WorldWideScience

Sample records for lunar surface communications

  1. Lunar Surface Propagation Modeling and Effects on Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the lunar terrain effects on the signal propagation of the planned NASA lunar wireless communication and sensor systems. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate that the terrain geometry, antenna location, and lunar surface material are important factors determining the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless communication systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, operating frequency, and surface material. The analysis results from this paper are important for the lunar communication link margin analysis in determining the limits on the reliable communication range and radio frequency coverage performance at planned lunar base worksites. Key Words lunar, multipath, path loss, propagation, wireless.

  2. Fully Printed, Flexible, Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Hen, Ray T.; Lu, Xuejun; Chen, Maggie Yihong

    2013-01-01

    NASAs future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable communications infrastructure from planetary surface-to-surface, surface-to-orbit, and back to Earth. Flexible antennas are highly desired in many scenarios. Active phased array antennas (active PAAs) with distributed control and processing electronics at the surface of an antenna aperture offer numerous advantages for radar communications. Large-area active PAAs on flexible substrates are of particular interest in NASA s space radars due to their efficient inflatable package that can be rolled up during transportation and deployed in space. Such an inflatable package significantly reduces stowage volume and mass. Because of these performance and packaging advantages, large-area inflatable active PAAs are highly desired in NASA s surface-to-orbit and surface-to-relay communications. To address the issues of flexible electronics, a room-temperature printing process of active phased-array antennas on a flexible Kapton substrate was developed. Field effect transistors (FETs) based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), with many unique physical properties, were successfully proved feasible for the PAA system. This innovation is a new type of fully inkjet-printable, two-dimensional, high-frequency PAA on a flexible substrate at room temperature. The designed electronic circuit components, such as the FET switches in the phase shifter, metal interconnection lines, microstrip transmission lines, etc., are all printed using a special inkjet printer. Using the developed technology, entire 1x4, 2x2, and 4x4 PAA systems were developed, packaged, and demonstrated at 5.3 GHz. Several key solutions are addressed in this work to solve the fabrication issues. The source/drain contact is developed using droplets of silver ink printed on the source/drain areas prior to applying CNT thin-film. The wet silver ink droplets allow the silver to

  3. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  4. Lunar Surface Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To support extended lunar operations, precision localization and route mapping is required for planetary EVA, manned rovers and lunar surface mobility units. A...

  5. A Brief Survey of Media Access Control, Data Link Layer, and Protocol Technologies for Lunar Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallett, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper surveys and describes some of the existing media access control and data link layer technologies for possible application in lunar surface communications and the advanced wideband Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA) conceptual systems utilizing phased-array technology that will evolve in the next decade. Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are standard Media Access Control (MAC) techniques that can be incorporated into lunar surface communications architectures. Another novel hybrid technique that is recently being developed for use with smart antenna technology combines the advantages of CDMA with those of TDMA. The relatively new and sundry wireless LAN data link layer protocols that are continually under development offer distinct advantages for lunar surface applications over the legacy protocols which are not wireless. Also several communication transport and routing protocols can be chosen with characteristics commensurate with smart antenna systems to provide spacecraft communications for links exhibiting high capacity on the surface of the Moon. The proper choices depend on the specific communication requirements.

  6. Copernicus: Lunar surface mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redd, Frank J.; Anderson, Shaun D.

    1992-01-01

    The Utah State University (USU) 1991-92 Space Systems Design Team has designed a Lunar Surface Mapper (LSM) to parallel the development of the NASA Office of Exploration lunar initiatives. USU students named the LSM 'Copernicus' after the 16th century Polish astronomer, for whom the large lunar crater on the face of the moon was also named. The top level requirements for the Copernicus LSM are to produce a digital map of the lunar surface with an overall resolution of 12 meters (39.4 ft). It will also identify specified local surface features/areas to be mapped at higher resolutions by follow-on missions. The mapping operation will be conducted from a 300 km (186 mi) lunar-polar orbit. Although the entire surface should be mapped within six months, the spacecraft design lifetime will exceed one year with sufficient propellant planned for orbit maintenance in the anomalous lunar gravity field. The Copernicus LSM is a small satellite capable of reaching lunar orbit following launch on a Conestoga launch vehicle which is capable of placing 410 kg (900 lb) into translunar orbit. Upon orbital insertion, the spacecraft will weigh approximately 233 kg (513 lb). This rather severe mass constraint has insured attention to component/subsystem size and mass, and prevented 'requirements creep.' Transmission of data will be via line-of-sight to an earth-based receiving system.

  7. Reference Avionics Architecture for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M.; Lapin, Jonathan C.; Schmidt, Oron L.

    2010-01-01

    Developing and delivering infrastructure capable of supporting long-term manned operations to the lunar surface has been a primary objective of the Constellation Program in the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate. Several concepts have been developed related to development and deployment lunar exploration vehicles and assets that provide critical functionality such as transportation, habitation, and communication, to name a few. Together, these systems perform complex safety-critical functions, largely dependent on avionics for control and behavior of system functions. These functions are implemented using interchangeable, modular avionics designed for lunar transit and lunar surface deployment. Systems are optimized towards reuse and commonality of form and interface and can be configured via software or component integration for special purpose applications. There are two core concepts in the reference avionics architecture described in this report. The first concept uses distributed, smart systems to manage complexity, simplify integration, and facilitate commonality. The second core concept is to employ extensive commonality between elements and subsystems. These two concepts are used in the context of developing reference designs for many lunar surface exploration vehicles and elements. These concepts are repeated constantly as architectural patterns in a conceptual architectural framework. This report describes the use of these architectural patterns in a reference avionics architecture for Lunar surface systems elements.

  8. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is, to a large extent, covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it has been produced by meteorite impacts since the...

  9. Dust Mitigation for the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lunar surface is to a large extent covered with a dust layer several meters thick. Known as lunar regolith, it poses a hazard in the form of dust clouds being...

  10. APOLLO 14: Lift off from lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 14: The lunar module 'Falcon' lifts off from the lunar surface From the film documentary 'APOLLO 14: 'Mission to Fra Mauro'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 14: Third manned lunar landing with Alan B. Shepard, Jr.,Stuart A. Roosa, and Edgar D. Mitchell. Landed in the Fra Mauro area on Ferurary 5, 1971; performed EVA, deployed lunar experiments, returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 216 hrs 1 min 58 sec

  11. Gravity increased by lunar surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, James

    2013-04-01

    Quantitatively large effects of lunar surface temperature on apparent gravitational force measured by lunar laser ranging (LLR) and lunar perigee may challenge widely accepted theories of gravity. LLR data grouped by days from full moon shows the moon is about 5 percent closer to earth at full moon compared to 8 days before or after full moon. In a second, related result, moon perigees were least distant in days closer to full moon. Moon phase was used as proxy independent variable for lunar surface temperature. The results support the prediction by binary mechanics that gravitational force increases with object surface temperature.

  12. Reflectance Spectral Characteristics of Lunar Surface Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Liao Zou; Jian-Zhong Liu; Jian-Jun Liu; Tao Xu

    2004-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive analysis of the mineral composition of major lunar rocks (highland anorthosite, lunar mare basalt and KREEP rock), we investigate the reflectance spectral characteristics of the lunar rock-forming minerals, including feldspar, pyroxene and olivine. The affecting factors, the variation of the intensity of solar radiation with wavelength and the reflectance spectra of the lunar rocks are studied. We also calculate the reflectivity of lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite at 300 nm, 415 nm, 750 nm, 900 nm, 950 nm and 1000 nm.It is considered that the difference in composition between lunar mare basalt and highland anorthosite is so large that separate analyses are needed in the study of the reflectivity of lunar surface materials in the two regions covered by mare basalt and highland anorthosite, and especially in the region with high Th contents, which may be the KREEP-distributed region.

  13. Lunar Flashlight: Mapping Lunar Surface Volatiles Using a Cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Hayne, P. O.; Banazadeh, P.; Baker, J. D.; Staehle, R. L.; Paine, C..; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Water ice and other volatiles may be located in the Moon's polar regions, with sufficient quantities for in situ extraction and utilization by future human and robotic missions. Evidence from orbiting spacecraft and the LCROSS impactor suggests the presence of surface and/or nearsurface volatiles, including water ice. These deposits are of interest to human exploration to understand their potential for use by astronauts. Understanding the composition, quantity, distribution, and form of water/H species and other volatiles associated with lunar cold traps is identified as a NASA Strategic Knowledge Gap (SKG) for Human Exploration. These polar volatile deposits could also reveal important information about the delivery of water to the Earth- Moon system, so are of scientific interest. The scientific exploration of the lunar polar regions was one of the key recommendations of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey. In order to address NASA's SKGs, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program selected three lowcost 6-U CubeSat missions for launch as secondary payloads on the first test flight (EM1) of the Space Launch System (SLS) scheduled for 2017. The Lunar Flashlight mission was selected as one of these missions, specifically to address the SKG associated with lunar volatiles. Development of the Lunar Flashlight CubeSat concept leverages JPL's Interplanetary Nano- Spacecraft Pathfinder In Relevant Environment (INSPIRE) mission, MSFC's intimate knowledge of the Space Launch System and EM-1 mission, small business development of solar sail and electric propulsion hardware, and JPL experience with specialized miniature sensors. The goal of Lunar Flashlight is to determine the presence or absence of exposed water ice and its physical state, and map its concentration at the kilometer scale within the permanently shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. After being ejected in cislunar space by SLS, Lunar Flashlight deploys its solar panels and solar sail and maneuvers

  14. Activity in the lunar surface: Transient Lunar Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    AF, Cruz Roa

    2013-01-01

    Transient Lunar Phenomena (TLP) observed on the surface of the moon, are of high rarity, low repetition rate and very short observation times, resulting in that there is little information about this topic. This necessitates the importance of studying them in detail. They have been observed as very bright clouds of gases of past geological lunar activity. According its duration, there have been registered in different colors (yellow, orange, red). Its size can vary from a few to hundreds of kilometers. The TLP Usually occur in certain locations as in some craters (Aristarchus, Plato, Kepler, etc.) and at the edges of lunar maria (Sea of Fecundity, Alps hills area, etc.). The exposure time of a TLP can vary from a few seconds to a little more than one hour. In this paper, a literature review of the TLP is made to build a theory from the existing reports and scientific hypotheses, trying to unify and synthesize data and concepts that are scattered by different lunar research lines. The TLP need to be explained ...

  15. Life Sciences Implications of Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Abercromby, Andrew F.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document preliminary, predicted, life sciences implications of expected operational concepts for lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). Algorithms developed through simulation and testing in lunar analog environments were used to predict crew metabolic rates and ground reaction forces experienced during lunar EVA. Subsequently, the total metabolic energy consumption, the daily bone load stimulus, total oxygen needed, and other variables were calculated and provided to Human Research Program and Exploration Systems Mission Directorate stakeholders. To provide context to the modeling, the report includes an overview of some scenarios that have been considered. Concise descriptions of the analog testing and development of the algorithms are also provided. This document may be updated to remain current with evolving lunar or other planetary surface operations, assumptions and concepts, and to provide additional data and analyses collected during the ongoing analog research program.

  16. Design and Implementation of a Lunar Communications Satellite and Server for the 2012 SISO Smackdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgatz, Dennis; Heater, Daniel; O'Neal, Daniel A.; Norris, Bryan; Schricker, Bradley C.

    2012-01-01

    Last year, the Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization (SISO) inaugurated the now annual High Level Architecture (HLA) Smackdown at the Spring Simulation Interoperability Workshop (SIW). A primary objective of the Smackdown event is to provide college students with hands-on experience in the High Level Architecture (HLA). The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) fielded teams in 2011 and 2012. Both the 2011 and 2012 smackdown scenarios were a lunar resupply mission. The 2012 UAHuntsville fielded four federates: a communications network Federate called Lunar Communications and Navigation Satellite Service (LCANServ) for sending and receiving messages, a Lunar Satellite Constellation (LCANSat) to put in place radios needed by the communications network for Line-Of-Sight communication calculations, and 3D graphical displays of the orbiting satellites and a 3D visualization of the lunar surface activities. This paper concentrates on the first two federates by describing the functions, algorithms, the modular FOM, experiences, lessons learned and recommendations for future Smackdown events.

  17. Functional Risk Modeling for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Fraser; Mathias, Donovan; Go, Susie; Nejad, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an approach to risk modeling that we call functional modeling , which we have developed to estimate the capabilities of a lunar base. The functional model tracks the availability of functions provided by systems, in addition to the operational state of those systems constituent strings. By tracking functions, we are able to identify cases where identical functions are provided by elements (rovers, habitats, etc.) that are connected together on the lunar surface. We credit functional diversity in those cases, and in doing so compute more realistic estimates of operational mode availabilities. The functional modeling approach yields more realistic estimates of the availability of the various operational modes provided to astronauts by the ensemble of surface elements included in a lunar base architecture. By tracking functional availability the effects of diverse backup, which often exists when two or more independent elements are connected together, is properly accounted for.

  18. Methane Lunar Surface Thermal Control Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, David W.; Sutherlin, Steven G.; Johnson, Wesley L.; Feller, Jeffrey R.; Jurns, John M.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is considering propulsion system concepts for future missions including human return to the lunar surface. Studies have identified cryogenic methane (LCH4) and oxygen (LO2) as a desirable propellant combination for the lunar surface ascent propulsion system, and they point to a surface stay requirement of 180 days. To meet this requirement, a test article was prepared with state-of-the-art insulation and tested in simulated lunar mission environments at NASA GRC. The primary goals were to validate design and models of the key thermal control technologies to store unvented methane for long durations, with a low-density high-performing Multi-layer Insulation (MLI) system to protect the propellant tanks from the environmental heat of low Earth orbit (LEO), Earth to Moon transit, lunar surface, and with the LCH4 initially densified. The data and accompanying analysis shows this storage design would have fallen well short of the unvented 180 day storage requirement, due to the MLI density being much higher than intended, its substructure collapse, and blanket separation during depressurization. Despite the performance issue, insight into analytical models and MLI construction was gained. Such modeling is important for the effective design of flight vehicle concepts, such as in-space cryogenic depots or in-space cryogenic propulsion stages.

  19. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  20. The effects of surface roughness on lunar Askaryan pulses

    CERN Document Server

    James, C W

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lunar surface roughness, on both small and large scales, on Askaryan radio pulses generated by particle cascades beneath the lunar surface has never been fully estimated. Surface roughness affects the chances of a pulse escaping the lunar surface, its coherency, and the characteristic detection geometry. It will affect the expected signal shape, the relative utility of different frequency bands, the telescope pointing positions on the lunar disk, and most fundamentally, the chances of detecting the known UHE cosmic ray and any prospective UHE neutrino flux. Near-future radio-telescopes such as FAST and the SKA promise to be able to detect the flux of cosmic rays, and it is critical that surface roughness be treated appropriately in simulations. of the lunar Askaryan technique. In this contribution, a facet model for lunar surface roughness is combined with a method to propagate coherent radio pulses through boundaries to estimate the full effects of lunar surface roughness on neutrino-detection...

  1. Optical interferometry from the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, M. D.; Saunders, R. S.

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a concept for a robust and expandable lunar optical interferometer that would perform new science even with the modest first element. With a phased approach, early steps verify technology for later phases. As elements are added to the observational system, astronomical observations unachievable from the surface of Earth are made possible. The initial experiment is supported by the Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), a 1-meter-class transit telescope. The first interferometry element, the Lunar Interferometer Technology Experiment (LITE), will perform ultraviolet astrometry and will demonstrate critical interferometer technologies (including optical delay lines and nanometer-level metrology) in the lunar environment. Subsequent elements will add capability, building on the design and performance of both LITE and LUTE. The starlight collectors will be based on the LUTE design but will be capable of being pointed. They will relay the received light to a centrally positioned beam combiner. As more collectors are added, the system will build up from an astrometric interferometer to an imaging interferometer with 100-m-class baselines. Because discrete elements are used, if any one of the collectors fails completely, the system remains functional.

  2. Conceptual Design of a Communications Relay Satellite for a Lunar Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Christopher W.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003, NASA solicited proposals for a robotic exploration of the lunar surface. Submissions were requested for a lunar sample return mission from the South Pole-Aitken Basin. The basin is of interest because it is thought to contain some of the oldest accessible rocks on the lunar surface. A mission is under study that will land a spacecraft in the basin, collect a sample of rock fragments, and return the sample to Earth. Because the Aitken Basin is on the far side of the Moon, the lander will require a communications relay satellite (CRS) to maintain contact with the Earth during its surface operation. Design of the CRS's orbit is therefore critical. This paper describes a mission design which includes potential transfer and mission orbits, required changes in velocity, orbital parameters, and mission dates. Several different low lunar polar orbits are examined to compare their availability to the lander versus the distance over which they must communicate. In addition, polar orbits are compared to a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 point, which would permit continuous communication at a cost of increased fuel requirements and longer transmission distances. This thesis also examines some general parameters of the spacecraft systems for the mission under study. Mission requirements for the lander dictate the eventual choice of mission orbit. This mission could be the first step in a period of renewed lunar exploration and eventual human landings.

  3. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  4. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  5. Lunar and Lagrangian Point L1 L2 CubeSat Communication and Navigation Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaire, Scott; Wong, Yen F.; Altunc, Serhat; Bussey, George; Shelton, Marta; Folta, Dave; Gramling, Cheryl; Celeste, Peter; Anderson, Mile; Perrotto, Trish; hide

    2017-01-01

    CubeSats have grown in sophistication to the point that relatively low-cost mission solutions could be undertaken for planetary exploration. There are unique considerations for lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat communication and navigation compared with low earth orbit CubeSats. This paper explores those considerations as they relate to the Lunar IceCube Mission. The Lunar IceCube is a CubeSat mission led by Morehead State University with participation from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Busek Company and Vermont Tech. It will search for surface water ice and other resources from a high inclination lunar orbit. Lunar IceCube is one of a select group of CubeSats designed to explore beyond low-earth orbit that will fly on NASA’s Space Launch System (SLS) as secondary payloads for Exploration Mission (EM) 1. Lunar IceCube and the EM-1 CubeSats will lay the groundwork for future lunar and L1/L2 CubeSat missions. This paper discusses communication and navigation needs for the Lunar IceCube mission and navigation and radiation tolerance requirements related to lunar and L1/L2 orbits. Potential CubeSat radios and antennas for such missions are investigated and compared. Ground station coverage, link analysis, and ground station solutions are also discussed. This paper will describe modifications in process for the Morehead ground station, as well as further enhancements of the Morehead ground station and NASA Near Earth Network (NEN) that are being considered. The potential NEN enhancements include upgrading current NEN Cortex receiver with Forward Error Correction (FEC) Turbo Code, providing X-band uplink capability, and adding ranging options. The benefits of ground station enhancements for CubeSats flown on NASA Exploration Missions (EM) are presented. This paper also describes how the NEN may support lunar and L1/L2 CubeSats without any enhancements. In addition, NEN is studying other initiatives to better support the CubeSat community

  6. Design of a lunar surface structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghi, Sohrob

    The next step for manned exploration and settlement is a return to the Moon. In such a return, the most challenging task is the construction of structures for habitation, considering the Moon's hostile environment. Therefore the question is: What is the best way to erect habitable structures on the lunar surface? Given the cost associated with bringing material to the Moon, In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) is viewed by most as the basis for a successful manned exploration and settlement of the Solar system. Along these lines, we propose an advanced concept where the use of freeform fabrication technologies by autonomous mini-robots can form the basis for habitable lunar structures. Also, locally-available magnesium is proposed as the structural material. While it is one of the most pervasive metals in the regolith, magnesium has been only suggested only briefly as a viable option in the past. Therefore, a study has been conducted on magnesium and its alloys, taking into account the availability of the alloying elements on the Moon. An igloo-shaped magnesium structure, covered by sandbags of regolith shielding and supported on a sintered regolith foundation, is considered as a potential design of a lunar base, as well as the test bed for the proposed vision. Three studies are carried out: First a static analysis is conducted which proves the feasibility of the proposed material and method. Second, a thermal analysis is carried out to study the effect of the regolith shielding as well as the sensitivity of such designs to measurement uncertainties of regolith and sintered thermal properties. The lunar thermal environment is modeled for a potential site at 88º latitude in the lunar South Pole Region. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties are in an acceptable range where a three-meter thick shield is considered. Also, the required capacity of a thermal rejection system is estimated, choosing the thermal loads to be those of the Space Station modules. In the

  7. Radiation exposure to the orbiting lunar station and lunar surface related to reusable nuclear shuttle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, P. I.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation environment created by the Reusable Nuclear Vehicle (RNS) in performing its normal mission functions while in the lunar vicinity and the impact of that environment on the Orbiting Lunar Station (OLS) and/or the lunar surface are examined. Lunar surface exposures from the operating reactor were evaluated for both the arrival and departure burns and while there is little probability that manned bases would lie along the paths in which measurable exposures would be recorded, the analyses do indicate the need to consider this possibility in planning such operations. Conclusions supported by the analyses and recommended operational constraints for the RNS are presented.

  8. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms are proposed for both lunar surface networks and orbit access networks. Firstly, an overlaying...

  9. Free Space Laser Communication Experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Zellar, Ronald S.; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  10. Free space laser communication experiments from Earth to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in lunar orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R; Hoffman, Evan D; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S; Davidson, Frederic M; Fong, Wai H; Krainak, Michael A; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2013-01-28

    Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

  11. Lunar Surface Solar Electric Power System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a concentrated photovoltaic electric power system for lunar operations called C-Lite Lunar. The novel technology produces a near-term solar array system...

  12. Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, E; Ozawa, S; Miyahara, M; Ito, Y; Mikouchi, T; Kimura, M; Arai, T; Sato, K; Hiraga, K

    2011-01-11

    Microcrystals of coesite and stishovite were discovered as inclusions in amorphous silica grains in shocked melt pockets of a lunar meteorite Asuka-881757 by micro-Raman spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electron back-scatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. These high-pressure polymorphs of SiO(2) in amorphous silica indicate that the meteorite experienced an equilibrium shock-pressure of at least 8-30 GPa. Secondary quartz grains are also observed in separate amorphous silica grains in the meteorite. The estimated age reported by the (39)Ar/(40)Ar chronology indicates that the source basalt of this meteorite was impacted at 3,800 Ma ago, time of lunar cataclysm; i.e., the heavy bombardment in the lunar surface. Observation of coesite and stishovite formed in the lunar breccias suggests that high-pressure impact metamorphism and formation of high-pressure minerals are common phenomena in brecciated lunar surface altered by the heavy meteoritic bombardment.

  13. Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Struk, Peter M.; Green, Jennifer L.; Chau, Savio N.; Curell, Philip C.; Dempsey, Cathy A.; Patterson, Linda P.; Robbins, William; Steele, Michael A.; DAnnunzio, Anthony; Meseroll, Robert; Quiter, John; Shannon, Russell; Easton, John W.; Madaras, Eric I.; BrownTaminger, Karen M.; Tabera, John T.; Tellado, Joseph; Williams, Marth K.; Zeitlin, Nancy P.

    2011-01-01

    The Lunar Surface Systems Supportability Technology Development Roadmap is a guide for developing the technologies needed to enable the supportable, sustainable, and affordable exploration of the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth. Supportability is defined in terms of space maintenance, repair, and related logistics. This report considers the supportability lessons learned from NASA and the Department of Defense. Lunar Outpost supportability needs are summarized, and a supportability technology strategy is established to make the transition from high logistics dependence to logistics independence. This strategy will enable flight crews to act effectively to respond to problems and exploit opportunities in an environment of extreme resource scarcity and isolation. The supportability roadmap defines the general technology selection criteria. Technologies are organized into three categories: diagnostics, test, and verification; maintenance and repair; and scavenge and recycle. Furthermore, "embedded technologies" and "process technologies" are used to designate distinct technology types with different development cycles. The roadmap examines the current technology readiness level and lays out a four-phase incremental development schedule with selection decision gates. The supportability technology roadmap is intended to develop technologies with the widest possible capability and utility while minimizing the impact on crew time and training and remaining within the time and cost constraints of the program.

  14. Automated Hybrid Microwave Heating for Lunar Surface Solidification Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project addresses the need for a system that will provide automated lunar surface stabilization via hybrid microwave heating. Surface stabilization is...

  15. A Kalman Approach to Lunar Surface Navigation using Radiometric and Inertial Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David T.; Welch, Bryan W.; Sands, O. Scott; Nguyen, Binh V.

    2009-01-01

    Future lunar missions supporting the NASA Vision for Space Exploration will rely on a surface navigation system to determine astronaut position, guide exploration, and return safely to the lunar habitat. In this report, we investigate one potential architecture for surface navigation, using an extended Kalman filter to integrate radiometric and inertial measurements. We present a possible infrastructure to support this technique, and we examine an approach to simulating navigational accuracy based on several different system configurations. The results show that position error can be reduced to 1 m after 5 min of processing, given two satellites, one surface communication terminal, and knowledge of the starting position to within 100 m.

  16. Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN): Testing and Demonstration for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the testing of the Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) designed for use with Lunar Surface applications. This is being done through the DTN experimental Network (DEN), that permit access and testing by other NASA centers, DTN team members and protocol developers. The objective of this work is to demonstrate DTN for high return applications in lunar scenarios, provide DEN connectivity with analogs of Constellation elements, emulators, and other resources from DTN Team Members, serve as a wireless communications staging ground for remote analog excursions and enable testing of detailed communication scenarios and evaluation of network performance. Three scenarios for DTN on the Lunar surface are reviewed: Motion imagery, Voice and sensor telemetry, and Navigation telemetry.

  17. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Based on our proposed innovations and accomplished work in Phase I, we will focus on developing the new MAC protocol and hybrid routing protocol for lunar surface...

  18. Lunar Surface Architecture Utilization and Logistics Support Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienhoff, Dallas; Findiesen, William; Bayer, Martin; Born, Andrew; McCormick, David

    2008-01-01

    Crew and equipment utilization and logistics support needs for the point of departure lunar outpost as presented by the NASA Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) and alternative surface architectures were assessed for the first ten years of operation. The lunar surface architectures were evaluated and manifests created for each mission. Distances between Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) landing sites and emplacement locations were estimated. Physical characteristics were assigned to each surface element and operational characteristics were assigned to each surface mobility element. Stochastic analysis was conducted to assess probable times to deploy surface elements, conduct exploration excursions, and perform defined crew activities. Crew time is divided into Outpost-related, exploration and science, overhead, and personal activities. Outpost-related time includes element deployment, EVA maintenance, IVA maintenance, and logistics resupply. Exploration and science activities include mapping, geological surveys, science experiment deployment, sample analysis and categorizing, and physiological and biological tests in the lunar environment. Personal activities include sleeping, eating, hygiene, exercising, and time off. Overhead activities include precursor or close-out tasks that must be accomplished but don't fit into the other three categories such as: suit donning and doffing, airlock cycle time, suit cleaning, suit maintenance, post-landing safing actions, and pre-departure preparations. Equipment usage time, spares, maintenance actions, and Outpost consumables are also estimated to provide input into logistics support planning. Results are normalized relative to the NASA LAT point of departure lunar surface architecture.

  19. Lunar Surface Potential Increases during Terrestrial Bow Shock Traversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Hills, H. Kent; Halekas, Jasper; Farrell, William M.; Delory, Greg T.; Espley, Jared; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard R.; Kasper, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. We present an analysis of Apollo 14 SIDE "resonance" events that indicate the lunar surface potential increases when the Moon traverses the dawn bow shock. By analyzing Wind spacecraft crossings of the terrestrial bow shock at approximately this location and employing current balancing models of the lunar surface, we suggest causes for the increasing potential. Determining the origin of this phenomenon will improve our ability to predict the lunar surface potential in support of human exploration as well as provide models for the behavior of other airless bodies when they traverse similar features such as interplanetary shocks, both of which are goals of the NASA Lunar Science Institute's Dynamic Response of the Environment At the Moon (DREAM) team.

  20. Risk-Assessment for Equipment Operating on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, R. C.; Kusiak, A.; Ramachandran, N.

    2008-01-01

    Particle-size distribution of lunar dust simulant is evaluated using scanning electron spectroscopy in order to consider approaches to evaluating risk to individual mechanical components operating on the lunar surface. Assessing component risk and risk-mitigation during actual operations will require noninvasive continuous data gathering on numerous parameters. Those data sets would best be evaluated using data-mining algorithms to assess risk, and recovery from risk, of individual mechanical components in real-time.

  1. Analysis of Fractal Parameters of the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Petrova, Natalia; Andreev, Alexey; Demina, Natalya; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    very complex structure and traditional research methods are unacceptable. After considering this, it was decided to use the method of fractal dimensionsd comparisons. For this purpose lunar marginal zone maps made in the celestial coordinate system (maps N1) and oneconstructed on the basis of data obtained from heliometric observations with taking into account thefirst model of the figure of the Moon given by Jakovkin (maps N2) were taken. The charts contain isohypses of the lunar marginal zone extending over 10" on both sides of the mean position of the limb line. In order to find thevariations of irregularities for thelimb points above the mean level of lunar surface werecomputed the position angles of this pointsP (reckoned from the centre of the Moon's disc) and D coordinates. This coordinates introduced by Hayn: P is the selenocentric longitude reckoned along the mean limb from the north pole of the Moon, like the position angles, and D is the latitude counted positively for that part of the disc that is nearer to the observer. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types. Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d werecompared with the othersmaps considered in this work. The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps N1 and N2. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to themdata give good results. The work was supported by grants RFBR 15-02-01638-a, 16-32-60071-mol-dk-a and 16-02-00496-a.

  2. Lunar Lander Offloading Operations Using a Heavy-Lift Lunar Surface Manipulator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; Doggett, William R.; Chrone, Jonathan; Angster, Scott; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Haddad, Michael E.; Helton, David A.; Caldwell, Darrell L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a heavy-lift variant of the Lunar Surface Manipulator System (LSMS-H) to lift and handle a 12 metric ton payload. Design challenges and requirements particular to handling heavy cargo were examined. Differences between the previously developed first-generation LSMS and the heavy-lift version are highlighted. An in-depth evaluation of the tip-over risk during LSMS-H operations has been conducted using the Synergistic Engineering Environment and potential methods to mitigate that risk are identified. The study investigated three specific offloading scenarios pertinent to current Lunar Campaign studies. The first involved offloading a large element, such as a habitat or logistics module, onto a mobility chassis with a lander-mounted LSMS-H and offloading that payload from the chassis onto the lunar surface with a surface-mounted LSMS-H. The second scenario involved offloading small pressurized rovers with a lander-mounted LSMS-H. The third scenario involved offloading cargo from a third-party lander, such as the proposed ESA cargo lander, with a chassis-mounted LSMS-H. In all cases, the analyses show that the LSMS-H can perform the required operations safely. However, Chariot-mounted operations require the addition of stabilizing outriggers, and when operating from the Lunar surface, LSMS-H functionality is enhanced by adding a simple ground anchoring system.

  3. The fractal method of the lunar surface parameters analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefedev, Yuri; Demina, Natalia; Petrova, Natalia; Demin, Sergey; Andreev, Alexey

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of complex selenographic systems is a complicated issue. This fully applies to the lunar topography. In this report a new method of the comparative reliable estimation of the lunar maps data is represented. The estimation was made by the comparison of high-altitude lines using the fractal analysis. The influence of the lunar macrofigure variances were determined by the method of fractal dimensions comparison.By now the highly accurate theories of the lunar movement have been obtained and stars coordinates have been determined on the basis of space measurements with the several mas accuracy but there are factors highly influencingon the accuracy of the results of these observations. They are: exactitude of the occultation moment recording, errors of the stars coordinates, accuracy of lunar ephemeris positions and unreliability of lunar marginal zone maps. Existing charts of the lunar marginal zone have some defects. To resolve this task thecomparison method in which the structure of the high-altitude lines of data appropriated with identical lunar coordinates can use. However, such comparison requires a lot of calculations.In order to find the variations of irregularities for the limb points above the mean level of lunar surface were computed the position angles of this points P and D by Hayn' coordinates. Thus the data of our studies was obtained by identical types.Then the first, segments of a lunar marginal zone for every 45" on P were considered. For each segment profile of the surface for a constant D were constructed with a step of 2". Thus 80 profiles were obtained. Secondly the fractal dimensions d for each considered structure was defined. Third the obtained values d were compared with the others maps considered in this work.The obtained results show some well agreement between the mean fractal dimensions for maps. Thus it can be concluded that the using of fractal method for lunar maps analysis to determine the accuracy of the presented to

  4. The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE): Enabling technology for an early lunar surface payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nein, M. E.; Hilchey, J. D.

    1995-02-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture, fixed declination, optical telescope to be operated on the surface of the Moon. This autonomous science payload will provide an unprecedented ultraviolet stellar survey even before manned lunar missions are resumed. This paper very briefly summarizes the LUTE concept analyzed by the LUTE Task Team of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Scientific capabilities and the Reference Design Concept are identified, and the expected system characteristics are summarized. Technologies which will be required to enable the early development, deployment, and operation of the LUTE are identified, and the principle goals and approaches for their advancement are described.

  5. Path Loss Prediction Over the Lunar Surface Utilizing a Modified Longley-Rice Irregular Terrain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foore, Larry; Ida, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This study introduces the use of a modified Longley-Rice irregular terrain model and digital elevation data representative of an analogue lunar site for the prediction of RF path loss over the lunar surface. The results are validated by theoretical models and past Apollo studies. The model is used to approximate the path loss deviation from theoretical attenuation over a reflecting sphere. Analysis of the simulation results provides statistics on the fade depths for frequencies of interest, and correspondingly a method for determining the maximum range of communications for various coverage confidence intervals. Communication system engineers and mission planners are provided a link margin and path loss policy for communication frequencies of interest.

  6. Operational Assessment of Apollo Lunar Surface Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew James; Claybrook, Austin; Greenlund, Suraj; Marquez, Jessica J.; Feigh, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantifying the operational variability of extravehicular activity (EVA) execution is critical to help design and build future support systems to enable astronauts to monitor and manage operations in deep-space, where ground support operators will no longer be able to react instantly and manage execution deviations due to the significant communication latency. This study quantifies the operational variability exhibited during Apollo 14-17 lunar surface EVA operations to better understand the challenges and natural tendencies of timeline execution and life support system performance involved in surface operations. Each EVA (11 in total) is individually summarized as well as aggregated to provide descriptive trends exhibited throughout the Apollo missions. This work extends previous EVA task analyses by calculating deviations between planned and as-performed timelines as well as examining metabolic rate and consumables usage throughout the execution of each EVA. The intent of this work is to convey the natural variability of EVA operations and to provide operational context for coping with the variability inherent to EVA execution as a means to support future concepts of operations.

  7. Data Analysis Techniques for a Lunar Surface Navigation System Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelmins, David; Sands, O. Scott; Swank, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in finding new methods of surface navigation to allow astronauts to navigate on the lunar surface. In support of the Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Glenn Research Center developed the Lunar Extra-Vehicular Activity Crewmember Location Determination System and performed testing at the Desert Research and Technology Studies event in 2009. A significant amount of sensor data was recorded during nine tests performed with six test subjects. This paper provides the procedure, formulas, and techniques for data analysis, as well as commentary on applications.

  8. The Evolution and Development of the Lunar Regolith and Implications for Lunar Surface Operations and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, David

    2009-01-01

    The lunar regolith consists of about 90% submillimeter particles traditionally termed lunar soil. The remainder consists of larger particles ranging up to boulder size rocks. At the lower size end, soil particles in the 10s of nanometer sizes are present in all soil samples. Lunar regolith overlies bedrock which consists of either lava flows in mare regions or impact-produced megaregolith in highland regions. Lunar regolith has been produced over billions of years by a combination of breaking and communition of bedrock by meteorite bombardment coupled with a variety of complex space weathering processes including solar wind implantation, solar flare and cosmic ray bombardment with attendant radiation damage, melting, vaporization, and vapor condensation driven by impact, and gardening and turnover of the resultant soil. Lunar regolith is poorly sorted compared to most terrestrial soils, and has interesting engineering properties including strong grain adhesion, over-compacted soil density, an abundance of agglutinates with sharp corners, and a variety of properties related to soil maturity. The NASA program has supported a variety of engineering test research projects, the production of bricks by solar or microwave sintering, the production of concrete, the in situ sintering and glazing of regolith by microwave, and the extraction of useful resources such as oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, silicon and other products. Future requirements for a lunar surface base or outpost will include construction of protective berms, construction of paved roadways, construction of shelters, movement and emplacement of regolith for radiation shielding and thermal control, and extraction of useful products. One early need is for light weight but powerful digging, trenching, and regolith-moving equipment.

  9. Advanced construction management for lunar base construction - Surface operations planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Robert P.

    1992-01-01

    The study proposes a conceptual solution and lays the framework for developing a new, sophisticated and intelligent tool for a lunar base construction crew to use. This concept integrates expert systems for critical decision making, virtual reality for training, logistics and laydown optimization, automated productivity measurements, and an advanced scheduling tool to form a unique new planning tool. The concept features extensive use of computers and expert systems software to support the actual work, while allowing the crew to control the project from the lunar surface. Consideration is given to a logistics data base, laydown area management, flexible critical progress scheduler, video simulation of assembly tasks, and assembly information and tracking documentation.

  10. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. approximately 140g/cm2 for inelastic scattering and approximately 50 g/cm2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum on order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  11. Simulations on the influence of lunar surface temperature profiles on CE-1 lunar microwave sounder brightness temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Surface temperature profile is an important parameter in lunar microwave remote sensing. Based on the analysis of physical properties of the lunar samples brought back by the Apollo and Luna missions, we modeled temporal and spatial variation of lunar surface temperature with the heat conduction equation, and produced temperature distribution in top 6.0 m of lunar regolith of the whole Moon surface. Our simulation results show that the profile of lunar surface temperature varies mainly within the top 20 cm, except at the lunar polar regions where the changes can reach to about 1.0 m depth. The temperature is stable beyond that depth. The variations of lunar surface temperature lead to main changes in brightness temperature (TB) at different channels of the lunar microwave sounder (CELMS) on Chang’E-1 (CE-1). The results of this paper show that the temperature profile influenced CELMS TB, which provides strong validation on the CELMS data, and lays a solid basis for future interpretation and utilization of the CELMS data.

  12. Early Operations Flight Correlation of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, Hume; Yang, Kan; Nguyen, Daniel; Cornwell, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission launched on September 7, 2013 with a one month cruise before lunar insertion. The LADEE spacecraft is a power limited, octagonal, composite bus structure with solar panels on all eight sides with four vertical segments per side and 2 panels dedicated to instruments. One of these panels has the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD), which represents a furthering of the laser communications technology demonstration proved out by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). LLCD increases the bandwidth of communication to and from the moon with less mass and power than LROs technology demonstrator. The LLCD Modem and Controller boxes are mounted to an internal cruciform composite panel and have no dedicated radiator. The thermal design relies on power cycling of the boxes and radiation of waste heat to the inside of the panels, which then reject the heat when facing cold space. The LADEE mission includes a slow roll and numerous attitudes to accommodate the challenging thermal requirements for all the instruments on board. During the cruise phase, the internal Modem and Controller avionics for LLCD were warmer than predicted by more than modeling uncertainty would suggest. This caused concern that if the boxes were considerably warmer than expected while off, they would also be warmer when operating and could limit the operational time when in lunar orbit. The thermal group at Goddard Space Flight Center evaluated the models and design for these critical avionics for LLCD. Upon receipt of the spacecraft models and audit was performed and data was collected from the flight telemetry to perform a sanity check of the models and to correlate to flight where possible. This paper describes the efforts to correlate the model to flight data and to predict the thermal performance when in lunar orbit and presents some lessons learned.

  13. Comparison of alternative concepts for lunar surface transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Uwe

    The lunar surface transportation system is a key element in lunar development. The decision which means of conveyance should be preferred depends on a lot of influencing factors such as transportation requirements, physical boundary conditions and economics. Starting with a systematic approach to define and structure the problem, a model to compare alternative transportation systems has been built. From the pool of possible means of conveyance, chemical rockets, electric cars, maglev-trains and mass-drivers have been chosen as candidates for investigation. With these candidates five different surface transportation systems were defined. For a reference lunar development scenario the systems were compared on the basis of a cost-to-benefit ratio. Preliminary results indicate that under the assumption that LH2 could be produced on lunar surface, LOX/LH2 propulsed "Hoppers" seem very attractive up to medium transportation demands. For large amounts of bulk cargo, mass driver transportation seems to have advantages, and electric cars should be used for all transportation tasks if the transportation demand is high. Maglev-trains seem to be competitive only for very large transportation demand and long life cycles.

  14. PIC Simulations of mini-magnetospheres above the lunar surface and the formation of Lunar Swirls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, R. A.; Alves, E. P.; Kellett, B.; Bradford, W. J.; Silva, L.; Crawford, I. A.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Fonseca, R. A.; Gargate, L.; Bingham, R.

    2013-09-01

    Reiner Gamma (7.4°N, 300.9°E) on the western side of Oceanus Procellarum (Figure 1) is the most distinctive example of a 'Lunar Swirl' [1]. Lunar swirls are white, 'wispy' formations on the Lunar surface that appear to be unrelated to any topographical features or impact ejecta that could otherwise explain the higher albedo of the regolith. The 'fluid-like' discolouration of the formations are often accentuated by low albedo regions, or 'dark lanes', that wind between the bright swirls.(Figure 1). The width of the light and dark features can be mechanism that creates them operates on a very fine scale. It is well established that the lunar swirls are colocated with crustal magnetic field anomalies [3]. The implication is that it is an electromagnetic interaction with the fixed magnetic field of the crustal anomaly with the ions in the solar wind that is responsible for albedo alterations [3]. The proton flux is decreased at the swirls i.e. the surface is 'shielded', retarding the ageing processes, compared to non-swirl regions. Yet simultaneously the ion flux is increased on to the adjacent dark lanes accelerating the maturing process. This requires that the plasma interaction between the solar wind and the magnetic anomalies are similarly fine scaled as the markings. This places it in the realm of electron scale collisionless plasma interactions where large-scale approximations such as frozen-in-field and single fluid mechanics, are no longer applicable. Clear indications that this interaction is a miniature collisionless plasma shock is provided by the in-situ spacecraft observations that have traversed, at low altitude, the plasma environment directly above the lunar swirls and other crustal magnetic field anomalies [4]. The in-situ data from multiple spacecraft e.g. [4, 5, 6, 3] is summarized graphically in Figure 2. The collisionless shocks occur as low as 10-20 km above the surface from magnetic field intensities of 10nT (at the shock altitude). In this

  15. An overnight habitat for expanding lunar surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Samuel S.; Setterfield, Timothy P.; Roberson, Daniel R.; Putbrese, Benjamin; Kotowick, Kyle; Vanegas, Morris D.; Curry, Mike; Geiger, Lynn M.; Barmore, David; Foley, Jordan J.; LaTour, Paul A.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Head, James W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the conceptual design and analysis of a system intended to increase the range, scientific capability, and safety of manned lunar surface exploration, requiring only a modest increase in capability over the Apollo mission designs. The system is intended to enable two astronauts, exploring with an unpressurized rover, to remove their space suits for an 8-h rest away from the lunar base and then conduct a second day of surface exploration before returning to base. This system is composed of an Environmental Control and Life Support System on the rover, an inflatable habitat, a solar shield and a solar power array. The proposed system doubles the distance reachable from the lunar base, thus increasing the area available for science and exploration by a factor of four. In addition to increasing mission capability, the proposed system also increases fault tolerance with an emergency inflatable structure and additional consumables to mitigate a wide range of suit or rover failures. The mass, volume, and power analyses of each subsystem are integrated to generate a total system mass of 124 kg and a volume of 594 L, both of which can be accommodated on the Apollo Lunar Roving Vehicle with minor improvements.

  16. Regionalized Lunar South Pole Surface Navigation System Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan W. Welch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Apollo missions utilized Earth-based assets for navigation, since the landings took place at lunar locations in constant view from the Earth. The new exploration campaign to the lunar South Pole region will have limited Earth visibility, but the extent to which a navigation system comprised solely of Earth-based tracking stations will provide adequate navigation solutions in this region is unknown. This article presents a dilution-of-precision-(DoP- based stationary surface navigation analysis of the performance of multiple lunar satellite constellations, Earth-based deep space network assets, and combinations thereof. Results show that kinematic and integrated solutions cannot be provided by the Earth-based deep space network stations. Also, the surface stationary navigation system needs to be operated as a two-way navigation system, or as a one-way navigation system with local terrain information, while integrating the position solution over a short duration of time with navigation signals being provided by a lunar satellite constellation.

  17. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  18. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  19. Robotic lunar surface operations: Engineering analysis for the design, emplacement, checkout and performance of robotic lunar surface systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Gordon R.

    1990-01-01

    The assembly, emplacement, checkout, operation, and maintenance of equipment on planetary surfaces are all part of expanding human presence out into the solar system. A single point design, a reference scenario, is presented for lunar base operations. An initial base, barely more than an output, which starts from nothing but then quickly grows to sustain people and produce rocket propellant. The study blended three efforts: conceptual design of all required surface systems; assessments of contemporary developments in robotics; and quantitative analyses of machine and human tasks, delivery and work schedules, and equipment reliability. What emerged was a new, integrated understanding of hot to make a lunar base happen. The overall goal of the concept developed was to maximize return, while minimizing cost and risk. The base concept uses solar power. Its primary industry is the production of liquid oxygen for propellant, which it extracts from native lunar regolith. Production supports four lander flights per year, and shuts down during the lunar nighttime while maintenance is performed.

  20. Scalable Lunar Surface Networks and Adaptive Orbit Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xudong

    2015-01-01

    Teranovi Technologies, Inc., has developed innovative network architecture, protocols, and algorithms for both lunar surface and orbit access networks. A key component of the overall architecture is a medium access control (MAC) protocol that includes a novel mechanism of overlaying time division multiple access (TDMA) and carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA), ensuring scalable throughput and quality of service. The new MAC protocol is compatible with legacy Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 networks. Advanced features include efficiency power management, adaptive channel width adjustment, and error control capability. A hybrid routing protocol combines the advantages of ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV) routing and disruption/delay-tolerant network (DTN) routing. Performance is significantly better than AODV or DTN and will be particularly effective for wireless networks with intermittent links, such as lunar and planetary surface networks and orbit access networks.

  1. Problem of nature of inert gases in lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levskiy, L. K.

    1974-01-01

    The origin of isotopes of inert gases in lunar surface material was investigated from the standpoint of the isotopic two-component status of inert gases in the solar system. Helium and neon represent the solar wind component, while krypton and xenon are planetary gases. Type A gases are trapped by the material of the regolith in the early stages of the existence of the solar system and were brought to the lunar surface together with dust. The material of the regolith therefore cannot be considered as the product of the erosion of the crystalline rocks of the moon and in this sense are extralunar. The regolith material containing type A gases must be identified with the high temperature minerals of the carbonaceous chondrites.

  2. Production rates of cosmogenic nuclei on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tie-Kuang; Yun, Su-Jun; Ma, Tao; Chang, Jin; Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Long; Ren, Zhong-Zhou

    2014-07-01

    A physical model for Geant4-based simulation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles' interaction with the lunar surface matter has been developed to investigate the production rates of cosmogenic nuclei. In this model the GCRs, mainly very high energy protons and α particles, bombard the surface of the Moon and produce many secondary particles, such as protons and neutrons. The energies of protons and neutrons at different depths are recorded and saved as ROOT files, and the analytical expressions for the differential proton and neutron fluxes are obtained through the best-fit procedure using ROOT software. To test the validity of this model, we calculate the production rates of the long-lived nuclei 10Be and 26Al in the Apollo 15 long drill core by combining the above differential fluxes and the newly evaluated spallation reaction cross sections. Our numerical results show that the theoretical production rates agree quite well with the measured data, which means that this model works well. Therefore, it can be expected that this model can be used to investigate the cosmogenic nuclei in future lunar samples returned by the Chinese lunar exploration program and can be extended to study other objects, such as meteorites and the Earth's atmosphere.

  3. SAR imaging simulation for an inhomogeneous undulated lunar surface based on triangulated irregular network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FA WenZhe; XU Feng; JIN YaQiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the statistics of the lunar cratered terrain, e.g., population, dimension and shape of craters, the terrain feature of cratered lunar surface is numerically generated. According to the Inhomogeneous distribution of the lunar surface slope, the triangulated irregular network (TIN) is employed to make the digital elevation of lunar surface model. The Kirchhoff approximation of surface scattering is then applied to simulation of lunar surface scattering. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image for compre-hensive cratered lunar surface is numerically generated using back projection (BP) algorithm of SAR Imaging. Making use of the digital elevation and Clementlne UVVIS data at Apollo 15 landing site as the ground truth, an SAR Image at Apollo 15 landing site Is simulated. The image simulation is verified using real SAR image and echoes statistics.

  4. Simulation of radar sounder echo from lunar surface and subsurface structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Space-borne high frequency (HF) radar sounder is an effective tool for investigation of lunar subsurface structure in lunar exploration. The primary strategy of radar sounder technology for subsurface structure detection is utilization of the nadir echoes time delay and intensity difference from the lunar surface and subsurface. It is important to fully understand electromagnetic wave propagation, scattering, and attenuation through the lunar media in order to retrieve information of lunar layering structure from weak nadir echoes of the subsurface, which is simultaneously interfered by strong off-nadir surface clutters. Based on the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) of rough surface scattering and the ray tracing of geometric optics, a numerical simulation of radar echoes from lunar layering structures is developed. According to the lunar surface feature, the topography of mare and highland surfaces is numerically generated, and the triangulated network is employed to make digital elevations of the whole lunar surface. Scattering from the lunar surface and subsurface is numerically calculated using KA approach. Radar echoes and its range images are numerically simulated, and their dependence on the parameters of lunar layering interfaces is discussed. The approach of this paper can also be utilized to investigate subsurface structures in Mars and other planetary exploration.

