEMS fluxgate magnetometer is...Guedes, A.; et al., 2008: Hybrid - LOW COST, LOW POWER, HIGH SENSITIVITY MAGNETOMETER A.S. Edelstein*, James E. Burnette, Greg A. Fischer, M.G

  6. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  7. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  8. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of

  9. An Arduino-Based Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Mike

    2017-01-01

    An Arduino-based system with a triple axis magnetometer chip may be used to plot both the strength and direction of the magnetic field of a magnet directly on a sheet of paper. Before taking measurements, it is necessary either to correct for or to eliminate soft and hard iron effects. The same sensor may be used to determine the presence of soft…

  10. Lunar near-surface shear wave velocities at the Apollo landing sites as inferred from spectral amplitude ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P.; Latham, G. V.; Nakamura, Y.; Dorman, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratios of the long-period seismograms are reexamined to determine the shear wave velocity distributions at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 lunar landing sites. Average spectral ratios, computed from a number of impact signals, were compared with spectral ratios calculated for the fundamental mode Rayleigh waves in media consisting of homogeneous, isotropic, horizontal layers. The shear velocities of the best fitting models at the different sites resemble each other and differ from the average for all sites by not more than 20% except for the bottom layer at station 14. The shear velocities increase from 40 m/s at the surface to about 400 m/s at depths between 95 and 160 m at the various sites. Within this depth range the velocity-depth functions are well represented by two piecewise linear segments, although the presence of first-order discontinuities cannot be ruled out.

  11. Induction Magnetometers – Design Peculiarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy KOREPANOV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Induction or search-coil magnetometers (IM are widely used in many branches of science and industry. The frequency range and dynamic range of IMs are probably the widest of all existing magnetometers: they are used for the measurement of magnetic field variations in the frequency band from ~10-4 till ~106 Hz with the intensities from fractions of femtotesla till tens of tesla. This explains the permanent interest to IM design and the attempts to construct the IMs with best possible parameters. The present paper deals with the peculiarities of IM design. An attempt to re-establish the correctness of priorities in the field is made and the approaches to the IM optimization and their quality estimation are described.

  12. Atomic magnetometer for human magnetoencephalograpy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwindt, Peter; Johnson, Cort N.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a high sensitivity (<5 fTesla/{radical}Hz), fiber-optically coupled magnetometer to detect magnetic fields produced by the human brain. This is the first demonstration of a noncryogenic sensor that could replace cryogenic superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometers in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and is an important advance in realizing cost-effective MEG. Within the sensor, a rubidium vapor is optically pumped with 795 laser light while field-induced optical rotations are measured with 780 nm laser light. Both beams share a single optical axis to maximize simplicity and compactness. In collaboration with neuroscientists at The Mind Research Network in Albuquerque, NM, the evoked responses resulting from median nerve and auditory stimulation were recorded with the atomic magnetometer and a commercial SQUID-based MEG system with signals comparing favorably. Multi-sensor operation has been demonstrated with two AMs placed on opposite sides of the head. Straightforward miniaturization would enable high-density sensor arrays for whole-head magnetoencephalography.

  13. Thermal System Modeling for Lunar and Martian Surface Regenerative Fuel Cell Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ryan Patrick; Smith, Phillip James; Jakupca, Ian Joseph; Bennett, William Raymond; Guzik, Monica Christine; Fincannon, Homer J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Advanced Modular Power Systems (AMPS) Project is investigating different power systems for various lunar and Martian mission concepts. The AMPS Fuel Cell (FC) team has created two system-level models to evaluate the performance of regenerative fuel cell (RFC) systems employing different fuel cell chemistries. Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells PEMFCs contain a polymer electrolyte membrane that separates the hydrogen and oxygen cavities and conducts hydrogen cations (protons) across the cell. Solid Oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures, using a zirconia-based solid ceramic electrolyte to conduct oxygen anions across the cell. The purpose of the modeling effort is to down select one fuel cell chemistry for a more detailed design effort. Figures of merit include the system mass, volume, round trip efficiency, and electrolyzer charge power required. PEMFCs operate at around 60 degrees Celsius versus SOFCs which operate at temperatures greater than 700 degrees Celsius. Due to the drastically different operating temperatures of the two chemistries the thermal control systems (TCS) differ. The PEM TCS is less complex and is characterized by a single pump cooling loop that uses deionized water coolant and rejects heat generated by the system to the environment via a radiator. The solid oxide TCS has its own unique challenges including the requirement to reject high quality heat and to condense the steam produced in the reaction. This paper discusses the modeling of thermal control systems for an extraterrestrial RFC that utilizes either a PEM or solid oxide fuel cell.

  14. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  15. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  16. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  17. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  18. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  19. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  20. Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki J.; Fiske, Michael R.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.; Khoshnevis, Berokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in situ materials will become increasingly critical. As human presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for the self-sufficiency and sustainability necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In-Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the jointly-managed MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in-situ resources. One such additive construction technology is known as Contour Crafting. This paper presents the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer deposition using this process. Conceived initially for rapid development of cementitious structures on Earth, it also lends itself exceptionally well to the automated fabrication of planetary surface structures using minimally processed regolith as aggregate, and binders developed from in situ materials as well. This process has been used successfully in the fabrication of

  1. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  2. Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2010-1056 Vector Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX Mark B. Moldwin UCLA Institute of Geophysics... Fluxgate Magnetometer (VMAG) Development for DSX 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark B. Moldwin 5d. PROJECT...axis fluxgate magnetometer for the AFRL-mission. The instrument is designed to measure the medium-Earth orbit geomagnetic field with precision of 0.1

  3. Hall probe magnetometer for SSC magnet cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.W.; Goldfarb, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper constructed a Hall probe magnetometer to measure the magnetization hysteresis loops of Superconducting Super Collider magnet cables. The instrument uses two Hall-effect field sensors to measure the applied field H and the magnetic induction B. Magnetization M is calculated from the difference of the two quantities. The Hall probes are centered coaxially in the bore of a superconducting solenoid with the B probe against the sample's broad surface. An alternative probe arrangement, in which M is measured directly, aligns the sample probe parallel to the field. The authors measured M as a function of H and field cycle rate both with and without a dc transport current. Flux creep as a function of current was measured from the dependence of ac loss on the cycling rate and from the decay of magnetization with time. Transport currents up to 20% of the critical current have minimal effect on magnetization and flux creep

  4. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Minute Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-minute average of Level 1 data

  5. DSCOVR Magnetometer Level 2 One Second Averages

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Interplanetary magnetic field observations collected from magnetometer on DSCOVR satellite - 1-second average of Level 1 data

  6. Evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and 802.16 for Lunar Surface Exploration Missions Using MACHETE Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John; Jennings, Esther; Vyas, Hemali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the suitability of terrestrial wireless networking technologies for lunar surface exploration missions. Specifically, the scenario we considered consisted of two teams of collaborating astronauts, one base station and one rover, where the base station and the rover have the capability of acting as relays. We focused on the evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16 protocols, simulating homogeneous 802.11g network, homogeneous 802.16 network, and heterogeneous network using both 802.11g and 802.16. A mix of traffic flows were simulated, including telemetry, caution and warning, voice, command and file transfer. Each traffic type had its own distribution profile, data volume, and priority. We analyzed the loss and delay trade-offs of these wireless protocols with various link-layer options. We observed that 802.16 network managed the channel better than an 802.11g network due to controlled infrastructure and centralized scheduling. However, due to the centralized scheduling, 802.16 also had a longer delay. The heterogeneous (hybrid) of 802.11/802.16 achieved a better balance of performance in terms of data loss and delay compared to using 802.11 or 802.16 alone.

  7. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  8. Smart Multifunction Antenna for Lunar/Planetary Surface Network, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is planning a series of human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and later Mars. According to NASA SBIR topic O1.10, surface networks are needed for these...

  9. A new moonquake catalog from Apollo 17 seismic data I: Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment: Thermal moonquakes and implications for surface processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Phillips, D.; Molaro, J.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2017-12-01

    Apollo 17's Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment's (LSPE) primary objective was to constrain the near-surface velocity structure at the landing site using active sources detected by a 100 m-wide triangular geophone array. The experiment was later operated in "listening mode," and early studies of these data revealed the presence of thermal moonquakes - short-duration seismic events associated with terminator crossings. However, the full data set has never been systematically analyzed for natural seismic signal content. In this study, we analyze 8 months of continuous LSPE data using an automated event detection technique that has previously successfully been applied to the Apollo 16 Passive Seismic Experiment data. We detected 50,000 thermal moonquakes from three distinct event templates, representing impulsive, intermediate, and emergent onset of seismic energy, which we interpret as reflecting their relative distance from the array. Impulsive events occur largely at sunrise, possibly representing the thermal "pinging" of the nearby lunar lander, while emergent events occur at sunset, possibly representing cracking or slumping in more distant surface rocks and regolith. Preliminary application of an iterative event location algorithm to a subset of the impulsive waveforms supports this interpretation. We also perform 3D modeling of the lunar surface to explore the relative contribution of the lander, known rocks and surrounding topography to the thermal state of the regolith in the vicinity of the Apollo 17 landing site over the course of the lunar diurnal cycle. Further development of both this model and the event location algorithm may permit definitive discrimination between different types of local diurnal events e.g. lander noise, thermally-induced rock breakdown, or fault creep on the nearby Lee-Lincoln scarp. These results could place important constraints on both the contribution of seismicity to regolith production, and the age of young lobate scarps.

  10. Man-Made Debris In and From Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    During 1966-1976, as part of the first phase of lunar exploration, 29 manned and robotic missions placed more than 40 objects into lunar orbit. Whereas several vehicles later successfully landed on the Moon and/or returned to Earth, others were either abandoned in orbit or intentionally sent to their destruction on the lunar surface. The former now constitute a small population of lunar orbital debris; the latter, including four Lunar Orbiters and four Lunar Module ascent stages, have contributed to nearly 50 lunar sites of man's refuse. Other lunar satellites are known or suspected of having fallen from orbit. Unlike Earth satellite orbital decays and deorbits, lunar satellites impact the lunar surface unscathed by atmospheric burning or melting. Fragmentations of lunar satellites, which would produce clouds of numerous orbital debris, have not yet been detected. The return to lunar orbit in the 1990's by the Hagoromo, Hiten, Clementine, and Lunar Prospector spacecraft and plans for increased lunar exploration early in the 21st century, raise questions of how best to minimize and to dispose of lunar orbital debris. Some of the lessons learned from more than 40 years of Earth orbit exploitation can be applied to the lunar orbital environment. For the near-term, perhaps the most important of these is postmission passivation. Unique solutions, e.g., lunar equatorial dumps, may also prove attractive. However, as with Earth satellites, debris mitigation measures are most effectively adopted early in the concept and design phase, and prevention is less costly than remediation.

  11. Digitalization of highly precise fluxgate magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Ales; Kuna, A.; Ripka, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the theory behind all three known ways of digitalizing the fluxgate magnetometers: analogue magnetometers with digitalized output using high resolution ADC, application of the delta-sigma modulation to the sensor feedback loop and fully digital signal detection. At present time...... the Delta-Sigma ADCs are mostly used for the digitalization of the highly precise fluxgate magnetorneters. The relevant part of the paper demonstrates some pitfalls of their application studied during the design of the magnetometer for the new Czech scientific satellite MIMOSA. The part discussing...... the application of the A-E modulation to the sensor feedback loop theoretically derives the main advantage of this method-increasing of the modulation order and shows its real potential compared to the analog magnetometer with consequential digitalization. The comparison is realized on the modular magnetometer...

  12. M3 spectral analysis of lunar swirls and the link between optical maturation and surface hydroxyl formation at magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Dhingra, D.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.; Garrick-Bethell, I.; Clark, Roger N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J. W.; Taylor, L.A.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the lunar swirls using data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3). The improved spectral and spatial resolution of M3 over previous spectral imaging data facilitates distinction of subtle spectral differences, and provides new information about the nature of these enigmatic features. We characterized spectral features of the swirls, interswirl regions (dark lanes), and surrounding terrain for each of three focus regions: Reiner Gamma, Gerasimovich, and Mare Ingenii. We used Principle Component Analysis to identify spectrally distinct surfaces at each focus region, and characterize the spectral features that distinguish them. We compared spectra from small, recent impact craters with the mature soils into which they penetrated to examine differences in maturation trends on- and off-swirl. Fresh, on-swirl crater spectra are higher albedo, exhibit a wider range in albedos and have well-preserved mafic absorption features compared with fresh off-swirl craters. Albedoand mafic absorptions are still evident in undisturbed, on-swirl surface soils, suggesting the maturation process is retarded. The spectral continuum is more concave compared with off-swirl spectra; a result of the limited spectral reddening being mostly constrained to wavelengths less than ∼1500 nm. Off-swirl spectra show very little reddening or change in continuum shape across the entire M3 spectral range. Off-swirl spectra are dark, have attenuated absorption features, and the narrow range in off-swirl albedos suggests off-swirl regions mature rapidly. Spectral parameter maps depicting the relative OH surface abundance for each of our three swirl focus regions were created using the depth of the hydroxyl absorption feature at 2.82 μm. For each of the studied regions, the 2.82 μm absorption feature is significantly weaker on-swirl than off-swirl, indicating the swirls are depleted in OH relative to their surroundings. The spectral characteristics of the swirls and adjacent terrains

  13. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    bulk of the chapter will use examples from the lunar meteorite suite to examine important recent advances in lunar science, including (but not limited to the following: (1) Understanding the global compositional diversity of the lunar surface; (2) Understanding the formation of the ancient lunar primary crust; (3) Understanding the diversity and timing of mantle melting, and secondary crust formation; (4) Comparing KREEPy lunar meteorites to KREEPy Apollo samples as evidence of variability within the PKT; and (5) A better understanding of the South Pole Aitken Basin through lunar meteorites whose provenance are within that Terrane.

  14. Global silicate mineralogy of the Moon from the Diviner lunar radiometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Lucey, Paul G; Wyatt, Michael B; Glotch, Timothy D; Allen, Carlton C; Arnold, Jessica A; Bandfield, Joshua L; Bowles, Neil E; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri L; Hayne, Paul O; Song, Eugenie; Thomas, Ian R; Paige, David A

    2010-09-17

    We obtained direct global measurements of the lunar surface using multispectral thermal emission mapping with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment. Most lunar terrains have spectral signatures that are consistent with known lunar anorthosite and basalt compositions. However, the data have also revealed the presence of highly evolved, silica-rich lunar soils in kilometer-scale and larger exposures, expanded the compositional range of the anorthosites that dominate the lunar crust, and shown that pristine lunar mantle is not exposed at the lunar surface at the kilometer scale. Together, these observations provide compelling evidence that the Moon is a complex body that has experienced a diverse set of igneous processes.

  15. Mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckay, David S.; Ming, Douglas W.

    1989-01-01

    The composition of lunar regolith and its attendant properties are discussed. Tables are provided listing lunar minerals, the abundance of plagioclase feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, and ilmenite in lunar materials, typical compositions of common lunar minerals, and cumulative grain-size distribution for a large number of lunar soils. Also provided are charts on the chemistry of breccias, the chemistry of lunar glass, and the comparative chemistry of surface soils for the Apollo sites. Lunar agglutinates, constructional particles made of lithic, mineral, and glass fragments welded together by a glassy matrix containing extremely fine-grained metallic iron and formed by micrometeoric impacts at the lunar surface, are discussed. Crystalline, igneous rock fragments, breccias, and lunar glass are examined. Volatiles implanted in lunar materials and regolith maturity are also addressed.

  16. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  17. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  18. The MELiSSA GreenMOSS Study: Preliminary Design Considerations for a Greenhouse Module on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobascio, Cesare; Paille, Christel; Lamantea, Matteo Maria; Boscheri, Giorgio; Rossetti, Vittorio

    Extended human presence on an extraterrestrial planetary surface will be made possible by the development of life support systems affordable in the long term. The key elements to support the goal will be the maximization of closure of air and water cycles, as well as the development of cost-effective and reliable hardware, including a careful strategic effort toward reduction of spare parts and consumables. Regenerative life support systems likely represent the final step toward long term sustainability of a space crew, allowing in situ food production and regeneration of organic waste. Referring to the MELiSSA loop, a key element for food production is the Higher Plant Compartment. The paper focuses on the preliminary design of a Greenhouse at the lunar South Pole, as performed within the “Greenhouse Module for Space System” (GreenMOSS) study, under a contract from the European Space Agency. The greenhouse is in support to a relatively small crew for provision of an energetic food complement. Resources necessary for the greenhouse such as water, carbon dioxide and nitrogen are assumed available, as required. The relevant mass and energy balances for incoming resources should be part of future studies, and should help integrate this element with the interfacing MELISSA compartments. Net oxygen production and harvested crop biomass from the greenhouse system will be quantified. This work presents the results of the two major trade-offs performed as part of this study: artificial vs natural illumination and monocrop vs multicrop solutions. Comparisons among possible design solutions were driven by the ALiSSE metric as far as practicable within this preliminary stage, considering mass and power parameters. Finally, the paper presents the mission duration threshold for determining the convenience of the designed solution with respect to other resources provision strategies

  19. Potassium Rankine cycle power conversion systems for lunar-Mars surface power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    The potassium Rankine cycle has good potential for application to nuclear power systems for surface power on the moon and Mars. A substantial effort on the development of the power conversion system was carried out in the 1960's which demonstrated successful operation of components made of stainless steel at moderate temperatures. This technology could be applied in the near term to produce a 360 kW(e) power system by coupling a stainless steel power conversion system to the SP-100 reactor. Improved performance could be realized in later systems by utilizing niobium or tantalum refractory metal alloys in the reactor and power conversion system. The design characteristics and estimated mass of power systems for each of three technology levels are presented in the paper

  20. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  1. Simulation of the «COSMONAUT-ROBOT» System Interaction on the Lunar Surface Based on Methods of Machine Vision and Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, B. I.; Usov, V. M.; Chertopolokhov, V. A.; Ronzhin, A. L.; Karpov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface, necessary for the future exploration of the Moon, involves extensive use of robots. One of the factors of safe EVA is a proper interaction between cosmonauts and robots in extreme environments. This requires a simple and natural man-machine interface, e.g. multimodal contactless interface based on recognition of gestures and cosmonaut's poses. When travelling in the "Follow Me" mode (master/slave), a robot uses onboard tools for tracking cosmonaut's position and movements, and on the basis of these data builds its itinerary. The interaction in the system "cosmonaut-robot" on the lunar surface is significantly different from that on the Earth surface. For example, a man, dressed in a space suit, has limited fine motor skills. In addition, EVA is quite tiring for the cosmonauts, and a tired human being less accurately performs movements and often makes mistakes. All this leads to new requirements for the convenient use of the man-machine interface designed for EVA. To improve the reliability and stability of human-robot communication it is necessary to provide options for duplicating commands at the task stages and gesture recognition. New tools and techniques for space missions must be examined at the first stage of works in laboratory conditions, and then in field tests (proof tests at the site of application). The article analyzes the methods of detection and tracking of movements and gesture recognition of the cosmonaut during EVA, which can be used for the design of human-machine interface. A scenario for testing these methods by constructing a virtual environment simulating EVA on the lunar surface is proposed. Simulation involves environment visualization and modeling of the use of the "vision" of the robot to track a moving cosmonaut dressed in a spacesuit.

  2. A simple fluxgate magnetometer using amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghatak, S.K.; Mitra, A.

    1992-01-01

    A simple fluxgate magnetometer is developed using low magnetostrictive ferromagnetic amorphous alloy acting as a sensing element. It uses the fact that the magnetization of sensing element symmetrically magnetized by a sinusoidal field contains even harmonic components in presence of dc signal field H and the amplitude of the second harmonic component of magnetization is proportional to H. The sensitivity and linearity of the magnetometer with signal field are studied for parallel configuration and the field ranging from 10 nT to 10 μT can be measured. The functioning of the magnetometer is demonstrated by studying the shielding and flux-trapping phenomena in high-Tc superconductor. (orig.)

  3. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  4. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  5. All optical vector magnetometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I research project will investigate a novel method of operating an atomic magnetometer to simultaneously measure total magnetic fields and vector magnetic...

  6. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolomeytsev Andrey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  7. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  8. The Fluxgate Magnetometer Simulation in Comsol Multiphysics

    OpenAIRE

    Kolomeytsev Andrey; Baranov Pavel; Zatonov Ivan

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the fluxgate magnetometer simulation in Comsol Multiphysics software package. The simulation results coincide with the experiment described earlier. Decomposition of the output signal by the Fourier coefficients shows a frequency doubling.

  9. Magnetometer Data recovered from 35mm film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The L57 CDMP recovery project takes magnetometer data on 35mm film stored at the archive's climate controlled warehouse and digitizes them.

