WorldWideScience

Sample records for lunar samples nuclide

  1. Sampling soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  2. Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Lunar Sample Compendium will be to inform scientists, astronauts and the public about the various lunar samples that have been returned from the Moon. This Compendium will be organized rock by rock in the manor of a catalog, but will not be as comprehensive, nor as complete, as the various lunar sample catalogs that are available. Likewise, this Compendium will not duplicate the various excellent books and reviews on the subject of lunar samples (Cadogen 1981, Heiken et al. 1991, Papike et al. 1998, Warren 2003, Eugster 2003). However, it is thought that an online Compendium, such as this, will prove useful to scientists proposing to study individual lunar samples and should help provide backup information for lunar sample displays. This Compendium will allow easy access to the scientific literature by briefly summarizing the significant findings of each rock along with the documentation of where the detailed scientific data are to be found. In general, discussion and interpretation of the results is left to the formal reviews found in the scientific literature. An advantage of this Compendium will be that it can be updated, expanded and corrected as need be.

  3. The Lunar Sample Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Sample Compendium is a succinct summary of the data obtained from 40 years of study of Apollo and Luna samples of the Moon. Basic petrographic, chemical and age information is compiled, sample-by-sample, in the form of an advanced catalog in order to provide a basic description of each sample. The LSC can be found online using Google. The initial allocation of lunar samples was done sparingly, because it was realized that scientific techniques would improve over the years and new questions would be formulated. The LSC is important because it enables scientists to select samples within the context of the work that has already been done and facilitates better review of proposed allocations. It also provides back up material for public displays, captures information found only in abstracts, grey literature and curatorial databases and serves as a ready access to the now-vast scientific literature.

  4. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  5. Sampling of soils for transuranic nuclides: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.B.; Essington, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to the sampling of soils for radionuclides is presented; emphasis is placed on transuranic nuclides. Sampling of soils is discussed relative to systems of heterogeneous distributions and varied particle sizes encountered in certain environments. Sampling methods that have been used for two different sources of contamination, global fallout, and accidental or operational releases, are included

  6. NASA Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxworth, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disk Program is designed for K-12 classroom educators who work in K-12 schools, museums, libraries, or planetariums. Educators have to be certified to borrow the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Disks by attending a NASA Certification Workshop provided by a NASA Authorized Sample Disk Certifier.

  7. Sampling art for ground-water monitoring wells in nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenyuan; Tu Guorong; Dang Haijun; Wang Xuhui; Ke Changfeng

    2010-01-01

    Ground-Water sampling is one of the key parts in field nuclide migration. The objective of ground-water sampling program is to obtain samples that are representative of formation-quality water. In this paper, the ground-water sampling standards and the developments of sampling devices are reviewed. We also designed the sampling study projects which include the sampling methods, sampling parameters and the elementary devise of two types of ground-Water sampling devices. (authors)

  8. Lower-Cost, Relocatable Lunar Polar Lander and Lunar Surface Sample Return Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, G. Michael; Garvin, James B.; Burt, I. Joseph; Karpati, Gabe

    2011-01-01

    Key science and exploration objectives of lunar robotic precursor missions can be achieved with the Lunar Explorer (LEx) low-cost, robotic surface mission concept described herein. Selected elements of the LEx concept can also be used to create a lunar surface sample return mission that we have called Boomerang

  9. Sample Curation at a Lunar Outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Treiman, A. H.; Lindstrom, Marilyn L.

    2007-01-01

    The six Apollo surface missions returned 2,196 individual rock and soil samples, with a total mass of 381.6 kg. Samples were collected based on visual examination by the astronauts and consultation with geologists in the science back room in Houston. The samples were photographed during collection, packaged in uniquely-identified containers, and transported to the Lunar Module. All samples collected on the Moon were returned to Earth. NASA's upcoming return to the Moon will be different. Astronauts will have extended stays at an out-post and will collect more samples than they will return. They will need curation and analysis facilities on the Moon in order to carefully select samples for return to Earth.

  10. Technicians work with Apollo 14 lunar sample material in Lunar Receiving Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Glove handlers work with freshly opened Apollo 14 lunar sample material in modularized cabinets in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center. The glove operator on the right starts to pour fine lunar material which he has just taken from a tote bag. This powdery sample was among the last to be revealed of the 90-odd pounds of material brought back to Earth by the Apollo 14 crewmen.

  11. Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile nuclide content in samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.T.; Cates, M.R.; Franks, L.A.; Kunz, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile nuclide and total fertile nuclide material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for 239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed delayed neutrons

  12. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  13. Distribution and Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; McLain, H. L.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of organic compounds on the lunar surface has been a question of interest from the Apollo era to the present. Investigations of amino acids immediately after collection of lunar samples yielded inconclusive identifications, in part due to analytical limitations including insensitivity to certain compounds, an inability to separate enantiomers, and lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements. It was not possible to determine if the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the result of terrestrial contamination. Recently, we presented initial data from the analysis of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples and discussed those results in the context of four potential amino acid sources [5]. Here, we expand on our previous work, focusing on amino acid abundances and distributions in seven regolith samples and presenting the first compound-specific carbon isotopic ratios measured for amino acids in a lunar sample.

  14. Adsorption of Hg on lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, G.W. Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1985-01-01

    Understanding the presence, migration mechanisms and trapping of indigneous gases and volatiles on the moon is the objective of this study. The rare gases Ar and Xe and highly volatile Hg 0 and Br 0 (and/or their compounds) have been determined to be present in the lunar regolith. Evidence for these elements in the moon was recently reviewed. Studies of the sorption behavior of Xe on lunar material have been carried out. We report here preliminary results of a study designed to rationalize the behavior of Hg in lunar material

  15. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Martian surface: constraints for sample recovery and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englert, P.A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Stable and radioactive cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic nuclide research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic nuclides and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques

  16. A Virtual Petrological Microscope for All Apollo 11 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillnger, C. T.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Quick, K.; Scott, P.; Gibson, E. K.; Zeigler, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    A means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicaing many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described.

  17. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  18. Hydrogen and fluorine in the surfaces of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leich, D.A.; Goldberg, R.H.; Burnett, D.S.; Tombrello, T.A.

    1974-04-01

    The resonant nuclear reaction F-19 (p, alpha gamma)O-16 was used to perform depth sensitive analyses for both fluorine and hydrogen in lunar samples. The resonance at 0.83 MeV (center-of-mass) in this reaction was applied to the measurement of the distribution of trapped solar protons in lunar samples to depths of about 1 / 2 micrometer. These results are interpreted in terms of terrestrial H 2 O surface contamination and a redistribution of the implanted solar H which has been influenced by heavy radiation damage in the surface region. Results are also presented for an experiment to test the penetration of H 2 O into laboratory glass samples which have been irradiated with O-16 to simulate the radiation damaged surfaces of lunar glasses. Fluorine determinations were performed in a 1 pm surface layer on lunar samples using the same F-19(alpha gamma)O-16 resonance. The data are discussed from the standpoint of lunar fluorine and Teflon contamination. (U.S.)

  19. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  20. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Quesnel, Y.; Lepaulard, C.; Lima, E. A.; Manfredi, M.; Rochette, P.

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10-7 Am2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  1. A spinner magnetometer for large Apollo lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, M; Gattacceca, J; Quesnel, Y; Lepaulard, C; Lima, E A; Manfredi, M; Rochette, P

    2017-10-01

    We developed a spinner magnetometer to measure the natural remanent magnetization of large Apollo lunar rocks in the storage vault of the Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility (LSLF) of NASA. The magnetometer mainly consists of a commercially available three-axial fluxgate sensor and a hand-rotating sample table with an optical encoder recording the rotation angles. The distance between the sample and the sensor is adjustable according to the sample size and magnetization intensity. The sensor and the sample are placed in a two-layer mu-metal shield to measure the sample natural remanent magnetization. The magnetic signals are acquired together with the rotation angle to obtain stacking of the measured signals over multiple revolutions. The developed magnetometer has a sensitivity of 5 × 10 -7 Am 2 at the standard sensor-to-sample distance of 15 cm. This sensitivity is sufficient to measure the natural remanent magnetization of almost all the lunar basalt and breccia samples with mass above 10 g in the LSLF vault.

  2. The Origin of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.; Callahan, Michael P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; McLain, Hannah L.; Noble, Sarah K.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the amino acid content of seven lunar regolith samples returned by the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 missions and stored under NASA curation since collection using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Consistent with results from initial analyses shortly after collection in the 1970s, we observed amino acids at low concentrations in all of the curated samples, ranging from 0.2 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 42.7 ppb in hot-water extracts and 14.5 ppb to 651.1 ppb in 6M HCl acid-vapor-hydrolyzed, hot-water extracts. Amino acids identified in the Apollo soil extracts include glycine, D- and L-alanine, D- and L-aspartic acid, D- and L-glutamic acid, D- and L-serine, L-threonine, and L-valine, all of which had previously been detected in lunar samples, as well as several compounds not previously identified in lunar regoliths: -aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), D-and L-amino-n-butyric acid (-ABA), DL-amino-n-butyric acid, -amino-n-butyric acid, -alanine, and -amino-n-caproic acid. We observed an excess of the L enantiomer in most of the detected proteinogenic amino acids, but racemic alanine and racemic -ABA were present in some samples.

  3. MoonDB — A Data System for Analytical Data of Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, K.; Ji, P.; Cai, M.; Evans, C.; Zeigler, R.

    2018-04-01

    MoonDB is a data system that makes analytical data from the Apollo lunar sample collection and lunar meteorites accessible by synthesizing published and unpublished datasets in a relational database with an online search interface.

  4. Characterization of Volatiles Loss from Soil Samples at Lunar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie; Smith, Jim; Roush, Ted; Colaprete, Anthony; Zacny, Kris; Paulsen, Gale; Wang, Alex; Paz, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Resource Prospector Integrated Thermal Vacuum Test Program A series of ground based dirty thermal vacuum tests are being conducted to better understand the subsurface sampling operations for RP Volatiles loss during sampling operations Hardware performance Sample removal and transfer Concept of operationsInstrumentation5 test campaigns over 5 years have been conducted with RP hardware with advancing hardware designs and additional RP subsystems Volatiles sampling 4 years Using flight-forward regolith sampling hardware, empirically determine volatile retention at lunar-relevant conditions Use data to improve theoretical predictions Determine driving variables for retention Bound water loss potential to define measurement uncertainties. The main goal of this talk is to introduce you to our approach to characterizing volatiles loss for RP. Introduce the facility and its capabilities Overview of the RP hardware used in integrated testing (most recent iteration) Summarize the test variables used thus farReview a sample of the results.

  5. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  6. Gardening process of lunar surface layer inferred from the galactic cosmic-ray exposure ages of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriyama, Jun; Honda, Masatake.

    1979-01-01

    From the cosmic-ray exposure age data, (time scale 10 7 - 10 8 years), of the lunar surface materials, we discuss the gardening process of the lunar surface layer caused by the meteoroid impact cratering. At steady state, it is calculated that, in the region within 10 - 50 m of the surface, a mixing rate of 10 -4 to 10 -5 mm/yr is necessary to match the exposure ages. Observed exposure ages of the lunar samples could be explained by the gardening effect calculated using a crater formation rate which is slightly modified from the current crater population data. (author)

  7. The apollo 15 lunar samples: A preliminary description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, P.W.; Phinney, W.C.; Duke, M.B.; Silver, L.T.; Hubbard, N.J.; Heiken, G.H.; Butler, P.; McKay, D.S.; Warner, J.L.; Morrison, D.A.; Horz, F.; Head, J.; Lofgren, G.E.; Ridley, W.I.; Reid, A.M.; Wilshire, H.; Lindsay, J.F.; Carrier, W.D.; Jakes, P.; Bass, M.N.; Brett, P.R.; Jackson, E.D.; Rhodes, J.M.; Bansal, B.M.; Wainwright, J.E.; Parker, K.A.; Rodgers, K.V.; Keith, J.E.; Clark, R.S.; Schonfeld, E.; Bennett, L.; Robbins, Martha M.; Portenier, W.; Bogard, D.D.; Hart, W.R.; Hirsch, W.C.; Wilkin, R.B.; Gibson, E.K.; Moore, C.B.; Lewis, C.F.

    1972-01-01

    Samples returned from the Apollo 15 site consist of mare basalts and breccias with a variety of premare igneous rocks. The mare basalts are from at least two different lava flows. The bulk chemical compositions and textures of these rocks confirm the previous conclusion that the lunar maria consist of a series of extrusive volcanic rocks that are rich in iron and poor in sodium. The breccias contain abundant clasts of anorthositic fragments along with clasts of basaltic rocks much richer in plagioclase than the mare basalts. These two rock types also occur as common components in soil samples from this site. The rocks and soils from both the front and mare region exhibit a variety of shock characteristics that can best be ascribed to ray material from the craters Aristillus or Autolycus.

  8. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program — Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-03-01

    NASA’s Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program has Lucite disks containing Apollo lunar samples and meteorite samples that are available for trained educators to borrow for use in classrooms, museums, science center, and libraries.

  9. Interlaboratory comparison of environmental relevant nuclides with spinach powder as sample medium; Vergleichspruefung mit Spinatpulver als Probenart fuer umweltrelevante Nuklide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, N.; Tait, D. [Max Rubner-Institut, Kiel (Germany). Leitstelle fuer Boden, Bewuchs, Futtermittel und Nahrungsmittel pflanzlicher und tierischer Herkunft

    2014-01-20

    Spinach is cited as a representative medium for leafy vegetables in the Integrated Measurement and Information System for the surveillance of environmental radioactivity (IMIS) in Germany. Fresh spinach, however, is not suitable in interlaboratory comparisons on the determination of spiked radionuclides because of the difficulties in homogeneously distributing the radionuclides and attaining a known specific activity in the samples. In contrast, spinach powder is finely milled, so that homogeneous distribution and known specific activities of the nuclides are more readily achievable. For this interlaboratory comparison spinach powder was mixed with the pure beta emitter Sr-90 and the gamma-emitting nuclides I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137. After homogenization samples were dispatched to 77 laboratories from Germany and other European countries (59 in Germany, 5 in Switzerland, 4 each in the UK and Austria, and one each in France, Italy, the Netherlands, Ireland and Luxembourg). In addition to the added nuclides participants had to determine the natural radionuclide K-40. The participants were instructed to use a fast method for the determination of dry matter (DM). To check the homogeneity of the nuclide distribution 14 samples of the labeled spinach powder were randomly selected and analyzed in the Coordinating Laboratory for the Surveillance of Radioactivity in the Environment of the Max Rubner-Institute (MRI). According to DIN 13528:2005 the samples showed sufficient homogeneity of the added nuclides. For the evaluation of the interlaboratory comparison the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) determined reference values for the the specific activities (Bq per kg DM) of the gamma emitters. The values with the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were as follows: I-131: 181 ± 6 Bq/kg; Cs-134: 34.4 ± 1.1 Bq/kg; Cs-137: 11.1 ± 0.4 Bq/kg; K-40: 1240 ± 40 Bq/kg. Since a reference value of the PTB for the specific activity of Sr-90 was not available the general average

  10. Understanding the origin and evolution of water in the Moon through lunar sample studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Mahesh; Tartèse, Romain; Barnes, Jessica J

    2014-09-13

    A paradigm shift has recently occurred in our knowledge and understanding of water in the lunar interior. This has transpired principally through continued analysis of returned lunar samples using modern analytical instrumentation. While these recent studies have undoubtedly measured indigenous water in lunar samples they have also highlighted our current limitations and some future challenges that need to be overcome in order to fully understand the origin, distribution and evolution of water in the lunar interior. Another exciting recent development in the field of lunar science has been the unambiguous detection of water or water ice on the surface of the Moon through instruments flown on a number of orbiting spacecraft missions. Considered together, sample-based studies and those from orbit strongly suggest that the Moon is not an anhydrous planetary body, as previously believed. New observations and measurements support the possibility of a wet lunar interior and the presence of distinct reservoirs of water on the lunar surface. Furthermore, an approach combining measurements of water abundance in lunar samples and its hydrogen isotopic composition has proved to be of vital importance to fingerprint and elucidate processes and source(s) involved in giving rise to the lunar water inventory. A number of sources are likely to have contributed to the water inventory of the Moon ranging from primordial water to meteorite-derived water ice through to the water formed during the reaction of solar wind hydrogen with the lunar soil. Perhaps two of the most striking findings from these recent studies are the revelation that at least some portions of the lunar interior are as water-rich as some Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt source regions on Earth and that the water in the Earth and the Moon probably share a common origin. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Spinel-rich lithologies in the lunar highland crust: Linking lunar samples, crystallization experiments and remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J.; Treiman, A. H.

    2012-12-01

    The discovery of areas rich in (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel on the rims and central peaks of lunar impact basins (by the M3 mapping spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1) has revived the old puzzle of the origin of lunar spinel. (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel is rare but widespread in lunar highlands rocks, and thus might be an important component of the lunar crust [1-3]. However, the origin of this spinel is not clear. Lunar (Mg,Fe)-Al spinel could have formed (1) during 'normal' basalt petrogenesis at high pressure; (2) during low-pressure crystallization of melts rich in olivine and plagioclase components, e.g. impact-melted lunar troctolite; or (3) formed at low pressure during assimilation of anorthosite into picritic magma; thus, lunar spinel-rich areas represent old (pre-impact) intrusions of magma. In the absence of spinel-rich samples from the Moon, however, these ideas have been highly speculative. Here we describe a rock fragment from lunar meteorite ALHA 81005 that we recently reported [4] that not only contains spinel, but is the first spinel-rich lunar sample described. This fragment contains ~30% (Mg,Fe)Al spinel and is so fine grained that it reasonably could represent a larger rock body. However, the fragment is so rich in spinel that it could not have formed by melting a peridotitic mantle or a basaltic lunar crust. The clast's small grain size and its apparent disequilibrium between spinel and pyroxene suggest fairly rapid crystallization at low pressure. It could have formed as a spinel cumulate from an impact melt of troctolitic composition; or from a picritic magma that assimilated crustal anorthosite on its margins. The latter mechanism is preferred because it explains the petrographic and chemical features of our clast, and is consistent with the regional setting of the Moscoviense spinel deposit [4]. To better understand the origin and formation history(s) of spinel-rich rocks, we also performed liquidus/crystallization experiments at low-pressure as analogues for impact

  12. Enabling Global Lunar Sample Return and Life-Detection Studies Using a Deep-Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B. A.; Eigenbrode, J. A.; Young, K. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Trainer, M. E.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway could uniquely enable a lunar robotic sampling campaign that would provide incredible science return as well as feed forward to Mars and Europa by testing instrument sterility and ability to distinguish biogenic signals.

  13. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11, 12, and 15 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections. It uses software that duplicates many of the functions of a petrological microscope.

  14. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz)

    1990-11-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO{sub 3}, and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and {sup 55}Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m{sup 2} sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 {plus minus} 20, for Sr 80 {plus minus} 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 {plus minus} 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: {sup 239+240}Pu, 2.58; {sup 238}Pu, 1.40; {sup 238}U, 0.65; {sup 234}U, 0.67; {sup 90}Sr, 7600; and {sup 55}Fe, 990 {mu}Bqm{sup -3}. With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.).

  15. Simultaneous radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium, and iron nuclides and application to atmospheric deposition and aerosol samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1990-01-01

    A procedure for the sequential radiochemical determination of plutonium, strontium, uranium and iron nuclides is described. The separation is carried out on a single anion exchange column. Pu(IV), U(VI) and Fe(III) are fixed on Bio Rad AG 1-X4 from 9 mol/l HCl, while the sample effluent is used for the determination of radiostrontium. Fe and U are eluted separately with 7 mol/l HNO 3 , and Pu(III) is eluted with 1.2 mol/l HCl containing hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, Pu and U are electrolysed and counted by alpha spectrometry. Radiostrontium is purified by the nitrate method and counted in a low level beta proportional counter. Fe is purified by extraction and cation exchange and 55 Fe is counted by X-ray spectrometry with a Si(Li) detector. The sample preparation and the application of the procedure to large samples, namely aerosols from 10 5 m 3 of air, and monthly deposition samples from 0.6 m 2 sampling area (10-100 l) are described. Chemical yields are for Pu 70 ± 20, for Sr 80 ± 15, for U 80-90, and for Fe 75 ± 10%. As an example, the maximum airborne radionuclide concentrations determined with that procedure in fortnightly collected samples at Neuherberg after the Chernobyl accident were: 239+240 Pu, 2.58; 238 Pu, 1.40; 238 U, 0.65; 234 U, 0.67; 90 Sr, 7600; and 55 Fe, 990 μBqm -3 . With appropriate changes in sample preparation, the procedure is applicable to other kinds of samples. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic Memory of two lunar samples, 15405 and 15445

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kletetschka, Günther; Kameníková, T.; Fuller, M.; Čížková, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 51, SI, Supplement 1 (2016), A375-A375 ISSN 1086-9379. [Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society /79./. 07.08.2016-12.08.2016, Berlin] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Lunar rocks * 15405 * 15445 * Apollo 15 * magnetic remanence Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  17. Detailed deposition density maps constructed by large-scale soil sampling for gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kimiaki; Tanihata, Isao; Fujiwara, Mamoru; Saito, Takashi; Shimoura, Susumu; Otsuka, Takaharu; Onda, Yuichi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ikeuchi, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Fumiaki; Kinouchi, Nobuyuki; Saegusa, Jun; Seki, Akiyuki; Takemiya, Hiroshi; Shibata, Tokushi

    2015-01-01

    Soil deposition density maps of gamma-ray emitting radioactive nuclides from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident were constructed on the basis of results from large-scale soil sampling. In total 10,915 soil samples were collected at 2168 locations. Gamma rays emitted from the samples were measured by Ge detectors and analyzed using a reliable unified method. The determined radioactivity was corrected to that of June 14, 2011 by considering the intrinsic decay constant of each nuclide. Finally the deposition maps were created for (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (131)I, (129m)Te and (110m)Ag. The radioactivity ratio of (134)Cs-(137)Cs was almost constant at 0.91 regardless of the locations of soil sampling. The radioactivity ratios of (131)I and (129m)Te-(137)Cs were relatively high in the regions south of the Fukushima NPP site. Effective doses for 50 y after the accident were evaluated for external and inhalation exposures due to the observed radioactive nuclides. The radiation doses from radioactive cesium were found to be much higher than those from the other radioactive nuclides. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, 237 U, 238 U, 239 Np, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 242 Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for 241 Am and 244 Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Charged-particle track analysis, thermoluminescence and microcratering studies of lunar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrani, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies of lunar samples (from both Apollo and Luna missions) have been carried out, using track analysis and thermoluminescence (t.l.) techniques, with a view to shedding light on the radiation and temperature histories of the Moon. In addition, microcraters in lunar glasses have been studied in order to elucidate the cosmic-dust impact history of the lunar regolith. In tracks studies, the topics discussed include the stabilizing effect of the thermal annealing of fossil tracks due to the lunar temperature cycle; the 'radiation annealing' of fresh heavy-ion tracks by large doses of protons (to simulate the effect of lunar radiation-damage on track registration); and correction factors for the anisotropic etching of crystals which are required in reconstructing the exposure history of lunar grains. An abundance ratio of ca. (1.1 + 0.3) x 10 -3 has been obtained, by the differential annealing technique, for the nuclei beyond the iron group to those within that group in the cosmic rays incident on the Moon. The natural t.l. of lunar samples has been used to estimate their effective storage temperature and mean depth below the surface. The results of the study of natural and artificially produced microcraters have been studied. (author)

  20. Actinide nuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen (West Germany))

    1988-01-01

    The present paper describes the analysis of isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium, in air and deposition samples taken at our laboratory site 10 km north of Munich, subsequent to the Chernobyl accident. Uranium-234, {sup 237}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 239}Np, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239+240}Pu and {sup 242}Cm have been identified and upper limits of detection have been established for {sup 241}Am and {sup 244}Cm. Deposition and air concentration values are discussed. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  1. NASA Lunar Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo rocks and regolith soils first hand. Lunar samples embedded in plastic are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks has revealed the early history of our Earth-Moon system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet as well as connections to the basic lunar surface processes - impact and volcanism. With these samples educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by missions to Moon. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections of the rocks to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the violent impact history of the Moon. The disks also include two regolith soils and

  2. Photomosaics of the cathodoluminescence of 60 sections of meteorites and lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akridge, D.G.; Akridge, J.M.C.; Batchelor, J.D.; Benoit, P.H.; Brewer, J.; DeHart, J.M.; Keck, B.D.; Jie, L.; Meier, A.; Penrose, M.; Schneider, D.M.; Sears, D.W.G.; Symes, S.J.K.; Yanhong, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) petrography provides a means of observing petrographic and compositional properties of geological samples not readily observable by other techniques. We report the low-magnification CL images of 60 sections of extraterrestrial materials. The images we report include ordinary chondrites (including type 3 ordinary chondrites and gas-rich regolith breccias), enstatite chondrites, CO chondrites and a CM chondrite, eucrites and a howardite, lunar highland regolith breccias, and lunar soils. The CL images show how primitive materials respond to parent body metamorphism, how the metamorphic history of EL chondrites differs from that of EH chondrites, how dark matrix and light clasts of regolith breccias relate to each other, how metamorphism affects eucrites, the texture of lunar regolith breccias and the distribution of crystallized lunar spherules ("lunar chondrules"), and how regolith working affects the mineral properties of lunar soils. More particularly, we argue that such images are a rich source of new information on the nature and history of these materials and that our efforts to date are a small fraction of what can be done. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. PDS Archive Release of Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 17 Lunar Rock Sample Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, P. A.; Stefanov, W. L.; Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory, Information Resources Directorate, and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory have been working to digitize (scan) the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs [1, 2]. The rock samples, and associated regolith and lunar core samples, were obtained during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions. The images allow scientists to view the individual rock samples in their original or subdivided state prior to requesting physical samples for their research. In cases where access to the actual physical samples is not practical, the images provide an alternate mechanism for study of the subject samples. As the negatives are being scanned, they have been formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (which includes the Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory) at JSC is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving of these valuable data. The PDS Imaging Node is now pleased to announce the release of the image archives for Apollo missions 11, 12, and 17.

  4. Combination of digital autoradiography and alpha track analysis to reveal the distribution of definite alpha- and beta-emitting nuclides in contaminated samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasova, I. [Lomonosov MSU (Russian Federation); Kuzmenkova, N. [Vernadsky GEOKHI RAS (Russian Federation); Shiryaev, A. [Frumkin IPCE RAS (Russian Federation); Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Kalmykov, S.; Ivanov, I. [PA Mayak (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Digital autoradiography using Imaging Plate is commonly employed for searching 'hot' particles in the contaminated soil, sediment and aerosol probes. However digital radiography images combined with Alpha Track radiography data could provide much more information about micro-distribution of different alpha- and beta- nuclides. The discrimination method to estimate the distribution of radionuclides that are the main contributors to the total radioactivity ({sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am) has been developed on the case of artificial reservoir V-17 (PA 'Mayak'). The bottom sediments and hydrobionts probes collected from V-17 along with the standards of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 241}Am have been exposed for a short time (15 min) using a stack of 3 Imaging Plates (Cyclone Plus Storage Phosphor System, Perkin Elmer). The attenuation of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) intensity from layer to layer of the Imaging Plates depends on the type and energy of radiation. Integrated approach using PSL attenuation in the samples and standards (digital radiography) along with Alpha Track radiography and gamma-spectroscopy of the preparation was used to estimate the contribution of the main nuclides in specific parts of contaminated samples. The observation of the {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y and {sup 137}Cs activity maxima could help to find the phases which are responsible for preferential sorption of the nuclides. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  5. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  6. 3D-Laser-Scanning Technique Applied to Bulk Density Measurements of Apollo Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macke, R. J.; Kent, J. J.; Kiefer, W. S.; Britt, D. T.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better interpret gravimetric data from orbiters such as GRAIL and LRO to understand the subsurface composition and structure of the lunar crust, it is import to have a reliable database of the density and porosity of lunar materials. To this end, we have been surveying these physical properties in both lunar meteorites and Apollo lunar samples. To measure porosity, both grain density and bulk density are required. For bulk density, our group has historically utilized sub-mm bead immersion techniques extensively, though several factors have made this technique problematic for our work with Apollo samples. Samples allocated for measurement are often smaller than optimal for the technique, leading to large error bars. Also, for some samples we were required to use pure alumina beads instead of our usual glass beads. The alumina beads were subject to undesirable static effects, producing unreliable results. Other investigators have tested the use of 3d laser scanners on meteorites for measuring bulk volumes. Early work, though promising, was plagued with difficulties including poor response on dark or reflective surfaces, difficulty reproducing sharp edges, and large processing time for producing shape models. Due to progress in technology, however, laser scanners have improved considerably in recent years. We tested this technique on 27 lunar samples in the Apollo collection using a scanner at NASA Johnson Space Center. We found it to be reliable and more precise than beads, with the added benefit that it involves no direct contact with the sample, enabling the study of particularly friable samples for which bead immersion is not possible

  7. Robotic traverse and sample return strategies for a lunar farside mission to the Schrodinger basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, N.J.; Gullikson, A.L.; Curran, N.M.; Dhaliwal, J.K.; Leader, M.K.; Rege, R.N.; Klaus, K.K.; Kring, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the highest priority objectives for lunar science and exploration (e.g.; NRC, 2007) require sample return. Studies of the best places to conduct that work have identified Schrödinger basin as a geologically rich area, able to address a significant number of these scientific concepts. In this

  8. The Benefits of Sample Return: Connecting Apollo Soils and Diviner Lunar Radiometer Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson-Hanna, K. L.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Allen, C. C.; Pieters, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Diviner Lunar Radiometer, onboard NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, has produced the first global, high resolution, thermal infrared observations of an airless body. The Moon, which is the most accessible member of this most abundant class of solar system objects, is also the only body for which we have extraterrestrial samples with known spatial context. Here we present the results of a comprehensive study to reproduce an accurate simulated lunar environment, evaluate the most appropriate sample and measurement conditions, collect thermal infrared spectra of a representative suite of Apollo soils, and correlate them with Diviner observations of the lunar surface. We find that analyses of Diviner observations of individual sampling stations and SLE measurements of returned Apollo soils show good agreement, while comparisons to thermal infrared reflectance under terrestrial conditions do not agree well, which underscores the need for SLE measurements and validates the Diviner compositional dataset. Future work includes measurement of additional soils in SLE and cross comparisons with measurements in JPL Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL).