  5. Silicon distribution on the lunar surface obtained by Kaguya GRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Kobayashi, Masanori; Elphic, Richard; Karouji, Yuzuru; Hamara, Dave; Kobayashi, Shingo; Nagaoka, Hiroshi; Rodriguez, Alexis; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Reedy, Robert; Hasebe, Nobuyuki

    Gamma ray spectrometry (GRS) provides a powerful tool to map and characterize the elemental composition of the upper tens centimeters of solid planetary surfaces. Elemental maps generated by the Kaguya GRS (KGRS) include natural radioactive as well as major elements maps (e.g., Fe, Ca, and Ti). Analysis of the Si gamma ray has been investigated using the 4934 keV Si peak produced by the thermal neutron interaction (28) Si(n,gammag) (29) Si, generated during the interaction of galactic cosmic rays and surface material containing Si. The emission rate of gamma rays is directly proportional to the abundance of Si from the lunar surface; however, it is also affected by the thermal neutron density in the lunar surface. Thus, we corrected the Si GRS data by a low energy neutron data (appear to consist of primarily of mafic rocks. Our elemental map of Si using Kaguya GRS data shows that the highland areas of both near side and far side of the Moon have higher abundance of Si, and the mare regions of the near side of the Moon have the lowest Si abundance on the Moon. Our study clearly shows that there are a number of Si enriched areas compared to that of Apollo 16 site. This result is similar to the mineralogical data obtained by Diviner. The feldspathic highland areas are confirmed through the elemental map of Si by the Kaguya GRS data. When the Si map of Kaguya GRS data is compared with the LRO’s mineralogical map, a reasonable agreement in understanding of the dichotomy between lunar mafic and feldspathic regions of the moon is confirmed. On the other hand, compositional matches between the surface rocks and GRS data may represent the dominant rock composition for a given region.

  6. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Statistics Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Scott

    2010-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) group at JPL produced a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the lunar south pole using data obtained in 2006. This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This paper uses that Digital Elevation Model to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility near the lunar south pole. This data quantifies solar power and Earth communications resources at proposed lunar base locations. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into selenographic latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing multi-year averages of solar power availability of 92% and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50%. Results are compared with a theoretical model, and with actual sun and Earth visibility averaged over the years 2009 to 2028. Results for the lunar North pole were computed using the GSSR DEM of the lunar North pole produced in 1997. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  7. Transient Thermal Model and Analysis of the Lunar Surface and Regolith for Cryogenic Fluid Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Robert J.; Plachta, David W.; Yasan, Mohammad M.

    2008-01-01

    A transient thermal model of the lunar surface and regolith was developed along with analytical techniques which will be used to evaluate the storage of cryogenic fluids at equatorial and polar landing sites. The model can provide lunar surface and subsurface temperatures as a function of latitude and time throughout the lunar cycle and season. It also accounts for the presence of or lack of the undisturbed fluff layer on the lunar surface. The model was validated with Apollo 15 and Clementine data and shows good agreement with other analytical models.

  8. Simulation of Ultra-Long Wavelength interferometer in the Earth orbit and on the lunar surface

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mo; Huang, Maohai; Yan, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    We present simulations for interferometer arrays in Earth orbit and on the lunar surface to guide the design and optimization of space-based Ultra-Long Wavelength missions, such as those of China's Chang'E program. We choose parameters and present simulations using simulated data to identify inter-dependencies and constraints on science and engineering parameters. A regolith model is created for the lunar surface array simulation, the results show that the lunar regolith will have an undesira...

  9. Thermophysical Properties of the Lunar Surface from Diviner Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, Paul; Bandfield, Joshua; Vasavada, Ashwin; Ghent, Rebecca; Siegler, Matthew; Williams, Jean-Pierre; Greenhagen, Benjamin; Aharonson, Oded; Paige, David

    2013-04-01

    Orbital thermal infrared measurements are sensitive to a variety of properties of the Moon's surface layer, including rock abundance, regolith cover and porosity, and small-scale surface roughness. With its multiple spectral channels and large dynamic temperature range, the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [1] on NASA's LRO spacecraft has enabled the first global, high-resolution maps of these important thermophysical properties. Here we present a summary of the results of Diviner's thermophysical investigation thus far. Maps of surface rock abundance show low typical values of decrease systematically with crater age, and rocky surfaces are only preserved on the youngest craters (decrease from ~10 kg m-2 yr-1 for crater ages of ~1 Ma to ~1 mg m-2 yr-1 at ~1 Ga [4]. Variations in upper regolith density correlate with the ages of individual mare basalt units, suggesting this layer is actively processed by impacts on geologically short timescales, which may reveal age relationships previously unseen [5]. Vast cold regions surrounding fresh impact craters during lunar night (termed "cold spots") are only apparent in thermal infrared data [2]. These features cannot be explained by the emplacement of ejecta, and instead are well modeled by the in situ decompression of the top ~1-10 cm of regolith. Among a variety of explanations for this phenomenon, a model of grain lifting and turbulent mixing within an expanding vapor cloud best matches observations. The Diviner observations suggest impact vaporization leads to prominent yet ephemeral scars in the upper regolith that may be common on airless bodies in the Solar System. Surface roughness at scales smaller than the ~250 m Diviner footprint affects the measured spectral slope in brightness temperatures. We used Diviner brightness temperature spectra measured at a variety of solar illumination and viewing geometries to constrain and map the RMS slopes of the Moon's surface [6]. Due to the general increase in roughness at smaller

  10. Benefits of Using a Mars Forward Strategy for Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David; Maples, Dauphne

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies potential risk reduction, cost savings and programmatic procurement benefits of a Mars Forward Lunar Surface System architecture that provides commonality or evolutionary development paths for lunar surface system elements applicable to Mars surface systems. The objective of this paper is to identify the potential benefits for incorporating a Mars Forward development strategy into the planned Project Constellation Lunar Surface System Architecture. The benefits include cost savings, technology readiness, and design validation of systems that would be applicable to lunar and Mars surface systems. The paper presents a survey of previous lunar and Mars surface systems design concepts and provides an assessment of previous conclusions concerning those systems in light of the current Project Constellation Exploration Architectures. The operational requirements for current Project Constellation lunar and Mars surface system elements are compared and evaluated to identify the potential risk reduction strategies that build on lunar surface systems to reduce the technical and programmatic risks for Mars exploration. Risk reduction for rapidly evolving technologies is achieved through systematic evolution of technologies and components based on Moore's Law superimposed on the typical NASA systems engineering project development "V-cycle" described in NASA NPR 7120.5. Risk reduction for established or slowly evolving technologies is achieved through a process called the Mars-Ready Platform strategy in which incremental improvements lead from the initial lunar surface system components to Mars-Ready technologies. The potential programmatic benefits of the Mars Forward strategy are provided in terms of the transition from the lunar exploration campaign to the Mars exploration campaign. By utilizing a sequential combined procurement strategy for lunar and Mars exploration surface systems, the overall budget wedges for exploration systems are reduced and the

  11. Landing Site Selection and Surface Traverse Planning using the Lunar Mapping & Modeling Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; Chang, G.; Bui, B.; Sadaqathullah, S.; Kim, R.; Dodge, K.; Malhotra, S.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), is a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools for users to access mapped lunar data products (including image mosaics, digital elevation models, etc.) from past and current lunar missions (e.g., Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Apollo, etc.), and to perform in-depth analyses to support lunar surface mission planning and system design for future lunar exploration and science missions. It has been widely used by many scientists mission planners, as well as educators and public outreach (e.g., Google Lunar XPRICE teams, RESOLVE project, museums etc.) This year, LMMP was used by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI)'s Lunar Exploration internship program to perform lighting analysis and local hazard assessments, such as, slope, surface roughness and crater/boulder distribution to research landing sites and surface pathfinding and traversal. Our talk will include an overview of LMMP, a demonstration of the tools as well as a summary of the LPI Lunar Exploration summer interns' experience in using those tools.

  12. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. The interlocking, angular nature of Lunar dust and its broad...

  13. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-06-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  14. Megawatt solar power systems for lunar surface operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian; Alhadeff, Sam; Beard, Shawn; Carlile, David; Cook, David; Douglas, Craig; Garcia, Don; Gillespie, David; Golingo, Raymond; Gonzalez, Drew

    1990-01-01

    Lunar surface operations require habitation, transportation, life support, scientific, and manufacturing systems, all of which require some form of power. As an alternative to nuclear power, the development of a modular one megawatt solar power system is studied, examining both photovoltaic and dynamic cycle conversion methods, along with energy storage, heat rejection, and power backup subsystems. For photovoltaic power conversion, two systems are examined. First, a substantial increase in photovoltaic conversion efficiency is realized with the use of new GaAs/GaSb tandem photovoltaic cells, offering an impressive overall array efficiency of 23.5 percent. Since these new cells are still in the experimental phase of development, a currently available GaAs cell providing 18 percent efficiency is examined as an alternate to the experimental cells. Both Brayton and Stirling cycles, powered by linear parabolic solar concentrators, are examined for dynamic cycle power conversion. The Brayton cycle is studied in depth since it is already well developed and can provide high power levels fairly efficiently in a compact, low mass system. The dynamic conversion system requires large scale waste heat rejection capability. To provide this heat rejection, a comparison is made between a heat pipe/radiative fin system using advanced composites, and a potentially less massive liquid droplet radiator system. To supply power through the lunar night, both a low temperature alkaline fuel cell system and an experimental high temperature monolithic solid-oxide fuel cell system are considered. The reactants for the fuel cells are stored cryogenically in order to avoid the high tankage mass required by conventional gaseous storage. In addition, it is proposed that the propellant tanks from a spent, prototype lunar excursion vehicle be used for this purpose, therefore resulting in a significant overall reduction in effective storage system mass.

  15. Interviews with Apollo Lunar Surface Astronauts in Support of EVA Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean

    2010-01-01

    A 3-person team interviewed 8 of the 11 surviving Apollo crewmembers in a series of focused interviews to discuss their experiences on the lunar surface. Eppler presented the results of these interviews, along with recommendations for the design of future lunar surface systems.

  16. Lightweight Bulldozer Attachment for Construction and Excavation on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert; Wilkinson, R. Allen; Gallo, Christopher A.; Nick, Andrew J.; Schuler, Jason M.; King, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    A lightweight bulldozer blade prototype has been designed and built to be used as an excavation implement in conjunction with the NASA Chariot lunar mobility platform prototype. The combined system was then used in a variety of field tests in order to characterize structural loads, excavation performance and learn about the operational behavior of lunar excavation in geotechnical lunar simulants. The purpose of this effort was to evaluate the feasibility of lunar excavation for site preparation at a planned NASA lunar outpost. Once the feasibility has been determined then the technology will become available as a candidate element in the NASA Lunar Surface Systems Architecture. In addition to NASA experimental testing of the LANCE blade, NASA engineers completed analytical work on the expected draft forces using classical soil mechanics methods. The Colorado School of Mines (CSM) team utilized finite element analysis (FEA) to study the interaction between the cutting edge of the LANCE blade and the surface of soil. FEA was also used to examine various load cases and their effect on the lightweight structure of the LANCE blade. Overall it has been determined that a lunar bulldozer blade is a viable technology for lunar outpost site preparation, but further work is required to characterize the behavior in 1/6th G and actual lunar regolith in a vacuum lunar environment.

  17. Study on Alternative Cargo Launch Options from the Lunar Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl A. Blomberg; Zamir A. Zulkefli; Spencer W. Rich; Steven D. Howe

    2013-07-01

    In the future, there will be a need for constant cargo launches from Earth to Mars in order to build, and then sustain, a Martian base. Currently, chemical rockets are used for space launches. These are expensive and heavy due to the amount of necessary propellant. Nuclear thermal rockets (NTRs) are the next step in rocket design. Another alternative is to create a launcher on the lunar surface that uses magnetic levitation to launch cargo to Mars in order to minimize the amount of necessary propellant per mission. This paper investigates using nuclear power for six different cargo launching alternatives, as well as the orbital mechanics involved in launching cargo to a Martian base from the moon. Each alternative is compared to the other alternative launchers, as well as compared to using an NTR instead. This comparison is done on the basis of mass that must be shipped from Earth, the amount of necessary propellant, and the number of equivalent NTR launches. Of the options, a lunar coil launcher had a ship mass that is 12.7% less than the next best option and 17 NTR equivalent launches, making it the best of the presented six options.

  18. Interpretation of Lunar Topography: Impact Cratering and Surface Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenburg, Margaret A.

    This work seeks to understand past and present surface conditions on the Moon using two different but complementary approaches: topographic analysis using high-resolution elevation data from recent spacecraft missions and forward modeling of the dominant agent of lunar surface modification, impact cratering. The first investigation focuses on global surface roughness of the Moon, using a variety of statistical parameters to explore slopes at different scales and their relation to competing geological processes. We find that highlands topography behaves as a nearly self-similar fractal system on scales of order 100 meters, and there is a distinct change in this behavior above and below approximately 1 km. Chapter 2 focuses this analysis on two localized regions: the lunar south pole, including Shackleton crater, and the large mare-filled basins on the nearside of the Moon. In particular, we find that differential slope, a statistical measure of roughness related to the curvature of a topographic profile, is extremely useful in distinguishing between geologic units. Chapter 3 introduces a numerical model that simulates a cratered terrain by emplacing features of characteristic shape geometrically, allowing for tracking of both the topography and surviving rim fragments over time. The power spectral density of cratered terrains is estimated numerically from model results and benchmarked against a 1-dimensional analytic model. The power spectral slope is observed to vary predictably with the size-frequency distribution of craters, as well as the crater shape. The final chapter employs the rim-tracking feature of the cratered terrain model to analyze the evolving size-frequency distribution of craters under different criteria for identifying "visible" craters from surviving rim fragments. A geometric bias exists that systematically over counts large or small craters, depending on the rim fraction required to count a given feature as either visible or erased.

  19. Back to the Moon: The Scientific Rationale for Resuming Lunar Surface Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, I A; Cockell, C S; Falcke, H; Green, D A; Jaumann, R; Wieczorek, M A

    2012-01-01

    The lunar geological record has much to tell us about the earliest history of the Solar System, the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system, the geological evolution of rocky planets, and the near-Earth cosmic environment throughout Solar System history. In addition, the lunar surface offers outstanding opportunities for research in astronomy, astrobiology, fundamental physics, life sciences and human physiology and medicine. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of outstanding lunar science objectives in all of these different areas. It is concluded that addressing them satisfactorily will require an end to the 40-year hiatus of lunar surface exploration, and the placing of new scientific instruments on, and the return of additional samples from, the surface of the Moon. Some of these objectives can be achieved robotically (e.g. through targeted sample return, the deployment of geophysical networks, and the placing of antennas on the lunar surface to form radio telescopes). However, in the lo...

  20. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  1. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  2. Surface-Correlated Nanophase Iron Metal in Lunar Soils: Petrography and Space Weathering Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.; Wentworth, Susan J.; McKay, David S.

    1998-01-01

    Space weathering is a term used to include all of the processes that act on material exposed at the surface of a planetary or small body. In the case of the Moon, it includes a variety of processes that formed the lunar regolith, caused the maturation of lunar soils, and formed patina on rock surfaces. The processes include micrometeorite impact and reworking, implantation of solar wind and flare particles, radiation damage and chemical effects from solar particles and cosmic rays, interactions with the lunar atmosphere, and sputtering erosion and deposition. Space weathering effects collectively result in a reddened continuum slope, lowered albedo, and attenuated absorption features in reflectance spectra of lunar soils as compared to finely comminuted rocks from the same Apollo sites. Understanding these effects is critical in order to fully integrate the lunar sample collection with remotely sensed data from recent robotic missions (e.g., Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Galileo). Our objective is to determine the origin of space weathering effects in lunar soils through combined electron microscopy and microspectrophotometry techniques applied to individual soil particles from lunar soils. It has been demonstrated that it is the finest size fraction (lunar soils that dominates the optical properties of the bulk soils.

  3. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Maps Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Scott

    2009-01-01

    A Digital Elevation Model of the lunar south pole was produced using Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) data obtained in 2006.12 This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This Digital Elevation Model was used to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility with 100 kilometers of the lunar south pole. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into lunar-centric latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Estimates of Earth visibility were computed by integrating the area of the region bounding the Earth's motion that was below the horizon mask. Solar illumination and other metrics were computed similarly. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing yearly solar power availability of 92 percent and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50 percent. Similar analysis of the lunar south pole used an older GSSR Digital Elevation Model with 600-meter horizontal resolution. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  4. Lunar Pole Illumination and Communications Maps Computed from GSSR Elevation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Scott

    2009-01-01

    A Digital Elevation Model of the lunar south pole was produced using Goldstone Solar System RADAR (GSSR) data obtained in 2006.12 This model has 40-meter horizontal resolution and about 5-meter relative vertical accuracy. This Digital Elevation Model was used to compute average solar illumination and Earth visibility with 100 kilometers of the lunar south pole. The elevation data were converted into local terrain horizon masks, then converted into lunar-centric latitude and longitude coordinates. The horizon masks were compared to latitude, longitude regions bounding the maximum Sun and Earth motions relative to the moon. Estimates of Earth visibility were computed by integrating the area of the region bounding the Earth's motion that was below the horizon mask. Solar illumination and other metrics were computed similarly. Proposed lunar south pole base sites were examined in detail, with the best site showing yearly solar power availability of 92 percent and Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication availability of about 50 percent. Similar analysis of the lunar south pole used an older GSSR Digital Elevation Model with 600-meter horizontal resolution. The paper also explores using a heliostat to reduce the photovoltaic power system mass and complexity.

  5. Lunar Beagle: An Experimental Package for Measuring Polar Ice and Volatiles Beneath the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Pillinger, C. T.; McKay, D. S.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.; Waugh, L.; Lunar Beagle Consortium

    2008-07-01

    Lunar Beagle payload has the capabilities of determining the presence of polar ice and volatiles in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The instrument suite can provide critical information to assist "living off the land".

  6. Electrical conductivity of lunar surface rocks - Laboratory measurements and implications for lunar interior temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerer, F. C.; Huffman, G. P.; Fisher, R. M.; Nagata, T.

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported for laboratory measurements of the dc and low-frequency ac electrical conductivity of three lunar rocks with ferrous iron contents of 5 to 26 wt %. The measurements were made at temperatures ranging from 20 to 1000 C, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the dependence of electrical conductivity on furnace atmosphere. It is found that the magnitude of electrical conductivity generally increases with increasing iron content. A comparison of the data on these samples with data on terrestrial olivines and pyroxenes shows that the electrical conductivity of anhydrous silicate minerals is influenced primarily by the concentration, oxidation state, and distribution of iron, while the silicate crystal structure is only of secondary importance. Lunar interior temperatures are deduced from experimental lunar conductivity profiles, and the resulting temperature-depth profiles are found to be consistent with those calculated for two different lunar evolutionary models as well as with various experimental constraints.

  7. Thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianmin; Zhang, Xubing; Wu, Ke

    2016-07-01

    The thorium distribution on the lunar surface is critical for understanding the lunar evolution. This work reports a global map of the thorium distribution on the lunar surface observed by Chang'E-2 gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS). Our work exhibits an interesting symmetrical structure of thorium distribution along the two sides of the belt of Th hot spots. Some potential positions of KREEP volcanism are suggested, which are the Fra Mauro region, Montes Carpatus, Aristarchus Plateau and the adjacent regions of Copernicus Crater. Based on the lunar map of thorium distribution, we draw some conclusions on two critical links of lunar evolution: (1) the thorium abundance within the lunar crust and mantle, in the last stage of Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) crystallization, may have a positive correlation with the depth in the crust, reaches a peak when coming through the transitional zone between the crust and mantle, and decreases sharply toward the inside of the mantle; thus, the Th-enhanced materials originated from the lower crust and the layer between the crust and mantle, (2) in PKT, KREEP volcanism might be the primary mechanism of Th-elevated components to the lunar surface, whereas the Imbrium impact acted as a relatively minor role.

  8. Microwave processing of lunar soil for supporting longer-term surface exploration of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, V.; Lim, S.; Anand, M.

    2016-11-01

    The future of human space exploration will inevitably involve longer-term stays and possibly permanent settlement on the surfaces of other planetary bodies. It will, therefore, be advantageous or perhaps even necessary to utilise local resources for building an infrastructure for human habitation on the destination planetary body. In this context human lunar exploration is the next obvious step. Lunar soil is regarded as an ideal feedstock for lunar construction materials. However, significant gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of certain chemical and physical properties of lunar soil, which need to be better understood in order to develop appropriate construction techniques and materials for lunar applications. This article reviews our current understanding of the dielectric behaviour of lunar soil in the microwave spectrum, which is increasingly recognised as an important topic of research in the Space Architecture field. Although the coupling between the lunar soil and microwave energy is already recognised, considerable challenges must be overcome before microwave processing could be used as a main fabrication method for producing robust structures on the Moon. We also review the existing literature on the microwave processing of lunar soil and identify three key research areas where future efforts are needed to make significant advances in understanding the potential of microwave processing of lunar soil for construction purposes.

  9. Cosmogenic Nuclei Production Rate on the Lunar Surface

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Tie-Kuang; Ma, Tao; Chang, Jin; Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Long; Ren, Zhong-Zhou

    2013-01-01

    A physical model of Geant4-based simulation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles interaction with the lunar surface matter has been developed to investigate the production rate of cosmogenic nuclei. In this model the GCRs, mainly very high energy protons and $\\alpha$ particles, bombard the surface of the Moon and produce many secondary particles such as protons and neutrons. The energies of proton and neutron at different depths are recorded and saved into ROOT files, and the analytical expressions for the differential proton and neutron fluxes are obtained through the best-fit procedure under the ROOT software. To test the validity of this model, we calculate the production rates of long-lived nuclei $^{10}$Be and $^{26}$Al in the Apollo 15 long drill core by combining the above differential fluxes and the newly evaluated spallation reaction cross sections. Numerical results show that the theoretical production rates agree quite well with the measured data. It means that this model works well. Therefore, i...

  10. Lunar surface magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind: results from lunar prospector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin; Mitchell; Curtis; Anderson; Carlson; McFadden; Acuna; Hood; Binder

    1998-09-04

    The magnetometer and electron reflectometer experiment on the Lunar Prospector spacecraft has obtained maps of lunar crustal magnetic fields and observed the interaction between the solar wind and regions of strong crustal magnetic fields at high selenographic latitude (30 degreesS to 80 degreesS) and low ( approximately 100 kilometers) altitude. Electron reflection maps of the regions antipodal to the Imbrium and Serenitatis impact basins, extending to 80 degreesS latitude, show that crustal magnetic fields fill most of the antipodal zones of those basins. This finding provides further evidence for the hypothesis that basin-forming impacts result in magnetization of the lunar crust at their antipodes. The crustal magnetic fields of the Imbrium antipode region are strong enough to deflect the solar wind and form a miniature (100 to several hundred kilometers across) magnetosphere, magnetosheath, and bow shock system.

  11. Microimpact phenomena on Australasian microtektites: Implications for ejecta plume characteristics and lunar surface processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Sudhakar, M.

    and dust, craters generated by projectiles defining an oblique trajectory, high-velocity "pitless" craters, and the conventional hypervelocity craters with well-defined central pits and radial and concentric cracks-found commonly on lunar surface materials...

  12. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  13. An Impact Model of the Imbrium Basin for Distribution of Thorium on Lunar Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Meng-Hua; LIU Liang-Gang; XU Ao-Ao

    2008-01-01

    @@ We consider the thorium distributions that are coincident with the distribution of ejecta after the Mare Imbrium impact occurs on the lunar surface and derive a simple model on the sphericaJ target to predict the thickness of Imbrium ejecta deposits as a function of distance from the centre of the Imbrium basin.Then we use the result of Lunar Prospector's gamma ray experiment to test the hypothesis that the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface has an origin from the Mare Imbrium.

  14. A preliminary investigation of the Topaz II reactor as a lunar surface power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polansky, G.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Houts, M.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Reactor power supplies offer many attractive characteristics for lunar surface applications. The Topaz II reactor resulted from an extensive development program in the former Soviet Union. Flight quality reactor units remain from this program and are currently under evaluation in the United States. This paper examines the potential for applying the Topaz II, originally developed to provide spacecraft power, as a lunar surface power supply.

  15. Effects of levitated dust on astronomical observations from the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, D. L.; Vondrak, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    It is believed that a substantial population of levitated dust is present in the terminator region of the moon. Stray light scattered by this dust layer may contaminate astronomical observations made from the lunar surface using infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light. The evidence for dust levitation stems from: Surveyor vidicon images of horizon glow; anomalous brightness in photographs of the solar corona taken by Apollo astronauts while the spacecraft was just inside the moon's shadow; and observations by Apollo astronauts of streamers just prior to lunar orbital sunrise or just after lunar orbital sunset. It has been proposed that the differential charging of the lunar surface in the terminator region due to photoemission and the consequent strong local electric fields comprise the mechanism responsible for this levitation. Although quantitative data on the levitated lunar dust distribution are meager, it is possible to estimate column densities and sizes. In this paper we summarize the estimates of particulate sizes and number densities of previous authors, and construct a nominal terminator dust distribution, as a function of particulate radius and altitude above the lunar surface. Using the model we estimate the brightness of scattered sunshine for three wavelength bands. For the results in the visible wavelengths, we compare the estimated brightness with the known brightness of selected astronomical objects and discuss the implications for lunar-based astronomy.

  16. Space Weathering of the Lunar Surface by Solar Wind Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungsoo S.; Sim, Chaekyung

    2017-08-01

    The lunar regolith is space-weathered to a different degree in response to the different fluxes of incident solar wind particles and micrometeoroids. Crater walls, among other slating surfaces, are good tracers of the space-weathering process because they mature differently depending on the varying incident angles of weathering agents. We divide a crater wall into four quadrants (north, south, east, and west) and analyze the distribution of 950-nm/750-nm reflectance-ratio and 750-nm reflectance values in each wall quadrant, using the topography-corrected images by Multispectral Imager (MI) onboard SELENE (Kaguya). For thousands of impact craters across the Moon, we interpret the spectral distributions in the four wall quadrants in terms of the space weathering by solar wind particles and micrometeoroids and of gardening by meteroids. We take into account the solar-wind shielding by the Earth’s magnetotail to correctly assess the different spectral behaviors between east- and west-facing walls of the craters in the near-side of the Moon.

  17. Lunar Surface Stirling Power Systems Using Isotope Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Shaltens, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    For many years, NASA has used the decay of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) (in the form of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS)) as a heat source for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs), which have provided electrical power for many NASA missions. While RTGs have an impressive reliability record for the missions in which they have been used, their relatively low thermal to electric conversion efficiency and the scarcity of plutonium-238 (Pu-238) has led NASA to consider other power conversion technologies. NASA is considering returning both robotic and human missions to the lunar surface and, because of the long lunar nights (14.75 Earth days), isotope power systems are an attractive candidate to generate electrical power. NASA is currently developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) as a candidate higher efficiency power system that produces greater than 160 W with two GPHS modules at the beginning of life (BOL) (32% efficiency). The ASRG uses the same Pu-238 GPHS modules, which are used in RTG, but by coupling them to a Stirling convertor provides a four-fold reduction in the number of GPHS modules. This study considers the use of americium-241 (Am-241) as a substitute for the Pu-238 in Stirling- convertor-based Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for power levels from tens of watts to 5 kWe. The Am-241 is used as a substitute for the Pu-238 in GPHS modules. Depending on power level, different Stirling heat input and removal systems are modeled. It was found that substituting Am-241 GPHS modules into the ASRG reduces power output by about one-fifth while maintaining approximately the same system mass. In order to obtain the nominal 160 W of electrical output of the Pu-238 ASRG requires 10 Am-241 GPHS modules. Higher power systems require changing from conductive coupling heat input and removal from the Stirling convertor to either pumped loops or heat pipes. Liquid metal pumped loops are considered as the primary heat transportation on the hot

  18. In Situ Lunar Surface Measurements Via Miniature Gas Chromatography Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) has placed a high priority on determining the nature, distribution and transport of volatiles on the moon. The objective...

  19. Autonomous Utility Connector for Lunar Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar dust has been identified as a significant and present challenge in future exploration missions. Significant development is called for in the area of devices...

  20. Anisotropic Solar Wind Sputtering of the Lunar Surface Induced by Crustal Magnetic Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, A. R.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M.

    2014-01-01

    The lunar exosphere is generated by several processes each of which generates neutral distributions with different spatial and temporal variability. Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface is a major process for many regolith-derived species and typically generates neutral distributions with a cosine dependence on solar zenith angle. Complicating this picture are remanent crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, which decelerate and partially reflect the solar wind before it strikes the surface. We use Kaguya maps of solar wind reflection efficiencies, Lunar Prospector maps of crustal field strengths, and published neutral sputtering yields to calculate anisotropic solar wind sputtering maps. We feed these maps to a Monte Carlo neutral exospheric model to explore three-dimensional exospheric anisotropies and find that significant anisotropies should be present in the neutral exosphere depending on selenographic location and solar wind conditions. Better understanding of solar wind/crustal anomaly interactions could potentially improve our results.

  1. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; Krainak, Michael A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  2. Two-Phase Thermal Switching System for a Small, Extended Duration Lunar Surface Science Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; OConnor, Brian F.; Wirzburger, Melissa J.; Abel, Elisabeth D.; Stouffer, Chuck J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a novel thermal control system for the Warm Electronics Box (WEB) on board a small lunar surface lander intended to support science activities anywhere on the lunar surface for an extended duration of up to 6 years. Virtually all lander electronics, which collectively dissipate about 60 W in the reference mission, are contained within the WEB. These devices must be maintained below 323 K (with a goal of 303 K) during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar day, when surface temperatures can reach 390K, and above 263 K during the nearly 15-earth-day lunar night, when surface temperatures can reach 100K. Because of the large temperature swing from lunar day-to-night, a novel thermal switching system was required that would be able to provide high conductance from WEB to radiator(s) during the hot lunar day and low (or negligible) conductance during the cold lunar night. The concept that was developed consists of ammonia variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to collect heat from WEB components and a polymer wick propylene loop heat pipe (LHP) to transport the collected heat to the radiator(s). The VCHPs autonomously maximize transport when the WEB is warm and autonomously shut down when the WEB gets cold. The LHP autonomously shuts down when the VCHPs shut down. When the environment transitions from lunar night to day, the VCHPs and LHP autonomously turn back on. Out of 26 analyzed systems, this novel arrangement was able to best achieve the combined goals of zero control power, autonomous operation, long life, low complexity, low T, and landed tilt tolerance.

  3. Documenting Surface and Sub-surface Volatiles While Drilling in Frozen Lunar Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, T. L.; Cook, A. M.; Colaprete, A.; Bielawski, R.; Fritzler, E.; Benton, J.; White, B.; Forgione, J.; Kleinhenz, J.; Smith, J.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.; McMurray, R.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission is intended to characterize the three-dimensional nature of volatiles in lunar polar regions and permanently shadowed regions. RP is slated to carry two instruments for prospecting purposes. These include the Neutron Spectrometer System (NSS) and Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS). A Honybee Robotics drill (HRD) is intended to sample to depths of 1 m, and deliver a sample to a crucible that is processed by the Oxygen Volatile Extraction Node (OVEN) where the soil is heated and evolved gas is delivered to the gas chromatograph / mass spectrometer of the Lunar Advanced Volatile Analysis system (LAVA). For several years, tests of various sub-systems have been undertaken in a large cryo-vacuum chamber facility (VF-13) located at Glenn Research Center. In these tests a large tube (1.2 m high x 25.4 cm diameter) is filled with lunar simulant, NU-LHT-3M, prepared with known abundances of water. There are thermo-couples embedded at different depths, and also across the surface of the soil tube. The soil tube is placed in the chamber and cooled with LN2 as the pressure is reduced to approx.5-6x10(exp -6) Torr. Here we discuss May 2016 tests where two soil tubes were prepared and placed in the chamber. Also located in the chamber were 5 crucibles, an Inficon mass spectrometer, and a trolly permitting x-y translation, where the HRD and NIRVSS, were mounted. The shroud surrounding the soil tube was held at different temperatures for each tube to simulate a warm and cold lunar environment.

  4. Solar flares, the lunar surface, and gas rich meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, D. J.; Cowsik, R.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Price, P. B.; Rajan, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations on the Fe-group nuclei track density vs depth in lunar rocks and Surveyor 3 TV camera filter glass were critically examined considering more factors than previously. The analysis gives a firmer basis to the observation of the preferential leakage of low energy Fe nuclei from the accelerating region of the sun. The track density gradients in lunar rock 12022 and filter glass are used to determine the lunar erosion rate of 3 angstroms/yr. Track gradients are less steep than predicted from energy spectrum observed in the Surveyor glass, perhaps due to sputtering. High densities of etchable tracks were found at all depths down to 60 cm in fines from Apollo cores and also in thin sections of the Pesjanoe, Pantar, and Fayetteville gas-rich meteorites. It is felt unlikely that suprathermal heavy ions were responsible for the high track densities.

  5. Solar Wind Sputtering of Lunar Surface Materials: Role and Some Possible Implications of Potential Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Adams, J. H., Jr.; Meyer, F.; Reinhold, c.

    2010-01-01

    Solar-wind induced sputtering of the lunar surface includes, in principle, both kinetic and potential sputtering. The role of the latter mechanism, however, in many focused studies has not been properly ascertained due partly to lack of data but can also be attributed to the assertion that the contribution of solar-wind heavy ions to the total sputtering is quite low due to their low number density compared to solar-wind protons. Limited laboratory measurements show marked enhancements in the sputter yields of slow-moving, highly-charged ions impacting oxides. Lunar surface sputtering yields are important as they affect, e.g., estimates of the compositional changes in the lunar surface, its erosion rate, as well as its contribution to the exosphere as well as estimates of hydrogen and water contents. Since the typical range of solar-wind ions at 1 keV/amu is comparable to the thickness of the amorphous rim found on lunar soil grains, i.e. few 10s nm, lunar simulant samples JSC-1A AGGL are specifically enhanced to have such rims in addition to the other known characteristics of the actual lunar soil particles. However, most, if not all laboratory studies of potential sputtering were carried out in single crystal targets, quite different from the rim s amorphous structure. The effect of this structural difference on the extent of potential sputtering has not, to our knowledge, been investigated to date.

  6. Solar Wind Access to Lunar Polar Craters: Feedback Between Surface Charging and Plasma Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Jackson, T. L.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the plasma environment within permanently shadowed lunar craters is critical to understanding local processes such as surface charging, electrostatic dust transport, volatile sequestration, and space weathering. In order to investigate the nature of this plasma environment, the first two-dimensional kinetic simulations of solar wind expansion into a lunar crater with a self-consistent plasma-surface interaction have been undertaken. The present results reveal how the plasma expansion into a crater couples with the electrically-charged lunar surface to produce a quasi-steady wake structure. In particular, there is a negative feedback between surface charging and ambipolar wake potential that allows an equilibrium to be achieved, with secondary electron emission strongly moderating the process. A range of secondary electron yields is explored, and two distinct limits are highlighted in which either surface charging or ambipoiar expansion is responsible for determining the overall wake structure.

  7. The Use of Solar Heating and Heat Cured Polymers for Lunar Surface Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul; Curran, Jerry; Back, Reddy

    2008-01-01

    Dust ejecta can affect visibility during a lunar landing, erode nearby coated surfaces and get into mechanical assemblies of in-place infrastructure. Regolith erosion was observed at many of the Apollo landing sites. This problem needs to be addressed at the beginning of the lunar base missions, as the amount of infrastructure susceptible to problems will increase with each landing. Protecting infrastructure from dust and debris is a crucial step in its long term functionality. A proposed way to mitigate these hazards is to build a lunar launch pad. Other areas of a lunar habitat will also need surface stabilization methods to help mitigate dust hazards. Roads would prevent dust from being lifted during movement and dust free zones might be required for certain areas critical to crew safety or to critical science missions. Work at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is investigating methods of stabilizing the lunar regolith including: sintering the regolith into a solid and using heat or UV cured polymers to stabilize the surface. Sintering, a method in which powders are heated until fusing into solids, has been proposed as one way of building a Lunar launch/landing pad. A solar concentrator has been built and used in the field to sinter JSC-1 Lunar stimulant. Polymer palliatives are used by the military to build helicopter landing pads and roads in dusty and sandy areas. Those polymers are dispersed in a solvent (water), making them unsuitable for lunar use. Commercially available, solvent free, polymer powders are being investigated to determine their viability to work in the same way as the solvent borne terrestrial analog. This presentation will describe the ongoing work at KSC in this field. Results from field testing will be presented. Physical testing results, including compression and abrasion, of field and laboratory prepared samples will be presented.

  8. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  9. Autonomous Surface Sample Acquisition for Planetary and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. P.

    2007-08-01

    Surface science sample acquisition is a critical activity within any planetary and lunar exploration mission, and our research is focused upon the design, implementation, experimentation and demonstration of an onboard autonomous surface sample acquisition capability for a rover equipped with a robotic arm upon which are mounted appropriate science instruments. Images captured by a rover stereo camera system can be processed using shape from stereo methods and a digital elevation model (DEM) generated. We have developed a terrain feature identification algorithm that can determine autonomously from DEM data suitable regions for instrument placement and/or surface sample acquisition. Once identified, surface normal data can be generated autonomously which are then used to calculate an arm trajectory for instrument placement and sample acquisition. Once an instrument placement and sample acquisition trajectory has been calculated, a collision detection algorithm is required to ensure the safe operation of the arm during sample acquisition.We have developed a novel adaptive 'bounding spheres' approach to this problem. Once potential science targets have been identified, and these are within the reach of the arm and will not cause any undesired collision, then the 'cost' of executing the sample acquisition activity is required. Such information which includes power expenditure and duration can be used to select the 'best' target from a set of potential targets. We have developed a science sample acquisition resource requirements calculation that utilises differential inverse kinematics methods to yield a high fidelity result, thus improving upon simple 1st order approximations. To test our algorithms a new Planetary Analogue Terrain (PAT) Laboratory has been created that has a terrain region composed of Mars Soil Simulant-D from DLR Germany, and rocks that have been fully characterised in the laboratory. These have been donated by the UK Planetary Analogue Field Study

  10. Science Operations on the Lunar Surface - Understanding the Past, Testing in the Present, Considering the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The scientific success of any future human lunar exploration mission will be strongly dependent on design of both the systems and operations practices that underpin crew operations on the lunar surface. Inept surface mission preparation and design will either ensure poor science return, or will make achieving quality science operation unacceptably difficult for the crew and the mission operations and science teams. In particular, ensuring a robust system for managing real-time science information flow during surface operations, and ensuring the crews receive extensive field training in geological sciences, are as critical to mission success as reliable spacecraft and a competent operations team.

  11. A Conceptual Study for the Autonomous Direct Forming of Lunar Regolith into Flexlock (Trademark) Geomats for Lunar Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Luke B.; Hintze, Paul; OConnor, Gregory W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe the conceptual method of an autonomously operable Direct Forming machine that would consume regolith or regolith slag to mold intimately, interlinked elements in a continuous process. The resulting product, one to three meter wide geomats, would be deployed over commonly traversed areas to isolate the astronauts and equipment from underlying dust. The porous geotextile would provide areas for dust settling, thereby mitigating dust impingement on astronaut suits or surface structures. Because of their self-supporting yet flexible structure, these geomats could be assembled into shields and buttresses to protect lunar habitants from radiation, forming a "flexoskeleton" from in situ materials.

  12. Effect of Space Radiation Processing on Lunar Soil Surface Chemistry: X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, C.; Loeffler, M.J.; Baragiola, R.; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current understanding of the chemistry and microstructure of the surfaces of lunar soil grains is dominated by a reference frame derived mainly from electron microscopy observations [e.g. 1,2]. These studies have shown that the outermost 10-100 nm of grain surfaces in mature lunar soil finest fractions have been modified by the combined effects of solar wind exposure, surface deposition of vapors and accretion of impact melt products [1,2]. These processes produce surface-correlated nanophase Feo, host grain amorphization, formation of surface patinas and other complex changes [1,2]. What is less well understood is how these changes are reflected directly at the surface, defined as the outermost 1-5 atomic monolayers, a region not easily chemically characterized by TEM. We are currently employing X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) to study the surface chemistry of lunar soil samples that have been previously studied by TEM. This work includes modification of the grain surfaces by in situ irradiation with ions at solar wind energies to better understand how irradiated surfaces in lunar grains change their chemistry once exposed to ambient conditions on earth.

  13. Lunar Meteorites and Implications for Compositional Remote Sensing of the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    Lunar meteorites (LMs) are rocks found on Earth that were ejected from the Moon by impact of an asteroidal meteoroid. Three factors make the LMs important to remote-sensing studies: (1) Most are breccias composed of regolith or fragmental material; (2) all are rocks that resided (or breccias composed of material that resided) in the upper few meters of the Moon prior to launch and (3) most apparently come from areas distant from the Apollo sites. How Many Lunar Locations? At this writing (June 1999), there are 18 known lunar meteorite specimens. When unambiguous cases of terrestrial pairing are considered, the number of actual LMs reduces to 13. (Terrestrial pairing is when a single piece of lunar rock entered Earth's atmosphere, but multiple fragments were produced because the meteoroid broke apart on entry, upon hitting the ground or ice, or while being transported through the ice.) We have no reason to believe that LMs preferentially derive from any specific region(s) of the Moon; i.e., we believe that they are samples from random locations. However, we do not know how many different locations are represented by the LMs; mathematically, it could be as few as 1 or as many as 13. The actual maximum is al. estimate a mare to highland ratio of 54:46 for QUE 94281 and 62:38 for Y 793274; this difference is well within the range observed for soils collected only centimeters apart (in cores) at interface site like Apollo 15 and 17 [11]. Although the two meteorites were found on opposite sides of Antarctica, they are probably launch-paired. The strongest evidence is that the pyroclastic glass spherules that occur in both are of two compositional groups and the two groups are essentially the same in both meteorites. Yamato 791197 is nominally a feldspathic lunar meteorite (below), but among FLMs, it probably contains the highest abundance of clasts and glasses of mare derivation. As a consequence, its composition is at the high-Fe, low-Mg end of the range for FLMs and is

  14. Lunar Surface Electric Potential Changes Associated with Traversals through the Earth's Foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Hills, H. Kent; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Delory, Gregory T.; Espley, Jared; Farrell, William M.; Freeman, John W.; Vondrak, Richard

    2011-01-01

    We report an analysis of one year of Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) Total Ion Detector (TID) resonance events observed between January 1972 and January 1973. The study includes only those events during which upstream solar wind conditions were readily available. The analysis shows that these events are associated with lunar traversals through the dawn flank of the terrestrial magnetospheric bow shock. We propose that the events result from an increase in lunar surface electric potential effected by secondary electron emission due to primary electrons in the Earth's foreshock region (although primary ions may play a role as well). This work establishes (1) the lunar surface potential changes as the Moon moves through the terrestrial bow shock, (2) the lunar surface achieves potentials in the upstream foreshock region that differ from those in the downstream magnetosheath region, (3) these differences can be explained by the presence of energetic electron beams in the upstream foreshock region and (4) if this explanation is correct, the location of the Moon with respect to the terrestrial bow shock influences lunar surface potential.

  15. Structural Definition and Mass Estimation of Lunar Surface Habitats for the Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 (LAT-2) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Wu, K, Chauncey; Smith, Russell W.

    2008-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team Phase 2 study defined and assessed architecture options for a Lunar Outpost at the Moon's South Pole. The Habitation Focus Element Team was responsible for developing concepts for all of the Habitats and pressurized logistics modules particular to each of the architectures, and defined the shapes, volumes and internal layouts considering human factors, surface operations and safety requirements, as well as Lander mass and volume constraints. The Structures Subsystem Team developed structural concepts, sizing estimates and mass estimates for the primary Habitat structure. In these studies, the primary structure was decomposed into a more detailed list of components to be sized to gain greater insight into concept mass contributors. Structural mass estimates were developed that captured the effect of major design parameters such as internal pressure load. Analytical and empirical equations were developed for each structural component identified. Over 20 different hard-shell, hybrid expandable and inflatable soft-shell Habitat and pressurized logistics module concepts were sized and compared to assess structural performance and efficiency during the study. Habitats were developed in three categories; Mini Habs that are removed from the Lander and placed on the Lunar surface, Monolithic habitats that remain on the Lander, and Habitats that are part of the Mobile Lander system. Each category of Habitat resulted in structural concepts with advantages and disadvantages. The same modular shell components could be used for the Mini Hab concept, maximizing commonality and minimizing development costs. Larger Habitats had higher volumetric mass efficiency and floor area than smaller Habitats (whose mass was dominated by fixed items such as domes and frames). Hybrid and pure expandable Habitat structures were very mass-efficient, but the structures technology is less mature, and the ability to efficiently package and deploy internal subsystems

  16. Lunar and planetary surface conditions advances in space science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Weil, Nicholas A

    1965-01-01

    Lunar and Planetary Surface Conditions considers the inferential knowledge concerning the surfaces of the Moon and the planetary companions in the Solar System. The information presented in this four-chapter book is based on remote observations and measurements from the vantage point of Earth and on the results obtained from accelerated space program of the United States and U.S.S.R. Chapter 1 presents the prevalent hypotheses on the origin and age of the Solar System, followed by a brief description of the methods and feasibility of information acquisition concerning lunar and planetary data,

  17. A Basic LEGO Reactor Design for the Provision of Lunar Surface Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Darrell Bess

    2008-06-01

    A final design has been established for a basic Lunar Evolutionary Growth-Optimized (LEGO) Reactor using current and near-term technologies. The LEGO Reactor is a modular, fast-fission, heatpipe-cooled, clustered-reactor system for lunar-surface power generation. The reactor is divided into subcritical units that can be safely launched with lunar shipments from Earth, and then emplaced directly into holes drilled into the lunar regolith to form a critical reactor assembly. The regolith would not just provide radiation shielding, but serve as neutron-reflector material as well. The reactor subunits are to be manufactured using proven and tested materials for use in radiation environments, such as uranium-dioxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and structural support, and liquid-sodium heatpipes. The LEGO Reactor system promotes reliability, safety, and ease of manufacture and testing at the cost of an increase in launch mass per overall rated power level and a reduction in neutron economy when compared to a single-reactor system. A single unshielded LEGO Reactor subunit has an estimated mass of approximately 448 kg and provides approximately 5 kWe. The overall envelope for a single subunit with fully extended radiator panels has a height of 8.77 m and a diameter of 0.50 m. Six subunits could provide sufficient power generation throughout the initial stages of establishing a lunar outpost. Portions of the reactor may be neutronically decoupled to allow for reduced power production during unmanned periods of base operations. During later stages of lunar-base development, additional subunits may be emplaced and coupled into the existing LEGO Reactor network, subject to lunar base power demand. Improvements in reactor control methods, fuel form and matrix, shielding, as well as power conversion and heat rejection techniques can help generate an even more competitive LEGO Reactor design. Further modifications in the design could provide power generative opportunities for

  18. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  19. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  20. Simulation of Ultra-Long Wavelength interferometer in the Earth orbit and on the lunar surface

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Mo; Yan, Yihua

    2014-01-01

    We present simulations for interferometer arrays in Earth orbit and on the lunar surface to guide the design and optimization of space-based Ultra-Long Wavelength missions, such as those of China's Chang'E program. We choose parameters and present simulations using simulated data to identify inter-dependencies and constraints on science and engineering parameters. A regolith model is created for the lunar surface array simulation, the results show that the lunar regolith will have an undesirable effect on the observation. We estimate data transmission requirement, calculate sensitivities for both cases, and discuss the trade-off between brightness temperature sensitivity and angular resolution for the Earth orbit array case.

  1. Space Weathering Effects in Lunar Soils: The Roles of Surface Exposure Time and Bulk Chemical Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouliang; Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering effects on lunar soil grains result from both radiation-damaged and deposited layers on grain surfaces. Typically, solar wind irradiation forms an amorphous layer on regolith silicate grains, and induces the formation of surficial metallic Fe in Fe-bearing minerals [1,2]. Impacts into the lunar regolith generate high temperature melts and vapor. The vapor component is largely deposited on the surfaces of lunar soil grains [3] as is a fraction of the melt [4, this work]. Both the vapor-deposits and the deposited melt typically contain nanophase Fe metal particles (npFe0) as abundant inclusions. The development of these rims and the abundance of the npFe0 in lunar regolith, and thus the optical properties, vary with the soil mineralogy and the length of time the soil grains have been exposed to space weathering effects [5]. In this study, we used the density of solar flare particle tracks in soil grains to estimate exposure times for individual grains and then perform nanometer-scale characterization of the rims using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The work involved study of lunar soil samples with different mineralogy (mare vs. highland) and different exposure times (mature vs. immature).