  10. Development of a nuclear precession magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgens Alves, J.G. das.

    1983-12-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop a proton precession magnetometer for geophysical prospecting and base stations. The proton procession magnetometer measures the total magnetic fields intensity. It operates on the basis of nuclear magnetic resonance by determining the processing frequency of protons of a non viscous liquid in the terrestrial magnetic fields. The instrument was tested in field to evaluate signal/noise ratio, supportable gradient and battery consumption. Application test was carried out to take diurnal variation data and, reconnaissance and detail surveys data on an archaeological site in the Marajo Island-Pa. The test results were confronted with two commercial magnetometers-GP-70, McPhar e G-816, Geometric - and, with data from Observatorio Magnetico Ilha de Tatuoca as well. For all cases, the data comparison showed a good performance of the magnetometer tested. (author)

  11. ATS-6 - UCLA fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcpherron, R. L.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Snare, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of the design of the University of California at Los Angeles' fluxgate magnetometer is presented. Instrument noise in the bandwidth 0.001 to 1.0 Hz is of order 85 m gamma. The DC field of the spacecraft transverse to the earth-pointing axis is 1.0 + or - 21 gamma in the X direction and -2.4 + or - 1.3 gamma in the Y direction. The spacecraft field parallel to this axis is less than 5 gamma. The small spacecraft field has made possible studies of the macroscopic field not previously possible at synchronous orbit. At the 96 W longitude of Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6), the earth's field is typically inclined 30 deg to the dipole axis at local noon. Most perturbations of the field are due to substorms. These consist of a rotation in the meridian to a more radial field followed by a subsequent rotation back. The rotation back is normally accompanied by transient variations in the azimuthal field. The exact timing of these perturbations is a function of satellite location and the details of substorm development.

  12. Observatory Magnetometer In-Situ Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Marusenkov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental validation of the in-situ calibration procedure, which allows estimating parameters of observatory magnetometers (scale factors, sensor misalignment without its operation interruption, is presented. In order to control the validity of the procedure, the records provided by two magnetometers calibrated independently in a coil system have been processed. The in-situ estimations of the parameters are in very good agreement with the values provided by the coil system calibration.

  13. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  14. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  15. Effects of Crystallinity, Composition, and Texture on Hydrogen Solubility and Adsorption in Lunar Surface Materials and their Relevance to Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, M. D.; Hibbitts, C.; Orlando, T. M.; Poston, M.; Grieves, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Abundant spacecraft data now demonstrate the presence of features associated with H on the lunar surface. The origin of that lunar H, whether as OH or H2O, is some combination of endogenic (juvenile) sources in the interiors of planetary materials and those resulting from exogenic deposition such as from the solar wind or comets. The ability of mineral (rock) and glass surfaces to internally host and surficially adsorb H is a function of several interrelated variables -- composition, crystallinity, and texture -- all of which will have an effect on observed band depth in remote sensing measurements. Studies of terrestrial materials show that the ability of nominally-anhydrous minerals to host H is related to composition in ways that reflect partition coefficients for H between melt and mineral, variations in bond strengths, and defect densities. This is important because the ability of a mineral to adsorb water on its exterior surface (chemisorption) should be related to some of the same factors that govern 'solubility' of H in the interiors of different mineral groups and compositions. IR signatures of internal OH/H2O can easily be confused with those of adsorbed OH/H2O. No correlation between H solubility and surface adsorptivity is observed in pristine glasses, which generally have passivated bonds on the surface and are hydrophobic. However, on the Moon, glass 'matures' rapidly via micrometeorite bombardment, potentially exposing dangling bonds on the surface that provide sites for H to adsorb. Unlike glasses, crystalline materials provide both defect lattice sites and dangling bonds on freshly-fractured surfaces that may enhance H adsorption. For example, bonding on mineral surfaces ranges from hydrogen bonding at non-lattice oxygen atoms (electronegative sites) to chemisorption at electropositive surface sites, such as structural defects or unsatisfied cations. Moreover, glasses and different mineral species also have different optical absorption coefficients

  16. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  17. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  18. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  19. Directly coupled YBCO dc SQUID magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.R.E.; Shen, Y.Q.; Holst, T.; Larsen, B.H.; Sager, M.P.; Bindslev Hansen, J.

    1999-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- x magnetometers have been made on 10mmx10mm MgO substrates by directly coupling the magnetometer pick-up loop to a dc SQUID with narrow strip lines. The dc SQUIDs were made with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x step-edge Josephson junctions. The layout of the magnetometer pick-up loop was chosen as a compromise between maximizing the loop effective area and minimizing the loop inductance. The SQUID was designed to have L S ∼100 pH in order to obtain β L =2I 0 L S /Φ 0 approx.= 1 with the single-junction critical current I 0 ∼10 μA. We have made magnetometers with white noise levels down to 55 fT Hz -1/2 and a 1/f knee at 1 Hz (ac biased). Noise measurements were made on a field-cooled magnetometer. The noise measured at 1 Hz when cooled in 'zero field' was 175 fT Hz -1/2 . When cooled in magnetic fields of B = 50 μT and B = 100 μT we measured the noise at 1 Hz to be 430 fT Hz -1 2 and 1.3 pT Hz -1/2 , respectively. (author)

  20. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  1. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  2. Ancient Bombardment of the Inner Solar System: Reinvestigation of the "Fingerprints" of Different Impactor Populations on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Csilla; Michael, Gregory; Fassett, Caleb I.; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Riedel, Christian; Kneissl, Thomas; Hiesinger, Harald

    2018-03-01

    The lunar cratering record provides valuable information about the late accretion history of the inner solar system. However, our understanding of the origin, rate, and timing of the impacting projectiles is far from complete. To learn more about these projectiles, we can examine crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) on the Moon. Here we reinvestigate the crater populations of 30 lunar basins (≥ 300 km) using the buffered nonsparseness correction technique, which takes crater obliteration into account, thus providing more accurate measurements for the frequencies of smaller crater sizes. Moreover, we revisit the stratigraphic relationships of basins based on N(20) crater frequencies, absolute model ages, and observation data. The buffered nonsparseness correction-corrected CSFDs of individual basins, particularly at smaller crater diameters are shifted upward. Contrary to previous studies, the shapes of the summed CSFDs of Pre-Nectarian (excluding South Pole-Aitken Basin), Nectarian (including Nectaris), and Imbrian (including Imbrium) basins show no statistically significant differences and thus provide no evidence for a change of impactor population.

  3. Lunar nitrogen: Secular variation or mixing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, S.J.; Wright, I.P.; Pillinger, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    The two current models to explain the nearly 40% variation of the lunar nitrogen isotopic composition are: (1) secular variation of solar wind nitrogen; and (2) a two component mixing model having a constant, heavy solar wind admixed with varying amounts of indigenous light lunar N (LLN). Both models are needed to explain the step pyrolysis extraction profile. The secular variation model proposes that the low temperature release is modern day solar wind implanted into grain surfaces, the 900 C to 1100 C release is from grain surfaces which were once exposed to the ancient solar wind but which are now trapped inside agglutinates, and the >1100 C release as spallogenic N produced by cosmic rays. The mixing model ascribes the components to solar wind, indigenous lunar N and spallogenic N respectively. An extension of either interpretation is that the light N seen in lunar breccias or deep drill cores represent conditions when more N-14 was available to the lunar surface

  4. Design of guidance laws for lunar pinpoint soft landing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, J.; Han, C.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions ask for the capability to perform precise Guidance, Navigation and Control (GNC) to the selected landing sites on the lunar surface. This paper studies the guidance issues for the lunar pinpoint soft landing problem. The primary contribution of this paper is the design of

  5. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  6. Improved methods for nightside time domain Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua-Haviland, H.; Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.

    2017-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Sounding isolates induced magnetic fields to remotely deduce material properties at depth. The first step of performing TDEM Sounding at the Moon is to fully characterize the dynamic plasma environment, and isolate geophysically induced currents from concurrently present plasma currents. The transfer function method requires a two-point measurement: an upstream reference measuring the pristine solar wind, and one downstream near the Moon. This method was last performed during Apollo assuming the induced fields on the nightside of the Moon expand as in an undisturbed vacuum within the wake cavity [1]. Here we present an approach to isolating induction and performing TDEM with any two point magnetometer measurement at or near the surface of the Moon. Our models include a plasma induction model capturing the kinetic plasma environment within the wake cavity around a conducting Moon, and a geophysical forward model capturing induction in a vacuum. The combination of these two models enable the analysis of magnetometer data within the wake cavity. Plasma hybrid models use the upstream plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to capture the wake current systems formed around the Moon. The plasma kinetic equations are solved for ion particles with electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. These models accurately capture the large scale lunar wake dynamics for a variety of solar wind conditions: ion density, temperature, solar wind velocity, and IMF orientation [2]. Given the 3D orientation variability coupled with the large range of conditions seen within the lunar plasma environment, we characterize the environment one case at a time. The global electromagnetic induction response of the Moon in a vacuum has been solved numerically for a variety of electrical conductivity models using the finite-element method implemented within the COMSOL software. This model solves for the geophysically induced response in vacuum to

  7. Man-Portable Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM System (MSEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    limited to cesium vapor magnetometers outputting a Larmor signal. It cannot, as presently configured, be used with less expensive fluxgate magnetometers ...pulses to convert the frequency-based Larmor signal into nT. A fluxgate magnetometer does not employ the resonance mechanism of an alkali vapor...Simultaneous Magnetometer and EM System (MSEMS) December 2008 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the

  8. Determination of the Overhauser magnetometer uncertainty

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ulvr, M.; Zikmund, A.; Kupec, J.; Janošek, M.; Vlk, Michal; Bayer, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 66, 7/s (2015), s. 26-29 ISSN 1335-3632 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Overhauser magnetometer * Earth `s magnetic field * comparison * uncertainty Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.407, year: 2015

  9. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  10. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  11. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  12. Lunar Dust and Lunar Simulant Activation, Monitoring, Solution and Cellular Toxicity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Jeevarajan, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, many undesirable situations were encountered that must be mitigated prior to returning humans to the moon. Lunar dust (that part of the lunar regolith less than 20 microns in diameter) was found to produce several problems with mechanical equipment and could have conceivably produced harmful physiological effects for the astronauts. For instance, the abrasive nature of the dust was found to cause malfunctions of various joints and seals of the spacecraft and suits. Additionally, though efforts were made to exclude lunar dust from the cabin of the lunar module, a significant amount of material nonetheless found its way inside. With the loss of gravity correlated with ascent from the lunar surface, much of the finer fraction of this dust began to float and was inhaled by the astronauts. The short visits tothe Moon during Apollo lessened exposure to the dust, but the plan for future lunar stays of up to six months demands that methods be developed to minimize the risk of dust inhalation. The guidelines for what constitutes "safe" exposure will guide the development of engineering controls aimed at preventing the presence of dust in the lunar habitat. This work has shown the effects of grinding on the activation level of lunar dust, the changes in dissolution properties of lunar simulant, and the production of cytokines by cellular systems. Grinding of lunar dust leads to the production of radicals in solution and increased dissolution of lunar simulant in buffers of different pH. Additionally, ground lunar simulant has been shown to promote the production of IL-6 and IL-8, pro-inflammatory cytokines, by alveolar epithelial cells. These results provide evidence of the need for further studies on these materials prior to returning to the lunar surface.

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Lunar Penetrating Radar and Investigations of the Geological Structures of the Lunar Regolith Layer at the Chang’E 3 Landing Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Chunyu; Su, Yan; Xing, Shuguo; Dai, Shun; Xiao, Yuan; Feng, Jianqing; Liu, Danqing; Li, Chunlai

    2017-01-01

    In the process of lunar exploration, and specifically when studying lunar surface structure and thickness, the established lunar regolith model is usually a uniform and ideal structural model, which is not well-suited to describe the real structure of the lunar regolith layer. The present study aims to explain the geological structural information contained in the channel 2 LPR (lunar penetrating radar) data. In this paper, the random medium theory and Apollo drilling core data are used to co...

  14. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  15. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riris, H.; Cavanaugh, J.; Sun, X.; Liiva, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Neuman, G.

    2017-11-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument [1-3] on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission, launched on June 18th, 2009, from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, will provide a precise global lunar topographic map using laser altimetry. LOLA will assist in the selection of landing sites on the Moon for future robotic and human exploration missions and will attempt to detect the presence of water ice on or near the surface, which is one of the objectives of NASA's Exploration Program. Our present knowledge of the topography of the Moon is inadequate for determining safe landing areas for NASA's future lunar exploration missions. Only those locations, surveyed by the Apollo missions, are known with enough detail. Knowledge of the position and characteristics of the topographic features on the scale of a lunar lander are crucial for selecting safe landing sites. Our present knowledge of the rest of the lunar surface is at approximately 1 km kilometer level and in many areas, such as the lunar far side, is on the order of many kilometers. LOLA aims to rectify that and provide a precise map of the lunar surface on both the far and near side of the moon. LOLA uses short (6 ns) pulses from a single laser through a Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) to produce a five-beam pattern that illuminates the lunar surface. For each beam, LOLA measures the time of flight (range), pulse spreading (surface roughness), and transmit/return energy (surface reflectance). LOLA will produce a high-resolution global topographic model and global geodetic framework that enables precise targeting, safe landing, and surface mobility to carry out exploratory activities. In addition, it will characterize the polar illumination environment, and image permanently shadowed regions of the lunar surface to identify possible locations of surface ice crystals in shadowed polar craters.

  16. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  17. Coherent population trapping magnetometer by differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fan; Tian Yuan; Zhang Yi; Gu Si-Hong

    2016-01-01

    A pocket coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic magnetometer scheme that uses a vertical cavity surface emitting laser as a light source is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the differential detecting magneto–optic rotation effect, a CPT spectrum with the background canceled and a high signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The experimental results reveal that the sensitivity of the proposed scheme can be improved by half an order, and the ability to detect weak magnetic fields is extended one-fold. Therefore, the proposed scheme is suited to realize a pocket-size CPT magnetometer. (paper)

  18. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  19. Vector Magnetometer Application with Moving Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Prystai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In magnetic prospecting the aeromagnetic survey is a widespread method used for research in large territories or in the areas with difficult access (forests, swamps, shallow waters. At present, a new type of mobile carriers – remotely piloted vehicles or drones – is becoming very common. The drones supplied by magnetometer can be also used for underground utility location (for example, steel and concrete constructions, buried power cables, to name a few. For aeromagnetic survey, obtaining of 3-component magnetic field data gives higher processing precision, so the fluxgate magnetometers (FGM seem to be the most preferable by reason of low weight, noise, power consumption and costs. During movement of FGM fixed to a drone practically permanent attitude changes in the Earth’s magnetic field arises with corresponding changes of its projection at FGM axes. Also the electromagnetic interference from the drone motor and uncontrolled oscillations of drone and suspension are the factors which limit the magnetometer sensitivity level. Aroused because of this, signals significantly exceed the expected signals from a studied object and so should be removed by proper interference filtration and use of stabilized towed construction, as well as at data processing. To find the necessary resolution threshold of a drone-portable FGM, the modeling was made to estimate magnetic field value from a small sphere about 1 cm radius at the minimal altitude of drone flight and it was shown that such a small object can be reliably detected if the FGM noise level is less than 0.15 nT. Next requirement is the necessity to decrease as much as possible the FGM power consumption with retention of low noise level. Finally, because of drone movement, the broadening of a frequency range should be done. The LEMI-026 magnetometer was developed satisfying all requirements to the drone-mounted device. The field tests were successfully performed using two of LEMI-026

  20. Lunar floor-fractured craters: Modes of dike and sill emplacement and implications of gas production and intrusion cooling on surface morphology and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lionel; Head, James W.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar floor-fractured craters (FFCs) represent the surface manifestation of a class of shallow crustal intrusions in which magma-filled cracks (dikes) rising to the surface from great depth encounter contrasts in host rock lithology (breccia lens, rigid solidified melt sheet) and intrude laterally to form a sill, laccolith or bysmalith, thereby uplifting and deforming the crater floor. Recent developments in the knowledge of lunar crustal thickness and density structure have enabled important revisions to models of the generation, ascent and eruption of magma, and new knowledge about the presence and behavior of magmatic volatiles has provided additional perspectives on shallow intrusion processes in FFCs. We use these new data to assess the processes that occur during dike and sill emplacement with particular emphasis on tracking the fate and migration of volatiles and their relation to candidate venting processes. FFCs result when dikes are capable of intruding close to the surface, but fail to erupt because of the substructure of their host impact craters, and instead intrude laterally after encountering a boundary where an increase in ductility (base of breccia lens) or rigidity (base of solidified melt sheet) occurs. Magma in dikes approaching the lunar surface experiences increasingly lower overburden pressures: this enhances CO gas formation and brings the magma into the realm of the low pressure release of H2O and sulfur compounds, both factors adding volatiles to those already collected in the rising low-pressure part of the dike tip. High magma rise velocity is driven by the positive buoyancy of the magma in the part of the dike remaining in the mantle. The dike tip overshoots the interface and the consequent excess pressure at the interface drives the horizontal flow of magma to form the intrusion and raise the crater floor. If sill intrusion were controlled by the physical properties at the base of the melt sheet, dikes would be required to approach to

  1. A Web Server for MACCS Magnetometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG5-3719 was provided to Augsburg College to support the development of a web server for the Magnetometer Array for Cusp and Cleft Studies (MACCS), a two-dimensional array of fluxgate magnetometers located at cusp latitudes in Arctic Canada. MACCS was developed as part of the National Science Foundation's GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) Program, which was designed in part to complement NASA's Global Geospace Science programs during the decade of the 1990s. This report describes the successful use of these grant funds to support a working web page that provides both daily plots and file access to any user accessing the worldwide web. The MACCS home page can be accessed at http://space.augsburg.edu/space/MaccsHome.html.

  2. Midlatitude magnetometer chains during the IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcpherron, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The International Magnetospheric Study (IMS) is an international program to study global problems of magnetospheric dynamics. A key element of the U.S. participation in this program was the establishment of a ground magnetometer network. This network included a number of arrays at high and low latitudes. This report describes three chains established at midlatitudes, including the IMS Midlatitude Chain, the AFGL Magnetometer Network, and the Bell Lab Conjugate Array. Descriptions of the type of equipment, station locations, types of data display, and availability of data for each chain are presented in this report. A major problem of the data analysis phase of the IMS will be reducing selected subsets of these data to a common format. Currently, there are no plans to do this in a systematic manner

  3. Digital Detection and feedback Fluxgate Magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil-Henriksen, J.; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V

    1996-01-01

    A new full Earth's field dynamic feedback fluxgate magnetometer is described. It is based entirely on digital signal processing and digital feedback control, thereby replacing the classical second harmonic tuned analogue electronics by processor algorithms. Discrete mathematical cross......-correlation routines and substantial oversampling reduce the noise to 71 pT root-mean-square in a 0.25-10 Hz bandwidth for a full Earth's field range instrument....

  4. High temperature superconductive flux gate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper proposes a different type of HTS superconducting magnetometer based on the non-linear magnetic behavior of bulk HTS materials. The device design is based on the generation of second harmonics which arise as a result of non-linear magnetization observed in Type-II superconductors. Even harmonics are generated from the non-linear interaction of an ac excitation signal with an external DC magnetic field which acts as a bias signal

  5. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov Pavel F.; Baranova Vitalia E.; Nesterenko Tamara G.

    2018-01-01

    In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  6. Mathematical model of a fluxgate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranov Pavel F.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In paper analytical equations for calculate the electromotive force in the measuring coil of the fluxgate magnetometer independent of the drive signal frequency content are presented. Also, the equations for es-timation of the fluxgate sensitivity at any harmonic and for study fluxgates operation with a glance to the waveform and the polynomial approximation of the mean magnetization curve of the core are provided.

  7. Fluxgate magnetometers for outer planets exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    The exploration of the interplanetary medium and the magnetospheres of the outer planets requires the implementation of magnetic field measuring instrumentation with wide dynamic range, high stability, and reliability. The fluxgate magnetometers developed for the Pioneer 11 and Mariner-Jupiter-Saturn missions are presented. These instruments cover the range of .01 nT to 2 million nT with optimum performance characteristics and low power consumption.

  8. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  9. APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

  10. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  11. Development of autonomous magnetometer rotorcraft for wide area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Matt Anderson; Les Beard; Eric Corban; Darryl Curley; Jeff Gamey; Ross Johnson; Dwight Junkin; Mark McKay; Jared Salzmann; Mikhail Tchernychev; Suraj Unnikrishnan; Scott Vinson

    2010-04-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. There is thus a need for other systems which can be used for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly characterization (through the use of

  12. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  13. Summary of the Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter after Seven Years in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; hide

    2016-01-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  14. On The Development of Additive Construction Technologies for Application to Development of Lunar/Martian Surface Structures Using In-Situ Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkheiser, Niki; Fiske, Michael; Edmunson, Jennifer; Khoshnevis, Behrokh

    2015-01-01

    For long-duration missions on other planetary bodies, the use of in-situ materials will become increasingly critical. As man's presence on these bodies expands, so must the breadth of the structures required to accommodate them including habitats, laboratories, berms, radiation shielding for natural radiation and surface reactors, garages, solar storm shelters, greenhouses, etc. Planetary surface structure manufacturing and assembly technologies that incorporate in-situ resources provide options for autonomous, affordable, pre-positioned environments with radiation shielding features and protection from micrometeorites, exhaust plume debris, and other hazards. This is important because gamma and particle radiation constitute a serious but reducible threat to long-term survival of human beings, electronics, and other materials in space environments. Also, it is anticipated that surface structures will constitute the primary mass element of lunar or Martian launch requirements. The ability to use in-situ materials to construct these structures will provide a benefit in the reduction of up-mass that would otherwise make long-term Moon or Mars structures cost prohibitive. The ability to fabricate structures in situ brings with it the ability to repair these structures, which allows for self-sufficiency necessary for long-duration habitation. Previously, under the auspices of the MSFC In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) project and more recently, under the joint MSFC/KSC Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project, the MSFC Surface Structures Group has been developing materials and construction technologies to support future planetary habitats with in situ resources. One such technology, known as Contour Crafting (additive construction), is shown in Figure 1, along with a typical structure fabricated using this technology. This paper will present the results to date of these efforts, including development of novel nozzle concepts for advanced layer

  15. The MAGSAT vector magnetometer: A precision fluxgate magnetometer for the measurement of the geomagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Scearce, C. S.; Seek, J.; Scheifele, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of the precision triaxial fluxgate magnetometer to be flown aboard the MAGSAT spacecraft is presented. The instrument covers the range of + or - 64,000 nT with a resolution of + or - 0.5 nT, an intrinsic accuracy of + or - 0.001% of full scale and an angular alignment stability of the order of 2 seconds of arc. It was developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and represents the state-of-the-art in precision vector magnetometers developed for spaceflight use.