  9. Rock sample brought to earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    A scientist's gloved hand holds one of the numerous rock samples brought back to Earth from the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. This sample is a highly shattered basaltic rock with a thin black-glass coating on five of its six sides. Glass fills fractures and cements the rock together. The rock appears to have been shattered and thrown out by a meteorite impact explosion and coated with molten rock material before the rock fell to the surface.

  10. Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program - Space Rocks for Classrooms, Museums, Science Centers, and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jaclyn; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Huynh, P.; Tobola, K.; Loftin, L.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is eager for students and the public to experience lunar Apollo samples and meteorites first hand. Lunar rocks and soil, embedded in Lucite disks, are available for educators to use in their classrooms, museums, science centers, and public libraries for education activities and display. The sample education disks are valuable tools for engaging students in the exploration of the Solar System. Scientific research conducted on the Apollo rocks reveals the early history of our Earth-Moon system and meteorites reveal much of the history of the early solar system. The rocks help educators make the connections to this ancient history of our planet and solar system and the basic processes accretion, differentiation, impact and volcanism. With these samples, educators in museums, science centers, libraries, and classrooms can help students and the public understand the key questions pursued by many NASA planetary missions. The Office of the Curator at Johnson Space Center is in the process of reorganizing and renewing the Lunar and Meteorite Sample Education Disk Program to increase reach, security and accountability. The new program expands the reach of these exciting extraterrestrial rocks through increased access to training and educator borrowing. One of the expanded opportunities is that trained certified educators from science centers, museums, and libraries may now borrow the extraterrestrial rock samples. Previously the loan program was only open to classroom educators so the expansion will increase the public access to the samples and allow educators to make the critical connections to the exciting exploration missions taking place in our solar system. Each Lunar Disk contains three lunar rocks and three regolith soils embedded in Lucite. The anorthosite sample is a part of the magma ocean formed on the surface of Moon in the early melting period, the basalt is part of the extensive lunar mare lava flows, and the breccias sample is an important example of the

  11. The origin of water in the primitive Moon as revealed by the lunar highlands samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; McCubbin, Francis M.; Franchi, Ian A.; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.

    2014-03-01

    The recent discoveries of hydrogen (H) bearing species on the lunar surface and in samples derived from the lunar interior have necessitated a paradigm shift in our understanding of the water inventory of the Moon, which was previously considered to be a ‘bone-dry’ planetary body. Most sample-based studies have focused on assessing the water contents of the younger mare basalts and pyroclastic glasses, which are partial-melting products of the lunar mantle. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the inventory and source(s) of water in the lunar highlands rocks which are some of the oldest and most pristine materials available for laboratory investigations, and that have the potential to reveal the original history of water in the Earth-Moon system. Here, we report in-situ measurements of hydroxyl (OH) content and H isotopic composition of the mineral apatite from four lunar highlands samples (two norites, a troctolite, and a granite clast) collected during the Apollo missions. Apart from troctolite in which the measured OH contents in apatite are close to our analytical detection limit and its H isotopic composition appears to be severely compromised by secondary processes, we have measured up to ˜2200 ppm OH in the granite clast with a weighted average δD of ˜ -105±130‰, and up to ˜3400 ppm OH in the two norites (77215 and 78235) with weighted average δD values of -281±49‰ and -27±98‰, respectively. The apatites in the granite clast and the norites are characterised by higher OH contents than have been reported so far for highlands samples, and have H isotopic compositions similar to those of terrestrial materials and some carbonaceous chondrites, providing one of the strongest pieces of evidence yet for a common origin for water in the Earth-Moon system. In addition, the presence of water, of terrestrial affinity, in some samples of the earliest-formed lunar crust suggests that either primordial terrestrial water survived the aftermath

  12. A Multi-Decadal Sample Return Campaign Will Advance Lunar and Solar System Science and Exploration by 2050

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.; Lawrence, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    There have been 11 missions to the Moon this century, 10 of which have been orbital, from 5 different space agencies. China became the third country to successfully soft-land on the Moon in 2013, and the second to successfully remotely operate a rover on the lunar surface. We now have significant global datasets that, coupled with the 1990s Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, show that the sample collection is not representative of the lithologies present on the Moon. The M3 data from the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission have identified lithologies that are not present/under-represented in the sample collection. LRO datasets show that volcanism could be as young as 100 Ma and that significant felsic complexes exist within the lunar crust. A multi-decadal sample return campaign is the next logical step in advancing our understanding of lunar origin and evolution and Solar System processes.

  13. Predicted versus observed cosmic-ray-produced noble gases in lunar samples: improved Kr production ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regnier, S.; Hohenberg, C.M.; Marti, K.; Reedy, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    New sets of cross sections for the production of krypton isotopes from targets of Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr were constructed primarily on the bases of experimental excitation functions for Kr production from Y. These cross sections were used to calculate galactic-cosmic-ray and solar-proton production rates for Kr isotopes in the moon. Spallation Kr data obtained from ilmenite separates of rocks 10017 and 10047 are reported. Production rates and isotopic ratios for cosmogenic Kr observed in ten well-documented lunar samples and in ilmenite separates and bulk samples from several lunar rocks with long but unknown irradiation histories were compared with predicted rates and ratios. The agreements were generally quite good. Erosion of rock surfaces affected rates or ratios for only near-surface samples, where solar-proton production is important. There were considerable spreads in predicted-to-observed production rates of 83 Kr, due at least in part to uncertainties in chemical abundances. The 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were predicted quite well for samples with a wide range of Zr/Sr abundance ratios. The calculated 80 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios were greater than the observed ratios when production by the 79 Br(n,γ) reaction was included, but were slightly undercalculated if the Br reaction was omitted; these results suggest that Br(n,γ)-produced Kr is not retained well by lunar rocks. The productions of 81 Kr and 82 Kr were overcalculated by approximately 10% relative to 83 Kr. Predicted-to-observed 84 Kr/ 83 ratios scattered considerably, possibly because of uncertainties in corrections for trapped and fission components and in cross sections for 84 Kr production. Most predicted 84 Kr and 86 Kr production rates were lower than observed. Shielding depths of several Apollo 11 rocks were determined from the measured 78 Kr/ 83 Kr ratios of ilmenite separates. 4 figures, 5 tables

  14. Ion microprobe mass analysis of plagioclase from 'non-mare' lunar samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, C., Jr.; Anderson, D. H.; Bradley, J. G.

    1974-01-01

    The ion microprobe was used to measure the composition and distribution of trace elements in lunar plagioclase, and these analyses are used as criteria in determining the possible origins of some nonmare lunar samples. The Apollo 16 samples with metaclastic texture and high-bulk trace-element contents contain plagioclase clasts with extremely low trace-element contents. These plagioclase inclusions represent unequilibrated relicts of anorthositic, noritic, or troctolitic rocks that have been intermixed as a rock flour into the KREEP-rich matrix of these samples. All of the plagioclase-rich inclusions which were analyzed in the KREEP-rich Apollo 14 breccias were found to be rich in trace elements. This does not seem to be consistent with the interpretation that the Apollo 14 samples represent a pre-Imbrium regolith, because such an ancient regolith should have contained many plagioclase clasts with low trace-element contents more typical of plagioclase from the pre-Imbrium crust. Ion-microprobe analyses for Ba and Sr in large plagioclase phenocrysts in 14310 and 68415 are consistent with the bulk compositions of these rocks and with the known distribution coefficients for these elements. The distribution coefficient for Li (basaltic liquid/plagioclase) was measured to be about 2.

  15. Virtual Microscope Views of the Apollo 11 and 12 Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K.; Tindle, A. G.; Kelley, S. P.; Pillinger, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    The Apollo virtual microscope is a means of viewing, over the Internet, polished thin sections of every rock in the Apollo lunar sample collections via software, duplicating many of the functions of a petrological microscope, is described. Images from the Apollo 11 and 12 missions may be viewed at: www.virtualmicroscope.org/content/apollo. Introduction: During the six NASA missions to the Moon from 1969-72 a total of 382 kilograms of rocks and soils, often referred to as "the legacy of Apollo", were collected and returned to Earth. A unique collection of polished thin sections (PTSs) was made from over 400 rocks by the Lunar Sample Curatorial Facility at the Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC), Houston. These materials have been available for loan to approved PIs but of course they can't be simultaneously investigated by several researchers unless they are co-located or the sample is passed back and forward between them by mail/hand carrying which is inefficient and very risky for irreplaceable material. When The Open University (OU), the world's largest Distance Learning Higher Education Establishment found itself facing a comparable problem (how to supply thousands of undergraduate students with an interactive petrological microscope and a personal set of thin sections), it decided to develop a software tool called the Virtual Microscope (VM). As a result it is now able to make the unique and precious collection of Apollo specimens universally available as a resource for concurrent study by anybody in the world's Earth and Planetary Sciences community. Herein, we describe the first steps of a collaborative project between OU and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Curatorial Facility to record a PTS for every lunar rock, beginning with those collected by the Apollo 11 and 12 missions. Method: Production of a virtual microscope dedicated to a particular theme divides into four main parts - photography, image processing, building and assembly of virtual microscope

  16. Measurement of radioactive nuclides present in soil samples of district Ganderbal of Kashmir Province for radiation safety purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroz A. Mir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of radioactive elements in the residential area is very important from different points of view especially for human health. The aim of present survey was focused on determining the current radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from some areas of the Ganderbal district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. “Can technique” has been employed for the measurement of radon exhalation rate and radium concentration in soil samples collected from under study areas. The Uranium concentration in these soil samples where estimated by using the fission track registration technique (using LR-115 plastic track detectors.The uranium concentration was found to varies between 2.03 and 3.52 ppm. The radon exhalation rate in these samples has been found to vary from 5.05 to 21.89 m Bq kg−1 h−1. Radium concentration in soil samples varies from 6.43 to 18.89 Bq kg−1. The calculated values of Uranium concentration in these soil/rock samples are quite lower than the risk level. Radon and radium values found in these samples are also lower than that of optimum value. Hence these areas can be considered as risk free zones from human health point of view.

  17. The relationship between orbital, earth-based, and sample data for lunar landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P. E.; Hawke, B. R.; Basu, A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of a detailed examination of data available for the Apollo lunar landing sites, including the Apollo orbital measurements of six major elements derived from XRF and gamma-ray instruments and geochemical parameters derived from earth-based spectral reflectivity data. Wherever orbital coverage for Apollo landing sites exist, the remote data were correlated with geochemical data derived from the soil sample averages for major geological units and the major rock components associated with these units. Discrepancies were observed between the remote and the soil-anlysis elemental concentration data, which were apparently due to the differences in the extent of exposure of geological units, and, hence, major rock eomponents, in the area sampled. Differences were observed in signal depths between various orbital experiments, which may provide a mechanism for explaining differences between the XRF and other landing-site data.

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  19. Solar flare and galactic cosmic ray tracks in lunar samples and meteorites - What they tell us about the ancient sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozaz, G.

    1980-01-01

    Evidence regarding the past activity of the sun in the form of nuclear particle tracks in lunar samples and meteorites produced by heavy ions in galactic cosmic rays and solar flares is reviewed. Observations of track-rich grains found in deep lunar cores and meteorite interiors are discussed which demonstrate the presence of solar flare activity for at least the past 4 billion years, and the similarity of track density profiles from various lunar and meteoritic samples with those in a glass filter from Surveyor 3 exposed at the lunar surface for almost three years is presented as evidence of the relative constancy of the solar flare energy spectrum over the same period. Indications of a heavy ion enrichment in solar flares are considered which are confirmed by recent satellite measurements, although difficult to quantify in lunar soil grains. Finally, it is argued that, despite previous claims, there exists as yet no conclusive evidence for either a higher solar activity during the early history of the moon or a change in galactic cosmic ray intensity, average composition or spectrum over the last 50 million years

  20. Chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Y.; Horiguchi, T.; Yamada, M.

    1980-01-01

    In this chart, four colors are use to classify nuclides according to their half-lives. The different symbols are also to show the decay modes and their percentage in each nuclide. Four tables are provided on the back of the chart. Table 1 is the ordinary periodic Table. Table 2 provides fundamental constants used for nuclear physics. Tables 3 lists the physical constants (mean density, ionization potential, melting point, and boiling point) of all elements. Table 4 provides the gamma-ray intensity standards. Half-lives, energy, relative intensity, and intensity per decay are list for 33 nuclides. (J.P.N.)

  1. Lunar cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    1992-01-01

    With the exception of water, the major oxide constituents of terrestrial cements are present at all nine lunar sites from which samples have been returned. However, with the exception of relatively rare cristobalite, the lunar oxides are not present as individual phases but are combined in silicates and in mixed oxides. Lime (CaO) is most abundant on the Moon in the plagioclase (CaAl2Si2O8) of highland anorthosites. It may be possible to enrich the lime content of anorthite to levels like those of Portland cement by pyrolyzing it with lunar-derived phosphate. The phosphate consumed in such a reaction can be regenerated by reacting the phosphorus product with lunar augite pyroxenes at elevated temperatures. Other possible sources of lunar phosphate and other oxides are discussed.

  2. Extending the Reach of IGSN Beyond Earth: Implementing IGSN Registration to Link NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and their Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The rock and soil samples returned from the Apollo missions from 1969-72 have supported 46 years of research leading to advances in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the inner Solar System. NASA has been engaged in several initiatives that aim to restore, digitize, and make available to the public existing published and unpublished research data for the Apollo samples. One of these initiatives is a collaboration with IEDA (Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance) to develop MoonDB, a lunar geochemical database modeled after PetDB. In support of this initiative, NASA has adopted the use of IGSN (International Geo Sample Number) to generate persistent, unique identifiers for lunar samples that scientists can use when publishing research data. To facilitate the IGSN registration of the original 2,200 samples and over 120,000 subdivided samples, NASA has developed an application that retrieves sample metadata from the Lunar Curation Database and uses the SESAR API to automate the generation of IGSNs and registration of samples into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration). This presentation will describe the work done by NASA to map existing sample metadata to the IGSN metadata and integrate the IGSN registration process into the sample curation workflow, the lessons learned from this effort, and how this work can be extended in the future to help deal with the registration of large numbers of samples.

  3. Natural radio-nuclides in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflorin, O.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the presence of radio-nuclides in Switzerland's drinking water. The article describes research done into the natural radioactivity to be found in various drinking water samples taken from the public water supply in the Canton of Grisons in eastern Switzerland. The various natural nuclides to be expected are listed and the methods used to take the samples are described. The results of the analysis are presented in the form of sketches showing the geographical distribution of the nuclide samples. Diagrams of the cumulative frequency of the quantities of nuclides found are presented, as are such diagrams for the yearly radioactive doses that the population is exposed to. The results and their consequences for the water supply are discussed in detail and further investigations to be made in the region are proposed

  4. Research-Grade 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples: Novel Visualization of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Benefit Curation, Research, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K. R.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's vast and growing collections of astromaterials are both scientifically and culturally significant, requiring unique preservation strategies that need to be recurrently updated to contemporary technological capabilities and increasing accessibility demands. New technologies have made it possible to advance documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. Our interdisciplinary team has developed a method to create 3D Virtual Astromaterials Samples (VAS) of the existing collections of Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorites. Research-grade 3D VAS will virtually put these samples in the hands of researchers and educators worldwide, increasing accessibility and visibility of these significant collections. With new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop advanced curation standards for documentation and visualization methodologies.

  5. Dual Si and O Isotope Measurement of Lunar Samples Using IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, N.; Hill, P. J. A.; Osinski, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The use of isotopic systems and their associated theoretical models have become an increasingly sophisticated tool for investigating the origin of planetary bodies in the solar system. It was originally hypothesized that evidence for the impact origin of Moon would manifest itself as an isotopic heterogeneity between lunar and terrestrial samples; however, most isotope systems show no difference between the bulk Earth and Moon. The stable isotopes of both silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) have been essential in further understanding planetary processes including core formation. Historically the analysis of the Si and O isotope ratios in terrestrial and extraterrestrial material has primarily been measured independent of each other through three main techniques: isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (MC-ICPMS). Each technique has its own strength and weakness in regards to resolution and precision; however, one of the main limiting factors in all three of these techniques rests on the requirement of multiple aliquots. As most literature focuses on the measurement of oxygen or silicon isotopes, this unique line allows for the precise analysis of Si and O isotopes from the same aliquot of bulk sample, which cannot be done with SIMS or ICP-MS analysis. To deal with this problem a unique laser line system has been developed in the Laboratory for Stable Isotope Science at Western University, Canada, that simultaneously extracts SiF4 and O2 from the same 1-2 mg aliquot. We present the application of analyzing both isotopic systems from the sample aliquot to Apollo, meteoritic, and terrestrial samples and its implication for the formation of the Moon. Preliminary results from this line suggest that although the O isotopes ratios are consistent with a homogenous Moon-Earth system, a difference is observed in Si isotopes between Apollo and terrestrial samples compared to

  6. {sup 53}Mn and {sup 60}Fe measurements in lunar samples by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fimiani, Leticia; Faestermann, Thomas; Gomez Guzman, Jose Manuel; Hain, Karin; Korschinek, Gunther; Ludwig, Peter [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Herzog, Gregory; Ligon, Bret; Park, Jisun [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Knie, Klaus [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Rugel, Georg [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314, Dresden (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cook et al, 40th LPSC 1129 (2009) reported a concentration of 14{sup +9}{sub -6} dpm {sup 60}Fe/[kg Ni] (T{sub 1/2}=2.62.10{sup 6}a) in a surface sample of the Apollo 12 12025/8 drive tube. This value is higher than the one expected due to galactic or solar cosmic ray production and may suggest the deposition of supernova debris on the lunar surface about 2 Ma ago. In order to try to reproduce this result, new measurements were made in material from the same core and position. To widen the search for supernova debris, we also analyzed four near-surface samples of lunar drive tube 15008; and one each from the skim, scoop and under-boulder samples 69921/41/61 via AMS in the Maier Leibnitz Laboratorium in Garching, Germany. The measuring technique and the preliminary results are discussed.

  7. NNDC Chart of Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonzogni, A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Nuclear Data Center has recently developed an interactive chart of nuclides, http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/, that provides nuclear structure and decay data. Since its implementation, it has proven to be one of the most popular web products. The information presented is derived from the ENSDF and Nuclear Wallet Card databases. Experimentally known nuclides are represented by a cell in chart with the number of neutrons on the horizontal axis and the number of protons on the vertical axis. The color of the cell is used to indicate the ground state half-life or the ground state predominant decay mode. (author)

  8. Cosmogenic /sup 22/Na and /sup 26/Al in samples of lunar ground from a drill column of Moon-24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavrukhina, A.K.; Povinets, P.; Ustinova, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The method of low background (..beta..-..gamma..-..gamma..)-spectrometry without destruction of the sample has been used to measure /sup 22/Na and /sup 26/Al radioactivity in samples of lunar ground 24118.4-4, 24143.4-4 apd 24184.4-4 from the ''Luna-24'' drilling column. Equilibrium radioactivity of these cosmogenic isotopes is calculated by the analytic method. The analysis of theoretical and experimental data shows that at depths lower than approximately 40 cm from the lunar surface the drilling process did not bring about ground mixing in the drilling column. For the last million of years the regolite surface layer in the place of ''Luna-24'' landing remained pracically unchanged, i.e. has not been subjected to intensive effect of some mechanic processes on lunar surface. The average intensity of galactic cosmic rays with the rigidity > 0.5 GV for the last million years within the limits of approximtaely 20% remained stable and corresponded to their modern medium intensity 0.24 particlesxcm/sup -2/xc/sup -1/xsr/sup -1/. The average spectrum of galactic cosmic rays for a million years approximately corresponds to the average spectrum for 1962 or 1971.

  9. Cosmogenic 22Na and 26Al in samples of lunar ground from a drill column of Moon-24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrukhina, A.K.; Povinets, P.; Ustinova, G.K.

    1984-01-01

    The method of low background (β-γ-γ)-spectrometry without destruction of the sample has been used to measure 22 Na and 26 Al radioactivity in samples of lunar ground 24118.4-4, 24143.4-4 apd 24184.4-4 from the ''Luna-24'' drilling column. Equilibrium radioactivity of these cosmoqenic isotopes is calculated by the analytic method. The analysis of theoretical and experimental data shows that at depths lower than approximately 40 cm from the lunar surface the drilling process did not bring about ground mixing in the drilling column. For the last million of years the regolite surface layer in the place of ''Luna-24'' landing remained pracically unchanged, i. e. has not been subjected to intensive effect of some mechanic processes on lunar surface. The average intensity of galactic cosmic rays with the rigidity > 0.5 GV for the last million years within the limits of approximtaely 20% remained stable and corresponded to their modern medium intensity 0.24 particlesxcm -2 xc -1 xsr -1 . The average spectrum of galactic cosmic rays for a million years approximately corresponds to the average spectrum for 1962 or 1971

  10. Radioactive nuclide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of a radioactive nuclide adsorption device by applying a nickel plating on a nickel plate to render the surface active. Constitution: A capturing device for radioactive nuclide such as manganese 54, cobalt 60, 58 and the like is disposed to the inside of a pipeway provided on the upper portion of fuel assemblies through which liquid sodium as the coolant for LMFBR type reactor is passed. The device comprises a cylindrical adsorption body and spacers. The adsorption body is made of nickel and applied with a nickel plating on the surface thereof. The surface of the adsorption body is unevened to result in disturbance in the coolant and thereby improve the adsorptive efficiency. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. WWW chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaolong; Zhou Chunmei; Zhuang Youxiang; Zhao Zhixiang; Golashvili, T.V.; Chechev, V.P.

    2000-01-01

    WWW chart of the nuclides was established on the basis of the latest evaluations of nuclear structure and decay data. By viewing WWW chart of the nuclides, one can retrieve the fundamental data of nuclide such as atomic mass, abundance, spin and parity; the decay mode, branching ratio, half-life and Q-value of radioactive nuclide, energy and intensity of strong γ-ray, etc. The URL (Uniform Resource Locator) of WWW chart of the nuclides is: http://myhome.py.gd.cn/chart/index,asp

  12. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  13. Structure from Motion Photogrammetry and Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography 3-D Reconstruction Data Fusion for Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, K. R.; Blumenfeld, E. H.; Liddle, D. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Evans, C. A.; Zeigler, R. A.; Righter, K.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    Our team is developing a modern, cross-disciplinary approach to documentation and preservation of astromaterials, specifically lunar and meteorite samples stored at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility. Apollo Lunar Sample 60639, collected as part of rake sample 60610 during the 3rd Extra-Vehicular Activity of the Apollo 16 mission in 1972, served as the first NASA-preserved lunar sample to be examined by our team in the development of a novel approach to internal and external sample visualization. Apollo Sample 60639 is classified as a breccia with a glass-coated side and pristine mare basalt and anorthosite clasts. The aim was to accurately register a 3-dimensional Micro X-Ray Computed Tomography (XCT)-derived internal composition data set and a Structure-From-Motion (SFM) Photogrammetry-derived high-fidelity, textured external polygonal model of Apollo Sample 60639. The developed process provided the means for accurate, comprehensive, non-destructive visualization of NASA's heritage lunar samples. The data products, to be ultimately served via an end-user web interface, will allow researchers and the public to interact with the unique heritage samples, providing a platform to "slice through" a photo-realistic rendering of a sample to analyze both its external visual and internal composition simultaneously.

  14. Cosmic-ray production of tungsten isotopes in lunar samples and meteorites and its implications for Hf-W cosmochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leya, Ingo; Wieler, Rainer; Halliday, Alex N.

    2000-01-01

    Excesses and deficiencies in 182W in meteorites and lunar samples relative to the terrestrial 182W atomic abundance have been assigned to the decay of 182Hf (t1/2=9 Ma) and have been used to date metal-silicate fractionation events in the early solar system. Because the effects are very small, production and burn-out of tungsten isotopes by cosmic ray interactions are a concern in such studies. Masarik [J. Masarik, Contribution of neutron-capture reactions to observed tungsten isotopic ratios, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 152 (1997) 181-185] showed that neutron-capture reactions on tungsten isotopes can account at best for a minor part of the observed deficit of 182W in Toluca and other iron meteorites. On the other hand, in lunar samples and stony meteorites the production of 182W from 181Ta may become crucial. Here, we calculate this contribution as well as production and consumption of 182-186W by other neutron-induced reactions. The neutron fluence of each sample is estimated by its nominal cosmic-ray exposure age deduced from noble gas data. This approach overestimates the true cosmogenic W isotopic shifts for samples that might have been irradiated very close to the regolith surface. A quantitative estimate is often also hampered by a lack of Ta data. Despite these reservations, it appears that in many lunar samples neutron-capture on Ta has caused a large part of the observed 182W excess. On the other hand, in some samples, especially those with very low exposure ages, clearly only a minor or even negligible fraction of the 182W excess can be cosmogenic. Therefore, the conclusion, based on Hf-W model ages, that the Moon formed 50 Myr after the start of the solar system remains valid. Martian meteorites have lower Ta/W ratios and cosmic ray exposure ages than most lunar samples. Therefore, cosmogenic production has not significantly altered the W isotopic composition in Martian meteorites. Observed 182W excesses in Martian meteorites as well as the very large

  15. NUCLIDES 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    Radionuclides have many applications in agriculture, medicine, industry and research. For basic information on such radioactive materials, the Chart of the Nuclides has proved to be an indispensable tool for obtaining data on radionuclides and working out qualitatively decay schemes and reaction paths. These Charts are, however, of limited use when one requires quantitative information on the decaying nuclide and its daughters. This was the motivation for the development of the NUCLIDES 2000 software package. The radioactive decay data used in NUCLIDES 2000 is based on the Joint Evaluated File (Jeff) version 2.2. The present version of the program contains decay data on approximately 2700 radionuclides. (authors)

  16. Recalculation of measured fuel nuclide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, W.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations and concentration ratios of heavy fuel nuclides determined in the Central Institute for Nuclear Research Rossendorf on the basis of destructive burnup measurements are compared with the results of microburnup calculations. The possibility is discussed to improve the results by taking into account the spectral characteristics at the positions of the measuring samples. (author)

  17. Comprehensive Non-Destructive Conservation Documentation of Lunar Samples Using High-Resolution Image-Based 3D Reconstructions and X-Ray CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    Established contemporary conservation methods within the fields of Natural and Cultural Heritage encourage an interdisciplinary approach to preservation of heritage material (both tangible and intangible) that holds "Outstanding Universal Value" for our global community. NASA's lunar samples were acquired from the moon for the primary purpose of intensive scientific investigation. These samples, however, also invoke cultural significance, as evidenced by the millions of people per year that visit lunar displays in museums and heritage centers around the world. Being both scientifically and culturally significant, the lunar samples require a unique conservation approach. Government mandate dictates that NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office develop and maintain protocols for "documentation, preservation, preparation and distribution of samples for research, education and public outreach" for both current and future collections of astromaterials. Documentation, considered the first stage within the conservation methodology, has evolved many new techniques since curation protocols for the lunar samples were first implemented, and the development of new documentation strategies for current and future astromaterials is beneficial to keeping curation protocols up to date. We have developed and tested a comprehensive non-destructive documentation technique using high-resolution image-based 3D reconstruction and X-ray CT (XCT) data in order to create interactive 3D models of lunar samples that would ultimately be served to both researchers and the public. These data enhance preliminary scientific investigations including targeted sample requests, and also provide a new visual platform for the public to experience and interact with the lunar samples. We intend to serve these data as they are acquired on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisistion and Curation website at http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/. Providing 3D interior and exterior documentation of astromaterial

  18. Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Aiji; Miyagawa, Naoto; Miyanaga, Naotake

    1984-01-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95 Zr, 95 Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) γ-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95 Zr and 95 Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis. (author)

  19. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal neutron activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a computer code which automatically analyses gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors. The program contains features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification and calculation of masses and errors. Finally the results obtained with our computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  20. Temperature-dependent magnetic properties of individual glass spherules, Apollo 11, 12, and 14 lunar samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. N.; Sullivan, S.; Alexander, C. C.; Senftle, F. E.; Dwornik, E. J.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility of 11 glass spherules from the Apollo 14 lunar fines have been measured from room temperature to 4 K. Data taken at room temperature, 77 K, and 4.2 K, show that the soft saturation magnetization was temperature independent. In the temperature range 300 to 77 K the temperature-dependent component of the magnetic susceptibility obeys the Curie law. Susceptibility measurements on these same specimens and in addition 14 similar spherules from the Apollo 11 and 12 mission show a Curie-Weiss relation at temperatures less than 77 K with a Weiss temperature of 3-7 degrees in contrast to 2-3 degrees found for tektites and synthetic glasses of tektite composition. A proposed model and a theoretical expression closely predict the variation of the susceptibility of the glass spherules with temperature.