  2. Low-Latency Lunar Surface Telerobotics from Earth-Moon Libration Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Daniel; Thronson, Harley

    2011-01-01

    Concepts for a long-duration habitat at Earth-Moon LI or L2 have been advanced for a number of purposes. We propose here that such a facility could also have an important role for low-latency telerobotic control of lunar surface equipment, both for lunar science and development. With distances of about 60,000 km from the lunar surface, such sites offer light-time limited two-way control latencies of order 400 ms, making telerobotic control for those sites close to real time as perceived by a human operator. We point out that even for transcontinental teleoperated surgical procedures, which require operational precision and highly dexterous manipulation, control latencies of this order are considered adequate. Terrestrial telerobots that are used routinely for mining and manufacturing also involve control latencies of order several hundred milliseconds. For this reason, an Earth-Moon LI or L2 control node could build on the technology and experience base of commercially proven terrestrial ventures. A lunar libration-point telerobotic node could demonstrate exploration strategies that would eventually be used on Mars, and many other less hospitable destinations in the solar system. Libration-point telepresence for the Moon contrasts with lunar telerobotic control from the Earth, for which two-way control latencies are at least six times longer. For control latencies that long, telerobotic control efforts are of the "move-and-wait" variety, which is cognitively inferior to near real-time control.

  3. SiGe Based Low Temperature Electronics for Lunar Surface Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Blalock, Benjamin; Cressler, John

    2012-01-01

    The temperature at the permanently shadowed regions of the moon's surface is approximately -240 C. Other areas of the lunar surface experience temperatures that vary between 120 C and -180 C during the day and night respectively. To protect against the large temperature variations of the moon surface, traditional electronics used in lunar robotics systems are placed inside a thermally controlled housing which is bulky, consumes power and adds complexity to the integration and test. SiGe Based electronics have the capability to operate over wide temperature range like that of the lunar surface. Deploying low temperature SiGe electronics in a lander platform can minimize the need for the central thermal protection system and enable the development of a new generation of landers and mobility platforms with highly efficient distributed architecture. For the past five years a team consisting of NASA, university and industry researchers has been examining the low temperature and wide temperature characteristic of SiGe based transistors for developing electronics for wide temperature needs of NASA environments such as the Moon, Titan, Mars and Europa. This presentation reports on the status of the development of wide temperature SiGe based electronics for the landers and lunar surface mobility systems.

  4. Science Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) Architecture and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trase, Kathryn K.; Barch, Rachel A.; Chaney, Ryan E.; Coulter, Rachel A.; Gao, Hui; Huynh, David P.; Iaconis, Nicholas A.; MacMillan, Todd S.; Pitner, Gregory M.; Schwab, Devin T.

    2011-01-01

    Considered both a stepping-stone to deep space and a key to unlocking the mysteries of planetary formation, the Moon offers a unique opportunity for scientific study. Robotic precursor missions are being developed to improve technology and enable new approaches to exploration. Robots, lunar landers, and satellites play significant roles in advancing science and technologies, offering close range and in-situ observations. Science and exploration data gathered from these nodes and a lunar science satellite is intended to support future human expeditions and facilitate future utilization of lunar resources. To attain a global view of lunar science, the nodes will be distributed over the lunar surface, including locations on the far side of the Moon. Given that nodes on the lunar far side do not have direct line-of-sight for Earth communications, the planned presence of such nodes creates the need for a lunar communications relay satellite. Since the communications relay capability would only be required for a small portion of the satellite s orbit, it may be possible to include communication relay components on a science spacecraft. Furthermore, an integrated satellite has the potential to reduce lunar surface mission costs. A SCience Hybrid Orbiter and Lunar Relay (SCHOLR) is proposed to accomplish scientific goals while also supporting the communications needs of landers on the far side of the Moon. User needs and design drivers for the system were derived from the anticipated needs of future robotic and lander missions. Based on these drivers and user requirements, accommodations for communications payload aboard a science spacecraft were developed. A team of interns identified and compared possible SCHOLR architectures. The final SCHOLR architecture was analyzed in terms of orbiter lifetime, lunar surface coverage, size, mass, power, and communications data rates. This paper presents the driving requirements, operational concept, and architecture views for SCHOLR

  5. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  6. Metallographic study of metallic fragment of lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mints, R. I.; Petukhova, T. M.; Ivanov, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    A high precision investigation of a metallic fragment from the lunar material returned by the Soviet Luna 16 automatic station revealed three characteristic temperature intervals with different kinetics of solid solution decomposition. The following were found in the structure of the iron-nickel-cobalt alloy: (1) delta-phase and alpha-ferrite of diffusional, displacement origin in the grain boundary and acicular forms; and (2) martensite of isothermal and athermal nature, acicular, lamellar, massive, and dendritic. The diversity of the shapes of structural constituents is associated with the effect on their formation of elastic distortions and various mechanisms of deformation relaxation processes.

  7. Remote control and navigation tests for application to long-range lunar surface exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, W. C.; White, P. R.; Vinz, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    Tests conducted with a vehicle system built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to investigate some of the unknown factors associated with remote controlled teleoperated vehicles on the lunar surface are described. Test data are summarized and conclusions are drawn from these data which indicate that futher testing will be required.

  8. Modeling the Influence of Small-Scale Surface Roughness on the Lunar Exosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prem, Parvathy; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.; Trafton, Laurence M.

    2016-10-01

    The Moon and other virtually airless bodies provide distinctive environments for the transport and sequestration of water and other volatiles delivered to their surfaces by various sources. In this work, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations of water vapor transport on the Moon to investigate the role of small-scale roughness (unresolved by orbital measurements) in the migration and cold-trapping of volatiles. Observations indicate that the roughness of the lunar surface, together with the insulating nature of lunar regolith and the absence of significant exospheric heat flow, can cause large variations in temperature over very small scales. Surface temperature is a critical parameter in determining the residence time of migrating water molecules on the lunar surface, which in turn affects the rate and magnitude of volatile transport to permanently shadowed craters (cold traps) near the lunar poles, as well as exospheric structure and the susceptibility of migrating molecules to photodestruction. Here, we develop a rough surface temperature model suitable for simulations of volatile transport on a global scale. We compare results of Monte Carlo simulations of volatile transport with and without the surface roughness model and find that including small-scale temperature variations and shadowing leads to an increased probability of polar cold-trapping, as well as increased thermal escape, compensated for by decreased photodestruction. Exospheric structure is altered only slightly, primarily at the dawn terminator. We also examine the sensitivity of our results to the temperature of small-scale shadows, and the energetics of water molecule desorption from the lunar regolith (two factors that remain to be definitively constrained by other methods) and find that both these factors affect the rate at which cold trap capture and photodissociation occur, as well as exospheric longevity and density.

  9. Application of the Same Beam Interferometry Measurement in Relative Position Determination on Lunar Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Anyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the principle and observation model of the same beam interferometry measurement, observation equations of differential time delay and time delay rate for targets on lunar surface are proposed. Restriction of appointed height and digital lunar height model is introduced and a Kalman filter with restriction to determine the relative position is put forward. By data simulation, the arithmetic is then validated and evaluated, which could fleetly and accurately determine the relative position between rover and lander. Low precision of the lander's position is required in the calculation.

  10. A Mission Concept Based on the ISECG Human Lunar Surface Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, J. E.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is participating in the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG), working together with 13 other space agencies to advance a long-range human space exploration strategy. The ISECG has developed a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) that reflects the coordinated international dialog and continued preparation for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - beginning with the International Space Station (ISS) and continuing to the Moon, near-Earth asteroids, and Mars [1]. The roadmap demonstrates how initial capabilities can enable a variety of missions in the lunar vicinity, responding to individual and common goals and objectives, while contributing to building partnerships required for sustainable human space exploration that delivers value to the public. The current GER includes three different near-term themes: exploration of a near-Earth asteroid, extended duration crew missions in cis-lunar space, and humans to the lunar surface.

  11. Reference reactor module for NASA's lunar surface fission power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, David I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kapernick, Richard J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dixon, David D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Werner, James [INL; Qualls, Louis [ORNL; Radel, Ross [SNL

    2009-01-01

    Surface fission power systems on the Moon and Mars may provide the first US application of fission reactor technology in space since 1965. The Affordable Fission Surface Power System (AFSPS) study was completed by NASA/DOE to determine the cost of a modest performance, low-technical risk surface power system. The AFSPS concept is now being further developed within the Fission Surface Power (FSP) Project, which is a near-term technology program to demonstrate system-level TRL-6 by 2013. This paper describes the reference FSP reactor module concept, which is designed to provide a net power of 40 kWe for 8 years on the lunar surface; note, the system has been designed with technologies that are fully compatible with a Martian surface application. The reactor concept uses stainless-steel based. UO{sub 2}-fueled, pumped-NaK fission reactor coupled to free-piston Stirling converters. The reactor shielding approach utilizes both in-situ and launched shielding to keep the dose to astronauts much lower than the natural background radiation on the lunar surface. The ultimate goal of this work is to provide a 'workhorse' power system that NASA can utilize in near-term and future Lunar and Martian mission architectures, with the eventual capability to evolve to very high power, low mass systems, for either surface, deep space, and/or orbital missions.

  12. Numerical Investigation of LO2 and LCH4 Storage Tanks on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moder, Jeff; Barsi, Stephen; Kassemi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Currently NASA is developing technologies to enable human exploration of the lunar surface for duration of up to 210 days. While trade studies are still underway, a cryogenic ascent stage using liquid oxygen (LO2) and liquid methane (LCH4) is being considered for the Altair lunar lander. For a representative Altair cryogenic ascent stage, we present a detailed storage analysis of the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks on the lunar surface for durations of up to 210 days. Both the LO2 and LCH4 propellant tanks are assumed to be pressurized with gaseous helium at launch. A two-phase lumped-vapor computational fluid dynamics model has been developed to account for the presence of a noncondensable gas in the ullage. The CFD model is used to simulate the initial pressure response of the propellant tanks while they are subjected to representative heat leak rates on the lunar surface. Once a near stationary state is achieved within the liquid phase, multizone model is used to extrapolate the solution farther in time. For fixed propellant mass and tank size, the long-term pressure response for different helium mass fractions in both the LO2 and LCH4 tanks is examined.

  13. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  14. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  15. Modeling Solar-Wind Heavy-Ions' Potential Sputtering of Lunar KREEP Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghouty, A. F.; Meyer, F. W.; Harris, R. P.; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Recent laboratory data suggest that potential sputtering may be an important weathering mechanism that can affect the composition of both the lunar surface and its tenuous exosphere; its role and implications, however, remain unclear. Using a relatively simple kinetic model, we will demonstrate that solar-wind heavy ions induced sputtering of KREEP surfaces is critical in establishing the timescale of the overall solar-wind sputtering process of the lunar surface. We will also also show that potential sputtering leads to a more pronounced and significant differentiation between depleted and enriched surface elements. We briefly discuss the impacts of enhanced sputtering on the composition of the regolith and the exosphere, as well as of solar-wind sputtering as a source of hydrogen and water on the moon.

  16. Surface vector mapping of magnetic anomalies over the Moon using Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    We have provided preliminary global maps of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly on the surface applying the surface vector mapping (SVM) method. The data used in the present study consist of about 5 million observations of the lunar magnetic field at 10-45 km altitudes by Kaguya and Lunar Prospector. The lunar magnetic anomalies were mapped at 0.2° equi-distance points on the surface by the SVM method, showing the highest intensity of 718 nT in the Crisium antipodal region. Overall features on the SVM maps indicate that elongating magnetic anomalies are likely to be dominant on the Moon except for the young large basins with the impact demagnetization. Remarkable demagnetization features suggested by previous studies are also recognized at Hertzsprung and Kolorev craters on the farside. These features indicate that demagnetized areas extend to about 1-2 radii of the basins/craters. There are well-isolated central magnetic anomalies at four craters: Leibnitz, Aitken, Jules Verne, and Grimaldi craters. Their magnetic poles through the dipole source approximation suggest occurrence of the polar wander prior to 3.3-3.5 Ga. When compared with high-albedo markings at several magnetic anomalies such as the Reiner Gamma anomalies, three-dimensional structures of the magnetic field on/near the surface are well correlated with high-albedo areas. These results indicate that the global SVM maps are useful for the study of the lunar magnetic anomalies in comparison with various geological and geophysical data.

  17. Building Strategic Capabilities for Sustained Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, M.; Hufenbach, B.; Houdou, B.

    2016-11-01

    We discuss a lunar exploration architecture that addresses the strategic objective of providing access to the lunar surface. This access enables the most exciting part of the lunar exploration: building a sustained infrastructure on the lunar surface.

  18. Verification of a thermal simulation tool for moving objects on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Philipp; Reiss, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    The thermal environment of the Moon is a challenge for the design and successful operation of rovers and scientific instruments, especially for dynamic, mobile situations. Examples range from transport and stability of volatile samples in transport devices at the lunar poles to an analysis instrument, to astronauts exploring varied terrain. A dynamic thermal simulation tool for moving objects on the lunar surface was created and its verification for several test cases against Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter DIVINER brightness temperature data is presented here. The Thermal Moon Simulator (TherMoS) allows the prediction of incoming heat fluxes on a mobile object on the lunar surface and subsequent object temperatures. A model for regolith temperatures based on the models presented in [1,2] was set in a MATLAB simulation context. A time-marching numerical finite-difference approach was used to calculate the temperatures for log-distributed regolith depth nodes to a depth of 2m. The lunar interior heat flux was set to 0.033 [W ? m-2], based on the early publications of [3]. The incoming heat fluxes are calculated with a ray tracing algorithm. Parallel solar rays and their diffuse reflected components lead to the solar heat flux for each surface element. Additionally each surface element emits hemispherical, diffuse infrared rays that are absorbed by the object as well as other lunar surface elements. The lunar topography is represented in a triangular mesh. The topography is either derived from Kaguya LALT data or generated artificially. In the latter case craters and boulders are placed manually or randomly in a level terrain. This approach is restricted to bowl shaped primary craters with a boulder size and spatial distribution that takes into account the region (mare or highland) and the parent crater diameter [4,5,6]. A thermal boulder model is integrated, based on work performed by [7]. This model also uses a finite-difference numerical approach to compute boulder

  19. A Triboelectric Sensor Array for Electrostatic Studies on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Michael R.; Mackey, Paul J.; Calle, C. I.

    2015-01-01

    The moons electrostatic environment requires careful consideration in the development of future lunar landers. Electrostatically charged dust was well documented during the Apollo missions to cause thermal control, mechanical, and visibility issues. The fine dust particles that make up the surface are electrostatically charged as a result of numerous charging mechanisms. The relatively dry conditions on the moon creates a prime tribocharging environment during surface operations. The photoelectric effect is dominant for lunar day static charging, while plasma electrons are the main contributor for lunar night electrostatic effects. Electrostatic charging is also dependent on solar intensity, Earth-moon relative positions, and cosmic ray flux. This leads to a very complex and dynamic electrostatic environment that must be studied for the success of long term lunar missions.In order to better understand the electrostatic environment of planetary bodies, Kennedy Space Center, in previous collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has developed an electrostatic sensor suite. One of the instruments included in this package is the triboelectric sensor array. It is comprised of strategically selected materials that span the triboelectric series and that also have previous spaceflight history. In this presentation, we discuss detailed testing with the triboelectric sensor array performed at Kennedy Space Center. We will discuss potential benefits and use cases of this low mass, low cost sensor package, both for science and for mission success.

  20. A study of electric power transmission lines for use on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Lloyd B.; Gaustad, Krista L.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical models have been developed to study the operating characteristics of electrical transmission lines for use on the lunar surface. Important design considerations for a transmission line operating on the lunar surface are mass, temperature, and efficiency. Transmission line parameters which impact these considerations include voltage, power loss, and waveform. The electrical and thermal models developed are used to calculate transmission line mass, size, and temperature as a function of voltage, geometry, waveform, location, and efficiency. The analyses include ac and dc for above and below ground operation. Geometries studied include a vacuum-insulated, two-wire transmission line and a solid-dielectric insulated, coaxial transmission line. A brief discussion of design considerations and the models developed is followed by results for parameter studies for both dc and ac transmission lines.

  1. Determining Engineering Properties of the Shallow Lunar Subsurface using Seismic Surface Wave Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeluru, P. M.; Baker, G. S.

    2008-12-01

    The geology of Earth's moon has previously been examined via telescopic observations, orbiting spacecraft readings, lunar sample analysis, and also from some geophysical data. Previous researchers have examined layering of the moon and models exist explaining the velocity variations in the mantle and core. However, no studies (or datasets) currently exist regarding the engineering properties of the shallow (civil engineering works, as they characterize the mechanical behavior of geotechnical materials under various types of loading. Therefore, understanding the physical and engineering properties within the upper 30 m of the lunar subsurface will be critical for lunar exploration if deployment of large structures, large-scale excavation, and/or landing of large spacecraft on the surface is desired. Advances in near-surface geophysical techniques, such as Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW), has greatly increased our ability to map subsurface variations in physical properties. The MASW method involves deployment of multiple seismometers to acquire 1-D or 2-D shear wave velocity profiles that can be directly related to various engineering properties. The advantage of this technique over drilling boreholes or any other geophysical technique is that it is less intensive, non-invasive, more cost- effective, and more robust because strong surface-wave records are almost guaranteed. In addition, data processing and analysis is fairly straightforward, and the MASW method allows for analysis of a large area of interest as compared to drilling boreholes. A new scheme using randomly distributed geophones (likely deployed from a mortar-type device) instead of a conventional linear array will be presented. A random array is necessary for lunar exploration because of the logistical constraints involved in deploying a linear or circular array robotically or by astronaut. Initial results indicate that robust dispersion curves (and thus subsurface models of engineering

  2. Lunar surface dielectric constant,regolith thickness, and ~3He abundance distributions retrieved from the microwave brightness temperatures of CE-1 Lunar Microwave Sounder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Lunar regolith parameters, such as physical temperature, thickness and dielectric constant, are important in studying regolith features, distribution of lunar resources and evolution of the Moon. There had been no measurement obtained by lunar-orbit-borne microwave radiometer applied to evaluate the properties of lunar regolith before CE-1 Lunar Microwave Sounder (CELMS) being launched. CEMLS is the first passive microwave radiometer in the world to sound the surface of the Moon. The brightness temperatures (TB) sensed by CELMS include complicated information on the above geophysical parameters. In this paper, algorithms of retrieving dielectric constant, regolith thickness, and 3He content from CELMS brightness temperatures are developed, and the results are compared with those from literature. The results show that the regolith thicknesses are mostly in the range of 4.0-6.0 m, and 43% of them are bigger than 5.0 m. The content of 3He evaluated by retrieved regolith thickness is about 1.03 million tons.

  3. Feasibility Analysis of Liquefying Oxygen Generated from Water Electrolysis Units on Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2009-01-01

    Concepts for liquefying oxygen (O2) generated from water electrolysis subsystems on the Lunar surface were explored. Concepts for O2 liquefaction units capable of generating 1.38 lb/hr (0.63 kg/hr) liquid oxygen (LOX) were developed. Heat and mass balance calculations for the liquefaction concepts were conducted. Stream properties, duties of radiators, heat exchangers and compressors for the selected concepts were calculated and compared.

  4. Impact of Water Recovery from Wastes on the Lunar Surface Mission Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Hogan, John Andrew; Wignarajah, Kanapathipi; Pace, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Future extended lunar surface missions will require extensive recovery of resources to reduce mission costs and enable self-sufficiency. Water is of particular importance due to its potential use for human consumption and hygiene, general cleaning, clothes washing, radiation shielding, cooling for extravehicular activity suits, and oxygen and hydrogen production. Various water sources are inherently present or are generated in lunar surface missions, and subject to recovery. They include: initial water stores, water contained in food, human and other solid wastes, wastewaters and associated brines, ISRU water, and scavenging from residual propellant in landers. This paper presents the results of an analysis of the contribution of water recovery from life support wastes on the overall water balance for lunar surface missions. Water in human wastes, metabolic activity and survival needs are well characterized and dependable figures are available. A detailed life support waste model was developed that summarizes the composition of life support wastes and their water content. Waste processing technologies were reviewed for their potential to recover that water. The recoverable water in waste is a significant contribution to the overall water balance. The value of this contribution is discussed in the context of the other major sources and loses of water. Combined with other analyses these results provide guidance for research and technology development and down-selection.

  5. Operations analysis for lunar surface construction: Results of two office of exploration case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lisa Y.; Boles, Walter; Smith, Alvin

    1991-08-01

    In an environment of intense competition for Federal funding, the U.S. space research community is responsible for developing a feasible, cost-effective approach to establishing a surface base on the moon to fulfill long-term Government objectives. This report presents the results of a construction operations analysis of two lunar scenarios provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Activities necessary to install the lunar base surface elements are defined and scheduled, based on the productivities and availability of the base resources allocated to the projects depicted in each scenario. The only construction project in which the required project milestones were not completed within the nominal timeframe was the initial startup phase of NASA's FY89 Lunar Evolution Case Study (LECS), primarily because this scenario did not include any Earth-based telerobotic site preparation before the arrival of the first crew. The other scenario analyzed. Reference Mission A from NASA's 90-Day Study of the Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, did use telerobotic site preparation before the manned phase of the base construction. Details of the analysis for LECS are provided, including spreadsheets indicating quantities of work and Gantt charts depicting the general schedule for the work. This level of detail is not presented for the scenario based on the 90-Day Study because many of the projects include the same (or similar) surface elements and facilities.

  6. Smart Multifunction Antenna for Lunar/Planetary Surface Network Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is planning a series of human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and later Mars. According to NASA SBIR topic O1.10, surface networks are needed for these...

  7. Dependence of Lunar Surface Charging on Solar Wind Plasma Conditions and Solar Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, T. J.; Farrell, W. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Burchill, J. K.; Collier, M. R.; Zimmerman, M. I.; Vondrak, R. R.; Delory, G. T.; Pfaff, R. F.

    2014-01-01

    The surface of the Moon is electrically charged by exposure to solar radiation on its dayside, as well as by the continuous flux of charged particles from the various plasma environments that surround it. An electric potential develops between the lunar surface and ambient plasma, which manifests itself in a near-surface plasma sheath with a scale height of order the Debye length. This study investigates surface charging on the lunar dayside and near-terminator regions in the solar wind, for which the dominant current sources are usually from the pohotoemission of electrons, J(sub p), and the collection of plasma electrons J(sub e) and ions J(sub i). These currents are dependent on the following six parameters: plasma concentration n(sub 0), electron temperature T(sub e), ion temperature T(sub i), bulk flow velocity V, photoemission current at normal incidence J(sub P0), and photo electron temperature T(sub p). Using a numerical model, derived from a set of eleven basic assumptions, the influence of these six parameters on surface charging - characterized by the equilibrium surface potential, Debye length, and surface electric field - is investigated as a function of solar zenith angle. Overall, T(sub e) is the most important parameter, especially near the terminator, while J(sub P0) and T(sub p) dominate over most of the dayside.

  8. Solar wind reflection from the lunar surface: The view from far and near

    CERN Document Server

    Saul, L; Vorburger, A; M., D F Rodríguez; Fuselier, S A; McComas, D J; Möbius, E; Barabash, S; Funsten, Herb; Janzen, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Moon appears bright in the sky as a source of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs). These ENAs have recently been imaged over a broad energy range both from near the lunar surface, by India's Chandrayaan-1 mission (CH-1), and from a much more distant Earth orbit by NASA's Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) satellite. Both sets of observations have indicated that a relatively large fraction of the solar wind is reflected from the Moon as energetic neutral hydrogen. CH-1's angular resolution over different viewing angles of the lunar surface has enabled measurement of the emission as a function of angle. IBEX in contrast views not just a swath but a whole quadrant of the Moon as effectively a single pixel, as it subtends even at the closest approach no more than a few degrees on the sky. Here we use the scattering function measured by CH-1 to model global lunar ENA emission and combine these with IBEX observations. The deduced global reflection is modestly larger (by a factor of 1.25) when the angular scatteri...

  9. Radar studies of the planets. [radar measurements of lunar surface, Mars, Mercury, and Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, R. P.; Pettengill, G. H.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Sebring, P. B. (Editor); Shapiro, I. I.

    1974-01-01

    The radar measurements phase of the lunar studies involving reflectivity and topographic mapping of the visible lunar surface was ended in December 1972, but studies of the data and production of maps have continued. This work was supported by Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston. Topographic mapping of the equatorial regions of Mars has been carried out during the period of each opposition since that of 1967. The method comprised extended precise traveling time measurements to a small area centered on the subradar point. As measurements continued, planetary motions caused this point to sweep out extensive areas in both latitude and longitude permitting the development of a fairly extensive topographical map in the equatorial region. Radar observations of Mercury and Venus have also been made over the past few years. Refinements of planetary motions, reflectivity maps and determinations of rotation rates have resulted.

  10. Kaguya observations of the lunar wake in the terrestrial foreshock: Surface potential change by bow-shock reflected ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Masaki N.; Harada, Yuki; Saito, Yoshifumi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Matsushima, Masaki; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi

    2017-09-01

    There forms a tenuous region called the wake behind the Moon in the solar wind, and plasma entry/refilling into the wake is a fundamental problem of the lunar plasma science. High-energy ions and electrons in the foreshock of the Earth's magnetosphere were detected at the lunar surface in the Apollo era, but their effects on the lunar night-side environment have never been studied. Here we show the first observation of bow-shock reflected protons by Kaguya (SELENE) spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, confirming that solar wind plasma reflected at the terrestrial bow shock can easily access the deepest lunar wake when the Moon stays in the foreshock (We name this mechanism 'type-3 entry'). In a continuous type-3 event, low-energy electron beams from the lunar night-side surface are not obvious even though the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the lunar surface. On the other hand, in an intermittent type-3 entry event, the kinetic energy of upward-going field-aligned electron beams decreases from ∼ 80 eV to ∼ 20 eV or electron beams disappear as the bow-shock reflected ions come accompanied by enhanced downward electrons. According to theoretical treatment based on electric current balance at the lunar surface including secondary electron emission by incident electron and ion impact, we deduce that incident ions would be accompanied by a few to several times higher flux of an incident electron flux, which well fits observed downward fluxes. We conclude that impact by the bow-shock reflected ions and electrons raises the electrostatic potential of the lunar night-side surface.

  11. A MATLAB based Distributed Real-time Simulation of Lander-Orbiter-Earth Communication for Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Diptyajit; Angeloski, Aleksandar; Ziah, Haseeb; Buchholz, Hilmar; Landsman, Andre; Gupta, Amitava; Mitra, Tiyasa

    Lunar explorations often involve use of a lunar lander , a rover [1],[2] and an orbiter which rotates around the moon with a fixed radius. The orbiters are usually lunar satellites orbiting along a polar orbit to ensure visibility with respect to the rover and the Earth Station although with varying latency. Communication in such deep space missions is usually done using a specialized protocol like Proximity-1[3]. MATLAB simulation of Proximity-1 have been attempted by some contemporary researchers[4] to simulate all features like transmission control, delay etc. In this paper it is attempted to simulate, in real time, the communication between a tracking station on earth (earth station), a lunar orbiter and a lunar rover using concepts of Distributed Real-time Simulation(DRTS).The objective of the simulation is to simulate, in real-time, the time varying communication delays associated with the communicating elements with a facility to integrate specific simulation modules to study different aspects e.g. response due to a specific control command from the earth station to be executed by the rover. The hardware platform comprises four single board computers operating as stand-alone real time systems (developed by MATLAB xPC target and inter-networked using UDP-IP protocol). A time triggered DRTS approach is adopted. The earth station, the orbiter and the rover are programmed as three standalone real-time processes representing the communicating elements in the system. Communication from one communicating element to another constitutes an event which passes a state message from one element to another, augmenting the state of the latter. These events are handled by an event scheduler which is the fourth real-time process. The event scheduler simulates the delay in space communication taking into consideration the distance between the communicating elements. A unique time synchronization algorithm is developed which takes into account the large latencies in space

  12. Phase-ratio technique as applied to the assessment of lunar surface roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydash, Vadym; Videen, Gorden; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    Regoliths of atmosphereless celestial bodies demonstrate prominent light backscattering that is common for particulate surfaces. This occurs over a wide range of phase angles and can be seen in the phase function [1]. The slope of the function may characterize the complexity of planetary surface structure. Imagery of such a parameter suggests that information can be obtained about the surface, like variations of unresolved surface roughness and microtopography [2]. Phase-ratio imagery allows one to characterize the phase function slope. This imagery requires the ratio of two co-registered images acquired at different phase angles. One important advantage of the procedure is that the inherent albedo variations of the surface are suppressed, and, therefore, the resulting image is sensitive to the surface structure variation [2,3]. The phase-ratio image characterizes surface roughness variation at spatial scales on the order of the incident wavelengths to that of the image resolution. Applying the phase-ratio technique to ground-based telescope data has allowed us to find new lunar surface formations in the southern part of Oceanus Procellarum. These are suggested to be weak swirls [4]. We also combined the phase-ratio technique with the space-derived photometry data acquired from the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter with high spatial resolution. Thus we exploited the method to analyze the sites of Apollo landings and Soviet sample-return missions. Phase-ratio imagery has revealed anomalies of the phase-curve slope indicating a smoothing of the surface microstructure at the sites caused by dust uplifted by the engine jets of the descent and ascent modules [5,6]. Analysis of phase-ratios helps to understand how the regolith properties have been affected by robotic and human activity on the Moon [7,8]. We have demonstrated the use of the method to search for fresh natural disturbances of surface structure, e.g., to detect areas of fresh slumps, accumulated material on

  13. Studies related to the surfaces of the moon and planets. [a discussion of vapor deposition and glasses of lunar composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, B.

    1974-01-01

    A variety of glasses of lunar composition were prepared with different amounts of Fe and Ti under both reducing and oxidizing conditions, and also by sputter-deposition and thermal evaporation and condensation. These materials were analyzed by wet chemical, electron microprobe, ESR, Mossbauer and magnetic methods. The effects of darkening processes on surface soils of airless bodies are discussed along with the effects of vapor phase deposition processes on the optical, chemical, and magnetic properties of the lunar regolith.

  14. Remote visual detection of impacts on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melosh, H. Jay; Artemjeva, N. A.; Golub, A. P.; Nemchinov, I. V.; Shuvalov, V. V.; Trubetskaya, I. A.

    1993-01-01

    We propose a novel method of remotely observing impacts on the airless Moon that may extend the present data base on meteoroids down to 1 m in diameter. Meteorites or comets of radius approximately 1-100 m are burnt away or dispersed in the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus. However, when such objects strike the Moon they deposit their energy in a small initial volume, forming a plasma plume whose visible and infrared radiation may be visible from the Earth. We consider impacts of model SiO2 projectiles on the surface of an SiO2 model Moon.

  15. An ion analyzer for the lunar surface with E-parallel-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, A.; Robertson, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel instrument concept to measure the energy and mass spectra of ions incident on the lunar surface, based on the E-parallel-B or Thomson-parabola device used extensively as a diagnostic in the plasma fusion community. The Apollo-era Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) was the first instrument package to perform in-situ measurements of ions incident on the lunar surface. The ions can originate from a variety of sources, including the solar wind, the Earth's magnetotail, and photoionization of the thin lunar atmosphere. The species and energy distribution of ions arriving at the lunar surface depend in a complicated and poorly-understood fashion on the phase of the lunar day, the position of the Moon with respect to the Earth, and on the local plasma environment. The SIDE instrument used a stepped electrostatic mass analyzer in combination with a stepped crossed-field (Wien) velocity filter to analyze incoming ions. The stepped mode of operation limited both the resolution of the device (6 energy steps, 20 velocity steps, in conjunction with a 20-step dedicated energy analyzer) and the temporal resolution (2.6 min for a full energy-velocity scan). A modern diagnostic tool with significant heritage in the plasma fusion community is the E-parallel-B analyzer. This instrument is capable of analyzing the charge-to-mass ratio and momentum of individual particles. Each ion passing through a region with parallel E and B fields is deflected to a unique location on a 2D target according to its energy and mass. Energy and mass spectra can then be recorded using a 2D sensing technique; for example, a microchannel plate backed by a cross-delay-line (XDL) readout. The E-parallel-B design has the additional advantage of being physically compact and requiring modest field magnitudes, with electric fields on the order of a few kV/m and magnetic fields of tens to hundreds of Gauss, neither of which require exotic construction or heavy components.

  16. A Radio Observatory on the Lunar Surface for Solar studies (ROLSS)

    CERN Document Server

    MacDowall, R J; Bale, S D; Burns, J; Farrell, W M; Gopalswamy, N; Jones, D L; Weiler, K W

    2011-01-01

    By volume, more than 99% of the solar system has not been imaged at radio frequencies. Almost all of this space (the solar wind) can be traversed by fast electrons producing radio emissions at frequencies lower than the terrestrial ionospheric cutoff, which prevents observation from the ground. To date, radio astronomy-capable space missions consist of one or a few satellites, typically far from each other, which measure total power from the radio sources, but cannot produce images with useful angular resolution. To produce such images, we require arrays of antennas distributed over many wavelengths (hundreds of meters to kilometers) to permit aperture synthesis imaging. Such arrays could be free-flying arrays of microsatellites or antennas laid out on the lunar surface. In this white paper, we present the lunar option. If such an array were in place by 2020, it would provide context for observations during Solar Probe Plus perihelion passes. Studies of the lunar ionosphere's density and time variability are ...

  17. Developments to Increase the Performance, Operational Versatility and Automation of a Lunar Surface Manipulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.; Roithmayr, Carlos M.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Marting M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe and summarize the results of the development efforts for the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS) with respect to increasing the performance, operational versatility, and automation. Three primary areas of development are covered, including; the expansion of the operational envelope and versatility of the current LSMS test-bed, the design of a second generation LSMS, and the development of automation and remote control capability. The first generation LSMS, which has been designed, built, and tested both in lab and field settings, is shown to have increased range of motion and operational versatility. Features such as fork lift mode, side grappling of payloads, digging and positioning of lunar regolith, and a variety of special end effectors are described. LSMS operational viability depends on bei nagble to reposition its base from an initial position on the lander to a mobility chassis or fixed locations around the lunar outpost. Preliminary concepts are presented for the second generation LSMS design, which will perform this self-offload capability. Incorporating design improvements, the second generation will have longer reach and three times the payload capability, yet it will have approximately equivalent mass to the first generation. Lastly, this paper covers improvements being made to the control system of the LSMS test-bed, which is currently operated using joint velocity control with visual cues. These improvements include joint angle sensors, inverse kinematics, and automated controls.

  18. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  19. Mass Measuring of Lunar Dust Due to CE-3 Lander Landing on Lunar Surface%CE-3着陆器着陆时月尘量的测量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚日剑; 杨生胜; 王先荣; 庄建宏; 王鹢; 王锡来; 邹昕; 陈丽平

    2015-01-01

    月球表面有一层月球尘埃, CE-3着陆器在月表着陆时,月尘容易悬浮,沉积到器件表面,造成性能损害。因此,在CE-3着陆器上搭载有月尘测量仪,月尘测量仪有2个探头,其中一个探头利用太阳能电池片测量着陆器降落时的月尘量,文章主要对测量情况数据进行分析。%The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of lunar dust. When CE-3 lander lands on the lunar surface, a lot of dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported. As a consequence,lunar dust can accumulate on some outside components,such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces,reducing their performance. In order to measure the mass of lunar dust,lunar dust measuring apparatus(LDMA)is carried in CE-3 lander. LDMA has two probes. One is sticky quartz crystal microbalance(SQCM),the other one is solar cell probe(SCP). It is mounted onto lander and used to measure the amount of lunar dust due to CE-3 lander landing on lunar surface. This paper describes some of test data.

  20. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    the condition of the same volume it has less weight than rigid module, but based on durable, high hermetic, low density and elastic modulus advanced materials. 3.The construction habitation has high expansibility and various configurations by using in situ resources as construction materials, but this technique is difficult to implement since it involves deep exploitation of lunar resources. Aiming at different missions' objects and development periods, three different patterns talked above can be chosen as the scheme of lunar base habitation establishments. But each of them is too simple to adapt high-level lunar base during a long period. Thereby, based on the design of rigid module and flexible module, this paper brings out an assumed scheme of an integrated lunar base, and the exterior part of lunar base is built by using construction technique. The design of lunar base follows the principle of crew-robot coordinated exploration, which functions automatically in a long period and short period with attention by astronauts. The technique characteristics are as follows: life period ≥ 8 years; 6 astronauts; single lunar surface mission period ≥ 3 months. The inner main body of integrated manned lunar base consists of habitation module, laboratory module and support module. In order to afford security and comfortableness, the habitation module provides astronauts kitchen, bedroom, gymnasium, toilet, and so on. The laboratory module is used for science experiments, which involves plant cultivation devices and animal cultivation devices of bioregenerative life support system. The communication system, main computer, central control system and backup powers are arranged in the support module. For convenience of outside working and emergency rescue, every module with two exports is connected with other modules or lunar rovers. In order to solve the problems of waste treatment, atmosphere/water regeneration and food supply, this paper designed a bioregenerative life

  1. Multi-rover navigation on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowski, Borys; Banaszkiewicz, Marek

    2008-07-01

    The paper presents a method of determination an accurate position of a target (rover, immobile sensor, astronaut) on surface of the Moon or other celestial body devoid of navigation infrastructure (like Global Positioning System), by using a group of self-calibrating rovers, which serves as mobile reference points. The rovers are equipped with low-precision clocks synchronized by external broadcasting signal, to measure the moments of receiving radio signals sent by localized target. Based on the registered times, distances between transmitter and receivers installed on beacons are calculated. Each rover determines and corrects its own absolute position and orientation by using odometry navigation and measurements of relative distances and angles to other mobile reference points. Accuracy of navigation has been improved by the use of a calibration algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter, which uses internal encoder readings as inputs and relative measurements of distances and orientations between beacons as feedback information. The key idea in obtaining reliable values of absolute position and orientation of beacons is to first calibrate one of the rovers, using the remaining ones as reference points and then allow the whole group to move together and calibrate all the rovers in-motion. We consider a number of cases, in which basic modeling parameters such as terrain roughness, formation size and shape as well as availability of distance and angle measurements are varied.

  2. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  3. AOTF near-IR spectrometers for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A.; Korablev, O.; Mantsevich, S.; Vyazovetskiy, N.; Fedorova, A.; Evdokimova, N.; Stepanov, A.; Titov, A.; Kalinnikov, Y.; Kuzmin, R.; Kiselev, A.; Bazilevsky, A.; Bondarenko, A.; Dokuchaev, I.; Moiseev, P.; Victorov, A.; Berezhnoy, A.; Skorov, Y.; Bisikalo, D.; Velikodsky, Y.

    2014-04-01

    The series of the AOTF near-IR spectrometers is developed in Moscow Space Research Institute for study of Lunar and Martian surface composition in the vicinity of a lander or a rover. Lunar Infrared Spectrometer (LIS) is an experiment onboard Luna-Glob (launch in 2017) and Luna- Resurs (launch in 2019) Russian surface missions. It's a pencil-beam spectrometer to be pointed by a robotic arm of the landing module. The instrument's field of view (FOV) of 1° is co-aligned with the FOV(45°) of a stereo TV camera. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars (ISEM) is an experiment onboard ExoMars (launch in 2018) ESARoscosmos rover. It's spectrometer based on LIS with required redesign for ExoMars mission. The ISEM instrument is mounted on the rover's mast coaligned with the FOV (5°) of High Resolution camera (HRC). Spectrometers and are intended for study of the surface composition in the vicinity of the lander and rover. The spectrometers will provide measurements of selected surface areas in the spectral range of 1.15-3.3 μm. The spectral selection is provided by acoustooptic tunable filter (AOTF), which scans the spectral range sequentially. Electrical command of the AOTF allows selecting the spectral sampling, and permits a random access if needed.

  4. Effect of Simulant Type on the Absorptance and Emittance of Dusted Thermal Control Surfaces in a Simulated Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo program the effects of lunar dust on thermal control surfaces was found to be more significant than anticipated, with several systems overheating due to deposition of dust on them. In an effort to reduce risk to future missions, a series of tests has been initiated to characterize the effects of dust on these surfaces, and then to develop technologies to mitigate that risk. Given the variations in albedo across the lunar surface, one variable that may be important is the darkness of the lunar dust, and this study was undertaken to address that concern. Three thermal control surfaces, AZ-93 white paint and AgFEP and AlFEP second surface mirrors were dusted with three different lunar dust simulants in a simulated lunar environment, and their integrated solar absorptance ( ) and thermal emittance ( ) values determined experimentally. The three simulants included JSC-1AF, a darker mare simulant, NU-LHT-1D, a light highlands simulant, and 1:1 mixture of the two. The response of AZ-93 was found to be slightly more pronounced than that of AgFEP. The increased with fractional dust coverage in both types of samples by a factor of 1.7 to 3.3, depending on the type of thermal control surface and the type of dust. The of the AZ-93 decreased by about 10 percent when fully covered by dust, while that of AgFEP increased by about 10 percent. It was found that / varied by more than a factor of two depending on the thermal control surface and the darkness of the dust. Given that the darkest simulant used in this study may be lighter than the darkest dust that could be encountered on the lunar surface, it becomes apparent that the performance degradation of thermal control surfaces due to dust on the Moon will be strongly dependent on the and of the dust in the specific locality

  5. Communications Transceivers for Venus Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Dale A.

    2004-01-01

    The high temperature of the surface of Venus poses many difficulties. Previous Venus landers have only operated for short durations before succumbing to the heat. NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a study on communications for long duration Venus surface missions. I report the findings in this presentation. Current technology allows production of communications transceivers that can operate on the surface of Venus, at temperatures above 450 C and pressures of over 90 atmospheres. While these transceivers would have to be relatively simple, without much of the advanced signal processing often used in modern transceivers, since current and near future integrated circuits cannot operate at such high temperatures, the transceivers will be able to meet the requirements of proposed Venus Surface mission. The communication bands of interest are High Frequency or Very High Frequency (HFNHF) for communication between Venus surface and airborne probes (including surface to surface and air to air), and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) to Microwave bands for communication to orbiters. For HFNHF, transceivers could use existing vacuum tube technology. The packaging of the vacuum tubes may need modification, but the internal operating structure already operates at high temperatures. Using metal vacuum structures instead of glass, allows operation at high pressure. Wide bandgap transistors and diodes may be able to replace some of the thermionic components. VHF communications would be useful for line-of- sight operations, while HF would be useful for short-wave type communications using the Venusian ionosphere. UHF and microwave communications use magnetically focused thermionic devices, such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs), magnetron (M-type) amplifiers, and klystrons for high power amplifiers, and backward wave oscillators (BWOs) and reflex klystrons for oscillators. Permanent magnets are already in use in industry that can operate at 500 C. These magnets could focus electron beam

  6. Beagle to the Moon: An Experiment Package to Measure Polar Ice and Volatiles in Permanently Shadowed Areas or Beneath the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; McKay, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Sims, M. R.; Richter, L.

    2007-01-01

    Near the beginning of the next decade we will see the launch of scientific payloads to the lunar surface to begin laying the foundations for the return to the moon in the Vision for Space Exploration. Shortly thereafter, astronauts will return to the lunar surface and have the ability to place scientific packages on the surface that will provide information about lunar resources and compositions of materials in permanently shadowed regions of the moon (1). One of the important questions which must be answered early in the program is whether there are lunar resources which would facilitate "living off the land" and not require the transport of resources and consumables from Earth (2). The Beagle science package is the ideal payload (3) to use on the lunar surface for determining the nature of hydrogen, water and lunar volatiles found in the polar regions which could support the Vision for Space Exploration

  7. Establishing a Formation of Small Satellites in a Lunar Flower Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Lauren; Schaub, Hanspeter

    2016-12-01

    The success of previous lunar science missions can be expanded upon by using a constellation of satellites to increase the lunar surface coverage. A constellation could also serve as a communications or GPS network for a lunar human base. Small-sats, deployed from a single mothercraft, are proposed to achieve a lunar constellation. The establishment of a single- and multi-petal constellation is investigated where the mothercraft does the primary deployment maneuvers. The constellation lifetime and closed-loop maintenance are addressed once higher order lunar gravity fields and Earth/solar perturbations are included.

  8. The global surface temperatures of the Moon as measured by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.-P.; Paige, D. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Sefton-Nash, E.

    2017-02-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been acquiring solar reflectance and mid-infrared radiance measurements nearly continuously since July of 2009. Diviner is providing the most comprehensive view of how regoliths on airless bodies store and exchange thermal energy with the space environment. Approximately a quarter trillion calibrated radiance measurements of the Moon, acquired over 5.5 years by Diviner, have been compiled into a 0.5° resolution global dataset with a 0.25 h local time resolution. Maps generated with this dataset provide a global perspective of the surface energy balance of the Moon and reveal the complex and extreme nature of the lunar surface thermal environment. Our achievable map resolution, both spatially and temporally, will continue to improve with further data acquisition. Daytime maximum temperatures are sensitive to the albedo of the surface and are ∼387-397 K at the equator, dropping to ∼95 K just before sunrise, though anomalously warm areas characterized by high rock abundances can be > 50 K warmer than the zonal average nighttime temperatures. An asymmetry is observed between the morning and afternoon temperatures due to the thermal inertia of the lunar regolith with the dusk terminator ∼30 K warmer than the dawn terminator at the equator. An increase in albedo with incidence angle is required to explain the observed decrease in temperatures with latitude. At incidence angles exceeding ∼40°, topography and surface roughness influence temperatures resulting in increasing scatter in temperatures and anisothermality between Diviner channels. Nighttime temperatures are sensitive to the thermophysical properties of the regolith. High thermal inertia (TI) materials such as large rocks, remain warmer during the long lunar night and result in anomalously warm nighttime temperatures and anisothermality in the Diviner channels. Anomalous maximum and minimum temperatures are

  9. Global Geochemical Variation on the Lunar Surface: A Three-Element Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, D. R.; Lawrence, D. J.; Vaniman, D.; Feldman, W. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Barraclough, B. L.; Maurice, S.; Lucey, P. G.; Binder, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a method for displaying the relative abundances of three important elements (Th, Fe, and Ti) on the same map projection of the lunar surface. Using Th-, Fe-, and Ti-elemental abundances from orbital geochemical data and assigning each element a primary color, a false-color map of the lunar surface was created. This approach is similar to the ternary diagram approach presented by Davis and Spudis with some important differences, discussed later. For the present maps, Th abundances were measured by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer(GRS).The new LPGRS low-altitude dataset was used in this analysis. Iron and Ti weight percentages were based on Clementine spectral reflectance data smoothed to the LP low altitude footprint. This method of presentation was designed to aid in the location and recognition of three principal lunar compositions: ferroan anorthosite (FAN), mare basalts (MB), and the Mg suite/ KREEP-rich rocks on the lunar surface, with special emphasis on the highlands and specific impact basins. In addition to the recognition of these endmember rock compositions, this method is an attempt to examine the relationship between elemental compositions that do not conform readily to previously accepted or observed endmember rocks in various specific regions of interest, including eastern highlands regions centered on 150 deg longitude, and a northern highlands Th-rich region observed. The LP low-altitude data has full width at half-maximum spatial resolution of about 40 km. The Clementine spectral reflectance datasets were adapted using an equal-area, gaussian smoothing routine to this footprint. In addition, these datasets, reported in weight percent of FeO and of Ti02, were adjusted to Fe and Ti weight percentages. Each dataset was then assigned one of the three primary colors: blue for Th, red for Fe, and green for Ti. For each element, the data range was normalized to represent the ratio of each point to the maximum in the dataset. (To

  10. Approach for Mitigating Pressure Garment Design Risks in a Mobile Lunar Surface Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitchison, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    The stated goals of the 2004 Vision for Space Exploration focus on establishing a human presence throughout the solar system beginning with the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. However, the precise objectives to be accomplished on the lunar surface and the optimal system architecture to achieve those objectives have been a topic of much debate since the inception of the Constellation Program. There are two basic styles of system architectures being traded at the Programmatic level: a traditional large outpost that would focus on techniques for survival off our home planet and a greater depth of exploration within one area, or a mobile approach- akin to a series of nomadic camps- that would allow greater breadth of exploration opportunities. The traditional outpost philosophy is well within the understood pressure garment design space with respect to developing interfaces and operational life cycle models. The mobile outpost, however, combines many unknowns with respect to pressure garment performance and reliability that could dramatically affect the cost and schedule risks associated with the Constellation space suit system. This paper provides an overview of the concepts being traded for a mobile architecture from the operations and hardware implementation perspective, describes the primary risks to the Constellation pressure garment associated with each of the concepts, and summarizes the approach necessary to quantify the pressure garment design risks to enable the Constellation Program to make informed decisions when deciding on an overall lunar surface systems architecture.

  11. PHOTOMETRIC STEREO SHAPE-AND-ALBEDO-FROM-SHADING FOR PIXEL-LEVEL RESOLUTION LUNAR SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. C. Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Shape and Albedo from Shading (SAfS techniques recover pixel-wise surface details based on the relationship between terrain slopes, illumination and imaging geometry, and the energy response (i.e., image intensity captured by the sensing system. Multiple images with different illumination geometries (i.e., photometric stereo can provide better SAfS surface reconstruction due to the increase in observations. Photometric stereo SAfS is suitable for detailed surface reconstruction of the Moon and other extra-terrestrial bodies due to the availability of photometric stereo and the less complex surface reflecting properties (i.e., albedo of the target bodies as compared to the Earth. Considering only one photometric stereo pair (i.e., two images, pixel-variant albedo is still a major obstacle to satisfactory reconstruction and it needs to be regulated by the SAfS algorithm. The illumination directional difference between the two images also becomes an important factor affecting the reconstruction quality. This paper presents a photometric stereo SAfS algorithm for pixel-level resolution lunar surface reconstruction. The algorithm includes a hierarchical optimization architecture for handling pixel-variant albedo and improving performance. With the use of Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera - Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC photometric stereo images, the reconstructed topography (i.e., the DEM is compared with the DEM produced independently by photogrammetric methods. This paper also addresses the effect of illumination directional difference in between one photometric stereo pair on the reconstruction quality of the proposed algorithm by both mathematical and experimental analysis. In this case, LROC NAC images under multiple illumination directions are utilized by the proposed algorithm for experimental comparison. The mathematical derivation suggests an illumination azimuthal difference of 90 degrees between two images is recommended to achieve

  12. On the Search for the Amino Acids on the Lunar Surface as it Relates to Other Extraterrestrial Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Kolb, Vera M.