  16. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  17. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  18. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  19. Respiratory Toxicity of Lunar Highland Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Wallace, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Lunar dust exposures occurred during the Apollo missions while the crew was on the lunar surface and especially when microgravity conditions were attained during rendezvous in lunar orbit. Crews reported that the dust was irritating to the eyes and in some cases respiratory symptoms were elicited. NASA s vision for lunar exploration includes stays of 6 months on the lunar surface hence the health effects of periodic exposure to lunar dust need to be assessed. NASA has performed this assessment with a series of in vitro and in vivo tests on authentic lunar dust. Our approach is to "calibrate" the intrinsic toxicity of lunar dust by comparison to a nontoxic dust (TiO2) and a highly toxic dust (quartz) using intratrachael instillation of the dusts in mice. A battery of indices of toxicity is assessed at various time points after the instillations. Cultures of selected cells are exposed to test dusts to assess the adverse effects on the cells. Finally, chemical systems are used to assess the nature of the reactivity of various dusts and to determine the persistence of reactivity under various environmental conditions that are relevant to a space habitat. Similar systems are used to assess the dissolution of the dust. From these studies we will be able to set a defensible inhalation exposure standard for aged dust and predict whether we need a separate standard for reactive dust. Presently-available data suggest that aged lunar highland dust is slightly toxic, that it can adversely affect cultured cells, and that the surface reactivity induced by grinding the dust persists for a few hours after activation.

  20. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  1. Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    are made with fluxgate technologies. Fluxgates have lower sensitivity than Cs magnetometers , yet they continue to be used in small wands simply...extraction process by providing the sensitivity of a Cs magnetometer with the convenience and low cost of a fluxgate wand. Extremely small and low cost...FINAL REPORT Development of a Micro-Fabricated Total-Field Magnetometer SERDP Project MR-1512 MARCH 2011 Mark Prouty Geometrics, Inc

  2. A completely automatic operation type super-safe fast reactor, RAPID. Its application to dispersion source on lunar and earth surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru; Tsunoda, Hirokazu; Mishima, Kaichiro; Kawasaki, Akira; Iwamura, Takamichi

    2002-01-01

    At a viewpoint of flexible measures to future electric power demands, expectation onto a small-scale reactor for dispersion source is increasing gradually. This is thought to increase its importance not only for a source at proximity of its market in advanced nations but also for the one in developing nations. A study on development of the completely automatic operation type super-safe fast reactor, RAPID (refueling by all pins integrated design) has been carried out as a part of the nuclear energy basic research promoting system under three years project since 1999 by a trust of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to a group of the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and so on. As the reactor is a lithium cooled fast reactor with 200 Kw of electric output supposing to use at lunar surface, it can be applied to a super-small scale nuclear reactor on the earth, and has feasibility to become a new option of future nuclear power generation. On the other hand, CRIEPI has investigated on various types of fast reactors (RAPID series) for fast reactor for dispersion source on the earth. Here was introduced on such super-safe fast reactors at a center of RAPID-L. (G.K.)

  3. Hints of supernova debris deposition on the lunar surface: {sup 60}Fe and {sup 53}Mn measurements by means of accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimiani, Leticia; Faestermann, Thomas; Gomez Guzman, Jose Manuel; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Herzog, Gregory; Ligon, Bret; Park, Jisun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Rugel, Georg [Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The enhanced concentration of {sup 60}Fe in a deep ocean ferro-manganese crust about (2.1±0.4) Myr old (Fitoussi et al., PRL 101, 121101 (2008)), suggests that one or more supernova (SN) explosions occurred in the vicinity of the Solar System. That observation was only possible with the ultra sensitive Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) technique at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratorium in Munich, where we are able to measure concentrations of {sup 60}Fe/Fe down to a level of 10{sup -16}. Because of its lacking atmosphere and negligible sedimentation rate, the Lunar surface is an excellent quantitative reservoir for SN debris. We searched for live {sup 60}Fe and {sup 53}Mn in samples from 3 Apollo missions. {sup 53}Mn is, similar as {sup 26}Al and {sup 60}Fe, a tool to trace nucleosynthesis activities. It is formed primarily during the explosive silicon-burning of the inner shells of SNe via {sup 53}Fe which β-decays to {sup 53}Mn with an 8.51 min half-life. Samples where we found an enhanced {sup 60}Fe concentration showed also an enhancement of {sup 53}Mn. If confirmed, this could be the first detection of live {sup 53}Mn originating from nucleosynthesis.

  4. Choice of optimal parameters for the superconductive quantum magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, B V; Ivanenko, A I; Trofimov, V N

    1974-12-31

    The problem of choosing the optimal coupling coefficient and optimal working frequency for superconductive quantum magnetometer is considered. The present experimental signalnoise dependence confirms the drawn conclusions. (auth)

  5. High Tc Josephson Junctions, SQUIDs and magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1991-01-01

    There has recently been considerable progress in the state-of-the-art of high-T c magnetometers based on dc SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices). This progress is due partly to the development of more manufacturable Josephson junctions, making SQUIDs easier to fabricate, and partly to the development of multiturn flux transformers that convert the high sensitivity of SQUIDs to magnetic flux to a correspondingly high sensitivity to magnetic field. Needless to say, today's high-T c SQUIDs are still considerably less sensitive than their low-T c counterparts, particularly at low frequencies (f) where their level of 1/f noise remains high. Nonetheless, the performance of the high-T c devices has now reached the point where they are adequate for a number of the less demanding applications; furthermore, as we shall see, at least modest improvements in performance are expected in the near future. In this article, the author outlines these various developments. This is far from a comprehensive review of the field, however, and, apart from Sec. 2, he describes largely his own work. He begins in Sec. 2 with an overview of the various types of Josephson junctions that have been investigated, and in Sec. 3, he describes some of the SQUIDs that have been tested, and assess their performance. Section 4 discuss the development of the multilayer structures essential for an interconnect technology, and, in particular, for crossovers and vias. Section 5 shows how this technology enables one to fabricate multiturn flux transformers which, in turn, can be coupled to SQUIDs to make magnetometers. The performance and possible future improvements in these magnetometers are assessed, and some applications mentioned

  6. Corrosion measurement using flux gate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashdi Shah Ahmad; Chong Cheong Wei

    2001-01-01

    The ability of fluxgate magnetometer to detect and measure quantitatively the magnetic field generated by electrochemical corrosion is presented. In this study, each sample (iron plate) was exposed to a range of increasingly corrosive environment. During the exposure, we measured the magnetic field above the sample for specific duration of time. The result shows that there is a clear relationship between corrosivity of the environment and the change in magnitude of magnetic field that was generated by the corrosion reaction. Therefore, the measurement of magnetic field might be used to determine the corrosion rates. (Author)

  7. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical Uni...... through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented. ©2009 American Institute of Physics...

  8. Performances and place of magnetometers based on amorphous wires compared to conventional magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbes, D.; Dolabdjian, C.; Monfort, Y.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss and compare performances of various room temperature magnetometers. The work is directed towards the search of those magnetometers having a high sensitivity (>1000 V/T), a very low noise level (>1 pT/√Hz at white noise) attainable in a volume typically smaller than 1 cm 3 . The choice of this set of parameters is related to the useful comparison of room temperature magnetometers versus cryogenic ones, such as Superconducting Quantum Interferometer Devices (SQUIDs). The latter have highly degraded performances when their working operations needs an open unshielded environment as required for example in industrial application (non-destructive evaluation). SQUIDs have also a rather poor spatial resolution, and could be replaced by room temperature sensors in some magnetic imaging systems, which require a high spatial resolution. The paper is 'highlighted' in the field of magnetic sensors based on amorphous magnetic wires that were used to carry out wide bandwidth (>100 kHz), very low noise flux gate (∼pT/√Hz at white noise) and highly sensitive, low noise magnetometers (∼pT/√Hz at white noise) Colpitts oscillator configuration use by K. Bushida's

  9. Review of lunar telescope studies at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilchey, John D.; Nein, Max E.

    1993-09-01

    In the near future astronomers can take advantage of the lunar surface as the new 'high ground' from which to study the universe. Optical telescopes placed and operated on the lunar surface would be successors to NASA's Great Observatories. Four telescopes, ranging in aperture from a 16-m, IR/Vis/UV observatory down to a 1-m, UV 'transit' instrument, have been studied by the Lunar Telescope Working Group and the LUTE (lunar telescope ultraviolet experiment) Task Team of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). This paper presents conceptual designs of the telescopes, provides descriptions of the telescope subsystem options selected for each concept, and outlines the potential evolution of their science capabilities.

  10. Walking Wheel Design for Lunar Rove-Rand and Its Application Simulation Based on Virtual Lunar Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lunar rover design is the key problem of planet exploration. It is extraordinarily important for researchers to fully understand the lunar terrain and propose the reasonable lunar rover. In this paper, one new type of walking wheel modeled on impeller is presented based on vehicle terramechanics. The passive earth pressure of soil mechanics put forward by C. A. Coulomb is employed to obtain the wheel traction force. Some kinematics simulations are conducted for lunar rover model. Besides, this paper presents how to model lunar landing terrain containing typical statistic characteristic including craters and boulders; then, the second step is to construct basal lunar surface by using Brown Fractal Motion and the next is to add craters and boulders by means of known diameter algorithm and Random-create Diameter Algorithm. By means of importing 2D plain of lunar surface into UG, 3D parasolid is modeled and finally imported to ADAMS, which is available for lunar rover kinematics and dynamics simulation. Lastly, based on power spectrum curve of lunar terrain, the spectral characteristic of three different lunar terrain roughness is educed by using reverse engineering algorithm. Simulation results demonstrated the frequency of vibration mechanics properties of different roughness surfaces.

  11. [Possibility of exacerbation of allergy by lunar regolith].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Kambara, Tatsunori; Kuroda, Etsushi; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2012-09-01

    Japan, U.S.A. and other foreign space agencies have plans for the construction of a lunar base and long-term stay of astronauts on the moon. The surface of the moon is covered by a thick layer of soil that includes fine particles called "lunar regolith", which is formed by meteorite impact and space weathering. Risk assessment of particulate matter on the moon is important for astronauts working in microgravity on the moon. However, there are few investigations about the biological influences of lunar regolith. Especially, there is no investigation about allergic activity to lunar regolith. The main chemical components of lunar regolith are SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, FeO, etc. Of particular interest, approximately 50% of lunar regolith consists of SiO2. There is a report that the astronauts felt hay fever-like symptoms from the inhalation of the lunar regolith. Yellow sand, whose chemical components are similar to lunar regolith, enhances allergenic reactions, suggesting the possibility that lunar regolith has an adjuvant-like activity. Although intraperitoneal administration of lunar regolith with ovalbumin to mouse did not show enhancement of allergenic reactions, further evaluation of lunar regolith's potential to exacerbate the effects of allergies is essential for development of the moon.

  12. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  13. Characterizing the Lunar Particulate Atmosphere with the Autonomous Lunar Dust Observer (ALDO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, C. J.; Colwell, J. A.

    2008-07-01

    Photoelectric effects and solar wind charge the lunar surface, levitating particles. ALDO maps suspended dust in 3D using lidar. Phenomenology and instrument modeling, applications, projected performance and concepts of operation are discussed.

  14. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Science and Space Commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Dan

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the framework needed to gradually develop an economical and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop cis-lunar and surface capabilities for mutual benefit while sharing cost and risk in the development phase and then allowing for transfer of operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, energy storage devices, communication relay satellites, local communication towers, and surface mobility operations.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation of moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, deploys a lunar surface television camera during lunar surface simulation training in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  16. Digital Fluxgate Magnetometer for Detection of Microvibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menghui Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineering practice, instruments, such as accelerometer and laser interferometer, are widely used in vibration measurement of structural parts. A method for using a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer as a microvibration sensor to measure low-frequency pendulum microvibration (not translational vibration is proposed in this paper, so as to detect vibration from low-frequency vibration sources, such as large rotating machine, large engineering structure, earthquake, and microtremor. This method provides vibration detection based on the environmental magnetic field signal to avoid increased measurement difficulty and error due to different relative positions of permanent magnet and magnetometer on the device under test (DUT when using the original magnetic measurement method. After fixedly connecting the fluxgate probe with the DUT during the test, the angular displacement due to vibration can be deduced by measuring the geomagnetic field’s magnetic induction intensity change on the orthogonal three components during the vibration. The test shows that the microvibration sensor has angular resolution of over 0.05° and maximum measuring frequency of 64 Hz. As an exploring test aimed to detect the microvibration of earth-orbiting satellite in the in-orbit process, the simulation experiment successfully provides the real-time microvibration information for attitude and orbit control subsystem.

  17. Automated system for the calibration of magnetometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrucha, Vojtech; Kaspar, Petr; Ripka, Pavel; Merayo, Jose M. G.

    2009-01-01

    A completely nonmagnetic calibration platform has been developed and constructed at DTU Space (Technical University of Denmark). It is intended for on-site scalar calibration of high-precise fluxgate magnetometers. An enhanced version of the same platform is being built at the Czech Technical University. There are three axes of rotation in this design (compared to two axes in the previous version). The addition of the third axis allows us to calibrate more complex devices. An electronic compass based on a vector fluxgate magnetometer and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometer is one example. The new platform can also be used to evaluate the parameters of the compass in all possible variations in azimuth, pitch, and roll. The system is based on piezoelectric motors, which are placed on a platform made of aluminum, brass, plastic, and glass. Position sensing is accomplished through custom-made optical incremental sensors. The system is controlled by a microcontroller, which executes commands from a computer. The properties of the system as well as calibration and measurement results will be presented

  18. Magnetoresistive magnetometer for space science applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P; Beek, T; Carr, C; O’Brien, H; Cupido, E; Oddy, T; Horbury, T S

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the in situ dc magnetic field on space science missions is most commonly achieved using instruments based on fluxgate sensors. Fluxgates are robust, reliable and have considerable space heritage; however, their mass and volume are not optimized for deployment on nano or picosats. We describe a new magnetometer design demonstrating science measurement capability featuring significantly lower mass, volume and to a lesser extent power than a typical fluxgate. The instrument employs a sensor based on anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) achieving a noise floor of less than 50 pT Hz −1/2 above 1 Hz on a 5 V bridge bias. The instrument range is scalable up to ±50 000 nT and the three-axis sensor mass and volume are less than 10 g and 10 cm 3 , respectively. The ability to switch the polarization of the sensor's easy axis and apply magnetic feedback is used to build a driven first harmonic closed loop system featuring improved linearity, gain stability and compensation of the sensor offset. A number of potential geospace applications based on the initial instrument results are discussed including attitude control systems and scientific measurement of waves and structures in the terrestrial magnetosphere. A flight version of the AMR magnetometer will fly on the TRIO-CINEMA mission due to be launched in 2012. (paper)

  19. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  20. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  1. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  2. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  3. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  4. Battlefield Applications for the Polatomic 2000 Magnetometer/Gradiometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhlman, G

    2002-01-01

    ... He(4) scalar magnetometer/gradiometer. A major innovation in the P-2000 helium magnetometer is the introduction of a laser pump source to replace the conventional RF discharge helium lamp used in the Navy AN/ASQ-81/208 MAD Set...

  5. Choice of Magnetometers and Gradiometers after Signal Space Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Pilar; López-Sanz, David; Maestú, Fernando; Pereda, Ernesto

    2017-12-16

    Modern Elekta Neuromag MEG devices include 102 sensor triplets containing one magnetometer and two planar gradiometers. The first processing step is often a signal space separation (SSS), which provides a powerful noise reduction. A question commonly raised by researchers and reviewers relates to which data should be employed in analyses: (1) magnetometers only, (2) gradiometers only, (3) magnetometers and gradiometers together. The MEG community is currently divided with regard to the proper answer. First, we provide theoretical evidence that both gradiometers and magnetometers result from the backprojection of the same SSS components. Then, we compare resting state and task-related sensor and source estimations from magnetometers and gradiometers in real MEG recordings before and after SSS. SSS introduced a strong increase in the similarity between source time series derived from magnetometers and gradiometers (r² = 0.3-0.8 before SSS and r² > 0.80 after SSS). After SSS, resting state power spectrum and functional connectivity, as well as visual evoked responses, derived from both magnetometers and gradiometers were highly similar (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient > 0.8, r² > 0.8). After SSS, magnetometer and gradiometer data are estimated from a single set of SSS components (usually ≤ 80). Equivalent results can be obtained with both sensor types in typical MEG experiments.

  6. Digital fluxgate magnetometer for the "Astrid-2" satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Erik Bøje; Primdahl, Fritz; Petersen, Jan Raagaard

    1999-01-01

    The design and performance of the Astrid-2 magnetometer are described. The magnetometer uses mathematical routines implemented by software for commercially available digital dignal processors to determine the magnetic field from the fluxgate sensor. The sensor is from the latest generation of amo...

  7. Analysing Harmonic Motions with an iPhone's Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Temiz, Burak Kagan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone's (or iPad's) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone's magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone's screen using the "Sensor Kinetics"…

  8. Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station: A Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package for Monitoring the Lunar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Giersch, L.; O'Dwyer, I. J.; Hicks, B. C.; Polisensky, E. J.; Hartman, J. M.; Nesnas, I.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, *in situ*, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We provide an update on a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report or commercial ventures. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Artist's impression of the Lunar Atmosphere Probe Station.

  9. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yizengaw

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ. The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998–2014 of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (Kp>3 have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  10. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States). Inst. for Scientific Research; Carter, Brett A. [RMIT Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia). SPACE Research Centre

    2017-07-01

    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K{sub p}>3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  11. Longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variation in lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke; Carter, Brett A.

    2017-01-01

    It has been well documented that the lunar tidal waves can modulate the ionospheric electrodynamics and create a visible influence on the equatorial electrojet (EEJ). The lunar tide influence gets intensified around noon, primarily during new and full Moon periods. However, the longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle variability in the lunar tide influence on ionospheric current systems is not well understood yet. In order to investigate this, 17 years (1998-2014) of extensive magnetometer observations at four longitudinal sectors (western American, western and eastern African, and Asian) have been analyzed. All observations performed during magnetically active periods (K p >3) have been excluded for this study to eliminate storm contributions to the geomagnetic field variation at the geomagnetic equator. This study's quantitative analysis revealed significant longitudinal, seasonal and solar cycle dependence of the lunar tide influence on the equatorial electrojet.

  12. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guang-You; Zhou, Bin; Ji, Yi-Cai; Zhang, Qun-Ying; Shen, Shao-Xiang; Li, Yu-Xi; Guan, Hong-Fei; Tang, Chuan-Jun; Gao, Yun-Ze; Lu, Wei; Ye, Sheng-Bo; Han, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin; Wang, Shu-Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed.

  13. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  14. Measurement of the lunar neutron density profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolum, D.S.; Burnett, D.S.; Furst, M.; Weiss, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    An in situ measurement of the lunar neutron density from 20 to 400 g cm -2 depth below the lunar surface was made by the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment (LNPE) using particle tracks produced by the 10 B (n,α) 7 Li reaction. Both the absolute magnitude and the depth profile of the neutron density are in good agreement with theoretical calculations by Lingenfelter, Canfield, and Hampel. However, relatively small deviations between experiment and theory in the effect of Cd absorption on the neutron density and in the relative 149 Sm to 157 Gd capture rates reported previously (Russ et al., 1972) imply that the true lunar 157 Gd capture rate is about one half of that calculated theoretically. (Auth.)

  15. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  16. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers

  17. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

  18. Erosive Wear Characterization of Materials for Lunar Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpagazehe, Jeremiah N.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Delgado, Irebert R.; Higgs, C. Fred, III

    2012-01-01

    NASA s Apollo missions revealed that exhaust from the retrorockets of landing spacecraft may act to significantly accelerate lunar dust on the surface of the Moon. A recent study by Immer et al. (C. Immer, P.T. Metzger, P.E. Hintze, A. Nick, and R. Horan, Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III, Icarus, Vol. 211, pp. 1089-1102, 2011) investigated coupons returned to Earth from the Surveyor III lunar probe which were subjected to lunar dust impingement by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landing. Their study revealed that even with indirect impingement, the spacecraft sustained erosive damage from the fast-moving lunar dust particles. In this work, results are presented from a series of erosive wear experiments performed on 6061 Aluminum using the JSC-1AF lunar dust simulant. Optical profilometry was used to investigate the surface after the erosion process. It was found that even short durations of lunar dust simulant impacting at low velocities produced substantial changes in the surface.