  1. Lunar CATALYST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Cargo Transportation and Landing by Soft Touchdown (Lunar CATALYST) is a NASA initiative to encourage the development of U.S. private-sector robotic lunar...

  2. Closer look at lunar volcanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Heiken, G.; Taylor, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Although the American Apollo and Soviet Luna missions concentrated on mare basalt samples, major questions remain about lunar volcanism. Lunar field work will be indispensable for resolving the scientific questions about ages, compositions, and eruption processes of lunar volcanism. From a utilitarian standpoint, a better knowledge of lunar volcanism will also yield profitable returns in lunar base construction (e.g., exploitation of rille or lava-tube structures) and in access to materials such as volatile elements, pure glass, or ilmenite for lunar industry

  3. Efficiency Of Transuranium Nuclides Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, Yu.A.; Klinov, D.A.; Semenov, E.V.

    2002-01-01

    One of the ways to create a wasteless nuclear power is based on transmutation of spent fuel nuclides. In particular, it is considered that the radioactivity of the nuclear power wastes should be the same (or smaller), than radioactivity of the uranium and the thorium extracted from entrails of the Earth. The problem of fission fragments transmutation efficiency was considered in article, where, in particular, the concepts of transmutation factor and the ''generalised'' index of biological hazard of the radioactive nuclides were entered. The transmutation efficiency has appeared to be a function of time and, naturally, dependent on nuclear power activity scenario, from neutron flux, absorption cross-sections of the nuclides under transmutation and on the rate of their formation in reactors. In the present paper the efficiency of the transmutation of transuranium nuclides is considered

  4. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal-neutron-activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    A computer code that automatically analyzes gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors is described. The program contains such features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification, and calculation of masses and errors. Finally, the results obtained with this computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  5. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate

  6. Uptake of nuclides by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2004-04-01

    This review on plant uptake of elements has been prepared to demonstrate how plants take up different elements. The work discusses the nutrient elements, as well as the general uptake and translocation in plants, both via roots and by foliar absorption. Knowledge of the uptake by the various elements within the periodic system is then reviewed. The work also discusses transfer factors (TF) as well as difficulties using TF to understand the uptake by plants. The review also focuses on species differences. Knowledge necessary to understand and calculate plant influence on radionuclide recirculation in the environment is discussed, in which the plant uptake of a specific nuclide and the fate of that nuclide in the plant must be understood. Plants themselves determine the uptake, the soil/sediment determines the availability of the nuclides and the nuclides themselves can interact with each other, which also influences the uptake. Consequently, it is not possible to predict the nuclide uptake in plants by only analysing the nuclide concentration of the soil/substrate.

  7. Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, William R.

    2007-01-01

    A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses

  8. Volatile and non-volatile elements in grain-size separated samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovanoli, R.; Gunten, H.R. von; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.; Gruetter, A.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-01-01

    Three samples of Apollo 17 lunar soils (75081, 72501 and 72461) were separated into 9 grain-size fractions between 540 and 1 μm mean diameter. In order to detect mineral fractionations caused during the separation procedures major elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analyses performed on small aliquots of the separated samples. Twenty elements were measured in each size fraction using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation techniques. The concentration of the main elements in sample 75081 does not change with the grain-size. Exceptions are Fe and Ti which decrease slightly and Al which increases slightly with the decrease in the grain-size. These changes in the composition in main elements suggest a decrease in Ilmenite and an increase in Anorthite with decreasing grain-size. However, it can be concluded that the mineral composition of the fractions changes less than a factor of 2. Samples 72501 and 72461 are not yet analyzed for the main elements. (Auth.)

  9. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakanoue, Masanobu

    1987-01-01

    Many countries are presently concerned with problems relating to the safe disposal of nuclear waste containing various levels of transuranium nuclides. In this context, a review on the distribution and behaviour of transuranium elements in the environment studied at Kanazawa University in Japan is presented. About 17 years ago, a high degree of accumulation of 239 Pu in the surface soil of Nagasaki was found in the Nishiyama area, where 'black rain' occured just after the nuclear bomb explosion. The introduction of newly developed radiochemical methods and instrumentation has enabled studies to be carried out on environmental plutonium isotopes, americium-241 and more recently neptunium-237 with respect to distribution depth profile, variation with time and relationship with organic materials. Valuable information has been obtained on the basis of samples collected from various locations in Japan, including surface soil, sea and lake sediments, atmospheric aerosol, water from the Japan Sea and the Pacific Ocean, and from material related with the 'Bikini Event' of 1954. (orig.)

  10. Nuclide transfer test device in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The device comprises a pressure-proof vessel having a perforated port, a compression vessel having a sample-containing chamber with circumferential walls having a plurality of small holes being gastightly engaged to the perforated port, a mechanically pressurizing means for vertically compressing the compression chamber, a pressurizing gas supply system for supplying a pressurizing gas to compress the soil specimen in a lateral direction and a sample water-supply system for supplying sample water to the sample containing chamber. The soil sample is pressurized so that the sample water is caused to permeate by isotropic pressure due to equilibrium of vertical compression by mechanical force and lateral compression by the pressurizing gas. The transfer state of radioactive nuclides in the soil can be tested easily in a state where the sample water is caused to permeate in a vertical direction in parallel, to simulate an actual processing circumstance. Namely, since the sample water is caused to permeate to the soil sample in the pressure-proof vessel, a desired test can easily be conducted in a restricted space without undergoing influences of the kind and the dose rate of the radioactive nuclides. (N.H.)

  11. Rapid screening of natually occurring radioactive nuclides({sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, {sup 232}Th) in raw materials and by-products samples using XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Young; Lim, Chung Sup [Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioiostope Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jong Myoung; Ji, Young Yong; Chung, Kun Ho; Lee, Wan No; Kang, Mun Ja [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Byung Uck [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    As new legislation has come into force implementing radiation safety management for the use of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), it is necessary to establish a rapid and accurate measurement technique. Measurement of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th using conventional methods encounter the most significant difficulties for pretreatment (e.g., purification, speciation, and dilution/enrichment) or require time-consuming processes. Therefore, in this study, the applicability of ED-XRF as a non-destructive and rapid screening method was validated for raw materials and by-product samples. A series of experiments was conducted to test the applicability for rapid screening of XRF measurement to determine activity of {sup 238}U and {sup 23{sup 2}}Th based on certified reference materials (e.g., soil, rock, phosphorus rock, bauxite, zircon, and coal ash) and NORM samples commercially used in Korea. Statistical methods were used to compare the analytical results of ED-XRF to those of certified values of certified reference materials (CRM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results of the XRF measurement for {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th showed under 20% relative error and standard deviation. The results of the U-test were statistically significant except for the case of U in coal fly ash samples. In addition, analytical results of {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th in the raw material and by-product samples using XRF and the analytical results of those using ICP-MS (R{sup 2}≥0.95) were consistent with each other. Thus, the analytical results rapidly derived using ED-XRF were fairly reliable. Based on the validation results, it can be concluded that the ED-XRF analysis may be applied to rapid screening of radioactivities ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) in NORM samples.

  12. Decay and Transmutation of Nuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Aarnio, Pertti A

    1999-01-01

    We present a computer code DeTra which solves analytically the Bateman equations governing the decay, build-up and transmutation of radionuclides. The complexity of the chains and the number of nuclides are not limited. The nuclide production terms considered include transmutation of the nuclides inside the chain, external production, and fission. Time dependent calculations are possible since all the production terms can be re-defined for each irradiation step. The number of irradiation steps and output times is unlimited. DeTra is thus able to solve any decay and transmutation problem as long as the nuclear data i.e. decay data and production rates, or cross sections, are known.

  13. Nuclide content in reactor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    Certain corrosion and fission products of importance in reactor waste management cannot be measured by gammaspectrometric techniques. In this study, a method is suggested by which the occurence of such nuclides can be quantitatively related to suitable gamma-emitters of similar origin. The method is tested by statistical analysis on the waste data recorded from two Swedish nuclear power plants. As this method is not applicable for Carbon-14, this nuclide was measured directly in spent ion exchange resins from three Finnish and Swedish power plants. (author)

  14. Precise simultaneous determination of zirconium and hafnium in silicate rocks, meteorites and lunar samples. [Neutron reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P A; Garg, A N; Ehmann, W D [Kentucky Univ., Lexington (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1977-01-01

    A precise, sensitive and rapid analytical technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Zr and Hf in natural silicate matrices. The technique is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis and employs a rapid fusion dissolution of the sample and simultaneous precipitation of the Zr-Hf pair with p-hydroxybenzene arsenic acid in an acidic medium. The indicator radionuclides, /sup 95/Zr and /sup 181/Hf, are counted and the /sup 95/Zr activity is corrected for the contribution from U fission. The chemical yields of the radiochemical separation are based on Hf carrier. The yield is determined by reactivation of the processed samples and standards with a /sup 252/Cf isotopic neutron source and by counting the 18.6 sec half-life sup(179m)Hf. The RNAA procedure for Zr and Hf has been shown to be precise and accurate for natural silicate samples, based on replicate analyses of samples containing Zr in the range of 1 ..mu..g/g to over 600 ..mu..g/g. The procedure is relatively rapid with a total chemical processing time of approximately 3 hours. At least 4 samples are processed simultaneously. Ten additional elements (Fe, Cr, Co, Sc, Eu, La, Lu, Ce, Th and Tb) can be determined by direct Ge(Li) spectrometry (INAA) on the samples prior to dissolution for the RNAA determination of Zr and Hf. Corrections for the U fission contribution can be made on the basis of the known U content or from the INAA Th content, based on the relatively constant natural Th/U ratio.

  15. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingemansson, Tor

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered

  16. Nuclides for radiotherapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, R.Y.; Blattmann, H.

    1986-02-01

    With the emergence of new, biological vehicles of great organ specificity (e.g. steroid hormones, antibodies) the concept of systemic tumor therapy with the aid of radiotherapeutica has gained new momentum. In order to assess the options open for optimal adaptation of the radiation properties to the pharmacocinetics of a vehicle, a search was done to identify potentially useful therapeutic radionuclides. Main criteria for selection were half life, low gamma-yield and stable daughter nuclide. The resulting possibilities fall into 4 categories: 1) alpha-emitters (At-211); 2) beta/sup -/-emitters that can be prepared in a carrierfree fashion (P-32, S-35, As-77, Y-90, Ag-111, Pm-149, Tb-161, Lu-177), 3) beta/sup -/-emitters with carrier added (Pd-109, Pr-142, Gd-159, Er-169, Tm-172, Yb-175, Re-188, Ir-194, Pt-197) and 4) electron capture nuclides, emitting Auger-cascades (Cr-51, Ga-67, Ge-71, Br-77, Ru-97, Sb-119, I-123, Cs-129, Nd-140, Er-165, Ta-177, Hg-197, Tl-201). Among the 4th group some well known, diagnostically used nuclides are found. Their therapeutic use necessitates the precise localisation in or very near the genetic material of the cell to be killed; only there the destructive power of the very short range Auger-electrons can be used. For each of the selected nuclides a summary of decay data, possibilities of preparation and chemical reactivity for labelling of vehicles is given. (author)

  17. Petrology of lunar rocks and implication to lunar evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in lunar petrology, based on studies of lunar rock samples available through the Apollo program, are reviewed. Samples of bedrock from both maria and terra have been collected where micrometeorite impact penetrated the regolith and brought bedrock to the surface, but no in situ cores have been taken. Lunar petrogenesis and lunar thermal history supported by studies of the rock sample are discussed and a tentative evolutionary scenario is constructed. Mare basalts, terra assemblages of breccias, soils, rocks, and regolith are subjected to elemental analysis, mineralogical analysis, trace content analysis, with studies of texture, ages and isotopic composition. Probable sources of mare basalts are indicated.

  18. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soti, Zsolt [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond [Nucleonica GmbH, c/o European Commission, Postfach 2340, DE-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  19. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  20. Water hyacinth : the suitable aquatic weed for radioactive nuclide absorption in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalermsuk, Somporn; Jungpattanawadee, Komgrid; Tongrong, Thanachai

    2003-06-01

    The experiment was set up to determine the quantities of radioactive nuclides which were absorbed by aquatic weeds in Khon Kaen Province. The best aquatic weed would be used to be sampled for study of radioactive nuclide quantities in natural water resources. Seven kinds of aquatic weeds in the same site were corrected and pretreated by ovening to be ash at 450 οC. Gamma-ray spectra of the samples were detected and analyzed for comparing the quantities of radioactive nuclides. Gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector was set up to detect radioactive nuclides and their quantities in ashes of aquatic weeds. According to this study, water hyacinth, from seven aquatic weeds, had the most quantities of radioactive nuclides. The water hyacinth with 30 cm leaves in length can absorb the most quantities of radioactive nuclides

  1. Lunar Meteorites: A Global Geochemical Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Joy, K. H.; Arai, T.; Gross, J.; Korotev, R. L.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    To date, the world's meteorite collections contain over 260 lunar meteorite stones representing at least 120 different lunar meteorites. Additionally, there are 20-30 as yet unnamed stones currently in the process of being classified. Collectively these lunar meteorites likely represent 40-50 distinct sampling locations from random locations on the Moon. Although the exact provenance of each individual lunar meteorite is unknown, collectively the lunar meteorites represent the best global average of the lunar crust. The Apollo sites are all within or near the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT), thus lithologies from the PKT are overrepresented in the Apollo sample suite. Nearly all of the lithologies present in the Apollo sample suite are found within the lunar meteorites (high-Ti basalts are a notable exception), and the lunar meteorites contain several lithologies not present in the Apollo sample suite (e.g., magnesian anorthosite). This chapter will not be a sample-by-sample summary of each individual lunar meteorite. Rather, the chapter will summarize the different types of lunar meteorites and their relative abundances, comparing and contrasting the lunar meteorite sample suite with the Apollo sample suite. This chapter will act as one of the introductory chapters to the volume, introducing lunar samples in general and setting the stage for more detailed discussions in later more specialized chapters. The chapter will begin with a description of how lunar meteorites are ejected from the Moon, how deep samples are being excavated from, what the likely pairing relationships are among the lunar meteorite samples, and how the lunar meteorites can help to constrain the impactor flux in the inner solar system. There will be a discussion of the biases inherent to the lunar meteorite sample suite in terms of underrepresented lithologies or regions of the Moon, and an examination of the contamination and limitations of lunar meteorites due to terrestrial weathering. The

  2. International chart of the nuclides. 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golashvili, T.V.; Kupriyanov, V.M.; Lbov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The International Chart of Nuclides - 2001 has been developed taking into account the data obtained in 1998-2001. Unlike widespread nuclide charts the present Chart of Nuclides contains EVALUATED values of the main characteristics. These values are supplied with the standard deviations. (author)

  3. Apollo Missions to the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige V.

    2018-01-01

    Six Apollo missions to the Moon, from 1969-1972, enabled astronauts to collect and bring lunar rocks and materials from the lunar surface to Earth. Apollo lunar samples are curated by NASA Astromaterials at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. Samples continue to be studied and provide clues about our early Solar System. Learn more and view collected samples at: https://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar.

  4. Evolution of the Lunar Receiving Laboratory to the Astromaterial Sample Curation Facility: Technical Tensions Between Containment and Cleanliness, Between Particulate and Organic Cleanliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Calaway, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL) was planned and constructed in the 1960s to support the Apollo program in the context of landing on the Moon and safely returning humans. The enduring science return from that effort is a result of careful curation of planetary materials. Technical decisions for the first facility included sample handling environment (vacuum vs inert gas), and instruments for making basic sample assessment, but the most difficult decision, and most visible, was stringent biosafety vs ultra-clean sample handling. Biosafety required handling of samples in negative pressure gloveboxes and rooms for containment and use of sterilizing protocols and animal/plant models for hazard assessment. Ultra-clean sample handling worked best in positive pressure nitrogen environment gloveboxes in positive pressure rooms, using cleanable tools of tightly controlled composition. The requirements for these two objectives were so different, that the solution was to design and build a new facility for specific purpose of preserving the scientific integrity of the samples. The resulting Lunar Curatorial Facility was designed and constructed, from 1972-1979, with advice and oversight by a very active committee comprised of lunar sample scientists. The high precision analyses required for planetary science are enabled by stringent contamination control of trace elements in the materials and protocols of construction (e.g., trace element screening for paint and flooring materials) and the equipment used in sample handling and storage. As other astromaterials, especially small particles and atoms, were added to the collections curated, the technical tension between particulate cleanliness and organic cleanliness was addressed in more detail. Techniques for minimizing particulate contamination in sample handling environments use high efficiency air filtering techniques typically requiring organic sealants which offgas. Protocols for reducing adventitious carbon on sample

  5. Nuclides and isotopes. Twelfth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This explanatory booklet was designed to be used with the Chart of the Nuclides. It contains a brief history of the atomic theory of matter: ancient speculations, periodic properties of elements (Mendeleev table), radioactivity, early models of atomic structure, the Bohr atom, quantum numbers, nature of isotopes, artificial radioactivity, and neutron fission. Information on the pre-Fermi (natural) nuclear reactor at Oklo and the search for superheavy elements is given. The booklet also discusses information presented on the Chart and its coding: stable nuclides, metastable states, data display and color, isotopic abundances, neutron cross sections, spins and parities, fission yields, half-life variability, radioisotope power and production data, radioactive decay chains, and elements without names. The Periodic Table of the Elements is appended. 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. Lunar horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of the role that lunar horticulture may fulfill in helping establish the life support system of an earth-independent lunar colony. Such a system is expected to be a hybrid between systems which depend on lunar horticulture and those which depend upon the chemical reclamation of metabolic waste and its resynthesis into nutrients and water. The feasibility of this approach has been established at several laboratories. Plants grow well under reduced pressures and with oxygen concentrations of less than 1% of the total pressure. The carbon dioxide collected from the lunar base personnel should provide sufficient gas pressure (approx. 100 mm Hg) for growing the plants.

  7. Constraining local subglacial bedrock erosion rates with cosmogenic nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig, Christian; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Christl, Marcus; Reitner, Jürgen; Reindl, Martin; Bichler, Mathias; Vockenhuber, Christof; Akcar, Naki; Schlüchter, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The constant buildup of cosmogenic nuclides, most prominently 10Be, in exposed rock surfaces is routinely employed for dating various landforms such as landslides or glacial moraines. One fundamental assumption is that no cosmogenic nuclides were initially present in the rock, before the event to be dated. In the context of glacially formed landscapes it is commonly assumed that subglacial erosion of at least a few meters of bedrock during the period of ice coverage is sufficient to remove any previously accumulated nuclides, since the production of 10Be ceases at a depth of 2-3 m. Insufficient subglacial erosion leads to overestimation of surface exposure ages. If the time since the retreat of the glacier is known, however, a discordant concentration of cosmogenic nuclides delivers information about the depth of subglacial erosion. Here we present data from proglacial bedrock at two sites in the Alps. Goldbergkees in the Hohe Tauern National Park in Austria and Gruebengletscher in the Grimsel Pass area in Switzerland. Samples were taken inside as well as outside of the glaciers' Little Ice Age extent. Measured nuclide concentrations are analyzed with the help of a MATLAB model simulating periods of exposure or glacial cover of user-definable length and erosion rates.

  8. IDGAM. A PC code and database to help nuclide identification in activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paviotti Corcuera, R.; Moraes Cunha, M. de; Jayanthi, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The document describes a PC diskette containing a code and database which helps researchers to identify the nuclides in a radioactive sample. Data can be retrieved by gamma-ray energy, nuclide or element. The PC diskette is available, costfree, from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, upon request. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs

  9. Robotic Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler for Resource Reconnaissance and Preliminary Site Assessment for ISRU Activities at the Lunar Cold Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Wilson, J.; Bartlett, P.; Powderly, J.; Lawrence, D.; Elphic, R.; Mungas, G.; McCullough, E.; Stoker, C.; Cannon, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1960s, claims have been made that water ice deposits should exist in permanently shadowed craters near both lunar poles. Recent interpretations of data from the Lunar Prospector-Neutron Spectrometer (LP- NS) confirm that significant concentrations of hydrogen exist, probably in the form of water ice, in the permanently shadowed polar cold traps. Yet, due to the large spatial resolution (45-60 Ian) of the LP-NS measurements relative to these shadowed craters (approx.5-25 km), these data offer little certainty regarding the precise location, form or distribution of these deposits. Even less is known about how such deposits of water ice might effect lunar regolith physical properties relevant to mining, excavation, water extraction and construction. These uncertainties will need to be addressed in order to validate fundamental lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) precepts by 2011. Given the importance of the in situ utilization of water and other resources to the future of space exploration a need arises for the advanced deployment of a robotic and reconfigurable system for physical properties and resource reconnaissance. Based on a collection of high-TRL. designs, the Subsurface Analyzer and Sample Handler (SASH) addresses these needs, particularly determining the location and form of water ice and the physical properties of regolith. SASH would be capable of: (1) subsurface access via drilling, on the order of 3-10 meters into both competent targets (ice, rock) and regolith, (2) down-hole analysis through drill string embedded instrumentation and sensors (Neutron Spectrometer and Microscopic Imager), enabling water ice identification and physical properties measurements; (3) core and unconsolidated sample acquisition from rock and regolith; (4) sample handling and processing, with minimized contamination, sample containerization and delivery to a modular instrument payload. This system would be designed with three mission enabling goals, including: (1

  10. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    It has established the 'Act on safety control of radioactive rays around living environment' in Korea, since 2011, to protect the public from natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and their by-products. The increasing concerns regarding the radioactivity of those materials therefore dictate many demands for the radioactive analysis for them. There are several methods to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides, such as {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, and so on, through a radiochemical analysis using an alpha spectrometer, mass spectrometer and liquid scintillation counter. However, gamma-ray spectroscopy still has an effect on the assessment of radioactive concentration for these nuclides and their progenies. To adapt a gamma spectrometer to the determination of natural radionuclides, the feasibility of their analysis methods should be first verified and validated with respect to accuracy and time and cost constraints. In general, one of the well-known processes in analyzing uranium with a gamma spectrometer is an indirect measurement using the secular equilibrium state with their progenies in a sample. This method, however, demands the time elapsed about 3 weeks to reach the equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn and the sufficient integrity of a sample bottle to prevent the leakage of radon isotopes which is a form of noble gas. The simple and quick method is to directly measure a full energy absorption peak of 186.2 keV from {sup 226}Ra without the secular equilibrium state between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn in the common sample bottle. However, this direct measurement also has difficulties about the interference with a full energy absorption peak of 185.7 keV from {sup 235}U. In this study, direct measurement with the interference correction technique, which uses several reference peaks for gamma-rays from {sup 235}U and {sup 234}Th, and indirect measurement, which means the identification of {sup

  11. Lunar Riometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, J.; Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R. J.; Burns, J. O.; Kasper, J. C.

    2011-12-01

    The lunar exosphere is the exemplar of a plasma near the surface of an airless body. Exposed to both the solar and interstellar radiation fields, the lunar exosphere is mostly ionized, and enduring questions regarding its properties include its density and vertical extent and its behavior over time, including modification by landers. Relative ionospheric measurements (riometry) are based on the simple physical principle that electromagnetic waves cannot propagate through a partially or fully ionized medium below the plasma frequency, and riometers have been deployed on the Earth in numerous remote and hostile environments. A multi-frequency riometer on the lunar surface would be able to monitor, in situ, the peak plasma density of the lunar exosphere over time. We describe a concept for a riometer implemented as a secondary science payload on future lunar landers, such as those recommended in the recent Planetary Sciences Decadal Survey report. While the prime mission of such a riometer would be probing the lunar exosphere, our concept would also be capable to measuring the properties of nanometer- to micron-scale dust. The LUNAR consortium is funded by the NASA Lunar Science Institute to investigate concepts for astrophysical observatories on the Moon. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  12. Method for the transmutation of nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for the systematic and optimal manufacture of nuclides with beneficial properties as well as for the transmutation of noxious nuclides into innocuous ones, e.g. radioactive wastes. For that purpose, use is made of the periodic system of atoms and of the so-called twin-subshell model of nuclear structure, in order to trace the possible transformations of the nuclide through irradiation with appropriate particles or radiation. (G.J.P.)

  13. Lunar radionuclide records of average solar-cosmic-ray fluxes over the last ten million years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    Because changes in solar activity can modify the fluxes of cosmic-ray particles in the solar system, the nature of the galactic and solar cosmic rays and their interactions with matter are described and used to study the ancient sun. The use of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites and lunar samples as detectors of past cosmic-ray variations are discussed. Meteorite records of the history of the galactic cosmic rays are reviewed. The fluxes of solar protons over various time periods as determined from lunar radionuclide data are presented and examined. The intensities of solar protons emitted during 1954 to 1964 (11-year solar cycle number 19) were much larger than those for 1965 to 1975 (solar cycle 20). Average solar-proton fluxes determined for the last one to ten million years from lunar 26 Al and 53 Mn data show little variation and are similar to the fluxes for recent solar cycles. Lunar activities of 14 C (and preliminary results for 81 Kr) indicate that the average fluxes of solar protons over the last 10 4 (and 10 5 ) years are several times larger than those for the last 10 6 to 10 7 years; however, cross-section measurements and other work are needed to confirm these flux variations

  14. Lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.; Sonett, C. P.; Srnka, L. J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of lunar paleomagnetic and electromagnetic sounding results which appear inconsistent with the hypothesis that an ancient core dynamo was the dominant source of the observed crustal magnetism are discussed. Evidence is summarized involving a correlation between observed magnetic anomalies and ejecta blankets from impact events which indicates the possible importance of local mechanisms involving meteoroid impact processes in generating strong magnetic fields at the lunar surface. A reply is given to the latter argument which also presents recent evidence of a lunar iron core.

  15. Lunar Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We present an open design for a first plant growth module on the Moon (LPX). The primary science goal of lunar habitat is to investigate germination and initial...

  16. Lunar Flashlight

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lunar Flashlight (LF) is an innovative cubesat mission sponsored by NASA’s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) division to be launched on the Space Launch System...