    2009-01-01

    The early search for the amino acids on the lunar surface fines indicated such a low amount of the amino acids that it was deemed insignifi cant. While the later studies seemed to depart in some ways from the earlier results, they were not pursued. In this paper we critically ev aluate the results from the Apollo missions from the new perspective with considerations of the sensitivity of the instrumentation availabl e at the time. We discuss the possible relevance of the lunar results to the findings of the amino acids on the surfaces of other extraterrestrial bodies, such as Mars.

  13. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  14. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  15. Building an Economical and Sustainable Lunar Infrastructure to Enable Lunar Industrialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Allison F.; Turner, Mark; Rasky, Daniel; Loucks, Mike; Carrico, John; Policastri, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    A new concept study was initiated to examine the architecture needed to gradually develop an economical, evolvable and sustainable lunar infrastructure using a public/private partnerships approach. This approach would establish partnership agreements between NASA and industry teams to develop a lunar infrastructure system that would be mutually beneficial. This approach would also require NASA and its industry partners to share costs in the development phase and then transfer operation of these infrastructure services back to its industry owners in the execution phase. These infrastructure services may include but are not limited to the following: lunar cargo transportation, power stations, communication towers and satellites, autonomous rover operations, landing pads and resource extraction operations. The public/private partnerships approach used in this study leveraged best practices from NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program which introduced an innovative and economical approach for partnering with industry to develop commercial cargo services to the International Space Station. This program was planned together with the ISS Commercial Resupply Services (CRS) contracts which was responsible for initiating commercial cargo delivery services to the ISS for the first time. The public/private partnerships approach undertaken in the COTS program proved to be very successful in dramatically reducing development costs for these ISS cargo delivery services as well as substantially reducing operational costs. To continue on this successful path towards installing economical infrastructure services for LEO and beyond, this new study, named Lunar COTS (Commercial Operations and Transport Services), was conducted to examine extending the NASA COTS model to cis-lunar space and the lunar surface. The goals of the Lunar COTS concept are to: 1) develop and demonstrate affordable and commercial cis-lunar and surface capabilities, such as lunar cargo

  16. Hybrid Heat Pipes for Lunar and Martian Surface and High Heat Flux Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ababneh, Mohammed T.; Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Alvarez-Hernandez, Angel R.

    2016-01-01

    Novel hybrid wick heat pipes are developed to operate against gravity on planetary surfaces, operate in space carrying power over long distances and act as thermosyphons on the planetary surface for Lunar and Martian landers and rovers. These hybrid heat pipes will be capable of operating at the higher heat flux requirements expected in NASA's future spacecraft and on the next generation of polar rovers and equatorial landers. In addition, the sintered evaporator wicks mitigate the start-up problems in vertical gravity aided heat pipes because of large number of nucleation sites in wicks which will allow easy boiling initiation. ACT, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, and NASA Johnson Space Center, are working together on the Advanced Passive Thermal experiment (APTx) to test and validate the operation of a hybrid wick VCHP with warm reservoir and HiK"TM" plates in microgravity environment on the ISS.

  17. Simulation of the «COSMONAUT-ROBOT» System Interaction on the Lunar Surface Based on Methods of Machine Vision and Computer Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryuchkov, B. I.; Usov, V. M.; Chertopolokhov, V. A.; Ronzhin, A. L.; Karpov, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface, necessary for the future exploration of the Moon, involves extensive use of robots. One of the factors of safe EVA is a proper interaction between cosmonauts and robots in extreme environments. This requires a simple and natural man-machine interface, e.g. multimodal contactless interface based on recognition of gestures and cosmonaut's poses. When travelling in the "Follow Me" mode (master/slave), a robot uses onboard tools for tracking cosmonaut's position and movements, and on the basis of these data builds its itinerary. The interaction in the system "cosmonaut-robot" on the lunar surface is significantly different from that on the Earth surface. For example, a man, dressed in a space suit, has limited fine motor skills. In addition, EVA is quite tiring for the cosmonauts, and a tired human being less accurately performs movements and often makes mistakes. All this leads to new requirements for the convenient use of the man-machine interface designed for EVA. To improve the reliability and stability of human-robot communication it is necessary to provide options for duplicating commands at the task stages and gesture recognition. New tools and techniques for space missions must be examined at the first stage of works in laboratory conditions, and then in field tests (proof tests at the site of application). The article analyzes the methods of detection and tracking of movements and gesture recognition of the cosmonaut during EVA, which can be used for the design of human-machine interface. A scenario for testing these methods by constructing a virtual environment simulating EVA on the lunar surface is proposed. Simulation involves environment visualization and modeling of the use of the "vision" of the robot to track a moving cosmonaut dressed in a spacesuit.

  18. Design and Testing of a Prototype Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSLRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    This handbook describes a two-semester senior design course sponsored by the NASA Office of Education, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD), and the NASA Space Grant Consortium. The course was developed and implemented by the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department (MAE) at Utah State University. The course final outcome is a packaged senior design course that can be readily incorporated into the instructional curriculum at universities across the country. The course materials adhere to the standards of the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), and is constructed to be relevant to key research areas identified by ESMD. The design project challenged students to apply systems engineering concepts to define research and training requirements for a terrestrial-based lunar landing simulator. This project developed a flying prototype for a Lunar or Planetary Surface Landing Research Vehicle (LPSRV). Per NASA specifications the concept accounts for reduced lunar gravity, and allows the terminal stage of lunar descent to be flown either by remote pilot or autonomously. This free-flying platform was designed to be sufficiently-flexible to allow both sensor evaluation and pilot training. This handbook outlines the course materials, describes the systems engineering processes developed to facilitate design fabrication, integration, and testing. This handbook presents sufficient details of the final design configuration to allow an independent group to reproduce the design. The design evolution and details regarding the verification testing used to characterize the system are presented in a separate project final design report. Details of the experimental apparatus used for system characterization may be found in Appendix F, G, and I of that report. A brief summary of the ground testing and systems verification is also included in Appendix A of this report. Details of the flight tests will be documented in a separate flight test

  19. Power System Mass Analysis for Hydrogen Reduction Oxygen Production on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the lunar regolith requires both thermal and electrical power in roughly similar proportions. This unique power requirement is unlike most applications on the lunar surface. To efficiently meet these requirements, both solar PV array and solar concentrator systems were evaluated. The mass of various types of photovoltaic and concentrator based systems were calculated to determine the type of power system that provided the highest specific power. These were compared over a range of oxygen production rates. Also a hybrid type power system was also considered. This system utilized a photovoltaic array to produce the electrical power and a concentrator to provide the thermal power. For a single source system the three systems with the highest specific power were a flexible concentrator/Stirling engine system, a rigid concentrator/Stirling engine system and a tracking triple junction solar array system. These systems had specific power values of 43, 34, and 33 W/kg, respectively. The hybrid power system provided much higher specific power values then the single source systems. The best hybrid combinations were the triple junction solar array with the flexible concentrator and the rigid concentrator. These systems had a specific power of 81 and 68 W/kg, respectively.

  20. Analysis of Stationary, Photovoltaic-based Surface Power System Designs at the Lunar South Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeh, Joshua E.

    2009-01-01

    Combinations of solar arrays and either batteries or regenerative fuel cells are analyzed for a surface power system module at the lunar south pole. The systems are required to produce 5 kW of net electrical power in sunlight and 2 kW of net electrical power during lunar night periods for a 10-year period between 2020 and 2030. Systems-level models for energy conservation, performance, degradation, and mass are used to compare to various systems. The sensitivities of important and/or uncertain variables including battery specific energy, fuel cell operating voltage, and DC-DC converter efficiency are compared to better understand the system. Switching unit efficiency, battery specific energy, and fuel cell operating voltage appear to be important system-level variables for this system. With reasonably sized solar arrays, the regenerative fuel cell system has significantly lower mass than the battery system based on the requirements and assumptions made herein. The total operational time is estimated at about 10,000 hours in battery discharge/fuel cell mode and about 4,000 and 8,000 hours for the battery charge and electrolyzer modes, respectively. The estimated number of significant depth-of-discharge cycles for either energy storage system is less than 100 for the 10-year period.

  1. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  2. A Versatile Lifting Device for Lunar Surface Payload Handling, Inspection & Regolith Transport Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William; Dorsey, John; Collins, Tim; King, Bruce; Mikulas, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Devices for lifting and transporting payloads and material are critical for efficient Earth-based construction operations. Devices with similar functionality will be needed to support lunar-outpost construction, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation, grading and payload placement. Past studies have proposed that only a few carefully selected devices are required for a lunar outpost. One particular set of operations involves lifting and manipulating payloads in the 100 kg to 3,000 kg range, which are too large or massive to be handled by unassisted astronauts. This paper will review historical devices used for payload handling in space and on earth to derive a set of desirable features for a device that can be used on planetary surfaces. Next, an innovative concept for a lifting device is introduced, which includes many of the desirable features. The versatility of the device is discussed, including its application to lander unloading, servicing, inspection, regolith excavation and site preparation. Approximate rules, which can be used to size the device for specific payload mass and reach requirements, are provided. Finally, details of a test-bed implementation of the innovative concept, which will be used to validate the structural design and develop operational procedures, is provided.

  3. Nature of the Martian surface as inferred from the particle-size distribution of lunar-surface material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of lunar particle size distribution data indicates that the surface material is composed of two populations. One population is caused by comminution from the impact of the larger-sized meteorites, while the other population is caused by the melting of fine material by the impact of smaller-sized meteorites. The results are referred to Mars, and it is shown that the Martian atmosphere would vaporize the smaller incoming meteorites and retard the incoming meteorites of intermediate and large size, causing comminution and stirring of the particulate layer. The combination of comminution and stirring would result in fine material being sorted out by the prevailing circulation of the Martian atmosphere and the material being transported to regions where it could be deposited. As a result, the Martian surface in regions of prevailing upward circulation is probably covered by either a rubble layer or by desert pavement; regions of prevailing downward circulation are probably covered by sand dunes.

  4. A miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer for quantitative in situ chemical composition investigation of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigitte Neuland, Maike; Grimaudo, Valentine; Mezger, Klaus; Moreno-García, Pavel; Riedo, Andreas; Tulej, Marek; Wurz, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The chemical composition of planetary bodies, moons, comets and asteroids is a key to understand their origin and evolution [Wurz,2009]. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic composition of rocks yield information about the formation of the planetary body, its evolution and following processes shaping the planetary surface. From the elemental composition, conclusions about modal mineralogy and petrology can be drawn. Isotope ratios are a sensitive indicator for past events on the planetary body and yield information about origin and transformation of the matter, back to events that occurred in the early solar system. Finally, measurements of radiogenic isotopes make it possible to carry out dating analyses. All these topics, particularly in situ dating analyses, quantitative elemental and highly accurate isotopic composition measurements, are top priority scientific questions for future lunar missions. An instrument for precise measurements of chemical composition will be a key element in scientific payloads of future landers or rovers on lunar surface. We present a miniature laser ablation mass spectrometer (LMS) designed for in situ research in planetary and space science and optimised for measurements of the chemical composition of rocks and soils on a planetary surface. By means of measurements of standard reference materials we demonstrate that LMS is a suitable instrument for in situ measurements of elemental and isotopic composition with high precision and accuracy. Measurements of soil standards are used to confirm known sensitivity coefficients of the instrument and to prove the power of LMS for quantitative elemental analyses [Neuland,2016]. For demonstration of the capability of LMS to measure the chemical composition of extraterrestrial material we use a sample of Allende meteorite [Neuland,2014]. Investigations of layered samples confirm the high spatial resolution in vertical direction of LMS [Grimaudo,2015], which allows in situ studying of past

  5. Lunar laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keaton, P.W.; Duke, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    An international research laboratory can be established on the Moon in the early years of the 21st Century. It can be built using the transportation system now envisioned by NASA, which includes a space station for Earth orbital logistics and orbital transfer vehicles for Earth-Moon transportation. A scientific laboratory on the Moon would permit extended surface and subsurface geological exploration; long-duration experiments defining the lunar environment and its modification by surface activity; new classes of observations in astronomy; space plasma and fundamental physics experiments; and lunar resource development. The discovery of a lunar source for propellants may reduce the cost of constructing large permanent facilities in space and enhance other space programs such as Mars exploration. 29 refs.

  6. MoonRIDERS: NASA and Hawaiis Innovative Lunar Surface Flight Experiment for Landing in Late 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, R. M.; Romo, R.; Mackey, P. J.; Phillips, J. R., III; Cox, R. E.; Hogue, M. D.; Calle, C. I.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, NASA Kennedy Space Center, Hawaii's state aerospace agency PISCES, and two Hawaii high schools Iolani and Kealakehe have come together in a unique collaboration called MoonRIDERS. This strategic partnership will allow Hawaii students to participate directly in sending a science experiment to the surface of the moon. The MoonRIDERS project started in the spring of 2014, with each institution responsible for its own project costs and activities. PISCES, given its legislative direction in advancing planetary surface systems, saw this collaboration as an important opportunity to inspire a young generation and encourage STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) learning. Under the guidance of PISCES and NASA, the students will be involved hands-on from start to finish in the engineering, testing, and validation of a space technology called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS). Dust is a critical issue for space exploration, as evidenced by the Apollo lunar missions and Mars rovers and landers. Dust creates a number of problems for humans and hardware, including inhalation, mechanical interference, wear and tear on spacesuits, inhibition of heat transfer on radiators, and reduced efficiency of solar panels. To address this, the EDS is designed to work on a variety of materials, and functions by generatingelectrodynamic fields to clear away the dust. The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP), a space competition "designed to inspire pioneers to do robotic space transport on a budget," serves as a likely method for the MoonRIDERS to get their project to the moon. The EDS would potentially be flown as a hosted payload on a competitor's lander (still to be chosen). This briefing will provide an overview of the technology, the unique partnership, progress update and testing leading to this flight opportunity.

  7. Lunar Module Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This concept is a cutaway illustration of the Lunar Module (LM) with detailed callouts. The LM was a two part spacecraft. Its lower or descent stage had the landing gear, engines, and fuel needed for the landing. When the LM blasted off the Moon, the descent stage served as the launching pad for its companion ascent stage, which was also home for the two astronauts on the surface of the Moon. The LM was full of gear with which to communicate, navigate, and rendezvous. It also had its own propulsion system, and an engine to lift it off the Moon and send it on a course toward the orbiting Command Module.

  8. SECONDARY EMISSION FROM NON-SPHERICAL DUST GRAINS WITH ROUGH SURFACES: APPLICATION TO LUNAR DUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richterova, I.; Nemecek, Z.; Beranek, M.; Safrankova, J.; Pavlu, J. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-12-20

    Electrons impinging on a target can release secondary electrons and/or they can be scattered out of the target. It is well established that the number of escaping electrons per primary electron depends on the target composition and dimensions, the energy, and incidence angle of the primary electrons, but there are suggestions that the target's shape and surface roughness also influence the secondary emission. We present a further modification of the model of secondary electron emission from dust grains which is applied to non-spherical grains and grains with defined surface roughness. It is shown that the non-spherical grains give rise to a larger secondary electron yield, whereas the surface roughness leads to a decrease in the yield. Moreover, these effects can be distinguished: the shape effect is prominent for high primary energies, whereas the surface roughness predominantly affects the yield at the low-energy range. The calculations use the Lunar Highlands Type NU-LHT-2M simulant as a grain material and the results are compared with previously published laboratory and in situ measurements.

  9. A Tailorable Structural Composite for GCR and Albedo Neutron Protection on the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A tailorable structural composite that will provide protection from the lunar radiation environment, including GCR and albedo neutrons will be developed. This...

  10. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  11. LUNAR AND PLANETARY RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SPECTRA, LUNAR ENVIRONMENTS, MERCURY ( PLANET ), PLANETS , SURFACE PROPERTIES, SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH....MARS( PLANET ), *VENUS( PLANET ), *MOON, *ASTRONOMY, OPTICAL SCANNING, SPECTROSCOPY, OPTICAL ANALYSIS, INFRARED SPECTRA, ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA, VISIBLE

  12. Toxicity of lunar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Linnarsson, Dag; Fubini, Bice; Gerde, Per; Karlsson, Lars L; Loftus, David J; Prisk, G Kim; Staufer, Urs; Tranfield, Erin M; van Westrenen, Wim

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of substantial research efforts, lunar dust properties, and therefore lunar dust toxicity may differ substantially. In this contribution, past and ongoing work on dust toxicity is reviewed, and major knowledge gaps that prevent an accurate assessment of lunar dust toxicity are identified. Finally, a range of studies using ground-based, low-gravity, and in situ measurements is recommended to address the identified knowledge gaps. Because none of the curated lunar samples exist in a pristine state that preserves the surface reactive chemical aspects thought to be present on the lunar surface, studies using this material carry with them considerable uncertainty in terms of fidelity. As a consequence, in situ data on lunar dust...

  13. Multi-scale Characterization and Modeling of Surface Slope Probability Distribution for ~20-km Diameter Lunar Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanti, P.; Robinson, M. S.; Boyd, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Craters ~20-km diameter and above significantly shaped the lunar landscape. The statistical nature of the slope distribution on their walls and floors dominate the overall slope distribution statistics for the lunar surface. Slope statistics are inherently useful for characterizing the current topography of the surface, determining accurate photometric and surface scattering properties, and in defining lunar surface trafficability [1-4]. Earlier experimental studies on the statistical nature of lunar surface slopes were restricted either by resolution limits (Apollo era photogrammetric studies) or by model error considerations (photoclinometric and radar scattering studies) where the true nature of slope probability distribution was not discernible at baselines smaller than a kilometer[2,3,5]. Accordingly, historical modeling of lunar surface slopes probability distributions for applications such as in scattering theory development or rover traversability assessment is more general in nature (use of simple statistical models such as the Gaussian distribution[1,2,5,6]). With the advent of high resolution, high precision topographic models of the Moon[7,8], slopes in lunar craters can now be obtained at baselines as low as 6-meters allowing unprecedented multi-scale (multiple baselines) modeling possibilities for slope probability distributions. Topographic analysis (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) 2-m digital elevation models (DEM)) of ~20-km diameter Copernican lunar craters revealed generally steep slopes on interior walls (30° to 36°, locally exceeding 40°) over 15-meter baselines[9]. In this work, we extend the analysis from a probability distribution modeling point-of-view with NAC DEMs to characterize the slope statistics for the floors and walls for the same ~20-km Copernican lunar craters. The difference in slope standard deviations between the Gaussian approximation and the actual distribution (2-meter sampling) was

  14. Solar Wind Electron Interaction with the Dayside Lunar Surface and Crustal Magnetic Fields: Evidence for Precursor Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, Jasper S.; Poppe, A.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; Horanyi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Electron distributions measured by Lunar Prospector above the dayside lunar surface in the solar wind often have an energy dependent loss cone, inconsistent with adiabatic magnetic reflection. Energy dependent reflection suggests the presence of downward parallel electric fields below the spacecraft, possibly indicating the presence of a standing electrostatic structure. Many electron distributions contain apparent low energy (solar wind electrons, possibly indicating streaming and/or whistler instabilities. The Moon may therefore influence solar wind plasma well upstream from its surface. Magnetic anomaly interactions and/or non-monotonic near surface potentials provide the most likely candidates to produce the observed precursor effects, which may help ensure quasi-neutrality upstream from the Moon.

  15. A new segmentation algorithm for lunar surface terrain based on CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong-Kun; Tian, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Ao-Ao

    2015-09-01

    Terrain classification is one of the critical steps used in lunar geomorphologic analysis and landing site selection. Most of the published works have focused on a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to distinguish different regions of lunar terrain. This paper presents an algorithm that can be applied to lunar CCD images by blocking and clustering according to image features, which can accurately distinguish between lunar highland and lunar mare. The new algorithm, compared with the traditional algorithm, can improve classification accuracy. The new algorithm incorporates two new features and one Tamura texture feature. The new features are generating an enhanced image histogram and modeling the properties of light reflection, which can represent the geological characteristics based on CCD gray level images. These features are applied to identify texture in order to perform image clustering and segmentation by a weighted Euclidean distance to distinguish between lunar mare and lunar highlands. The new algorithm has been tested on Chang'e-1 CCD data and the testing result has been compared with geological data published by the U.S. Geological Survey. The result has shown that the algorithm can effectively distinguish the lunar mare from highlands in CCD images. The overall accuracy of the proposed algorithm is satisfactory, and the Kappa coefficient is 0.802, which is higher than the result of combining the DEM with CCD images.

  16. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt next to deployed U.S. flag on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, is photographed next to the U.S. flag during extravehicular activity (EVA) of NASA's final lunar landing mission in the Apollo series. The photo was taken at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. The highest part of the flag appears to point toward our planet earth in the distant background.

  17. Brightness temperatures of the lunar surface: Calibration and analysis of Clementine long-wave infrared camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Stefanie Lyn

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation presents the calibration and analysis of the Clementine long-wave infrared (LWIR) camera images. The scientific payload on the Clementine spacecraft included a LWIR camera with a single passband centered at a wavelength of 8.75 μm. The Clementine orbit deviated by +/-30° from Sun synchronous, and for two lunar months, dayside nadir-looking images were obtained near local noon. During the systematic mapping phase of the Clementine mission, approximately 220,000 thermal-infrared images of the lunar surface were obtained. I have completed the calibration of the LWIR camera. Here I present the various steps involved in the calibration routine and the associated uncertainty analysis. The LWIR calibration routine can be outlined as follows: convert measured data number values to radiance via a calibration equation; subtract a zero-flux background image from each lunar image; divide by a flatfield frame; identify bad pixels; smooth over only bad pixels; adjust radiances to reflect the absolute calibration; and convert radiances to brightness temperatures via the Planck function. Observed LWIR radiances can be converted to brightness temperatures, which provide information on various physical properties of the lunar surface. I also present here the LWIR global data set. The LWIR data from noontime orbits demonstrate that the Lambertian temperature model of cos1/4 (i) is a fair approximation for nadir-looking temperatures, rather than the cos1/6(i) behavior observed for ground-based measurements of the full Moon. Deviations from the Lambertian model are likely due to surface roughness effects. In an effort to understand the influence of large-scale topography on remote lunar surface measurements, I constructed a model which calculates the correlation between reflectance and temperature for a macroscopically rough surface with varying albedo. In this dissertation, LWIR temperatures are directly compared to Clementine ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) camera 750

  18. Effect of Illumination Angle on the Performance of Dusted Thermal Control Surfaces in a Simulated Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.

    2009-01-01

    JSC-1A lunar simulant has been applied to AZ93 and AgFEP thermal control surfaces on aluminum substrates in a simulated lunar environment. The temperature of these surfaces was monitored as they were heated with a solar simulator using varying angles of incidence and cooled in a 30 K coldbox. Thermal modeling was used to determine the solar absorptivity (a) and infrared emissivity (e) of the thermal control surfaces in both their clean and dusted states. It was found that even a sub-monolayer of dust can significantly raise the a of either type of surface. A full monolayer can increase the a/e ratio by a factor of 3 to 4 over a clean surface. Little angular dependence of the a of pristine thermal control surfaces for both AZ93 and AgFEP was observed, at least until 30 from the surface. The dusted surfaces showed the most angular dependence of a when the incidence angle was in the range of 25 to 35 . Samples with a full monolayer, like those with no dust, showed little angular dependence in a. The e of the dusted thermal control surfaces was within the spread of clean surfaces, with the exception of high dust coverage, where a small increase was observed at shallow angles.

  19. AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF SECONDARY CRATERS AND MAPPING OF PLANETARY SURFACE AGE BASED ON LUNAR ORBITAL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Salih

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ages of planetary surfaces are typically obtained by manually determining the impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD in spacecraft imagery, which is a very intricate and time-consuming procedure. In this work, an image-based crater detection algorithm that relies on a generative template matching technique is applied to establish the CSFD of the floor of the lunar farside crater Tsiolkovsky. The automatic detection threshold value is calibrated based on a 100 km² test area for which the CSFD has been determined by manual crater counting in a previous study. This allows for the construction of an age map of the complete crater floor. It is well known that the CSFD may be affected by secondary craters. Hence, our detection results are refined by applying a secondary candidate detection (SCD algorithm relying on Voronoi tessellation of the spatial crater distribution, which searches for clusters of craters. The detected clusters are assumed to result from the presence of secondary craters, which are then removed from the CSFD. We found it favourable to apply the SCD algorithm separately to each diameter bin of the CSFD histogram. In comparison with the original age map, the refined age map obtained after removal of secondary candidates has a more homogeneous appearance and does not exhibit regions of spuriously high age resulting from contamination by secondary craters.

  20. The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle and surface temperature variability in the northeast Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnell, Stewart M.; Crawford, William R.

    2007-02-01

    The 18.6-year lunar nodal cycle (LNC) is a significant feature of winter (January) air and sea temperatures along the North American west coast over a 400-year period. Yet much of the recent temperature variation can also be explained by wind patterns associated with the PNA teleconnection. At Sitka, Alaska, (57°N) and nearby stations in northern British Columbia, the January PNA index accounts for over 70% of average January air temperatures in lengthy meteorological records. It appears that the LNC signal in January air temperatures in this region is not independent of the PNA, but is a component of it. The Sitka air temperature record, along with SSTs along the British Columbia coast and the PNA index have significant cross-correlations with the LNC that appear at a 2-year lag, LNC leading. The influence of the PNA pattern declines in winter with decreasing latitude but the LNC component does not. It appears as a significant feature of long-term SST variation at Scripps Pier and the California Current System. The LNC also appears over centennial-scales in proxy temperatures along western North America. The linkage of LNC-moderated surface temperatures to processes involving basin-scale teleconnections expands the possibility that the proximate mechanism may be located remotely from its expression in the northeast Pacific. Some of the largest potential sources of a diurnal tidal signal in the atmosphere are located in the western Pacific; the Sea of Okhotsk and the Indonesian archipelago.

  1. Thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis of sectored compact reactor for lunar surface power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriener, T. M. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, M. S. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The liquid NaK-cooled, fast-neutron spectrum, Sectored Compact Reactor (SCoRe-N 5) concept has been developed at the Univ. of New Mexico for lunar surface power applications. It is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel pins in a triangular lattice, and nominally operates at exit and inlet coolant temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. This long-life reactor generates up to 1 MWth continuously for {>=} 20 years. To avoid a single point failure in reactor cooling, the core is divided into 6 sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. This paper performs a 3-D the thermal-hydraulic analysis of SCoRe--N 5 at nominal operation temperatures and a power level of 1 MWth. In addition, the paper investigates the potential of continuing reactor operation at a lower power in the unlikely event that one sector in the core experiences a loss of coolant (LOC). Redesigning the core with a contiguous steel matrix enhances the cooling of the sector experiencing a LOC. Results show that with a core sector experiencing a LOC, SCORE-N 5 could continue operating safely at a reduced power of 166.6 kWth. (authors)

  2. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  3. Automatic Detection of Secondary Craters and Mapping of Planetary Surface Age Based on Lunar Orbital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, A. L.; Lompart, A.; Grumpe, A.; Wöhler, C.; Hiesinger, H.

    2017-07-01

    Ages of planetary surfaces are typically obtained by manually determining the impact crater size-frequency distribution (CSFD) in spacecraft imagery, which is a very intricate and time-consuming procedure. In this work, an image-based crater detection algorithm that relies on a generative template matching technique is applied to establish the CSFD of the floor of the lunar farside crater Tsiolkovsky. The automatic detection threshold value is calibrated based on a 100 km² test area for which the CSFD has been determined by manual crater counting in a previous study. This allows for the construction of an age map of the complete crater floor. It is well known that the CSFD may be affected by secondary craters. Hence, our detection results are refined by applying a secondary candidate detection (SCD) algorithm relying on Voronoi tessellation of the spatial crater distribution, which searches for clusters of craters. The detected clusters are assumed to result from the presence of secondary craters, which are then removed from the CSFD. We found it favourable to apply the SCD algorithm separately to each diameter bin of the CSFD histogram. In comparison with the original age map, the refined age map obtained after removal of secondary candidates has a more homogeneous appearance and does not exhibit regions of spuriously high age resulting from contamination by secondary craters.

  4. Series-Bosch Technology for Oxygen Recovery During Lunar or Martian Surface Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Mansell, J. Matthew; Rabenberg, Ellen; Stanley, Christine M.; Edmunson, Jennifer; Alleman, James E.; Chen, Kevin; Dumez, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Long-duration surface missions to the Moon or Mars will require life support systems that maximize resource recovery to minimize resupply from Earth. To address this need, NASA previously proposed a Series-Bosch (S-Bosch) oxygen recovery system, based on the Bosch process, which can theoretically recover 100% of the oxygen from metabolic carbon dioxide. Bosch processes have the added benefits of the potential to recover oxygen from atmospheric carbon dioxide and the use of regolith materials as catalysts, thereby eliminating the need for catalyst resupply from Earth. In 2012, NASA completed an initial design for an S-Bosch development test stand that incorporates two catalytic reactors in series including a Reverse Water-Gas Shift (RWGS) Reactor and a Carbon Formation Reactor (CFR). In 2013, fabrication of system components, with the exception of a CFR, and assembly of the test stand was initiated. Stand-alone testing of the RWGS reactor was completed to compare performance with design models. Continued testing of Lunar and Martian regolith simulants provided sufficient data to design a CFR intended to utilize these materials as catalysts. Finally, a study was conducted to explore the possibility of producing bricks from spent regolith catalysts. The results of initial demonstration testing of the RWGS reactor, results of continued catalyst performance testing of regolith simulants, and results of brick material properties testing are reported. Additionally, design considerations for a regolith-based CFR are discussed.

  5. The radiation environment near the lunar surface: CRaTER observations and Geant4 simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M D Looper; J E Mazur; J B Blake; H E Spence; N A Schwadron; M J Golightly; A W Case; J C Kasper; L W Townsend

    2013-01-01

      At the start of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission in 2009, its Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation instrument measured the radiation environment near the Moon during the recent...

  6. Parametric Optimization and Prediction Tool for Lunar Surface Systems Excavation Tasks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a software tool for facilitating lunar excavation system trades in support of selecting an optimal architecture. This will...

  7. Advanced Oxygen Evolution Catalyst for Electrolyzer Energy Storage for Lunar Surface Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA lunar missions will require a high efficiency, lightweight, long life, maintenance-free water electrolyzer for energy storage. Anodic oxygen evolution...

  8. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delory, G. T.; Elphic, R. C.; Morgan, T. H.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Hine, B.; Boroson, D.; Salute, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent “Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon” (SCEM) report identify studies of the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment as among the leading priorities for future lunar science missions. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is currently under development to address these goals. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and dynamics, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage instrument payload: the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS), the Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS), and the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). It will also carry the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) as a technology demo. LADEE is an important component in NASA’s portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE’s success will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid development program, utilizing a modular bus design together with the new Minotaur IV+ launch vehicle, and will thus pave the way for cost-effective future lunar missions in a cost-constrained environment. The LADEE spacecraft with various instrument locations.

  9. Passive seismic experiment - A summary of current status. [Apollo-initiated lunar surface station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The data set obtained from the four-station Apollo seismic network including signals from approximately 11,800 events, is surveyed. Some refinement of the lunar model will result, but its gross features remain the same. Attention is given to the question of a small, molten lunar core, the answer to which remains dependent on analysis of signals from a far side impact. Seventy three sources of repeating, deep moonquakes have been identified, thirty nine of which have been accurately located. Concentrated at depths from 800 to 1000 km, the periodicities of these events have led to the hypothesis that they are generated by tidal stresses. Lunar seismic data has also indicated that the meteoroid population is ten times lower than originally determined from earth based observations. Lunar seismic activity is much lower and mountainous masses show no sign of sinking, in contrast to earth, as a result of the lunar crust being four times thicker. While much work remains to be done, significant correlation between terrestrial and lunar observations can be seen.

  10. Lunar Surface Reference Missions: A Description of Human and Robotic Surface Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael B.; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Snook, Kelly

    2003-01-01

    Most medical equipment to the International Space Station (ISS) is manisfested as part of the U.S. or the Russian medical hardware systems. However, certain medical hardware is also available as part of the Human Research Facility. The HRF and the JSC Medical Operations Branch established a Memorandum of Agreement for joint use of certain medical hardware, including the HRF ultrasound system, the only diagnostic imaging device currently manifested to fly on ISS. The outcome of a medical contingency may be changed drastically, or an unnecessary evacuation may be prevented, if clinical decisions are supported by timely and objective diagnostic information. In many higher-probability medical scenarios, diagnostic ultrasound is a first-choice modality or provides significant diagnostic information. Accordingly, the Clinical Care Capability Development Project is evaluating the HRF ultrasound system for its utility in relevant clinical siruations on board ISS. For effective management of these ultrasound-supported ISS medical scenarios, the resulting data should be available for viewing and interpretation on the ground, and bidirectional voice communication should be readily available to allow ground experts (sonographers, physicians) to provide guidance to the Crew Medical Officer. It may also be vitally important to have the capability of real-time guidance via video uplink to the CMO-opertor during an exam to facilitate the diagnosis in a timely fashion.

  11. Geometrical Analysis of AMIE/Smart-1 Images and Applications to Photometric Studies of the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despan, Daniela; Erard, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Josset, J. L.; Beauvivre, S.; Chevrel, S.; Pinet, P.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Foing, B. H.; AMIE Team

    2007-10-01

    AMIE, the Advanced Moon micro-Imager Experiment on board the ESA lunar mission SMART-1, is an imaging system to survey the terrain in visible and near-infrared light. AMIE provides high resolution images obtained using a tele-objective with 5.3° x 5.3° field of view and a sensor of 1024 x 1024 pixels. The output images have resolution 45m/pixel at 500km, and are encoded with 10 bits/pixel. From the 300 Km pericenter altitude, the same field of view corresponds to a spatial resolution about 30 m/pixel. The FOV is shared by various filters, allowing to reconstruct mosaics of the surface in 3 colors, depending on pointing mode. Spot-pointing observations provide photometric sequences that allow to study the surface properties in restricted areas. One of the scientific objectives of the mission is to get high resolution imaging of the Moon surface, e.g. high latitude regions in the southern hemisphere. In order to map the lunar surface with AMIE, systematic analysis and processing is being carried on using the whole data set. Geometrical analysis of AMIE images relies on the SPICE system: image coordinates are computed to get precise projection at the surface, and illumination angles are computed to analyze the photometric sequences. High resolution mosaics were constructed then compared to lower resolution Clementine UV-Vis and NIR images. Spot-pointing sequences are used to constrain the photometric and physical properties of surface materials in areas of interest, based on Hapke's modeling. Optical alignment parameters in the Spice kernels have been refined and provide absolute coordinates in the IAU lunar frame (ULCN). They provide discrepancies with the Clementine basemap, ranging up to some 0.1° in the equatorial regions, as expected (e.g., Cook et al DPS 2002; Arcinal et al. EPSC 2006). A progress report will be presented at the conference.

  12. Comparative CFD analyses of liquid metal cooled reactor for lunar surface power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriener, Timothy M. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, Mohamed S., E-mail: mgenk@unm.edu [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Performed 3-D thermal-hydraulics analyses of a NaK-56 cooled, sector core reactor for lunar surface power. • Investigated effects mesh refinements and choice of two-layer k–ε and SST k–ω models on results. • Choice of turbulence model slightly affects calculated temperatures and velocities. • Estimates of pressure losses require a finer mesh for convergence than temperature and velocities fields. • SST k–ω model provides more details of mixing eddies, but requires more computation time. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of comparative CFD and thermal-hydraulics analyses of the Solid Core–Sectored Compact Reactor (SC-SCoRe) for lunar surface power. This fast-neutron spectrum, liquid NaK-56 cooled reactor is loaded with highly enriched UN fuel. It nominally generates 1.0 MW{sub th} for ∼21 full-power years at NaK-56 inlet and exit temperatures of 850 K and 900 K. The analyses examine the realizable two-layer k–ε and the Shear Stress Transport (SST) k–ω turbulence models, with different numerical mesh refinements, for simulating the performance of the SC-SCoRe core during nominal operation as well as investigate the effect on the computation time and calculated parameters. In addition, the results calculated for a single tri-lobe flow channel are compared to those obtained using the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES), a hybrid LES and RANS turbulence model. The numerical mesh refinement beyond 2 × 10{sup 7} cells in the flow channels and the choice of turbulence model slightly affect the calculated fuel, core structure, and liquid metal temperatures. They more strongly affect the pressure losses and the intensity of flow mixing and the formation of turbulence eddies in the inlet and exit plenums and exit duct. With the same numerical mesh refinements, the total computation time with the k–ω model is 40–120% longer than with the k-ε model, while the calculated operation parameters are almost identical. The flow

  13. Lunar prospector epithermal neutrons from impact craters and landing sites: Implications for surface maturity and hydrogen distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Maurice, S.; Swindle, T.D.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Initial studies of neutron spectrometer data returned by Lunar Prospector concentrated on the discovery of enhanced hydrogen abundances near both lunar poles. However, the nonpolar data exhibit intriguing patterns that appear spatially correlated with surface features such as young impact craters (e.g., Tycho). Such immature crater materials may have low hydrogen contents because of their relative lack of exposure to solar wind-implanted volatiles. We tested this hypothesis by comparing epithermal* neutron counts (i.e., epithermal -0.057 ?? thermal neutrons) for Copernican-age craters classified as relatively young, intermediate, and old (as determined by previous studies of Clementine optical maturity variations). The epithermal* counts of the crater and continuous ejecta regions suggest that the youngest impact materials are relatively devoid of hydrogen in the upper 1 m of regolith. We also show that the mean hydrogen contents measured in Apollo and Luna landing site samples are only moderately well correlated to the epithermal* neutron counts at the landing sites, likely owing to the effects of rare earth elements. These results suggest that further work is required to define better how hydrogen distribution can be revealed by epithermal neutrons in order to understand more fully the nature and sources (e.g., solar wind, meteorite impacts) of volatiles in the lunar regolith.

  14. The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spremo, Stevan; Turner, Mark; Caffrey, Robert T.; Hine, Butler Preston

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) is a Lunar science orbiter mission currently under development to address the goals of the National Research Council decadal surveys and the recent "Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon" (SCEM) [1] report to study the pristine state of the lunar atmosphere and dust environment prior to significant human activities. LADEE will determine the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal the processes that contribute to its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. LADEE employs a high heritage science instrument payload including a neutral mass spectrometer, ultraviolet spectrometer, and dust sensor. In addition to the science payloads, LADEE will fly a laser communications system technology demonstration that could provide a building block for future space communications architectures. LADEE is an important component in NASA's portfolio of near-term lunar missions, addressing objectives that are currently not covered by other U.S. or international efforts, and whose observations must be conducted before large-scale human or robotic activities irrevocably perturb the tenuous and fragile lunar atmosphere. LADEE will also demonstrate the effectiveness of a low-cost, rapid-development program utilizing a modular bus design launched on the new Minotaur V launch vehicle. Once proven, this capability could enable future lunar missions in a highly cost constrained environment. This paper describes the LADEE objectives, mission design, and technical

  15. Lunar Balance and Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Balance control and locomotor patterns were altered in Apollo crewmembers on the lunar surface, owing, presumably, to a combination of sensory-motor adaptation during transit and lunar surface operations, decreased environmental affordances associated with the reduced gravity, and restricted joint mobility as well as altered center-of-gravity caused by the EVA pressure suits. Dr. Paloski will discuss these factors, as well as the potential human and mission impacts of falls and malcoordination during planned lunar sortie and outpost missions. Learning objectives: What are the potential impacts of postural instabilities on the lunar surface? CME question: What factors affect balance control and gait stability on the moon? Answer: Sensory-motor adaptation to the lunar environment, reduced mechanical and visual affordances, and altered biomechanics caused by the EVA suit.

  16. Synergetic use of SAR and Thermal Infrared data to study the physical properties of the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sriram; Das, Anup; Mohan, Shiv; Chakraborty, Manab

    2014-11-01

    The surface layer of the Moon preserves vital evidences of lunar impact and cratering processes due to the absence of any Aeolian and fluvial erosion processes acting on it. By examining these evidences, which are recorded throughout the evolutionary history of the Moon, several basic aspects of lunar science can be understood, and this has direct relevance to the surfaces of other airless bodies within the solar system. In this study, rock abundance data obtained from Thermal Infrared (TIR) observations and radar Circular Polarization Ratio (CPR) data sets obtained from polarimetric SAR observations were correlated at some sample sites on the lunar surface. Preliminary results yielded qualitative and quantitative estimates for surface rock abundances. Except at distal ejecta deposits of young, bright craters a general correlation was observed between the two datasets. Mixed results were observed from the impact melt flows where the situation is complex due to the possible subsurface-volume and volume-subsurface interactions of the radar waves. But the flow features were clearly separated from the interior and ejecta regions of their parent craters in terms of CPR and rock abundances. The extent and distributions of pyroclastic deposits and dark haloed regions could not be distinctly identified at the resolution of datasets utilized. Near Gerasimovich D crater, the Diviner Radiometer has provided the first TIR observations of a newly discovered impact melt flow which was not visible in the optical imagery. This facilitated the first ever quantitative comparisons of the radar CPR and rock abundance values near such a region. Also, significant differences in spatial patterns between the radar and rock concentration data sets were observed, owing to the differences in the sensitivity of the two observations.

  17. Electron- and Photon-stimulated Desorption of Alkali Atoms from Lunar Sample and a Model Mineral Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakshinskiy, B. V.; Madey, T. E.

    2003-01-01

    We report recent results on an investigation of source mechanisms for the origin of alkali atoms in the tenuous planetary atmospheres, with focus on non-thermal processes (photon stimulated desorption (PSD), electron stimulated desorption (ESD), and ion sputtering). Whereas alkaline earth oxides (MgO, CaO) are far more abundant in lunar samples than alkali oxides (Na2O, K2O), the atmosphere of the Moon contains easily measurable concentrations of Na and K, while Ca and Mg are undetected there; traces of Ca have recently been seen in the Moon's atmosphere (10-3 of Na). The experiments have included ESD, PSD and ion sputtering of alkali atoms from model mineral surface (amorphous SiO2) and from a lunar basalt sample obtained from NASA. The comparison is made between ESD and PSD efficiency of monovalent alkalis (Na, K) and divalent alkaline earths (Ba, Ca).The ultrahigh vacuum measurement scheme for ESD and PSD of Na atoms includes a highly sensitive alkali metal detector based on surface ionization, and a time-of-flight technique. For PSD measurements, a mercury arc light source (filtered and chopped) is used. We find that bombardment of the alkali covered surfaces by ultraviolet photons or by low energy electrons (E>4 eV) causes desorption of hot alkali atoms. This results are consistent with the model developed to explain our previous measurements of sodium desorption from a silica surface and from water ice: electron- or photon-induced charge transfer from the substrate to the ionic adsorbate causes formation of a neutral alkali atom in a repulsive configuration, from which desorption occurs. The two-electron charge transfer to cause desorption of divalent alkaline eath ions is a less likely process.The data support the suggestion that PSD by UV solar photons is a dominant source process for alkalis in the tenuous lunar atmosphere.

  18. The lunar cart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Expanded experiment-carrying capability, to be used between the Apollo 11 capability and the lunar roving vehicle capability, was defined for the lunar surface crewmen. Methods used on earth to satisfy similar requirements were studied. A two-wheeled cart was built and tested to expected mission requirements and environments. The vehicle was used successfully on Apollo 14.

  19. Possible biomedical applications and limitations of a variable-force centrifuge on the lunar surface: A research tool and an enabling resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowing, Keith L.

    1992-01-01

    Centrifuges will continue to serve as a valuable research tool in gaining an understanding of the biological significance of the inertial acceleration due to gravity. Space- and possibly lunar-based centrifuges will play a significant and enabling role with regard to the human component of future lunar and martian exploration, both as a means of accessing potential health and performance risks and as a means of alleviating these risks. Lunar-based centrifuges could be particularly useful as part of a program of physiologic countermeasures designed to alleviate the physical deconditioning that may result from prolonged exposure to a 1/6-g environment. Centrifuges on the lunar surface could also be used as part of a high-fidelity simulation of a trip to Mars. Other uses could include crew readaptation to 1 g, waste separation, materials processing, optical mirror production in situ on the Moon, and laboratory specimen separation.

  20. A Notional Example of Understanding Human Exploration Traverses on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, John

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Gruener received an M.S. in physical science, with an emphasis in planetary geology, from the University of Houston-Clear Lake in 1994. He then began working with NASA JSC.s Solar System Exploration Division on the development of prototype planetary science instruments, the development of a mineral-based substrate for nutrient delivery to plant growth systems in bio-regenerative life support systems, and in support of the Mars Exploration Rover missions in rock and mineral identification. In 2004, Mr. Gruener again participated in a renewed effort to plan and design missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. He participated in many exploration planning activities, including NASA.s Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Global Exploration Strategy Workshop, Lunar Architecture Team 1 and 2, Constellation Lunar Architecture Team, the Global Point of Departure Lunar Exploration Team, and the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture. Mr. Gruener has also been an active member of the science team supporting NASA.s Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS).

  1. Lunar Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Space Radiation Processing in Lunar Soil Ilmenite: Combining Perspectives from Surface Science and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Baragiola, R.

    2010-01-01

    Energetic ions mostly from the solar wind play a major role in lunar space weathering because they contribute structural and chemical changes to the space-exposed surfaces of lunar regolith grains. In mature mare soils, ilmenite (FeTiO3) grains in the finest size fraction have been shown in transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies to exhibit key differences in their response to space radiation processing relative to silicates [1,2,3]. In ilmenite, solar ion radiation alters host grain outer margins to produce 10-100 nm thick layers that are microstructurally complex, but dominantly crystalline compared to the amorphous radiation-processed rims on silicates [1,2,3]. Spatially well-resolved analytical TEM measurements also show nm-scale compositional and chemical state changes in these layers [1,3]. These include shifts in Fe/Ti ratio from strong surface Fe-enrichment (Fe/Ti >> 1), to Fe depletion (Fe/Ti electron (FE-STEM) study of experimentally ion-irradiated ilmenite. A key feature of this work is the combination of analytical techniques sensitive to changes in the irradiated samples at depth scales going from the immediate surface (approx.5 nm; XPS), to deeper in the grain interior (5-100 nm; FE-STEM).

  3. Lunar Network Tracking Architecture for Lunar Flight

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Shane B.; Geller, David

    2010-01-01

    A trade study was conducted with the objective of comparing and contrasting the radiometric navigation performance provided by various architectures of lunar-based navigations assets. Architectures considered consist of a compliment of two beacons located on the lunar surface, and two orbiting beacons that provide range and range-rate measurements to the user. Configurations of these assets include both coplanar and linked constellations of frozen elliptic orbiters and halo orbiters. Each arc...

  4. Regional mapping of the lunar magnetic anomalies at the surface: Method and its application to strong and weak magnetic anomaly regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a new method for regional mapping of the lunar magnetic anomalies as the vector field at the surface using the satellite observation, that is the surface vector mapping (SVM). The SVM is based on the inverse boundary value problem with a spherical boundary surface. There are two main procedures for reducing effects of bias and noise on mapping: (1) preprocessing the data to provide first derivatives along the pass, and (2) the Bayesian statistical procedure in the inversion using Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion. The SVM was applied to two regions: the northwest region of the South Pole-Aitken basin as a strong magnetic anomaly region, and the southeast region of the lunar near side as a weak magnetic anomaly region. Since the results from the different datasets of the Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations show good consistency, characteristic features of the lunar magnetic anomalies at the surface are considered to be well estimated except for components of wavelength shorter than about 1°. From the results by the SVM, both of the regions show elongation patterns of the lunar magnetic anomalies, suggesting lineated structures of the magnetic anomaly sources.

  5. Hydrogen Implantation in Silicates: The role of solar wind in OH bond formation on the lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Micah J; Baragiola, Raul

    2014-06-01

    Airless bodies in space such as the Moon, asteroids and interplanetary dust particles are subject to bombardment from energetic electrons and ions, ultraviolet photons, micrometeorites and cosmic rays. These bombarding particles modify optical, chemical and physical characteristics of the ices and minerals that make up these bodies in a process known as space weathering. In particular, solar wind protons implanted in silicate materials can participate in hydroxylation reactions with the oxygen to form OH. This mechanism has been suggested to explain a reported 3-14% absorption signal identified as OH on the surface of lunar soil grains and present in decreasing magnitude from polar to equatorial latitudes. With the goal of determining a precise OH formation rate due to H+ implantation in silicates, a series of experiments were carried out on terrestrial minerals as analogs to lunar and interstellar material.Experiments were carried out under UHV pressures (OH in thermally grown silicon oxide and San Carlos olivine, before and after irradiated with 1 - 5 keV H+ ions. The increase in Si-OH content due to irradiation was determined by subtracting the unirradiated spectra from the irradiated spectra. The implanted protons induced OH stretch absorptions in the mid-infrared peaked at 3673 cm-1 for SiO2 and 3570 cm-1 for olivine. The initial yield (OH formed per incident ion) was ~90% and the OH absorption band was found to saturate at implantation fluences of ~2x1017 H/cm2. Irradiation also modified the Si-O stretch band at ~1090 cm-1 (9.2 μm) causing an exponential decrease in the peak height with increasing fluence and the appearance of a silanol structure peaking at ~1030 cm-1. These measurements allow constraints to be placed on stellar wind contribution to observational and theoretical models of water on the lunar surface and on interstellar dust grains.