  19. Quantum critical environment assisted quantum magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaseem, Noufal; Omkar, S.; Shaji, Anil

    2018-04-01

    A central qubit coupled to an Ising ring of N qubits, operating close to a critical point is investigated as a potential precision quantum magnetometer for estimating an applied transverse magnetic field. We compute the quantum Fisher information for the central, probe qubit with the Ising chain initialized in its ground state or in a thermal state. The non-unitary evolution of the central qubit due to its interaction with the surrounding Ising ring enhances the accuracy of the magnetic field measurement. Near the critical point of the ring, Heisenberg-like scaling of the precision in estimating the magnetic field is obtained when the ring is initialized in its ground state. However, for finite temperatures, the Heisenberg scaling is limited to lower ranges of N values.

  20. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  1. Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Lunar/ISS Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center is developing a dust mitigation experiment and testing it on the lunar surface and on the...

  2. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  3. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  4. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  5. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  6. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  7. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  8. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantsker, E.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO 3 -YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz -1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room

  9. High transition-temperature SQUID magnetometers and practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantsker, Eugene [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-05-01

    The design, fabrication and performance of SQUID magnetometers based on thin films of the high-transition temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) are described. Essential to the achieving high magnetic field resolution at low frequencies is the elimination of 1/f flux noise due to thermally activated hopping of flux vortices between pinning sites in the superconducting films. Through improvements in processing, 1/f noise in single layer YBCO thin films and YBCO-SrTiO3-YBCO trilayers was systematically reduced to allow fabrication of sensitive SQUID magnetometers. Both single-layer directly coupled SQUID magnetometers and multilayer magnetometers were fabricated, based on the dc SQUID with bicrystal grain boundary Josephson junctions. Multilayer magnetometers had a lower magnetic field noise for a given physical size due to greater effective sensing areas. A magnetometer consisting of a SQUID inductively coupled to the multiturn input coil of a flux transformer in a flip-chip arrangement had a field noise of 27 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 8.5 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A multiloop multilayer SQUID magnetometer had a field noise of 37 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 Hz and 18 fT Hz-1/2 at 1 kHz. A three-axis SQUID magnetometer for geophysical applications was constructed and operated in the field in the presence of 60 Hz and radiofrequency noise. Clinical quality magnetocardiograms were measured using multilayer SQUID magnetometers in a magnetically shielded room.

  10. Sound velocity and compressibility for lunar rocks 17 and 46 and for glass spheres from the lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, E; Anderson, O L; Sogat, N; Warren, N; Scholz, C

    1970-01-30

    Four experiments on lunar materials are reported: (i) resonance on glass spheres from the soil; (ii) compressibility of rock 10017; (iii) sound velocities of rocks 10046 and 10017; (iv) sound velocity of the lunar fines. The data overlap and are mutually consistent. The glass beads and rock 10017 have mechanical properties which correspond to terrestrial materials. Results of (iv) are consistent with low seismic travel times in the lunar maria. Results of analysis of the microbreccia (10046) agreed with the soil during the first pressure cycle, but after overpressure the rock changed, and it then resembled rock 10017. Three models of the lunar surface were constructed giving density and velocity profiles.

  11. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, L.B., III

    2012-01-01

    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  12. Self-Compensating Excitation of Fluxgate Sensors for Space Magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerman, Alec; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents design and implementation of the new self-compensating excitation circuitry to the new generation of high-precise space vector magnetometers. The application starts with complex study including design of new robust model of the non-linear inductor leading to investigation...... of the most crucial points, continuous by design of the self-compensating excitation unit and concludes with unit complex testing and application to the magnetometer. The application of the self-compensation of the excitation decreases temperature drift of the magnetometer offset caused by the temperature...

  13. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  14. Overview of lunar detection of ultra-high energy particles and new plans for the SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, Clancy W.; Alvarez-Muñiz, Jaime; Bray, Justin D.; Buitink, Stijn; Dagkesamanskii, Rustam D.; Ekers, Ronald D.; Falcke, Heino; Gayley, Ken; Huege, Tim; Mevius, Maaijke; Mutel, Rob; Scholten, Olaf; Spencer, Ralph; ter Veen, Sander; Winchen, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The lunar technique is a method for maximising the collection area for ultra-high-energy (UHE) cosmic ray and neutrino searches. The method uses either ground-based radio telescopes or lunar orbiters to search for Askaryan emission from particles cascading near the lunar surface. While experiments

  15. Moonraker and Tetris: Japanese Microrovers for Lunar Cave Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.; Britton, N.; Walker, J.; Shimizu, T.; Tanaka, T.; Hakamada, T.

    2015-10-01

    A Japanese team HAKUTO is developing a robotic system for exploration of Lunar lava tubes. Motivated by Google Lunar XPRIZE that requires 500 m travel on any surface of Moon, but the team plans to go down into a skylight in Lacus Mortis.

  16. Reactions of atmospheric vapors with lunar soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Agron, P.A.

    1976-03-01

    Detailed experimental data have been acquired for the hydration of the surfaces of lunar fines. Inert vapor adsorption has been employed to measure the surface properties (surface energy, surface area, porosity, etc.) and changes wrought in the hydration-dehydration processes. Plausible mechanisms have been considered and the predominant process involves hydration of the metamict metallosilicate surfaces to form a hydrated laminar structure akin to terrestrial clays. Additional credence for this interpretation is obtained by comparison to existing geochemical literature concerning terrestrial weathering of primary metallosilicates. The surface properties of the hydrated lunar fines are compared favorably to those of terrestrial clay minerals. In addition, experimental results are given to show that fresh disordered surfaces of volcanic sand react with water vapor in a manner virtually identical to the majority of the lunar fines. The results show that ion track etching and/or grain boundary attack are minor contributions in the weathering of lunar fines in the realm of our microgravimetric experimental conditions. 14 references

  17. Far-Ultraviolet Characteristics of Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Greathouse, T. K.; Retherford, K. D.; Mandt, K. E.; Gladstone, G. R.; Kaufmann, D. E.; Hurley, D. M.; Feldman, P. D.; Pryor, W. R.; Bullock, M. A.; Stern, S. A.

    2015-10-01

    Lunar swirls are often described as bright sinuous regions of the Moon that appear to be relatively immature -i.e. less space-weathered than surrounding regions. Swirls are mysterious but seem to be linked to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies (e.g., [1]). Commonly-studied swirls include Mare Ingenii (in a mare- highlands boundary region), Reiner Gamma (in a mare region), and Gerasimovich (in a highlands region). Swirls are known to be surface features: they have no expression at radar depths [2], exhibit no topography, and craters on swirls that penetrate the bright surface terrain reveal underlying dark material [3].

  18. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  19. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  20. GIOTTO MAGNETOMETER 8 SECOND DATA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the Giotto Magnetometer Experiment is the investigation of the interaction between Comet Halley and the solar wind at a distance of 0.9 AU from...

  1. Developement of a Fluxgate Magnetometer for the KITSAT-3 Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hwang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The magnetometer is one of the most important payloads of scientific satellites to monitor the near-earth space environment. The electromagnetic variations of the space environment can be observed with the electric and magnetic field measurements. In practice, it is well known that the measurement of magnetic fields needs less technical complexities than that of electric fields in space. Therefore the magnetometer has long been recognized as one of the basic payloads for the scientific satellites. In this paper, we discuss the scientific fluxgate magnetometer which will be on board the KITSAT-3. The main circuit design of the present magnetometer is based on that of KISAT-1 and -2 but its facilities have been re-designed to improve the resolution to about 5nT for scientific purpose. The calibration and noise level test of this circuit have been performed at the laboratory of the Tierra Tecnica company in Japan.

  2. Differential Search Coils Based Magnetometers: Conditioning, Magnetic Sensitivity, Spatial Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timofeeva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and experimental comparison of optimized search coils based magnetometers, operating either in the Flux mode or in the classical Lenz-Faraday mode, is presented. The improvements provided by the Flux mode in terms of bandwidth and measuring range of the sensor are detailed. Theory, SPICE model and measurements are in good agreement. The spatial resolution of the sensor is studied which is an important parameter for applications in non destructive evaluation. A general expression of the magnetic sensitivity of search coils sensors is derived. Solutions are proposed to design magnetometers with reduced weight and volume without degrading the magnetic sensitivity. An original differential search coil based magnetometer, made of coupled coils, operating in flux mode and connected to a differential transimpedance amplifier is proposed. It is shown that this structure is better in terms of volume occupancy than magnetometers using two separated coils without any degradation in magnetic sensitivity. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculations.

  3. VOYAGER 1 SATURN MAGNETOMETER RESAMPLED DATA 9.60 SEC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 1 Saturn encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 9.6 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  4. Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I SBIR proposal describes proposed development of a conceptual design for a Self-Calibrating Vector Helium Magnetometer (SVHM) for design and fabrication...

  5. VOYAGER 2 JUPITER MAGNETOMETER RESAMPLED DATA 48.0 SEC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter magnetometer data that have been resampled at a 48.0 second sample rate. The data set is composed of 6 columns: 1)...

  6. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  7. Lunar Global Heat Flow: Predictions and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, M.; Williams, J. P.; Paige, D. A.; Feng, J.

    2017-12-01

    The global thermal state of the Moon provides fundamental information on its bulk composition and interior evolution. The Moon is known to have a highly asymmetric surface composition [e.g. Lawrence et al., 2003] and crustal thickness [Wieczorek et al.,2012], which is suspected to result from interior asymmetries [Wieczorek and Phillips, 2000; Laneuville et al., 2013]. This is likely to cause a highly asymmetric surface heat flux, both past and present. Our understanding the thermal evolution and composition of the bulk moon therefore requires a global picture of the present lunar thermal state, well beyond our two-point Apollo era measurement. As on the on the Earth, heat flow measurements need to be taken in carefully selected locations to truly characterize the state of the planet's interior. Future surface heat flux and seismic observations will be affected by the presence of interior temperature and crustal radiogenic anomalies, so placement of such instruments is critically important for understanding the lunar interior. The unfortunate coincidence that Apollo geophysical measurements lie areas within or directly abutting the highly radiogenic, anomalously thin-crusted Procellarum region highlights the importance of location for in situ geophysical study [e.g. Siegler and Smrekar, 2014]. Here we present the results of new models of global lunar geothermal heat flux. We synthesize data from several recent missions to constrain lunar crustal composition, thickness and density to provide global predictions of the surface heat flux of the Moon. We also discuss implications from new surface heat flux constraints from the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment and Chang'E 2 Microwave Radiometer. We will identify areas with the highest uncertainty to provide insight on the placement of future landed geophysical missions, such as the proposed Lunar Geophysical Network, to better aim our future exploration of the Moon.

  8. Mass loading of the Earth's magnetosphere by micron size lunar ejecta. 1: Ejecta production and orbital dynamics in cislunar space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, W. M.; Tanner, W. G.; Anz, P. D.; Chen, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    Particulate matter possessing lunar escape velocity sufficient to enhance the cislunar meteroid flux was investigated. While the interplanetary flux was extensively studied, lunar ejecta created by the impact of this material on the lunar surface is only now being studied. Two recently reported flux models are employed to calculate the total mass impacting the lunar surface due to sporadic meteor flux. There is ample evidence to support the contention that the sporadic interplanetary meteoroid flux enhances the meteroid flux of cislunar space through the creation of micron and submicron lunar ejecta with lunar escape velocity.

  9. Ultrasensitive magnetometers based on rotational magnetic excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristoforou, E.; Svec, P. Sr.

    2014-01-01

    Three new types of fluxgate magnetometers are presented in this paper, able to monitor the three components of the ambient field, all of them based on the principle of rotational excitation field. The first type is based on Yttrium- Iron Garnet (YIG) single crystal film, magnetized with rotational field on its plane, where the 2"n"d, 4"t"h and 6"t"h harmonics offer the three components of the ambient field with sensitivity better than 1 pT at 0.2 Hz, its size being 25 cm"3. The second type is based on permalloy film, where the rotational excitation field on its plane offers change of magnetoresistance with sensitivity better than 10 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 1 ppm and size ∼ 8 cm"3. The third type, is based on amorphous film, where the rotation field mode offer sensitivity better than 100 pT at 1 Hz, uncertainty of 10 ppm and size ∼ 10 mm"3. (authors)

  10. The Search-Coil Magnetometer for MMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Contel, O.; Leroy, P.; Roux, A.; Coillot, C.; Alison, D.; Bouabdellah, A.; Mirioni, L.; Meslier, L.; Galic, A.; Vassal, M. C.; Torbert, R. B.; Needell, J.; Rau, D.; Dors, I.; Ergun, R. E.; Westfall, J.; Summers, D.; Wallace, J.; Magnes, W.; Valavanoglou, A.; Olsson, G.; Chutter, M.; Macri, J.; Myers, S.; Turco, S.; Nolin, J.; Bodet, D.; Rowe, K.; Tanguy, M.; de la Porte, B.

    2016-03-01

    The tri-axial search-coil magnetometer (SCM) belongs to the FIELDS instrumentation suite on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission (Torbert et al. in Space Sci. Rev. (2014), this issue). It provides the three magnetic components of the waves from 1 Hz to 6 kHz in particular in the key regions of the Earth's magnetosphere namely the subsolar region and the magnetotail. Magnetospheric plasmas being collisionless, such a measurement is crucial as the electromagnetic waves are thought to provide a way to ensure the conversion from magnetic to thermal and kinetic energies allowing local or global reconfigurations of the Earth's magnetic field. The analog waveforms provided by the SCM are digitized and processed inside the digital signal processor (DSP), within the Central Electronics Box (CEB), together with the electric field data provided by the spin-plane double probe (SDP) and the axial double probe (ADP). On-board calibration signal provided by DSP allows the verification of the SCM transfer function once per orbit. Magnetic waveforms and on-board spectra computed by DSP are available at different time resolution depending on the selected mode. The SCM design is described in details as well as the different steps of the ground and in-flight calibrations.

  11. Ultra-sensitive Magnetic Microscopy with an Atomic Magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The PowerPoint presentation focused on research goals, specific information about the atomic magnetometer, response and resolution factors of the SERF magnetometer, FC+AM systems, tests of field transfer and resolution on FC, gradient cancellation, testing of AM performance, ideas for a multi-channel AM, including preliminary sensitivity testing, and a description of a 6 channel DAQ system. A few ideas for future work ended the presentation.

  12. Lunar architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Shahin

    The climatic conditions of Earth and human trends for discover the space, make these questions that how we can design a camp on the moon as a base for traveling in space or how we can live on that condition and what kind of camp we can have on the moon?!The first step in this way was creating the International Space Station on earth's orbit. (International Space Station, 2001) Settlement on moon was proposed since knowledge about it growth. Regarding to new technologies, architects parallel to engineers are trying to design and invent new ways for human settlement on moon because of its suitable conditions. Proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft lander or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Due to the researches until now, the first requirement for the living on other planets is water existence for human breath and fuel and after that we need to solve air pressure and gravity difference. (Colonization of the Moon, 2004) The Goal of this research is to answer to the question which is designing a camp on the Moon. But for this goal, there is need to think and study more about the subject and its factors. With qualitative and comparative methodology, the conditions of the Earth and the Moon will be comparing in different categories such as nature, human and design. I think that after water discovery, with using local materials and appropriate building design which can be on surface or underground, along with new sciences, we can plan for long period living on Moon. The important point is to consider Function, Form and Structure together in designing on the Moon. References: Colonization of the Moon. (2004). Retrieved December 14, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonizationo ft heM oonStructure, InternationalSpaceStation.(2001).Retrie http : //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InternationalS paceS tation

  13. Magnetometer and Gyroscope Calibration Method with Level Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkai Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation. The proposed method presents a redefined magnetometer output model using level attitude. New gyroscope and magnetometer calibration models are then deduced. In addition, a simplified cubature Kalman filter (CKF is established to estimate calibration parameters. This method possesses important value for application in actual systems, as it only needs level rotation for real-time calibration of gyroscopes and magnetometers. Theoretical analysis and test results verify the validity and feasibility of this method.

  14. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  15. Inhalation Toxicity of Ground Lunar Dust Prepared from Apollo-14 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the decade one or more space-faring nations intend to return humans to the moon for more in depth exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface than was conducted during the Apollo days. The lunar surface is blanketed with fine dust, much of it in the respirable size range (<10 micron). Eventually, there is likely to be a habitable base and rovers available to reach distant targets for sample acquisition. Despite designs that could minimize the entry of dust into habitats and rovers, it is reasonable to expect lunar dust to pollute both as operations progress. Apollo astronauts were exposed briefly to dust at nuisance levels, but stays of up to 6 months on the lunar surface are envisioned. Will repeated episodic exposures to lunar dust present a health hazard to those engaged in lunar exploration? Using rats exposed to lunar dust by nose-only inhalation, we set out to investigate that question.

  16. Initial Results from Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding with ARTEMIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua, H.; Fatemi, S.; Poppe, A. R.; Delory, G. T.; Grimm, R. E.; De Pater, I.

    2016-12-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding constrains conducting layers of the lunar interior by observing variations in the Interplanetary Magnetic Field. Here, we focus our analysis on the time domain transfer function method locating transient events observed by two magnetometers near the Moon. We analyze ARTEMIS and Apollo magnetometer data. This analysis assumes the induced field responds undisturbed in a vacuum. In actuality, the dynamic plasma environment interacts with the induced field. Our models indicate distortion but not confinement occurs in the nightside wake cavity. Moreover, within the deep wake, near-vacuum region, distortion of the induced dipole fields due to the interaction with the wake is minimal depending on the magnitude of the induced field, the geometry of the upstream fields, and the upstream plasma parameters such as particle densities, solar wind velocity, and temperatures. Our results indicate the assumption of a vacuum dipolar response is reasonable within this minimally disturbed zone. We then interpret the ATEMIS magnetic field signal through a geophysical forward model capturing the induced response based on prescribed electrical conductivity models. We demonstrate our forward model passes benchmarking analyses and solves the magnetic induction response for any input signal as well as any 2 or 3 dimensional conductivity profile. We locate data windows according to the following criteria: (1) probe locations such that the wake probe is within 500km altitude within the wake cavity and minimally disturbed zone, and the second probe is in the free streaming solar wind; (2) a transient event consisting of an abrupt change in the magnetic field occurs enabling the observation of induction; (3) cross correlation analysis reveals the magnetic field signals are well correlated between the two probes and distances observed. Here we present initial ARTEMIS results providing further insight into the lunar interior structure. This method and modeling results

  17. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  18. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  19. Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface....

  20. Cycles of Air Temperature According to Lunar Parallax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaia Ion

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to demonstrate that, on Terra’s surface, there are cycles of air’s temperature (almost perfect, which can be explained just by the lunar parallax’s cycles.

  1. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  2. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  3. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  4. Development of Autonomous Magnetometer Rotorcraft For Wide Area Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. McKay; Matthew O. Anderson

    2011-08-01

    Large areas across the United States and internationally are potentially contaminated with unexploded ordinance (UXO), with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with (1) near 100% coverage and (2) near 100% detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area assessment is a multi-level one, in which medium - altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry. Subsequent to this wide area assessment targeted surface investigations are performed using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be an effective tool for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 to 3 meters. These altitude requirements mean that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys, resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre. In addition, due to the low altitude there are substantial risks to pilots and equipment. Surface towed arrays provide highresolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus there is a need for other systems, which can be used for effective data collection. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it reduces risk to operators, is lower in initial and Operational and Maintenance (O&M) costs (and can thus potentially be applied to smaller sites) and has the potential of being more effective in terms of detection and possibly

  5. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

  6. Design and implementation of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer analog circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Xue; Zhao, Jianchang; Zhang, Shuang; Guo, Xin; Zhou, Tingting

    2017-09-01

    Overhauser magnetometer, a kind of static-magnetic measurement system based on the Overhauser effect, has been widely used in archaeological exploration, mineral resources exploration, oil and gas basin structure detection, prediction of engineering exploration environment, earthquakes and volcanic eruotions, object magnetic measurement and underground buried booty exploration. Overhauser magnetometer plays an important role in the application of magnetic field measurement for its characteristics of small size, low power consumption and high sensitivity. This paper researches the design and the application of the analog circuit of JOM-3 Overhauser magnetometer. First, the Larmor signal output by the probe is very weak. In order to obtain the signal with high signal to noise rstio(SNR), the design of pre-amplifier circuit is the key to improve the quality of the system signal. Second, in this paper, the effectual step which could improve the frequency characters of bandpass filter amplifier circuit were put forward, and theoretical analysis was made for it. Third, the shaping circuit shapes the amplified sine signal into a square wave signal which is suitable for detecting the rising edge. Fourth, this design elaborated the optimized choice of tuning circuit, so the measurement range of the magnetic field can be covered. Last, integrated analog circuit testing system was formed to detect waveform of each module. By calculating the standard deviation, the sensitivity of the improved Overhauser magnetometer is 0.047nT for Earth's magnetic field observation. Experimental results show that the new magnetometer is sensitive to earth field measurement.