  17. Measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    Meteorites are rocks and pieces of iron-nickel alloy which fall to earth from time to time. They were formed about 4.6 billion years ago when our solar system was started. Thus it has been said that meteorites are the Rosetta stones of our solar system. We use the long-lived radioactive nuclides produced by cosmic ray bombardment, to study the history of the meteorites and also the history of the cosmic rays. When we have these historical facts in our hads, we hope we will be able to understand better how the solar system works, and how it got started. We can also learn more about the nature and origin of the cosmic rays. The accelerator mass spectrometry method helps not only reduce sample size, in most cases by two or three orders of magnitude, but opens another set of cosmogenic nuclides which have not been measured yet. Already 10 Be (t/sub 1/2 = 1.6 x 10 6 y), 36 Cl (3.0 x 10 5 y) and 129 I (1.6 x 10 7 y) in meteorites have been measured by accelerator mass spectrometry [3, 4, 7, 10]. Possible new candidates for measurement in extraterrestrial materials are 26 Al (7.2 x 10 5 y), 41 Ca (1.3 x 10 5 y), 60 Fe (approx. 10 5 y) and 59 Ni (7.6 x 10 4 y). We hope also to measure 146 Sm (1.0 x 10 8 y) and 92 Nb

  18. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Boyce, J. W.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Tartese, R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The chapter will begin with an introduction that defines magmatic volatiles (e.g., H, F, Cl, S) versus geochemical volatiles (e.g., K, Rb, Zn). We will discuss our approach of understanding both types of volatiles in lunar samples and lay the ground work for how we will determine the overall volatile budget of the Moon. We will then discuss the importance of endogenous volatiles in shaping the "Newer Views of the Moon", specifically how endogenous volatiles feed forward into processes such as the origin of the Moon, magmatic differentiation, volcanism, and secondary processes during surface and crustal interactions. After the introduction, we will include a re-view/synthesis on the current state of 1) apatite compositions (volatile abundances and isotopic compositions); 2) nominally anhydrous mineral phases (moderately to highly volatile); 3) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar pyroclastic glass beads; 4) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of lunar basalts; 5) volatile (moderately to highly volatile) abundances in and isotopic compositions of melt inclusions; and finally 6) experimental constraints on mineral-melt partitioning of moderately to highly volatile elements under lunar conditions. We anticipate that each section will summarize results since 2007 and focus on new results published since the 2015 Am Min review paper on lunar volatiles [9]. The next section will discuss how to use sample abundances of volatiles to understand the source region and potential caveats in estimating source abundances of volatiles. The following section will include our best estimates of volatile abundances and isotopic compositions (where permitted by available data) for each volatile element of interest in a number of important lunar reservoirs, including the crust, mantle, KREEP, and bulk Moon. The final section of the chapter will focus upon future work, outstanding questions

  19. A nuclear data library for activity determinations of selected nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baard, J.H.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes the GAMLIB 1-5 library, which is used in the calculation of the activity of radionuclides present in the gamma-ray spectra of irradiated neutron fluence detectors. The library contains all constants needed to calculate the activity for reactions normally applied in neutron fluence determinations, performed in irradiation experiments in the HFR. It also contains the nuclide constants for the activity calculation of gamma-ray measurements of U and Pu samples. The library consists of two kinds of tables, the first containing gamma-ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities with their uncertainties and the nuclide code, the other the nuclide code, decay constant, gamma -ray energies and gamma-ray emission probabilities. No cross-section data are stored in this library. All the relevant dat of the Nuclear Data Guide (Dordrecht, Kluwer 1989) have been used as base for this library. Other data have been obtained from recent literature. This library comprises 155 nuclides and 1115 gamma-ray energies. (author). 9 refs

  20. REE Partitioning in Lunar Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Lapen, T. J.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) are an extremely useful tool in modeling lunar magmatic processes. Here we present the first experimentally derived plagioclase/melt partition coefficients in lunar compositions covering the entire suite of REE. Positive europium anomalies are ubiquitous in the plagioclase-rich rocks of the lunar highlands, and complementary negative Eu anomalies are found in most lunar basalts. These features are taken as evidence of a large-scale differentiation event, with crystallization of a global-scale lunar magma ocean (LMO) resulting in a plagioclase flotation crust and a mafic lunar interior from which mare basalts were subsequently derived. However, the extent of the Eu anomaly in lunar rocks is variable. Fagan and Neal [1] reported highly anorthitic plagioclase grains in lunar impact melt rock 60635,19 that displayed negative Eu anomalies as well as the more usual positive anomalies. Indeed some grains in the sample are reported to display both positive and negative anomalies. Judging from cathodoluminescence images, these anomalies do not appear to be associated with crystal overgrowths or zones.

  1. Transuranium nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Projected development of nuclear power up to the year 2000 entails a substantial increase in the number of nuclear power reactors, of irradiated fuel reprocessing plants and of various other supporting facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. In this period, transuranium elements, especially plutonium, will be produced in substantial quantities as by-products of the fission process and for use as fuel in present and future nuclear power reactors; these elements will have other peaceful applications as well. Growing world-wide interest and a natural desire to protect man and his environment have led to increasing concern in public, scientific and governmental sectors about the, release of such radionuclides into the environment. Although releases of transuranium nuclides from existing nuclear facilities can be controlled to very low levels, it is essential, in view of their long half-lives and high relative radiotoxicities, that their fate in the environment be understood well enough to permit associated potential impacts to be assessed and hence effective control to be provided. Extensive studies for many years have investigated the distribution and behaviour of these elements and potential detriments resulting from their release to the environment. More recently, scientists have begun to make projections for evaluating the degree of control necessary if such materials are to enter the complex chain of commercial activities associated with nuclear power production

  2. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare nuclides that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially nuclides, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic nuclides studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic nuclides made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure nuclides made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic nuclides and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs

  4. First oxygen from lunar basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, M. A.; Knudsen, C. W.; Brueneman, D. J.; Kanamori, H.; Ness, R. O.; Sharp, L. L.; Brekke, D. W.; Allen, C. C.; Morris, R. V.; Keller, L. P.

    1993-01-01

    The Carbotek/Shimizu process to produce oxygen from lunar soils has been successfully demonstrated on actual lunar samples in laboratory facilities at Carbotek with Shimizu funding and support. Apollo sample 70035 containing approximately 25 percent ilmenite (FeTiO3) was used in seven separate reactions with hydrogen varying temperature and pressure: FeTiO3 + H2 yields Fe + TiO2 + H2O. The experiments gave extremely encouraging results as all ilmenite was reduced in every experiment. The lunar ilmenite was found to be about twice as reactive as terrestrial ilmenite samples. Analytical techniques of the lunar and terrestrial ilmenite experiments performed by NASA Johnson Space Center include iron Mossbauer spectroscopy (FeMS), optical microscopy, SEM, TEM, and XRD. The Energy and Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota performed three SEM techniques (point count method, morphology determination, elemental mapping), XRD, and optical microscopy.

  5. Radioactive nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kaoru; Hoshi, Michio.

    1993-09-01

    There are several radioactive nuclides in the living environment, such as those existing since the creation of the earth, those coming from experimental nuclear explosions, and radiations of the cosmic rays. A lesson on these radioactive nuclides was considered useful for understanding the place of nuclear technology, and have been made on the title of 'Radioactive Nuclides in the Living Environment' in the general course of the Nuclear Engineering School of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. When the curriculum of the general course was modified in 1993, the lesson was left in a changed form. Thus, the textbook of the lesson is presented in this report. The contents are natural and artificial radioactive nuclides in the living environment and where they have come from etc. (author)

  6. Local tissue distribution of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conventional tissue-section autoradiography of alpha-emitting actinide elements may require prohibitively long exposure times. Neutron-induced or fission-track autoradiography can be used for fissile nuclides such as 233 U, 235 U, and 239 Pu to circumvent this difficulty. The detection limit for these nuclides is about 4 x 10 -13 (weight fraction). This paper describes a specific technique for determining their microdistribution with histologically stained tissue sections

  7. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  8. Dielectric properties of lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkova, O. V.; Kibardina, I. N.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the dielectric characteristics of lunar soil samples are analyzed in the context of dielectric theory. It has been shown that the real component of the dielectric permittivity and the loss tangent of rocks greatly depend on the frequency of the interacting electromagnetic field and the soil temperature. It follows from the analysis that one should take into account diurnal variations in the lunar surface temperature when interpreting the radar-sounding results, especially for the gigahertz radio range.

  9. Nuclides 2000: an electronic chart of the nuclides on CD-ROM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magill, J.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Nuclides 2000' software package is an electronic chart of the nuclides, available on CD-ROM for Microsoft Windows operating systems, which offers extensive basic information on physics and radiology of the familiar nuclides. Moreover, 'Nuclides 2000' contains codes for a number of applications which allow the required data to be computed quickly and reliably by means of interactive user guidance. The data and codes are supplemented by information in the format of contributions on the history of radioactivity and radiochemistry, and on subjects of interest in physics, such as C-14 dating and the generation of Ti-44 in a supernova, and by a link collection of Internet addresses. As a detailed database, 'Nuclides 2000' can be used for teaching, research, and for practical applications. (orig.) [de

  10. The MacNuclide nuclear data environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    Advance in technology have produced intriguing tools that can be applied to problems in nuclear science. Information management in nuclear science is an example of how technology is not quickly exploited. The U.S. Department of Energy supports an extensive program to evaluate published nuclear properties and store them in an electronic data base. Much of the evaluation effort has focused on producing the journal Nuclear Data Sheets and the publication Table of Isotopes. Although the electronic data base can itself be a valuable source of information, the software used to access is was designed using decades-old technologies. The authors of this paper have developed a novel data-base management system for nuclear properties. The application is known as MacNuclide. It is a nuclear data-base environment that uses the highly interactive and intuitive windowing environmentsof desk-top computers. The environment is designed around that image of the chart of nuclides. Questions are posed to the data base by placing constraints on properties and defining collections of nuclides to be used in data-base seraches. Results are displayed either as a simple list of nuclides that meet the imposed constraints or as a color chart of nuclides

  11. Chart of nuclides relating to neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Minoru

    1981-09-01

    This chart is for frequent use in the prediction of the product species of neutron activation. The first edition of the chart has been made in 1976 after the repeated trial preparation. It has the following good points. (1) Any letter in chart is as large as one can read easily. [This condition has been obtained by the selection of items to be shown in chart. They are the name (the symbol of element, mass number, and half-life) of nuclide or of isomer, and the type of decay.]. (2) Decay product has been shown indirectly for branchings with two-step decay via short-lived daughter in an excited state. [This matter has been realized by use of the new mode of indication.] (3) Nuclides shown in chart are (a) naturally occurring nuclides and (b) nuclides formed from naturally occurring nuclides through one of the following reactions: (n, γ), (n, n'), (n, p), (n, α), (n, 2n), (n, pn), (n, 3n), (n, αn), (n, t), (n, 3 He), (n, 2p), and (n, γ)(n, γ). In the revision of the first edition, some modes of indication have become a little simpler, and the isomers of shorter half-lives (0.1 - 1 μs) have been added. (author)

  12. Preparation of tracing source layer in simulation test of nuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yingjie; Ni Shiwei; Li Weijuan; Yamamoto, T.; Tanaka, T.; Komiya, T.

    1993-01-01

    In cooperative research between CIRP and JAERI on safety assessment for shallow land disposal of low level radioactive waste, a laboratory simulation test of nuclide migration was carried out, in which the undisturbed loess soil column sampled from CIRP' s field test site was used as testing material, three nuclides, Sr-85, Cs-137 and Co-60 were used as tracers. Special experiment on tracing method was carried out, which included measuring pH value of quartz sand in HCl solution, determining the eligible water content of quartz sand as tracer carrier, measuring distribution uniformity of nuclides in the tracing quartz sand, determining elution rate of nuclides from the tracing quartz sand and detecting activity uniformity of tracing source layer. The experiment results showed that the tracing source layer, in which fine quartz sand was used as tracer carrier, satisfied expected requirement. (1 fig.)

  13. Galactic cosmic-ray-produced radionuclides in Antarctic meteorites and a lunar core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Radionuclide depth effects in a meteorite, the history and pairing of Antarctic meteorites and processes on the lunar surface are discussed in six chapters. A depth profile of 26 Al, 10 Be and 53 Mn activities have been measured in eleven metal phase samples of the Antarctic meteorite ALHA78084 to determine the importance of the secondary cascade in producing these nuclides in a 30 centimeter diameter meteorite. The results show a buildup of lower energy reaction products and a flat profile for high energy reaction products with depth. The activity of 53 Mn has been measured as a function of depth in eleven soil samples from the lunar double drive tubes 15011/15010. The results agree within error with the previous results of Nishiizumi. These data are consistent with the previously published 26 Al results of the Battelle Northwest group which indicated a disturbed profile down to 17 g/cm 2 and an accumulation rate of 2 cm/My. Comparison with the gardening models of Arnold and Langevin and the local topography suggests such a continuous accumulation is the result of steady downslope transport of surface soil for 7 to 10 My at this site. The 53 Mn activity was determined in eleven samples in eight Allan Hills-80 Antarctic meteorites and one sample from an Elephant Moraine Antarctic meteorite. Mineralogic and field relation data suggest that Allan Hills meteorites to be two sets of paired falls. The 53 Mn results are consistent with the grouping of these meteorites as paired falls excluding the meteorite ALHA80127. comparison with future nuclear particle track work and results from the measurement of other cosmogenic nuclides will provide more definitive results

  14. Measurements of neutron cross sections of radioactive waste nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Toshio [Gifu College of Medical Technology, Seki, Gifu (Japan); Harada, Hideo; Nakamura, Shoji; Tanase, Masakazu; Hatsukawa, Yuichi

    1998-01-01

    Accurate nuclear reaction cross sections of radioactive fission products and transuranic elements are required for research on nuclear transmutation methods in nuclear waste management. Important fission products in the nuclear waste management are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I because of their large fission yields and long half-lives. The present authors have measured the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 99}Tc. The purpose of this study is to measure the neutron capture cross sections and resonance integrals of nuclides, {sup 129}I and {sup 135}Cs accurately. Preliminary experiments were performed by using Rikkyo University Reactor and JRR-3 reactor at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). Then, it was decided to measure the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs by using the JRR-3 Reactor because this measurement required a high flux reactor. On the other hand, those of {sup 129}I were measured at the Rikkyo Reactor because the product nuclides, {sup 130}I and {sup 130m}I, have short half-lives and this reactor is suitable for the study of short lived nuclide. In this report, the measurements of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs are described. To obtain reliable values of the cross section and resonance integral of {sup 135}Cs(n, {gamma}){sup 136}Cs reaction, a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for the mass analysis of nuclide in the sample. A progress report on the cross section of {sup 134}Cs, a neighbour of {sup 135}Cs, is included in this report. A report on {sup 129}I will be presented in the Report on the Joint-Use of Rikkyo University Reactor. (author)

  15. The enigma of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    Current understandings of the nature and probable origin of lunar magnetism are surveyed. Results of examinations of returned lunar samples are discussed which reveal the main carrier of the observed natural remanent magnetization to be iron, occasionally alloyed with nickel and cobalt, but do not distinguish between thermoremanent and shock remanent origins, and surface magnetometer data is presented, which indicates small-scale magnetic fields with a wide range of field intensities implying localized, near-surface sources. A detailed examination is presented of orbital magnetometer and charged particle data concerning the geologic nature and origin of magnetic anomaly sources and the directional properties of the magnetization, which exhibit a random distribution except for a depletion in the north-south direction. A lunar magnetization survey with global coverage provided by a polar orbiting satellite is suggested as a means of placing stronger constraints on the origin of lunar crustal magnetization.

  16. An Interdisciplinary Method for the Visualization of Novel High-Resolution Precision Photography and Micro-XCT Data Sets of NASA's Apollo Lunar Samples and Antarctic Meteorite Samples to Create Combined Research-Grade 3D Virtual Samples for the Benefit of Astromaterials Collections Conservation, Curation, Scientific Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, E. H.; Evans, C. A.; Oshel, E. R.; Liddle, D. A.; Beaulieu, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Hanna, R. D.; Ketcham, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    New technologies make possible the advancement of documentation and visualization practices that can enhance conservation and curation protocols for NASA's Astromaterials Collections. With increasing demands for accessibility to updated comprehensive data, and with new sample return missions on the horizon, it is of primary importance to develop new standards for contemporary documentation and visualization methodologies. Our interdisciplinary team has expertise in the fields of heritage conservation practices, professional photography, photogrammetry, imaging science, application engineering, data curation, geoscience, and astromaterials curation. Our objective is to create virtual 3D reconstructions of Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples that are a fusion of two state-of-the-art data sets: the interior view of the sample by collecting Micro-XCT data and the exterior view of the sample by collecting high-resolution precision photography data. These new data provide researchers an information-rich visualization of both compositional and textural information prior to any physical sub-sampling. Since January 2013 we have developed a process that resulted in the successful creation of the first image-based 3D reconstruction of an Apollo Lunar Sample correlated to a 3D reconstruction of the same sample's Micro- XCT data, illustrating that this technique is both operationally possible and functionally beneficial. In May of 2016 we began a 3-year research period during which we aim to produce Virtual Astromaterials Samples for 60 high-priority Apollo Lunar and Antarctic Meteorite samples and serve them on NASA's Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation website. Our research demonstrates that research-grade Virtual Astromaterials Samples are beneficial in preserving for posterity a precise 3D reconstruction of the sample prior to sub-sampling, which greatly improves documentation practices, provides unique and novel visualization of the sample's interior and

  17. Special actinide nuclides: Fuel or waste?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Dingankar, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special actinide nuclides such as Np, Cm, etc. which are produced as byproducts during the operation of fission reactors are presently looked upon as 'nuclear waste' and are proposed to be disposed of as part of high level waste in deep geological repositories. The potential hazard posed to future generations over periods of thousands of years by these long lived nuclides has been a persistent source of concern to critics of nuclear power. However, the authors have recently shown that each and every one of the special actinide nuclides is a better nuclear fuel than the isotopes of plutonium. This finding suggests that one does not have to resort to exotic neutron sources for transmuting/incinerating them as proposed by some researchers. Recovery of the special actinide elements from the waste stream and recycling them back into conventional fission reactors would eliminate one of the stigmas attached to nuclear energy

  18. Lunar feldspathic meteorites: Constraints on the geology of the lunar highlands, and the origin of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Juliane; Treiman, Allan H.; Mercer, Celestine N.

    2014-02-01

    The composition of the lunar crust provides clues about the processes that formed it and hence contains information on the origin and evolution of the Moon. Current understanding of lunar evolution is built on the Lunar Magma Ocean hypothesis that early in its history, the Moon was wholly or mostly molten. This hypothesis is based on analyses of Apollo samples of ferroan anorthosites (>90% plagioclase; molar Mg/(Mg+Fe)=Mg#Moon's surface, and remote sensing data, show that ferroan anorthosites are not globally distributed and that the Apollo highland samples, used as a basis for the model, are influenced by ejecta from the Imbrium basin. In this study we evaluate anorthosites from all currently available adequately described lunar highland meteorites, representing a more widespread sampling of the lunar highlands than Apollo samples alone, and find that ∼80% of them are significantly more magnesian than Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Interestingly, Luna mission anorthosites, collected outside the continuous Imbrium ejecta, are also highly magnesian. If the lunar highland crust consists dominantly of magnesian anorthosites, as suggested by their abundance in samples sourced outside Imbrium ejecta, a reevaluation of the Lunar Magma Ocean model is a sensible step forward in the endeavor to understand lunar evolution. Our results demonstrate that lunar anorthosites are more similar in their chemical trends and mineral abundance to terrestrial massif anorthosites than to anorthosites predicted in a Lunar Magma Ocean. This analysis does not invalidate the idea of a Lunar Magma Ocean, which seems a necessity under the giant impact hypothesis for the origin of the moon. However, it does indicate that most rocks now seen at the Moon's surface are not primary products of a magma ocean alone, but are products of more complex crustal processes.

  19. Behaviour of transuranic nuclides in coastal environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, K.C.; Mathew, E.; Matkar, V.M.; Dey, N.N.; Abani, M.C.; Chhapgar, B.F.; Mullay, C.D.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the nuclear technological developments, the potential for contamination of marine environment with transuranic nuclides has increased. In this context it is necessary to know not only the current levels of these artificial nuclides but there is also a need to understand the physico-chemical, biological and geochemical behaviour of transuranics to evaluate their significance in the marine environment. Studies on these aspects have been carried out in the coastal environment of the west coast of India, near Bombay. The results obtained and conclusions drawn from the various investigations carried out are given in this document

  20. An introduction to in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, K.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides are produced through interactions between cosmic rays and target nuclei in Earth's atmosphere and surface materials. Those which are produced in Earth's atmosphere are termed 'meteoric' while the nuclides produced in surface material are known as in-situ cosmogenic nuclides. The past two decades have seen a proliferation of applications for cosmogenic nuclides. This is primarily due to a revolution in accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, measurement techniques which has allowed the measurement of very small amounts of nuclides. The following is a brief introduction to the theory and application of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclide methods. (author). 17 refs., figs., 1 tab.

  1. The nuclide inventory in SFR-1; Nuklidinventariet i SFR-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingemansson, Tor [ALARA Engineering, Skultuna (Sweden)

    2001-10-01

    This report is an account for a project carried out on behalf of the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI): 'Nuclide inventory in SFR-1' (The Swedish underground disposal facility for low and intermediate level reactor waste). The project comprises the following five sub-projects: 1) Measuring methods for nuclides, difficult to measure, 2) The nuclide inventory in SFR-1, 3) Proposal for nuclide library for SFR-1 and ground disposal, 4) Nuclide library for exemption, and 5) Characterising of the nuclide inventory and documentation for SFL waste. In all five sub-projects long-lived activity, including Cl-36, has been considered.

  2. Inert gases in a terra sample - Measurements in six grain-size fractions and two single particles from Lunar 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymann, D.; Lakatos, S.; Walton, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of inert gas measurements performed on six grain-size fractions and two single particles from four samples of Luna 20 material. Presented and discussed data include the inert gas contents, element and isotope systematics, radiation ages, and Ar-36/Ar-40 systematics.

  3. Chart of the nuclides - Strasbourg 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antony, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Data were compiled for a nuclide chart over the last two years. The compilation is complete to the end of September 1990. The chart includes about 30000 data. Decay modes are represented by colours. Announcement capabilities and prices are given. (G.P.) 3 refs

  4. The influence of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the efficacy of CDC light trap in sampling Phlebotomus (Larroussius) orientalis Parrot, 1936 and other Phlebotomus sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebresilassie, Araya; Yared, Solomon; Aklilu, Essayas; Kirstein, Oscar David; Moncaz, Aviad; Tekie, Habte; Balkew, Meshesha; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2015-02-15

    Phlebotomus orientalis is the main sandfly vector of visceral leishmaniasis in the north and northwest of Ethiopia. CDC light traps and sticky traps are commonly used for monitoring sandfly populations. However, their trapping efficiency is greatly influenced by various environmental factors including moonlight and lunar periodicity. In view of that, the current study assessed the effect of moonlight and lunar periodicity on the performance of light traps in collecting P. orientalis. Trapping of P. orientalis and other Phlebotomus spp. was conducted for 7 months between December 2012 and June 2013 using CDC light traps and sticky traps from peri-domestic and agricultural fields. Throughout the trapping periods, collections of sandfly specimens were carried out for 4 nights per month, totaling 28 trapping nights that coincided with the four lunar phases (viz., first quarter, third quarter, new and full moon) distributed in each month. In total, 13,533 sandflies of eight Phlebotomus species (P. orientalis, P. bergeroti, P. rodhaini, P. duboscqi, P. papatasi, P. martini, P. lesleyae and P. heischi) were recorded. The predominant species was P. orientalis in both trapping sites and by both methods of collection in all lunar phases. A significant difference (P lunar phases. The highest mean number (231.13 ± 36.27 flies/trap/night) of P. orientalis was collected during the new moon phases, when the moonlight is absent. Fewer sandflies were attracted to light traps during a full moon. However, the number of P. orientalis and the other Phlebotomus spp. from sticky traps did not differ in their density among the four lunar phases (P = 0.122). Results of the current study demonstrated that the attraction and trapping efficiency of CDC light traps is largely influenced by the presence moonlight, especially during a full moon. Therefore, sampling of sandflies using light traps to estimate population density and other epidemiological studies in the field should take

  5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  6. Low temperature thermophysical properties of lunar soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremers, C. J.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of lunar fines samples from the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions, determined at low temperatures as a function of temperature and various densities, are reviewed. It is shown that the thermal conductivity of lunar soil is nearly the same as that of terrestrial basaltic rock under the same temperature and pressure conditions.

  7. Krypton and xenon in lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basford, J. R.; Dragon, J. C.; Pepin, R. O.; Coscio, M. R., Jr.; Murthy, V. R.

    1973-01-01

    Data from grain-size separates, stepwise-heated fractions, and bulk analyses of 20 samples of fines and breccias from five lunar sites are used to define three-isotope and ordinate intercept correlations in an attempt to resolve the lunar heavy rare gas system in a statistically valid approach. Tables of concentrations and isotope compositions are given.

  8. Photometric Lunar Surface Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Morattlo, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Beyer, Ross A.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate photometric reconstruction of the Lunar surface is important in the context of upcoming NASA robotic missions to the Moon and in giving a more accurate understanding of the Lunar soil composition. This paper describes a novel approach for joint estimation of Lunar albedo, camera exposure time, and photometric parameters that utilizes an accurate Lunar-Lambertian reflectance model and previously derived Lunar topography of the area visualized during the Apollo missions. The method introduced here is used in creating the largest Lunar albedo map (16% of the Lunar surface) at the resolution of 10 meters/pixel.

  9. NON-CONVENTIONAL PET NUCLIDES: PRODUCTION AND IMAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Laforest, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Medical cyclotrons are now commonly used for the production of PET nuclides by the (pn) reaction. These devices are typically capable of delivering 10-15 MeV protons beams at sufficiently high intensity for timely production of β+ decaying nuclides. Non-conventional PET nuclides have emerged recently and offers new opportunities for diagnostic and therapy drug discovery. In this paper, we will review the production capabilities for such nuclides at Washington University Medical Schoo...

  10. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  11. ZZ REAC-2, Nuclide Activation and Transmutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Flux library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group fluxes, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Cross Section library: Format: special format, Number Of Groups: 63 group cross section, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). Decay Data library: Format: special format, Nuclides: H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Se, Br, Kr, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, I, Xe, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Po. Origin: Fred Mann (Westinghouse, Hanford). REAC2 calculates the change in composition of materials in a radiation field and related activation quantities. It is best suited to problems where many variables (e.g. materials, facilities or locations within facilities, power histories) are to be investigated. Where very accurate results are needed, the user must access the accuracy of the cross section base (e.g. source, flux weighting) as in the use of any neutronics code. REAC2 consists of three programs - SREAC, SLSTCOM, and SLIB. SREAC calculates the transmutation of nuclides in a radiation field. SLSTCOM reads the output file produced by SREAC and produces listings of

  12. Corrosion Tests of LWR Fuels - Nuclide Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Finn; Y. Tsai; J.C. Cunnane

    2001-01-01

    Two BWR fuels [64 and 71 (MWd)/kgU], one of which contained 2% Gd, and two PWR fuels [30 and 45 (MWd)/kgU], are tested by dripping groundwater on the fuels under oxidizing and hydrologically unsaturated conditions for times ranging from 2.4 to 8.2 yr at 90 C. The 99 Tc, 129 I, 137 Cs, 97 Mo, and 90 Sr releases are presented to show the effects of long reaction times and of gadolinium on nuclide release. This investigation showed that the five nuclides at long reaction times have similar fractional release rates and that the presence of 2% Gd reduced the 99 Tc cumulative release fraction by about an order of magnitude over that of a fuel with a similar burnup

  13. Overview of Task 4 nuclide transport data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    A multi-year program plan is presented to collect the necessary data on nuclide sorption-desorption interactions with geologic media. Detailed activities which need to be performed in each of the six subtasks are described. The general areas in which each subcontractor performed work in FY 77 were presented in the overview. Detailed technical discussions of each subcontractor's work will be presented in ensuing presentations

  14. Transmutation of long-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Tongxiang; Tang Chunhe

    2003-01-01

    Partitioning and transmutation of long-lived nuclides have profound benefits for economic development, global political stability and the environment. This technology would reduce nuclear waste disposal requirements, prevent proliferation and eliminate a major hurdle to the development of nuclear power. This paper reviews the advanced fuel cycle process and development of ATW in the world, and some suggestions about the R and D of nuclear power in China are proposed

  15. Apparatus for eliminating electrodeposition of radioactive nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Ichiro; Ishibe, Tadao; Matsunaga, Masaaki; Konuki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Kazunori; Watanabe, Minoru; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo.

    1990-01-01

    In a conventional device for eliminating by radioactive nuclides electrodeposition, a liquid containing radioactive nuclides is electrolyzed under a presence of non-radioactive heavy metals and removing radioactive nuclides by electrodepositing them together with the heavy metals. Two anode plates are opposed in an electrolysis vessel of this device. A plurality (4 to 6) of cathode plates are arranged between the anodes in parallel with them and the cathode surfaces opposed to the anodes are insulated. Further, such a plurality of cathode plates are grouped into respective units. Alternatively, the anode plate is made of platinum-plated titanium material and the cathode plate is made of stainless steel. In the thus constituted electrodeposition eliminating device, since the cathode surface directed to the anodes on both ends are insulated, all of electric current from the anode reach the core cathode after flowing around the cathodes at both ends. As a result, there is no substantial difference in the flowing length of the electrolyzing current to each of the cathodes and these is neither difference in the electrodeposition amount. The electrodeposited products are adhered uniformly and densely to the electrodes and, simultaneously, Co-60 and Mn-54, etc. are also electrodeposited. (I.S.)

  16. Lunar Flashlight and Other Lunar Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Water is a human-exploitable resource. Lunar Flashlight is a Cubesat mission to detect and map lunar surface ice in permanently-shadowed regions of the lunar south pole. EM-1 will carry 13 Cubesat-class missions to further smallsat science and exploration capabilities; much room to infuse LEO cubesat methodology, models, and technology. Exploring the value of concurrent measurements to measure dynamical processes of water sources and sinks.