  6. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroid Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominque, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Schriver, David; hide

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the composition of Mercury's crust is key to comprehending the formation of the planet. The regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered via a set of space weathering processes. These processes are the same set of mechanisms that work to form Mercury's exosphere, and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of an intrinsic planetary magnetic field. The alterations need to be understood in order to determine the initial crustal compositions. The complex interrelationships between Mercury's exospheric processes, the space environment, and surface composition are examined and reviewed. The processes are examined in the context of our understanding of these same processes on the lunar and asteroid regoliths. Keywords: Mercury (planet) Space weathering Surface processes Exosphere Surface composition Space environment 3

  7. Lunar Applications in Reconfigurable Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Constellation Program is developing a lunar surface outpost in which reconfigurable computing will play a significant role. Reconfigurable systems provide a number of benefits over conventional software-based implementations including performance and power efficiency, while the use of standardized reconfigurable hardware provides opportunities to reduce logistical overhead. The current vision for the lunar surface architecture includes habitation, mobility, and communications systems, each of which greatly benefit from reconfigurable hardware in applications including video processing, natural feature recognition, data formatting, IP offload processing, and embedded control systems. In deploying reprogrammable hardware, considerations similar to those of software systems must be managed. There needs to be a mechanism for discovery enabling applications to locate and utilize the available resources. Also, application interfaces are needed to provide for both configuring the resources as well as transferring data between the application and the reconfigurable hardware. Each of these topics are explored in the context of deploying reconfigurable resources as an integral aspect of the lunar exploration architecture.

  8. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  9. Design and Construction of a Modular Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, Dipl. Ing Werner

    DESIGN and CONSTRUCTION of a MODULAR LUNAR BASE Purpose: The Lunar Base Design Study is a concept for the return of humans from 2020 to the end of the century. Structure: The proposed lunar station is built of 6 cylindrical modules, each one 17 m long and 6 m in diameter. Each module is made of aluminium sheets and trapezoidal aluminium sheeting and has a weight (on earth) of approx.10.2 tonnes, including the interior equipment and furnishing. The outer wall of the cylinders is built as a double-shell system, stiffened by radial bulkheads. 8 astronauts or scientists can live and work in the station, using the modules as follows: -1 Central Living Module -2 Living Quater Modules, with private rooms for each person -1 Laboratory Module for scientific research and engineering -1 Airlock Module, containing outdoor equipment, space suits, etc. -1 Energy Plant Module, carrying solar panels a small nuclear reactor and antennas for communication. Shielding: To protect the astronauts micrometeorites and radiation, the caves between the two shells of the outer wall are filled with a 0.6 m thick layer or regolith in situ by a small teleoperated digger vehicle. Using lunar material for shielding the payload for launching can be minimized. Launch and Transport: For launching a modified ARIANE 5 launcher or similar US, Russian, Chinese or Indian rockets can be used. For the flight from Earth Orbit to Lunar Orbit a "Space-Tug", which is deployed in Earth Orbit, can be used. To land the modules on the lunar surface a "Teleoperated Rocket Crane" has been developed by the author. This vehicle will be assembled in lunar orbit and is built as a structural framework, carrying rocket engines, fuel tanks and teleoperated crawlers to move the modules on the lunar surface. To establish this basic stage of the Lunar Base 11 launches are necessary: -1 Lunar Orbiter, a small manned spaceship (3 astronauts) -1 Manned Lander and docking module for the orbiter -1 Teleoperated Rocket Crane -6

  10. Applications of Time-Reversal Processing for Planetary Surface Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the power constraints imposed on wireless sensor and communication networks deployed on a planetary surface during exploration, energy efficient transfer of data becomes a critical issue. In situations where groups of nodes within a network are located in relatively close proximity, cooperative communication techniques can be utilized to improve the range, data rate, power efficiency, and lifetime of the network. In particular, if the point-to-point communication channels on the network are well modeled as frequency non-selective, distributed or cooperative beamforming can employed. For frequency-selective channels, beamforming itself is not generally appropriate, but a natural generalization of it, time-reversal communication (TRC), can still be effective. Time-reversal processing has been proposed and studied previously for other applications, including acoustical imaging, electromagnetic imaging, underwater acoustic communication, and wireless communication channels. In this paper, we study both the theoretical advantages and the experimental performance of cooperative TRC for wireless communication on planetary surfaces. We give a brief introduction to TRC and present several scenarios where TRC could be profitably employed during planetary exploration. We also present simulation results illustrating the performance of cooperative TRC employed in a complex multipath environment and discuss the optimality of cooperative TRC for data aggregation in wireless sensor networks

  11. The Pressurized Logistics Module: Providing Consumables and Resupply Logistics to the Lunar Surface for a Long-duration Manned Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Amanda; Knight, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    In response to President Bush s 2004 Vision for Space Exploration initiative, NASA established an agency-wide Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) to develop the high-level requirements, assumptions, ground-rules and objectives for a manned mission to the moon. During Phase II of the evaluation, the Habitation Focus Element Group was directed to conceptually develop and design a Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM). The PLM task was delivered with one major requirement: to derive a system with minimal mass and cost, and a maximum, functional, internal volumetric area in order to provide the maximum amount of consumables, supportability and logistic re-supply for a crew of four to the Lunar surface with an overall integrated maximum weight of 5200kg. The PLM was derived from the Habitation Group s "mini-Hab" option. This concept required that the PLM have an aluminum-clad graphite epoxy external truss, utilized for increased mobility and stability, which would encompass a 2.7 meter diameter pressurized aluminum-lithium cylinder. Several trade studies and analyses were performed to determine the final length and orientation of the module, the number of systems required to maintain the PLM, and the number of hatches/mating mechanisms which would successfully and efficiently meet the requirements. Of the five specific configurations assessed, the PLM was determined to have a 3 meter by 3 meter by 5 meter external truss with a 2.7 meter diameter and 5 meter long horizontal, pressurized cylinder with one hatch/mating mechanism on one end cone. Two major assumptions aided in the formulation of the technical baseline: 1) the PLM should be sustainable for up to 18 months on the Lunar Lander without connection to its final destination, the Lunar Outpost, and 2) it must be self-sufficient to withstand a maximum eight hour transit from the Lander to the Outpost. Per these assumptions, eight major systems constitute the PLM: structures, passive mating, protection, power, thermal

  12. The Pressurized Logistics Module: Providing Consumables and Resupply Logistics to the Lunar Surface for a Long-duration Manned Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Amanda; Knight, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    In response to President Bush s 2004 Vision for Space Exploration initiative, NASA established an agency-wide Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) to develop the high-level requirements, assumptions, ground-rules and objectives for a manned mission to the moon. During Phase II of the evaluation, the Habitation Focus Element Group was directed to conceptually develop and design a Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM). The PLM task was delivered with one major requirement: to derive a system with minimal mass and cost, and a maximum, functional, internal volumetric area in order to provide the maximum amount of consumables, supportability and logistic re-supply for a crew of four to the Lunar surface with an overall integrated maximum weight of 5200kg. The PLM was derived from the Habitation Group s "mini-Hab" option. This concept required that the PLM have an aluminum-clad graphite epoxy external truss, utilized for increased mobility and stability, which would encompass a 2.7 meter diameter pressurized aluminum-lithium cylinder. Several trade studies and analyses were performed to determine the final length and orientation of the module, the number of systems required to maintain the PLM, and the number of hatches/mating mechanisms which would successfully and efficiently meet the requirements. Of the five specific configurations assessed, the PLM was determined to have a 3 meter by 3 meter by 5 meter external truss with a 2.7 meter diameter and 5 meter long horizontal, pressurized cylinder with one hatch/mating mechanism on one end cone. Two major assumptions aided in the formulation of the technical baseline: 1) the PLM should be sustainable for up to 18 months on the Lunar Lander without connection to its final destination, the Lunar Outpost, and 2) it must be self-sufficient to withstand a maximum eight hour transit from the Lander to the Outpost. Per these assumptions, eight major systems constitute the PLM: structures, passive mating, protection, power, thermal

  13. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition. Volume 2: Mechanics of rolling sphere-soil slope interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, H. J.; Mitchell, J. K.

    1971-01-01

    The soil deformation mode under the action of a rolling sphere (boulder) was determined, and a theory based on actual soil failure mechanism was developed which provides a remote reconnaissance technique for study of soil conditions using boulder track observations. The failure mechanism was investigated by using models and by testing an instrumented spherical wheel. The wheel was specifically designed to measure contact pressure, but it also provided information on the failure mechanism. Further tests included rolling some 200 spheres down sand slopes. Films were taken of the rolling spheres, and the tracks were measured. Implications of the results and reevaluation of the lunar boulder tracks are discussed.

  14. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, T.; Chin, G.

    2007-08-01

    NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) plans to launch in October 2008 with a companion secondary impactor mission, LCROSS, as the inaugural missions for the Exploration System Mission Directorate. LRO is a pathfinder whose objective is to obtain the needed information to prepare for eventual human return to the Moon. LRO will undertake at least one baseline year of operation with additional extended mission phase sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources; Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration; Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits; Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only

  15. Mercury's Weather-Beaten Surface: Understanding Mercury in the Context of Lunar and Asteroidal Space Weathering Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Deborah L.; Chapman, Clark. R.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gilbert, Jason A.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Benna, Mehdi; Slavin, James A.; Schriver, David; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Sprague, Ann L.; Blewett, David T.; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Ho, George C.; Ebel, Denton S.; Nittler, Larry R.; Vilas, Faith; Pieters, Carle M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Johnson, Catherine L.; Winslow, Reka M..; Helbert, Jorn; Peplowski, Patrick N.; Weider, Shoshana Z.; Mouawad, Nelly; Izenberg, Noam R.; McClintock, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury's regolith, derived from the crustal bedrock, has been altered by a set of space weathering processes. Before we can interpret crustal composition, it is necessary to understand the nature of these surface alterations. The processes that space weather the surface are the same as those that form Mercury's exosphere (micrometeoroid flux and solar wind interactions) and are moderated by the local space environment and the presence of a global magnetic field. To comprehend how space weathering acts on Mercury's regolith, an understanding is needed of how contributing processes act as an interactive system. As no direct information (e.g., from returned samples) is available about how the system of space weathering affects Mercury's regolith, we use as a basis for comparison the current understanding of these same processes on lunar and asteroidal regoliths as well as laboratory simulations. These comparisons suggest that Mercury's regolith is overturned more frequently (though the characteristic surface time for a grain is unknown even relative to the lunar case), more than an order of magnitude more melt and vapor per unit time and unit area is produced by impact processes than on the Moon (creating a higher glass content via grain coatings and agglutinates), the degree of surface irradiation is comparable to or greater than that on the Moon, and photon irradiation is up to an order of magnitude greater (creating amorphous grain rims, chemically reducing the upper layers of grains to produce nanometer scale particles of metallic iron, and depleting surface grains in volatile elements and alkali metals). The processes that chemically reduce the surface and produce nanometer-scale particles on Mercury are suggested to be more effective than similar processes on the Moon. Estimated abundances of nanometer-scale particles can account for Mercury's dark surface relative to that of the Moon without requiring macroscopic grains of opaque minerals. The presence of

  16. Mineralogical studies of lunar meteorites and their lunar analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H.; Mori, H.; Miyamoto, M.; Ishii, T.

    1985-01-01

    The minerology and textural properties of three lunar meteorites (Yamato 791197, ALH81005, and Yamato 82192) were analyzed and compared with lunar surface rock samples. The chemical composition and textures of pyroxene and the occurrance of glass matrices were specifically addressed. The study of glass in the lunar meteorites suggests that the glass was not produced by a meteorite impact which excavated the mass into orbit towards the Earth. The glass had been devitrified on the lunar surface before the excavation, and new glass was not produced by the last impact.

  17. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. II - Deconvolution modeling and its application to the regions of Aristarchus and Mare Smythii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, E. L.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    The broad angular response which characterized the Apollo gamma ray spectrometer resulted in a loss of spatial resolution and some of the contrast in determining surface concentrations within lunar regions small compared to the field of view. A deconvolution technique has been developed which removes much of this instrumental effect, thereby improving both spatial resolution and accuracy at the cost of a loss in precision. Geometric models of regional thorium distribution are convoluted through the response function of the instrument to yield a predicted distribution which is compared with the observed data field for quality of fit. Application to areas which include Aristarchus and Mare Smythii confirm some geological relationships and fail to support others.

  18. An analysis of the moon's surface using reflected illumination from the earth during a waning crescent lunar phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Linton-Petza, Maggie

    1989-01-01

    There have been many articles written concerning the lunar after-glow, the spectacular reflection from the moon's surface, and the possible observation of luminescence on the dark side of the moon. The researcher, using a 600 mm cassegrain telescope lense and Kodak 400 ASA T-Max film, photographed the crescent moon whose dark side was clearly visible by the reflected light from earth. The film was digitized to a Perkin-Elmer 1010M microdensitometer for enhancement and enlargement. The resulting pictures indicate a completely different land pattern formation than observed during a full moon. An attempt is made to analyze the observed structures and to compare them to the pictures observed during the normal full moon. There are boundaries on the digitized dark section of the moon that can be identified with structures seen during the normal full moon. But, these variations do change considerably under enhancement.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of GCR neutron capture production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites and lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    KolláR, D.; Michel, R.; Masarik, J.

    2006-03-01

    A purely physical model based on a Monte Carlo simulation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particle interaction with meteoroids is used to investigate neutron interactions down to thermal energies. Experimental and/or evaluated excitation functions are used to calculate neutron capture production rates as a function of the size of the meteoroid and the depth below its surface. Presented are the depth profiles of cosmogenic radionuclides 36Cl, 41Ca, 60Co, 59Ni, and 129I for meteoroid radii from 10 cm up to 500 cm and a 2π irradiation. Effects of bulk chemical composition on n-capture processes are studied and discussed for various chondritic and lunar compositions. The mean GCR particle flux over the last 300 ka was determined from the comparison of simulations with measured 41Ca activities in the Apollo 15 drill core. The determined value significantly differs from that obtained using equivalent models of spallation residue production.

  20. The Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    A thick layer of regolith, fragmental and unconsolidated rock material, covers the entire lunar surface. This layer is the result of the continuous impact of meteoroids large and small and the steady bombardment of charged particles from the sun and stars. The regolith is generally about 4-5 m thick in mare regions and 10-15 m in highland areas (McKay et al., 1991) and contains all sizes of material from large boulders to sub-micron dust particles. Below the regolith is a region of large blocks of material, large-scale ejecta and brecciated bedrock, often referred to as the "megaregolith". Lunar soil is a term often used interchangeably with regolith, however, soil is defined as the subcentimeter fraction of the regolith (in practice though, soil generally refers to the submillimeter fraction of the regolith). Lunar dust has been defined in many ways by different researchers, but generally refers to only the very finest fractions of the soil, less than approx.10 or 20 microns. Lunar soil can be a misleading term, as lunar "soil" bears little in common with terrestrial soils. Lunar soil contains no organic matter and is not formed through biologic or chemical means as terrestrial soils are, but strictly through mechanical comminution from meteoroids and interaction with the solar wind and other energetic particles. Lunar soils are also not exposed to the wind and water that shapes the Earth. As a consequence, in contrast to terrestrial soils, lunar soils are not sorted in any way, by size, shape, or chemistry. Finally, without wind and water to wear down the edges, lunar soil grains tend to be sharp with fresh fractured surfaces.

  1. Lunar Imaging and Ionospheric Calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov Technique

    CERN Document Server

    McFadden, Rebecca; Mevius, Maaijke

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the ionosphere is an important experimental concern as it reduces the pulse amplitude and subsequent chances of detection. We are continuing to investigate a new method to calibrate the dispersive effect of the ionosphere on lunar Cherenkov pulses via Faraday rotation measurements of the Moon's polarised emission combined with geomagnetic field models. We also extend this work to include radio imaging of the Lunar surface, which provides information on the physical and chemical properties of the lunar surface that may affect experimental strategies for the lunar Cherenkov technique.

  2. Lunar Rover Drivetrain Development to TRL-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, P.; Edmundson, P.; Ghafoor, N.; Jones, H.; Kleinhenz, J.; Picard, M.

    2015-10-01

    The LRPDP and SPRP rovers are designed to provide high mobility and robustness in a lunar working environment and are compatible with various lunar surface activities. TRL-6 testing is scheduled for late 2015 on the rover drivetrain components.

  3. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. IV - Deconvolution of the Mare Imbrium, Aristarchus, and adjacent regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Hawke, B. R.

    1983-01-01

    Several fields of orbital gamma ray spectroscopy data have been deconvolved in order to model the distribution of Th over the Mare Imbrium and northern Oceanus Procellarum portions of the Apollo 15 lunar ground track, which in combination with a prior study of the Apenninus region covers a continuous swath from 10 deg E to 60 deg W in the northwest quadrant. The crater of the Aristarchus region dominates the Th distribution, with a concentration of 20 ppm, and substantial enhancements are also found in the mare regions around Brayley and at the ejecta blankets of Timocharis and Lambert. The existence of enhanced Th concentrations in mare basalt regions suggests that reservoirs of some late stage mare basalts incorporated KREEP-rich material during formation or transit.

  4. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  5. Correction of lunar seismograms for instrumental and near-surface effects and constraints on the velocity structure of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, P.

    1982-01-01

    Long-period lunar seismograms were studied with the aim of identifying consistent sets of direct shear and secondary wave arrivals, thus constraining the velocities in the lunar mantle and the depths of the velocity discontinuities. Two velocity models were used to locate the natural impacts and the shallow moonquakes and to obtain the travel time residuals. Seismic sections were made of the radial, transverse, and vertical components of ground motion for impacts, shallow, and deep moonquakes in order to search for consistent sets of secondary wave arrivals. No conclusive set of secondary arrivals could be recognized on the seismic sections and thus the velocities and depths of the velocity discontinuities cannot be severely constrained by secondary arrivals. It is likely that the crust is thinner than 50 km and that a first-order discontinuity separates the upper and lower crust at a depth of between 20 and 30 km.

  6. The Effect of Simulated Lunar Dust on the Absorptivity, Emissivity, and Operating Temperature on AZ-93 and Ag/FEP Thermal Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaier, James R.; Siamidis, John; Panko, Scott R.; Rogers, Kerry J.; Larkin, Elizabeth M. G.

    2008-01-01

    JSC-1AF lunar simulant has been applied to AZ-93 and AgFEP thermal control surfaces on aluminum or composite substrates in a simulated lunar environment. The temperature of these surfaces was monitored as they were heated with a solar simulator and cooled in a 30 K coldbox. Thermal modeling was used to determine the absorptivity ( ) and emissivity ( ) of the thermal control surfaces in both their clean and dusted states. Then, a known amount of power was applied to the samples while in the coldbox and the steady state temperatures measured. It was found that even a submonolayer of simulated lunar dust can significantly degrade the performance of both white paint and second-surface mirror type thermal control surfaces under these conditions. Contrary to earlier studies, dust was found to affect as well as . Dust lowered the emissivity by as much as 16 percent in the case of AZ-93, and raised it by as much as 11 percent in the case of AgFEP. The degradation of thermal control surface by dust as measured by / rose linearly regardless of the thermal control coating or substrate, and extrapolated to degradation by a factor 3 at full coverage by dust. Submonolayer coatings of dust were found to not significantly change the steady state temperature at which a shadowed thermal control surface will radiate.

  7. Integration and Comparison of Clementine and Lunar Prospector Data: Global Scale Multielement Analysis1 (Fe, Ti, and Th) of the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Daydou, Y.; Feldman, W. C.

    2002-11-01

    In this paper, we present (1) a statistical analysis, based on a systematic clustering method, of a dataset integrating the global abundance maps of the three elements iron, titanium, and thorium derived from Clementine and Lunar Prospector and (2) a comparison of iron abundances between Clementine and Lunar Prospector. Homogeneous geologic units are compositionally characterized and spatially defined in relation to the major rock types sampled on the Moon. With the lowest abundances of Fe, Ti, and Th found on the Moon, the lunar highland terrains are quite homogeneous with two major large feldspathic units, one being slightly more mafic than the other. Two distinct regions with unique compositions are unambiguously identified: the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) and the South Pole-Aitken (SPA). The PKT, which includes all the units with Th abundances higher than 3.5 ppm (KREEP-rich materials), is delimited by an almost continuous ringlike unit. In particular, it includes the western nearside maria, except for Mare Humorum. With concentrations in Fe, Ti, and Th enhanced relative to the surrounding highlands, the South Pole-Aitken basin floor represents a large mafic anomaly on the far side, suggesting wide deposits of lower crust and possible mantle materials. However, due to indirect residual latitude effects in the CSR (Clementine spectral reflectance) measurements, iron abundances might have been overestimated in SPA, thus implying that crustal materials, rather than mantle materials, might represent the dominant contributor to the mafic component exposed on the basin floor.

  8. Lunar preform manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Gregory N.; Nease, Sandra; Lager, Vicky; Yaghjian, Raffy; Waller, Chris

    A design for a machine to produce hollow, continuous fiber-reinforced composite rods of lunar glass and a liquid crystalline matrix using the pultrusion process is presented. The glass fiber will be produced from the lunar surface, with the machine and matrix being transported to the moon. The process is adaptable to the low gravity and near-vacuum environment of the moon through the use of a thermoplastic matrix in fiber form as it enters the pultrusion process. With a power consumption of 5 kW, the proposed machine will run unmanned continuously in fourteen-day cycles, matching the length of lunar days. A number of dies could be included that would allow the machine to produce rods of varying diameter, I-beams, angles, and other structural members. These members could then be used for construction on the lunar surface or transported for use in orbit. The benefits of this proposal are in the savings in weight of the cargo each lunar mission would carry. The supply of glass on the moon is effectively endless, so enough rods would have to be produced to justify its transportation, operation, and capital cost. This should not be difficult as weight on lunar mission is at a premium.

  9. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. I - Regional values and crustal content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, A. E.; Haines, E. L.; Parker, R. E.; Radocinski, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    The reported investigation is based on data which have been obtained with the aid of a gamma-ray spectrometer which had been installed on the Apollo 15 and 16 spacecraft to map the composition of the overflown lunar regolith to a maximum depth of about 1 m. Two additional techniques for the analysis of orbital gamma-ray data have been developed. These techniques have provided basic confirmation for the Th results reported previously and one of them, the energy band method, has yielded results for Th with a sensitivity greater than previous analyses, particularly at low concentrations. Significant variations of radioactivity exist in highland areas. The lowest concentrations of radioactivity mapped by Apollo are found near the western limb, contrasting with concentrations in the eastern limb which run roughly a factor of two higher. An inverse relation has been found between Th concentration and crustal thickness. It is suggested that Th, once uniformly distributed, has been extracted from a zone of constant depth over much of the moon, and concentrated in crustal blocks of varying thickness.

  10. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Lunar-A mission: Outline and current status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H Mizutani; A Fujimura; S Tanaka; H Shiraishi; T Nakjima

    2005-12-01

    The scientific objective of the Lunar-A,Japanese Penetrator Mission,is to explore the lunar interior by seismic and heat-flow experiments.Two penetrators containing two seismometers (horizontal and vertical components)and heat-flow probes will be deployed from a spacecraft onto the lunar surface,one on the near-side and the other on the far-side of the moon.The data obtained by the penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about 200 km. The spacecraft of a cylindrical shape,2.2 m in maximum diameter and 1.7 m in height,is designed to be spin-stabilized.The spacecraft will be inserted into an elliptic lunar orbit,after about a half- year cruise during which complex manoeuvering is made using the lunar-solar gravity assist.After lunar orbit insertion,two penetrators will be separated from the spacecraft near perilune,one by one,and will be landed on the lunar surface. The final impact velocity of the penetrator will be about 285 m/sec;it will encounter a shock of about 8000 G at impact on the lunar surface.According to numerous experimental impact tests using model penetrators and a lunar-regolith analog target,each penetrator is predicted to penetrate to a depth between l and 3 m,depending on the hardness and/or particle-size distribution of the lunar regolith.The penetration depth is important for ensuring the temperature stability of the instruments in the penetrator and heat flow measurements.According to the results of the Apollo heat flow experiment,an insulating regolith blanket of only 30 cm is sufficient to dampen out about 280 K lunar surface temperature fluctuation to > 3K variation. The seismic observations are expected to provide key data on the size of the lunar core,as well as data on deep lunar mantle structure.The heat flow measurements at two penetrator-landing sites will also provide important data on the thermal structure and bulk concentrations of heat- generating

  12. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  13. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  14. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  15. Prospecting for lunar resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G.; Martel, L.

    larger than elsewhere in a region. (4) We are developing a strategy that represents a comprehensive, integrated program to prospect for resources throughout the solar system. The plan involves a hierarchy of surface exploration techniques. At the base is a huge swarm (thousands to millions) of microrobots equipped with sensors to identify targeted resources. The tiny robots work in consort with sophisticated all- terrain rovers that serve as communication links and make detailed observations at promising locations identified by the microrobots.

  16. Air Stripping Designs and Reactive Water Purification Processes for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Air stripping designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry's Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Distillation processes are modeled in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support are presented. The advantages to the various designs are summarized with respect to water purity levels, power consumption, and processing rates. An evaluation of reactive distillation and air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  17. Lunar base scenario cost estimates: Lunar base systems study task 6.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The projected development and production costs of each of the Lunar Base's systems are described and unit costs are estimated for transporting the systems to the lunar surface and for setting up the system.

  18. Fast Ray Tracing of Lunar Digital Elevation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, Timothy P.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R. D.; Mitrofanov, I.

    2009-01-01

    Ray-tracing (RT) of Lunar Digital Elevation Models (DEM)'s is performed to virtually derive the degree of radiation incident to terrain as a function of time, orbital and ephemeris constraints [I- 4]. This process is an integral modeling process in lunar polar research and exploration due to the present paucity of terrain information at the poles and mission planning activities for the anticipated spring 2009 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). As part of the Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) preparations RI methods are used to estimate the critical conditions presented by the combined effects of high latitude, terrain and the moons low obliquity [5-7]. These factors yield low incident solar illumination and subsequently extreme thermal, and radiation conditions. The presented research uses RT methods both for radiation transport modeling in space and regolith related research as well as to derive permanently shadowed regions (PSR)'s in high latitude topographic minima, e.g craters. These regions are of scientific and human exploration interest due to the near constant low temperatures in PSRs, inferred to be < 100 K. Hydrogen is thought to have accumulated in PSR's through the combined effects of periodic cometary bombardment and/or solar wind processes, and the extreme cold which minimizes hydrogen sublimation [8-9]. RT methods are also of use in surface position optimization for future illumination dependent on surface resources e.g. power and communications equipment.

  19. Dynamics Explanation About Linear Structure on Lunar Surface and Lunar Mare Distribution%月表线性构造与月海分布的动力学解释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴海中; 王心源; 郭振亚; 吉玮

    2012-01-01

    目前,对月表的线性构造研究得很少,对月表月海、月陆分布的起因同样不明.“嫦娥一号”遥感探测表明:月表大部分线性构造集中分布于月球面向地球的正面(48°W-54°N),统计的86条月表线性其走向主要是N-S、NE-SW、NW-SE;22个月海大部分位于月球正面,且其中的20个月海分布在中低纬度(33.7°S-32.8°N).基于我们之前对地球板块动力学的认识,对月表的线性构造及月海分布的动力学解释是:引潮力引起了月表南北向的挤压和东西向的拉张,产生了N-S方向的挤压性破裂和在NW-SE,NE-SW方向产生的剪切性质的破裂,且月球正面所受的引潮力比背面大,所以线性构造多位于月球正面.通过引潮位φ=Gm/r0nΣn=2(a/r0)nPn(cosθ)的分析,月球在公转过程中,中低纬度受到的引潮位更大,在引潮力-重力共同作用下,形成的月球正面不仅壳薄而且裂隙多,岩浆向月壳薄弱的地方喷涌,形成分布在月球正面中低纬度的月海.%At present, there are few research of the linear structure on lunar surface, the cause of the lunar mare and the moon land distribution is unclear. "Chang'El" remote sensing detection shows that most of the linear structure on list are centralized on the positive moon facing the earth (48°W -54°N), according to the statistics, the strike of 86 linear structure on lunar surface are mainly N - S, NE - SW, NW - SE; 22 lunar mares making most of the moon are located on the positive moon, 20 of which are located in middle and low latitude area (33. 7°S - 32.8°N). Based on our previous understanding of the tectonic plates dynamics, the explanation of the linear structures and the distribution on lunar surface is: the tidal generation force caused the extrusion in north-south direction and of the tension in east-west direction, producing the N - S direction of rupture due to extrusion and the NW - SE, NE- SW direction of rupture due to shear properties, and the

  20. 3D Simulation of Lunar Surface Based on Single Image%基于单张影像的月面三维仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹍; 周杨; 滕飞; 李建胜

    2012-01-01

    A fast method of 3D reconstruction and illumination simulation of lunar surface based on single image is proposed, using Shape from Shading{SFS) method. By using the 3D clew, gray information of single 2D image, 3D lunar surface is reconstructed by SFS theory fast, and is rendered by improved Hapke illumination model. It is proved that 3D lunar surface is preferably reconstructed and simulated by this method within permitted precision.%根据阴影恢复形状原理,提出一种基于单张影像的快速月面三维建模和光照模拟方法.利用单张2D影像中残留的3D线索——灰度信息,通过SFS方法对月面三维形貌进行快速重建,采用改进的Hapke光照模型对重建后的三维形貌进行渲染.实验结果证明,在精度允许范围内,该方法能快速地实现对月面三维形貌的提取和仿真.

  1. 月球表面图像的SIFT特征提取与匹配%SIFT Feature Extraction and Matching of Lunar Surface Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈坤; 王璐; 储珺

    2011-01-01

    在分析月球表面不同尺度、不同谱段图像特点的基础上,本文以Visual C++和OpenCV为开发平台,对月球表面多光谱图像数据和多尺度图像对数据进行特征点提取和匹配,并验证算法的有效性.实验结果表明,改进的SIFT特征具有旋转、平移、尺度缩放、亮度变化和视角变换的不变性,能较好地完成月球表面各种图像的特征提取和匹配.%On the basis of analyzing multi-spectral and different-scale lunar surface image feature points, this paper extracts feature point and realizes stereo matching of the multispectral lunar surface image data and multi-scale image pairs data, and verifies the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm with Visual C ++ and OpenCV development platform. Results show that improved SIFT feature is invariant to rotation, scale, intensity roughness, preserves stability of view variations, and completes feature extraction and matching of lunar surface image better.

  2. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  3. A geotechnical characterization of lunar soils and lunar soil simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, John Carl

    Many of the essential materials needed for the construction of a lunar base can be produced from the resources found on the lunar surface. Processing natural resources on the moon into useful products will reduce the need, and the cost, to bring everything from earth. The lunar regolith has been intensely studied with respect to understanding the formation of the moon and the earth, but as a construction material, the regolith is poorly characterized and poorly understood. To better understand how to 'work' with the lunar regolith, four loosely related research projects were conducted. Two projects relate to characterizing and understanding the geotechnical properties of regolith, two projects relate to manipulating and processing granular materials in the lunar environment. The shapes of lunar soil grains are characterized using fractals - results directly and quantitatively describe the rugged reentrant nature of the large scale structure and the relatively smooth surface texture of lunar soil grains. The nature of lunar soil cohesion is considered using tensile strength measurements of lunar soil simulant. It is likely that mechanical interlocking of irregular grains is the primary cause of lunar soil cohesion. This mechanism is highly sensitive to grain shape, but relatively insensitive to particle packing density. A series of experiments are conducted to try to understand how granular particles might sort by size in a vacuum. Even in a vacuum, fine particle subjected to shear strain segregate by a mechanism called the random fluctuating sieve The random fluctuating sieve also controls particle motion that determines the structure of wind-blown sand ripples. Hybrid microwave heating was used to sinter large structural bricks from lunar soil stimulant. While heating was prone to thermal runaway, microwave heating holds great promise as a simple, direct method of making sintered structural bricks.

  4. Evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and 802.16 for Lunar Surface Exploration Missions Using MACHETE Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John; Jennings, Esther; Vyas, Hemali

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the suitability of terrestrial wireless networking technologies for lunar surface exploration missions. Specifically, the scenario we considered consisted of two teams of collaborating astronauts, one base station and one rover, where the base station and the rover have the capability of acting as relays. We focused on the evaluation of IEEE 802.11g and IEEE 802.16 protocols, simulating homogeneous 802.11g network, homogeneous 802.16 network, and heterogeneous network using both 802.11g and 802.16. A mix of traffic flows were simulated, including telemetry, caution and warning, voice, command and file transfer. Each traffic type had its own distribution profile, data volume, and priority. We analyzed the loss and delay trade-offs of these wireless protocols with various link-layer options. We observed that 802.16 network managed the channel better than an 802.11g network due to controlled infrastructure and centralized scheduling. However, due to the centralized scheduling, 802.16 also had a longer delay. The heterogeneous (hybrid) of 802.11/802.16 achieved a better balance of performance in terms of data loss and delay compared to using 802.11 or 802.16 alone.

  5. Formation of Lunar Swirls

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, R A; Cruz, F; Kellett, B J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O; Trines, R M G M; Halekas, J S; Kramer, G; Harnett, E; Cairns, R A; Bingham, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we show a plausible mechanism that could lead to the formation of the Dark Lanes in Lunar Swirls, and the electromagnetic shielding of the lunar surface that results in the preservation of the white colour of the lunar regolith. We present the results of a fully self-consistent 2 and 3 dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of mini-magnetospheres that form above the lunar surface and show that they are consistent with the formation of `lunar swirls' such as the archetypal formation Reiner Gamma. The simulations show how the microphysics of the deflection/shielding of plasma operates from a kinetic-scale cavity, and show that this interaction leads to a footprint with sharp features that could be the mechanism behind the generation of `dark lanes'. The physics of mini-magnetospheres is described and shown to be controlled by space-charge fields arising due to the magnetized electrons and unmagnetized ions. A comparison between model and observation is shown for a number of key plasma parameters...

  6. Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Deluane, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    NASA s plans for implementing the Vision for Space Exploration include returning to the moon as a stepping stone for further exploration of Mars, and beyond. Dust on the lunar surface has a ubiquitous presence which must be explicitly addressed during upcoming human lunar exploration missions. While the operational challenges attributable to dust during the Apollo missions did not prove critical, the comparatively long duration of impending missions presents a different challenge. Near term plans to revisit the moon places a primary emphasis on characterization and mitigation of lunar dust. Comprised of regolith particles ranging in size from tens of nanometers to microns, lunar dust is a manifestation of the complex interaction of the lunar soil with multiple mechanical, electrical, and gravitational effects. The environmental and anthropogenic factors effecting the perturbation, transport, and deposition of lunar dust must be studied in order to mitigate it s potentially harmful effects on exploration systems. This paper presents the current perspective and implementation of dust knowledge management and integration, and mitigation technology development activities within NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. This work is presented within the context of the Constellation Program s Integrated Lunar Dust Management Strategy. The Lunar Dust Mitigation Technology Development project has been implemented within the ETDP. Project scope and plans will be presented, along with a a perspective on lessons learned from Apollo and forensics engineering studies of Apollo hardware. This paper further outlines the scientific basis for lunar dust behavior, it s characteristics and potential effects, and surveys several potential strategies for its control and mitigation both for lunar surface operations and within the working volumes of a lunar outpost.

  7. Flywheel Energy Storage for Lunar Rovers & Other Small Spacecraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA continues to be interested in returning to the Lunar surface. The Lunar surface is a harsh and unforgiving environment. Perhaps most challenging is the drastic...

  8. Implications of Lunar Prospector Data for Lunar Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuber, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Research is sumamrized in the following areas: The Asymmetric Thermal Evolution of the Moon; Magma Transport Process on the Moon;The Composition and Origin of the Deep Lunar Crust;The Redistribution of Thorium on the Moon's Surface.

  9. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  10. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    bulk of the chapter will use examples from the lunar meteorite suite to examine important recent advances in lunar science, including (but not limited to the following: (1) Understanding the global compositional diversity of the lunar surface; (2) Understanding the formation of the ancient lunar primary crust; (3) Understanding the diversity and timing of mantle melting, and secondary crust formation; (4) Comparing KREEPy lunar meteorites to KREEPy Apollo samples as evidence of variability within the PKT; and (5) A better understanding of the South Pole Aitken Basin through lunar meteorites whose provenance are within that Terrane.

  11. Lunar interaction with the solar wind - Effects on lunar electrical conductivity estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1978-01-01

    The lunar electromagnetic response, measured at very low frequencies with the moon in the solar wind, is used to evaluate interior electrical conductivity at great depth and to determine limits on the size of possible lunar core. A theory is developed wherein compression of the magnetic field in the lunar tail cavity caused by inflowing plasma at the lunar limbs and in the lunar wake, bends the magnetic field in the lunar interior and thereby alters the tangential component of magnetic field observed on the dayside surface. This theory strongly indicates that cavity fringing cannot explain the enhanced East-West fluctuations. It is proposed that the East-West fluctuations might be due to diamagnetic currents caused by lunar surface photoelectrons in the lunar terminator region.

  12. KOREAN LUNAR LANDER – CONCEPT STUDY FOR LANDING-SITE SELECTION FOR LUNAR RESOURCE EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea’s institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander – currently in pre-phase A – is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today’s accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon’s surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi- automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches – including methods and tools – for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of

  13. Korean Lunar Lander - Concept Study for Landing-Site Selection for Lunar Resource Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja; Wöhler, Christian; Hyeok Ju, Gwang; Lee, Seung-Ryeol; Rodriguez, Alexis P.; Berezhnoy, Alexey A.; van Gasselt, Stephan; Grumpe, Arne; Aymaz, Rabab

    2016-06-01

    As part of the national space promotion plan and presidential national agendas South Korea's institutes and agencies under the auspices of the Ministry of Science, Information and Communication Technology and Future Planning (MSIP) are currently developing a lunar mission package expected to reach Moon in 2020. While the officially approved Korean Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter (KPLO) is aimed at demonstrating technologies and monitoring the lunar environment from orbit, a lander - currently in pre-phase A - is being designed to explore the local geology with a particular focus on the detection and characterization of mineral resources. In addition to scientific and potential resource potentials, the selection of the landing-site will be partly constrained by engineering constraints imposed by payload and spacecraft layout. Given today's accumulated volume and quality of available data returned from the Moon's surface and from orbital observations, an identification of landing sites of potential interest and assessment of potential hazards can be more readily accomplished by generating synoptic snapshots through data integration. In order to achieve such a view on potential landing sites, higher level processing and derivation of data are required, which integrates their spatial context, with detailed topographic and geologic characterizations. We are currently assessing the possibility of using fuzzy c-means clustering algorithms as a way to perform (semi-) automated terrain characterizations of interest. This paper provides information and background on the national lunar lander program, reviews existing approaches - including methods and tools - for landing site analysis and hazard assessment, and discusses concepts to detect and investigate elemental abundances from orbit and the surface. This is achieved by making use of manual, semi-automated as well as fully-automated remote-sensing methods to demonstrate the applicability of analyses. By considering given

  14. Apollo 17 Astronaut Harrison Schmitt Collects Lunar Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt collects rock samples from a huge boulder near the Valley of Tourus-Littrow on the lunar surface. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Schmitt; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

  15. Manufacturing High-Fidelity Lunar Agglutinate Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutafson, R. J.; Edmunson, J. E.; Rickman, D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The lunar regolith is very different from many naturally occurring material on Earth because it forms in the unique, impact-dominated environment of the lunar surface. Lunar regolith is composed of five basic particle types: mineral fragments, pristine crystalline rock fragments, breccia fragments, glasses of various kinds, and agglutinates (glass-bonded aggregates). Agglutinates are abundant in the lunar regolith, especially in mature regoliths where they can be the dominant component.This presentation will discuss the technical feasibility of manufacturing-simulated agglutinate particles that match many of the unique properties of lunar agglutinates.

  16. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    To ensure the safety and success of future lunar exploration missions, it is important to measure the toxicity of the lunar dust and its electrostatic properties. The electrostatic properties of lunar dust govern its behavior, from how the dust is deposited in an astronaut s lungs to how it contaminates equipment surfaces. NASA has identified the threat caused by lunar dust as one of the top two problems that need to be solved before returning to the Moon. To understand the electrostatic nature of lunar dust, NASA must answer the following questions: (1) how much charge can accumulate on the dust? (2) how long will the charge remain? and (3) can the dust be removed? These questions can be answered by measuring the electrostatic properties of the dust: its volume resistivity, charge decay, charge-to-mass ratio or chargeability, and dielectric properties.

  17. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  18. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  19. Integration of the Ultraviolet-Visible Spectral Clementine Data and the Gamma-Ray Lunar Prospector Data: Preliminary Results Concerning FeO, TiO2, and Th Abundances of the Lunar Surface at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrel, S. D.; Pinet, P. C.; Barreau, G.; Daydou, Y.; Richard, G.; Maurice, S.; Feldman, W. C.

    1999-01-01

    The Clementine mission (CLM) produced global multispectral data that resulted in a map of FeO and Ti02 concentrations of the lunar surface. The recent Lunar Prospector (LP) mission returned the first global data for the distribution of surface abundances of key elements in lunar rocks, using a gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) and neutron spectrometer(NS). Integrating CLM mineralogical spectral reflectance and LP chemical data is important to enhance our view of lunar crust origin and evolution, lunar volcanism, and surface processes. Iron, Ti, and Th having relatively large compositional variation over the lunar surface, as well as strong isolated peaks in the GRS spectra, information concerning the distribution and concentration of these elements has been derived from maps of corrected (cosmic ray, nonsymmetric response of the instrument) counting rates only, without converting them into absolute abundances. Maps produced contain count rates in equal-area projection averaged into 5 x 5 degrees latitude/longitude bins, from -90 to +90 degrees latitude and -180 to +180 degrees longitude. In this work, we have used the CLM global FeO and Ti02 abundances (wt%) maps converted at the LP spatial resolution (about 150 km/pixel) to produce FeO and TiO2 GRS abundance maps, through a linear regression based on the analysis of the scatter distribution of both datasets. The regression coefficients have been determined from the data taken between -60 and +60 degrees latitude to avoid uncertainties in the CLM spectral data due to nonnominal conditions of observation at high latitudes. After a critical assessment of the validity of these coefficients for every class of absolute abundance, the LP data have been transformed into absolute abundances for the whole Moon. The Th LP data have been converted into abundances (ppm) using Th concentrations in average soils from the Apollo and Luna sites given. Values of Th abundances for these samples range between 0.5 and 13 ppm. A nonlinear

  20. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size distribution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B S Shylaja

    2005-12-01

    Crater size –frequency distribution is one of the powerful techniques to estimate the ages of planetary surfaces,especially from remote sensing studies.This has been applied to images of the Moon obtained from Clementine mission in 1994.Simple techniques of measurement of the diameter of the craters (in pixels)are used and converted into linear dimensions.Among the several maria studied,the results of Mare Humorum and the central region of Mare Imbrium are reported.The results are compared with age estimates from other sources.

  1. Future lunar mission Active X-ray Spectrometer development: Surface roughness and geometry studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, M., E-mail: com-nm@akane.waseda.jp [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Hasebe, N. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kusano, H. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Nagaoka, H. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kuwako, M.; Oyama, Y. [School of Advanced Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Shibamura, E.; Amano, Y. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Ohta, T. [School of Education and Integrated Arts and Science, Waseda University, 1-104 Totsuka, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Kim, K.J. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gwahang-no 124, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Lopes, J.A.M. [Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, Apartado 3020, 3001-401 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-11

    The Active X-ray Spectrometer (AXS) is considered as one of the scientific payload candidates for a future Japanese mission, SELENE-2. The AXS consists of pyroelectric X-ray generators and a Silicon Drift Detector to conduct X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) on the Moon to measure major elements: Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, and Fe; minor elements: Na, K, P, S, Cr and Mn; and the trace element Ni depending on their concentration. Some factors such as roughness, grain size and porosity of sample, and the geometry of X-ray incidence, emission and energy will affect the XRF measurements precision. Basic studies on the XRF are required to develop the AXS. In this study, fused samples were used to make homogeneous samples free from the effect of grain size and porosity. Experimental and numerical studies on the XRF were conducted to evaluate the effects from incidence and emission angles and surface roughness. Angle geometry and surface roughness will be optimized for the design of the AXS on future missions from the results of the experiment and the numerical simulation.

  2. Influence of friction on sampling disturbance of lunar surface in direct push sampling method based on DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xingwen; Tang, Dewei; Yue, Honghao; Jiang, Shengyuan; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-06-01

    The direct push sampling method is one of the most commonly used sampling methods in lunar regolith exploration. However, the disturbance of in situ bedding information during the sampling process has remained an unresolved problem. In this paper, the discrete element method is used to establish a numerical lunar soil simulant basing on the Hertz-Mindlin contact model. The result of simulated triaxial test shows that the macro mechanical parameters of the simulant accurately simulate most known lunar soil samples. The friction coefficient between the simulant and the wall of the sampling tube is also tested and used as the key variable in the following simulation and study. The disturbance phenomenon is evaluated by the displacement of marked layers, and a swirling structure is observed. The changing trend of the friction coefficient on the soil simulant void ratio and stress distribution is also determined.

  3. 基于嫦娥一号卫星获取的DEM研究月球车通信的可达性%The Communication Accessibility of the Lunar Rover Based on DEM Derived from Chang' E-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝卫峰; 叶茂; 李斐; 鄢建国; 邵先远

    2012-01-01

    The communication accessibility of the lunar rover from the Earth to the Moon can provide a basis for the choice of ideal landing sites. In this paper, a mathematical model is established to study the communication accessibility affected by topography, by combining lunar digital elevation models ( DEM) with known parameters related to lunar and earth' s orbit. The laser altimeter data obtained by ' Chang' E-1 ' can provide high accuracy DEM and can be as the data basis for this study. The research region is Sinus Iridum region (the preferred landing area of Chinese lunar exploration) and the lunar polar regions. The calculation period is from Oct. 1 , 2013 to Oct. 30, 2013. The results show that (1) in the Sinus Iridum region, the communication condition between tracking stations ( Beijing, Kunming, Shanghai and Urumchi) and the lunar rover is expedite, which is consistent with the region' s flat terrain; (2) in the polar regions, the influence of topography on the communication condition is great because of the topography complexity.%月球车通信可达性分析为研究月球车着陆点选择提供了依据.主要通过建立数学模型,将由测高数据获取的数字高程模型(DEM)和地-月轨道参数相结合,来研究我国月球探测首选着陆区虹湾地区和月球极区的通信条件受地形条件的影响.利用“嫦娥一号”探月卫星获取的激光测高数据,得到了全月面高精度的DEM,为本研究的进行提供了精确的数据基础.本研究选取的计算时间为2013年10月1日到2013年10月30日止.计算结果表明:(1)在虹湾地区,测控上海站、昆明站、北京站和乌鲁木齐站与月球车之间的通信条件不受月面地形的影响,通信畅通,这与该地区平坦的地势是一致的;(2)月球极区由于地形的复杂性,通信条件受地形的影响很大.

  4. Bounding Extreme Spacecraft Charging in the Lunar Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda N.

    2008-01-01

    Robotic and manned spacecraft from the Apollo era demonstrated that the lunar surface in daylight will charge to positive potentials of a few tens of volts because the photoelectron current dominates the charging process. In contrast, potentials of the lunar surface in darkness which were predicted to be on the order of a hundred volts negative in the Apollo era have been shown more recently to reach values of a few hundred volts negative with extremes on the order of a few kilovolts. The recent measurements of night time lunar surface potentials are based on electron beams in the Lunar Prospector Electron Reflectometer data sets interpreted as evidence for secondary electrons generated on the lunar surface accelerated through a plasma sheath from a negatively charged lunar surface. The spacecraft potential was not evaluated in these observations and therefore represents a lower limit to the magnitude of the lunar negative surface potential. This paper will describe a method for obtaining bounds on the magnitude of lunar surface potentials from spacecraft measurements in low lunar orbit based on estimates of the spacecraft potential. We first use Nascap-2k surface charging analyses to evaluate potentials of spacecraft in low lunar orbit and then include the potential drops between the ambient space environment and the spacecraft to the potential drop between the lunar surface and the ambient space environment to estimate the lunar surface potential from the satellite measurements.