  7. Concentrations of radioactive elements in lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    As an aid to interpreting data obtained remotely on the distribution of radioactive elements on the lunar surface, average concentrations of K, U, and Th as well as Al, Fe, and Ti in different types of lunar rocks and soils are tabulated. The U/Th ratio in representative samples of lunar rocks and regolith is constant at 0.27; K/Th ratios are more variable because K and Th are carried by different mineral phases. In nonmare regoliths at the Apollo sites, the main carriers of radioactive elements are mafic (i.e., 6-8 percent Fe) impact-melt breccias created at the time of basin formation and products derived therefrom.

  8. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan; Metzger, Philip; Roberson, Luke; Stephen, Huff

    2010-03-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor III spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost. As a first step in investigating this concern, we have performed a series of low-velocity impact experiments in a modified sandblasting hood using lunar soil simulant impacted upon various materials that are commonly used in spaceflight hardware. It was seen that considerable damage is inevitable and protective barriers need to be designed.

  9. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  10. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  11. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  12. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Mafic Materials in Scott Crater? A Test for Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2007-01-01

    Clementine 750 nm and multispectral ratio data, along with Lunar Orbiter and radar data, were used to study the crater Scott in the lunar south polar region. The multispectral data provide evidence for mafic materials, impact melts, anorthositic materials, and a small pyroclastic deposit. High-resolution radar data and Lunar Orbiter photography for this area show differences in color and surface texture that correspond with the locations of the hypothesized mafic and anorthositic areas on the crater floor. This region provides a test case for the upcoming Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Verification of the existence of a mafic deposit at this location is relevant to future lunar resource utilization planning.

  14. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  15. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LUNAR ROUGHNESS FROM MULTI - SOURCE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Lou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lunar terrain can show its collision and volcanic history. The lunar surface roughness can give a deep indication of the effects of lunar surface magma, sedimentation and uplift. This paper aims to get different information from the roughness through different data sources. Besides introducing the classical Root-mean-square height method and Morphological Surface Roughness (MSR algorithm, this paper takes the area of the Jurassic mountain uplift in the Sinus Iridum and the Plato Crater area as experimental areas. And then make the comparison and contrast of the lunar roughness derived from LRO's DEM and CE-2 DOM. The experimental results show that the roughness obtained by the traditional roughness calculation method reflect the ups and downs of the topography, while the results obtained by morphological surface roughness algorithm show the smoothness of the lunar surface. So, we can first use the surface fluctuation situation derived from RMSH to select the landing area range which ensures the lands are gentle. Then the morphological results determine whether the landing area is suitable for the detector walking and observing. The results obtained at two different scales provide a more complete evaluation system for selecting the landing site of the lunar probe.

  17. 2007 Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLemore, Carole A.; Fikes, John C.; Howell, Joe T.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) vision has as a cornerstone, the establishment of an Outpost on the Moon. This Lunar Outpost will eventually provide the necessary planning, technology development, and training for a manned mission to Mars in the future. As part of the overall activity, NASA is conducting Earth-based research and advancing technologies to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 6 maturity under the Exploration Technology Development Program that will be incorporated into the Constellation Project as well as other projects. All aspects of the Lunar environment, including the Lunar regolith and its properties, are important in understanding the long-term impacts to hardware, scientific instruments, and humans prior to returning to the Moon and living on the Moon. With the goal of reducing risk to humans and hardware and increasing mission success on the Lunar surface, it is vital that terrestrial investigations including both development and verification testing have access to Lunar-like environments. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is supporting this endeavor by developing, characterizing, and producing Lunar simulants in addition to analyzing existing simulants for appropriate applications. A Lunar Regolith Simulant Workshop was conducted by MSFC in Huntsville, Alabama, in October 2007. The purpose of the Workshop was to bring together simulant developers, simulant users, and program and project managers from ETDP and Constellation with the goals of understanding users' simulant needs and their applications. A status of current simulant developments such as the JSC-1A (Mare Type Simulant) and the NASA/U.S. Geological Survey Lunar Highlands-Type Pilot Simulant (NU-LHT-1 M) was provided. The method for evaluating simulants, performed via Figures of Merit (FoMs) algorithms, was presented and a demonstration was provided. The four FoM properties currently being assessed are: size, shape, density, and composition. Some of the

  18. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  19. Calibration of three-axis magnetometers with differential evolution algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Junya; Li, Ji; Luo, Shitu; Wan, Chengbiao; Chen, Dixiang; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy of three-axis magnetometers is influenced by different scale and bias of each axis and nonorthogonality between axes. One limitation of traditional iteration methods is that initial parameters influence the calibration, thus leading to the local optimal or wrong results. In this paper, a new method is proposed to calibrate three-axis magnetometers. To employ this method, a nonmagnetic rotation platform, a proton magnetometer, a DM-050 three-axis magnetometer and the differential evolution (DE) algorithm are used. The performance of this calibration method is analyzed with simulation and experiment. In simulation, the calibration results of DE, unscented Kalman filter (UKF), recursive least squares (RLS) and genetic algorithm (GA) are compared. RMS error using DE is least, which is reduced from 81.233 nT to 1.567 nT. Experimental results show that comparing with UKF, RLS and GA, the DE algorithm has not only the least calibration error but also the best robustness. After calibration, RMS error is reduced from 68.914 nT to 2.919 nT. In addition, the DE algorithm is not sensitive to initial parameters, which is an important advantage compared with traditional iteration algorithms. The proposed algorithm can avoid the troublesome procedure to select suitable initial parameters, thus it can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers. - Highlights: • The calibration results and robustness of UKF, GA, RLS and DE algorithm are analyzed. • Calibration error of DE is the least in simulation and experiment. • Comparing with traditional calibration algorithms, DE is not sensitive to initial parameters. • It can improve the calibration performance of three-axis magnetometers

  20. Calibration of the Ørsted vector magnetometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Tøffner-Clausen, Lars; Sabaka, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The vector fluxgate magnetometer of the Orsted satellite is routinely calibrated by comparing its output with measurements of the absolute magnetic intensity from the Overhauser instrument, which is the second magnetometer of the satellite. We describe the method used for and the result obtained...... coordinate system and the reference system of the star imager. This is done by comparing the magnetic and attitude measurements with a model of Earth's magnetic field. The Euler angles describing this rotation are determined in this way with an accuracy of better than 4 arcsec....

  1. Microfabricated optically pumped magnetometer arrays for biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, A. R.; Sheng, D.; Krzyzewski, S. P.; Geller, S.; Knappe, S.

    2017-02-01

    Optically-pumped magnetometers have demonstrated magnetic field measurements as precise as the best superconducting quantum interference device magnetometers. Our group develops miniature alkali atom-based magnetic sensors using microfabrication technology. Our sensors do not require cryogenic cooling, and can be positioned very close to the sample, making these sensors an attractive option for development in the medical community. We will present our latest chip-scale optically-pumped gradiometer developed for array applications to image magnetic fields from the brain noninvasively. These developments should lead to improved spatial resolution, and potentially sensitive measurements in unshielded environments.

  2. Electromagnetic induction imaging with a radio-frequency atomic magnetometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca, E-mail: l.marmugi@ucl.ac.uk; Hussain, Sarah; Renzoni, Ferruccio [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    We report on a compact, tunable, and scalable to large arrays imaging device, based on a radio-frequency optically pumped atomic magnetometer operating in magnetic induction tomography modality. Imaging of conductive objects is performed at room temperature, in an unshielded environment and without background subtraction. Conductivity maps of target objects exhibit not only excellent performance in terms of shape reconstruction but also demonstrate detection of sub-millimetric cracks and penetration of conductive barriers. The results presented here demonstrate the potential of a future generation of imaging instruments, which combine magnetic induction tomography and the unmatched performance of atomic magnetometers.

  3. Temporal Variability of Lunar Exospheric Helium During January 2012 from LRO/LAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Feldman, Paul D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Retherford, Kurt D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Stern, S. Alan; Pryor, Wayne; Parker, Joel Wm.; Kaufmann, David E.; Davis, Michael W.; Versteeg, Maarten; team, LAMP

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of the lunar helium exosphere made between December 29, 2011, and January 26, 2012, with the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) ultraviolet spectrograph on NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission (LRO). The observations were made of resonantly scattered He I 584 from illuminated atmosphere against the dark lunar surface on the dawn side of the terminator. We find no or little variation of the derived surface He density with latitude but day-to-day variations that li...

  4. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  5. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  6. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  7. Radiation transport of cosmic ray nuclei in lunar material and radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C.H.; Adams, J.H. Jr.; Letaw, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The radiation environment on the lunar surface is inhospitable. The permanent settlers may work ten hours per 24-hour interval for the two-week-long lunar day on the lunar surface, or 20 percent of the total time. At moderate depths below the lunar surface (less than 200 g/sq cm) the flux of secondary neutrons exceeds considerably that in the upper atmosphere of the earth, due to cosmic-ray interactions with lunar material. The annual dose equivalent due to neutrons is about 20 or 25 rem within the upper meter of the lunar surface. The dose equivalent due to gamma rays generated by nuclear interactions near the lunar surface is only on the order of 1 percent of that due to neutrons. However, gamma-ray line emission from excited nuclei and nuclear spallation products generated by cosmic rays near the lunar surface is of considerable interest: these lines permit the partial determination of lunar composition by gamma spectroscopy. 12 references

  8. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  9. Optimized Radiator Geometries for Hot Lunar Thermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The optimum radiator configuration in hot lunar thermal environments is one in which the radiator is parallel to the ground and has no view to the hot lunar surface. However, typical spacecraft configurations have limited real estate available for top-mounted radiators, resulting in a desire to use the spacecraft's vertically oriented sides. Vertically oriented, flat panel radiators will have a large view factor to the lunar surface, and thus will be subjected to significant incident lunar infrared heat. Consequently, radiator fluid temperatures will need to exceed approximately 325 K (assuming standard spacecraft radiator optical properties) in order to provide positive heat rejection at lunar noon. Such temperatures are too high for crewed spacecraft applications in which a heat pump is to be avoided. A recent study of vertically oriented radiator configurations subjected to lunar noon thermal environments led to the discovery of a novel radiator concept that yielded positive heat rejection at lower fluid temperatures. This radiator configuration, called the Intense Thermal Infrared Reflector (ITIR), has exhibited superior performance to all previously analyzed concepts in terms of heat rejection in the lunar noon thermal environment. A key benefit of ITIR is the absence of louvers or other moving parts and its simple geometry (no parabolic shapes). ITIR consists of a specularly reflective shielding surface and a diffuse radiating surface joined to form a horizontally oriented V-shape (shielding surface on top). The point of intersection of these surfaces is defined by two angles, those which define the tilt of each surface with respect to the local horizontal. The optimum set of these angles is determined on a case-by-case basis. The idea assumes minimal conductive heat transfer between shielding and radiating surfaces, and a practical design would likely stack sets of these surfaces on top of one another to reduce radiator thickness.

  10. Molecular gas species in the lunar atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.H.; Hodges, R.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    There is good evidence for the existence of very small amounts of methane, ammonia and carbon dioxide in the very tenuous lunar atmosphere which consists primarily of the rare gases helium, neon and argon. All of these gases, except 40 Ar, originate from solar wind particles which impinge on the lunar surface and are imbedded in the surface material. Here they may form molecules before being released into the atmosphere, or may be released directly, as is the case for rare gases. Evidence for the existence of the molecular gas species is based on the pre-dawn enhancement of the mass peaks attributable to these compounds in the data from the Apollo 17 Lunar Mass Spectrometer. Methane is the most abundant molecular gas but its concentration is exceedingly low, 1 x 10 3 mol cm -3 , slightly less than 36 Ar, whereas the solar wind flux of carbon is approximately 2000 times that of 36 Ar. Several reasons are advanced for the very low concentration of methane in the lunar atmosphere

  11. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  12. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  13. Lunar UV-visible-IR mapping interferometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Hayden; Haskin, L.; Korotev, R.; Arvidson, R.; Mckinnon, W.; Hapke, B.; Larson, S.; Lucey, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible-infrared mapping digital array scanned interferometers for lunar compositional surveys was developed. The research has defined a no-moving-parts, low-weight and low-power, high-throughput, and electronically adaptable digital array scanned interferometer that achieves measurement objectives encompassing and improving upon all the requirements defined by the LEXSWIG for lunar mineralogical investigation. In addition, LUMIS provides a new, important, ultraviolet spectral mapping, high-spatial-resolution line scan camera, and multispectral camera capabilities. An instrument configuration optimized for spectral mapping and imaging of the lunar surface and provide spectral results in support of the instrument design are described.

  14. Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients: GLINT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, Glen I. [NRAO, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States)], E-mail: glangsto@nrao.edu; Bradley, Rich [NRAO, 520 Edgemont Rd, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hankins, Tim [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Mutel, Bob [University of Iowa, 706 Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    The Green Bank Lunar Interferometer for Neutrino Transients (GLINT) project is a wide band (0.3-2.6 GHz) interferometric radio array dedicated to observations of transient events. The target is detection of few bright (>2000Jy) short duration (few nano-second) pulses from the lunar regolith. The GLINT project has three goals: (1) Maximize detection of statistically significant pulses originating from the lunar surface. (2) Unambiguously differentiate neutrino pulses from other sources of interference. (3) Localize the direction of the incoming radio pulse resulting from neutrino interactions.

  15. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (in center) commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on right), lunar module pilot, are seen standing near their Lunar Module in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California. President Richard M. Nixon had just spoken to the two astronauts by radio and Aldrin, a colonel in the U.S. Air Force, is saluting the president.

  16. Evaluating Detection and Estimation Capabilities of Magnetometer-Based Vehicle Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    fluxgate magnetometers whose operating characteristics are well documented [1, 2]. Such magnetometers measure two perpendicular magnetic components of...of surveillance scenarios. As part of that work, this analysis focuses on UGS utilizing of two-axis fluxgate magnetometers . Two MOPs are 12 -60 -40 -20...Proceedings of the IEEE, 78(6):973–989, June 1990. [2] E. M. Billingsley and S. W. Billingsley. Fluxgate magnetometers . Proceedings of the IEEE, 5090(194

  17. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  18. Simulations of Water Migration in the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, D.; Benna, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Goldstein, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    We perform modeling and analysis of water in the lunar exosphere. There were two controlled experiments of water interactions with the surface of the Moon observed by the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS). The Chang'e 3 landing on the Moon on 14 Dec 2013 putatively sprayed ~120 kg of water on the surface on the Moon at a mid-morning local time. Observations by LADEE near the noon meridian on six of the orbits in the 24 hours following the landing constrain the propagation of water vapor. Further, on 4 Apr 2014, LADEE's Orbital Maintenance Manuever (OMM) #21 sprayed the surface of the Moon with an estimated 0.73 kg of water in the pre-dawn sector. Observations of this maneuver and later in the day constrain the adsorption and release at dawn of adsorbed materials. Using the Chang'e 3 exhaust plume and LADEE's OMM-21 as control experiments, we set limits to the adsorption and thermalization of water with lunar regolith. This enables us to predict the efficiency of the migration of water as a delivery mechanism to the lunar poles. Then we simulate the migration of water through the lunar exosphere using the rate of sporadic inputs from meteoritic sources (Benna et al., this session). Simulations predict the amount of water adsorbed to the surface of the Moon and the effective delivery rate to the lunar polar cold traps.

  19. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  20. The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1973-01-01

    The High Field Fluxgate Magnetometer Experiment flow aboard the Pioneer 11 spacecraft to investigate Jupiter's magnetic field is described. The instrument extends the spacecraft's upper limit measurement capability by more than an order of magnitude to 17.3 gauss with minimum power and volume requirements.

  1. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  2. Observations of interplanetary dust by the Juno magnetometer investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Mathias; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz

    2017-01-01

    One of the Juno magnetometer investigation's star cameras was configured to search for unidentified objects during Juno's transit en route to Jupiter. This camera detects and registers luminous objects to magnitude 8. Objects persisting in more than five consecutive images and moving with an appa...... on the distribution and motion of interplanetary (>μm sized) dust....

  3. Ionospheric travelling convection vortices observed by the Greenland magnetometer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotsiaros, Stavros; Stolle, Claudia; Friis-Christensen, Eigil

    2013-01-01

    The Greenland magnetometer array continuously provides geomagnetic variometer data since the early eighties. With the polar cusp passing over it almost every day, the array is suitable to detect ionospheric traveling convection vortices (TCVs), which were rst detected by Friis-Christensen et al...

  4. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  5. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pérez; Claudio Aroca; Marina Díaz-Michelena; David Ciudad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  6. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  7. Remote Assessment of Lunar Resource Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    1992-01-01

    Assessing the resource potential of the lunar surface requires a well-planned program to determine the chemical and mineralogical composition of the Moon's surface at a range of scales. The exploration program must include remote sensing measurements (from both Earth's surface and lunar orbit), robotic in situ analysis of specific places, and eventually, human field work by trained geologists. Remote sensing data is discussed. Resource assessment requires some idea of what resources will be needed. Studies thus far have concentrated on oxygen and hydrogen production for propellant and life support, He-3 for export as fuel for nuclear fusion reactors, and use of bulk regolith for shielding and construction materials. The measurement requirements for assessing these resources are given and discussed briefly.

  8. Lunar Polar Cold Traps: Spatial Distribution and Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, David A.; Siegler, M.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2006-09-01

    We have developed a ray-tracing and radiosity model that can accurately calculate lunar surface and subsurface temperatures for arbitrary topography. Using available digital elevation models for the lunar north and south polar regions derived from Clementine laser altimeter and image data, as well as ground-based radar data, we have calculated lunar surface and subsurface temperatures at 2 km resolution that include full effects of indirect solar and infrared radiation due to topography. We compare our thermal model results with maps of epithermal neutron flux measured by Lunar Prospector. When we use the ray tracing and thermal model to account for the effects of temperature and topography on the neutron measurements, our results show that the majority of the moon's polar cold traps are not filled with water ice.

  9. Adaption of the Magnetometer Towed Array geophysical system to meet Department of Energy needs for hazardous waste site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, J.R.; McDonald, J.R.; Russell, R.J.; Robertson, R.; Hensel, E.

    1995-10-01

    This report documents US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded activities that have adapted the US Navy's Surface Towed Ordnance Locator System (STOLS) to meet DOE needs for a ''... better, faster, safer and cheaper ...'' system for characterizing inactive hazardous waste sites. These activities were undertaken by Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia), the Naval Research Laboratory, Geo-Centers Inc., New Mexico State University and others under the title of the Magnetometer Towed Array (MTA)

  10. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  11. Searching for Lunar Horizon Glow With the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; McClanahan, T. P.; Sun, X.; Smith, D. E.; Neumann, G. A.; Zuber, M. T.; Head, J. W., III

    2017-12-01

    The dust environment of the Moon is sensitive to the interplanetary meteoroid population and dust transport processes near the lunar surface, and this affects many aspects of lunar surface science and planetary exploration. The interplanetary meteoroid population poses a significant risk to spacecraft, yet it remains one of the more uncertain constituents of the space environment. Observed and hypothesized lunar dust transport mechanisms have included impact-generated dust plumes, electrostatic levitation, and dynamic lofting. Many details of the impactor flux and impact ejection process are poorly understood, a fact highlighted by recent discrepant estimates of the regolith mixing rate. Apollo-era observations of lunar horizon glow (LHG) were interpreted as sunlight forward-scattered by exospheric dust grains levitating in the top meter above the surface or lofted to tens of kilometers in altitude. However, recent studies have placed limits on the dust density orders of magnitude less than what was originally inferred, raising new questions on the time variability of the dust environment. Motivated by the need to better understand dust transport processes and the meteoroid population, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is conducting a campaign to search for LHG with the LOLA Laser Ranging (LR) system. Advantages of this LOLA LHG search include: (1) the LOLA-LR telescope can observe arbitrarily close to the Sun at any time during the year without damaging itself or the other instruments, (2) a long temporal baseline with observations both during and outside of meteor streams, which will improve the chances of detecting LHG, and (3) a focus on altitudes methodology, and preliminary results.

  12. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  13. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  14. Lunar Riometry: Proof-of-Concept Instrument Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K.; Giersch, L.; Burns, J. O.; Farrell, W. M.; Kasper, J. C.; O'Dwyer, I.; Hartman, J.

    2012-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent, the extent of contributions from volatile outgassing from the Moon, and its behavior over time, including response to the solar wind and modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) is based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the vertical extent of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. The instrument concept is simple, consisting of an antenna implemented as a metal deposited on polyimide film and receiver. We illustrate various deployment mechanisms and performance of a prototype in increasing lunar analog conditions. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of dust impactors. The Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  15. A theoretical and experimental investigation of the proton magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancke, G.P.