  17. Lunar soil as shielding against space radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 83R0101, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)], E-mail: miller@lbl.gov; Taylor, L. [Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Zeitlin, C. [Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Heilbronn, L. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Guetersloh, S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); DiGiuseppe, M. [Northrop Grumman Corporation, Bethpage, NY 11714 (United States); Iwata, Y.; Murakami, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2009-02-15

    We have measured the radiation transport and dose reduction properties of lunar soil with respect to selected heavy ion beams with charges and energies comparable to some components of the galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), using soil samples returned by the Apollo missions and several types of synthetic soil glasses and lunar soil simulants. The suitability for shielding studies of synthetic soil and soil simulants as surrogates for lunar soil was established, and the energy deposition as a function of depth for a particular heavy ion beam passing through a new type of lunar highland simulant was measured. A fragmentation and energy loss model was used to extend the results over a range of heavy ion charges and energies, including protons at solar particle event (SPE) energies. The measurements and model calculations indicate that a modest amount of lunar soil affords substantial protection against primary GCR nuclei and SPE, with only modest residual dose from surviving charged fragments of the heavy beams.

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM publication contains the extended abstracts that were accepted for presentation at the 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference held at Houston, TX, March 12-16, 2001. The papers are presented in PDF format and are indexed by author, keyword, meteorite, program and samples for quick reference.

  19. Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic nuclides as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most nuclides made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm -2 . Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic nuclides in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic nuclides in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several nuclides varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures

  20. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  1. Endogenous Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Liu, Y.; Barnes, J. J.; Anand, M.; Boyce, J. W.; Burney, D.; Day, J. M. D.; Elardo, S. M.; Hui, H.; Klima, R. L.; Magna, T.; Ni, P.; Steenstra, E.; Tartèse, R.; Vander Kaaden, K. E.

    2018-04-01

    This abstract discusses numerous outstanding questions on the topic of endogenous lunar volatiles that will need to be addressed in the coming years. Although substantial insights into endogenous lunar volatiles have been gained, more work remains.

  2. Critical Robotic Lunar Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plescia, J. B.

    2018-04-01

    Perhaps the most critical missions to understanding lunar history are in situ dating and network missions. These would constrain the volcanic and thermal history and interior structure. These data would better constrain lunar evolution models.

  3. WIS decontamination factor demonstration test with radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanbe, Hiromi; Mayuzumi, Masami; Ono, Tetsuo; Nagae, Madoka; Sekiguchi, Ryosaku; Takaoku, Yoshinobu.

    1987-01-01

    A radioactive Waste Incineration System (WIS) with suspension combustion is noticed as effective volume reduction technology of low level radiactive wastes that are increasing every year. In order to demonstrate the decontamination efficiency of ceramic filter used on WIS, this test has been carried out with the test facilities as joint research of Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) and Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. Miscellaneous combustible waste and power resin, to which 5 nuclides (Mn-54, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cs-137) were added, were used as samples for incineration. As the result of the test, it was verified that Decontamination Factor (DF) of the single stage ceramic filter was usually kept over 10 5 for every nuclide, and from the results of above DF, over 10 8 is expected for real commercial plant as a total system. Therefore, it is realized that the off-gas clean up system of the WIS composed of only single stage of ceramic filter is capable of sufficiently efficient decontamination of exhaust gas to be released to stack. (author)

  4. Comparative test on nuclide migration in aerated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shushen; Zhao Yingjie; Wu Qinghua; Wang Zhiming; Hao Janzhong; Ji Shaowei; Guo Liangtian; Guo Zhiming

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the influence of different tracer source layer material on nuclide migration behavior, the comparative test on stable elements Sr, Nd and Ce migration in aerated loess zone was carried out using loess and arenaceous quartz as the tracer source layer materials respectively. The test lasted 470 days. During the test, four times of sampling were done. The testing results indicate that under artificial sprinkling of 5 mm/h and 3 h/d, Nd and Ce not only in loess tracer source layer but also in arenaceous quartz tracer source layer did not obviously downwards migrated. Concentration peak of Sr for loess layer migrated down about 15 cm in 470 d (mass center moved down about 10 cm) but for arenaceous quartz layer the concentration peak of Sr did not obviously migrated down (mass center moved down about 2.7 cm). The test results show that very thin arenaceous quartz layer with thickness of 7 mm is also able to shield unsaturated water flow obviously. This is the main reason why the nuclides in arenaceous quartz layer migrate down slowly

  5. Investigation on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products in Xi'an construction materials market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunlin; Han Feng; Shang Aiguo; Li Tiantuo; Guo Huiping; Yie Lichao; Li Guifang

    2001-01-01

    The author reports the investigation results on natural radioactive nuclide contents of rock products from Xi'an construction materials market. The products were classified according to the national standard. The results show that natural radioactive nuclide contents in sampled rock products are in normal radioactive background levels. The radio-activity ranges of 238 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 2.7 - 181.8, 0.92 - 271.0, 0.63 - 148.0, 1.8 - 1245 Bq·kg -1 , respectively. According to the national standard (JC 518-93), the application of some rock products must be limited

  6. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.L.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1978-04-01

    An approach to extend the present ORNL sensitivity program to include functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density field is developed. An adjoint equation for the nuclide field was derived previously by using generalized perturbation theory; the present derivation makes use of a variational principle and results in the same equation. The physical significance of this equation is discussed and compared to that of the time-dependent neutron adjoint equation. Computational requirements for determining sensitivity profiles and uncertainties for functionals of the time-dependent nuclide density vector are developed within the framework of the existing FORSS system; in this way the current capability is significantly extended. The development, testing, and use of an adjoint version of the ORIGEN isotope generation and depletion code are documented. Finally, a sample calculation is given which estimates the uncertainty in the plutonium inventory at shutdown of a PWR due to assumed uncertainties in uranium and plutonium cross sections. 8 figures, 4 tables

  7. Distribution of Amino Acids in Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsila, J. E.; Callahan, M. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Noble, S. K.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most eagerly studied questions upon initial return of lunar samples was whether significant amounts of organic compounds, including amino acids, were present. Analyses during the 1970s produced only tentative and inconclusive identifications of indigenous amino acids. Those analyses were hampered by analytical difficulties including relative insensitivity to certain compounds, the inability to separate chiral enantiomers, and the lack of compound-specific isotopic measurements, which made it impossible to determine whether the detected amino acids were indigenous to the lunar samples or the results of contamination. Numerous advances have been made in instrumentation and methodology for amino acid characterization in extraterrestrial samples in the intervening years, yet the origin of amino acids in lunar regolith samples has been revisited only once for a single lunar sample, (3) and remains unclear. Here, we present initial data from the analyses of amino acid abundances in 12 lunar regolith samples. We discuss these abundances in the context of four potential amino acid sources: (1) terrestrial biological contamination; (2) contamination from lunar module (LM) exhaust; (3) derivation from solar windimplanted precursors; and (4) exogenous delivery from meteorites.

  8. Nuclide-specific monitoring of airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aures, R.; Neu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Since the end of the seventies the Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg ist operating two radioaerosol monitoring stations at the border in the opposite of foreign nuclear power plants. Since the end of the eighties six similar monitoring stations were built up for measuring activity in breathing air in the common environment in Baden-Wuerttemberg. A special filtersystem allows measuring the activity concentration of up to 99 nuclides. The measuring system was optimized by advanced PC-technology, a multitasking operating system and a special software for users and gamma-spectroscopy. These increased the average availability of all monitoring stations to 96% in 1996. (orig.) [de

  9. Instant detection of incorporated radio-nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgirev, E.I.; Porozov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    A method is described for rapid estimation of radionuclides both in the whole human body and in individual human organs beginning from levels equal to 0.1-0.01 of the maxium permissible value of annual absorption by personnel. In post-accident radiation exposure surveys, the whole-body content of gamma-emitting nuclides is monitored by measuring the flow of gamma quanta by use of a gas-discharge counter cassette placed at a distance of 0.5 m from the subject. Relationships for determining radionuclides in the human body are presented

  10. Considerations on the activity concentration determination method for low-level waste packages and nuclide data comparison between different countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashiwagi, M.; Mueller, W.

    2000-01-01

    In low-level waste disposal, acceptable activity concentration limits are regulated for individual nuclides and groups of nuclides according to the conditions of each disposal site. Such regulated limits principally concern total alpha and beta /gamma activity as well as nuclides such as C-14, Ni-63, and Pu-238 which are long-lived and difficult to measure (hereinafter referred to as difficult-to-measure nuclides). Before waste packages are transported to the disposal site, the activities or activity concentrations of the regulated nuclides and groups of nuclides in the waste packages must be assessed and declared. A generally applicable theoretical method to determine these activities is lacking at present. Therefore, to meet this requirement, for NPP waste each country independently samples actual waste and carries out radiochemical analyses on these samples. The activity concentrations of difficult-to-measure nuclides are then determined by statistical correlation of the measured data between difficult-to-measure nuclides and Co-60 and Cs-137 which are measurable from outside the waste packages (hereinafter referred to as key nuclides). This method is called 'Scaling Factor Method'. It is widely adopted as a method for determining the activity concentrations of the limited nuclides in low-level waste packages from NPP, and it is also approved by responsible authorities in the respective country. In the past, each country independently determined scaling factors based on measurements on samples from the local NPPs. In the first part of this study, the possibility of an international scaling factor assessment using a database integrating data from different countries was studied by comparing radiochemical analysis data between Germany, Japan, and the United States. These countries have accumulated a large number of those nuclide data required to determine scaling factors. Statistical values such as correlation coefficients change with an accumulation of data. In

  11. Modeling Respiratory Toxicity of Authentic Lunar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Patricia A.; James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    The lunar expeditions of the Apollo operations from the 60 s and early 70 s have generated awareness about lunar dust exposures and their implication towards future lunar explorations. Critical analyses on the reports from the Apollo crew members suggest that lunar dust is a mild respiratory and ocular irritant. Currently, NASA s space toxicology group is functioning with the Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to investigate and examine toxic effects to the respiratory system of rats in order to establish permissible exposure levels (PELs) for human exposure to lunar dust. In collaboration with the space toxicology group, LADTAG and NIOSH the goal of the present research is to analyze dose-response curves from rat exposures seven and twenty-eight days after intrapharyngeal instillations, and model the response using BenchMark Dose Software (BMDS) from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Via this analysis, the relative toxicities of three types of Apollo 14 lunar dust samples and two control dust samples, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and quartz will be determined. This will be executed for several toxicity endpoints such as cell counts and biochemical markers in bronchoaveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from the rats.

  12. Bullialdus - Strengthening the case for lunar plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.

    1991-01-01

    Although many craters expose materials of a composition different from that of the local surroundings, Bullialdus has excavated material representing three distinct stratigraphic zones that occur in the upper 6 km of crust, the top two of which are gabbroic and the deepest of which is noritic. This three-component stratigraphy at Bullialdus provides strong evidence that the lunar crust includes pockets of compositionally layered material reminiscent of mafic layered plutons. When combined with previous information on the compositional diversity at other large craters, these remote analyses obtained in a geologic context substantially strengthen the hypothesis suggested from lunar samples that plutons play an integral role in lunar crustal evolution.

  13. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  14. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    "Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy" supports a vision of people moving freely and economically between the earth and the Moon in an expansive space and lunar economy. It makes the economic case for the creation of a lunar space economy and projects the business plan that will make the venture an economic success. In addition, this paper argues that this vision can be created and sustained only by private enterprise and the legal right of private property in space and on the Moon. Finally, this paper advocates the use of lunar land grants as the key to unleashing the needed capital and the economic power of private enterprise in the creation of a 21st century lunar space economy. It is clear that the history of our United States economic system proves the value of private property rights in the creation of any new economy. It also teaches us that the successful development of new frontiers-those that provide economic opportunity for freedom-loving people-are frontiers that encourage, respect and protect the possession of private property and the fruits of labor and industry. Any new 21st century space and lunar economy should therefore be founded on this same principle.

  15. Strength and compressibility of returned lunar soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, W. D., III; Bromwell, L. G.; Martin, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Two oedometer and three direct shear tests have been performed in vacuum on a 200 g sample of lunar soil from Apollo 12 (12001, 119). The compressibility data have been used to calculate bulk density and shear wave velocity versus depth on the lunar surface. The shear wave velocity was found to increase approximately with the one-fourth power of the depth, and the results suggest that the Apollo 14 Active Seismic Experiment may not have detected the Fra Mauro formation at a depth of 8.5 m, but only naturally consolidated lunar soil. The shear data indicate that the strength of the lunar soil sample is about 65% that of a ground basalt simulant at the same void ratio.

  16. Simultaneous determination of actinide and strontium nuclides by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Molnar, Zs.

    1999-01-01

    A relatively fast and simple separation procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of thorium, uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium and strontium radionuclides. Most of the isotopes of these elements are long-lived, pure alpha and beta emitters regarded as 'difficult to determine' ones in the literature. Our major goal was to develop a combined procedure capable for the analysis of all these nuclides in the same sample aliquot so that correlations can be revealed without the errors arising due to inhomogeneity of samples when the radionuclides are determined from different sub-samples. The combined procedure has the advantage that sample destruction becomes simpler and faster, too. The chemical procedure consists of co-precipitations for the pre-concentration of groups of chemically similar elements and extraction chromatographic separations for the purification of individual elements. By means of pre-concentration relatively big samples can be treated offering the possibility of low activity measurements that cannot be performed by analysing small sample amounts. Pre-concentration techniques were always chosen in order to improve the selectivity of the following separation steps. (authors)

  17. Modelling indoor exposure to natural radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.; Daschil, F.

    1986-01-01

    Radon enters buildings from several sources primarily from building materials and from the soil or rocks that underlie or surround building fundaments. A multicompartment model was developed which describes the fate of radon and attached or free radon decay products in a model room by a set of linear time-dependent differential equations. Time-dependent coefficients allow to model temporal parameter changes, e.g. the opening of windows, or a sudden pressure drop leading to enhanced exhalation. While steady-state models were used to study the effect of parameter changes on steady state nuclide concentrations, the time-dependent models provided additional information on the time scale of these changes. (author)

  18. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in soils: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essington, E.H.; Fowler, E.B.

    1976-01-01

    The literature is reviewed to ascertain the degree of movement and the distribution patterns for transuranic and uranium nuclides in soils. Typical plutonium and uranium profiles are presented and an attempt is made to identify unique characteristics causing deviation from an ideal distribution pattern. By far most of the distribution observations are with plutonium and little is reported for uranium and other transuranic nuclides

  19. Orbital studies of lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcleod, M. G.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Limitations of present lunar magnetic maps are considered. Optimal processing of satellite derived magnetic anomaly data is also considered. Studies of coastal and core geomagnetism are discussed. Lunar remanent and induced lunar magnetization are included.

  20. Lunar resource base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulley, John; Wise, Todd K.; Roy, Claude; Richter, Phil

    A lunar base that exploits local resources to enhance the productivity of a total SEI scenario is discussed. The goals were to emphasize lunar science and to land men on Mars in 2016 using significant amounts of lunar resources. It was assumed that propulsion was chemical and the surface power was non-nuclear. Three phases of the base build-up are outlined, the robotic emplacement of the first elements is detailed and a discussion of future options is included.

  1. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  2. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, R.W.; Hulet, E.K.

    1970-01-01

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ( 238 U and 232 Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10 25 neutrons /cm 2 . Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10 10 atoms of 257Fm, which is 10 2 times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., : 254 Cf, 251 Cf, 255 -Es, and 250 Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of 298 114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  3. Contribution of some food categories on intakes of U, Th and other nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of radiation dose in human from radioactive 232 Th, 238 U, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr are important because those nuclides are the largest contributors to committed internal doses. A market basket study was conducted to clarify the food pathways of the nuclides in Japanese subjects. Foodstuffs of 336 were purchased from markets in the vicinity of Mito-City during 1994-1995. Statistical consumption data were used for collection of the food samples. Thorium-232, 238 U, and stable isotope ( 133 Cs) in eighteen food groups were determined by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Radioisotopes ( 137 Cs) was analyzed by γ-spectrometry. Stable strontium ( 88 Sr) was also analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Big contributors to the nuclide intakes in Japanese were as follows: 232 Th fishes and shellfishes (44%) and green vegetables (11%); 238 U seaweeds (50%) and fishes and shellfishes (26%); 88 Sr seaweeds (53%) and fishes and shellfishes (14%); 137 Cs mushrooms (17%), fishes and shell fishes (15%), milk products (11%), meats (9%), and potatoes (7%). The food categories of oil and fats, eggs and cooked meals were minor contributors in those nuclides. Dietary intake studies by using eighteen or more food categories should be effective procedure to resolve critical food and critical pathway for Japanese. Furthermore, critical pathways of radionuclides could be estimated by the analyses of stable isotopes. (author)

  4. The recovery and study of heavy nuclides produced in a nuclear explosion - the Hutch event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, R W; Hulet, E K [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    During the explosion of the Hutch device, the target ({sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th) was subjected to a very high neutron exposure, 2.4 x 10{sup 25} neutrons /cm{sup 2}. Multiple neutron capture reactions resulted in the production of heavy nuclides, up to and including 257Fm. Results of the search for species with A > 257 were negative. The recovery and chemical processing of kilograms of Hutch debris has resulted in the isolation of 10{sup 10} atoms of 257Fm, which is 10{sup 2} times more material than has been available for experimentation in the past. Experimentally significant amounts of other rare nuclides, e.g., :{sup 254}Cf, {sup 251}Cf, {sup 255}-Es, and {sup 250}Cm, have also been separated from the Hutch debris. The production of these nuclides in thermonuclear explosions is shown to be a valuable supplement to the AEC program for reactor production of transplutonium elements. The neutron flux achieved in Hutch was insufficient to even approach production of nuclides in the region of {sup 298}114. A much more intense neutron flux is required. In future experiments, considerable attention must be given to the problem of adequate sample recovery, in order to properly use the ability to subject targets to an exceedingly intense time-integrated neutron flux. (author)

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Hessen, K.; Bleacher, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Lunar Workshops for Educators (LWEs) are a series of weeklong professional development workshops, accompanied by quarterly follow-up sessions, designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers, sponsored by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Participants learn about lunar science and exploration, gain tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, find out about the latest research results from LRO scientists, work with data from LRO and other lunar missions, and learn how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks and through authentic research experiences. LWEs are held around the country, primarily in locations underserved with respect to NASA workshops. Where possible, workshops also include tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help participants better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. Scientist and engineer involvement is a central tenant of the LWEs. LRO scientists and engineers, as well as scientists working on other lunar missions, present their research or activities to the workshop participants and answer questions about lunar science and exploration. This interaction with the scientists and engineers is consistently ranked by the LWE participants as one of the most interesting and inspiring components of the workshops. Evaluation results from the 2010 and 2011 workshops, as well as preliminary analysis of survey responses from 2012 participants, demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts among LWE participants in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and effectively share LRO data with students. Teachers reported increased confidence in helping students conduct research using lunar data, and learned about programs that would allow their students to make authentic

  6. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda.

  7. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Moon and Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session" Moon and Mercury" included the following reports:Helium Production of Prompt Neutrinos on the Moon; Vapor Deposition and Solar Wind Implantation on Lunar Soil-Grain Surfaces as Comparable Processes; A New Lunar Geologic Mapping Program; Physical Backgrounds to Measure Instantaneous Spin Components of Terrestrial Planets from Earth with Arcsecond Accuracy; Preliminary Findings of a Study of the Lunar Global Megaregolith; Maps Characterizing the Lunar Regolith Maturity; Probable Model of Anomalies in the Polar Regions of Mercury; Parameters of the Maximum of Positive Polarization of the Moon; Database Structure Development for Space Surveying Results by Moon -Zond Program; CM2-type Micrometeoritic Lunar Winds During the Late Heavy Bombardment; A Comparison of Textural and Chemical Features of Spinel Within Lunar Mare Basalts; The Reiner Gamma Formation as Characterized by Earth-based Photometry at Large Phase Angles; The Significance of the Geometries of Linear Graben for the Widths of Shallow Dike Intrusions on the Moon; Lunar Prospector Data, Surface Roughness and IR Thermal Emission of the Moon; The Influence of a Magma Ocean on the Lunar Global Stress Field Due to Tidal Interaction Between the Earth and Moon; Variations of the Mercurian Photometric Relief; A Model of Positive Polarization of Regolith; Ground Truth and Lunar Global Thorium Map Calibration: Are We There Yet?;and Space Weathering of Apollo 16 Sample 62255: Lunar Rocks as Witness Plates for Deciphering Regolith Formation Processes.

  8. Rare Earth Element Partitioning in Lunar Minerals: An Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. C.; Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The partitioning behavior of rare earth elements (REE) between minerals and melts is widely used to interpret the petrogenesis and geologic context of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial samples. REE are important tools for modelling the evolution of the lunar interior. The ubiquitous negative Eu anomaly in lunar basalts is one of the main lines of evidence to support the lunar magma ocean (LMO) hypothesis, by which the plagioclase-rich lunar highlands were formed as a flotation crust during differentiation of a global-scale magma ocean. The separation of plagioclase from the mafic cumulates is thought to be the source of the Eu depletion, as Eu is very compatible in plagioclase. Lunar basalts and volcanic glasses are commonly depleted in light REEs (LREE), and more enriched in heavy REEs (HREE). However, there is very little experimental data available on REE partitioning between lunar minerals and melts. In order to interpret the source of these distinctive REE patterns, and to model lunar petrogenetic processes, REE partition coefficients (D) between lunar minerals and melts are needed at conditions relevant to lunar processes. New data on D(sub REE) for plagioclase, and pyroxenes are now available, but there is limited available data for olivine/melt D(sub REE), particularly at pressures higher than 1 bar, and in Fe-rich and reduced compositions - all conditions relevant to the lunar mantle. Based on terrestrial data, REE are highly incompatible in olivine (i.e. D much less than 1), however olivine is the predominant mineral in the lunar interior, so it is important to understand whether it is capable of storing even small amounts of REE, and how the REEs might be fractionatied, in order to understand the trace element budget of the lunar interior. This abstract presents results from high-pressure and temperature experiments investigating REE partitioning between olivine and melt in a composition relevant to lunar magmatism.

  9. Lunar remote sensing and measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Boyce, J.M.; Schaber, G.G.; Scott, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Remote sensing and measurements of the Moon from Apollo orbiting spacecraft and Earth form a basis for extrapolation of Apollo surface data to regions of the Moon where manned and unmanned spacecraft have not been and may be used to discover target regions for future lunar exploration which will produce the highest scientific yields. Orbital remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) relative ages and inferred absolute ages, (2) gravity, (3) magnetism, (4) chemical composition, and (5) reflection of radar waves (bistatic). Earth-based remote sensing and measurements discussed include (1) reflection of sunlight, (2) reflection and scattering of radar waves, and (3) infrared eclipse temperatures. Photographs from the Apollo missions, Lunar Orbiters, and other sources provide a fundamental source of data on the geology and topography of the Moon and a basis for comparing, correlating, and testing the remote sensing and measurements. Relative ages obtained from crater statistics and then empirically correlated with absolute ages indicate that significant lunar volcanism continued to 2.5 b.y. (billion years) ago-some 600 m.y. (million years) after the youngest volcanic rocks sampled by Apollo-and that intensive bombardment of the Moon occurred in the interval of 3.84 to 3.9 b.y. ago. Estimated fluxes of crater-producing objects during the last 50 m.y. agree fairly well with fluxes measured by the Apollo passive seismic stations. Gravity measurements obtained by observing orbiting spacecraft reveal that mare basins have mass concentrations and that the volume of material ejected from the Orientale basin is near 2 to 5 million km 3 depending on whether there has or has not been isostatic compensation, little or none of which has occurred since 3.84 b.y. ago. Isostatic compensation may have occurred in some of the old large lunar basins, but more data are needed to prove it. Steady fields of remanent magnetism were detected by the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites

  10. Alpha-emitting nuclides in the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentreath, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The occurrence of alpha-emitting nuclides and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those nuclides which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series nuclides in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring nuclides, human activities have added the transuranium nuclides, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these nuclides has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring nuclides which may behave in a similar manner.

  11. Reportable Nuclide Criteria for ORNL Radioactive Waste Management Activities - 13005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, Kip; Forrester, Tim; Saunders, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee generates numerous radioactive waste streams. Many of those streams contain a large number of radionuclides with an extremely broad range of concentrations. To feasibly manage the radionuclide information, ORNL developed reportable nuclide criteria to distinguish between those nuclides in a waste stream that require waste tracking versus those nuclides of such minimal activity that do not require tracking. The criteria include tracking thresholds drawn from ORNL onsite management requirements, transportation requirements, and relevant treatment and disposal facility acceptance criteria. As a management practice, ORNL maintains waste tracking on a nuclide in a specific waste stream if it exceeds any of the reportable nuclide criteria. Nuclides in a specific waste stream that screen out as non-reportable under all these criteria may be dropped from ORNL waste tracking. The benefit of these criteria is to ensure that nuclides in a waste stream with activities which meaningfully affect safety and compliance are tracked, while documenting the basis for removing certain isotopes from further consideration. (authors)

  12. Fission-nuclide concentrations of ambient aerosol separated by size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csepregi, T.; Kovacs, L.; Maschek, I.; Szterjopulos, K.

    1984-01-01

    Examinations were carried on the radionuclides in aerosol deposited on filters of an air-conditioning plant with high air flow rate. For nuclide concentration of ambient air qualitative and quantitative analyses were made by gamma spectrometry. Methods have been developed for sample preparation, size fractionation by sedimentation technique and measurement of air flow. The collected aerosol particles was separated into five size fractions from 1 to 5 μm and the aerosol fractions were analysed. The mass/size distribution of the particles processed by sedimentation has been compared with that of the ambient aerosol separated by a slot impactor Hungarian type. Because the aggregation caused by the resuspensationtechnique would be assumed, electronmicrophotos were made on processed and unprocessed aerosols. On the basis of them the particle aggregation may be negligible. Otherwise, the derivation of concentration needs to know the exact air volume. For this aim the technical parameters of the aerodynamic system have also been measured in two different ways. The paper reports on the size dependence of fission products originating from the present global late fallout for a two years monitoring period. The results are compared with the daily beta activity concentration of aerosol samples taken by an other sampling unit. (Author)

  13. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  14. Lunar-A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    penetrators will be transmitted to the earth station via the Lunar-A mother spacecraft orbiting at an altitude of about .... to save the power consumption of the Lunar-A penetrator .... and an origin-time versus tidal-phases correlation. (Toksoz et al ...

  15. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  16. Cosmogenic nuclides principles, concepts and applications in the earth surface sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Dunai, Tibor J

    2010-01-01

    This is the first book to provide a comprehensive and state-of-the-art introduction to the novel and fast-evolving topic of in-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides. It presents an accessible introduction to the theoretical foundations, with explanations of relevant concepts starting at a basic level and building in sophistication. It incorporates, and draws on, methodological discussions and advances achieved within the international CRONUS (Cosmic-Ray Produced Nuclide Systematics) networks. Practical aspects such as sampling, analytical methods and data-interpretation are discussed in detail and an essential sampling checklist is provided. The full range of cosmogenic isotopes is covered and a wide spectrum of in-situ applications are described and illustrated with specific and generic examples of exposure dating, burial dating, erosion and uplift rates and process model verification. Graduate students and experienced practitioners will find this book a vital source of information on the background concepts and...

  17. Production of continuous glass fiber using lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Curreri, Peter A.

    1991-01-01

    The processing parameters and mechanical properties of glass fibers pulled from simulated lunar basalt are tested. The simulant was prepared using a plasma technique. The composition is representative of a low titanium mare basalt (Apollo sample 10084). Lunar gravity experiments are to be performed utilizing parabolic aircraft free-fall maneuvers which yield 30 seconds of 1/6-g per maneuver.