  5. Understanding the Reactivity of Lunar Dust for Future Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Taylor, L. A.; Jeevarajan, Antony

    2009-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, dust was found to cause numerous problems for various instruments and systems. Additionally, the dust may have caused momentary health issues for some of the astronauts. Therefore, the plan to resume robotic and manned missions to the Moon in the next decade has led to a renewed interest in the properties of lunar dust, ranging from geological to chemical to toxicological. An important property to understand is the reactivity of the dust particles. Due to the lack of an atmosphere on the Moon, there is nothing to protect the lunar soil from ultraviolet radiation, solar wind, and meteorite impacts. These processes could all serve to activate the soil, or produce reactive surface species. On the Moon, these species can be maintained for millennia without oxygen or water vapor present to satisfy the broken bonds. Unfortunately, the Apollo dust samples that were returned to Earth were inadvertently exposed to the atmosphere, causing them to lose their reactive characteristics. In order to aid in the preparation of mitigation techniques prior to returning to the Moon, we measured the ability of lunar dust, lunar dust simulant, and quartz samples to produce hydroxyl radicals in solution[1]. As a first approximation of meteorite impacts on the lunar surface, we ground samples using a mortar and pestle. Our initial studies showed that all three test materials (lunar dust (62241), lunar dust simulant (JSC-1Avf), and quartz) produced hydroxyl radicals after grinding and mixing with water. However, the radical production of the ground lunar dust was approximately 10-fold and 3-fold greater than quartz and JSC-1 Avf, respectively. These reactivity differences between the different samples did not correlate with differences in specific surface area. The increased reactivity produced for the quartz by grinding was attributed to the presence of silicon- or oxygen-based radicals on the surface, as had been seen previously[2]. These radicals may also

  6. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  7. On an assessment of surface roughness estimates from lunar laser altimetry pulse-widths for the Moon from LOLA using LROC narrow-angle stereo DTMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jan-Peter; Poole, William

    2013-04-01

    Neumann et al. [1] proposed that laser altimetry pulse-widths could be employed to derive "within-footprint" surface roughness as opposed to surface roughness estimated from between laser altimetry pierce-points such as the example for Mars [2] and more recently from the 4-pointed star-shaped LOLA (Lunar reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Altimeter) onboard the NASA-LRO [3]. Since 2009, the LOLA has been collecting extensive global laser altimetry data with a 5m footprint and ?25m between the 5 points in a star-shape. In order to assess how accurately surface roughness (defined as simple RMS after slope correction) derived from LROC matches with surface roughness derived from LOLA footprints, publicly released LROC-NA (LRO Camera Narrow Angle) 1m Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) were employed to measure the surface roughness directly within each 5m footprint. A set of 20 LROC-NA DTMs were examined. Initially the match-up between the LOLA and LROC-NA orthorectified images (ORIs) is assessed visually to ensure that the co-registration is better than the LOLA footprint resolution. For each LOLA footprint, the pulse-width geolocation is then retrieved and this is used to "cookie-cut" the surface roughness and slopes derived from the LROC-NA DTMs. The investigation which includes data from a variety of different landforms shows little, if any correlation between surface roughness estimated from DTMs with LOLA pulse-widths at sub-footprint scale. In fact there is only any perceptible correlation between LOLA and LROC-DTMs at baselines of 40-60m for surface roughness and 20m for slopes. [1] Neumann et al. Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter pulse width measurements and footprint-scale roughness. Geophysical Research Letters (2003) vol. 30 (11), paper 1561. DOI: 10.1029/2003GL017048 [2] Kreslavsky and Head. Kilometer-scale roughness of Mars: results from MOLA data analysis. J Geophys Res (2000) vol. 105 (E11) pp. 26695-26711. [3] Rosenburg et al. Global surface slopes and roughness of the

  8. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  9. Contaminant Robust System for Oxygen Production from Lunar Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The necessity of oxygen for consumption by human inhabitants on the lunar surface is readily apparent. NASA is pursuing several ways to generate oxygen from lunar...

  10. Lunar surface traces of engine jets of Soviet sample return probes: The enigma of the Luna-23 and Luna-24 landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Yuriy; Kaydash, Vadym; Sysolyatina, Xenija; Razim, Alexandra; Videen, Gorden

    2013-01-01

    We use a photometric method called phase-ratio imaging to study the landing sites of the Soviet Luna-16, Luna-20, Luna-23 and Luna-24 probes using the survey data of the lunar surface, which was carried out with the Narrow-Angle Cameras (NACs) of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. The phase-ratio images clearly show diffuse features associated with structure perturbations of the lunar regolith. We suggest that these features are caused by the impact of the gas jets from the rocket engines. The photometric anomalies around the landing sites suggest that the impacts smooth out the surface, destroying the primordial "fairy castle" structure that effectively produces the shadow-hiding effect. The same characteristic features have been found previously for the Apollo spacecraft landings, but over larger spatial scales. The only exception is the landing site of the Luna-24 probe, for which the feature of the possible impact of the gas jets is shifted to the northwest by approximately 150 m. As the Luna-24 descent module worked in the regular mode and could not allow such a shift as the probe was descending vertically, a possible explanation is that the sites of Luna-23 (an unsuccessful sample return mission) and Luna-24 are misidentified. The distance between the sites is about 2 km, which is within the inaccuracy of their coordinate determination. We suggest that because of faulty processing of the radar system for distance/speed control, the incorrectly operated engine and/or thrusters of Luna-23 produced the 150 m lateral drift before final deactivation and hard descent. To better understand the geologic situation, we produce brightness and phase-ratio anaglyphs for the vicinity of the landings.

  11. Lunar Beagle and Lunar Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2010-12-01

    The study of the elements and molecules of astrobiological interest on the Moon can be made with the Gas Analysis Package (GAP) and associated instruments developed for the Beagle 2 Mars Express Payload. The permanently shadowed polar regions of the Moon may offer a unique location for the "cold-trapping" of the light elements (i.e. H, C, N, O, etc.) and their simple compounds. Studies of the returned lunar samples have shown that lunar materials have undergone irradiation with the solar wind and adsorb volatiles from possible cometary and micrometeoroid impacts. The Beagle 2's analytical instrument package including the sample processing facility and the GAP mass spectrometer can provide vital isotopic information that can distinguish whether the lunar volatiles are indigenous to the moon, solar wind derived, cometary in origin or from meteoroids impacting on the Moon. As future Lunar Landers are being considered, the suite of instruments developed for the Mars Beagle 2 lander can be consider as the baseline for any lunar volatile or resource instrument package.

  12. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.; Frazier, J.; Nein, M.

    1993-09-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-m aperture telescope for imaging the stellar ultraviolet spectrum from the lunar surface. The aspects of Lute's educational value and the information it can provide on designing for the long-term exposure to the lunar environment are important considerations. This paper briefly summarizes the status of the phase A study by the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) LUTE Task Team. The primary focus will be a discussion of the merits of LUTE as a small and relatively inexpensive project that benefits a wide spectrum of interests and could be operating on the lunar surface by the turn of the century.

  13. Electrostatic Characterization of Lunar Dust Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, C. I.; Buhler, C. R.; Ritz, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    Lunar dust can jeopardize exploration activities due to its ability to cling to most surfaces. In this paper, we report on our measurements of the electrostatic properties of the lunar soil simulants. Methods have been developed to measure the volume resistivity, dielectric constant, chargeability, and charge decay of lunar soil. While the first two parameters have been measured in the past [Olhoeft 1974], the last two have never been measured directly on the lunar regolith or on any of the Apollo samples. Measurements of the electrical properties of the lunar samples are being performed in an attempt to answer important problems that must be solved for the development of an effective dust mitigation technology, namely, how much charge can accumulate on the dust and how long does the charge remain on surfaces. The measurements will help develop coatings that are compatible with the intrinsic electrostatic properties of the lunar regolith.

  14. Efforts to Find, Recover and Restore "A National Treasure", The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Neal, C. R.; Chi, P. J.; Williams, D. R.; Schmidt, G. K.; Currie, D. G.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Horanyi, M.; Gruen, E.; Dyal, P.; Freeman, J. W.; Reiff, P. H.; Bates, J.; Hager, M. A.; Kiefer, W. S.; Perkins, D.

    2014-12-01

    ALSEP science stations were deployed by Apollo astronauts at 5 Apollo lunar landing sites and were comprised of 13 active science experiments which were flown 4 to 8 at a time. All ALSEPs were turned-off on 9-30-1977, after they had generated a data set of 31 system data years and an experiment data set of over 100 data years. The 3 passive laser retroreflector experiments are still providing useable return signals. The plan was for NASA to archive the raw data, while PI Teams archived their processed data in GSFC-NSSDC. In 1975 funding for science experiments was drastically reduced. Archiving of experiments data was incomplete and in other cases experiment years of data were never analyzed. JSC's ALSEP operations manager at-end-mission stressed that the 10s of 1,000s of pages of ALSEP operational and background materals be archived in Lunar and Planetary Library for future use. In 2004 there was a renewed interest in old ALSEP science data. However, current investigators found ALSEP data very difficult to use because of its archaic formats, rerecording artifacts, and lack of suitable playback tape transports. In 2007 a group of original ALSEP personnel, current lunar investigators, and personnel from NSSDC began an effort to help solve ALSEP data availability problems. NSSDC PDS established a Lunar Node whose role was to restore the existing ALSEP data into forms which could be used by current lunar investigators. Excellent progress was achieved in several areas*. In 2010 NLSI made the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data, a NLSI Focus Group. The group estimated 50 percent of ALSEP processed data and 80 percent of ALSEP experiments raw data were never archived with NSSDC. We suspect archival raw data tapes for the first 44 ALSEP mission months (AMM) were degaussed and reused, those for AMM 45 to 79 were lost, misplaced or destroyed in a complex system of NASA, government, industrial storage facilities (except for ~450 tapes located by S. Nagihara). The last 19 AMMs of

  15. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  16. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  17. The origin and geological significance of lunar ridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Lunar ridges are a kind of familiar linear structures developed on the lunar surface. The distribution pattern, formation mechanism and research significance of lunar ridges are discussed in this paper. Single lunar ridges are usually distributed in the form of broken lineation, and, as whole, lunar ridges are trapezoidal or annular in shape around the maria. As to the formation mechanism, only volcanism or tectonism was emphasized in the past, but the two processes are seldom taken into combined consideration. On the basis of detailed analyses, the authors thought that tectonism is a prerequisite for the formation of lunar ridges, while volcanism is the key factor controlling their particular shapes. Finally, the authors pointed out that it is very significant in the study of lunar ridges to link the course of lunar structure evolution with the stress state in the lunar crust.

  18. Microwave Brightness Temperature and Lunar Son Dielectric Property Retrieve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Wu; D.H. Li; A.T. Altyntsev; B.I. Lubyshev

    2005-01-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become more and more attractive to the scientists duo to the existence of abundant 3He and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization. Although the soil composition determination on the lunar surface is available by visible light spectrometer, γ/X-ray spectrometer etc, the evaluations on the total reserves of 3He and ilmenite in the lunar deep and on the thickness of the lunar soil are still impossible so far. In this paper, the authors first give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 Meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope; then introduce our researches on the microwave dielectric properties of lunar soil simulators; finally, discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  19. Synergism of He-3 acquisition with lunar base evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabb, Thomas M.; Jacobs, Mark K.

    1988-09-01

    It is shown how acquisition of He-3 affects Lunar Base development and operation. A four phase evolutionary Lunar Base scenario is summarized with initial equipment mass and resupply requirements. Requirements for various He-3 mining operations are shown and available by-products are identified. Impacts of mining He-3 on Lunar Base development include increases in equipment masses to be delivered to the lunar surface and a reduction of Lunar Base resupply based on availability of He-3 acquisition by-products. It is concluded that the acquisition of this valuable fusion fuel element greatly enhances the commercial potential of a Lunar Base.

  20. Lunar resources: possibilities for utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Vladislav

    South polar regions that satisfy the stated goals. Lunar titanium: Objectives of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbital (LRO) mission are to find potential safe landing sites and locate potential resources. New imaging from NASA' LRO has shown the Moon has areas that are rich in titanium ore. Some lunar rocks have ten times as much titanium ore as rocks on Earth. The titanium deposits were observed with the help of visible and ultraviolet imaging. The researchers scanned the lunar surface, collecting roughly 4,000 images, and compared the brightness in the range of wavelengths from ultraviolet to visible light. The scientists then cross-referenced their findings with lunar samples that were brought back to Earth from NASA's Apollo flights and the Russian Luna missions. The abundance of titanium has puzzled researchers. While rocks on Earth contain around one percent titanium at most, the lunar rocks ranged from one percent all the way up to ten percent. Researchers still don't why the titanium levels are higher on the moon, but do believe it gives insight into the conditions of the Moon shortly after it formed. The titanium seems to be found primarily in the mineral ilmenite, a compound containing iron, titanium, and oxygen. Lunar rare earth elements: The Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) dominates the nearside of the Moon. "KREEP" is an acronym for lunar rocks that are high in potassium (K), rare earth elements (REE), and phosphorous (P). The PKT is a mixture of assorted rocks, including most of the mare basalts on the Moon, and is characterized by high Th (about 5 parts per million on average). This region has also been called the "high-Th Oval Region". PKT occupies about 16% of the lunar surface.

  1. FLARE: The Far Side Lunar Research Expedition. A design of a far side lunar observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David W.; Chakrabarty, Rudhmala P.; Hannula, Dawn M.; Hargus, William A., Jr.; Melendrez, A. Dean; Niemann, Christopher J.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Padgett, Brett D.; Patel, Sanjiv R.; Wiesehuegel, Leland J.

    1991-12-01

    This document outlines the design completed by members of Lone Star Aerospace, Inc. (L.S.A.) of a lunar observatory on the far side of the Moon. Such a base would not only establish a long term human presence on the Moon, but would also allow more accurate astronomical data to be obtained. A lunar observatory is more desirable than an Earth based observatory for the following reasons: instrument weight is reduced due to the Moon's weaker gravity; near vacuum conditions exist on the Moon; the Moon has slow rotation to reveal the entire sky; and the lunar surface is stable for long baseline instruments. All the conditions listed above are favorable for astronomical data recording. The technical aspects investigated in the completion of this project included site selection, mission scenario, scientific instruments, communication and power systems, habitation and transportation, cargo spacecraft design, thermal systems, robotic systems, and trajectory analysis. The site selection group focused its efforts on finding a suitable location for the observatory. Hertzsprung, a large equatorial crater on the eastern limb, was chosen as the base site.

  2. A scheme of lunar surface nuclear reactor power%月球表面核反应堆电源方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成志; 胡古; 解家春; 赵守智; 郭键

    2015-01-01

    月球基地的建立首先需要解决能源供给问题,核反应堆电源具有功率大、寿命长、环境适应性强等优点,是月球基地及其他深空探测任务的理想能源.分析了目前可用于月球基地的能源情况,针对性地提出40 kWa月球表面核反应堆电源的设计理念,经初步优化设计,给出该电源的方案和总体设计参数,并从物理、屏蔽、热工、结构方面对电源方案进行分析和论证.结果表明:该电源方案合理可行,能够满足安全和寿期要求.%To establish a lunar base,the energy supply is a first issue to be solved.The nuclear reactor power has the advantages of high power,long service life and environmental resistance ability.It is an ideal energy solution option for the lunar base and other deep space exploration missions.A brief analysis of the current status of the energy resources that can be used for a lunar base is made.The design idea of a 40 kW nuclear reactor power for the lunar surface is proposed.After the preliminary optimization design,the scheme and the overall design parameters of the nuclear reactor power are given.Finally,the power scheme is analyzed and demonstrated from the aspects of the reactor physics,the shielding,the thermal performance and structure.It is shown that the nuclear reactor power scheme is reasonable and feasible.It can meet the requirements of safety and long life service.

  3. Modeling phase-angle dependence of lunar irradiance using long-term lunar measurements by VIRS on TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xi; Zhang, Bin; Cao, Changyong

    2014-11-01

    Moon reflects sun light and its surface is radiometicly stable, making it an ideal target for calibrating satellite radiometers. Since lunar irradiance depends strongly on lunar phase and differs between waxing and waning phases, an accurate modeling of dependence of lunar irradiance on lunar phase angle is needed and requires long term consistent observations of the moon. Since its operation in 1998, the Visible and Infrared Scanner (VIRS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite makes regular observations of moon through space view for about 15 years with comprehensive coverage of lunar phases varying from waxing to waning. Two of these VIRS bands are reflected solar bands centered at 0.62 and 1.61um. Lunar measurements through space view of VIRS are not subject to atmospheric effects. Therefore, long term lunar observation by VIRS on TRMM is an invaluable dataset for both verifying and calibrating lunar irradiance models. In this study, analysis of long-term lunar observations using VIRS data are performed and phase-angle dependence of lunar irradiance is modeled. Effects of waxing and waning phases on lunar irradiance for two visible bands of VIRS are quantified. It is found that the lunar disk-integrated intensity of waxing lunar phase is higher than those of waning phase for phase angle >40° for both channels and is consistent with the fact that the waning moon shows more of dark maria. The derived phase angledependences of lunar disk effective reflectance for these two channels are compared with model.

  4. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.

  5. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  6. Lunar Commercial Mining Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Walter P.; Citron, Bob; Taylor, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Innovative commercial logistics is required for supporting lunar resource recovery operations and assisting larger consortiums in lunar mining, base operations, camp consumables and the future commercial sales of propellant over the next 50 years. To assist in lowering overall development costs, ``reuse'' innovation is suggested in reusing modified LTS in-space hardware for use on the moon's surface, developing product lines for recovered gases, regolith construction materials, surface logistics services, and other services as they evolve, (Kistler, Citron and Taylor, 2005) Surface logistics architecture is designed to have sustainable growth over 50 years, financed by private sector partners and capable of cargo transportation in both directions in support of lunar development and resource recovery development. The author's perspective on the importance of logistics is based on five years experience at remote sites on Earth, where remote base supply chain logistics didn't always work, (Taylor, 1975a). The planning and control of the flow of goods and materials to and from the moon's surface may be the most complicated logistics challenges yet to be attempted. Affordability is tied to the innovation and ingenuity used to keep the transportation and surface operations costs as low as practical. Eleven innovations are proposed and discussed by an entrepreneurial commercial space startup team that has had success in introducing commercial space innovation and reducing the cost of space operations in the past. This logistics architecture offers NASA and other exploring nations a commercial alternative for non-essential cargo. Five transportation technologies and eleven surface innovations create the logistics transportation system discussed.

  7. Lunar Dust Contamination Effects on Lunar Base Thermal Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, John R.; Ewert, Michael K.

    2000-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to develop a thermal control system that can operate under the extreme thermal environments found on the lunar surface. While these proposed heat rejection systems use different methods to reject heat, each system contains a similar component, a thermal radiator system. These studies have always considered pristine thermal control system components and have overlooked the possible deleterious effects of lunar dust contamination. Since lunar dust has a high emissivity and absorptivity (greater than 0.9) and is opaque, dust accumulation on a surface should radically alter its optical properties and therefore alter its thermal response compared to ideal conditions. In addition, the non-specular nature of the dust particles will alter the performance of systems that employ specular surfaces to enhance heat rejection. To date, few studies have examined the effect of dust deposition on the normal control system components. These studies only focused on a single heat rejection or photovoltaic system. These studies did show that lunar dust accumulations alter the optical properties of any lunar base hardware, which in turn affects component temperatures, and heat rejection. Therefore, a new study was conducted to determine the effect of lunar dust contamination on heat rejection systems. For this study, a previously developed dust deposition model was incorporated into the Thermal Synthesizer System (TSS) model. This modeling scheme incorporates the original method of predicting dust accumulation due to vehicle landings by assuming that the thin dust layer can be treated as a semitransparent surface slightly above and in thermal contact with the pristine surface. The results of this study showed that even small amounts of dust deposits can radically alter the performance of the heat rejection systems. Furthermore. this study indicates that heat rejection systems be either located far from any landing sites or be protected from dust

  8. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  9. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  10. Global Mg/Si and Al/Si Distributions on the Lunar Surface Derived from Chang'E-2 X-ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The technique of X-ray fluorescence remote sensing plays a significant role in research related to the chemical compositions of the Moon. Here we describe the data analysis method for China's Chang'E-2 X-ray spectrometer in detail and present the preliminary results about the first global Mg/Si and Al/Si maps of the lunar surface. Our results show that the distributions of Mg/Si and Al/Si correlate well with terrains on the Moon. The higher Mg/Si ratio corresponds to the mare regions while the lower value corresponds to the highland terrains. The map of the Al/Si ratio shows a reversed distribution compared with the map of the Mg/Si ratio.

  11. Global Mg/Si and Al/Si Distributions on Lunar Surface Derived from Chang'E-2 X-ray Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Wu-Dong; Zhu, Meng-Hua; Xu, Aoao; Tang, Zesheng

    2015-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence remote sensing technique plays a significant role in the chemical compositions research of the Moon. Here we describe the data analysis method for China's Chang'E-2 X-ray spectrometer (CE2XRS) in detail and present the preliminary results: the first global Mg/Si and Al/Si maps on the lunar surface. Our results show that the distributions of Mg/Si and Al/Si correlate well with the terrains of the Moon. The higher Mg/Si ratio corresponding to the mare regions while the lower value corresponding to the highland terrains. The map of Al/Si ratio shows a reverse relationship with the map of Mg/Si ratio.

  12. Lunar Ice Cube: Searching for Lunar Volatiles with a lunar cubesat orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Pamela E.; Malphrus, Ben; Brown, Kevin; Hurford, Terry; Brambora, Cliff; MacDowall, Robert; Folta, David; Tsay, Michael; Brandon, Carl; Lunar Ice Cube Team

    2016-10-01

    Lunar Ice Cube, a NASA HEOMD NextSTEP science requirements-driven deep space exploration 6U cubesat, will be deployed, with 12 others, by NASA's EM1 mission. The mission's high priority science application is understanding volatile origin, distribution, and ongoing processes in the inner solar system. JPL's Lunar Flashlight, and Arizona State University's LunaH-Map, also lunar orbiters to be deployed by EM1, will provide complementary observations. Lunar Ice Cube utilizes a versatile GSFC-developed payload: BIRCHES, Broadband InfraRed Compact, High-resolution Exploration Spectrometer, a miniaturized version of OVIRS on OSIRIS-REx. BIRCHES is a compact (1.5U, 2 kg, 20 W including cryocooler) point spectrometer with a compact cryocooled HgCdTe focal plane array for broadband (1 to 4 micron) measurements and Linear Variable Filter enabling 10 nm spectral resolution. The instrument will achieve sufficient SNR to identify water in various forms, mineral bands, and potentially other volatiles seen by LCROSS (e.g., CH4) as well. GSFC is developing compact instrument electronics easily configurable for H1RG family of focal plane arrays. The Lunar Ice Cube team is led by Morehead State University, who will provide build, integrate and test the spacecraft and provide mission operations. Onboard communication will be provided by the X-band JPL Iris Radio and dual X-band patch antennas. Ground communication will be provided by the DSN X-band network, particularly the Morehead State University 21-meter substation. Flight Dynamics support is provided by GSFC. The Busek micropropulsion system in a low energy trajectory will allow the spacecraft to achieve the science orbit less than a year. The high inclination, equatorial periapsis orbit will allow coverage of overlapping swaths once every lunar cycle at up to six different times of day (from dawn to dusk) as the mission progresses during its nominal six month science mapping period. Led by the JPL Science PI, the Lunar Ice Cube

  13. Design and Demonstration of Minimal Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boche-Sauvan, L.; Foing, B. H.; Exohab Team

    2009-04-01

    Introduction: We propose a conceptual analysis of a first minimal lunar base, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture [1-3]. We justify the case for a scientific outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of the Earth, geophysical and geochemical studies of the Moon, life sciences, observation from the Moon). Research: Research activities will be conducted with this first settlement in: - science (of, from and on the Moon) - exploration (robotic mobility, rover, drilling), - technology (communication, command, organisation, automatism). Life sciences. The life sciences aspects are considered through a life support for a crew of 4 (habitat) and a laboratory activity with biological experiments performed on Earth or LEO, but then without any magnetosphere protection and therefore with direct cosmic rays and solar particle effects. Moreover, the ability of studying the lunar environment in the field will be a big asset before settling a permanent base [3-5]. Lunar environment. The lunar environment adds constraints to instruments specifications (vacuum, extreme temperature, regolith, seism, micrometeorites). SMART-1 and other missions data will bring geometrical, chemical and physical details about the environment (soil material characteristics, on surface conditions …). Test bench. To assess planetary technologies and operations preparing for Mars human exploration. Lunar outpost predesign modular concept: To allow a human presence on the moon and to carry out these experiments, we will give a pre-design of a human minimal lunar base. Through a modular concept, this base will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon

  14. Hazard Detection Methods for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tye; Zimpfer, Doug; Robertson, Edward; Epp, Chirold; Paschall, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The methods and experiences from the Apollo Program are fundamental building blocks for the development of lunar landing strategies for the Constellation Program. Each of the six lunar landing Apollo missions landed under near ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts visually performed terrain relative navigation while looking out of windows, and were greatly aided by external communication and well lit scenes. As the LM approached the landing site, the astronauts performed visual hazard detection and avoidance, also under near-ideal lighting conditions. The astronauts were looking out of the windows trying to the best of their ability to avoid rocks, slopes, and craters and find a safe landing location. NASA has expressed a desire for global lunar access for both crewed and robotic sortie lunar exploration missions (Cook, 2007) (Dale, 2006). Early NASA architecture studies have identified the lunar poles as desirable locations for early lunar missions. These polar missions have less than ideal lighting conditions and will significantly affect the way a crewed vehicle plans to land at such locales. Consequently, a variety of hazard identification methods should be considered for use by the crew to ensure a high degree of safety. This paper discusses such identification methods applicable to the poorly lit polar lunar environment, better ensuring global access for the soon to be designed Lunar Lander Vehicle (LLV).

  15. Design of a lunar propellant processing facility. NASA/USRA advanced program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Rajesh; Bell, Jason; Campbell, J. Matt; Cash, Tom; Collins, John; Dailey, Brian; France, Angelique; Gareau, Will; Gleckler, Mark; Hamilton, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Mankind's exploration of space will eventually lead to the establishment of a permanent human presence on the Moon. Essential to the economic viability of such an undertaking will be prudent utilization of indigenous lunar resources. The design of a lunar propellant processing system is presented. The system elements include facilities for ore processing, ice transportation, water splitting, propellant storage, personnel and materials transportation, human habitation, power generation, and communications. The design scenario postulates that ice is present in the lunar polar regions, and that an initial lunar outpost was established. Mining, ore processing, and water transportation operations are located in the polar regions. Water processing and propellant storage facilities are positioned near the equator. A general description of design operations is outlined below. Regolith containing the ice is mined from permanently-shaded polar craters. Water is separated from the ore using a microwave processing technique, and refrozen into projectiles for launch to the equatorial site via railgun. A mass-catching device retrieves the ice. This ice is processed using fractional distillation to remove impurities, and the purified liquid water is fed to an electrolytic cell that splits the water into vaporous hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen and oxygen are condensed and stored separately in a tank farm. Electric power for all operations is supplied by SP-100 nuclear reactors. Transportation of materials and personnel is accomplished primarily using chemical rockets. Modular living habitats are used which provide flexibility for the placement and number of personnel. A communications system consisting of lunar surface terminals, a lunar relay satellite, and terrestrial surface stations provides capabilities for continuous Moon-Moon and Moon-Earth transmissions of voice, picture, and data.

  16. Global small-scale lunar cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipskiy, Y. N.; Pskovskiy, Y. P.; Rodionova, Z. F.; Shevchenko, V. V.; Chikmachev, V. I.; Volchkova, L. I.

    1972-01-01

    The primary sources information for compiling this map were the photographs of the visible hemisphere obtained by earth-based observatories, the Luna 3 and Zond 3 pictures, and a small number of Lunar Orbiter pictures. The primary content of the complete lunar map is the surface relief and its tonal characteristics. In preparing the map, particular attention was devoted to the variety of lunar relief forms. The color spectrum of the map was selected not only for the natural coloring of the lunar surface, but also with the objective of achieving maximum expressiveness. A lunar globe to scale 1:10 million was prepared along with the preparation of the map. The scale of the globe, half that of the map, led to some selection and generalization of the relief forms. The globe permits maintaining simultaneously geometric similarity of contours, exact proportions of areas, and identical scales in all directions. The globe was prepared in both the Latin and Russian languages.

  17. Lunar sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, David L.

    Ideas introduced by Vaniman, Pettit and Heiken in their 1988 Uses of Lunar Sulfur are expanded. Particular attention is given to uses of SO2 as a mineral-dressing fluid. Also introduced is the concept of using sulfide-based concrete as an alternative to the sulfur-based concretes proposed by Leonard and Johnson. Sulfur is abundant in high-Ti mare basalts, which range from 0.16 to 0.27 pct. by weight. Terrestrial basalts with 0.15 pct. S are rare. For oxygen recovery, sulfur must be driven off with other volatiles from ilmenite concentrates, before reduction. Troilite (FeS) may be oxidized to magnetite (Fe3O4) and SO2 gas, by burning concentrates in oxygen within a magnetic field, to further oxidize ilmenite before regrinding the magnetic reconcentration. SO2 is liquid at -20 C, the mean temperature underground on the Moon, at a minimum of 0.6 atm pressure. By using liquid SO2 as a mineral dressing fluid, all the techniques of terrestrial mineral separation become available for lunar ores and concentrates. Combination of sulfur and iron in an exothermic reaction, to form iron sulfides, may be used to cement grains of other minerals into an anhydrous iron-sulfide concrete. A sulfur-iron-aggregate mixture may be heated to the ignition temperature of iron with sulfur to make a concrete shape. The best iron, sulfur, and aggregate ratios need to be experimentally established. The iron and sulfur will be by-products of oxygen production from lunar minerals.

  18. A Compact, Broadband Antenna for Planetary Surface-to-Surface Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Philip; Zaman, Afroz; Miranda, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The Compact Microstrip Monopole Antenna (CMMA) is a novel antenna design that combines a microstrip patch antenna with a three-dimensional structure to attain a highly directive, broadband, compact antenna. A Tri-Lobed Patch (TLP) was designed to minimize the patch's area while reducing the antenna's operating frequency. A Grounding Wall (GW) connects the patch to the ground plane and a Vertical Enclosure Wall (VEW) extends up away from portions of the patch's perimeter. This VEW supplies the antenna with a higher directivity in the radial direction as well as reduces the operating frequency. The CMMA was designed to operate at 2.23 GHz, but experimental results have shown this antenna resonates at 2.05 GHz which is on the order of approximately Lambda(sub o)/11.6 with respect to the antenna's largest dimension, with a directivity and bandwidth of 6.0 dBi, and 130 MHz (6.3 percent), respectively. This miniature, radially emitting antenna makes the CMMA attractive for planetary-based surface-to-surface communications.

  19. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Ainslie, M.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform-related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modelling

  20. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—Sea-surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate m

  1. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main non-platform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modeling

  2. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Ainslie, M.A.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform-related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modelling

  3. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract—Sea-surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main nonplatform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate m

  4. Simulation of an Underwater Acoustic Communication Channel Characterized by Wind-Generated Surface Waves and Bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, H.S.; Colin, M.E.G.D.; Ainslie, M.A.; Walree, P.A. van; Janmaat, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface scattering by wind-generated waves and bubbles is regarded to be the main non-platform related cause of the time variability of shallow acoustic communication channels. Simulations for predicting the quality of acoustic communication links in such channels thus require adequate modeling

  5. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  6. Degradation sequence of young lunar craters from orbital infrared survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Mendell, W. W.

    1993-01-01

    Using new software, nighttime thermal maps of the lunar surface have been generated from data obtained by the Apollo 17 Infrared Scanning Radiometer (ISR) in lunar orbit. Most of the thermal anomalies observed in the maps correspond to fresh lunar craters because blocks on the lunar surface maintain a thermal contrast relative to surrounding soil during the lunar night. Craters of Erastosthenian age and older - relatively young by lunar standards - have developed soil covers that make them almost indistinguishable from their surroundings in the thermal data. Thermal images of Copernican age craters show various stages of a degradation process, allowing the craters to be ranked by age. The ISR data should yield insights into lunar surface evolution as well as a more detailed understanding of the bombardment history after formation of the great mare basins.

  7. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  8. Lunar science: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stuart Ross Taylor

    2005-12-01

    Before spacecraft exploration,facts about the Moon were restricted to information about the lunar orbit,angular momentum and density.Speculations about composition and origin were unconstrained.Naked eye and telescope observations revealed two major terrains,the old heavily cratered highlands and the younger mostly circular,lightly cratered maria.The lunar highlands were thought to be composed of granite or covered with volcanic ash-flows.The maria were thought to be sediments,or were full of dust,and possibly only a few million years old.A few perceptive observers such as Ralph Baldwin (Baldwin 1949)concluded that the maria were filled with volcanic lavas, but the absence of terrestrial-type central volcanoes like Hawaii was a puzzle. The large circular craters were particularly difficult to interpret.Some thought,even after the Apollo flights,that they were some analogue to terrestrial caldera (e.g.,Green 1971),formed by explosive volcanic activity and that the central peaks were volcanoes.The fact that the craters were mostly circular was difficult to accommodate if they were due to meteorite impact,as meteorites would hit the Moon at all angles.The rilles were taken by many as de finitive evidence that there was or had been,running water on the lunar surface.Others such as Carl Sagan thought that organic compounds were likely present (see Taylor 1975,p.111,note 139).

  9. Access to enterntainment and information programming for the crew as part of the communication system of future Mars mission or Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    In recent years the improtance of the psychologic conditions of the cure of a long- term Mars expedition (or a Lunar Base) is becoming a crucial factor concerning the success of such mission. The 500-day stay on Mars will be the longest planetary surface exploration opportunity ever experienced. [1] Manned planetary missions so far had no such long term isolation from the our cultural environment (or "bubble"), and cosmo - and astronauts consumed mostly recorded materials for enterntainment which will not be sufficent for such mission. The closest analogy for such a long-term isolation of a relatively small group of people is the situation at military bases or the American (or other) pioneer settlers. Both American and British Army uses an extensive enternatinment and information media network - both radio and TV - which provides programs for their personell in places which are out of the reach of their home media services but usually inside an other cultural environment. For a mission with a long duration (months or years), where the crew is absolutely cut off from Earth media and news (incl. politics, culture, music etc), especially for the flight time, it is important to create a special "buquet" of programs that keeps the crew inside the Earth cultural environment. In this paper I will discuss the technical requirements for the uplink to a Martian mission on the way to and from and on the surface of Mars, and the questions of optimal programming to such a mission, using the experiences from military media. The psychological problems encountered in space has been analyzed in great detail. [2] Kass and Kass list 28 such problems. Access to Earth mass media or quasi-live enterntainment and informational channel can help in solving the followings [from 3]: setting in of boredom and demoralisation; missing your own language - not fully fluent in the common language; lack of information sharing; confinement and isolation. A general homesickness would probably be an

  10. Microwave brightness temperature imaging and dielectric properties of lunar soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wu Ji; Li Dihui; Zhang Xiaohui; Jiang Jingshan; A T Altyntsev; B I Lubyshev

    2005-12-01

    Among many scientific objectives of lunar exploration, investigations on lunar soil become attractive due to the existence of He3 and ilmenite in the lunar soil and their possible utilization as nuclear fuel for power generation.Although the composition of the lunar surface soil can be determined by optical and /X-ray spectrometers, etc., the evaluation of the total reserves of He3 and ilmenite within the regolith and in the lunar interior are still not available.In this paper,we give a rough analysis of the microwave brightness temperature images of the lunar disc observed using the NRAO 12 meter Telescope and Siberian Solar Radio Telescope.We also present the results of the microwave dielectric properties of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil and,discuss some basic relations between the microwave brightness temperature and lunar soil properties.

  11. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M; Mahaffy, Paul; Boroson, D.; Delory, G.; Noble, s; Hine, B; Salute, J.

    2013-01-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250- kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30 days in the event of contingencies. Following commissioning, the 100-day Science Phase is

  12. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  13. The Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    clocks at the LLGT. A 5-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator ( VCO ) is used to generate the recovered 311-MHz slot clock in the LLST uplink receiver. This...same VCO is used to generate the 5-GHz slot clock for the optical downlink, thereby ensuring that the uplink and downlink slot clocks are phase

  14. Progress on the Development of Future Airport Surface Wireless Communications Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Budinger, James M.; Brooks, David E.; Franklin, Morgan; DeHart, Steve; Dimond, Robert P.; Borden, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Continuing advances in airport surface management and improvements in airport surface safety are required to enable future growth in air traffic throughout the airspace, as airport arrival and departure delays create a major system bottleneck. These airport management and safety advances will be built upon improved communications, navigation, surveillance, and weather sensing, creating an information environment supporting system automation. The efficient movement of the digital data generated from these systems requires an underlying communications network infrastructure to connect data sources with the intended users with the required quality of service. Current airport surface communications consists primarily of buried copper or fiber cable. Safety related communications with mobile airport surface assets occurs over 25 kHz VHF voice and data channels. The available VHF spectrum, already congested in many areas, will be insufficient to support future data traffic requirements. Therefore, a broadband wireless airport surface communications network is considered a requirement for the future airport component of the air transportation system. Progress has been made on defining the technology and frequency spectrum for the airport surface wireless communications network. The development of a test and demonstration facility and the definition of required testing and standards development are now underway. This paper will review the progress and planned future work.

  15. Bubble Growth in Lunar Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.

    2009-05-01

    Although Moon is usually said to be volatile-"free", lunar basalts are often vesicular with mm-size bubbles. The vesicular nature of the lunar basalts suggests that they contained some initial gas concentration. A recent publication estimated volatile concentrations in lunar basalts (Saal et al. 2008). This report investigates bubble growth on Moon and compares with that on Earth. Under conditions relevant to lunar basalts, bubble growth in a finite melt shell (i.e., growth of multiple regularly-spaced bubbles) is calculated following Proussevitch and Sahagian (1998) and Liu and Zhang (2000). Initial H2O content of 700 ppm (Saal et al. 2008) or lower is used and the effect of other volatiles (such as carbon dioxide, halogens, and sulfur) is ignored. H2O solubility at low pressures (Liu et al. 2005), concentration-dependent diffusivity in basalt (Zhang and Stolper 1991), and lunar basalt viscosity (Murase and McBirney 1970) are used. Because lunar atmospheric pressure is essentially zero, the confining pressure on bubbles is completely supplied by the overlying magma. Due to low H2O content in lunar basaltic melt (700 ppm H2O corresponds to a saturation pressure of 75 kPa), H2O bubbles only grow in the upper 16 m of a basalt flow or lake. A depth of 20 mm corresponds to a confining pressure of 100 Pa. Hence, vesicular lunar rocks come from very shallow depth. Some findings from the modeling are as follows. (a) Due to low confining pressure as well as low viscosity, even though volatile concentration is very low, bubble growth rate is extremely high, much higher than typical bubble growth rates in terrestrial melts. Hence, mm-size bubbles in lunar basalts are not strange. (b) Because the pertinent pressures are so low, bubble pressure due to surface tension plays a main role in lunar bubble growth, contrary to terrestrial cases. (c) Time scale to reach equilibrium bubble size increases as the confining pressure increases. References: (1) Liu Y, Zhang YX (2000) Earth

  16. Lunar base initiative 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, H. H.

    The return to the Moon is no longer a question of yes or no, but a question of when and how. The first landing of a human being on the lunar surface in 1969 was a purely national effort of the U.S.A. Building a lunar base and operating it in the next century is rather a task for all nations of this planet, even if one nation could do it alone. However, there are several alternatives to carry out such a program and these will and should be debated during the next years on an urgent basis. To do this, one has to take into account not only the historical accomplishments and the present trends of cooperation in space programs, but also recent geopolitical developments as well as the frame of reference established by international law. The case for an International Lunar Base (ILB) has been presented to the International Academy of Astronautics on 11 October 1987 by the IAA Ad Hoc Committee "Return-to-the-Moon". This draft of a position paper was subsequently published in Acta Astronautica Vol. 17, No. 5, (pp. 463-489) with the request of public debate particularly by the members of the Academy. Some 80 Academicians responded to this invitation by the President of the Academy and voiced their opinions on the questions and issues raised by this draft of a position paper. This led to a refinement of the arguments and assumptions made and it is now possible to prepare an improved position paper proposing concrete steps which may lead to an ILB. An issue of this proportion must start with a discussion of goals and objectives to be arranged in some kind of a ranked order. It also has to take note of the limitations existing at any time by the availability of suitable space transportation systems. These will determine the acquisition date and rate of growth of a lunar base. The logistics system will also greatly influence the base characteristics and layout. The availability of heavy lift launch vehicles would simplify the task and allow to concentrate the construction

  17. Lunar atmospheric H2 detections by the LAMP UV spectrograph on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. Alan; Cook, Jason C.; Chaufray, Jean-Yves; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the detection of H2 as seen in our analysis of twilight observations of the lunar atmosphere observed by the LAMP instrument aboard NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Using a large amount of data collected on the lunar atmosphere between September 2009 and March 2013, we have detected and identified, the presence of H2 in the native lunar atmosphere, for the first time. We derive a surface density for H2 of 1.2 ± 0.4 × 103 cm-3 at 120 K. This is about 10 times smaller than originally predicted, and several times smaller than previous upper limits from the Apollo era data.

  18. Lunar Science Conference, 6th, Houston, Tex., March 17-21, 1975, Proceedings. Volume 3 - Physical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    Recent investigations of the moon are reported. Topics discussed include the Apollo 17 site, selenography, craters, remote sensing, selenophysics, lunar surface fields and particles, magnetic properties of lunar samples, physical property measurements, surface-correlated properties, micrometeoroids, solar-system regoliths, and cosmic rays. Lunar orbital data maps are presented, and the evolution of lunar features is examined.

  19. A 3D immersed finite element method with non-homogeneous interface flux jump for applications in particle-in-cell simulations of plasma-lunar surface interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daoru; Wang, Pu; He, Xiaoming; Lin, Tao; Wang, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the need to handle complex boundary conditions efficiently and accurately in particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, this paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) linear immersed finite element (IFE) method with non-homogeneous flux jump conditions for solving electrostatic field involving complex boundary conditions using structured meshes independent of the interface. This method treats an object boundary as part of the simulation domain and solves the electric field at the boundary as an interface problem. In order to resolve charging on a dielectric surface, a new 3D linear IFE basis function is designed for each interface element to capture the electric field jump on the interface. Numerical experiments are provided to demonstrate the optimal convergence rates in L2 and H1 norms of the IFE solution. This new IFE method is integrated into a PIC method for simulations involving charging of a complex dielectric surface in a plasma. A numerical study of plasma-surface interactions at the lunar terminator is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the new method.

  20. The Lunar dusty plasmas -levitation and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    Lunar dust can exhibit unusual behavior -due to electron photoemission via solar-UV radiation the lunar surface represents a complex plasma -"dusty plasma". The dust grains and lunar surface are electrostatically charged by the Moon's interaction with the local plasma environ-ment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar UV and X-rays. This effect causes the like-charged surface and dust particles to repel each other, and creates a near-surface electric field. Lunar dust must be treated as a dusty plasma. Using analytic (kinetic (Vlasov) and magnetohydrodynamic theory ) and numerical modeling we show physical processes related to levitation and transport dusty plasma on the Moon. These dust grains could affect the lunar environment for radio wave and plasma diagnostics and interfere with exploration activities. References: 1. Wilson T.L. (1992), in Analysis of Interplanetary Dust, M. Zolensky et al. AIP Conf.Proc. 310, 33-44 (AIP, NY), 2.Wilson T.L."LUNAR DUST AND DUSTY PLASMA PHYSICS".40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2009), 3. Grün E., et al.(1993),Nature 363, 144. 4. Morfill G. and Grün E.(1979), Planet. Space Sci.. 27, 1269, 1283, 5. Manka R. and Michel F. (1971), Proc. 2nd Lun. Sci. Conf. 2, 1717 (MIT Press, Cambridge). 6. Manka R. et al.(1973), Lun. Sci.-III, 504. 7. Barbara Atamaniuk "Kinetic Description of Localized Plasma Structure in Dusty Plasmas". Czechoslovak Journal of Physics Vol.54 C 2004

  1. Regenerable Lunar Airborne Dust Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effective methods are needed to control pervasive Lunar Dust within spacecraft and surface habitations. Once inside, airborne transmission is the primary mode of...

  2. Lunar Regolith Stabilization for Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During lunar exploration, regolith is both the major available resource and a substantial obstacle in establishing a long-term presence. The fine surface dust is...

  3. Discovery and characterization of lunar materials: An incomplete process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D.

    1991-01-01

    Our knowledge of lunar materials is based on (1) sample collections (by the Apollo and Lunar missions, supplemented by Antarctic lunar meteorites); and (2) remote sensing (Earth-based or by spacecraft). The characterization of lunar materials is limited by the small number of sampled sites and the incomplete remote-sensing database (geochemical data collected from orbit cover 20 percent of the lunar surface). There is much about lunar surface materials that remains to be discovered. Listed are some features suspected form present knowledge: (1) Polar Materials; (2) Farside Materials; (3) Crater-Floor Materials; (4) Crater-Wall and Central Peak Materials; (5) Volcanic Shield and Dome Materials; (6) Transient-Event Materials; and (7) Meteoritic and Cometary Materials; This short list of likely discoveries isn't exhaustive. We know much about a few spots on the Moon, but little about the full range of lunar materials.

  4. Estimation of minimum surface temperature at stage ll (Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Dimri

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting minimum surface temperature at a station, Stage II, located in mountainous region requires information on the meteorological fields. An attempt has been made to develop a statistical model for forecasting minimum temperature at ground level using previous years' data. Surface data were collected at StageII (longitude 73 oB, latitude 34 oN, and altitude 2650 m. Atmospheric variables are influenced by complex orography and surface features to a great extent. In the present study, statistical relationship between atmosphere parameters and minimum temperature at the site has been established. Multivariate linear regression analysis has been used to establish the relationship to predict the minimum surface temperature for the following day. A comparison between the observed and the calculated forecast minimum temperature has been made. Most of the cases are well predicted (multiple correlation coefficient of 0.94.

  5. Lunar radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Spence, Harlan; Wilson, Jody

    One of the goals of the CRaTER investigation is to characterize the radiation environment near the Moon in order to enable exploration. The state-of-the-art understanding developed thus far during the LRO mission is documented in a special issue of the Spaceweather Journal entitled “Space Weather: Building the observational foundation to deduce biological effects of space radiation” (Schwadron et al., 2013a). This recently published CRaTER work probes deeper into the physics of the radiation environment at the Moon. It motivates and provides the scientific basis for new investigations in the next phase of the LRO mission. The effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs) and Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) range from chemical modification of the regolith, the generation of a radiation albedo that is increasingly illuminating chemical properties of the regolith, causing charging of the regolith and hazards to human explorers and robotic missions. Low-lunar orbit provides a platform for measuring SEP anisotropy over timescales of 2 hours both parallel and perpendicular to the ecliptic plane, and so far we have observed more than 18 SEP events with time-variable anisotropies during the LRO mission. Albedo proton maps of the Moon from CRaTER indicate that the flux of lunar albedo protons is correlated with elemental abundances at the lunar surface. The yield of albedo protons from the maria is 1% higher than the yield from the highlands, and there are localized peaks with even higher contrast (that may be co-located with peaks in trace elemental abundances as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma Ray Spectrometer). The Moon’s radiation environment both charges and affects the chemistry in the Moon’s polar regions, particularly in PSRs. This makes these regions a prime target for new CRaTER observations, since CRaTER measures GCRs and SEPs that penetrate the regolith down to 10s of cm. Thus, we review emerging discoveries from LRO/CRaTER’s remarkable exploration of

  6. International Collaboration in Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, K. Bruce; Horack, John M.; Nall, Mark; Leahy, Bart. D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration commits the United States to return astronauts to the moon by 2020 using the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle. Like the Apollo program of the 1960s and 1970s, this effort will require preliminary reconnaissance in the form of robotic landers and probes. Unlike Apollo, some of the data NASA will rely upon to select landing sites and conduct science will be based on international missions as well, including SMART-1, SELENE, and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Opportunities for international cooperation on the moon also lie in developing lunar exploration technologies. The European Space Agency's SMART-1 orbiter (Figure 1) is making the first comprehensive inventory of key chemical elements in the lunar surface. It is also investigating the impact theory of the moon's formation.'

  7. Lunar meteoritic gardening rate derived from in situ LADEE/LDEX measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey R.; Horányi, Mihály

    2016-05-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) orbited the Moon for approximately 6 months, taking data with the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX). LDEX was uniquely equipped to characterize the current rate of lunar impact gardening as it measured the very particles taking part in this process. By deriving an average lunar dust density distribution, we calculate the rate at which exospheric dust rains back down onto the lunar surface. Near the equatorial plane, we find that approximately 40 μm/Myr of lunar regolith, with a cumulative size distribution index of 2.7, is redistributed due to meteoritic bombardment, a process which occurs predominantly on the lunar apex hemisphere.