    1987-01-01

    This study comprises the investigation of the properties of the proton magnetometer based on the free precession of protons. The basic principle of the free precession of protons in the earth's magnetic field is described and the most important factors affecting this free precession are examined. It is shown that very important parameters to keep in mind are the polarization time and the magnitude of the polarization field. A discussion of the errors of a proton magnetometer built on the periodometer principles is given and it is shown that the error in counting of the number of precession periods during the time of measurement contributes most to the total error. The magnitude of this error depends on the signal-to-noise ratio, the instability of the operating threshold of the discriminator of the period counter, it's operating time and the tuning accuracy of the sensor to the precession frequency. The penetration to a magnetometer input of variable magnetic and electric interferences, their influence on the phase of the useful signal, and the resulting measurement errors are examined and methods of reducing the effects of interferences are discussed. The optimization of sensor design is very important in the development of proton magnetometers. The coil geometry, physical size, the working substance and the polarization design are important parameters. The selection of a method for processing the precession signal of a proton magnetometer is examined, given a sensor and signal amplifier with fixed parameters. A method is proposed and compared with known methods. Measurement errors are computed for various signal-to-noise ratios and times of observation of the precession signal, and it is shown that the proposed method is superior to conventional methods found in commercial instruments

  16. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  17. Feasibility Study for an Autonomous UAV -Magnetometer System -- Final Report on SERDP SEED 1509:2206

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelof Versteeg; Mark McKay; Matt Anderson; Ross Johnson; Bob Selfridge; Jay Bennett

    2007-09-01

    Large areas across the United States are potentially contaminated with UXO, with some ranges encompassing tens to hundreds of thousands of acres. Technologies are needed which will allow for cost effective wide area scanning with 1) near 100 % coverage and 2) near 100 % detection of subsurface ordnance or features indicative of subsurface ordnance. The current approach to wide area scanning is a multi-level one, in which medium altitude fixed wing optical imaging is used for an initial site assessment. This assessment is followed with low altitude manned helicopter based magnetometry followed by surface investigations using either towed geophysical sensor arrays or man portable sensors. In order to be effective for small UXO detection, the sensing altitude for magnetic site investigations needs to be on the order of 1 – 3 meters. These altitude requirements means that manned helicopter surveys will generally only be feasible in large, open and relatively flat terrains. While such surveys are effective in mapping large areas relatively fast there are substantial mobilization/demobilization, staffing and equipment costs associated with these surveys (resulting in costs of approximately $100-$150/acre). Surface towed arrays provide high resolution maps but have other limitations, e.g. in their ability to navigate rough terrain effectively. Thus, other systems are needed allowing for effective data collection. An UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) magnetometer platform is an obvious alternative. The motivation behind such a system is that it would be safer for the operators, cheaper in initial and O&M costs, and more effective in terms of site characterization. However, while UAV data acquisition from fixed wing platforms for large (> 200 feet) stand off distances is relatively straight forward, a host of challenges exist for low stand-off distance (~ 6 feet) UAV geophysical data acquisition. The objective of SERDP SEED 1509:2006 was to identify the primary challenges

  18. Plasma Distribution in Mercury's Magnetosphere Derived from MESSENGER Magnetometer and Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korth, Haje; Anderson, Brian J.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Raines, Jim M.; Slavin, James A.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Solomon, Sean C.; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2014-01-01

    We assess the statistical spatial distribution of plasma in Mercury's magnetosphere from observations of magnetic pressure deficits and plasma characteristics by the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The statistical distributions of proton flux and pressure were derived from 10months of Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) observations obtained during the orbital phase of the MESSENGER mission. The Magnetometer-derived pressure distributions compare favorably with those deduced from the FIPS observations at locations where depressions in the magnetic field associated with the presence of enhanced plasma pressures are discernible in the Magnetometer data. The magnitudes of the magnetic pressure deficit and the plasma pressure agree on average, although the two measures of plasma pressure may deviate for individual events by as much as a factor of approximately 3. The FIPS distributions provide better statistics in regions where the plasma is more tenuous and reveal an enhanced plasma population near the magnetopause flanks resulting from direct entry of magnetosheath plasma into the low-latitude boundary layer of the magnetosphere. The plasma observations also exhibit a pronounced north-south asymmetry on the nightside, with markedly lower fluxes at low altitudes in the northern hemisphere than at higher altitudes in the south on the same field line. This asymmetry is consistent with particle loss to the southern hemisphere surface during bounce motion in Mercury's offset dipole magnetic field.

  19. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2014-04-16

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h 2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging. Altimetric data are used to create radial constraints on the tidal deformationThe body tide amplitude is estimated from the crossover dataThe estimated Love number is consistent with previous estimates but more precise.

  20. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  1. Lunar base thermoelectric power station study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, G.; Brooks, Michael D.; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) program, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing and the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as the lunar base power station where kilowatts of power are required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this mission. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed and well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the unit to assess its technical problems and technology

  2. Studies of Polar Current Systems Using the IMS Scandinavian Magnetometer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiedt, J.; Baumjohann, W.

    1993-09-01

    As a contribution to the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS, 1976 1979) a two-dimensional array of 42 temporary magnetometer stations was run in Scandinavia, supplementary to the permanent observatories and concentrated in the northern part of the region. This effort aimed at the time-dependent (periods above about 100 s) determination of the two-dimensional structure of substorm-related magnetic fields at the Earth's surface with highest reasonable spatial resolution (about 100 km, corresponding to the height of the ionosphere) near the footpoints of field-aligned electric currents that couple the disturbed magnetosphere to the ionosphere at auroral latitudes. It has been of particular advantage for cooperative studies that not only simultaneous data were available from all-sky cameras, riometers, balloons, rockets, and satellites, but also from the STARE radar facility yielding colocated two-dimensional ionospheric electric field distributions. In many cases it therefore was possible to infer the three-dimensional regional structure of substorm-related ionospheric current systems. The first part of this review outlines the basic relationships and methods that have been used or have been developed for such studies. The second short part presents typical equivalent current patterns observed by the magnetometer array in the course of substorms. Finally we review main results of studies that have been based on the magnetometer array observations and on additional data, omitting studies on geomagnetic pulsations. These studies contributed to a clarification of the nature of auroral electrojets including the Harang discontinuity and of ionospheric current systems related to auroral features such as the break-up at midnight, the westward traveling surge, eastward drifting omega bands, and spirals.

  3. Fluxgate Magnetometer system mounted on UAS system: First field test at Dominga IOCG deposit, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanez, G. A.; Banchero, L.; Marco, A.; Figueroa, R.

    2016-12-01

    With the support of Fundacion Chile (FCH) grant, we developed an airborne magnetic system (GeoMagDrone GFDAS) mounted on a UAS octodrone platform (DJI, S1000), based on a low cost/light-weight fluxgate magnetometer (FGM-301) and a robust/light-weight data logger for position, temperature, radar altimeter and 3 magnetic components at 16 Hz recording. Fluxgate magnetometer is hanging from the UAS platform at a distance of 2.5m where the EM noise is reduced to less than 2 nT. The whole geophysical system, including batteries, weights 650 gr., with an autonomy of 2 hours. Magnetometer calibration includes the 9 coefficients of amplitude, offset, and orthogonality, and temperature correction. We test the system over the IOCG deposit of Dominga-Chile, a magnetite ore (40%) (a block of 2x3 km with NS lines separated every 50m and a clearance of 40m, the mineral deposit buried 50-100m from the surface, where a ground magnetic survey was conducted previously. Ground conditions includes relatively rough topography with slopes of 10-20%, and some windy days. We use the digital terrain model SRTM30 to define the drape flight shape Average flight performance includes a mean speed of 35-40 km/hour, and an UAS battery consumption of 18-12 minutes depending on the wind conditions. A good correspondence was found between plan deployment and survey results in terms of line direction/separation/clearance. Line path were flown with errors less than 5 meters, whereas clearance of 40m was kept depending on the amount of control points used. The comparison between ground survey and GeoMagDrone results show a perfect match (anomaly amplitude/shape and noise envelope), validating in this way the system developed. Main concern for the productive application of this technology in unmanned geophysical platforms is the battery performance and the quality of digital terrain models to follow the topography.

  4. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  5. Synthesis and Stability of Iron Nanoparticles for Lunar Environment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    Simulant of lunar dust is needed when researching the lunar environment. However, unlike the true lunar dust, today s simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of the lunar dust simulant: (1) Sequentially treating a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are grey in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contain alpha-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy regolith that contains Fe(sup 0). (2) Heating a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reaction to the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be alpha-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process, but stabilizes after 6 months of ambient air storage.

  6. The lunar thermal ice pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorghofer, Norbert [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Aharonson, Oded, E-mail: norbert@hawaii.edu [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  7. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  8. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  9. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  10. NV Diamond Micro-Magnetometer Baseline Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-12

    to define circular masks of diameters ranging from 100-250nm on the surface. An anisotropic etch was used to transfer the pattern into the crystal...between NV and nearby 13C. (b) Pulse sequence for transfer of electron spin coherence to nuclear spin and repetitive readout. (c) Cumulative Rabi

  11. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  12. Design of a Low-Cost 2-Axes Fluxgate Magnetometer for Small Satellite Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Jeoung Kim

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design and analysis results of a 2-axes magnetometer for attitude determination of small satellite. A low-cost and efficient 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer was selected as the most suitable attitude sensor for LEO microsatellites which require a low-to-medium level pointing accuracy. An optimization trade-off study has been performed for the development of 2-axes fluxgate magnetometer. All the relevant parameters such as permeability, demagnetization factor, coil diameter, core thickness, and number of coil turns were considered for the sizing of a small satellite magnetometer. The magnetometer which is designed, manufactured, and tested in-house as described in this paper satisfies linearity requirement for determining attitude position of small satellites. On the basis of magnetometer which is designed in Space System Research Lab. (SSRL, commercial magnetometer will be developed.

  13. Lunar Penetrating Radar onboard the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Guang-You; Zhou Bin; Ji Yi-Cai; Zhang Qun-Ying; Shen Shao-Xiang; Li Yu-Xi; Guan Hong-Fei; Tang Chuan-Jun; Gao Yun-Ze; Lu Wei; Ye Sheng-Bo; Han Hai-Dong; Zheng Jin; Wang Shu-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) is one of the important scientific instruments onboard the Chang'e-3 spacecraft. Its scientific goals are the mapping of lunar regolith and detection of subsurface geologic structures. This paper describes the goals of the mission, as well as the basic principles, design, composition and achievements of the LPR. Finally, experiments on a glacier and the lunar surface are analyzed

  14. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module ladder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, are seen standing by the Lunar Module ladder in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California.

  15. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  16. High-Fidelity Gas and Granular Flow Physics Models for Rocket Exhaust Interaction with Lunar Soil, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Soil debris liberated by spacecraft landing on the lunar surface may damage and contaminate surrounding spacecraft and habitat structures. Current numerical...

  17. A comparison of contour maps derived from independent methods of measuring lunar magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, B. R.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    Computer-generated contour maps of strong lunar remanent magnetic fields are presented and discussed. The maps, obtained by previously described (Eliason and Soderblom, 1977) techniques, are derived from a variety of direct and indirect measurements from Apollo 15 and 16 and Explorer 35 magnetometer and electron reflection data. A common display format is used to facilitate comparison of the maps over regions of overlapping coverage. Most large scale features of either weak or strong magnetic field regions are found to correlate fairly well on all the maps considered.

  18. Ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits - An ideal lunar resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, B. R.; Clark, B.; Coombs, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    With a view of investigating possible economic benefits that a permanent lunar settlement might provide to the near-earth space infrastructures, consideration was given to the ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits as sources of oxygen (for use as a propellant) and He-3 (for nuclear fusion fuel). This paper demonstrates that ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits would be excellent sources of a wide variety of valuable elements besides O and He-3, including Fe, Ti, H2, N, C, S, Cu, Zn, Cd, Bi, and Pb. It is shown that several ilmenite-rich pyroclastic deposits of regional extent exist on the lunar surface. The suitability of regional pyroclastic deposits for lunar mining operations, construction activities, and the establishment of permanent lunar settlements is examined.

  19. CE-4 Mission and Future Journey to Lunar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yongliao; Wang, Qin; Liu, Xiaoqun

    2016-07-01

    Chang'E-4 mission, being undertaken by phase two of China Lunar Exploration Program, represents China's first attempt to explore farside of lunar surface. Its probe includes a lander, a rover and a telecommunication relay which is scheduled to launch in around 2018. The scientific objectives of CE-4 mission will be implemented to investigate the lunar regional geological characteristics of landing and roving area, and also will make the first radio-astronomy measurements from the most radio-quiet region of near-earth space. The rover will opreate for at least 3 months, the lander for half a year, and the relay for no less than 3 years. Its scinetific instruments includes Cameras, infrared imaging spectrometer, Penetrating Radar onboard the rover in which is the same as the paylads on board the CE-3 rover, and a Dust-analyzer, a Temperature-instrument and a Wide Band Low Frequency Digital Radio Astronomical Station will be installed on board the lander. Our scientific goals of the future lunar exploration will aim at the lunar geology, resources and surface environments. A series of exploraion missions such as robotic exploration and non-manned lunar scientific station is proposed in this paper.

  20. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  1. Results from the GSFC fluxgate magnetometer on Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1976-01-01

    A high-field triaxial fluxgate magnetometer was mounted on Pioneer 11 to measure the main magnetic field of Jupiter. It is found that this planetary magnetic field is more complex than that indicated by the results of the Pioneer 10 vector helium magnetometer. At distances less than 3 Jupiter radii, the magnetic field is observed to increase more rapidly than an inverse-cubed distance law associated with any simple dipole model. Contributions from higher-order multipoles are significant, with the quadrupole and octupole being 24 and 21 percent of the dipole moment, respectively. Implications of the results for the study of trapped particles, planetary radio emission, and planetary interiors are discussed. Major conclusions are that the deviation of the main planetary magnetic field from a simple dipole leads to distortion of the L shells of the charged particles and to warping of the magnetic equator. Enhanced absorption effects associated with Amalthea and Io are predicted.

  2. Fluxgate Magnetometer Array for Geomagnetic Abnormal Phenomena Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project is to develop a flexible observation mode for a geomagnetic abnormal phenomena tracking system. The instrument, based on ring core fluxgate magnetometer technology, improves the field environment performance. Using wireless technology provides on-the-spot mobile networking for the observational data, with efficient access to the earthquake precursor observation network. It provides a powerful detection method for earthquake short-term prediction through installation of a low-noise fluxgate magnetometer array, intensely observing the phenomenon of geomagnetic disturbances and abnormal low-frequency electromagnetic signals in different latitudes, then carrying out observational data processing and exploring the relationship between earthquake activity and geomagnetic field changes.

  3. Machine Learning Based Localization and Classification with Atomic Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Cameron; Griffin, Lewis D.; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate identification of position, material, orientation, and shape of objects imaged by a Rb 85 atomic magnetometer performing electromagnetic induction imaging supported by machine learning. Machine learning maximizes the information extracted from the images created by the magnetometer, demonstrating the use of hidden data. Localization 2.6 times better than the spatial resolution of the imaging system and successful classification up to 97% are obtained. This circumvents the need of solving the inverse problem and demonstrates the extension of machine learning to diffusive systems, such as low-frequency electrodynamics in media. Automated collection of task-relevant information from quantum-based electromagnetic imaging will have a relevant impact from biomedicine to security.

  4. Lagrangian Trajectory Modeling of Lunar Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    Apollo landing videos shot from inside the right LEM window, provide a quantitative measure of the characteristics and dynamics of the ejecta spray of lunar regolith particles beneath the Lander during the final 10 [m] or so of descent. Photogrammetry analysis gives an estimate of the thickness of the dust layer and angle of trajectory. In addition, Apollo landing video analysis divulges valuable information on the regolith ejecta interactions with lunar surface topography. For example, dense dust streaks are seen to originate at the outer rims of craters within a critical radius of the Lander during descent. The primary intent of this work was to develop a mathematical model and software implementation for the trajectory simulation of lunar dust particles acted on by gas jets originating from the nozzle of a lunar Lander, where the particle sizes typically range from 10 micron to 500 micron. The high temperature, supersonic jet of gas that is exhausted from a rocket engine can propel dust, soil, gravel, as well as small rocks to high velocities. The lunar vacuum allows ejected particles to travel great distances unimpeded, and in the case of smaller particles, escape velocities may be reached. The particle size distributions and kinetic energies of ejected particles can lead to damage to the landing spacecraft or to other hardware that has previously been deployed in the vicinity. Thus the primary motivation behind this work is to seek a better understanding for the purpose of modeling and predicting the behavior of regolith dust particle trajectories during powered rocket descent and ascent.

  5. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  6. The search for Ar in the lunar atmosphere using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LAMP instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer, LACE, first measured mass 40 particles in the lunar atmosphere, and over a nine-month period, detected variations correlated with the lunar day (Hoffman et al., 1973, LPSC, 4, 2865). LACE detected a high particle density at dusk (0.6-1.0x104 cm-3), decreasing through the lunar night to a few hundred cm-3, then increasing rapidly before dawn to levels 2-4 times greater than at dusk. No daytime measurements were made due to instrument saturation. Given the LACE measurements' periodic nature, and the Ar abundance in lunar regolith samples (Kaiser, 1972, EPSL, 13, 387), it was concluded that mass 40 was likely due to Ar. Benna et al. (2014, LPSC, 45, 1535) recently reported that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) aboard LADEE also detected Ar (mass 40) with similar diurnal profiles. We report on UV spectra of the lunar atmosphere as obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Aboard LRO is the UV-spectrograph, LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project), spanning the spectral range 575 to 1965 Å. LAMP is typically oriented toward the surface and has been mapping the Moon since September 2009. LAMP also observes the tenuous lunar atmosphere when the surface is in darkness, but the atmospheric column below LRO is illuminated. We have previously used nadir oriented twilight observations to examine the sparse lunar atmosphere (Feldman et al., 2012, Icarus, 221, 854; Cook et al., 2013, Icarus, 225, 681; Stern et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 1210; Cook & Stern 2014, Icarus, 236, 48). In Cook et al., 2013, we reported an upper limit for Ar of 2.3x104 cm-3. Since then, we have collected additional data and refined our search method by focusing on the regions (near equator) and local times (dawn and dusk) where Ar has been reported previously. We have carefully considered effective area calibration and g-factor accuracies and find these to be unlikely explanations for the order of magnitude differences. We will report new results, which provide much

  7. Relationship between lunar tidal enhancements in the equatorial electrojet and tropospheric eddy heat flux during stratospheric sudden warmings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, T. A.; Yamazaki, Y.; Stolle, C.; Lühr, H.; Matzka, J.

    2017-12-01

    A number of studies in recent years have reported about the lunar tidal enhancements in the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) from ground- and space-based magnetometer measurements during stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events. In this study, we make use of the ground magnetometer recordings at Huancayo observatory in Peru for the years 1978 - 2013 to derive a relationship between the lunar tidal enhancements in the EEJ and tropospheric eddy heat fluxes at 100 hPa during the SSW events. Tropospheric eddy heat fluxes are used to quantify the amount of wave activity entering the stratosphere. Anomalously large upward wave activity is known to precede the polar vortex breakdown during SSWs. We make use of the superposed epoch analysis method to determine the temporal relations between lunar tidal enhancements and eddy heat flux anomalies during SSWs, in order to demonstrate the causal relationship between these two phenomena. We also compare the lunar tidal enhancements and eddy heat flux anomalies for vortex split and for vortex displaced SSWs. It is found that larger lunar tidal enhancements are recorded for vortex split events, as compared to vortex displaced events. This confirms earlier observation; larger heat flux anomalies are recorded during vortex split SSW events than the heat flux anomalies during vortex displaced SSW events. Further, the temporal relations of lunar tidal enhancements in the EEJ have been compared separately for both the QBO phases and with the phases of the moon with respect to the central epoch of SSWs by means of the superposed epoch analysis approach. The EEJ lunar tidal enhancements in the east phase of QBO are found to be larger than the lunar tidal enhancements in the west phase of QBO. The phase of moon relative to the central SSW epoch also affects the lunar tidal enhancement in the EEJ. It is found that the lunar tidal enhancements are significantly larger when the day of new or full moon lies near the central SSW epoch, as compared

  8. General theory of detection of signal induced in vibrating magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacyna, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the point dipole approximation only and making use of the vectorial notation, signal (EMF) induced in a single-turn pick-up coil of the vibrating magnetometer are calculated for the case of any orientation of the coil, of vibration axis and of the magnetic moment of the sample. On the basis of formula obtained, three types of measurement geometries have been distinquished and for these the qualitative analysis is made. (author)

  9. Athermal fiber laser for the SWARM absolute scalar magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourcault, W.; Léger, J.-M.; Costes, V.; Fratter, I.; Mondin, L.

    2017-11-01

    The Absolute Scalar Magnetometer (ASM) developed by CEA-LETI/CNES is an optically pumped 4He magnetic field sensor based on the Zeeman effect and an electronic magnetic resonance whose effects are amplified by a laser pumping process [1-2]. Consequently, the role of the laser is to pump the 4He atoms at the D0 transition as well as to allow the magnetic resonance signal detection. The ASM will be the scalar magnetic reference instrument of the three ESA Swarm satellites to be launched in 2012 in order to carry out the best ever survey of the Earth magnetic field and its temporal evolution. The sensitivity and accuracy of this magnetometer based on 4He optical pumping depend directly on the characteristics of its light source, which is the key sub-system of the sensor. We describe in this paper the selected fiber laser architecture and its wavelength stabilization scheme. Its main performance in terms of spectral emission, optical power at 1083 nm and intensity noise characteristics in the frequency bands used for the operation of the magnetometer, are then presented. Environmental testing results (thermal vacuum cycling, vibrations, shocks and ageing) are also reported at the end of this paper.