  18. Geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in eastern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Masanobu; Umetsu, Kohei; Sugimoto, Miyabi; Yamaguchi, Yuta; Yamazaki, Hideo; Nakagawa, Ryota

    2013-01-01

    The geographical distribution of radioactive nuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident in metropolitan areas located in eastern Japan was investigated. The radioactive contamination of environmental samples, including soil and biological materials, was analyzed. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs, and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from Fukushima City were 122000, 11500 and 14000 Bq/kg on 19th March 2011 and 129000, 11000 and 13700 Bq/kg on 26th March 2011, for the three nuclides respectively. The concentrations of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in the soil samples collected from March-June 2011 from study sites ranged from 240 to 101000, 28 to 26200, and 14 to 33700 Bq/kg, respectively. In Higashiosaka City, it began to detect those radioactive nuclides in the atmospheric airborne dust from 25th March. Radioactive fission products 95 Zr- 95 Nb were detected on 18th April 2011. Biological samples collected from Tokyo Bay were studied. The maximum concentrations of 134 Cs and 137 Cs detected in the biological samples were 12.2 and 19.2 Bq/kg, which were measured in goby. 131 I was not detected in the biological samples however, trace amounts of the short half-life nuclide 110m Ag were found in the shellfish samples. (author)

  19. Square chart of nuclides with the best coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuying

    2001-01-01

    It analyzes upper limiting feature of even Z=60-82 in different charts of nuclides. It has illustrated that the break line of upper limiting Z=60-82 in the chart of nucleus with proton number Z and neutron number N, parameters Z and H (=N-Z), two new parameters S(=2Z-N) and H, and parameters K (=S-H) and H, in proper order, it shows that the break line trends from the left lower to the right upper, the line alternates with horizontal and vertical, and the line trends from the right lower to the left upper. Here it finds that the square chart of nuclides places the middle among these charts. It shows that nuclei distribution is concentrated, so are scope of whole region of nuclides in the different charts of nuclides

  20. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Albert van der

    1987-01-01

    De Engelse titel van dit proegschrift \\"Radiometric Dating by Alpha Spectometry on Uranium Series Nuclides\\" kan in het Nederlands wellicht het best worden weergegeven door \\"ouderdomsdbepalingen door stralingsmeting aan kernen uit de uraniumreeks met behulp van alfaspectometrie\\". In dit laatste

  1. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  2. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  3. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  4. The method study for nuclide analysis of waste drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Guanglin; Huang Xianguo; Xing Shixiong

    2001-01-01

    The principle of waste drum nuclide analysis system and the principle of the detector chosen are introduced. The linear attenuation coefficient and mass attenuation coefficient of five environmental medium (water, soil, red brick, concrete and sands) have been measured with γ transmission method simulative equipment. The absorption coefficient and nuclide activity of three measuring conditions (collimation-columnar source, un-collimation-columnar source, and un-collimation-rotation-drum source) have been calculated

  5. Catalogue of gamma rays from radionuclides ordered by nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, L.P.; Andersson, P.; Sheppard, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    A catalogue of about 28500 gamma-ray energies from 2338 radionuclides is presented. The nuclides are listed in order of increasing (A,Z) of the daughter nuclide. In addition the gamma-ray intensity per 100 decays of the parent (if known) and the decay half-life are given. All data are from a computer processing of a recent ENSDF (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File) file. (authors)

  6. [The fate of nuclides in natural water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1989-01-01

    Our research at Yale on the fate of nuclides in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable nuclides in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented

  7. Applications of short lived nuclides in activation analysis, problems and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, F [Atominstitut, Vienna (Austria)

    1976-07-01

    Short lived nuclides or isomeric transitions, respectively would have some advantages over long lived ones. Although we published a paper concerning a germanium-determination in iron meteorites some years ago, only few laboratories use this technique, the main reason being that the high matrix activity disturbs the measurement of energy-spectra. A multichannel analyzer in the time sequence mode enables Li-8 determination by a purely instrumental method which is therefore used more frequently. In the time sequence mode much higher counting rates up to 10 - 50 MHz are processed then by taking energy-spectra. This is the reason why activation analysis with short lived isomeric states is seldom applied when counting rate and pulse height are to be detected simultaneously. Exceptional difficulties are encountered in measurement of samples activated by a reactor pulse. Further difficulties arise from the fact that an optimal expelling time depends on the half life of the nuclide, and is more critical if the half life is short and the full width half maximum of the reactor pulse is small. Commercial Ge-Li-detectors can be used only at low counting rates, so that samples with high matrix activities cannot be measured. Modifying the electronic system enables registration of samples with high matrix activities. For short lived nuclides emitting hard beta-rays, e.g. B-12 or Li-8, a Cerenkov-detector is optimal. These problems are discussed in examples. (author)

  8. Lunar neutron source function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornblum, J.J.

    1974-01-01

    The search for a quantitative neutron source function for the lunar surface region is justified because it contributes to our understanding of the history of the lunar surface and of nuclear process occurring on the moon since its formation. A knowledge of the neutron source function and neutron flux distribution is important for the interpretation of many experimental measurements. This dissertation uses the available pertinent experimental measurements together with theoretical calculations to obtain an estimate of the lunar neutron source function below 15 MeV. Based upon reasonable assumptions a lunar neutron source function having adjustable parameters is assumed for neutrons below 15 MeV. The lunar neutron source function is composed of several components resulting from the action of cosmic rays with lunar material. A comparison with previous neutron calculations is made and significant differences are discussed. Application of the results to the problem of lunar soil histories is examined using the statistical model for soil development proposed by Fireman. The conclusion is drawn that the moon is losing mass

  9. Lunar Water Resource Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Anthony C.

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., the Carnegie-Mellon University, JPL, and NEPTEC, NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE. This project is a ground demonstration of a system that would be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, drill into the regolith, determine what volatiles are present, and quantify them in addition to recovering oxygen by hydrogen reduction. The Lunar Prospector has determined these craters contain enhanced hydrogen concentrations averaging about 0.1%. If the hydrogen is in the form of water, the water concentration would be around 1%, which would translate into billions of tons of water on the Moon, a tremendous resource. The Lunar Water Resource Demonstration (LWRD) is a part of RESOLVE designed to capture lunar water and hydrogen and quantify them as a backup to gas chromatography analysis. This presentation will briefly review the design of LWRD and some of the results of testing the subsystem. RESOLVE is to be integrated with the Scarab rover from CMIJ and the whole system demonstrated on Mauna Kea on Hawaii in November 2008. The implications of lunar water for Mars exploration are two-fold: 1) RESOLVE and LWRD could be used in a similar fashion on Mars to locate and quantify water resources, and 2) electrolysis of lunar water could provide large amounts of liquid oxygen in LEO, leading to lower costs for travel to Mars, in addition to being very useful at lunar outposts.

  10. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  11. Development of detection method for individual environmental particles containing alpha radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaka, Konomi; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki; Sakurai, Satoshi; Usuda, Shigekazu; Nakayama, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    Artificial radioactive nuclides have been emitted from various sources and have fallen on the surface of the earth as fine particles. Although the characterization of the individual fallout particles is very important, their analysis is difficult. The purpose of this study is to develop a new detection method for individual objective particles containing radioactive nuclides in the environment. The soil or sediment sample was confined in a plastic film and the locations of objective particles were identified with alpha tracks created in a solid-state detectors (BARYOTRAK, Fukuvi Chemical, Ltd) stuck to the both sides of the plastic film. A piece of the film containing the objective particle was cut with a nitrogen laser for following individual particle analysis. This procedure allowed us to detect the objective particle from innumerable number of particles in the environment and characterize the individual particles. (author)

  12. Retention of simulated fallout nuclides in agricultural crops. 1. Experiments on leys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aake; Rosen, K.; Haak, E.

    1998-01-01

    Experiments with artificial wet depositions of 134 Cs and 85 Sr during the growth period were carried out. The studies are complementary to the experiences after the Chernobyl fallout. The aim was to get a description of the relative transfer to the harvest products of new clover-grass leys and old grass leys after initial depositions of tracer nuclides at different times during the growth period. The reduction in transfer with time, from deposition to sampling, depends partly on dilution by growth and partly on fall-off to the ground. The reduction half-time for the nuclide content showed a range 10 - 14 days. The data obtained in the experiments can extend the basis for prediction of the consequences of fallout events at different times to new as well as to old leys in the field

  13. Heterogeneity in lunar anorthosite meteorites: implications for the lunar magma ocean model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Sara S; Joy, Katherine H; Jeffries, Teresa E; Consolmagno, Guy J; Kearsley, Anton

    2014-09-13

    The lunar magma ocean model is a well-established theory of the early evolution of the Moon. By this model, the Moon was initially largely molten and the anorthositic crust that now covers much of the lunar surface directly crystallized from this enormous magma source. We are undertaking a study of the geochemical characteristics of anorthosites from lunar meteorites to test this model. Rare earth and other element abundances have been measured in situ in relict anorthosite clasts from two feldspathic lunar meteorites: Dhofar 908 and Dhofar 081. The rare earth elements were present in abundances of approximately 0.1 to approximately 10× chondritic (CI) abundance. Every plagioclase exhibited a positive Eu-anomaly, with Eu abundances of up to approximately 20×CI. Calculations of the melt in equilibrium with anorthite show that it apparently crystallized from a magma that was unfractionated with respect to rare earth elements and ranged in abundance from 8 to 80×CI. Comparisons of our data with other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples suggest that there is notable heterogeneity in the trace element abundances of lunar anorthosites, suggesting these samples did not all crystallize from a common magma source. Compositional and isotopic data from other authors also suggest that lunar anorthosites are chemically heterogeneous and have a wide range of ages. These observations may support other models of crust formation on the Moon or suggest that there are complexities in the lunar magma ocean scenario to allow for multiple generations of anorthosite formation. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Algorithm improvement program nuclide identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enghauser, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector nuclide identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of nuclide identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated nuclide identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, nuclide weighting factors, nuclide equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring nuclide identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the nuclide identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.

  15. Lunar Map Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Map Catalog includes various maps of the moon's surface, including Apollo landing sites; earthside, farside, and polar charts; photography index maps; zone...

  16. Consolidated Lunar Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Consolidated Lunar Atlas is a collection of the best photographic images of the moon, including low-oblique photography, full-moon photography, and tabular and...

  17. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  18. Beneficiation of lunar ilmenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Joaquin

    1991-01-01

    One of the most important commodities lacking in the moon is free oxygen which is required for life and used extensively for propellent. Free oxygen, however, can be obtained by liberating it from the oxides and silicates that form the lunar rocks and regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO3) is considered one of the leading candidates for production of oxygen because it can be reduced with a reasonable amount of energy and it is an abundant mineral in the lunar regolith and many mare basalts. In order to obtain oxygen from ilmenite, a method must be developed to beneficiate ilmenite from lunar material. Two possible techniques are electrostatic or magnetic methods. Both methods have complications because lunar ilmenite completely lacks Fe(3+). Magnetic methods were tested on eucrite meteorites, which are a good chemical simulant for low Ti mare basalts. The ilmenite yields in the experiments were always very low and the eucrite had to be crushed to xxxx. These data suggest that magnetic separation of ilmenite from fine grain lunar basalts would not be cost effective. Presently, experiments are being performed with electrostatic separators, and lunar regolith is being waited for so that simulants do not have to be employed.

  19. International program to improve decay data for transactinium nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmer, R.G.; Reich, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ - and α - emission probabilities for selected transactinium nuclides of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for /sup 232, 233, 235/U, /sup 238, 239, 240, 241/Pu, 229 Th and 233 Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. γ measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238 Pu, 239 Pu and 240 Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235 U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241 Pu and 233 U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 235 U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results. 20 refs

  20. Can Fractional Crystallization of a Lunar Magma Ocean Produce the Lunar Crust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Jennifer F.; Draper, David S.

    2013-01-01

    New techniques enable the study of Apollo samples and lunar meteorites in unprecedented detail, and recent orbital spectral data reveal more about the lunar farside than ever before, raising new questions about the supposed simplicity of lunar geology. Nevertheless, crystallization of a global-scale magma ocean remains the best model to account for known lunar lithologies. Crystallization of a lunar magma ocean (LMO) is modeled to proceed by two end-member processes - fractional crystallization from (mostly) the bottom up, or initial equilibrium crystallization as the magma is vigorously convecting and crystals remain entrained, followed by crystal settling and a final period of fractional crystallization [1]. Physical models of magma viscosity and convection at this scale suggest that both processes are possible. We have been carrying out high-fidelity experimental simulations of LMO crystallization using two bulk compositions that can be regarded as end-members in the likely relevant range: Taylor Whole Moon (TWM) [2] and Lunar Primitive Upper Mantle (LPUM) [3]. TWM is enriched in refractory elements by 1.5 times relative to Earth, whereas LPUM is similar to the terrestrial primitive upper mantle, with adjustments made for the depletion of volatile alkalis observed on the Moon. Here we extend our earlier equilibrium-crystallization experiments [4] with runs simulating full fractional crystallization

  1. Improvement of WWW chart of the nuclides interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tsutomu; Minato, Futoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Koura, Hiroyuki

    2016-03-01

    The booklet 'chart of the nuclides' is issued every 4 years since 1976 from Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The chart of the nuclides for WWW (World Wide Web) was developed in 1999 in order to be available from the Internet browser. The Internet connection speeds, browser functions and JavaScript libraries has, however, progressed at present compared with the Internet technology in those days. In connection with the release of the 2014 edition of the chart of the nuclides, the interface of the WWW chart of the nuclides has been improved by introducing new Internet technologies aiming at enhancing convenience on accessibilities via browsers. We introduced a scrolling screen that would make capabilities of easy screen movement on a map with the addition of the drag scrolling function. Considering smart phone access, the light-weight edition which introduced automatic switch was prepared. The new system results in reduction in access time and usefulness in mobile environment. The method of making figures of the chart was reconsidered due to addition of new decay schemes to the 2014 edition. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics) was adopted so as to make figures easily. It is concluded that the accessibilities of WWW chart of the nuclides are substantially improved from the previous version by introducing the new technologies. (author)

  2. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  3. Concentrations of radioactive elements in lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1998-01-01

    As an aid to interpreting data obtained remotely on the distribution of radioactive elements on the lunar surface, average concentrations of K, U, and Th as well as Al, Fe, and Ti in different types of lunar rocks and soils are tabulated. The U/Th ratio in representative samples of lunar rocks and regolith is constant at 0.27; K/Th ratios are more variable because K and Th are carried by different mineral phases. In nonmare regoliths at the Apollo sites, the main carriers of radioactive elements are mafic (i.e., 6-8 percent Fe) impact-melt breccias created at the time of basin formation and products derived therefrom.

  4. Radio nuclides in mineral rocks and beach sand minerals in south east coast, Odisha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya Sagar, D.; Sahoo, S.K.; Essakki, Chinna; Tripathy, S.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.; Mohanty, D.

    2014-01-01

    The primordial and metamorphic mineral rocks of the Eastern Ghats host minerals such as rutile, ilmenite, Silmenite, zircon, garnet and monazite in quartz matrix. The weathered material is transported down to the sea by run-off through Rivers and deposited back in coastal beach as heavy mineral concentrates. The minerals are mined by M/S Indian Rare Earths Ltd at the Chatrapur plant in Odisha coast to separate the individual minerals. Some of these minerals have low level radioactivity and may pose external and internal radiation hazard. The present paper deals with natural Thorium and Uranium in the source rocks with those observed in the coastal deposits. The study correlates the nuclide activity ratios in environmental samples in an attempt to understand the ecology of the natural radio nuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra in environmental context. Further work is in progress to understand the geological process associated with the migration and reconcentration of natural radio-nuclides in the natural high background radiation areas

  5. Fukushima-derived fission nuclides monitored around Taiwan: Free tropospheric versus boundary layer transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chih-An; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Lin, Chuan-Yao

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan was the worst nuclear disaster following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. Fission products (nuclides) released from the Fukushima plant site since March 12, 2011 had been detected around the northern hemisphere in about two weeks and also in the southern hemisphere about one month later. We report here detailed time series of radioiodine and radiocesium isotopes monitored in a regional network around Taiwan, including one high-mountain and three ground-level sites. Our results show several pulses of emission from a sequence of accidents in the Fukushima facility, with the more volatile 131I released preferentially over 134Cs and 137Cs at the beginning. In the middle of the time series, there was a pronounced peak of radiocesium observed in northern Taiwan, with activity concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs far exceeding that of 131I during that episode. From the first arrival time of these fission nuclides and their spatial and temporal variations at our sampling sites and elsewhere, we suggest that Fukushima-derived radioactive nuclides were transported to Taiwan and its vicinity via two pathways at different altitudes. One was transported in the free troposphere by the prevailing westerly winds around the globe; the other was transported in the planetary boundary layer by the northeast monsoon wind directly toward Taiwan.

  6. LOTT: A new small telescope to monitor lunar orientation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Li

    2015-08-01

    The lunar orientation (mostly libration) is so far mostly determined by lunar laser ranging (LLR), but due to the bad geometry among thelaser ray direction and the lunar reflector array, the lunar orientation parameters (LOP) are determined with precision worse than 0.1 arcsecond, especially of the components perpendicular to the direction pointing to geocenter. The LOP with such bad precision is almost nonsense for studying the lunar interior, and the error in the modeling of LOP becomes also a major error in the lunar ephemerides. Here, we propose a small optical telescope (LOTT: Lunar Orientation Trinity Telescope), with a brand-new design of tri-field of view and to be placed on the Moon, to monitor LOP and its variation. Its precision of LOP determination can be expected to be several milliarcsecond (mas) after two months observation. With this precision, LOP can then be used to derive meaningful information of the physics of the lunar interior. The concept and design of this LOTT will be introduced, and the test observation data of EOP by this principled sample machine on the earth, as well as the design of the second generation of LOTT, will be also presented.

  7. The determination of critical nuclides in PWR waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centner, B.

    1993-01-01

    A current method for the determination of critical nuclides in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical nuclides and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representatives for the occurrence of activation products (Co-60) and fission products (Cs-137) in the waste streams. BELGATOM (BA) has developed a code (low level waste Activity Assessment-LLWAA code). The use of the code can clarify the analytical technique lower detection level that has to be achieved for each critical nuclide, in order to accurately measure it's activity in the different types of waste. (1 tab., 1 fig.)

  8. Nuclide inventories of spent fuels from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Keisuke; Okamoto, Tsutomu

    2012-02-01

    Accurate information on nuclide inventories of spent fuels from Light Water Reactors (LWRs) is important for evaluations of criticality, decay heat, radioactivity, toxicity, and so on, in the safety assessments of storage, transportation, reprocessing and waste disposal of the spent fuels. So, a lot of lattice burn-up calculations were carried out for the possible fuel specifications and irradiation conditions in Japanese commercial LWRs by using the latest nuclear data library JENDL-4.0 and a sophisticated lattice burn-up calculation code MOSRA-SRAC. As a result, burn-up changes of nuclide inventories and their possible ranges were clarified for 21 heavy nuclides and 118 fission products, which are important from the viewpoint of impacts to nuclear characteristics and nuclear fuel cycle and environment. (author)

  9. Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble nuclides, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The nuclides move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the nuclide concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs

  10. Nuclide migration from a bedrock repository for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundfelt, B.

    1978-08-01

    A study of the migration of radionuclides from a repository for spent, unprocessed fuel is presented. The study makes use of a unidimensional dispersion model developed at BNWL. The results show that a number of nuclides decay significantly during the migration. The doses to future man was calculated in a separate study performed at Studsvik. The dose calculations are based on the activity in-flows, presented in this report, and show that the predominant dose contribution comes from the nuclide radium-226. This nuclide is formed mainly by the decay of uranium-238 which means that the main part of the dose would arise even from a repository for non-irradiated fuel

  11. Lunar geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Dickey, J. O.

    2002-01-01

    Experience with the dynamics and data analyses for earth and moon reveals both similarities and differences. Analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data provides information on the lunar orbit, rotation, solid-body tides, and retroreflector locations.

  12. The Future Lunar Flora Colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, E. G.; Guven, U. G.

    2017-10-01

    A constructional design for the primary establishment for a lunar colony using the micrometeorite rich soil is proposed. It highlights the potential of lunar regolith combined with Earth technology for water and oxygen for human outposts on the Moon.

  13. The stochastic nuclide transport model for buffer/backfill materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liping; Han Yongguo

    2014-01-01

    Currently, study on nuclide migration law in geological disposal repository of high level waste is assumed buffer/backfill layer to be continuous medium, utilized the continuity equation, equation of state, the equations of motion, etc, formed a set of theory and method to estimate nuclide concentration distribution in buffer/backfill layer, and provided an important basis for nuclide migration rules of repository. However, it is necessary to study the buffer/backfill layer microstructure and subtly describe the pore structure and fracture system of the buffer/backfill layer, and reflect the changes in connectivity and in different directions of the buffer/backfill layer. Through using random field theory, the nuclide transport for the buffer/backfill layer in geological disposal repository of nuclear waste is described in the paper. This paper mainly includes that, t represents the time, ξ t ⊂ Z d = d represents the integer lattice, Z represents collectivity integers, d = l, 2, 3, for instance, d = 2, Z d = {(m, n) : m, n ∈ Z} the state point of ξ t is typically considered to be occupied by the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer, ξ t also represents random set in the diagram of two dimensional integer lattice, namely, t ∈ [0, T], {ξ t ,0 ≤ t ≤ ⊂ T} Consequently, according to the stochastic process obtained above, the changes of the nuclide concentration values of the buffer/backfill layer or the buffer/backfill laboratory materials in the repository with the time can be known. (authors)

  14. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. 3 figures, 2 tables

  15. Radioactive-nuclide decay data in science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reich, C.W.; Helmer, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The scope of ENDF/B has recently been expanded to include radioactive-nuclide decay data. In this paper, the content and organization of the decay data which are included in ENDF/B are presented and discussed. The application of decay data in a wide variety of nuclear-related activities is illustrated by a number of examples. Two items pointed up by the ENDF/B decay-data compilation effort are treated: the identification of deficiencies in the data; and the importance of a radioactive-nuclide metrology effort oriented toward supplying these needs in a systematic fashion. (3 figures, 1 table)

  16. Lunar and Vesta Web Portals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E.; JPL Luna Mapping; Modeling Project Team

    2015-06-01

    The Lunar Mapping and Modeling Project offers Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (http://lmmp.nasa.gov) and Vesta Trek Portal (http://vestatrek.jpl.nasa.gov) providing interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable users to access mapped Lunar and Vesta data products.

  17. [Radioactive nuclides in the marine environment--distribution and behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb originated from fallout].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamato, A; Miyagawa, N; Miyanaga, N

    1984-07-01

    To investigate behaviour of 95Zr, 95Nb in the marine environment, various samples have been collected and measured by means of Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectrometry and/or radiochemical analysis during a period from 1974 to 1982 at coastal area of Tokai-mura, Ibaraki prefecture. Concentration of the nuclides in seaweeds increased remarkably after atmospheric nuclear detonation by P.R. of China, and the activity ratio between the nuclides changed by time was not fit well by the transient decay equation. Concentration variation in sea water was smaller than that in sea weeds, and the minimum change in sea sediment. Increase of concentration in these environmental samples was observed in chronological order of sea water, sea weeds then sediment after detonations, suggesting that the uptake of the nuclides by these sea weeds from sea water is faster than that via root. Observed concentration factors on the nuclides by sea weeds were calculated from the observed concentrations in sea water and sea weeds. Maximum values on 95Zr and 95Nb were 2110, 2150, respectively for Ecklonia cava and Eisenia bicyclis.

  18. A lunar polar expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Richard; Staehle, Robert L.; Svitek, Tomas

    1992-09-01

    Advanced exploration and development in harsh environments require mastery of basic human survival skill. Expeditions into the lethal climates of Earth's polar regions offer useful lessons for tommorrow's lunar pioneers. In Arctic and Antarctic exploration, 'wintering over' was a crucial milestone. The ability to establish a supply base and survive months of polar cold and darkness made extensive travel and exploration possible. Because of the possibility of near-constant solar illumination, the lunar polar regions, unlike Earth's may offer the most hospitable site for habitation. The World Space Foundation is examining a scenario for establishing a five-person expeditionary team on the lunar north pole for one year. This paper is a status report on a point design addressing site selection, transportation, power, and life support requirements.

  19. Migration studies of fission product nuclides in rocks. Pt.5: Diffusion and permeability of nuclide 125I in marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Ruiyuan; Gao Hongcheng; Wang Xiangyun

    1996-01-01

    The migration behaviour of nuclide 125 I, as a simulation of the long lived fission product 129 I, in marble is studied in self-designed cells. A series of the most important parameters of diffusion and permeability (e.g., intrinsic diffusion coefficient, dispersion coefficient and interstitial flow velocity, etc.) are determined. Based on the differential equation of the nuclide migration, the distribution function and numerical solution of 125 I in marble are presented. The results show that the migration velocity of 125 I in marble is fast, indicating that it is not suitable to dispose nuclear waste in marble

  20. Sims Analysis of Water Abundance and Hydrogen Isotope in Lunar Highland Plagioclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Hejiu; Guan, Yunbin; Chen, Yang; Peslier, Anne H.; Zhang, Youxue; Liu, Yang; Rossman, George R.; Eiler, John M.; Neal, Clive R.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of indigenous water in mare basaltic glass beads has challenged the view established since the Apollo era of a "dry" Moon. Since this discovery, measurements of water in lunar apatite, olivine-hosted melt inclusions, agglutinates, and nominally anhydrous minerals have confirmed that lunar igneous materials contain water, implying that some parts of lunar mantle may have as much water as Earth's upper mantle. The interpretation of hydrogen (H) isotopes in lunar samples, however, is controversial. The large variation of H isotope ratios in lunar apatite (delta Deuterium = -202 to +1010 per mille) has been taken as evidence that water in the lunar interior comes from the lunar mantle, solar wind protons, and/or comets. The very low deuterium/H ratios in lunar agglutinates indicate that solar wind protons have contributed to their hydrogen content. Conversely, H isotopes in lunar volcanic glass beads and olivine-hosted melt inclusions being similar to those of common terrestrial igneous rocks, suggest a common origin for water in both Earth and Moon. Lunar water could be inherited from carbonaceous chondrites, consistent with the model of late accretion of chondrite-type materials to the Moon as proposed by. One complication about the sources of lunar water, is that geologic processes (e.g., late accretion and magmatic degassing) may have modified the H isotope signatures of lunar materials. Recent FTIR analyses have shown that plagioclases in lunar ferroan anorthosite contain approximately 6 ppm H2O. So far, ferroan anorthosite is the only available lithology that is believed to be a primary product of the lunar magma ocean (LMO). A possible consequence is that the LMO could have contained up to approximately 320 ppm H2O. Here we examine the possible sources of water in the LMO through measurements of water abundances and H isotopes in plagioclase of two ferroan anorthosites and one troctolite from lunar highlands.

  1. Inhalation Toxicity of Ground Lunar Dust Prepared from Apollo-14 Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.; Lam, Chiu-wing; Scully, Robert R.; Cooper, Bonnie L.

    2011-01-01

    Within the decade one or more space-faring nations intend to return humans to the moon for more in depth exploration of the lunar surface and subsurface than was conducted during the Apollo days. The lunar surface is blanketed with fine dust, much of it in the respirable size range (<10 micron). Eventually, there is likely to be a habitable base and rovers available to reach distant targets for sample acquisition. Despite designs that could minimize the entry of dust into habitats and rovers, it is reasonable to expect lunar dust to pollute both as operations progress. Apollo astronauts were exposed briefly to dust at nuisance levels, but stays of up to 6 months on the lunar surface are envisioned. Will repeated episodic exposures to lunar dust present a health hazard to those engaged in lunar exploration? Using rats exposed to lunar dust by nose-only inhalation, we set out to investigate that question.

  2. FISPIN - a computer code for nuclide inventory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burstall, R.F.

    1979-10-01

    The code is used for assessment of three groups of nuclides, the actinides, the fission products, and structural materials. The methods of calculation are described, together with the input and output of the code and examples of both. Recommendations are given for the best use of the code. (author)

  3. Retardation of escaping nuclides from a final depository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1977-09-01

    study has been made on retardation of radionuclides in various materials, which could be suited for use in the final repository. A literature survey has shown that except for Cs and Sr very little is known on ion exchange equilibria in ground water surroundings. Measurements were made to determine equilibrium data for Cs, Sr, Eu and U in five natural zeolites, which could be used as filling material. Diffusivities in zeolite particles and bbeds as well as clay beds were also determined. With the aid of these data the function of the ion exchange barrier was investigated. The barrier is so short that the nuclide transport is by diffusion. An 0.2 m barrier of a zeolite will delay Cs and Sr so long that they will decay totally. Am 241 will also be considerably delayed. An 0.2 m clay-quartz barrier will have very little effect on these nuclides. A 1 m clay-quartz barrier will have about the same effect as an 0.2 m zeolite barrier. Most other nuclides have so long lives that they will only be delayed, but not sufficiently long to decay. He rock itself interacts with many of the radionuclides. A simple model has been made to describe the nuclide retardation and dispersion in fissured rock. With the aid of this, tracer experiments in actual underground rock have been analysed

  4. U-Th series nuclides in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A study of U and Th series nuclides is being conducted on sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Uranium concentrations as a function of depth have been determined, as well as changes in the 234 U/ 238 U activity ratio. The geochemical behavior of uranium in shelf sediments is discussed

  5. Evaluation of Nuclide Release Scenarios for a Hypothetical LILW Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-11-01

    A program for the safety assessment and performance evaluation of a low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) repository system has been developed. Utilizing GoldSim (GoldSim, 2006), the program evaluates nuclide release and transport into the geosphere and biosphere under various disruptive natural and manmade events and scenarios that can occur after a waste package failure. We envisaged and illustrated these events and scenarios as occurring after the closure of a hypothetical LILW repository, and they included the degradation of various manmade barriers, pumping well drilling, and natural disruptions such as the sudden formation of a preferential flow pathway in the far-field area of the repository. Possible enhancement of nuclide transport facilitated by colloids or chelating agents is also dealt with. We used the newly-developed GoldSim template program, which is capable of various nuclide release scenarios and is greatly suited for simulating a potential repository given the geological circumstances in Korea, to create the detailed source term and near-field release scheme, various nuclide transport modes in the far-field geosphere area, and the biosphere transfer. Even though all parameter values applied to the hypothetical repository were assumed, the illustrative results, particularly the probabilistic calculations and sensitivity studies, may be informative under various scenarios

  6. The analyses of measured nuclide concentration in project ISTC 2670

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrapciak, V.