  8. Electrostatic Power Generation from Negatively Charged, Simulated Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; King, Glen C.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to develop an electrostatic power generator for future lunar missions that facilitate the utilization of lunar resources. The lunar surface is known to be negatively charged from the constant bombardment of electrons and protons from the solar wind. The resulting negative electrostatic charge on the dust particles, in the lunar vacuum, causes them to repel each other minimizing the potential. The result is a layer of suspended dust about one meter above the lunar surface. This phenomenon was observed by both Clementine and Surveyor spacecrafts. During the Apollo 17 lunar landing, the charged dust was a major hindrance, as it was attracted to the astronauts' spacesuits, equipment, and the lunar buggies. The dust accumulated on the spacesuits caused reduced visibility for the astronauts, and was unavoidably transported inside the spacecraft where it caused breathing irritation [1]. In the lunar vacuum, the maximum charge on the particles can be extremely high. An article in the journal "Nature", titled "Moon too static for astronauts?" (Feb 2, 2007) estimates that the lunar surface is charged with up to several thousand volts [2]. The electrostatic power generator was devised to alleviate the hazardous effects of negatively charged lunar soil by neutralizing the charged particles through capacitive coupling and thereby simultaneously harnessing power through electric charging [3]. The amount of power generated or collected is dependent on the areal coverage of the device and hovering speed over the lunar soil surface. A thin-film array of capacitors can be continuously charged and sequentially discharged using a time-differentiated trigger discharge process to produce a pulse train of discharge for DC mode output. By controlling the pulse interval, the DC mode power can be modulated for powering devices and equipment. In conjunction with a power storage system, the electrostatic power generator can be a power source for a lunar rover or other

  9. Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; O'Reilly, M.F.; Lang, R.; Singh, N.N.; Didden, H.C.M.; Green, V.A.; Marschik, P.B.

    2016-01-01

    Communication disorders are common among people with intellectual disabilities. Consequently, enhancing the communication skills of such individuals is a major intervention priority. This chapter reviews the nature and prevalence of the speech, language, and communication problems associated with

  10. The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S.; French, R.; Nall, M.; Muery, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project (LMMP) is managing the development of a suite of lunar mapping and modeling tools and data products that support lunar exploration activities, including the planning, design, development, test, and operations associated with crewed and/or robotic operations on the lunar surface. In addition, LMMP should prove to be a convenient and useful tool for scientific analysis and for education and public outreach (E/PO) activities. LMMP will utilize data predominately from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, but also historical and international lunar mission data (e.g. Lunar Prospector, Clementine, Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Kaguya, and Chandrayaan-1) as available and appropriate. LMMP will provide such products as image mosaics, DEMs, hazard assessment maps, temperature maps, lighting maps and models, gravity models, and resource maps. We are working closely with the LRO team to prevent duplication of efforts and ensure the highest quality data products. A beta version of the LMMP software was released for limited distribution in December 2009, with the public release of version 1 expected in the Fall of 2010.

  11. Verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary surface radiation environment model using gamma-ray data from Lunar Prospector and 2001 Mars Odyssey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, M.S., E-mail: mss16@star.le.ac.u [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Ambrosi, R.M. [Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-01

    Characterising a planetary radiation environment is important to: (1) assess the habitability of a planetary body for indigenous life; (2) assess the risks associated with manned exploration missions to a planetary body and (3) predict/interpret the results that remote sensing instrumentation may obtain from a planetary body (e.g. interpret the gamma-ray emissions from a planetary surface produced by radioactive decay or via the interaction of galactic cosmic rays to obtain meaningful estimates of the concentration of certain elements on the surface of a planet). The University of Leicester is developing instrumentation for geophysical applications that include gamma-ray spectroscopy, gamma-ray densitometry and radiometric dating. This paper describes the verification of a Monte-Carlo planetary radiation environment model developed using the MCNPX code. The model is designed to model the radiation environments of Mars and the Moon, but is applicable to other planetary bodies, and will be used to predict the performance of the instrumentation being developed at Leicester. This study demonstrates that the modelled gamma-ray data is in good agreement with gamma-ray data obtained by the gamma-ray spectrometers on 2001 Mars Odyssey and Lunar Prospector, and can be used to accurately model geophysical instrumentation for planetary science applications.

  12. Lunar resources and their utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phinney, W. C.; Criswell, D.; Drexler, E.; Garmirian, J.

    1977-01-01

    Lunar surface materials offer a source of raw materials for space processing to produce structural metals, oxygen, silicon, glass, and ceramic products. Significant difference exist, however, between lunar surface materials in the highlands and those in the maria. In the highlands the soil depth is at least an order of magnitude greater, the Al:Fe ratio is ten times greater, the content of plagioclase as a source of clear glass is three times as great, and the content of Ti is at least an order of magnitude lower. Evaluation of the extractive metallurgy and chemical operations associated with carbothermic and silicothermic refinement of lunar regolith suggests that Fe, Al, Si, Mg and probably Ti, Cr and Mn can be recovered, while oxygen is produced as a by-product. A conservative plant design yields its own weight in oxygen, silicon, and structural metals in less than six days. Power requirements for a throughput of 300,000 tons per year is less than 500 megawatts. The processing is done more economically in space than on the lunar surface.

  13. Martian "microfossils" in lunar meteorites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D W; Kral, T A

    1998-07-01

    One of the five lines of evidence used by McKay et al. (1996) for relic life in the Martian meteorite Allan Hills (ALH) 84001 was the presence of objects thought to be microfossils. These ovoid and elongated forms are similar to structures found in terrestrial rocks and described as "nanobacteria" (Folk, 1993; McBride et al., 1994). Using the same procedures and apparatus as McKay et al. (1996), we have found structures on internal fracture surfaces of lunar meteorites that cannot be distinguished from the objects described on similar surfaces in ALH 84001. The lunar surface is currently a sterile environment and probably always has been. However, the lunar and Martian meteorites share a common terrestrial history, which includes many thousands of years of exposure to Antarctic weathering. Although we do not know the origin of these ovoid and elongated forms, we suggest that their presence on lunar meteorites indicates that the objects described by McKay et al. (1996) are not of Martian biological origin.

  14. Summary of the results from the lunar orbiter laser altimeter after seven years in lunar orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Mazarico, Erwan; Lemoine, Frank G.; Head, James W., III; Lucey, Paul G.; Aharonson, Oded; Robinson, Mark S.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Barker, Michael K.; Oberst, Juergen; Duxbury, Thomas C.; Mao, Dandan; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Jha, Kopal; Rowlands, David D.; Goossens, Sander; Baker, David; Bauer, Sven; Gläser, Philipp; Lemelin, Myriam; Rosenburg, Margaret; Sori, Michael M.; Whitten, Jennifer; Mcclanahan, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    In June 2009 the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft was launched to the Moon. The payload consists of 7 science instruments selected to characterize sites for future robotic and human missions. Among them, the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) was designed to obtain altimetry, surface roughness, and reflectance measurements. The primary phase of lunar exploration lasted one year, following a 3-month commissioning phase. On completion of its exploration objectives, the LRO mission transitioned to a science mission. After 7 years in lunar orbit, the LOLA instrument continues to map the lunar surface. The LOLA dataset is one of the foundational datasets acquired by the various LRO instruments. LOLA provided a high-accuracy global geodetic reference frame to which past, present and future lunar observations can be referenced. It also obtained high-resolution and accurate global topography that were used to determine regions in permanent shadow at the lunar poles. LOLA further contributed to the study of polar volatiles through its unique measurement of surface brightness at zero phase, which revealed anomalies in several polar craters that may indicate the presence of water ice. In this paper, we describe the many LOLA accomplishments to date and its contribution to lunar and planetary science.

  15. Microwave Extraction of Lunar Water for Rocket Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Donahue, Benjamin; Kaukler, William

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 50% of the lunar surface is oxygen, present as oxides in silicate rocks and soil. Methods for reduction of these oxides could liberate the oxygen. Remote sensing has provided evidence of significant quantities of hydrogen possibly indicating hundreds of millions of metric tons, MT, of water at the lunar poles. If the presence of lunar water is verified, water is likely to be the first in situ resource exploited for human exploration and for LOX-H2 rocket fuel. In-Situ lunar resources offer unique advantages for space operations. Each unit of product produced on the lunar surface represents 6 units that need not to be launched into LEO. Previous studies have indicated the economic advantage of LOX for space tugs from LEO to GEO. Use of lunar derived LOX in a reusable lunar lander would greatly reduce the LEO mass required for a given payload to the moon. And Lunar LOX transported to L2 has unique advantages for a Mars mission. Several methods exist for extraction of oxygen from the soil. But, extraction of lunar water has several significant advantages. Microwave heating of lunar permafrost has additional important advantages for water extraction. Microwaves penetrate and heat from within not just at the surface and excavation is not required. Proof of concept experiments using a moon in a bottle concept have demonstrated that microwave processing of cryogenic lunar permafrost simulant in a vacuum rapidly and efficiently extracts water by sublimation. A prototype lunar water extraction rover was built and tested for heating of simulant. Microwave power was very efficiently delivered into a simulated lunar soil. Microwave dielectric properties (complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability) of lunar regolith simulant, JSC-1A, were measured down to cryogenic temperatures and above room temperature. The microwave penetration has been correlated with the measured dielectric properties. Since the microwave penetration depth is a function of temperature

  16. Communication: Fitting potential energy surfaces with fundamental invariant neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Kejie; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Dong H.

    2016-08-01

    A more flexible neural network (NN) method using the fundamental invariants (FIs) as the input vector is proposed in the construction of potential energy surfaces for molecular systems involving identical atoms. Mathematically, FIs finitely generate the permutation invariant polynomial (PIP) ring. In combination with NN, fundamental invariant neural network (FI-NN) can approximate any function to arbitrary accuracy. Because FI-NN minimizes the size of input permutation invariant polynomials, it can efficiently reduce the evaluation time of potential energy, in particular for polyatomic systems. In this work, we provide the FIs for all possible molecular systems up to five atoms. Potential energy surfaces for OH3 and CH4 were constructed with FI-NN, with the accuracy confirmed by full-dimensional quantum dynamic scattering and bound state calculations.

  17. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Document Server

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  18. Lunar concrete: Prospects and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khitab, Anwar; Anwar, Waqas; Mehmood, Imran; Kazmi, Syed Minhaj Saleem; Munir, Muhammad Junaid

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of using concrete as a construction material at the Moon surface is considered. Dissimilarities between the Earth and the Moon and their possible effects on concrete are also emphasized. Availability of constituent materials for concrete at lunar surface is addressed. An emphasis is given to two types of materials, namely, hydraulic concrete and sulfur concrete. Hydraulic concrete necessitates the use of water and sulfur concrete makes use of molten sulfur in lieu of cement and water.

  19. Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Orbiter Photo Gallery is an extensive collection of over 2,600 high- and moderate-resolution photographs produced by all five of the Lunar Orbiter...

  20. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium is to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon....

  1. Lunar Sample Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sample Atlas provides pictures of the Apollo samples taken in the Lunar Sample Laboratory, full-color views of the samples in microscopic thin-sections,...

  2. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  3. Lunar Dust Separation for Toxicology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie L.; McKay, D. S.; Riofrio, L. M.; Taylor, L. A.; Gonzalex, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo missions, crewmembers were briefly exposed to dust in the lunar module, brought in after extravehicular activity. When the lunar ascent module returned to micro-gravity, the dust that had settled on the floor now floated into the air, causing eye discomfort and occasional respiratory symptoms. Because our goal is to set an exposure standard for 6 months of episodic exposure to lunar dust for crew on the lunar surface, these brief exposures of a few days are not conclusive. Based on experience with industrial minerals such as sandblasting quartz, an exposure of several months may cause serious damage, while a short exposure may cause none. The detailed characteristics of sub-micrometer lunar dust are only poorly known, and this is the size range of particles that are of greatest concern. We have developed a method for extracting respirable dust (<2.5 micron) from Apollo lunar soils. This method meets stringent requirements that the soil must be kept dry, exposed only to pure nitrogen, and must conserve and recover the maximum amount of both respirable dust and coarser soil. In addition, we have developed a method for grinding coarser lunar soil to produce sufficient respirable soil for animal toxicity testing while preserving the freshly exposed grain surfaces in a pristine state.

  4. Lunar electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, D.; Madden, T.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that the lunar magnetometer experiment has made important contributions to studies of the lunar interior. Numerical inversions of the lunar electromagnetic response have been carried out, taking into account a void region behind the moon. The amplitude of the transfer function of an eight-layer model is considered along with a model of the temperature distribution inside the moon and the amplitude of the transfer function of a semiconductor lunar model.

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Small surface wave discharge at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss'ovski, Zh; Kolev, M.; Ivanov, A.; Lishev, St.; Koleva, I.

    2009-09-01

    A small surface wave driven source produces plasma at atmospheric pressure. Microwave power at frequency 2.45 GHz is coupled with the source and a discharge is ignited at power levels below 10 W. The coaxial exciter of the surface waves has a length of 10 mm because its dielectric is a high permittivity discharge tube. The plasma source operates as a plasma jet in the case of plasma columns longer than the tube length. The source maintains stable plasma columns over a wide range of neutral gas flow and applied power in continuous and pulse regimes. An additional advantage of this source is the discharge self-ignition. An electron temperature of Te ~ 1.9 eV and a density of ne ~ 3.9 × 1014 cm-3 are estimated by the probe diagnostics method. The emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-1000 nm under different experimental conditions are analysed and they prove the applicability of the source for analytical spectroscopy. The dependences of column length, reflected power and plasma parameters on the gas flow and the input power are discussed.

  6. Fully Printed Flexible 4-Bit 2D (4x4) 16-Element Phased Array Antenna for Lunar Surface Communications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's future exploration missions focus on the manned exploration of the Moon, Mars and beyond, which will rely heavily on the development of a reliable...

  7. A Rare Chance to Observe a Centimeters Scale Cross-Cutting Rippling on the Lunar Surface: The Chang'e-3 Landing Place on the Mare Imbrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic bodies move in several orbits: in Galaxy, around star, around planet. The moving in keplerian orbits has a wave nature. Lower fr. waves modulate the higher fr. ones making side fr. Centimeter space lunar ripples are calculated and discovered.

  8. SELENE - Self-Forming Extensible Lunar EVA Network Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar EVA network will exhibit a wide range of connectivity levels due to the challenging communications environment and mission dynamics. Disruption-Tolerant...

  9. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Basu

    2005-06-01

    Back scattered electron and transmission electron imaging of lunar soil grains reveal an abundance of submicrometer-sized pure Fe00 globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the submillimeter sized vesicular glass-cemented grains called agglutinates. Grain rinds are amorphous silicates that were deposited on grains exposed at the lunar surface from transient vapors produced by hypervelocity micrometeorite impacts. Fe0 may have dissociated from Fe-compounds in a high temperature (< 3000°C) vapor phase and then condensed as globules on grain surfaces. The agglutinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils. Reduction by solar wind hydrogen in agglutinitic melts may have produced immiscible droplets that solidified as globules. The exact mechanism of formation of such Fe0 globules in lunar soils remains unresolved.

  10. Lunar CubeSat Impact Trajectory Characteristics as a Function of Its Release Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of early system design activities, trajectory characteristics for a lunar CubeSat impactor mission as a function of its release conditions are analyzed. The goal of this mission is to take measurements of surface magnetic fields to study lunar magnetic anomalies. To deploy the CubeSat impactor, a mother-ship is assumed to have a circular polar orbit with inclination of 90 degrees at a 100 km altitude at the Moon. Both the in- and out-of-plane direction deploy angles as well as delta-V magnitudes are considered for the CubeSat release conditions. All necessary parameters required at the early design phase are analyzed, including CubeSat flight time to reach the lunar surface, impact velocity, cross ranges distance, and associated impact angles, which are all directly affected by the CubeSat release conditions. Also, relative motions between these two satellites are analyzed for communication and navigation purposes. Although the current analysis is only focused on a lunar impactor mission, the methods described in this work can easily be modified and applied to any future planetary impactor missions with CubeSat-based payloads.

  11. Walking Wheel Design for Lunar Rove-Rand and Its Application Simulation Based on Virtual Lunar Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yibing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The lunar rover design is the key problem of planet exploration. It is extraordinarily important for researchers to fully understand the lunar terrain and propose the reasonable lunar rover. In this paper, one new type of walking wheel modeled on impeller is presented based on vehicle terramechanics. The passive earth pressure of soil mechanics put forward by C. A. Coulomb is employed to obtain the wheel traction force. Some kinematics simulations are conducted for lunar rover model. Besides, this paper presents how to model lunar landing terrain containing typical statistic characteristic including craters and boulders; then, the second step is to construct basal lunar surface by using Brown Fractal Motion and the next is to add craters and boulders by means of known diameter algorithm and Random-create Diameter Algorithm. By means of importing 2D plain of lunar surface into UG, 3D parasolid is modeled and finally imported to ADAMS, which is available for lunar rover kinematics and dynamics simulation. Lastly, based on power spectrum curve of lunar terrain, the spectral characteristic of three different lunar terrain roughness is educed by using reverse engineering algorithm. Simulation results demonstrated the frequency of vibration mechanics properties of different roughness surfaces.

  12. Improvement of the lunar rover with two parallel wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Z. F.; Deng, Z. Q.; Tao, J. G.

    With raising the new upsurge for lunar exploration the lunar rover with two parallel wheels is proposed for lunar exploration The lunar rover is driven by the offset of the driving weight and it is selected as the subsystem of the lunar rover group system The communication among the lunar rover group is simulated with blue-tooth technology In the group system the characteristic and the stability are the key problems for application The lunar rover has simple structure and it is controlled easily and also it has more performance such as motion flexibility antidumping combinability The lunar rover is composed of two wheels and a case platform Each wheel is controlled independently On the top of the case platform CCD is used for navigation In the front and the back of the case platform there are docking mechanism for combination The precise speed and position of the lunar rover is controlled by PMAC With PC 104 the actual load such as the information of sensors and real-time communication via blue-tooth is processed The good stability of the lunar rover is favorable for vision navigation and combination of several rovers Focused on the stability the lunar rover with changeable radius is proposed Screw pair is used in the lunar rover system for adjusting the driving radius Through adjusting the driving radius the tilt angle of the case platform can be variant value under the same driving moment and also the tilt angle can keep equal under the variant driving moment For testing the feasibility of the scheme based on the

  13. Communication: Global flux surface hopping in Liouville space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Linjun, E-mail: linjun.wang@usc.edu, E-mail: prezhdo@usc.edu; Prezhdo, Oleg V., E-mail: linjun.wang@usc.edu, E-mail: prezhdo@usc.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States); Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States)

    2015-11-21

    Recent years have witnessed substantial progress in the surface hopping (SH) formulation of non-adiabatic molecular dynamics. A generalization of the traditional fewest switches SH (FSSH), global flux SH (GFSH) utilizes the gross population flow between states to derive SH probabilities. The Liouville space formulation of FSSH puts state populations and coherences on equal footing, by shifting the hopping dynamics from Hilbert to Liouville space. Both ideas have shown superior results relative to the standard FSSH in Hilbert space, which has been the most popular approach over the past two and a half decades. By merging the two ideas, we develop GFSH in Liouville space. The new method is nearly as straightforward as the standard FSSH, and carries comparable computational expense. Tested with a representative super-exchange model, it gives the best performance among all existing techniques in the FSSH series. The obtained numerical results match almost perfectly the exact quantum mechanical solutions. Moreover, the results are nearly invariant under the choice of a basis state representation for SH, in contrast to the earlier techniques which exhibit notable basis set dependence. Unique to the developed approach, this property is particularly encouraging, because exact quantum dynamics is representation independent. GFSH in Liouville space significantly improves accuracy and applicability of SH for a broad range of chemical and physical processes.

  14. Photovoltaic power system considerations for future lunar bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Dennis J.; Appelbaum, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The cost of transportation to the lunar surface places a premium on developing ultralightweight power system technology to support the eventual establishment of a lunar base. The photovoltaic technology issues to be addressed by the Surface Power program element of NASA's Project Pathfinder are described.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation of moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, deploys a lunar surface television camera during lunar surface simulation training in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  16. Energy and Angular Spectra of Albedo Protons and Neutrons Emitted from Hydrated Layers of Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, L. W.; Zaman, F.; Schwadron, N. A.; Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Kasper, J. C.; Mazur, J. E.; Looper, M. D.

    2016-11-01

    Energy and angular yields of albedo protons and neutrons emitted from the lunar surface as a function of hydration layer thickness in the lunar regolith using the MCNP computer code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory are presented.

  17. C-Band Airport Surface Communications System Standards Development, Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward; Isaacs, James; Zelkin, Natalie; Henriksen. Steve

    2010-01-01

    This document is being provided as part of ITT's NASA Glenn Research Center Aerospace Communication Systems Technical Support (ACSTS) contract NNC05CA85C, Task 7: "New ATM Requirements--Future Communications, C-Band and L-Band Communications Standard Development." The proposed future C-band (5091- to 5150-MHz) airport surface communication system, referred to as the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS), is anticipated to increase overall air-to-ground data communications systems capacity by using a new spectrum (i.e., not very high frequency (VHF)). Although some critical services could be supported, AeroMACS will also target noncritical services, such as weather advisory and aeronautical information services as part of an airborne System Wide Information Management (SWIM) program. AeroMACS is to be designed and implemented in a manner that will not disrupt other services operating in the C-band. This report defines the AeroMACS concepts of use, high-level system requirements, and architecture; the performance of supporting system analyses; the development of AeroMACS test and demonstration plans; and the establishment of an operational AeroMACS capability in support of C-band aeronautical data communications standards to be advanced in both international (International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO) and national (RTCA) forums. This includes the development of system parameter profile recommendations for AeroMACS based on existing Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16e- 2009 standards

  18. Understanding the Lunar System Architecture Design Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Wilhite, Alan W.; Reeves, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the flexible path strategy and the desire of the international community, the lunar surface remains a destination for future human exploration. This paper explores options within the lunar system architecture design space, identifying performance requirements placed on the propulsive system that performs Earth departure within that architecture based on existing and/or near-term capabilities. The lander crew module and ascent stage propellant mass fraction are primary drivers for feasibility in multiple lander configurations. As the aggregation location moves further out of the lunar gravity well, the lunar lander is required to perform larger burns, increasing the sensitivity to these two factors. Adding an orbit transfer stage to a two-stage lunar lander and using a large storable stage for braking with a one-stage lunar lander enable higher aggregation locations than Low Lunar Orbit. Finally, while using larger vehicles enables a larger feasible design space, there are still feasible scenarios that use three launches of smaller vehicles.

  19. Tribocharging Lunar Soil for Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Future human lunar habitation requires using in situ materials for both structural components and oxygen production. Lunar bases must be constructed from thermal-and radiation-shielding materials that will provide significant protection from the harmful cosmic energy which normally bombards the lunar surface. In addition, shipping oxygen from Earth is weight-prohibitive, and therefore investigating the production of breathable oxygen from oxidized mineral components is a major ongoing NASA research initiative. Lunar regolith may meet the needs for both structural protection and oxygen production. Already a number of oxygen production technologies are being tested, and full-scale bricks made of lunar simulant have been sintered. The beneficiation, or separation, of lunar minerals into a refined industrial feedstock could make production processes more efficient, requiring less energy to operate and maintain and producing higher-performance end products. The method of electrostatic beneficiation used in this research charges mineral powders (lunar simulant) by contact with materials of a different composition. The simulant acquires either a positive or negative charge depending upon its composition relative to the charging material.

  20. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  1. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  2. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  3. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  4. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  5. A Fractal Model for the Capacitance of Lunar Dust and Lunar Dust Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Michael R.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Keller, John W.; Farrell, William M.; Marshall, John; Richard, Denis Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Lunar dust grains and dust aggregates exhibit clumping, with an uneven mass distribution, as well as features that span many spatial scales. It has been observed that these aggregates display an almost fractal repetition of geometry with scale. Furthermore, lunar dust grains typically have sharp protrusions and jagged features that result from the lack of aeolian weathering (as opposed to space weathering) on the Moon. A perfectly spherical geometry, frequently used as a model for lunar dust grains, has none of these characteristics (although a sphere may be a reasonable proxy for the very smallest grains and some glasses). We present a fractal model for a lunar dust grain or aggregate of grains that reproduces (1) the irregular clumpy nature of lunar dust, (2) the presence of sharp points, and (3) dust features that span multiple scale lengths. We calculate the capacitance of the fractal lunar dust analytically assuming fixed dust mass (i.e. volume) for an arbitrary number of fractal levels and compare the capacitance to that of a non-fractal object with the same volume, surface area, and characteristic width. The fractal capacitance is larger than that of the equivalent non-fractal object suggesting that for a given potential, electrostatic forces on lunar dust grains and aggregates are greater than one might infer from assuming dust grains are sphericaL Consequently, electrostatic transport of lunar dust grains, for example lofting, appears more plausible than might be inferred by calculations based on less realistic assumptions about dust shape and associated capacitance.

  6. VLBI network: A security net for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jianlan

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 March, 2009 witnesses the solemn, spectacular and somewhat sad ending of the lunar flight of Chang'e-1. After orbiting the Moon for 494 days, the first China-made lunar orbiter, named after a beautiful fairy in Chinese mythology, culminates her perfect journey with a last dance, a controlled crash to lunar surface at 1.50°S 52.36°E at 16:13 GMT+8.

  7. Features of the method for mapping of physical characteristics of lunar surface according to the data of ultraviolet polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozhenko, O. V.; Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    Polarization measurements are relative and therefore do not require a very important and often complex standardization procedure. At a non-zero angle of incidence of light on the surface of the mineral, reflected and refracted rays - are partially polarized. The degree of polarization of radiation depends on the angle of incidence of light and in the reflection - reaches the maximum value at the Brewster angle. Visible Moon's details are grouped by value of the parameter Pmax.

  8. Pulmonary Toxicity Studies of Lunar Dusts in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    NASA will build an outpost on the lunar surface for long-duration human habitation and research. The surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust, and the living quarters in the lunar outpost are expected to be contaminated by lunar dust. Because the toxicity of lunar dust is not known, NASA has tasked its toxicology laboratory to evaluate the risk of exposure to the dust and to establish safe exposure limits for astronauts working in the lunar habitat. Studies of the pulmonary toxicity of a dust are generally done first in rodents by intratracheal/intrapharyngeal instillation. This toxicity screening test is then followed by an inhalation study, which requires much more of the test dust and is labor intensive. Preliminary results obtained by examining lung lavage fluid from dust-treated mice show that lunar dust was somewhat toxic (more toxic than TiO2, but less than quartz dust). More extensive studies are in progress to further examine lung lavage fluid for biomarkers of toxicity and lung tissues for histopathological lesions in rodents exposed to aged and activated (ground) lunar dust samples. In these studies, reference dusts (TiO2 and quartz) of known toxicities and have industrial exposure limits will be studied in parallel so the relative toxicity of lunar dust can be determined. The results from the instillation studies will be useful for choosing exposure concentrations for the animal inhalation study. The animal inhalation exposure will be conducted with lunar dust simulant prior to the study with the lunar dust. The experiment with the simulate will ensure that the study techniques used with actual lunar dust will be successful. The results of instillation and inhalation studies will reveal the toxicological risk of exposures and are essential for setting exposure limits on lunar dust for astronauts living in the lunar habitat.

  9. Lunar Module 5 mated with Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Interior view of the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Manned Spacecraft Operations Building showing Lunar Module 5 mated to its Spacecraft Lunar Module Adapter (SLA). LM-5 is scheduled to be flown on the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  10. Communication: The correct interpretation of surface hopping trajectories: How to calculate electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landry, Brian R.; Falk, Martin J.; Subotnik, Joseph E. [Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, 231 S. 34th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-07

    In a recent paper, we presented a road map for how Tully's fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) algorithm can be derived, under certain circumstances, from the mixed quantum-classical Liouville equation. In this communication, we now demonstrate how this new interpretation of surface hopping can yield significantly enhanced results for electronic properties in nonadiabatic calculations. Specifically, we calculate diabatic populations for the spin-boson problem using FSSH trajectories. We show that, for some Hamiltonians, without changing the FSSH algorithm at all but rather simply reinterpreting the ensemble of surface hopping trajectories, we recover excellent results and remove any and all ambiguity about the initial condition problem.

  11. Lunar dust transport and potential interactions with power system components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katzan, C.M.; Edwards, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The lunar surface is covered by a thick blanket of fine dust. This dust may be readily suspended from the surface and transported by a variety of mechanisms. As a consequence, lunar dust can accumulate on sensitive power components, such as photovoltaic arrays and radiator surfaces, reducing their performance. In addition to natural mechanisms, human activities on the Moon will disturb significant amounts of lunar dust. Of all the mechanisms identified, the most serious is rocket launch and landing. The return of components from the Surveyor III provided a rare opportunity to observe the effects of the nearby landing of the Apollo 12 lunar module. The evidence proved that significant dust accumulation occurred on the Surveyor at a distance of 155 m. From available information on particle suspension and transport mechanisms, a series of models was developed to predict dust accumulation as a function of distance from the lunar module. The accumulation distribution was extrapolated to a future lunar lander scenario. These models indicate that accumulation is expected to be substantial even as far as 2 km from the landing site. Estimates of the performance penalties associated with lunar dust coverage on radiators and photovoltaic arrays are presented. Because of the lunar dust adhesive and cohesive properties, the most practical dust defensive strategy appears to be the protection of sensitive components from the arrival of lunar dust by location, orientation, or barriers.

  12. Site selection and traverse planning to support a lunar polar rover mission: A case study at Haworth Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldmann, Jennifer L.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.; Bussey, Ben; McGovern, Andrew; Beyer, Ross; Lees, David; Deans, Matt

    2016-10-01

    Studies of lunar polar volatile deposits are of interest for scientific purposes to understand the nature and evolution of the volatiles, and also for exploration reasons as a possible in situ resource to enable long term human exploration and settlement of the Moon. Both theoretical and observational studies have suggested that significant quantities of volatiles exist in the polar regions, although the lateral and horizontal distribution remains unknown at the km scale and finer resolution. A lunar polar rover mission is required to further characterize the distribution, quantity, and character of lunar polar volatile deposits at these higher spatial resolutions. Here we present a case study for NASA's Resource Prospector (RP) mission concept for a lunar polar rover and utilize this mission architecture and associated constraints to evaluate whether a suitable landing site exists to support an RP flight mission. We evaluate the landing site criteria to characterize the Haworth Crater region in terms of expected hydrogen abundance, surface topography, and prevalence of shadowed regions, as well as solar illumination and direct to Earth communications as a function of time to develop a notional rover traverse plan that addresses both science and engineering requirements. We also present lessons-learned regarding lunar traverse path planning focusing on the critical nature of landing site selection, the influence of illumination patterns on traverse planning, the effects of performing shadowed rover operations, the influence of communications coverage on traverse plan development, and strategic planning to maximize rover lifetime and science at end of mission. Here we present a detailed traverse path scenario for a lunar polar volatiles rover mission and find that the particular site north of Haworth Crater studied here is suitable for further characterization of polar volatile deposits.

  13. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    International Space Station program, high-thrust propulsion stages adapted from current upper stages with changes as needed to operate them space-based, and solar electric low-thrust propulsion systems for moving large cargo elements from one orbital state to another. The transportation system operates via a lunar libration point "gateway", similarly to some of NASA's current thinking, and has a growth option for development of lunar-supplied propellant for ascent from the lunar surface, and re-supply of a propellant depot at the gateway. We show further growth paths to the Mars transportation system described in our 2001 paper.

  14. Options for Staging Orbits in Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan; Martinez, Roland

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been studying options to conduct missions beyond Low Earth Orbit, but within the Earth-Moon system, in preparation for deep space exploration including human missions to Mars. Referred to as the Proving Ground, this arena of exploration activities will enable the development of human spaceflight systems and operations to satisfy future exploration objectives beyond the cis-lunar environment. One option being considered includes the deployment of a habitable element or elements, which could be used as a central location for aggregation of supplies and resources for human missions in cis-lunar space and beyond. Characterizing candidate orbit locations for this asset and the impacts on system design and mission operations is important in the overall assessment of the options being considered. The orbits described in this paper were initially selected by taking advantage of previous studies conducted by NASA and the work of other authors. In this paper orbits are assessed for their relative attractiveness based on various factors. First, a set of constraints related to the capability of the combined Orion and SLS system to deliver humans and cargo to and from the orbit are evaluated. Second, the ability to support potential lunar surface activities is considered. Finally, deployed assets intended to spend multiple years in the Proving Ground would ideally require minimal station keeping costs to reduce the mass budget allocated to this function. Additional mission design drivers include potential for uninterrupted communication with deployed assets, thermal, communications, and other operational implications. The results of the characterization and evaluation of the selected orbits indicate a Near Rectilinear Orbit (NRO) is an attractive candidate as an aggregation point or staging location for operations. In this paper, the NRO is further described in terms which balance a number of key attributes that favor a variety of mission classes to meet multiple

  15. Conceptual Study on Crew-Robot Coordinated Exploration on Lunar Surface%月面人机联合探测概念研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志贤; 果琳丽; 戚发轫

    2014-01-01

    Crew-Robot coordinated exploration is not only the basis of manned lunar exploration , but also the precondition for designing mission modes and spacecraft systems of manned lunar explora -tion.Considering the background of manned lunar exploration and lunar base missions in the future , the requirements of Crew-Robot coordinated exploration were discussed and typical activities in dif-ferent lunar exploration phases were summarized .The scheme design of this novel research field was presented , the system composition for different missions were designed and the key technologies were analyzed .They could serve as a reference for the future manned lunar exploration mission .%月面人机联合探测是载人月球探测任务的基础,是制定载人登月任务模式、设计登月飞行器系统方案的前提。以未来载人登月和月球基地任务为背景,对月面人机联合探测的需求进行了分析,梳理了不同阶段月面典型作业活动,并以此为基础,对月面人机联合探测系统方案进行了论证,设计了面向不同任务的系统组成,分析了月面人机联合探测关键技术,为后续开展有人参与的月球探测任务提供参考。

  16. A Morphology Method for Estimation of the Relative Age of Lunar Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, S. G.

    A method is described for estimating the relative age of the lunar relief with the use of the param- eters of the diameter distribution of craters larger than 10 km across. The Morpological Catalog of Lunar Cra- ters (Rodionova et al., 1987) was used as a basis material. A correlation is found between the relative age of the lunar surface, the geomorphological index, and the parameters of the integral law of crater distribution. The zoning of the lunar surface according to the morphological types of craters is carried out. Maps of the lunar- surface relative ages and the crater-relief morphology are constructed.

  17. Self-Erecting Communications Infrastructure Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) proposes to significantly improve the performance of communication systems and networks for lunar and interplanetary...

  18. Lunar based massdriver applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehresmann, Manfred; Gabrielli, Roland Atonius; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, René

    2017-05-01

    The results of a lunar massdriver mission and system analysis are discussed and show a strong case for a permanent lunar settlement with a site near the lunar equator. A modular massdriver concept is introduced, which uses multiple acceleration modules to be able to launch large masses into a trajectory that is able to reach Earth. An orbital mechanics analysis concludes that the launch site will be in the Oceanus Procellarum a flat, Titanium rich lunar mare area. It is further shown that the bulk of massdriver components can be manufactured by collecting lunar minerals, which are broken down into its constituting elements. The mass to orbit transfer rates of massdriver case study are significant and can vary between 1.8 kt and 3.3 megatons per year depending on the available power. Thus a lunar massdriver would act as a catalyst for any space based activities and a game changer for the scale of feasible space projects.

  19. Lunar Radio Telescopes: A Staged Approach for Lunar Science, Heliophysics, Astrobiology, Cosmology, and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, Joseph; Bowman, Judd D.; Burns, Jack O.; Farrell, W. M.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; MacDowall, R. J.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K.

    2012-01-01

    Observations with radio telescopes address key problems in cosmology, astrobiology, heliophysics, and planetary science including the first light in the Universe (Cosmic Dawn), magnetic fields of extrasolar planets, particle acceleration mechanisms, and the lunar ionosphere. The Moon is a unique science platform because it allows access to radio frequencies that do not penetrate the Earth's ionosphere and because its far side is shielded from intense terrestrial emissions. The instrument packages and infrastructure needed for radio telescopes can be transported and deployed as part of Exploration activities, and the resulting science measurements may inform Exploration (e.g., measurements of lunar surface charging). An illustrative roadmap for the staged deployment of lunar radio telescopes

  20. Ropeway material handling systems for lunar mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttelmaier, H. P.; Carrick, Jonathan R.

    The feasibility of ropeways for short- as well as long-distance material hauling on the lunar surface is discussed. Existing experience in ropeways and relevant knowledge on lunar environmental contraints are summarized. It is suggested that ease of erection, adaptivity to varying transportation lengths and irregular terrain, as well as weight considerations will result in lunar ropeway applications. Ropeways are argued to be the most viable material-handling system for a lunar activity site on the basis of available technology. A low-capacity, reversible ropeway system which separates track and haul rope is the most feasible system. It is possible to apply sensing systems and automation to a high degree.

  1. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  2. Astronaut James Irwin keeps Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut James B. Irwin, lunar module pilot, holds the Lunar Roving Vehicle from sliding downhill during the second Apollo 15 lunar surface extravehicular activity. Apparently, both of the Rover's rear wheels are off the ground. The Rover was parked facing downhill on a 15 to 20 degree slope. Astronaut David R. Scott, commander, took this photograph. Scott was performing other tasks while Irwin held the Rover. They were parked at a 'fresh' crater on the Apennine Front (Hadley Delta Mountain) slope. In the foreground a lunar rake lies atop a mound.

  3. Microcratering within the lunar regolith--a theory and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, E C; Berry, F D; Mitchell, F; Barron, D; Cohen, S H

    2000-01-01

    Since the Apollo 11 mission to the moon, there has been substantial analysis of the lunar rocks and soil grains, utilizing more recent advances in electron probe technologies. It is the objective of this research to revisit the theories concerning the microcratering within the lunar regolith. Recent theories have included the idea that the microcratering phenomenon was caused by meteoric impacting onto the lunar surface during early lunar history. Other theories have suggested that the microcratering was a result of secondary ejector associated with micrometeoric and meteoric impact. This research team suggests that microcratering may have been associated with primordial dust during and before the formation of our solar system.

  4. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  5. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  6. A method for lunar roving vehicle position determination from three landmark observations with a sun compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blucker, T. J.; Stimmel, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    A simplified method is described for determining the position of the lunar roving vehicle on the lunar surface during Apollo 15. The method is based upon sun compass azimuth measurements of three lunar landmarks. The difference between the landmark azimuth and the sun azimuth is measured and the resulting data are voice relayed to the Mission Control Center for processing.

  7. Editorial Introduction: Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Noah E.; Keller, John W.; Gaddis, Lisa R.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission has shifted our understanding of the history of the Moon. The seven instruments on LRO each have contributed to creating new paradigms for the evolution of the Moon by providing unprecedented measurements of the surface, subsurface, and lunar environment. In this second volume of the LRO Special Issue, we present 21 papers from a broad range of the areas of investigation from LRO, from the volatile inventory, to the shape of the Moons surface, to its rich volcanic history, and the interactions between the lunar surface and the space environment. These themes provide rich science for the instrument teams, as well as for the broader science community who continue to use the LRO data in their research.

  8. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  9. Apollo 15 Onboard Photo: Earth's Crest Over the Lunar Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This view of the Earth's crest over the lunar horizon was taken during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission. Apollo 15 launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Astronaut Harrison Schmitt retrieving lunar samples during EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, with his adjustable sampling scoop, heads for a selected rock on the lunar surface to retrieve the sample for study. The action was photographed by Apollo 17 crew commander, Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan on the mission's second extravehicular activity (EVA-2), at Station 5 (Camelot Crater) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site.

  11. 基于聚类NASVD的CE2-GRS月表放射性元素Th计数率分布%Distribution of the Thorium Counting Rate on the Lunar Surface from CE2-GRS Based on Cluster NASVD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓丽; 葛良全; 杨佳; 熊盛青

    2015-01-01

    月表Th元素分布特征对于分析月表岩石成因及化学特征等提供了重要依据。为了减小嫦娥二号伽玛谱(CE2-GRS)噪声对获取Th元素分布特征的影响,提出了一种基于噪声调整的奇异值分解(NASVD)去噪算法。通过伽玛谱预处理、去噪、本底扣除及净峰面积求解等步骤,获得月表放射性元素Th计数率全月分布图。通过与国内外其他方法所获得的Th元素计数率分布图对比有较高的一致性。与传统伽玛谱去噪算法比较,聚类NASVD算法能有效地去除统计涨落噪声影响,提取出嫦娥二号伽玛谱中的特征峰信息。%The distribution of thorium on the lunar surface provides the important evidence for lunar evolution history. It is difficult to obtain the distribution of thorium on the lunar surface from CE2-GRS because of noise in the spectrum. The method for smoothing the spectrum is proposed which is based on cluster NASVD. The counting rate map of thorium on the lunar surface is achieved from CE2-GRS. Counting rate map of thorium gamma-rays shows a surface thorium distribution that is in general agreement with other measurement from LP-GRS and SLENE GRS which have better accuracy. It is more effectively to reduce the noise and get the weak information of characteristic peak used the method of cluster NASVD than other traditional methods for smoothing gamma-ray spectrum.

  12. Lunar exploration phase III: Launch window and trajectory design for a lunar lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyang; Yang, Hongwei; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-09-01

    The lunar exploration phase III mission is a part of the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation's lunar exploration program that will perform a soft-landing and sample return from the Moon to test the key technologies that are required for human lunar missions. This paper focuses primarily on the trajectory design and orbital launch window generation for a lunar probe that are consistent with the constraints imposed by third phase of lunar exploration. Two categories of trajectories are explored: Earth-to-Moon and Moon-to-Earth. With the patched conic technique, the analytical and modified analytical models of the transfer trajectories are developed. The requirement of high-latitude landing for the return phase trajectory is considered in the modified model. By varying the initial input conditions and with a fast convergence iteration scheme, different characteristics of the transfer trajectory are generated. The orbital launch windows are established to study the mission sensitivities to time and fuel consumption and to provide a launch timetable that is compatible with this mission's requirements. The lunar surface stay time is analyzed for different conditions. The high-fidelity gravitational model is introduced to demonstrate the accuracy and convergence behavior of the analytical solution. The design method can also be used as a basis for the future human lunar missions.

  13. Lunar Polar Illumination for Power Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents illumination analyses using the latest Earth-based radar digital elevation model (DEM) of the lunar south pole and an independently developed analytical tool. These results enable the optimum sizing of solar/energy storage lunar surface power systems since they quantify the timing and durations of illuminated and shadowed periods. Filtering and manual editing of the DEM based on comparisons with independent imagery were performed and a reduced resolution version of the DEM was produced to reduce the analysis time. A comparison of the DEM with lunar limb imagery was performed in order to validate the absolute heights over the polar latitude range, the accuracy of which affects the impact of long range, shadow-casting terrain. Average illumination and energy storage duration maps of the south pole region are provided for the worst and best case lunar day using the reduced resolution DEM. Average illumination fractions and energy storage durations are presented for candidate low energy storage duration south pole sites. The best site identified using the reduced resolution DEM required a 62 hr energy storage duration using a fast recharge power system. Solar and horizon terrain elevations as well as illumination fraction profiles are presented for the best identified site and the data for both the reduced resolution and high resolution DEMs compared. High resolution maps for three low energy storage duration areas are presented showing energy storage duration for the worst case lunar day, surface height, and maximum absolute surface slope.

  14. Lunar meteorites:witnesses of the composition and evolution of the Moon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Bingkui; CHEN Hongyi; XIA Zhipeng; YAO Jie; XIE Lanfang; NI Wenjun; ZHANG Chuantong

    2014-01-01

    Lunar meteorites are fragments of the Moon that escaped the gravity of the Moon following high-energy impacts by asteroids, subsequently fell to Earth. An inventory of 165 lunar meteorites has been developed since the discovery and identiifcation of the ifrst lunar meteorite, ALHA 81005, in 1979. Although the Apollo samples are much heavier in mass than lunar meteorites, the meteorites are still an important sample supplement for scientiifc research on the composition and history of the Moon. Apart from a small amount of unbrecciated crystalline rocks, the majority of lunar meteorites are breccias that can be classiifed into three groups:highland feldspathic breccia, mare basaltic breccia, and mingled(including lfedspathic and basaltic clasts) breccia. The petrography of lunar rocks suggests that there are a series of rock types of anorthosite, basalt, gabbro, troctolite, norite and KREEP in the Moon. Although KREEP is rare in lunar rocks, KREEP components have been found in the increasing number of lunar meteorites. KREEP provides important information on lunar magmatic evolution, e.g., the VHK KREEP clasts in SaU 169 may represent the pristine lunar magma (urKREEP). Six launching pairs of lunar meteorites have been proposed now, along with ten possible lunar launching sites. In addition, symplectite is often found in lunar basalts, which is a signiifcant record of shock metamorphism on the lunar surface. Furthermore, isotopic ages and noble gases not only provide information on crystallization processes in lunar rocks and the formation of lunar crust, but also provide insight into shock events on the lunar surface.

  15. Applying Strategic Visualization(Registered Trademark) to Lunar and Planetary Mission Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassanito, John R.; Cooke, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    NASA teams, such as the NASA Exploration Team (NEXT), utilize advanced computational visualization processes to develop mission designs and architectures for lunar and planetary missions. One such process, Strategic Visualization (trademark), is a tool used extensively to help mission designers visualize various design alternatives and present them to other participants of their team. The participants, which may include NASA, industry, and the academic community, are distributed within a virtual network. Consequently, computer animation and other digital techniques provide an efficient means to communicate top-level technical information among team members. Today,Strategic Visualization(trademark) is used extensively both in the mission design process within the technical community, and to communicate the value of space exploration to the general public. Movies and digital images have been generated and shown on nationally broadcast television and the Internet, as well as in magazines and digital media. In our presentation will show excerpts of a computer-generated animation depicting the reference Earth/Moon L1 Libration Point Gateway architecture. The Gateway serves as a staging corridor for human expeditions to the lunar poles and other surface locations. Also shown are crew transfer systems and current reference lunar excursion vehicles as well as the Human and robotic construction of an inflatable telescope array for deployment to the Sun/Earth Libration Point.

  16. 3-D Imaging Method for Lunar Surface Perception Radar%月面态势感知雷达三维成像方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢宏华; 栗苹; 傅雄军; 高梅国

    2011-01-01

    为实现月球探测器软着陆前在悬停状态下对局部月面起伏态势的有效感知,提出一种基于高度维宽带高分辨以及平面二维接收数字波束形成的雷达三维成像方法.该方法的突出特点是不需要雷达与目标间的相对运动便能实现三维成像.根据成像原理,对雷达发射波形、天线形式及尺寸进行了研究和设计;探讨了成像高度以及场景栅格扫描时的波位步进量问题;给出完整的成像处理流程并进行仿真验证.仿真结果表明,采用该方法可以获得强散射中心三维坐标,重构出场景区域的三维图像.%To realize perception of local lunar surface under the condition of relative stationary before soft landing during moon discovery, a novel 3-D imaging method is proposed. The method is based on range high-resolution in altitude dimensional and 2-D receiving digital beam forming to radar scene floor. The outstanding feature is this method can realize 3-D imaging without relative motion between radar and target. According to imaging principle, the transmitting waveforms, antenna shape and size has been researched and designed; the choosing of imaging height and stepping size for scene scan were also discussed; the whole imaging processing flow was given and has been simulated using computer. Simulation results indicate that it can obtain 3D coordinates of strong scattering centers accurately and reconstruct 3-D image of scene successfully.

  17. A lunar venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Ahn; Trinh, Lu X.

    1989-01-01

    As the Earth's space station is in its final stages of design, the dream of a permanent manned space facility is now a reality. Despite this monumental achievement, however, man's quest to extend human habitation further out into space is far from being realized. The next logical step in space exploration must be the construction of a permanent lunar base. This lunar infrastucture can, in turn, be used as a staging ground for further exploration of the remote regions of the solar system. As outlined by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the lunar base program consists of three exploratory and implementation phases. In response to the technological and facility requirements of Phase 1 and 2 of this program, the Aerospace Vehicle Design Program of the University of Virgina (UVA) is proud to present a preliminary design for such a lunar infrastructure. This study is a comprehensive evaluation of the mission requirements as well as the design criteria for space vehicles and facilities. The UVA Lunar Venture is a dual system that consists of a lunar space station and a fleet of lunar landers/transporters. With such a design, it is demonstrated that all initial exploratory and construction requirements for the lunar base can be efficiently satisfied. Additionally, the need for such a dual system is justified both from a logistic and economic standpoint.

  18. 3D-Aided-Analysis Tool for Lunar Rover

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; LI Guo-peng; REN Xin; LIU Jian-jun; GAO Xing-ye; ZOU Xiao-duan

    2013-01-01

    3D-Aided-Analysis Tool (3DAAT) which is a virtual reality system is built up in this paper. 3DAAT is integrated with kinematics and dynamics model of rover as well as real lunar surface terrain mode. Methods of modeling which are proposed in this paper include constructing lunar surface, constructing 3D model of lander and rover, building up kinematic model of rover body. Photogrammetry technique and the remote sensing information are used to generate the terrain model of lunar surface. According to the implementation result, 3DAAT is an effective assist system for making exploration plan and analyzing the status of rover.

  19. Lunar Dust and Dusty Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    In the plasma and radiation environment of space, small dust grains from the Moon s surface can become charged. This has the consequence that their motion is determined by electromagnetic as well as gravitational forces. The result is a plasma-like condition known as "dusty plasmas" with the consequence that lunar dust can migrate and be transported by magnetic, electric, and gravitational fields into places where heavier, neutral debris cannot. Dust on the Moon can exhibit unusual behavior, being accelerated into orbit by electrostatic surface potentials as blow-off dust, or being swept away by moving magnetic fields like the solar wind as pick-up dust. Hence, lunar dust must necessarily be treated as a dusty plasma subject to the physics of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A review of this subject has been given before [1], but a synopsis will be presented here to make it more readily available for lunar scientists.