  10. Swarm Optimization-Based Magnetometer Calibration for Personal Handheld Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser El-Sheimy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Inertial Navigation Systems (INS consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a processor that generates position and orientation solutions by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the user heading based on Earth’s magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are usually corrupted by several errors, including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometers. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can help in the development of Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs when combined with inertial sensors and GPS/Wi-Fi for indoor navigation and Location Based Services (LBS applications.

  11. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and DigitalFluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, LosAngeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since thesuccessful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the groundcalibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluatetwelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers usingalgorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF,UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tonesand harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA.IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolutegains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS andgive examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  12. New Magneto-Inductive DC Magnetometer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldwin, M.; Bronner, B.; Regoli, L.; Thoma, J.; Shen, A.; Jenkins, G.; Cutler, J.

    2017-12-01

    A new magneto-inductive DC magnetometer is being developed at the University of Michigan that provides fluxgate quality measurements in a low mass, volume, power and cost package. The magnetometer enables constellation-class missions not only due to its low-resource requirements, but also its potential for commercial integrated circuit fabrication. The magneto-inductive operating principle is based on a simple resistance-inductor (RL) circuit and involves measurement of the time it takes to charge and discharge the inductor between an upper and lower threshold by means of a Schmitt trigger oscillator. This time is proportional to the inductance that in turn is proportional to the field strength. We have modeled the operating principle in the circuit simulator SPICE and have built a proto-type using modified commercial sensors. The performance specifications include a dynamic range over the full-Earth's field, sampling rates up to 80 Hz, sensor and electronics mass of about 30 g, circuit board and sensor housing volume of magnetometer.

  13. Particle swarm optimization algorithm based low cost magnetometer calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S., Syed, Z., El-Sheimy, N.

    2011-12-01

    Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) consist of accelerometers, gyroscopes and a microprocessor provide inertial digital data from which position and orientation is obtained by integrating the specific forces and rotation rates. In addition to the accelerometers and gyroscopes, magnetometers can be used to derive the absolute user heading based on Earth's magnetic field. Unfortunately, the measurements of the magnetic field obtained with low cost sensors are corrupted by several errors including manufacturing defects and external electro-magnetic fields. Consequently, proper calibration of the magnetometer is required to achieve high accuracy heading measurements. In this paper, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based calibration algorithm is presented to estimate the values of the bias and scale factor of low cost magnetometer. The main advantage of this technique is the use of the artificial intelligence which does not need any error modeling or awareness of the nonlinearity. The estimated bias and scale factor errors from the proposed algorithm improve the heading accuracy and the results are also statistically significant. Also, it can help in the development of the Pedestrian Navigation Devices (PNDs) when combined with the INS and GPS/Wi-Fi especially in the indoor environments

  14. In-Flight Calibration Processes for the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Anderson, B. J.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2015-12-01

    The calibration effort for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS) Analog Fluxgate (AFG) and Digital Fluxgate (DFG) magnetometers is a coordinated effort between three primary institutions: University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria (IWF); and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Since the successful deployment of all 8 magnetometers on 17 March 2015, the effort to confirm and update the ground calibrations has been underway during the MMS commissioning phase. The in-flight calibration processes evaluate twelve parameters that determine the alignment, orthogonalization, offsets, and gains for all 8 magnetometers using algorithms originally developed by UCLA and the Technical University of Braunschweig and tailored to MMS by IWF, UCLA, and GSFC. We focus on the processes run at GSFC to determine the eight parameters associated with spin tones and harmonics. We will also discuss the processing flow and interchange of parameters between GSFC, IWF, and UCLA. IWF determines the low range spin axis offsets using the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI). UCLA determines the absolute gains and sensor azimuth orientation using Earth field comparisons. We evaluate the performance achieved for MMS and give examples of the quality of the resulting calibrations.

  15. Through-barrier electromagnetic imaging with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Cameron; Marmugi, Luca; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2017-07-24

    We demonstrate the penetration of thick metallic and ferromagnetic barriers for imaging of conductive targets underneath. Our system is based on an 85 Rb radio-frequency atomic magnetometer operating in electromagnetic induction imaging modality in an unshielded environment. Detrimental effects, including unpredictable magnetic signatures from ferromagnetic screens and variations in the magnetic background, are automatically compensated by active compensation coils controlled by servo loops. We exploit the tunability and low-frequency sensitivity of the atomic magnetometer to directly image multiple conductive targets concealed by a 2.5 mm ferromagnetic steel shield and/or a 2.0 mm aluminium shield, in a single scan. The performance of the atomic magnetometer allows imaging without any prior knowledge of the barriers or the targets, and without the need of background subtraction. A dedicated edge detection algorithm allows automatic estimation of the targets' size within 3.3 mm and of their position within 2.4 mm. Our results prove the feasibility of a compact, sensitive and automated sensing platform for imaging of concealed objects in a range of applications, from security screening to search and rescue.

  16. Detection Range of Airborne Magnetometers in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengjing Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne magnetometers are utilized for the small-range search, precise positioning, and identification of the ferromagnetic properties of underwater targets. As an important performance parameter of sensors, the detection range of airborne magnetometers is commonly set as a fixed value in references regardless of the influences of environment noise, target magnetic properties, and platform features in a classical model to detect airborne magnetic anomalies. As a consequence, deviation in detection ability analysis is observed. In this study, a novel detection range model is proposed on the basis of classic detection range models of airborne magnetometers. In this model, probability distribution is applied, and the magnetic properties of targets and the environment noise properties of a moving submarine are considered. The detection range model is also constructed by considering the distribution of the moving submarine during detection. A cell-averaging greatest-of-constant false alarm rate test method is also used to calculate the detection range of the model at a desired false alarm rate. The detection range model is then used to establish typical submarine search probabilistic models. Results show that the model can be used to evaluate not only the effects of ambient magnetic noise but also the moving and geomagnetic features of the target and airborne detection platform. The model can also be utilized to display the actual operating range of sensor systems.

  17. A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A broadband two axis flux-gate magnetometer was developed to obtain high sensitivity in magnetotelluric measurements. In magnetotelluric sounding, natural low frequency electromagnetic fields are used to estimate the conductivity of the Earth's interior. Because variations in the natural magnetic field have small amplitude(10-100 pT in the frequency range 1 Hz to 100 Hz, highly sensitive magnetic sensors are required. In magnetotelluric measurements two long and heavy solenoids, which must be installed, in the field station, perpendicular to each other (north-south and east-west and levelled in the horizontal plane are used. The coil is a critical component in magnetotelluric measurements because very slight motions create noise voltages, particularly troublesome in wooded areas; generally the installation takes place in a shallow trench. Moreover the coil records the derivative of the variations rather than the magnetic field variations, consequently the transfer function (amplitude and phase of this sensor is not constant throughout the frequency range 0.001-100 Hz. The instrument, developed at L'Aquila Geomagnetic Observatory, has a flat response in both amplitude and phase in the frequency band DC-100 Hz, in addition it has low weight, low power, small volume and it is easier to install in the field than induction magnetometers. The sensivity of this magnetometer is 10 pT rms.

  18. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  19. Scientific Objectives of China Chang E 4 CE-4 Lunar Far-side Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Zeng, Xingguo; Chen, Wangli

    2017-10-01

    China has achieved great success in the recently CE-1~CE-3 lunar missions, and in the year of 2018, China Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) is going to launch the CE-4 mission. CE-4 satellite is the backup satellite of CE-3, so that it also consists of a Lander and a Rover. However, CE-4 is the first mission designed to detect the far side of the Moon in human lunar exploration history. So the biggest difference between CE-4 and CE-3 is that it will be equipped with a relay satellite in Earth-Moon-L2 Point for Earth-Moon Communication. And the scientific payloads carried on the Lander and Rover will also be different. It has been announced by the Chinese government that CE-4 mission will be equipped with some new international cooperated scientific payloads, such as the Low Frequency Radio Detector from Holland, Lunar Neutron and Radiation Dose Detector from Germany, Neutral Atom Detector from Sweden, and Lunar Miniature Optical Imaging Sounder from Saudi Arabia. The main scientific objective of CE-4 is to provide scientific data for lunar far side research, including: 1)general spatial environmental study of lunar far side;2)general research on the surface, shallow layer and deep layer of lunar far side;3)detection of low frequency radio on lunar far side using Low Frequency Radio Detector, which would be the first time of using such frequency band in lunar exploration history .

  20. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  1. ''Fast track'' lunar NTR systems assessment for NASA's first lunar outpost and its evolvability to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowski, S.K.; Alexander, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Integrated systems and missions studies are presented for an evolutionary lunar-to-Mars space transportion system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. A ''standardized'' set of engine and stage components are identified and used in a ''building block'' fashion to configure a variety of piloted and cargo, lunar and Mars vehicles. The reference NTR characteristics include a thrust of 50 thousand pounds force (klbf), specific impulse (I sp ) of 900 seconds, and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of 4.3. For the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two such engines can deliver ∼96 metric tonnes (t) to trans-lunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) of ∼198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical system. The stage liquid hydrogen (LH 2 ) tank has a diameter, length, and capacity of 10 m, 14.5 m and 66 t, respectively. By extending the stage length and LH 2 capacity to ∼20 m and 96 t, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle could deliver to an elliptical Mars parking orbit a 63 t Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) with a 45 t surface payload. Three 50 klbf engines and the two standardized LH 2 tanks developed for the lunar and Mars cargo vehicles are used to configure the vehicles supporting piloted Mars missions as early as 2010. The ''modular'' NTR vehicle approach forms the basis for an efficient STS able to handle the needs of a wide spectrum of lunar and Mars missions

  2. Numerical Simulations of the Lunar Penetrating Radar and Investigations of the Geological Structures of the Lunar Regolith Layer at the Chang’E 3 Landing Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of lunar exploration, and specifically when studying lunar surface structure and thickness, the established lunar regolith model is usually a uniform and ideal structural model, which is not well-suited to describe the real structure of the lunar regolith layer. The present study aims to explain the geological structural information contained in the channel 2 LPR (lunar penetrating radar data. In this paper, the random medium theory and Apollo drilling core data are used to construct a modeling method based on discrete heterogeneous random media, and the simulation data are processed and collected by the electromagnetic numerical method FDTD (finite-difference time domain. When comparing the LPR data with the simulated data, the heterogeneous random medium model is more consistent with the actual distribution of the media in the lunar regolith layer. It is indicated that the interior structure of the lunar regolith layer at the landing site is not a pure lunar regolith medium but rather a regolith-rock mixture, with rocks of different sizes and shapes. Finally, several reasons are given to explain the formation of the geological structures of the lunar regolith layer at the Chang’E 3 landing site, as well as the possible geological stratification structure.

  3. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  4. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  5. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  6. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  7. Feasibility of lunar Helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschneider, Andreas; Van Overstraeten, Dmitry; Van der Reijnst, Roy; Van Hoorn, Niels; Lamers, Marvin; Hubert, Laurent; Dijk, Bert; Blangé, Joey; Hogeveen, Joel; De Boer, Lennaert; Noomen, Ron

    With fossil fuels running out and global energy demand increasing, the need for alternative energy sources is apparent. Nuclear fusion using Helium-3 may be a solution. Helium-3 is a rare isotope on Earth, but it is abundant on the Moon. Throughout the space community lunar Helium-3 is often cited as a major reason to return to the Moon. Despite the potential of lunar Helium-3 mining, little research has been conducted on a full end-to-end mission. This abstract presents the results of a feasibility study conducted by students from Delft University of Technology. The goal of the study was to assess whether a continuous end-to-end mission to mine Helium-3 on the Moon and return it to Earth is a viable option for the future energy market. The set requirements for the representative end-to-end mission were to provide 10% of the global energy demand in the year 2040. The mission elements have been selected with multiple trade-offs among both conservative and novel concepts. A mission architecture with multiple decoupled elements for each transportation segment (LEO, transfer, lunar surface) was found to be the best option. It was found that the most critical element is the lunar mining operation itself. To supply 10% of the global energy demand in 2040, 200 tons of Helium-3 would be required per year. The resulting regolith mining rate would be 630 tons per second, based on an optimistic concentration of 20 ppb Helium-3 in lunar regolith. Between 1,700 to 2,000 Helium-3 mining vehicles would be required, if using University of Wisconsin’s Mark III miner. The required heating power, if mining both day and night, would add up to 39 GW. The resulting power system mass for the lunar operations would be in the order of 60,000 to 200,000 tons. A fleet of three lunar ascent/descent vehicles and 22 continuous-thrust vehicles for orbit transfer would be required. The costs of the mission elements have been spread out over expected lifetimes. The resulting profits from Helium

  8. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  9. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  10. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  11. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  12. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  13. Lunar lander stage requirements based on the Civil Needs Data Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, John A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the lunar lander stages that will be necessary for the future exploration and development of the Moon. Lunar lander stage sizing is discussed based on the projected lunar payloads listed in the Civil Needs Data Base. Factors that will influence the lander stage design are identified and discussed. Some of these factors are (1) lunar orbiting and lunar surface lander bases; (2) implications of direct landing trajectories and landing from a parking orbit; (3) implications of landing site and parking orbit; (4) implications of landing site and parking orbit selection; (5) the use of expendable and reusable lander stages; and (6) the descent/ascent trajectories. Data relating the lunar lander stage design requirements to each of the above factors and others are presented in parametric form. These data will provide useful design data that will be applicable to future mission model modifications and design studies.

  14. The Lunar Environment: Determining the Health Effects of Exposure to Moon Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    The moon's surface is covered with a thin layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of layer of fine, charged, reactive dust capable of capable of entering habitats and vehicle compartments, where it can result in crewmember health problems. NASA formed the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Advisory Group (LADTAG) to study the effects of exposure to Lunar Dust on human health. To date, no scientifically defensible toxicological studies have been performed on lunar dusts, specifically the determination of exposure limits and their affect on human health. The multi-center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology center LADTAG (Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicology Advisory Group) was formed in response to the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Office s (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk (OCHMO) request to develop recommendations for defining risk defining risk criteria for human lunar dust exposure.

  15. Magmatic intrusions in the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, C.; Thorey, C.

    2015-10-01

    The lunar highlands are very old, with ages covering a timespan between 4.5 to 4.2 Gyr, and probably formed by flotation of light plagioclase minerals on top of the lunar magma ocean. The lunar crust provides thus an invaluable evidence of the geological and magmatic processes occurring in the first times of the terrestrial planets history. According to the last estimates from the GRAIL mission, the lunar primary crust is particularly light and relatively thick [1] This low-density crust acted as a barrier for the dense primary mantle melts. This is particularly evident in the fact that subsequent mare basalts erupted primarily within large impact basin: at least part of the crust must have been removed for the magma to reach the surface. However, the trajectory of the magma from the mantle to the surface is unknown. Using a model of magma emplacement below an elastic overlying layer with a flexural wavelength Λ, we characterize the surface deformations induced by the presence of shallow magmatic intrusions. We demonstrate that, depending on its size, the intrusion can show two different shapes: a bell shape when its radius is smaller than 4 times Λ or a flat top with small bended edges if its radius is larger than 4 times Λ[2]. These characteristic shapes for the intrusion result in characteristic deformations at the surface that also depend on the topography of the layer overlying the intrusion [3].Using this model we provide evidence of the presence of intrusions within the crust of the Moon as surface deformations in the form of low-slope lunar domes and floor-fractured craters. All these geological features have morphologies consistent with models of magma spreading at depth and deforming an overlying elastic layer. Further more,at floor-fractured craters, the deformation is contained within the crater interior, suggesting that the overpressure at the origin of magma ascent and intrusion was less than the pressure due to the weight of the crust removed by

  16. Lunar construction/mining equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Levent

    1990-01-01

    For centuries, mining has utilized drill and blast as the primary method of rock excavation. Although this technique has undergone significant improvements, it still remains a cyclic, labor intensive operation with inherent safety hazards. Other drawbacks include damage to the surrounding ground, creation of blast vibrations, rough excavation walls resulting in increased ventilation requirements, and the lack of selective mining ability. Perhaps the most important shortcoming of drill and blast is that it is not conducive to full implementation of automation or robotics technologies. Numerous attempts have been made in the past to automate drill and blast operations to remove personnel from the hazardous work environment. Although most of the concepts devised look promising on paper, none of them was found workable on a sustained production basis. In particular, the problem of serious damage to equipment during the blasting cycle could not be resolved regardless of the amount of charge used in excavation. Since drill and blast is not capable of meeting the requirements of a fully automated rock fragmentation method, its role is bound to gradually decrease. Mechanical excavation, in contrast, is highly suitable to automation because it is a continuous process and does not involve any explosives. Many of the basic principles and trends controlling the design of an earth-based mechanical excavator will hold in an extraterrestrial environment such as on the lunar surface. However, the economic and physical limitations for transporting materials to space will require major rethinking of these machines. In concept, then, a lunar mechanical excavator will look and perform significantly different from one designed for use here on earth. This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of such mechanical excavator systems.

  17. Interior design of the lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is part of an ongoing study on the interior design of a lunar outpost habitat facility. The concept presented represents the work done up to and including August 1989. This concept is part of NASA's ongoing effort to explore alternative options for planet surface systems habitation. Results of a volume analog study to determine the required pressurized volume are presented along with an internal layout of the habitat facility. The concept presented in this paper is a constructible lunar habitat that provides a living and working environment for a crew of 12. It is a 16-m diameter spherical pneumatic structure which contains 2145 cubic meters of volume. Five levels of living and working areas make up the 742 sq m of floor space. A 2-m vertical circulation shaft at the center allows for transfer of crew and equipment.

  18. Remanent magnetization stratigraphy of lunar cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Gingrich, D.; Marvin, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Depth dependent fluctuations have been observed in the natural remanent magnetizations (NRM) of drive cores and drill strings from Apollo 16 and 17 missions. Partial demagnetization of unstable secondary magnetizations and identification of characteristic error signals from a core which is known to have been recently disturbed allow us to identify and isolate the stable NRM stratigraphy in double drive core 60010/60009 and drill strings 60002-60004. The observed magnetization fluctuations persist after normalization to take into account depth dependent variations in the carriers of stable NRM. We tentatively ascribe the stable NRM stratigraphy to instantaneous records of past magnetic fields at the lunar surface and suggest that the stable NRM stratigraphy technique could develop as a new relative time-stratigraphic tool, to be used with other physical measurements such as relative intensity of ferromagnetic resonance and charged particle track density to study the evolution of the lunar regolith.

  19. Chlorine isotopic compositions of apatite in Apollo 14 rocks: Evidence for widespread vapor-phase metasomatism on the lunar nearside ∼4 billion years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    Compared to most other planetary materials in the Solar System, some lunar rocks display high δ37Cl signatures. Loss of Cl in a H Cl environment has been invoked to explain the heavy signatures observed in lunar samples, either during volcanic eruptions onto the lunar surface or during large scale

  20. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  1. Lunar Impact Flash Locations from NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Kupferschmidt, L.; Feldman, J.

    2015-01-01

    Meteoroids are small, natural bodies traveling through space, fragments from comets, asteroids, and impact debris from planets. Unlike the Earth, which has an atmosphere that slows, ablates, and disintegrates most meteoroids before they reach the ground, the Moon has little-to-no atmosphere to prevent meteoroids from impacting the lunar surface. Upon impact, the meteoroid's kinetic energy is partitioned into crater excavation, seismic wave production, and the generation of a debris plume. A flash of light associated with the plume is detectable by instruments on Earth. Following the initial observation of a probable Taurid impact flash on the Moon in November 2005,1 the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) began a routine monitoring program to observe the Moon for meteoroid impact flashes in early 2006, resulting in the observation of over 330 impacts to date. The main objective of the MEO is to characterize the meteoroid environment for application to spacecraft engineering and operations. The Lunar Impact Monitoring Program provides information about the meteoroid flux in near-Earth space in a size range-tens of grams to a few kilograms-difficult to measure with statistical significance by other means. A bright impact flash detected by the program in March 2013 brought into focus the importance of determining the impact flash location. Prior to this time, the location was estimated to the nearest half-degree by visually comparing the impact imagery to maps of the Moon. Better accuracy was not needed because meteoroid flux calculations did not require high-accuracy impact locations. But such a bright event was thought to have produced a fresh crater detectable from lunar orbit by the NASA spacecraft Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). The idea of linking the observation of an impact flash with its crater was an appealing one, as it would validate NASA photometric calculations and crater scaling laws developed from hypervelocity gun testing. This idea was

  2. Sandmeier model based topographic correction to lunar spectral profiler (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Bo; Wang, Jing-Ran; Guo, Peng-Ju; Wang, Ming-Chang

    2014-09-01

    The Moon may be considered as the frontier base for the deep space exploration. The spectral analysis is one of the key techniques to determine the lunar surface rock and mineral compositions. But the lunar topographic relief is more remarkable than that of the Earth. It is necessary to conduct the topographic correction for lunar spectral data before they are used to retrieve the compositions. In the present paper, a lunar Sandmeier model was proposed by considering the radiance effect from the macro and ambient topographic relief. And the reflectance correction model was also reduced based on the Sandmeier model. The Spectral Profile (SP) data from KAGUYA satellite in the Sinus Iridum quadrangle was taken as an example. And the digital elevation data from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter are used to calculate the slope, aspect, incidence and emergence angles, and terrain-viewing factor for the topographic correction Thus, the lunar surface reflectance from the SP data was corrected by the proposed model after the direct component of irradiance on a horizontal surface was derived. As a result, the high spectral reflectance facing the sun is decreased and low spectral reflectance back to the sun is compensated. The statistical histogram of reflectance-corrected pixel numbers presents Gaussian distribution Therefore, the model is robust to correct lunar topographic effect and estimate lunar surface reflectance.