    2006-01-01

    In this article are analyzed experiments for WWER-440 fuel and compared with theoretical results by new version of the SCALE 5 code: nuclide compositions - measurement in Kurchatov institute for 3.6% - measurement in Dimitrovgrad for 3.6% (project ISTC 2670) The focus is on modules TRITON and ORIGEN-S (Authors)

  7. IVO's nuclide removal system takes to the road

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, E.H.

    1995-01-01

    The successful and routine use of IVO's treatment system for the removal of cesium from the evaporator concentrates at the Loviisa WER plant in Finland is described. The system uses a granular inorganic hexacyanoferate-based ion exchanger to separate cesium from liquid radioactive wastes. The compactness of the original systems at Loviisa suggested the development of a transportable unit. A combined nuclide removal system was created which included a highly efficient ultrafiltration unit to separate nearly all particulate material carrying radionuclides, as well as the cesium removal capability. A 20ft long container carrying the removal package was completed in 1994. This NUclide REmoval System (NURES) was used for the first time in January 1995 to purify liquid waste accumulating at training reactors in Estonia and has performed well. As an extension of nuclide removal, a process has been created to recover boron from liquid wastes. A system for boron recovery and nuclide removal has been designed for use at the Paks plant in Hungary. The removal process has been shown to improve the safety of final waste disposal compared with the alternative treatment by cementation because the cesium is very tightly bound into the ion exchange material. (UK)

  8. Lunar electrostatic effects and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yongwei; Yuan, Qingyun; Xiong, Jiuliang

    2013-01-01

    The space environment and features on the moon surface are factors in strong electrostatic electrification. Static electricity will be produced in upon friction between lunar soil and detectors or astronauts on the lunar surface. Lunar electrostatic environment effects from lunar exploration equipment are very harmful. Lunar dust with electrostatic charge may enter the equipment or even cover the instruments. It can affect the normal performance of moon detectors. Owing to the huge environmental differences between the moon and the earth, the electrostatic protection technology on the earth can not be applied. In this paper, we review the electrostatic characteristics of lunar dust, its effects on aerospace equipment and moon static elimination technologies. It was concluded that the effect of charged lunar dust on detectors and astronauts should be completely researched as soon as possible.

  9. Detecting Volatiles Deep in the Lunar Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotts, A.; Heggy, E.; Ciarletti, V.; Colaprete, A.; Moghaddam, M.; Siegler, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing theoretical and empirical evidence, from the Apollo era and after, of volatiles deep in the lunar interior, in the crust and deeper, both hydrogen-rich and otherwise. This comes in the form of fire fountain samples from Apollo 15 and Apollo 17, of hydrated minerals excavated by impacts which reach the base of the lunar crust e.g., crater Bullialdus, of hydration of apatite and other minerals, as well as predictions of a water-concentrated layer along with the KREEP material at the base of the lunar crust. We discuss how the presence of these volatiles might be directly explored. In particular water vapor molecules percolating to the surface through lunar regolith might be expected to stick and freeze into the regolith, at depths of several meters depending on the regolith temperature profile, porosity and particle size distribution, quantities that are not well known beyond two meters depth. To explore these depths in the regolith we use and propose several modes of penetrating radar. We will present results using the SELENE/Kaguya's Lunar Sounding RADAR (LSR) to probe the bulk volatile dielectric and loss structure properties of the regolith in various locations, both within permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and without, and within neutron suppression regions (NSRs) as traced by epithermal neutrons and without. We also propose installation of ground penetrating RADAR (GPR) on a roving lunar platform that should be able to probe between 0.2 and 1.6 GHz, which will provide a probe of the entire depth of the lunar regolith as well as a high-resolution (about 4 cm FWHM) probe of the upper meter or two of the lunar soil, where other probes of volatiles such as epithermal neutron absorption or drilling might be employed. We discuss predictions for what kinds of volatile density profiles might be distinguished in this way, and whether these will be detected from orbit as NSRs, whether these must be restricted to PSRs, and how these might appear in

  10. Cosmogenic nuclide production within the atmosphere and long period comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, Andrew C.

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic rays. These high energy particles collide with target nuclei, producing a shower of secondary particles. These secondaries contribute significantly to the radiation background at sea level and in the atmosphere, as well as producing rare cosmogenic nuclides. This contribution is variable over long time scales as astrophysical events change the cosmic ray flux incident on the Earth. Our work re-examines a previously proposed climate effect of increased cosmic ray flux due to galactic location. Although our work does not support this effect, cosmic ray secondaries remain a threat to terrestrial biota. We calculate the cosmogenic neutron flux within the atmosphere as a function of primary spectrum. This work is pivotal in determining the radiation dose due to any arbitrary astrophysical event where the primary spectrum is known. Additionally, this work can be used to determine the cosmogenic nuclide production from such an event. These neutrons are the fundamental source of cosmogenic nuclides within our atmosphere and extraterrestrial matter. We explore the idea that excursions in 14C and 10Be abundances in the atmosphere may arise from direct deposition by long-period comet impacts, and those in 26Al from any bolide. We find that the amount of nuclide mass on large long-period comets entering the Earth's atmosphere may be sufficient for creating anomalies in the records of 14C and 10Be from past impacts. In particular, the estimated mass of the proposed Younger Dryas comet is consistent with its having deposited sufficient isotopes to account for recorded nuclide increases at that time. The 26Al/10Be ratio is much larger in extraterrestrial objects than in the atmosphere, and so, we note that measuring this ratio in ice cores is a suitable further test for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This portion of our work may be used to find possible impact events in the geologic record as well as determination of a large

  11. Measurement of soluble nuclide dissolution rates from spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Gaining a better understanding of the potential release behavior of water-soluble radionuclides is the focus of new laboratory spent fuel dissolution studies being planned in support of the Yucca Mountain Project. Previous studies have suggested that maximum release rates for actinide nuclides, which account for most of the long-term radioactivity in spent fuel, should be solubility-limited and should not depend on the characteristics or durability of the spent fuel waste form. Maximum actinide concentrations should be sufficiently low to meet the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) annual release limits. Potential release rates for soluble nuclides such as 99 Tc, 135 Cs, 14 C and 129 I, which account for about 1-2% of the activity in spent fuel at 1,000 years, are less certain and may depend on processes such as oxidation of the fuel in the repository air environment. Dissolution rates for several soluble nuclides have been measured from spent fuel specimens using static and semi-static methods. However, such tests do not provide a direct measurement of fuel matrix dissolution rates that may ultimately control soluble-nuclide release rates. Flow-through tests are being developed as a potential supplemental method for determining the matrix component of soluble-nuclide dissolution. Advantages and disadvantages of both semi-static and flow-through methods are discussed. Tests with fuel specimens representing a range of potential fuel states that may occur in the repository, including oxidized fuel, are proposed. Preliminary results from flow-through tests with unirradiated UO 2 suggesting that matrix dissolution rates are very sensitive to water composition are also presented

  12. The Sooner Lunar Schooner: Lunar engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. P.; Hougen, D. F.; Shirley, D.

    2003-06-01

    The Sooner Lunar Schooner is a multi-disciplinary ongoing project at the University of Oklahoma to plan, design, prototype, cost and (when funds become available) build/contract and fly a robotic mission to the Moon. The goal of the flight will be to explore a small section of the Moon; conduct a materials analysis of the materials left there by an Apollo mission thirty years earlier; and to perform a selenographic survey of areas that were too distant or considered too dangerous to be done by the Apollo crew. The goal of the Sooner Lunar Schooner Project is to improve the science and engineering educations of the hundreds of undergraduate and graduate students working on the project. The participants, while primarily from engineering and physics, will also include representatives from business, art, journalism, law and education. This project ties together numerous existing research programs at the University, and provides a framework for the creation of many new research proposals. The authors were excited and motivated by the Apollo missions to the Moon. When we asked what we could do to similarly motivate students we realized that nothing is as exciting as going to the Moon. The students seem to agree.

  13. Process and device for monitoring active and highly active liquids for specific nuclides, particularly in the primary coolant of boiling water and pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paffrath; Haag; Hanstein, W.

    1986-01-01

    The invention provides for a direct continuous measurement of amounts of activity or concentration and the automatic execution of analysis cycles for specific nuclides, which occur depending on the continuously determined total gamma value. The continuously determined total gamma values in a first measuring circuit are used to decide the frequency of sampling, the volume of samples, the measuring times, the doses of separating chemicals and the sample remnants. These parameters are provided for the control of the execution of an analysis cycle for specific nuclides occurring in a second measuring circuit. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Radioactivity in returned lunar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The H-3, Ar-37, and Ar-39 radioactivities were measured at several depths in the large documented lunar rocks 14321 and 15555. The comparison of the Ar-37 activities from similar locations in rocks 12002, 14321, and 15555 gives direct measures of the amount of Ar-37 produced by the 2 November 1969 and 24 January 1971 solar flares. The tritium contents in the documented rocks decreased with increasing depths. The solar flare intensity averaged over 30 years obtained from the tritium depth dependence was approximately the same as the flare intensity averaged over 1000 years obtained from the Ar-37 measurements. Radioactivities in two Apollo 15 soil samples, H-3 in several Surveyor 3 samples, and tritium and radon weepage were also measured.

  15. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  16. Lunar Phases Planisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawl, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a lunar phases planisphere with which a user can answer questions about the rising and setting times of the Moon as well as questions about where the Moon will be at a given phase and time. The article contains figures that can be photocopied to make the planisphere. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  18. Database on nuclide content of coal and gangue in Chinese coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fudong; Liao Haitao; Wang Chunhong; Chen Ling; Liu Senlin

    2006-01-01

    The designing ides, structure, interface and basic function of a database are introduced of nuclide content of coal or gangue in Chinese coal mine. The design of the database adopts Sybase database system, and the database has the functions of making inquiries of keyword, classification and statistics, printing, data input which are achieved by using Power builder Language program. At the present, in this database, the data are collected on the radioactivity of natural radionuclide of 2043 coal, gangue and the other relative samples from various coal miners of all over the country. The database will provide the basic data for the environmental impact assessment of Chinese coal energy. (authors)

  19. An in-situ RBS system for measuring nuclides adsorbed at the liquid-solid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, K; Yuhara, J; Ishigami, R [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; and others

    1997-03-01

    An in-situ RBS system has been developed in which heavier nuclides adsorbed at the inner surface of a thin lighter window specimen of liquid container in order to determine the rate constants for their sorption and release at the interface. The testing of a thin silicon window of the sample assembly, in which Xe gas of one atmosphere was enclosed, against the bombardment of the probing ion beam has been performed. A desorption behavior of a lead layer adsorbed at the SiO{sub 2} layer of silicon window surface into deionized water has been measured as a preliminary experiment. (author)

  20. Indigenous lunar construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wayne P.; Sture, Stein

    1991-01-01

    The utilization of local resources for the construction and operation of a lunar base can significantly reduce the cost of transporting materials and supplies from Earth. The feasibility of processing lunar regolith to form construction materials and structural components is investigated. A preliminary review of potential processing methods such as sintering, hot-pressing, liquification, and cast basalt techniques, was completed. The processing method proposed is a variation on the cast basalt technique. It involves liquification of the regolith at 1200-1300 C, casting the liquid into a form, and controlled cooling. While the process temperature is higher than that for sintering or hot-pressing (1000-1100 C), this method is expected to yield a true engineering material with low variability in properties, high strength, and the potential to form large structural components. A scenario for this processing method was integrated with a design for a representative lunar base structure and potential construction techniques. The lunar shelter design is for a modular, segmented, pressurized, hemispherical dome which could serve as habitation and laboratory space. Based on this design, estimates of requirements for power, processing equipment, and construction equipment were made. This proposed combination of material processing method, structural design, and support requirements will help to establish the feasibility of lunar base construction using indigenous materials. Future work will refine the steps of the processing method. Specific areas where more information is needed are: furnace characteristics in vacuum; heat transfer during liquification; viscosity, pouring and forming behavior of molten regolith; design of high temperature forms; heat transfer during cooling; recrystallization of basalt; and refinement of estimates of elastic moduli, compressive and tensile strength, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. The preliminary

  1. Geochemistry of Lunar Highland Meteorites Mil, 090034, 090036 AND 090070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, N.aoki; Ebihara, M.; Sekimoto, S.; Yamaguchi, A.; Nyquist, L.; Shih, C.-Y.; Park, J.; Nagao, K.

    2012-01-01

    Apollo and Luna samples were collected from a restricted area on the near side of the Moon, while the source craters of the lunar meteorites are randomly distributed. For example, Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] found a variety of lithic clasts in Dho 489 and Y 86032 which were not represented by Apollo samples, and some of these clasts have lower rare earth elements (REE) and FeO abundances than Apollo anorthosites, respectively. Takeda et al. [1] and Yamaguchi et al. [2] concluded that Dho 489 and Y 86032 originated from the lunar farside. Therefore, lunar meteorites provide an opportunity to study lunar surface rocks from areas not sampled by Apollo and Luna missions. Three lunar anorthitic breccias (MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070) were found on the Miller Range Ice Field in Antarctica during the 2009-2010 ANSMET season [3]. In this study, we determined elemental abudnances for MIL 090034, 090036 and 090070 by using INAA and aimed to characterize these meteorites in chemical compositions in comparison with those for other lunar meteorites and Apollo samples.

  2. Lunar Prospecting With Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    Observations of the bright side of the Moon with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected oxygen, magnesium, aluminum and silicon over a large area of the lunar surface. The abundance and distribution of those elements will help to determine how the Moon was formed. "We see X-rays from these elements directly, independent of assumptions about the mineralogy and other complications," said Jeremy Drake of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., at a press conference at the "Four Years with Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Alabama. "We have Moon samples from the six widely-space Apollo landing sites, but remote sensing with Chandra can cover a much wider area," continued Drake. "It's the next best thing to being there, and it's very fast and cost-effective." The lunar X-rays are caused by fluorescence, a process similar to the way that light is produced in fluorescent lamps. Solar X-rays bombard the surface of the Moon, knock electrons out of the inner parts of the atoms, putting them in a highly unstable state. Almost immediately, other electrons rush to fill the gaps, and in the process convert their energy into the fluorescent X-rays seen by Chandra. According to the currently popular "giant impact" theory for the formation of the Moon, a body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth about 4.5 billion years ago. This impact flung molten debris from the mantle of both the Earth and the impactor into orbit around the Earth. Over the course of tens of millions of years, the debris stuck together to form the Moon. By measuring the amounts of aluminum and other elements over a wide area of the Moon and comparing them to the Earth's mantle, Drake and his colleagues plan to help test the giant impact hypothesis. "One early result," quipped Drake, "is that there is no evidence for large amounts of calcium, so cheese is not a major constituent of the Moon." Illustration of Earth's Geocorona Illustration of Earth's Geocorona The same

  3. Nuclides.net: A computational environment for nuclear data and applications in radioprotection and radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthou, V.; Galy, J.; Leutzenkirchen, K.

    2004-01-01

    An interactive multimedia tool, Nuclides.net, has been developed at the Institute for Transuranium Elements. The Nuclides.net 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclides chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The product is particularly suitable for environmental radioprotection and radioecology. (authors)

  4. Detection of the lunar body tide by the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Barker, Michael K; Neumann, Gregory A; Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E

    2014-04-16

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter instrument onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft collected more than 5 billion measurements in the nominal 50 km orbit over ∼10,000 orbits. The data precision, geodetic accuracy, and spatial distribution enable two-dimensional crossovers to be used to infer relative radial position corrections between tracks to better than ∼1 m. We use nearly 500,000 altimetric crossovers to separate remaining high-frequency spacecraft trajectory errors from the periodic radial surface tidal deformation. The unusual sampling of the lunar body tide from polar lunar orbit limits the size of the typical differential signal expected at ground track intersections to ∼10 cm. Nevertheless, we reliably detect the topographic tidal signal and estimate the associated Love number h 2 to be 0.0371 ± 0.0033, which is consistent with but lower than recent results from lunar laser ranging. Altimetric data are used to create radial constraints on the tidal deformationThe body tide amplitude is estimated from the crossover dataThe estimated Love number is consistent with previous estimates but more precise.

  5. Determination of lunar ilmenite abundances from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Stephen M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Singer, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite (FeTiO3) was found in abundance in lunar mare soils returned during the Apollo project. Lunar ilmenite often contains greater than 50 weight-percent titanium dioxide (TiO2), and is a primary potential resource for oxygen and other raw materials to supply future lunar bases. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the returned lunar soils produced an empirical function that relates the spectral reflectance ratio at 400 and 560 nm to the weight percent abundance of TiO2. This allowed mapping of the lunar TiO2 distribution using telescopic vidicon multispectral imaging from the ground; however, the time variant photometric response of the vidicon detectors produced abundance uncertainties of at least 2 to 5 percent. Since that time, solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) detector technology capable of much improved photometric response has become available. An investigation of the lunar TiO2 distribution was carried out utilizing groundbased telescopic CCD multispectral imagery and spectroscopy. The work was approached in phases to develop optimum technique based upon initial results. The goal is to achieve the best possible TiO2 abundance maps from the ground as a precursor to lunar orbiter and robotic sample return missions, and to produce a better idea of the peak abundances of TiO2 for benefaction studies. These phases and the results are summarized.

  6. TRANSIENT LUNAR PHENOMENA: REGULARITY AND REALITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotts, Arlin P. S.

    2009-01-01

    Transient lunar phenomena (TLPs) have been reported for centuries, but their nature is largely unsettled, and even their existence as a coherent phenomenon is controversial. Nonetheless, TLP data show regularities in the observations; a key question is whether this structure is imposed by processes tied to the lunar surface, or by terrestrial atmospheric or human observer effects. I interrogate an extensive catalog of TLPs to gauge how human factors determine the distribution of TLP reports. The sample is grouped according to variables which should produce differing results if determining factors involve humans, and not reflecting phenomena tied to the lunar surface. Features dependent on human factors can then be excluded. Regardless of how the sample is split, the results are similar: ∼50% of reports originate from near Aristarchus, ∼16% from Plato, ∼6% from recent, major impacts (Copernicus, Kepler, Tycho, and Aristarchus), plus several at Grimaldi. Mare Crisium produces a robust signal in some cases (however, Crisium is too large for a 'feature' as defined). TLP count consistency for these features indicates that ∼80% of these may be real. Some commonly reported sites disappear from the robust averages, including Alphonsus, Ross D, and Gassendi. These reports begin almost exclusively after 1955, when TLPs became widely known and many more (and inexperienced) observers searched for TLPs. In a companion paper, we compare the spatial distribution of robust TLP sites to transient outgassing (seen by Apollo and Lunar Prospector instruments). To a high confidence, robust TLP sites and those of lunar outgassing correlate strongly, further arguing for the reality of TLPs.

  7. Feldspar basalts in lunar soil and the nature of the lunar continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, A. M.; Ridley, W. I.; Harmon, R. S.; Warner, J.; Brett, R.; Jakes, P.; Brown, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that 25% on the Apollo-14 glasses have the same composition as the glasses in two samples taken from the Luna-16 column. The compositions are equivalent to feldspar basalt and anorthosite gabbro, and are similar to the feldspar basalts identified from Surveyor-7 analysis for lunar continents.

  8. Human Lunar Destiny: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, David

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers conceptual strategy and rationale for returning astronauts to the moon. NASA's historic Apollo program enabled humans to make the first expeditionary voyages to the moon and to gather and return samples back to the earth for further study. To continue exploration of the moon within the next ten to fifteen years, one possible mission concept for returning astronauts using existing launch vehicle infrastructure is presented. During these early lunar missions, expeditionary trips are made to geographical destinations and permanent outposts are established at the lunar south pole. As these missions continue, mining operations begin in an effort to learn how to live off the land. Over time, a burgeoning economy based on mining and scientific activity emerges with the formation of more accommodating settlements and surface infrastructure assets. As lunar activity advances, surface infrastructure assets grow and become more complex, lunar settlements and outposts are established across the globe, travel to and from the moon becomes common place, and commerce between earth and the moon develops and flourishes. Colonization and development of the moon is completed with the construction of underground cities and the establishment of a full range of political, religious, educational, and recreational institutions with a diverse population from all nations of the world. Finally, rationale for diversifying concentrations of humanity throughout earth's neighborhood and the greater solar system is presented.

  9. Hazard Detection Software for Lunar Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, Andres; Johnson, Andrew E.; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2011-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing a system for safe and precise manned lunar landing that involves novel sensors, but also specific algorithms. ALHAT has selected imaging LIDAR (light detection and ranging) as the sensing modality for onboard hazard detection because imaging LIDARs can rapidly generate direct measurements of the lunar surface elevation from high altitude. Then, starting with the LIDAR-based Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) algorithm developed for Mars Landing, JPL has developed a mature set of HDA software for the manned lunar landing problem. Landing hazards exist everywhere on the Moon, and many of the more desirable landing sites are near the most hazardous terrain, so HDA is needed to autonomously and safely land payloads over much of the lunar surface. The HDA requirements used in the ALHAT project are to detect hazards that are 0.3 m tall or higher and slopes that are 5 or greater. Steep slopes, rocks, cliffs, and gullies are all hazards for landing and, by computing the local slope and roughness in an elevation map, all of these hazards can be detected. The algorithm in this innovation is used to measure slope and roughness hazards. In addition to detecting these hazards, the HDA capability also is able to find a safe landing site free of these hazards for a lunar lander with diameter .15 m over most of the lunar surface. This software includes an implementation of the HDA algorithm, software for generating simulated lunar terrain maps for testing, hazard detection performance analysis tools, and associated documentation. The HDA software has been deployed to Langley Research Center and integrated into the POST II Monte Carlo simulation environment. The high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations determine the required ground spacing between LIDAR samples (ground sample distances) and the noise on the LIDAR range measurement. This simulation has also been used to determine the effect of

  10. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  11. Age determination of meteorites using radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimizu, Masaharu

    2002-01-01

    Recently, the precise isotope ratios of some refractory elements in meteorites have been reported using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The in situ decay of 182 Hf (T 1/2 =9 Myr), which was produced at the latest nucleosynthesis, is recognized in many meteorites as isotopic anomalies of its daughter isotope, 182 W. The degrees of relative 182 W isotopic deviation in extra-terrestrial and terrestrial silicate samples vary from +0.3% to ±0% related to the size of their parent bodies. One ready interpretation of its correlation is the difference in timing of metal-silicate separation in the parent bodies. Between the earth and meteorite parent bodies, the difference is calculated to be about four times of the half-life of 182 Hf, equivalent to 36 Myr. (author)

  12. The International Lunar Decade Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, V.; Foing, B.; Bland, D.; Crisafulli, J.

    2015-10-01

    The International Lunar Decade Declaration was discussed at the conference held November 9-13, 2014 in Hawaii "The Next Giant Leap: Leveraging Lunar Assets for Sustainable Pathways to Space" - http://2014giantleap.aerospacehawaii.info/ and accepted by a core group that forms the International Lunar Decade Working Group (ILDWG) that is seeking to make the proposed global event and decade long process a reality. The Declaration will be updated from time to time by members of the ILDWreflecting new knowledge and fresh perspectives that bear on building a global consortium with a mission to progress from lunar exploration to the transformation of the Moon into a wealth gene rating platform for the expansion of humankind into the solar system. When key organizations have endorsed the idea and joined the effort the text of the Declaration will be considered final. An earlier International Lunar Decade proposal was issued at the 8th ICEUM Conference in 2006 in Beijing together with 13 specific initiatives for lunar exploration[1,2,3]. These initiatives have been largely implemented with coordination among the different space agencies involved provided by the International Lunar Exploration Working Group[2,3]. The Second International Lunar Decade from 2015 reflects current trends towards increasing involvement of commercial firms in space, particularly seeking opportunities beyond low Earth orbit. The central vision of the International Lunar Decade is to build the foundations for a sustainable space economy through international collaboration concurrently addressing Lunar exploration and building a shared knowledge base;Policy development that enables collabo rative research and development leading to lunar mining and industrial and commercial development;Infrastructure on the Moon and in cislunar space (communications, transport, energy systems, way-stations, other) that reduces costs, lowers risks and speeds up the time to profitable operations;Enabling technologies

  13. DOSEmanPRO - active electronic online personal air sampler for detection of radon progeny long lived alpha nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streil, T.; Oeser, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Using the micro system - technology we developed a online personal air sampler not bigger than a mobile phone, to open a new dimension in personal dosimetry of inhaled radioactive aerosols. The DOSEman PRO containing an internal pump with a continuous air flow of 0.15 I/min sample the radon progeny or other nuclides on a millipore filter with excellent spectroscopic resolution. A 1.5 cm 2 light protected ion-implanted silicon detector analyses the alpha radiation at the filter. This small detector head contains also the pre amplification and pulse processing. The alpha radiation of the radon progeny and the long lived alpha nuclides is analyzed by a 60 channel spectrometer. The energy resolution of the online analyzed filter spectra is in the order of 150 keV. Mechanical and electronic design enables one to distinguish the long lived alpha nuclides from the radon and thoron progeny very easily. Using a special algorithm we correct the influence of the tailing of the radon progeny to the long lived alpha nuclides and take into consideration possible interference in determining the long lived alpha nuclides. Because of the air sampling volume of nearly 10 I/h, the system has a high efficiency. The detection limit by 2 hours sampling time is 0.05 Bq/m 3 alpha nuclide concentration. In a modified device for air sampling especially of long-lived alpha nuclides like uranium, radium or plutonium, the flow rate is increased to 0,3 1/min e.g. during a 10 h sampling period we can detect 0.005 Bq/m 3 in a low radon atmosphere. Assuming increased radon progeny concentration, the statistical error for the long lived alpha nuclides will be higher, but in most of the cases for use in nuclear facilities low radon concentrations are ambient conditions. This concept of an electronic personal air sampler with an alpha spectroscopy offers some outstanding advantages compared to passive dosimeters or off-line alpha air filters: The dose value and the nuclide concentration is

  14. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  15. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccles, Samuel F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} and {approx}5 x 10{sup 17} atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  16. Production of heavy nuclides in nuclear devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Samuel F.