  20. The Microstructure of Lunar Micrometeorite Impact Craters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S. K.; Keller, L. P.; Christoffersen, R.; Rahman, Z.

    2016-01-01

    The peak of the mass flux of impactors striking the lunar surface is made up of objects approximately 200 micrometers in diameter that erode rocks, comminute regolith grains, and produce agglutinates. The effects of these micro-scale impacts are still not fully understood. Much effort has focused on evaluating the physical and optical effects of micrometeorite impacts on lunar and meteoritic material using pulsed lasers to simulate the energy deposited into a substrate in a typical hypervelocity impact. Here we characterize the physical and chemical changes that accompany natural micrometeorite impacts into lunar rocks with long surface exposure to the space environment (12075 and 76015). Transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations were obtained from cross-sections of approximately 10-20 micrometers diameter craters that revealed important micro-structural details of micrometeorite impact processes, including the creation of npFe (sup 0) in the melt, and extensive deformation around the impact site.

  1. Transient Lunar Phenomena: Regularity and Reality

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin P S

    2007-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled. A review of TLP reports shows regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by human observer effects, terrestrial atmospheric effects or processes tied to the lunar surface. I interrogate an extensive TLP catalog to determine if human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. I divide the sample according to variables which should produce varying results if determining factors involve humans e.g., historical epoch or geographical location of the observer, not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Regardless of how we split the ample, the results are similar: ~50% of the reports involve crater Aristarchus nd vicinity, ~16% from Plato, ~6% from other recent, major impacts, plus a few at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal for three of five averages of up to 7% of the reports (however, Crisium is an extended feature). The consistency in ...

  2. Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattenberger, Chris; Putney, Blake; Rust, Randy; Derkowski, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Characterizing the risk of spacecraft goes beyond simply modeling equipment reliability. Some portions of the mission require complex interactions between system elements that can lead to failure without an actual hardware fault. Landing risk is currently the least characterized aspect of the Altair lunar lander and appears to result from complex temporal interactions between pilot, sensors, surface characteristics and vehicle capabilities rather than hardware failures. The Lunar Landing Operational Risk Model (LLORM) seeks to provide rapid and flexible quantitative insight into the risks driving the landing event and to gauge sensitivities of the vehicle to changes in system configuration and mission operations. The LLORM takes a Monte Carlo based approach to estimate the operational risk of the Lunar Landing Event and calculates estimates of the risk of Loss of Mission (LOM) - Abort Required and is Successful, Loss of Crew (LOC) - Vehicle Crashes or Cannot Reach Orbit, and Success. The LLORM is meant to be used during the conceptual design phase to inform decision makers transparently of the reliability impacts of design decisions, to identify areas of the design which may require additional robustness, and to aid in the development and flow-down of requirements.

  3. Lunar base construction requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  4. Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  5. 基于光谱分解的Clementine UV/VIS/NIR数据月表矿物填图%MINERAL MAPPING OF THE LUNAR SURFACE USING CLEMENTINE UV/VIS/NIR DATA BASED ON UNMIXING OF SPECTRAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫柏琨; 甘甫平; 王润生; 王振超; 杨苏明

    2009-01-01

    月表主要矿物的空间分布是研究月球起源演化等科学问题的重要基础信息之一.基于Hapke模型与光谱线性分解的矿物提取方法,利用Clementine UV/VIS/NIR数据提取月表单斜辉石、斜方辉石、橄榄石、斜长石及钛铁矿等5类主要矿物的体积百分含量分布,并基于阿波罗(Apollo)月岩(壤)矿物分析数据对提取结果进行评价,对方法和提取结果中存在的问题进行分析,提出了进一步改进的措施.%The distribution of mineral abundances on lunar surface is one of the basic kinds of information which contains important data such as the origin and evolution of the moon. In this paper, the distribution of clinopyroxene, orthopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase and ilmenite on lunar surface was mapped based on Hapke radioactive transfer model and linear unmixing of spectra using Clementine UV/VIS/NIR data. The result is compared with the results obtained by previous researchers and Apollo sample analysis, and the problems existing in mineral abundance mapping are analyzed preliminarily.

  6. Impact-Actuated Digging Tool for Lunar Excavation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible, impact-actuated digging tool for the excavation of frozen and compacted regolith on the lunar surface and...

  7. Solar wind and micrometeorite effects in the lunar regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Using available data from the literature, an outline is formulated for the major physical and chemical effects expected during solar-wind bombardment of the lunar regolith. In agreement with results of Auger and other analyses of the composition of lunar grain surfaces, this outline predicts that solar-wind sputtering will tend to clean exposed grain surfaces by ejecting material at velocities exceeding lunar escape velocity. Results are also discussed which show that Fe is partially reduced in the outer few 10 nm of grain surfaces and that this reduced Fe forms 10-nm-diameter metal spheres throughout the glass during agglutinate formation by micrometeorite impacts. These metal spheres give the agglutinates their distinctive optical and magnetic properties and are partially responsible for the decreasing albedo of the lunar surface with exposure age.

  8. Electrolyzer for NASA Lunar Regenerative Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water electrolyzer stacks are a key component of regenerative fuel cells, designed to replace batteries as a means of storing electric energy on the lunar surface....

  9. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Overview: The Instrument Suite and Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Gordon; Brylow, Scott; Foote, Marc; Garvin, James; Kasper, Justin; Keller, John; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Paige, David; Raney, Keith; Robinson, Mark; Sanin, Anton; Smith, David; Spence, Harlan; Spudis, Paul; Stern, S. Alan; Zuber, Maria

    2007-04-01

    NASA’s Lunar Precursor Robotic Program (LPRP), formulated in response to the President’s Vision for Space Exploration, will execute a series of robotic missions that will pave the way for eventual permanent human presence on the Moon. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is first in this series of LPRP missions, and plans to launch in October of 2008 for at least one year of operation. LRO will employ six individual instruments to produce accurate maps and high-resolution images of future landing sites, to assess potential lunar resources, and to characterize the radiation environment. LRO will also test the feasibility of one advanced technology demonstration package. The LRO payload includes: Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) which will determine the global topography of the lunar surface at high resolution, measure landing site slopes, surface roughness, and search for possible polar surface ice in shadowed regions, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) which will acquire targeted narrow angle images of the lunar surface capable of resolving meter-scale features to support landing site selection, as well as wide-angle images to characterize polar illumination conditions and to identify potential resources, Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) which will map the flux of neutrons from the lunar surface to search for evidence of water ice, and will provide space radiation environment measurements that may be useful for future human exploration, Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (DLRE) which will chart the temperature of the entire lunar surface at approximately 300 meter horizontal resolution to identify cold-traps and potential ice deposits, Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) which will map the entire lunar surface in the far ultraviolet. LAMP will search for surface ice and frost in the polar regions and provide images of permanently shadowed regions illuminated only by starlight. Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRa

  10. Use of a Lunar Outpost for Developing Space Settlement Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Lloyd R.

    2008-01-01

    The type of polar lunar outpost being considered in the NASA Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) can effectively support the development of technologies that will not only significantly enhance lunar exploration, but also enable long term crewed space missions, including space settlement. The critical technologies are: artificial gravity, radiation protection, Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) and In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). These enhance lunar exploration by extending the time an astronaut can remain on the moon and reducing the need for supplies from Earth, and they seem required for space settlement. A polar lunar outpost provides a location to perform the research and testing required to develop these technologies, as well as to determine if there are viable countermeasures that can reduce the need for Earth-surface-equivalent gravity and radiation protection on long human space missions. The types of spinning space vehicles or stations envisioned to provide artificial gravity can be implemented and tested on the lunar surface, where they can create any level of effective gravity above the 1/6 Earth gravity that naturally exists on the lunar surface. Likewise, varying degrees of radiation protection can provide a natural radiation environment on the lunar surface less than or equal to 1/2 that of open space at 1 AU. Lunar ISRU has the potential of providing most of the material needed for radiation protection, the centrifuge that provides artificial gravity; and the atmosphere, water and soil for a CELSS. Lunar ISRU both saves the cost of transporting these materials from Earth and helps define the requirements for ISRU on other planetary bodies. Biosphere II provides a reference point for estimating what is required for an initial habitat with a CELSS. Previous studies provide initial estimates of what would be required to provide such a lunar habitat with the gravity and radiation environment of the Earth s surface. While much preparatory

  11. Energy conversion evolution at lunar polar sites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    James D Burke

    2005-12-01

    Lunar polar environments have many advantages from the standpoint of energy supply to robotic and human surface bases.Sunlight is nearly continuous and always horizontal at peaks of perpetual light,while waste heat rejection is aided by the existence of cold,permanently shadowed regions nearby.In this paper a possible evolution of lunar polar energy systems will be described,beginning with small robotic photovoltaic landers and continuing into the development of increasingly powerful and diverse energy installations to provide not only electric power but also piped-in sunlight,air conditioning and high-temperature process heat.

  12. Lunar Health Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  13. Lunar Excavator Validation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes to create a tool for simulation-based verification of lunar excavator designs. Energid will combine the best of 1) automatic control...

  14. Near-term SEI science missions utilizing an evolutionary lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Charles L.; Brown, Norman S.

    1992-01-01

    An evolutionary program of space science missions for the lunar surface and the transportation system concept developed to deploy them are described. Lunar-based science systems will evolve from simple, robotic instruments such as a lunar transit telescope (LTT) to large, observatory-class instruments like a 16-meter optical telescope assembled by astronauts at a lunar base. A transportation system concept to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) and the deployment of these science payloads is described. Beginning with a post-Artemis lander capability, a modular approach to lunar landers is proposed as a way to maximize commonality and to support evolving SEI transportation requirements.

  15. Electrical conductivity of the lunar interior - Theory, error sources, and estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, B. E.

    1979-01-01

    Estimates of the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior were previously obtained by comparison of magnetometer data at the lunar surface and in near lunar space. In studies based on solar wind observations, IR was assumed that fields induced in the lunar interior by time-varying external fields are confined by the solar wind within the lunar interior on the dayside and within a cylindrical plasma cavity on the nightside. In the present paper, the induced fields are calculated for a more realistic conical plasma cavity geometry.

  16. NASA Lunar Dust Filtration and Separations Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agui, Juan H.; Stocker, Dennis P.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a 2.5-day workshop, entitled "NASA Lunar Dust Filtration and Separations Workshop" at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio, on November 18 to 20, 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to address the issues and challenges of particulate matter removal from the cabin atmospheres in the Altair lunar lander, lunar habitats, and in pressurized rovers. The presence of lunar regolith dust inside the pressurized volumes was a theme of particular interest. The workshop provided an opportunity for NASA, industry experts, and academia to identify and discuss the capabilities of current and developing air and gas particulate matter filtration and separations technologies as they may apply to NASA s needs. A goal of the workshop was to provide recommendations for strategic research areas in cabin atmospheric particulate matter removal and disposal technologies that will advance and/or supplement the baseline approach for these future lunar surface exploration missions.

  17. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  18. Reorientation of the early lunar pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Futoshi; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2014-06-01

    Palaeomagnetic measurements suggest that an active core dynamo operated on the Moon from 4.2 to 3.56 billion years ago. Since the Apollo era, many magnetic anomalies have been observed on the Moon. The magnetization of the lunar crust in some of these regions could preserve the signature of an early dipolar magnetic field generated by a core dynamo. Thus, the magnetic anomalies may yield information about the position of the palaeomagnetic pole during the time that the dynamo operated. Here we present a comprehensive survey of magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface using magnetometer data obtained by the Lunar Prospector and Kaguya lunar orbiters. We extract magnetization vectors from 24 magnetic anomalies using an iterative inversion method and derive the palaeomagnetic poles. We find that the north poles, as well as the antipodal south poles, cluster in two distinct locations: one near the present rotation axis and the other at mid-latitude. The clustering is consistent with a dipole-dominated magnetic field generated in the lunar core by a dynamo that was reversing, much like that of Earth. Furthermore, the two pole clusters imply that the Moon experienced a polar wander event during its ancient history due to the reorientation of the Moon with respect to its spin axis by 45°-60°.

  19. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Allen, J.; Kascak, A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach. Between 1969 and 1972 six Apollo missions brought back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks, core and regolith samples, from the lunar surface. JSC also curates meteorites collected from a US cooperative effort among NASA, the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the Smithsonian Institution that funds expeditions to Antarctica. The meteorites that are collected include rocks from Moon, Mars, and many asteroids including Vesta. The sample disks for educational use include these different samples. Active relevant learning has always been important to teachers and the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program provides this active style of learning for students and the general public. The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks permit students to conduct investigations comparable to actual scientists. The Lunar Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Basalt, Breccia, Highland Regolith, Anorthosite, Mare Regolith and Orange Soil. The Meteorite Sample Disk contains 6 samples; Chondrite L3, Chondrite H5, Carbonaceous Chondrite, Basaltic Achondrite, Iron and Stony-Iron. Teachers are given different activities that adhere to their standards with the disks. During a Sample Disk Certification Workshop, teachers participate in the activities as students gain insight into the history, formation and geologic processes of the moon, asteroids and meteorites.

  20. Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark

    1999-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.

  1. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE), phase A

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, Robert O.

    1994-04-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum between 1,000 and 3,500 angstroms. There have been several endorsements of the scientific value of a LUTE. In addition to the scientific value of LUTE, its educational value and the information it can provide on the design of operating hardware for long-term exposure in the lunar environment are important considerations. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  2. The lunar Askaryan technique: a technical roadmap

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, J D; Buitink, S; Dagkesamanskii, R D; Ekers, R D; Falcke, H; Gayley, K G; Huege, T; James, C W; Mevius, M; Mutel, R L; Protheroe, R J; Scholten, O; Spencer, R E; ter Veen, S

    2015-01-01

    The lunar Askaryan technique, which involves searching for Askaryan radio pulses from particle cascades in the outer layers of the Moon, is a method for using the lunar surface as an extremely large detector of ultra-high-energy particles. The high time resolution required to detect these pulses, which have a duration of around a nanosecond, puts this technique in a regime quite different from other forms of radio astronomy, with a unique set of associated technical challenges which have been addressed in a series of experiments by various groups. Implementing the methods and techniques developed by these groups for detecting lunar Askaryan pulses will be important for a future experiment with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), which is expected to have sufficient sensitivity to allow the first positive detection using this technique. Key issues include correction for ionospheric dispersion, beamforming, efficient triggering, and the exclusion of spurious events from radio-frequency interference. We review the...

  3. The lunar eclipse over Merritt Island, Fla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from Merritt Island, Fla., at 11:25 p.m. EST, the full moon, traveling west to east, is nearly completely in the Earth's shadow, producing a lunar eclipse. Eclipses occur when the Sun, Earth and Moon line up. They are rare because the Moon usually passes above or below the imaginary line connecting Earth and the Sun. The Earth casts a shadow that the Moon can pass through when it does, it is called a lunar eclipse. They can only occur when the moon is 'full.' During a total lunar eclipse the Moon takes on a dark red color because it is being lighted slightly by sunlight passing through the Earth's atmosphere and this light has the blue component preferentially scattered out (this is also why the sky appears blue from the surface of the Earth), leaving faint reddish light to illuminate the Moon during the eclipse.

  4. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Monica; Bassler, Julie; Morse, Brian

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the status of the development of a robotic lunar lander. The goal of the project is to perform engineering tests and risk reduction activities to support the development of a small lunar lander for lunar surface science. This includes: (1) risk reduction for the flight of the robotic lander, (i.e., testing and analyzing various phase of the project); (2) the incremental development for the design of the robotic lander, which is to demonstrate autonomous, controlled descent and landing on airless bodies, and design of thruster configuration for 1/6th of the gravity of earth; (3) cold gas test article in flight demonstration testing; (4) warm gas testing of the robotic lander design; (5) develop and test landing algorithms; (6) validate the algorithms through analysis and test; and (7) tests of the flight propulsion system.

  5. Lunar atmospheric composition results from Apollo 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J. H.; Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Johnson, F. S.; Evans, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer has confirmed the existence of helium, neon, argon, and possibly molecular hydrogen in the lunar atmosphere. Helium and neon concentrations are in agreement with model predictions based on the solar wind as a source and their being noncondensable gases. Ar-40 and Ar-36 both exhibit a predawn enhancement which indicates that they are condensable gases on the nightside and are re-released into the atmosphere at the sunrise terminator. Hydrogen probably exists in the lunar atmosphere in the molecular rather than atomic state, having been released from the surface in the molecular form. Total nighttime gas concentration of known species in the lunar atmosphere is 200,000 molecules/cu cm.

  6. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  7. First Results from NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elphic, R. C.; Colaprete, A.; Horanyi, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Delory, G. T.; Noble, S. K.; Boroson, D.; Hine, B.; Salute, J.

    2013-12-01

    As of early August, 2013, the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission is scheduled for launch on a Minotaur V rocket from Wallops Flight Facility during a five-day launch period that opens on Sept. 6, 2013 (early Sept. 7 UTC). LADEE will address 40 year-old mysteries of the lunar atmosphere and the question of levitated lunar dust. It will also pioneer the next generation of optical space communications. LADEE will assess the composition of the lunar atmosphere and investigate the processes that control its distribution and variability, including sources, sinks, and surface interactions. LADEE will also determine whether dust is present in the lunar exosphere, and reveal its sources and variability. These investigations are relevant to our understanding of surface boundary exospheres and dust processes occurring at many objects throughout the solar system, address questions regarding the origin and evolution of lunar volatiles, and have potential implications for future exploration activities. Following a successful launch, LADEE will enter a series of phasing orbits, which allows the spacecraft to arrive at the Moon at the proper time and phase. This approach accommodates any dispersion in the Minotaur V launch injection. LADEE's arrival at the moon depends on the launch date, but with the Sept. 6 launch date it should arrive at the Moon in early October. The spacecraft will approach the moon from its leading edge, travel behind the Moon out of sight of the Earth, and then re-emerge and execute a three-minute Lunar Orbit Insertion maneuver. This will place LADEE in an elliptical retrograde equatorial orbit with an orbital period of approximately 24 hours. A series of maneuvers is then performed to reduce the orbit to become nearly circular with a 156-mile (250-kilometer) altitude. Spacecraft checkout and science instrument commissioning will commence in early-October and will nominally span 30 days but can be extended for an additional 30

  8. Lunar cinder cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGetchin, T R; Head, J W

    1973-04-01

    Data on terrestrial eruptions of pyroclastic material and ballistic considerations suggest that in the lunar environment (vacuum and reduced gravity) low-rimmed pyroclastic rings are formed rather than the high-rimmed cinder cones so abundant on the earth. Dark blanketing deposits in the Taurus-Littrow region (Apollo 17 landing area) are interpreted as being at least partly composed of lunar counterparts of terrestrial cinder cones.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong During Lunar Rock Collection Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong uses a geologist's hammer in selecting rock specimens during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas. Armstrong, alongside astronaut Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, practiced gathering rock specimens using special lunar geological tools in preparation for the first Lunar landing. Mission was accomplished in July of the same year. Aboard the Marshall Space Fight center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Armstrong, commander; Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot; and a third astronaut Michael Collins, Command Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin, while Collins remained in lunar orbit. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The lunar surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours.

  10. Antenna Deployment for a Pathfinder Lunar Radio Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowall, Robert J.; Minetto, F. A.; Lazio, T. W.; Jones, D. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Burns, J. O.; Stewart, K. P.; Weiler, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    A first step in the development of a large radio observatory on the moon for cosmological or other astrophysical and planetary goals is to deploy a few antennas as a pathfinder mission. In this presentation, we describe a mechanism being developed to deploy such antennas from a small craft, such as a Google Lunar X-prize lander. The antenna concept is to deposit antennas and leads on a polyimide film, such as Kapton, and to unroll the film on the lunar surface. The deployment technique utilized is to launch an anchor which pulls a double line from a reel at the spacecraft. Subsequently, the anchor is set by catching on the surface or collecting sufficient regolith. A motor then pulls in one end of the line, pulling the film off of its roller onto the lunar surface. Detection of a low frequency cutoff of the galactic radio background or of solar radio bursts by such a system would determine the maximum lunar ionospheric density at the time of measurement. The current design and testing, including videos of the deployment, will be presented. These activities are funded in part by the NASA Lunar Science Institute as an activity of the Lunar University Network for Astrophysical Research (LUNAR) consortium. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  12. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  13. Lunar Exploration Manned and Unmanned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudis, P. D.; Asmar, S. W.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Duxbury, N.; Friesen, L. J.; Gillis, J. J.; Hawke, B. R.; Heiken, G.; Lawrence, D.; Manifold, J.; Slade, M. A.; Smith, A.; Taylor, G. J.; Yingst, R. A.

    2002-08-01

    The past decade has seen two global reconnaissance missions to the Moon, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, which have mapped the surface in multiple wavelengths, determined the Moon's topography and gravity fields, and discovered the presence of water ice in the permanently dark regions near the poles. Although we have learned much about the Moon, many key aspects of its history and evolution remain obscure. The three highest priority questions in lunar science are: 1) the Moon's global composition, particularly the abundance of aluminum and magnesium; 2) the extent, composition, and physical state of polar deposits, including the extent, purity, and thickness of ice, the elemental, isotopic, and molecular composition of polar volatiles, the environment of the polar regions; and 3) the cratering chronology of the Moon and the implications of a possibly unique history, such as a cataclysm, for our understanding of other Solar System objects. Answering and addressing these questions require a series of new missions, including an orbiter (carrying XRF, imaging radar, and other instruments), the deployment of surface network stations equipped with seismometers and heat flow probes, selected robotic sample return missions from geologically simple areas (e.g., youngest lava flow or crater melt sheet), and complex geological field work, conducted by human explorers. Because the Moon is a touchstone for the history and evolution of other rocky bodies in the solar system, we believe that these questions are of very high scientific priority and that lunar missions should receive much more serious attention and detailed study than they have in the past by the NASA Office of Space Science.

  14. Lunar Navigation Determination System - LaNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David; Talabac, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A portable comprehensive navigational system has been developed that both robotic and human explorers can use to determine their location, attitude, and heading anywhere on the lunar surface independent of external infrastructure (needs no Lunar satellite network, line of sight to the Sun or Earth, etc.). The system combines robust processing power with an extensive topographical database to create a real-time atlas (GIS Geospatial Information System) that is able to autonomously control and monitor both single unmanned rovers and fleets of rovers, as well as science payload stations. The system includes provisions for teleoperation and tele-presence. The system accepts (but does not require) inputs from a wide range of sensors. A means was needed to establish a location when the search is taken deep in a crater (looking for water ice) and out of view of Earth or any other references. A star camera can be employed to determine the user's attitude in menial space and stellar map in body space. A local nadir reference (e.g., an accelerometer that orients the nadir vector in body space) can be used in conjunction with a digital ephemeris and gravity model of the Moon to isolate the latitude, longitude, and azimuth of the user on the surface. That information can be used in conjunction with a Lunar GIS and advanced navigation planning algorithms to aid astronauts (or other assets) to navigate on the Lunar surface.

  15. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  16. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Undergoes Communications Systems Final Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Dunned in his space suit, mission commander Neil A. Armstrong does a final check of his communications system before before the boarding of the Apollo 11 mission. Launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle, the first manned lunar mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Armstrong; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. Meanwhile, astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. Cartography of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area based on Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and surface archive TV-panoramas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, I. P.; Kozlova, N. A.; Kokhanov, A. A.; Zubarev, A. E.; Nadezhdina, I. E.; Patratiy, V. D.; Konopikhin, A. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Abdrakhimov, A. M.; Oberst, J.; Haase, I.; Jolliff, B. L.; Plescia, J. B.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-02-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) system consists of a Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC). NAC images (∼0.5 to 1.7 m/pixel) reveal details of the Luna-21 landing site and Lunokhod-2 traverse area. We derived a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and an orthomosaic for the study region using photogrammetric stereo processing techniques with NAC images. The DEM and mosaic allowed us to analyze the topography and morphology of the landing site area and to map the Lunokhod-2 rover route. The total range of topographic elevation along the traverse was found to be less than 144 m; and the rover encountered slopes of up to 20°. With the orthomosaic tied to the lunar reference frame, we derived coordinates of the Lunokhod-2 landing module and overnight stop points. We identified the exact rover route by following its tracks and determined its total length as 39.16 km, more than was estimated during the mission (37 km), which until recently was a distance record for planetary robotic rovers held for more than 40 years.

  18. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as ``Rove First.`` A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  19. Beam-powered lunar rover design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, J.E.; Coomes, E.P.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Chiu, M.A.; Dodge, R.E.; Wise, J.A.

    1992-03-01

    Manned exploration of our nearest neighbors in the solar systems is the primary goal of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An integral part of any manned lunar or planetary outpost will be a system for manned excursions over the surface of the planet. This report presents a preliminary design for a lunar rover capable of supporting four astronauts on long-duration excursions across the lunar landscape. The distinguishing feature of this rover design is that power is provided to rover via a laser beam from an independent orbiting power satellite. This system design provides very high power availability with minimal mass on the rover vehicle. With this abundance of power, and with a relatively small power-system mass contained in the rover, the vehicle can perform an impressive suite of mission-related activity. The rover might be used as the first outpost for the lunar surface (i.e., a mobile base). A mobile base has the advantage of providing extensive mission activities without the expense of establishing a fixed base. This concept has been referred to as Rove First.'' A manned over, powered through a laser beam, has been designed for travel on the lunar surface for round-trip distances in the range of 1000 km, although the actual distance traveled is not crucial since the propulsion system does not rely on energy storage. The life support system can support a 4-person crew for up to 30 days, and ample power is available for mission-related activities. The 8000-kg rover has 30 kW of continuous power available via a laser transmitter located at the Earth-moon L1 libration point, about 50,000 km above the surface of the moon. This rover, which is designed to operate in either day or night conditions, has the flexibility to perform a variety of power-intensive missions. 24 refs.

  20. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  1. Implementation of an Autonomous Multi-Maneuver Targeting Sequence for Lunar Trans-Earth Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, Ryan J.; Williams, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Using a fully analytic initial guess estimate as a first iterate, a targeting procedure that constructs a flyable burn maneuver sequence to transfer a spacecraft from any closed Moon orbit to a desired Earth entry state is developed and implemented. The algorithm is built to support the need for an anytime abort capability for Orion. Based on project requirements, the Orion spacecraft must be able to autonomously calculate the translational maneuver targets for an entire Lunar mission. Translational maneuver target sequences for the Orion spacecraft include Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI), Trans-Earth Injection (TEI), and Trajectory Correction Maneuvers (TCMs). This onboard capability is generally assumed to be supplemental to redundant ground computation in nominal mission operations and considered as a viable alternative primarily in loss of communications contingencies. Of these maneuvers, the ability to accurately and consistently establish a flyable 3-burn TEI target sequence is especially critical. The TEI is the sole means by which the crew can successfully return from the Moon to a narrowly banded Earth Entry Interface (EI) state. This is made even more critical by the desire for global access on the lunar surface. Currently, the designed propellant load is based on fully optimized TEI solutions for the worst case geometries associated with the accepted range of epochs and landing sites. This presents two challenges for an autonomous algorithm: in addition to being feasible, the targets must include burn sequences that do not exceed the anticipated propellant load.

  2. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of lunar soil into and out of process equipment in support of in situ resource utilization...

  3. Lunar Materials Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Materials Handling System (LMHS) is a method for transfer of bulk materials and products into and out of process equipment in support of lunar and Mars in...

  4. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources....

  5. Lunar Sulfur Capture System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to capture greater than 90 percent of sulfur gases evolved during thermal treatment of lunar soils....

  6. Analysis of Solar-Heated Thermal Wadis to Support Extended-Duration Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, R.; Gokoglu, S. A.; Sacksteder, K. R.; Wegeng, R.; Suzuki, N.

    2011-01-01

    The realization of the renewed exploration of the Moon presents many technical challenges; among them is the survival of lunar-surface assets during periods of darkness when the lunar environment is very cold. Thermal wadis are engineered sources of stored solar energy using modified lunar regolith as a thermal storage mass that can supply energy to protect lightweight robotic rovers or other assets during the lunar night. This paper describes an analysis of the performance of thermal wadis based on the known solar illumination of the Moon and estimates of producible thermal properties of modified lunar regolith. Analysis has been performed for the lunar equatorial region and for a potential outpost location near the Lunar South Pole. The calculations indicate that thermal wadis can provide the desired thermal energy and temperature control for the survival of rovers or other equipment during periods of darkness.

  7. Overloading of Landing Based on the Deformation of the Lunar Lander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jinbao; Nie Hong

    2008-01-01

    Along with the progress of sciences and technologies, a lot of explorations are taken in many countries or organizations in succession. Lunar, the natural satellite of the earth, become a focus of the space discovery again recently because of its abundant resource and high value in use, Lunar exploration is also one of the most important projects in China, A primary objective of the probe in lunar is to soft-land a manned spacecraft on the lunar surface. The soft-landing system is the key composition of the lunar lander. In the overall design of lunar lender, the analysis of touchdown dynamics during landing stage is an important work. The rigid-flexible coupling dyuamics of a system with flexible cantilevers attached to the main landex is analyzed. The equations arc derived from the subsystem method. Results show that the deformations of cantilevers have considerable effect on the overloading of the lunar lander system.

  8. Surface-plasmon enhanced photodetection at communication band based on hot electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kai; Zhan, Yaohui, E-mail: yhzhan@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn; Wu, Shaolong; Deng, Jiajia; Li, Xiaofeng, E-mail: yhzhan@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006, China and Key Lab of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Technologies of Jiangsu Province and Key Lab of Modern Optical Technologies of Education Ministry of China, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Surface plasmons can squeeze light into a deep-subwavelength space and generate abundant hot electrons in the nearby metallic regions, enabling a new paradigm of photoconversion by the way of hot electron collection. Unlike the visible spectral range concerned in previous literatures, we focus on the communication band and design the infrared hot-electron photodetectors with plasmonic metal-insulator-metal configuration by using full-wave finite-element method. Titanium dioxide-silver Schottky interface is employed to boost the low-energy infrared photodetection. The photodetection sensitivity is strongly improved by enhancing the plasmonic excitation from a rationally engineered metallic grating, which enables a strong unidirectional photocurrent. With a five-step electrical simulation, the optimized device exhibits an unbiased responsivity of ∼0.1 mA/W and an ultra-narrow response band (FWHM = 4.66 meV), which promises to be a candidate as the compact photodetector operating in communication band.

  9. Lunar Alignments - Identification and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César

    Lunar alignments are difficult to establish given the apparent lack of written accounts clearly pointing toward lunar alignments for individual temples. While some individual cases are reviewed and highlighted, the weight of the proof must fall on statistical sampling. Some definitions for the lunar alignments are provided in order to clarify the targets, and thus, some new tools are provided to try to test the lunar hypothesis in several cases, especially in megalithic astronomy.

  10. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  11. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  12. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  13. Photometric Characteristics of Lunar Terrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Hapke, Bruce W.; Denevi, Brett W.; Robinson, Mark

    2016-10-01

    The photometric properties of the lunar depend on albedo, surface roughness, porosity, and the internal/external structure of particles. Hapke parameter maps derived using a bidirectional reflectance model [Hapke, 2012] from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Wide Angle Camera (WAC) images demonstrated the spatial and spectral variation of the photometric properties of the Moon [Sato et al., 2014]. Using the same methodology, here we present the photometric characteristics of typical lunar terrains, which were not systematically analyzed in the previous study.We selected five representative terrain types: mare, highland, swirls, and two Copernican (fresh) crater ejecta (one mare and one highlands example). As for the datasets, we used ~39 months of WAC repeated observations, and for each image pixel, we computed latitude, longitude, incidence, emission, and phase angles using the WAC GLD100 stereo DTM [Scholten et al., 2012]. To obtain similar phase and incidence angle ranges, all sampling sites are near the equator and in the vicinity of Reiner Gamma. Three free Hapke parameters (single scattering albedo: w, HG2 phase function parameter: c, and angular width of SHOE: hs) were then calculated for the seven bands (321-689 nm). The remaining parameters were fixed by simplifying the model [Sato et al., 2014].The highlands, highland ejecta, and swirl (Reiner Gamma) showed clearly higher w than the mare and mare ejecta. The derived c values were lower (less backscattering) for the swirl and higher (more backscattering) for the highlands (and ejecta) relative to the other sites. Forward scattering materials such as unconsolidated transparent crystalline materials might be relatively enriched in the swirl. In the highlands, anorthositic agglutinates with dense internal scattering could be responsible for the strong backscattering. The mare and mare ejecta showed continuously decreasing c from UV to visible wavelengths. This might be caused by the FeO-rich pyroxene

  14. Lunar Resources: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Crawford, Ian A

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possibility that the resource base of the Solar System might in future be used to supplement the economic resources of our own planet. As the Earth's closest celestial neighbour, the Moon is sure to feature prominently in these developments. In this paper I review what is currently known about economically exploitable resources on the Moon, while also stressing the need for continued lunar exploration. I find that, although it is difficult to identify any single lunar resource that will be sufficiently valuable to drive a lunar resource extraction industry on its own (notwithstanding claims sometimes made for the 3He isotope, which I find to be exaggerated), the Moon nevertheless does possess abundant raw materials that are of potential economic interest. These are relevant to a hierarchy of future applications, beginning with the use of lunar materials to facilitate human activities on the Moon itself, and progressing to the use of lunar resources to underpin a future industr...

  15. Lunar UV-visible-IR mapping interferometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Hayden; Haskin, L.; Korotev, R.; Arvidson, R.; Mckinnon, W.; Hapke, B.; Larson, S.; Lucey, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible-infrared mapping digital array scanned interferometers for lunar compositional surveys was developed. The research has defined a no-moving-parts, low-weight and low-power, high-throughput, and electronically adaptable digital array scanned interferometer that achieves measurement objectives encompassing and improving upon all the requirements defined by the LEXSWIG for lunar mineralogical investigation. In addition, LUMIS provides a new, important, ultraviolet spectral mapping, high-spatial-resolution line scan camera, and multispectral camera capabilities. An instrument configuration optimized for spectral mapping and imaging of the lunar surface and provide spectral results in support of the instrument design are described.

  16. Lunar UV-visible-IR mapping interferometric spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Hayden; Haskin, L.; Korotev, R.; Arvidson, R.; Mckinnon, W.; Hapke, B.; Larson, S.; Lucey, P.

    1992-01-01

    Ultraviolet-visible-infrared mapping digital array scanned interferometers for lunar compositional surveys was developed. The research has defined a no-moving-parts, low-weight and low-power, high-throughput, and electronically adaptable digital array scanned interferometer that achieves measurement objectives encompassing and improving upon all the requirements defined by the LEXSWIG for lunar mineralogical investigation. In addition, LUMIS provides a new, important, ultraviolet spectral mapping, high-spatial-resolution line scan camera, and multispectral camera capabilities. An instrument configuration optimized for spectral mapping and imaging of the lunar surface and provide spectral results in support of the instrument design are described.

  17. Possible effect of subsurface inhomogeneities on the lunar microwave spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, A. D.; Staelin, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    Inhomogeneities beneath the lunar surface could alter the average microwave emission spectrum of the moon in a fashion generally consistent with observations, even in the absence of an average heat flux or density gradients with depth. The lunar subsurface was modeled as an inhomogeneous lossy dielectric with three-dimensional refractive-index fluctuations characterized by independent horizontal and vertical correlation lengths. The model suggests that attempts to infer the physical properties of the moon from the lunar microwave spectrum could be significantly inaccurate if subsurface scattering were neglected.

  18. Process to Produce Iron Nanoparticle Lunar Dust Simulant Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses a method for producing nanophase iron lunar dust composite simulant by heating a mixture of carbon black and current lunar simulant types (mixed oxide including iron oxide) at a high temperature to reduce ionic iron into elemental iron. The product is a chemically modified lunar simulant that can be attracted by a magnet, and has a surface layer with an iron concentration that is increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be -iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The simulant produced with this method contains iron nanoparticles not available previously, and they are stable in ambient air. These nanoparticles can be mass-produced simply.

  19. Lunar and Mars Exploration: The Autonomy Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Cynthia M.; Schuh, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    Long duration space flight crews have relied heavily on almost constant communication with ground control mission support. Ground control teams provide vehicle status and system monitoring, while offering near real time support for specific tasks, emergencies, and ensuring crew health and well being. With extended exploration goals to lunar and Mars outposts, real time communication with ground control teams and the ground s ability to conduct mission monitoring will be very limited compared to the resources provided to current International Space Station (ISS) crews. An operational shift toward more autonomy and a heavier reliance on the crew to monitor their vehicle and operations will be required for these future missions. NASA s future exploration endeavors and the subsequent increased autonomy will require a shift in crew skill composition, i.e. engineer, doctor, mission specialist etc. and lead to new training challenges and mission scenarios. Specifically, operational and design changes will be necessary in many areas including: Habitat Infrastructure and Support Systems, Crew Composition, Training, Procedures and Mission Planning. This paper will specifically address how to apply ISS lessons learned to further use ISS as a test bed to address decreased amounts of ground support to achieve full autonomous operations for lunar and Mars missions. Understanding these lessons learned and applying them to current operations will help to address the future impacts of increased crew autonomy for the lunar and Mars outposts and pave the way for success in increasingly longer mission durations.

  20. Modelling long-term trends in lunar exposure to the Earth's plasmasheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hapgood

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how the exposure of the Moon to the Earth's plasmasheet is subject to decadal variations due to lunar precession. The latter is a key property of the Moon's apparent orbit around the Earth – the nodes of that orbit precess around the ecliptic, completing one revolution every 18.6 years. This precession is responsible for a number of astronomical phenomena, e.g. the year to year drift of solar and lunar eclipse periods. It also controls the ecliptic latitude at which the Moon crosses the magnetotail and thus the number and duration of lunar encounters with the plasmasheet. This paper presents a detailed model of those encounters and applies it to the period 1960 to 2030. This shows that the total lunar exposure to the plasmasheet will vary from 10 h per month at a minimum of the eighteen-year cycle rising to 40 h per month at the maximum. These variations could have a profound impact on the accumulation of charge due plasmasheet electrons impacting the lunar surface. Thus we should expect the level of lunar surface charging to vary over the eighteen-year cycle. The literature contains reports that support this: several observations made during the cycle maximum of 1994–2000 are attributed to bombardment and charging of the lunar surface by plasmasheet electrons. Thus we conclude that lunar surface charging will vary markedly over an eighteen-year cycle driven by lunar precession. It is important to interpret lunar environment measurements in the context of this cycle and to allow for the cycle when designing equipment for deployment on the lunar surface. This is particularly important in respect of developing plans for robotic exploration on the lunar surface during the next cycle maximum of 2012–2019.

  1. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-01-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  2. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  3. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of what has been learned from the study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. Information presented is carefully attributed to the original source publication, thus the Compendium also serves as a ready access to the now vast scientific literature pertaining to lunar smples. The Lunar Sample Compendium is a work in progress (and may always be). Future plans include: adding sections on additional samples, adding new thin section photomicrographs, replacing the faded photographs with newly digitized photos from the original negatives, attempting to correct the age data using modern decay constants, adding references to each section, and adding an internal search engine.

  4. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  5. Computer program determines thermal environment and temperature history of lunar orbiting space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. E.; Mitchell, K. L.

    1967-01-01

    Program computes the thermal environment of a spacecraft in a lunar orbit. The quantities determined include the incident flux /solar and lunar emitted radiation/, total radiation absorbed by a surface, and the resulting surface temperature as a function of time and orbital position.

  6. Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE). Phase A final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBrayer, R. O.

    1994-04-01

    The Lunar Ultraviolet Telescope Experiment (LUTE) is a 1-meter telescope for imaging from the lunar surface the ultraviolet spectrum 1,000 and 3,500 Å. This report provides the results of the LUTE phase A activity begun at the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center in early 1992. It describes the objective of LUTE (science, engineering, and education), a feasible reference design concept that has evolved, and the subsystem trades that were accomplished during the phase A.

  7. Workstation Designs for a Cis-Lunar Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Using the International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR) system, a suite of workstations required for deep space missions have been proposed to fill out habitation functions in an International Space Station (ISS) derived Cis-lunar Deep Space Habitat. This paper introduces the functional layout of the Cis-lunar habitat design, and describes conceptual designs for modular deployable work surfaces, General Maintenance Workstation (GMWS), In-Space Manufacturing Workstation (ISMW), Intra-Vehicular Activity Telerobotics Work Station (IVA-TRWS), and Galley / Wardroom.

  8. Evaluation of the benefits of high temperature electronics for lunar power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Edgar H.

    A comparative evaluation is conducted of several approaches to the cooling of a lunar power system's power electronics, in view of the 400 K temperature of the 354-hour lunar day and lunar dust accumulation, which can contaminate power components and radiator surfaces. It is noted that, by raising the power electronics' baseplate temperature to 480 K, no thermal control system is required; the surface of the baseplate acts as its own, waste-heat-rejecting radiator, but the baseplate must be kept clean of lunar dust contamination.

  9. Evaluation of the Benefits of High Temperature Electronics for Lunar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Edgar H.

    1992-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is conducted of several approaches to the cooling of a lunar power system's power electronics, in view of the 400 K temperature of the 354-hour lunar day and lunar dust accumulation, which can contaminate power components and radiator surfaces. It is noted that, by raising the power electronics' baseplate temperature to 480 K, no thermal control system is required; the surface of the baseplate acts as its own, waste-heat-rejecting radiator, but the baseplate must be kept clean of lunar dust contamination.

  10. Robotic Lunar Lander Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Benjamin; Cohen, Barbara A.; McGee, Timothy; Reed, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory have developed several mission concepts to place scientific and exploration payloads ranging from 10 kg to more than 200 kg on the surface of the moon. The mission concepts all use a small versatile lander that is capable of precision landing. The results to date of the lunar lander development risk reduction activities including high pressure propulsion system testing, structure and mechanism development and testing, and long cycle time battery testing will be addressed. The most visible elements of the risk reduction program are two fully autonomous lander flight test vehicles. The first utilized a high pressure cold gas system (Cold Gas Test Article) with limited flight durations while the subsequent test vehicle, known as the Warm Gas Test Article, utilizes hydrogen peroxide propellant resulting in significantly longer flight times and the ability to more fully exercise flight sensors and algorithms. The development of the Warm Gas Test Article is a system demonstration and was designed with similarity to an actual lunar lander including energy absorbing landing legs, pulsing thrusters, and flight-like software implementation. A set of outdoor flight tests to demonstrate the initial objectives of the WGTA program was completed in Nov. 2011, and will be discussed.

  11. Synthesis and Stability of Iron Nanoparticles for Lunar Environment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; McNatt, Jeremiah

    2009-01-01

    Simulant of lunar dust is needed when researching the lunar environment. However, unlike the true lunar dust, today s simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of the lunar dust simulant: (1) Sequentially treating a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are grey in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contain alpha-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy regolith that contains Fe(sup 0). (2) Heating a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reaction to the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be alpha-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process, but stabilizes after 6 months of ambient air storage.

  12. Lunar ~3He estimations and related parameters analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a potential nuclear fuel, 3He element is significant for both the solution of impending human energy crisis and the conservation of natural environment. Lunar regolith contains abundant and easily extracted 3He. Based on the analyses of the impact factors of 3He abundance, here we have compared a few key assessment parameters and approaches used in lunar regolith 3He reserve estimation and some representative estimation results, and discussed the issues concerned in 3He abundance variation and 3He reserve estimation. Our studies suggest that in a range of at least meters deep, 3He abundance in lunar regolith is homogeneously distributed and generally does not depend on the depth; lunar regolith has long been in a saturation state of 3He trapped by minerals through chemical bonds, and the temperature fluctuation on the lunar surface exerts little influence on the lattice 3He abundance. In terms of above conclusions and the newest lunar regolith depth data from the microwave brightness temperature retrieval of the "ChangE-1" Lunar Microwave Sounder, a new 3He reserve estimation has been presented.

  13. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  14. Environmental aspects of lunar helium-3 mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Schmitt, H. H.

    1992-01-01

    Three potential detrimental effects of lunar He-3 mining have been identified; visual changes, atmospheric contamination, and solid waste disposal. The removal of small craters (less than 20 m diameter) and the change in the albedo of the surface may cause a slight darkening of the regolith. However, it is not expected that this change will be visible from the earth even with powerful telescopes. The release of lunar volatile gases and their effect on the lunar 'atmosphere' is expected to be both local and temporary (on the order of a few weeks from the time of release). The solution to solid waste disposal is to recycle as much as possible and to bury the nonrecyclable waste. The lack of wind and water means that the waste will stay localized indefinitely and cause no contamination of the environment. The positive benefits of using lunar He-3 in terrestrial fusion plants far outweigh the detrimental effects of mining. The reduction in radioactive waste, greenhouse and acid gases, and the reduction in terrestrial mining for fossil fuels could have a major impact on the quality of life in the 21st century.

  15. The lunar thermal ice pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorghofer, Norbert [Institute for Astronomy and NASA Astrobiology Institute, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Aharonson, Oded, E-mail: norbert@hawaii.edu [Helen Kimmel Center for Planetary Science, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100 (Israel)

    2014-06-20

    It has long been suggested that water ice can exist in extremely cold regions near the lunar poles, where sublimation loss is negligible. The geographic distribution of H-bearing regolith shows only a partial or ambiguous correlation with permanently shadowed areas, thus suggesting that another mechanism may contribute to locally enhancing water concentrations. We show that under suitable conditions, water molecules can be pumped down into the regolith by day-night temperature cycles, leading to an enrichment of H{sub 2}O in excess of the surface concentration. Ideal conditions for pumping are estimated and found to occur where the mean surface temperature is below 105 K and the peak surface temperature is above 120 K. These conditions complement those of the classical cold traps that are roughly defined by peak temperatures lower than 120 K. On the present-day Moon, an estimated 0.8% of the global surface area experiences such temperature variations. Typically, pumping occurs on pole-facing slopes in small areas, but within a few degrees of each pole the equator-facing slopes are preferred. Although pumping of water molecules is expected over cumulatively large areas, the absolute yield of this pump is low; at best, a few percent of the H{sub 2}O delivered to the surface could have accumulated in the near-surface layer in this way. The amount of ice increases with vapor diffusivity and is thus higher in the regolith with large pore spaces.

  16. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  17. An unusual clast in lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills 88105: A unique lunar sample or projectile debris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, K. H.; Crawford, I. A.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.; Taylor, G. J.

    2014-04-01

    Lunar meteorite MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88105 is a well-studied feldspathic regolith breccia dominated by rock and mineral fragments from the lunar highlands. Thin section MAC 88105,159 contains a small rock fragment, 400 × 350 μm in size, which is compositionally anomalous compared with other MAC 88105 lithic components. The clast is composed of olivine and plagioclase with minor pyroxene and interstitial devitrified glass component. It is magnesian, akin to samples in the lunar High Mg-Suite, and also alkali-rich, akin to samples in the lunar High Alkali Suite. It could represent a small fragment of late-stage interstitial melt from an Mg-Suite parent lithology. However, olivine and pyroxene in the clast have Fe/Mn ratios and minor element concentrations that are different from known types of lunar lithologies. As Fe/Mn ratios are notably indicative of planetary origin, the clast could either (1) have a unique lunar magmatic source, or (2) have a nonlunar origin (i.e., consist of achondritic meteorite debris that survived delivery to the lunar surface). Both hypotheses are considered and discussed.

  18. 具有月面适应性的月球车着陆释放机构%Rover Landing Unloading Mechanism with Lunar Surface Adaptability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奎; 刘荣强; 姜生元; 邓宗全

    2011-01-01

    To improve the unloading mechanism adaptability under all complex conditions, some representative extreme conditions are synthesized in different unloading situations. Analyzing the requirements of the extreme conditions and unloading progress, the movement rule of rocker-arm style unloading mechanism is found with movement track layout method to construct an unloading mechanism D-H matrix, and a art flexible rope transmission is considered as the restriction to o-bey the movement rule. Thus, a sub-sectioned gradual incline rocker-arm style unloading mechanism is designed. The experiments show that the actually measured movement rule coincides with the theoretical one very well in lunar rover unloading, and the lunar rover unloading can be completed for extreme pitching and extreme rolling, and on stone-spread ground.%为了提高月球车着陆释放机构对各种复杂环境的适应性,综合了不同释放环境后给出了具有代表意义的极限释放环境.根据极限释放环境和释放过程对释放机构的运动要求,通过建立释放机构D-H矩阵,采用运动轨迹规划方法,得出了摇臂式释放机构的运动规律曲线;按照该运动规律曲线,引入不完全轮系作为传动约束,设计了分段渐倾式、摇臂式释放机构.实验结果表明,在月球车释放过程中,释放机构实测运动规律与理论运动规律吻合较好,在极限俯仰、极限侧倾和存在石块的释放环境下,该释放机构均能顺利完成月球车释放任务.

  19. Adaptive Power Control for Space Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Willie L., II; Israel, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the implementation of power control techniques for crosslinks communications during a rendezvous scenario of the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM). During the rendezvous, NASA requires that the CEV supports two communication links: space-to-ground and crosslink simultaneously. The crosslink will generate excess interference to the space-to-ground link as the distances between the two vehicles decreases, if the output power is fixed and optimized for the worst-case link analysis at the maximum distance range. As a result, power control is required to maintain the optimal power level for the crosslink without interfering with the space-to-ground link. A proof-of-concept will be described and implemented with Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Communications, Standard, and Technology Lab (CSTL).

  20. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)