  3. Luna-Glob project in the context of the past and present lunar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    seen before. In 1962–1965 America sent several spacecrafts of the Ranger series to the Moon. A significant achievement came when Luna 9 made the first soft landing and provided a TV-panorama of the lunar surface. In 1968, Zond 5 and Zond 6 were the first lunar flyby with biological objects and safely returned to Earth.

  4. High-Resolution Spectroscopy of the Lunar Sodium Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierkiewicz, E. J.; Oliversen, R. J.; Roesler, F. L.; Lupie, O. L.

    2014-01-01

    We have applied high-resolution Fabry-Perot spectroscopy to the study of the lunar sodium exosphere for the study of exospheric effective temperature and velocity variations. Observing from the National Solar Observatory McMath-Pierce Telescope, we used a dual-etalon Fabry-Perot spectrometer with a resolving power of 180,000 to measure line widths and Doppler shifts of the sodium D2 (5889.95 Å) emission line. Our field of view was 360 km, and measurements were made in equatorial and polar regions from 500 km to 3500 km off the limb. Data were obtained from full moon to 3 days following full moon (waning phase) in March 2009. Measured Doppler line widths within 1100 km of the sunlit east and south lunar limbs for observations between 5 and 40 deg lunar phase imply effective temperatures ranging between 3260 +/- 190 and 1000 +/- 135 K. Preliminary line center analysis indicates velocity displacements between different locations off the lunar limb ranging between 100 and 600 m/s from the lunar rest velocity with a precision of +/-20 to +/-50 m/s depending on brightness. Based on the success of these exploratory observations, an extensive program has been initiated that is expected to constrain lunar atmospheric and surface-process modeling and help quantify source and escape mechanisms.

  5. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  6. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  7. Restoration of Apollo Data by the Lunar Data Project/PDS Lunar Data Node: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Taylor, Patrick T.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Guinness, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo 11, 12, and 14 through 17 missions orbited and landed on the Moon, carrying scientific instruments that returned data from all phases of the missions, included long-lived Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs) deployed by the astronauts on the lunar surface. Much of these data were never archived, and some of the archived data were on media and in formats that are outmoded, or were deposited with little or no useful documentation to aid outside users. This is particularly true of the ALSEP data returned autonomously for many years after the Apollo missions ended. The purpose of the Lunar Data Project and the Planetary Data System (PDS) Lunar Data Node is to take data collections already archived at the NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive (NSSDCA) and prepare them for archiving through PDS, and to locate lunar data that were never archived, bring them into NSSDCA, and then archive them through PDS. Preparing these data for archiving involves reading the data from the original media, be it magnetic tape, microfilm, microfiche, or hard-copy document, converting the outmoded, often binary, formats when necessary, putting them into a standard digital form accepted by PDS, collecting the necessary ancillary data and documentation (metadata) to ensure that the data are usable and well-described, summarizing the metadata in documentation to be included in the data set, adding other information such as references, mission and instrument descriptions, contact information, and related documentation, and packaging the results in a PDS-compliant data set. The data set is then validated and reviewed by a group of external scientists as part of the PDS final archive process. We present a status report on some of the data sets that we are processing.

  8. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  9. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  10. Creating Methane from Plastics: Recycling at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Santiago, Eddie; Wheeler, Ray; Strayer, RIchard; Garland, Jay; Parrish, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The high cost of re-supply from Earth demands resources to be utilized to the fullest extent for exploration missions. Recycling is a key technology that maximizes the available resources by converting waste products into useful commodities. One example of this is to convert crew member waste such as plastic packaging, food scraps, and human waste, into fuel. The ability to refuel on the lunar surface would reduce the vehicle mass during launch and provide excess payload capability. The goal of this project is to determine the feasibility of recycling waste into methane on the lunar outpost by performing engineering assessments and lab demonstrations of the technology. The first goal of the project was to determine how recycling could influence lunar exploration. Table I shows an estimation of the typical dried waste stream generated each day for a crew of four. Packaging waste accounts for nearly 86% of the dry waste stream and is a significant source of carbon on the lunar surface. This is important because methane (CH4) can be used as fuel and no other source of carbon is available on the lunar surface. With the initial assessment indicating there is sufficient resources in the waste stream to provide refueling capabilities, the project was designed to examine the conversion of plastics into methane.

  11. The Kaguya Lunar Atlas The Moon in High Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Shirao, Motomaro

    2011-01-01

    In late 2007 the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency placed the Kaguya/Selene spacecraft in orbit around the Moon. Like previous lunar orbiters, Kaguya carried scientific instruments to probe the Moon’s surface and interior. But it also had the first high-definition television camera (HDTV) sent to the Moon. Sponsored by the Japanese NHK TV network, the HDTV has amazed both scientists and the public with its magnificent views of the lunar surface. What makes the images much more engaging than standard vertical-view lunar photographs is that they were taken looking obliquely along the flight path. Thus, they show the Moon as it would be seen by an astronaut looking through a porthole window while orbiting only 100 km above the lunar surface. This is the view we all would wish to have, but are never likely to, except vicariously through the awe-inspiring Kaguya HDTV images. The remarkable Kaguya/Selene HDTV images are used here to create a new type of lunar atlas. Because of the unique perspective of the imag...

  12. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  13. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  14. Stratigraphy, Sequence, and Crater Populations of Lunar Impact Basins from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data: Implications for the Late Heavy Bombardment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    New measurements of the topography of the Moon from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA)[1] provide an excellent base-map for analyzing the large crater population (D.20 km)of the lunar surface [2, 3]. We have recently used this data to calculate crater size-frequency distributions (CSFD) for 30 lunar impact basins, which have implications for their stratigraphy and sequence. These data provide an avenue for assessing the timing of the transitions between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains, which has been linked to the late heavy bombardment (LHB). We also use LOLA data to re-examine relative stratigraphic relationships between key lunar basins.

  15. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  16. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  17. Miniature scientific-grade induction magnetometer for cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira

    2017-04-01

    One of the main areas of space research is the study and forecasting of space weather. The society is more and more depending nowadays on satellite technology and communications, so it is vital to understand the physical process in the solar-terrestrial system which may disturb them. Besides the solar radiation and Space Weather effects, the Earth's ionosphere is also modified by the ever increasing industrial activity. There have been also multiple reports relating VLF and ELF wave activity to atmospheric storms and geological processes, such as earthquakes and volcanic activity. For advancing in these fields, the AC magnetic field permanent monitoring is crucial. Using the cubesat technology would allow increasing the number of measuring points dramatically. It is necessary to mention that the cubesats use for scientific research requires the miniaturization of scientific sensors what is a serious problem because the reduction of their dimensions leads, as a rule, to the parameters degradation, especially of sensitivity threshold. Today, there is no basic model of a sensitive miniature induction magnetometer. Even the smallest one of the known - for the Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury - is too big for cubesats. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensor for measurement of alternative vector magnetic fields - induction magnetometer (IM). The study directions were concentrated on the ways and possibilities to create the miniature magnetometer with best combination of parameters. For this a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Finally, the LEMI-151 IM was developed for the SEAM cubesat mission with optimal performances within the

  18. Multilayer Based Technology to Build RTD Fluxgate Magnetometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. ANDO

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the main features of the Residence Times Difference Fluxgate Magnetometer. A low-cost technology, negligible onboard power requirements and the intrinsic digital form of the readout signal are the main advantages of the proposed strategy. Results obtained show the possibility to realise low-cost devices exploiting Printed Circuit Board (PCB technology for applications requiring resolution in the nanotesla range as the ferrous object (or particles detection, being the performance obtained suitable to detect the presence or the transit of ferrous materials via their interaction with the geomagnetic field.

  19. Three axis vector atomic magnetometer utilizing polarimetric technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Swarupananda, E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085, India and Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-09-15

    The three axis vector magnetic field measurement based on the interaction of a single elliptically polarized light beam with an atomic system is described. The magnetic field direction dependent atomic responses are extracted by the polarimetric detection in combination with laser frequency modulation and magnetic field modulation techniques. The magnetometer geometry offers additional critical requirements like compact size and large dynamic range for space application. Further, the three axis magnetic field is measured using only the reflected signal (one polarization component) from the polarimeter and thus can be easily expanded to make spatial array of detectors and/or high sensitivity field gradient measurement as required for biomedical application.

  20. The simple procedure for the fluxgate magnetometers calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusenkov, Andriy

    2014-05-01

    The fluxgate magnetometers are widely used in geophysics investigations including the geomagnetic field monitoring at the global network of geomagnetic observatories as well as for electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust conductivity. For solving these tasks the magnetometers have to be calibrated with an appropriate level of accuracy. As a particular case, the ways to satisfy the recent requirements to the scaling and orientation errors of 1-second INTERNAGNET magnetometers are considered in the work. The goal of the present study was to choose a simple and reliable calibration method for estimation of scale factors and angular errors of the three-axis magnetometers in the field. There are a large number of the scalar calibration methods, which use a free rotation of the sensor in the calibration field followed by complicated data processing procedures for numerical solution of the high-order equations set. The chosen approach also exploits the Earth's magnetic field as a calibrating signal, but, in contrast to other methods, the sensor has to be oriented in some particular positions in respect to the total field vector, instead of the sensor free rotation. This allows to use very simple and straightforward linear computation formulas and, as a result, to achieve more reliable estimations of the calibrated parameters. The estimation of the scale factors is performed by the sequential aligning of each component of the sensor in two positions: parallel and anti-parallel to the Earth's magnetic field vector. The estimation of non-orthogonality angles between each pair of components is performed after sequential aligning of the components at the angles +/- 45 and +/- 135 degrees of arc in respect to the total field vector. Due to such four positions approach the estimations of the non-orthogonality angles are invariant to the zero offsets and non-linearity of transfer functions of the components. The experimental justifying of the proposed method by means of the

  1. A simple vibrating sample magnetometer for macroscopic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Dominguez, V.; Quesada, A.; Guzmán-Mínguez, J. C.; Moreno, L.; Lere, M.; Spottorno, J.; Giacomone, F.; Fernández, J. F.; Hernando, A.; García, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We here present a simple model of a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The system allows recording magnetization curves at room temperature with a resolution of the order of 0.01 emu and is appropriated for macroscopic samples. The setup can be mounted with different configurations depending on the requirements of the sample to be measured (mass, saturation magnetization, saturation field, etc.). We also include here examples of curves obtained with our setup and comparison curves measured with a standard commercial VSM that confirms the reliability of our device.

  2. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  3. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, Fritz; Brauer, Peter

    to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surfa ce, so as to achieve...... scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC lander generated magnetic perturbations are discussed, with particular attention to those related to solar generators. Emphasis...... and very resource consuming....

  4. Analysis of Logistics in Support of a Human Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, William; Earle, Kevin; Goodliff, Kandyce; Reeves, j. D.; Andrashko, Mark; Merrill, R. Gabe; Stromgren, Chel

    2008-01-01

    Strategic level analysis of the integrated behavior of lunar transportation system and lunar surface system architecture options is performed to inform NASA Constellation Program senior management on the benefit, viability, affordability, and robustness of system design choices. This paper presents an overview of the approach used to perform the campaign (strategic) analysis, with an emphasis on the logistics modeling and the impacts of logistics resupply on campaign behavior. An overview of deterministic and probabilistic analysis approaches is provided, with a discussion of the importance of each approach to understanding the integrated system behavior. The logistics required to support lunar surface habitation are analyzed from both 'macro-logistics' and 'micro-logistics' perspectives, where macro-logistics focuses on the delivery of goods to a destination and micro-logistics focuses on local handling of re-supply goods at a destination. An example campaign is provided to tie the theories of campaign analysis to results generation capabilities.

  5. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  6. Sputtering of Lunar Regolith Simulant by Protons and Multicharged Heavy Ions at Solar Wind Energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Fred W.; Harris, Peter R.; Taylor, C.N.; Meyer, Harry M. III; Barghouty, N.; Adams, J. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    We report preliminary results on sputtering of a lunar regolith simulant at room temperature by singly and multiply charged solar wind ions using quadrupole and time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry approaches. Sputtering of the lunar regolith by solar-wind heavy ions may be an important particle source that contributes to the composition of the lunar exosphere, and is a possible mechanism for lunar surface ageing and compositional modification. The measurements were performed in order to assess the relative sputtering efficiency of protons, which are the dominant constituent of the solar wind, and less abundant heavier multicharged solar wind constituents, which have higher physical sputtering yields than same-velocity protons, and whose sputtering yields may be further enhanced due to potential sputtering. Two different target preparation approaches using JSC-1A AGGL lunar regolith simulant are described and compared using SEM and XPS surface analysis.

  7. Identification and characterization of science-rich landing sites for lunar lander missions using integrated remote sensing observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flahaut, J.; Blanchette-Guertin, J.F.; Jilly, C.; Sharma, P.; Souchon, A.; van Westrenen, W.; Kring, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite more than 52 years of lunar exploration, a wide range of first-order scientific questions remain about the Moon's formation, temporal evolution, and current surface and interior properties. Addressing many of these questions requires obtaining new in situ analyses or return of lunar surface

  8. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  9. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  10. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  12. Exploiting nonlinear dynamics in a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulsara, Adi R; In, Visarath; Kho, Andy; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joe; Anderson, Gregory; Obra, Christopher; Palacios, Antonio; Baglio, Salvatore; Ando, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Unforced bistable dynamical systems having dynamics of the general form τ F x-dot (t)=-∇ x U(x) cannot oscillate (i.e. switch between their stable attractors). However, a number of such systems subject to carefully crafted coupling schemes have been shown to exhibit oscillatory behavior under carefully chosen operating conditions. This behavior, in turn, affords a new mechanism for the detection and quantification of target signals having magnitude far smaller than the energy barrier height in the potential energy function U(x) for a single (uncoupled) element. The coupling-induced oscillations are a feature that appears to be universal in systems described by bi- or multi-stable potential energy functions U(x), and are being exploited in a new class of dynamical sensors being developed by us. In this work we describe one of these devices, a coupled-core fluxgate magnetometer (CCFM), whose operation is underpinned by this dynamic behavior. We provide an overview of the underlying dynamics and, also, quantify the performance of our test device; in particular, we provide a quantitative performance comparison to a conventional (single-core) fluxgate magnetometer via a 'resolution' parameter that embodies the device sensitivity (the slope of its input–output transfer characteristic) as well as the noise floor

  13. A radiation hardened digital fluxgate magnetometer for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, D. M.; Bennest, J. R.; Mann, I. R.; Millling, D. K.

    2013-09-01

    Space-based measurements of Earth's magnetic field are required to understand the plasma processes responsible for energising particles in the Van Allen radiation belts and influencing space weather. This paper describes a prototype fluxgate magnetometer instrument developed for the proposed Canadian Space Agency's (CSA) Outer Radiation Belt Injection, Transport, Acceleration and Loss Satellite (ORBITALS) mission and which has applications in other space and suborbital applications. The magnetometer is designed to survive and operate in the harsh environment of Earth's radiation belts and measure low-frequency magnetic waves, the magnetic signatures of current systems, and the static background magnetic field. The new instrument offers improved science data compared to its predecessors through two key design changes: direct digitisation of the sensor and digital feedback from two cascaded pulse-width modulators combined with analog temperature compensation. These provide an increase in measurement bandwidth up to 450 Hz with the potential to extend to at least 1500 Hz. The instrument can resolve 8 pT on a 65 000 nT field with a magnetic noise of less than 10 pT/√Hz at 1 Hz. This performance is comparable with other recent digital fluxgates for space applications, most of which use some form of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulation for feedback and omit analog temperature compensation. The prototype instrument was successfully tested and calibrated at the Natural Resources Canada Geomagnetics Laboratory.

  14. Multi-flux-transformer MRI detection with an atomic magnetometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, Igor; Karaulanov, Todor

    2014-12-01

    Recently, anatomical ultra-low field (ULF) MRI has been demonstrated with an atomic magnetometer (AM). A flux-transformer (FT) has been used for decoupling MRI fields and gradients to avoid their negative effects on AM performance. The field of view (FOV) was limited because of the need to compromise between the size of the FT input coil and MRI sensitivity per voxel. Multi-channel acquisition is a well-known solution to increase FOV without significantly reducing sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate twofold FOV increase with the use of three FT input coils. We also show that it is possible to use a single atomic magnetometer and single acquisition channel to acquire three independent MRI signals by applying a frequency-encoding gradient along the direction of the detection array span. The approach can be generalized to more channels and can be critical for imaging applications of non-cryogenic ULF MRI where FOV needs to be large, including head, hand, spine, and whole-body imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a Lunar Borehole Seismometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, P. R.; Siegler, M.; Malin, P. E.; Passmore, K.; Zacny, K.; Avenson, B.; Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.; Nagihara, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly all seismic stations on Earth are buried below the ground. Burial provides controlled temperatures and greater seismic coupling at little cost. This is also true on the Moon and other planetary bodies. Burial of a seismometer under just 1 meter of lunar regolith would provide an isothermal environment and potentially reduce signal scattering noise by an order of magnitude. Here we explain how we will use an existing NASA SBIR and PIDDP funded subsurface heat flow probe deployment system to bury a miniaturized, broadband, optical seismometer 1 meter below the lunar surface. The system is sensitive, low mass and low power. We believe this system offers a compelling architecture for NASA's future seismic exploration of the solar system. We will report on a prototype 3-axis, broadband seismometer package that has been tested under low pressure conditions in lunar-regolith simulant. The deployment mechanism reaches 1m depth in less than 25 seconds. Our designed and tested system: 1) Would be deployed at least 1m below the lunar surface to achieve isothermal conditions without thermal shielding or heaters, increase seismic coupling, and decrease noise. 2) Is small (our prototype probe is a cylinder 50mm in diameter, 36cm long including electronics, potentially as small as 10 cm with sensors only). 3) Is low-mass (each sensor is 0.1 kg, so an extra redundancy 4-component seismograph plus 1.5 kg borehole sonde and recorder weighs less than 2 kg and is feasibly smaller with miniaturized electronics). 4) Is low-power (our complete 3-sensor borehole seismographic system's power consumption is about half a Watt, or 7% of Apollo's 7.1 W average and 30% of the InSight SEIS's 1.5W winter-time heating system). 5) Is broadband and highly sensitive (the "off the shelf" sensors have a wide passband: 0.005-1000 Hz - and high dynamic range of 183 dB (or about 10-9g Hz-1/2, with hopes for simple modifications to be at least an order of magnitude better). Burial also aids the

  16. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  17. Evaluating the High School Lunar Research Projects Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    instrument is an open-ended, modified version of the Views of Nature of Science questionnaire. The science attitudes Likert-scale instrument is a modified version of the Attitudes Toward Science Inventory. The lunar science content instrument was developed by CLSE education staff. All three of these instruments are administered to students before and after their research experience to measure the program's impact on student views of the nature of science, attitudes toward science, and knowledge of lunar science. All instruments are administered online via Survey Monkey®. When asked if the program changed the way they view the Moon, 77.4% of students (n=53) replied "yes" and described their increase in knowledge of the formation of the Moon, lunar surface processes, etc. Just under half (41.5%) of the students reported that their experience in the program has contributed to their consideration of a career in science. When asked about obstacles teams had to overcome, teachers described issues with time, student motivation and technology. However, every teacher enthusiastically agreed that the authentic research experience was worthwhile to their students. Detailed evaluation results for the 2011-2012 program will be presented.

  18. Parameters and structure of lunar regolith in Chang'E-3 landing area from lunar penetrating radar (LPR) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zehua; Fang, Guangyou; Ji, Yicai; Gao, Yunze; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2017-01-01

    Chang'E-3 (CE-3) landed in the northwest Mare Imbrium, a region that has not been explored before. Yutu rover that released by CE-3 lander carried the first lunar surface penetrating radar (LPR) for exploring lunar regolith thickness and subsurface shallow geological structures. In this paper, based on the LPR data and the Panoramic Camera (PC) data, we first calculate the lunar surface regolith parameters in CE-3 landing area including its permittivity, density, conductivity and FeO + TiO2 content. LPR data provides a higher spatial resolution and more accuracy for the lunar regolith parameters comparing to other remote sensing techniques, such as orbit radar sounder and microwave sensing or earth-based powerful radar. We also derived the regolith thickness and its weathered rate with much better accuracy in the landing area. The results indicate that the regolith growth rate is much faster than previous estimation, the regolith parameters are not uniform even in such a small study area and the thickness and growth rate of lunar regolith here are different from other areas in Mare Imbrium. We infer that the main reason should be geological deformation that caused by multiple impacts of meteorites in different sizes.

  19. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  20. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.