    1970-01-01

    Since the last Plowshare Symposium in 1964 a number of experiments have been carried out to study the production of heavy nuclei by rapid multiple neutron capture in specially designed nuclear devices. These experiments listed below were conducted underground at the Nevada Test Site and data were obtained radiochemically after sample recovery by drillback. The main characteristics of these experiments are 1) higher neutron fluxes than in the early events, 2) a variety of targets, including 238-U, 242-Pu, 237-Np, 243-Am, 232-Th, 3) the occurrence of an interesting 'reversal of the odd-even effect' in the mass yield curves, and 4) the absence of nuclei in the debris with (Z,A) greater than (100,257). Analysis of data from these experiments have led to capture cross sections for neutron-rich uranium isotopes (out to 249-U), and capture-to-fission ratios for the odd-A neutron-rich plutonium isotopes (out to 253-Pu). General studies of the fission process in neutron-rich nuclei have also been undertaken using the data from these experiments. The large amounts of 250Cm and 257Fm made in the recent Hutch experiment (∼1 x 10 20 and ∼5 x 10 17 atoms, respectively) make it scientifically exciting, and economically feasible, to mine and recover enough material to produce laboratory targets of these isotopes. These targets would be used in investigations of yet-undiscovered, short-lived isotopes of Fm, Md, and No, as well as the possible production of new isotopes of element 104 and even element 105. (author)

  17. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  18. Capability of minor nuclide confinement in fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Mineo, Hideaki; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide

    1999-01-01

    Experiment with spent fuels has started with the small scale reprocessing facility in NUCEF-BECKY αγ cell. Primary purpose of the experiment is to study the capability of long-lived nuclide confinement both in the PUREX flow sheet applied to the large scale reprocessing plant and also in the PARC (Partitioning Conundrum key process) flow sheet which is our proposal as a simplified reprocessing of one cycle extraction system. Our interests in the experiment are the behaviors of minor long-lived nuclides and the behaviors of the heterogeneous substances, such as sedimentation in the dissolver, organic cruds in the extraction banks. The significance of those behaviors will be assessed from the standpoint of the process safety of reprocessing for high burn-up fuels and MOX fuels. (author)

  19. A GoldSim Model for Colloid Facilitated Nuclide Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-01-01

    Recently several total system performance assessment (TSPA) programs, called 'template' programs, ready for the safety assessment of radioactive waste repository systems which are conceptually modeled have been developed by utilizing GoldSim and AMBER at KAERI. It is generally believed that chelating agents (chelators) that could be disposed of together with radioactive wastes in the repository and natural colloids available in the geological media affect on nuclides by enhancing their transport in the geological media. A simple GoldSim module to evaluate such quantitative effects, by which colloid and chelator-facilitated nuclide release cases could be modeled and evaluated is introduced. Effects of the chelators alone are illustrated with the case associated with well pumping scenario in a hypothetical repository system

  20. Laser-powered lunar base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costen, R.; Humes, D.H.; Walker, G.H.; Williams, M.D.; Deyoung, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to compare a nuclear reactor-driven Sterling engine lunar base power source to a laser-to-electric converter with orbiting laser power station, each providing 1 MW of electricity to the lunar base. The comparison was made on the basis of total mass required in low-Earth-orbit for each system. This total mass includes transportation mass required to place systems in low-lunar orbit or on the lunar surface. The nuclear reactor with Sterling engines is considered the reference mission for lunar base power and is described first. The details of the laser-to-electric converter and mass are discussed. The next two solar-driven high-power laser concepts, the diode array laser or the iodine laser system, are discussed with associated masses in low-lunar-orbit. Finally, the payoff for laser-power beaming is summarized

  1. Lunar ash flows - Isothermal approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, S. I.; Hsieh, T.; O'Keefe, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Suggestion of the ash flow mechanism as one of the major processes required to account for some features of lunar soil. First the observational background and the gardening hypothesis are reviewed, and the shortcomings of the gardening hypothesis are shown. Then a general description of the lunar ash flow is given, and a simple mathematical model of the isothermal lunar ash flow is worked out with numerical examples to show the differences between the lunar and the terrestrial ash flow. The important parameters of the ash flow process are isolated and analyzed. It appears that the lunar surface layer in the maria is not a residual mantle rock (regolith) but a series of ash flows due, at least in part, to great meteorite impacts. The possibility of a volcanic contribution is not excluded. Some further analytic research on lunar ash flows is recommended.

  2. Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide transmutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.; Osmokrovic, P.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical approach to the evaluation of nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is presented. Non singular Bateman coefficients and depletion functions are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Method enables evaluation of complete decay chains without elimination of short lived radionuclides. It is efficient and accurate. Practical application of the method is demonstrated by computing the neptunium series inventory in used Candu TM fuel. (author)

  3. Hot demonstration of proposed commercial nuclide removal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.

    1996-01-01

    This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or nuclides to the MVST supernatant

  4. Long-term behaviour of radioactive nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M.

    1999-01-01

    Report of recent advances in Europe, regarding the long-term development of radioactive nuclides in the environment. The corresponding scientific findings from three projects - Peace, Landscape and Epora (involving 18 European laboratories) - have been collected together. These projects were managed by the IPSN for the European Commission (DG XII) in the framework of the programme 'Surete de la fission nucleaire' (Nuclear fission safety programme). (author)

  5. Measurements of transuranium nuclides in the environment at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gessellschaft fuer Strehlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1978-01-01

    Work on environmental transuranium nuclides at the Institute for Radiation Protection of the Gesellschaft fur Strahlen-und Umweltforschung mbH, Munich, is briefly described and standard needs are discussed. Fallout plutonium measurements in air dust and precipitation samples started in 1970/1971. The procedure is outlined and results are presented as annual mean and sum values, respectively. Since 1973, transuranium nuclides in primary coolant, stack effluent air and waste-water samples from nuclear power stations are measured. Nuclides detected are 239 240 Pu, 238 Pu and/or 241 Am, 242 Cm and 244 Cm. Examples of alpha particle spectra are given. Needs for standards in environmental transuranium analysis are discussed. (author)

  6. International Lunar Decade Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldavs, VZ; Crisafulli, J.; Dunlop, D.; Foing, B.

    2017-09-01

    The International Lunar Decade is a global decadal event designed to provide a framework for strategically directed international cooperation for permanent return to the Moon. To be launched July 20, 2019, the 50th anniversary of the giant leap for mankind marked by Neil Armstrong's first step on the Moon, the ILD launch will include events around the world to celebrate space exploration, science, and the expansion of humanity into the Solar System. The ILD framework links lunar exploration and space sciences with the development of enabling technologies, infrastructure, means of financing, laws and policies aimed at lowering the costs and risks of venturing into space. Dramatically reduced costs will broaden the range of opportunities available in space and widen access to space for more states, companies and people worldwide. The ILD is intended to bring about the efflorescence of commercial business based on space resources from the Moon, asteroids, comets and other bodies in the Solar System.

  7. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  8. Lunar Health Monitor (LHM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Frederick J.

    2015-01-01

    Orbital Research, Inc., has developed a low-profile, wearable sensor suite for monitoring astronaut health in both intravehicular and extravehicular activities. The Lunar Health Monitor measures respiration, body temperature, electrocardiogram (EKG) heart rate, and other cardiac functions. Orbital Research's dry recording electrode is central to the innovation and can be incorporated into garments, eliminating the need for conductive pastes, adhesives, or gels. The patented dry recording electrode has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The LHM is easily worn under flight gear or with civilian clothing, making the system completely versatile for applications where continuous physiological monitoring is needed. During Phase II, Orbital Research developed a second-generation LHM that allows sensor customization for specific monitoring applications and anatomical constraints. Evaluations included graded exercise tests, lunar mission task simulations, functional battery tests, and resting measures. The LHM represents the successful integration of sensors into a wearable platform to capture long-duration and ambulatory physiological markers.

  9. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the `Mayak` region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myasoedov, B F [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Novikov, A P [V.I. Vernadsky Inst. of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  10. Calculated nuclide production yields in relativistic collisions of fissile nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benlliure, J.; Schmidt, K.H. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Grewe, A.; Jong, M. de [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik; Zhdanov, S. [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata (USSR). Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1997-11-01

    A model calculation is presented which predicts the complex nuclide distribution resulting from peripheral relativistic heavy-ion collisions involving fissile nuclei. The model is based on a modern version of the abrasion-ablation model which describes the formation of excited prefragments due to the nuclear collisions and their consecutive decay. The competition between the evaporation of different light particles and fission is computed with an evaporation code which takes dissipative effects and the emission of intermediate-mass fragments into account. The nuclide distribution resulting from fission processes is treated by a semiempirical description which includes the excitation-energy dependent influence of nuclear shell effects and pairing correlations. The calculations of collisions between {sup 238}U and different reaction partners reveal that a huge number of isotopes of all elements up to uranium is produced. The complex nuclide distribution shows the characteristics of fragmentation, mass-asymmetric low-energy fission and mass-symmetric high-energy fission. The yields of the different components for different reaction partners are studied. Consequences for technical applications are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Method of processing radioactive nuclide-containing liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Masahide; Tomoshige, Shozo; Kondo, Kozo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Todo, Fukuzo; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To solidify radioactive nuclides in to a much compact state and facilitate the storage. Method: Liquid wastes such as drain liquids generated from a nuclear power plant at a low density of 1 x 10 -6 - 10 -4 μCi/ml are previously brought into contact with a chelate type ion exchange resin such as of phenolic resin or ion exchange resin to adsorb the radioactive nuclides on the resin and the nuclides are eluted with sulfuric acid or the like to obtain liquid concentrates. The liquid concentrates are electrolyzed in an ordinary electrolytic facility using platinum or the like as the anode, Al or the like as the cathode, under the presence of 1 - 20 g/l of non-radioactive heavy metals such as Co and Ni in the liquid and while adjusting pH to 2 - 8. The electrolysis liquid residue is returned again to the electrolysis tank as it is or in the form of precipitates coagulated with a polymeric floculant. The supernatant liquid upon floculating treatment is processed with the chelate type ion exchange resin into hazardless liquid. (Sekiya, K.)

  12. Modelling the reactive-path between pyrite and radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Mingliang; Wu Shijun; Dou Shunmei; Chen Fanrong; Yang Yongqiang

    2008-01-01

    The mobility of redox sensitive nuclides is largely dependent on their valence state. The radionuclides that make the dominant contributions to final dose calculations are redox sensitive. Almost all the radionuclides (except 129 I) have higher mobility at high valence state, and correspond to immobilization at low valence state due to the much lower solubility. Pyrite is an ubiquitous and stable mineral in geological environment, and would be used as a low-cost long time reductant for the immobilization of radionuclides. However, pyrite oxidation is supposed to generate acid, which will enhance the mobility of nuclides. In this paper, the reaction path of the reactions between radionuclides (U, Se and Tc) and pyrite in the groundwater from Wuyi well in Beishan area of China has been simulated using geochemical modeling software. According to the results, pyrite can reduce high valence nuclides to a dinky-level effectively, with the pH slightly increasing under anaerobic condition that is common in deep nuclear waste repositories. (authors)

  13. Transient nuclide release through the bentonite barrier -SKB 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, A.; Widen, H.

    1991-05-01

    A study of near-field radionuclide migration is presented. The study has been performed in the context of the SKB91 study which is a comprehensive performance assessment of disposal of spent fuel. The objective of the present study has been to enable the assessment of which nuclides can be screened out because they decay to insignificant levels already in the near-field of the repository. A numerical model has been used which describes the transient transport of radionuclides through a small hole in a HLW canister imbedded in bentonite clay into a fracture in the rock outside the bentonite. Calculations for more than twenty nuclides, nuclides with both high and low solubility have been made. The effect of sorption in the bentonite backfill is included. The size of the penetration hole was assumed to be constant up to time when the calculations were terminated, 500000 year after the deposition. The mass transport rate is controlled by diffusion. The model is three dimensional. The report describes the geometry of the modelled system, the assumptions concerning the transport resistances at the boundary conditions, the handling of the source term and obtained release curves. (au)

  14. Soil nuclide distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, M.I.; Beals, D.I.; Thibault, D.H.; O'Connor, P.

    1984-12-01

    Environmental assessments of the disposal of nuclear fuel waste in plutonic rock formations require analysis of the migration of nuclides from the disposal vault to the biosphere. Analyses of nuclide migration via groundwater through the disposal vault, the buffer and backfill, the plutonic rock, and the consolidated and unconsolidated overburden use models requiring distribution coefficients (Ksub(d)) to describe the interaction of the nuclides with the geological and man-made materials. This report presents element-specific soil distribution coefficients and their statistical distributions, based on a detailed survey of the literature. Radioactive elements considered were actinium, americium, bismuth, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, iodine, lead, molybdenum, neptunium, nickel, niobium, palladium, plutonium, polonium, protactinium, radium, samarium, selenium, silver, strontium, technetium, terbium, thorium, tin, uranium and zirconium. Stable elements considered were antimony, boron, cadmium, tellurium and zinc. Where sufficient data were available, distribution coefficients and their distributions are given for sand, silt, clay and organic soils. Our values are recommended for use in assessments for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program

  15. Measurement of radioactive nuclides in the 'Mayak' region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myasoedov, B.F.; Novikov, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The study of environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic impact and, primarily, by radioactive nuclides is one of the main scientific problems facing contemporary science. Radioecological monitoring, decision making on remediation of polluted areas need detailed information about distribution of radioactive nuclides in the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, knowledge about radioactive nuclide occurrence forms and migration patterns. Experimental tests of nuclear and thermonuclear weapon in atmosphere and underground, nuclear power engineering and numerous accidents that took place at the nuclear power plants (NPP), unauthorized dump of radioactive materials in various places of the ocean and pouring off the strongly dump of radioactive wastes from ships and submarine equipped with nuclear power engines made artificial radionuclides a constant and unretrievable component of the modern biosphere, becoming an additional unfavorable ecological factor. As regards Former Sovient Union (FSU) the most unfavorable regions are Southern Ural, zones suffered from Chernobyl Accident, Altay, Novaya Zemlya, some part of West Siberia near Seversk (Tomsk-7) and Zheleznogorsk (Krasnoyarsk-26). (orig.)

  16. Application of Micro-coprecipitation Method to Alpha Source Preparation for Measuring Alpha Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Ho; Park, Jong Ho; Oh, Se Jin; Song, Byung Chul; Song, Kyuseok

    2011-01-01

    Among the source preparations, an electrodeposition is a commonly used method for the preparation of sources for an alpha spectrometry, because this technique is simple and produces a very thin deposit, which is essential for a high resolution of the alpha peak. Recently, micro-coprecipitation with rare earths have been used to yield sources for -spectrometry. In this work, the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were purified from hindrance nuclides and elements with an a TRU resin in radioactive waste samples, and the activity concentrations of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes were determined by radiation counting methods after alpha source preparation like micro coprecipitation. After the Pu isotopes in the radioactive waste samples were separated from the other nuclides with an anion exchange resin, the Am isotopes were purified with a TRU resin and an anion exchange resin or a TRU resin. Activity concentrations and chemical recoveries of 241 Am purified with the TRU resin were similar to those with the TRU resin and anion exchange resin. In this study, to save on the analytical time and cost, the Am isotopes were purified with the TRU resin without using an additional anion exchange resin. After comparing the electrodeposition method with the micro-coprecipitation method, the micro-coprecipitation method was used for the alpha source preparation, because the micro-coprecipitation method is simple and more reliable for source preparation of the Pu, Am and Cm isotopes

  17. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  18. Lunar concrete for construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullingford, Hatice S.; Keller, M. Dean

    1988-01-01

    Feasibility of using concrete for lunar-base construction has been discussed recently without relevant data for the effects of vacuum on concrete. Experimental studies performed earlier at Los Alamos have shown that concrete is stable in vacuum with no deterioration of its quality as measured by the compressive strength. Various considerations of using concrete successfully on the moon are provided in this paper along with specific conclusions from the existing data base.

  19. First lunar outpost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Aureo F.; Silva, Daniel; Ortiz, Nelson; Alvarez, Omar; Colon, Julio A.; Colon, Myrelle; Diaz, Alicia; Escobar, Xochiquetzal Y.; Garcia, Alberto; Gonzalez, Isabel C.

    1992-01-01

    Design and research efforts at the University of Puerto Rico have focused on the evaluation and refinement of the Habitability Criteria for a prolonged human presence in space during the last four years. Living quarters for a Mars mission and a third generation lunar base concept were proposed. This academic year, 1991-92, work on further refinement of the habitability criteria and design of partial gravity furniture was carried on. During the first semester, design alternatives for furniture necessary in a habitat design optimized for lunar and Martian environments were developed. Designs are based on recent research data from lunar and Mars gravity simulations, and current NASA standards. Artifacts will be submitted to NASA architects to be tested in KC-135 flights. Test findings will be submitted for incorporation in future updates to NASA habitat design standards. Second semester work was aimed at integrating these findings into the First Lunar Outpost (FLO), a mission scenario currently being considered by NASA. The mission consists of a manned return to the moon by crews of four astronauts for periods of 45 days. The major hardware components of the mission are as follows: (1) a Crew Module for the delivery of the crew and their supplies, and (2) the Habitat Module, which will arrive on the Moon unmanned. Our design efforts concentrated on this Habitat Module and on application of habitability criteria. Different geometries for the pressure vessel and their impact on the interior architecture were studied. Upon the selection of a geometry, a more detailed analysis of the interior design was performed, taking into consideration the reduced gravity, and the protection against radiation, micrometeorites, and the extreme temperature variation. A proposal for a FLO was submitted by the students, consisting essentially of a 24-feet (7.3 m.) by 35-feet (10.67 m) high vertical cylinder with work areas, crew quarters, galley, wardroom, leisure facilities, health

  20. Pulmonary and Systemic Immune Response to Chronic Lunar Dust Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Quiriarte, Heather; Nelman, Mayra; Lam, Chiu-wing; James, John T.; Sams, Clarence

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to millennia of meteorite impact with virtually no erosive effects, the surface of the Moon is covered by a layer of ultra-fine, reactive Lunar dust. Very little is known regarding the toxicity of Lunar dust on human physiology. Given the size and electrostatic characteristics of Lunar dust, countermeasures to ensure non-exposure of astronauts will be difficult. To ensure astronaut safety during any future prolonged Lunar missions, it is necessary to establish the effect of chronic pulmonary Lunar dust exposure on all physiological systems. Methods: This study assessed the toxicity of airborne lunar dust exposure in rats on pulmonary and system immune system parameters. Rats were exposed to 0, 20.8, or 60.8 mg/m3 of lunar dust (6h/d; 5d/wk) for up to 13 weeks. Sacrifices occurred after exposure durations of 1day, 7 days, 4 weeks and 13 weeks post-exposure, when both blood and lung lavage fluid were collected for analysis. Lavage and blood assays included leukocyte distribution by flow cytometry, electron/fluorescent microscopy, and cytokine concentration. Cytokine production profiles following mitogenic stimulation were performed on whole blood only. Results: Untreated lavage fluid was comprised primarily of pulmonary macrophages. Lunar dust inhalation resulted in an influx of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Although the percentage of lymphocytes increased, the T cell CD4:CD8 ratio was unchanged. Cytokine analysis of the lavage fluid showed increased levels of IL-1b and TNFa. These alterations generally persisted through the 13 week sampling. Blood analysis showed few systemic effects from the lunar dust inhalation. By week 4, the peripheral granulocyte percentage was elevated in the treated rats. Plasma cytokine levels were unchanged in all treated rats compared to controls. Peripheral blood analysis showed an increased granulocyte percentage and altered cytokine production profiles consisting of increased in IL-1b and IL-6, and decreased IL-2

  1. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  2. Modeling lunar volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housley, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    Simple physical arguments are used to show that basaltic volcanos on different planetary bodies would fountain to the same height if the mole fraction of gas in the magma scaled with the acceleration of gravity. It is suggested that the actual eruption velocities and fountain heights are controlled by the velocities of sound in the two phase gas/liquid flows. These velocities are in turn determined by the gas contents in the magma. Predicted characteristics of Hawaiian volcanos are in excellent accord with observations. Assuming that the only gas in lunar volcano is the CO which would be produced if the observed Fe metal in lunar basalts resulted from graphite reduction, lunar volcanos would fountain vigorously, but not as spectacularly as their terrestrial counterparts. The volatile trace metals, halogens, and sulfur released would be transported over the entire moon by the transient atmosphere. Orange and black glass type pyroclastic materials would be transported in sufficient amounts to produce the observed dark mantle deposits.

  3. Computer programs to make a Chart of the nuclides for WWW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Horiguchi, Takayoshi

    1999-06-01

    Computer programs to make a chart of the nuclides for World Wide Web (WWW) have been developed. The programs make a data file for WWW chart of the nuclides from a data file containing nuclide information in the format similar to ENSDF, by filling unknown half-lives with calculated ones. Then, the WWW chart of the nuclides in the gif format is created from the data file. The programs to make html files and image map files, to select a chart of selected nuclides, and to show various information of nuclides are included in the system. All the programs are written in C language. This report describes the formats of files, the programs and 1998 issue of Chart of the Nuclides made by means of the present programs. (author)

  4. Isotopes as tracers of the sources of the lunar material and processes of lunar origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevan, Kaveh

    2014-09-13

    Ever since the Apollo programme, isotopic abundances have been used as tracers to study lunar formation, in particular to study the sources of the lunar material. In the past decade, increasingly precise isotopic data have been reported that give strong indications that the Moon and the Earth's mantle have a common heritage. To reconcile these observations with the origin of the Moon via the collision of two distinct planetary bodies, it has been proposed (i) that the Earth-Moon system underwent convective mixing into a single isotopic reservoir during the approximately 10(3) year molten disc epoch after the giant impact but before lunar accretion, or (ii) that a high angular momentum impact injected a silicate disc into orbit sourced directly from the mantle of the proto-Earth and the impacting planet in the right proportions to match the isotopic observations. Recently, it has also become recognized that liquid-vapour fractionation in the energetic aftermath of the giant impact is capable of generating measurable mass-dependent isotopic offsets between the silicate Earth and Moon, rendering isotopic measurements sensitive not only to the sources of the lunar material, but also to the processes accompanying lunar origin. Here, we review the isotopic evidence that the silicate-Earth-Moon system represents a single planetary reservoir. We then discuss the development of new isotopic tracers sensitive to processes in the melt-vapour lunar disc and how theoretical calculations of their behaviour and sample observations can constrain scenarios of post-impact evolution in the earliest history of the Earth-Moon system. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. A Proof of Concept for In-Situ Lunar Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F. S.; Whitaker, T.; Levine, J.; Draper, D. S.; Harris, W.; Olansen, J.; Devolites, J.

    2015-12-01

    We have obtained improved 87Rb-87Sr isochrons for the Duluth Gabbro, an analog for lunar KREEP rocks, using a prototype spaceflight laser ablation resonance ionization mass spectrometer (LARIMS). The near-side of the Moon comprises previously un-sampled, KREEP rich, young-lunar basalts critical for calibrating the dating to constrain lunar history. Using a novel normalization approach, and by correcting for matrix-dependent isotope effects, we have been able to obtain a date of 1100 ± 200 Ma (Figure 1), compared to the previously established thermal ionization mass spectrometry measurement of 1096 ± 14 Ma. The precision of LARIMS is sufficient to constrain the current 1 Ga uncertainty of the lunar flux curve, allowing us to reassess the timing of peak lunar volcanism, and constrain lunar thermal evolution. Furthermore, an updated lunar flux curve has implications throughout the solar system. For example, Mars could have undergone a longer epoch of voluminous, shield-forming volcanism and associated mantle evolution, as well as a longer era of abundant volatiles and hence potential habitability. These alternative chronologies could even affect our understanding of the evolution of life on Earth: under the classic chronology, life is thought to have originated after the dwindling of bombardment, but under the alternative chronology, it might have appeared during heavy bombardment. In order to resolve the science questions regarding the history of the Moon, and in light of the Duluth Gabbro results, we recently proposed a Discovery mission called MARE: The Moon Age and Regolith Explorer. MARE would accomplish these goals by landing on a young, nearside lunar basalt flow southwest of Aristarchus that has a crater density corresponding to a highly uncertain absolute age, collecting >10 rock samples, and assessing their radioisotopic age, geochemistry, and mineralogy.

  6. Cosmogenic nuclide shielding corrections determined via MCNPX radiation transport and spallation cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    Cosmogenic Nuclides (CNs) are a critical new tool for geomorphology, allowing researchers to date Earth surface events and measure process rates [1]. Prior to CNs, many of these events and processes had no absolute method for measurement and relied entirely on relative methods. Reliable absolute measurement methods impact research constraining ice age extents and provide important climatic data via well constrained erosion rates, etc. [2]. Continuing to improve CN methods is critical for these sciences. Significant progress has been made in the last two decades in refining the method and reducing analytic uncertainties [1,3]. CRONUS-Earth, a collaboration of cosmogenic nuclide researchers, has been developing calibration data and scaling methods to provide a self-consistent platform for use in interpreting nuclide concentration values into geologic data. However, several aspects of the radiation cascade have been exceedingly difficult to measure empirically with either accuracy or spatial extent. One such aspect is the angular distribution of secondary cosmic rays that are energetic enough to produce cosmogenic nuclides via spallation. Researchers studying the angular distribution of such cosmic rays have usually described the distribution as (cos(Θ))^m. Currently, the standard corrections, assume an m of 2.3, which is based on very sparse data sets with very limited spatial and altitude variation [1,4,5]. Researchers using CNs must know the production rate at the sample location, and then make corrections for the portion of the sky that is blocked by nearby topography. If the shielding correction model currently used is too simplistic, this introduces error into the final results. In this study, a Monte Carlo method radiation transport code, MCNPX is used to model the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) radiation impinging on the upper atmosphere and tracks the resulting secondary particles through a model of the Earth's atmosphere. Angle and energy distributions are

  7. Lunar imaging and ionospheric calibration for the Lunar Cherenkov technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McFadden, R.; Scholten, O.; Mevius, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Cherenkov technique is a promising method for UHE neutrino and cosmic ray detection which aims to detect nanosecond radio pulses produced during particle interactions in the Lunar regolith. For low frequency experiments, such as NuMoon, the frequency dependent dispersive effect of the

  8. LADEE UVS Observations of Atoms and Dust in the Lunar Tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooden, Diane H.; Colaprete, Anthony; Cook, Amanda M.; Shirley, Mark H.; Vargo, Kara E.; Elphic, Richard C.; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Glenar, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) was a lunar orbiter launched in September 2013 that investigated the composition and temporal variation of the tenuous lunar exosphere and dust environment. A major goal of the mission was to characterize the dust exosphere prior to future lunar exploration activities, which may alter the lunar environment. The Ultraviolet/Visible Spectrometer (UVS) onboard LADEE addresses this goal, utilizing two sets of optics: a limbviewing telescope, and a solar-viewing telescope. We report on spectroscopic (approximately 280 - 820 nm) observations viewing down the lunar wake or along the 'lunar tail' from lunar orbit. Prior groundbased studies have observed the emission from neutral sodium atoms extended along the lunar tail, so often this region is referred to as the lunar sodium tail. UVS measurements were made on the dark side of the moon, with the UVS limb-viewing telescope pointed outward in the direction of the Moon's wake (almost anti-sun), during different lunar phases. These UVS observation activities sample a long column and allow the characterization of scattered light from dust and emission lines from atoms in the lunar tail. Observations in this UVS configuration show the largest excess of scattered blue light in our data set, indicative of the presence of small dust grains in the tail. Once lofted, nanoparticles may become charged and picked up by the solar wind, similar to the phenomena witnessed above Enceladus's northern hemisphere or by the STEREO/WAVES instrument while close to Earth's orbit. The UVS data show that small dust grains as well as atoms become entrained in the lunar tail.

  9. The search for Ar in the lunar atmosphere using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter's LAMP instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. C.; Stern, S. A.; Feldman, P. D.; Gladstone, R.; Retherford, K. D.; Greathouse, T. K.; Grava, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Apollo 17 mass spectrometer, LACE, first measured mass 40 particles in the lunar atmosphere, and over a nine-month period, detected variations correlated with the lunar day (Hoffman et al., 1973, LPSC, 4, 2865). LACE detected a high particle density at dusk (0.6-1.0x104 cm-3), decreasing through the lunar night to a few hundred cm-3, then increasing rapidly before dawn to levels 2-4 times greater than at dusk. No daytime measurements were made due to instrument saturation. Given the LACE measurements' periodic nature, and the Ar abundance in lunar regolith samples (Kaiser, 1972, EPSL, 13, 387), it was concluded that mass 40 was likely due to Ar. Benna et al. (2014, LPSC, 45, 1535) recently reported that the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) aboard LADEE also detected Ar (mass 40) with similar diurnal profiles. We report on UV spectra of the lunar atmosphere as obtained by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Aboard LRO is the UV-spectrograph, LAMP (Lyman Alpha Mapping Project), spanning the spectral range 575 to 1965 Å. LAMP is typically oriented toward the surface and has been mapping the Moon since September 2009. LAMP also observes the tenuous lunar atmosphere when the surface is in darkness, but the atmospheric column below LRO is illuminated. We have previously used nadir oriented twilight observations to examine the sparse lunar atmosphere (Feldman et al., 2012, Icarus, 221, 854; Cook et al., 2013, Icarus, 225, 681; Stern et al., 2013, Icarus, 226, 1210; Cook & Stern 2014, Icarus, 236, 48). In Cook et al., 2013, we reported an upper limit for Ar of 2.3x104 cm-3. Since then, we have collected additional data and refined our search method by focusing on the regions (near equator) and local times (dawn and dusk) where Ar has been reported previously. We have carefully considered effective area calibration and g-factor accuracies and find these to be unlikely explanations for the order of magnitude differences. We will report new results, which provide much

  10. Neogene basin infilling from cosmogenic nuclides (10Be and 21Ne) in Atacama, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Caroline; Regard, Vincent; Carretier, Sébastien; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Campos, Eduardo; Brichau, Stéphanie; Lupker, Marteen; Hérail, Gérard

    2017-04-01

    In the hyperarid Atacama Desert, northern Chile, Neogene sediments host copper rich layers (exotic supergene mineralization). Current mines are excavated into relatively thin (production (quickly decreasing with depth) and disintegration (not for 21Ne). Sampling depths are at ˜100 m and at ˜50 m below the desert surface. First, 21Ne gives lower boundaries for upstream erosion rates or local sedimentation rate. These bounds are between 2 and 10 m/Ma, which is quite important for the area. The ratio between the two cosmogenic nuclides indicate a maximum burial age of 12 Ma (minimal erosion rate of 15 m/Ma) and is surprisingly similar from bottom to top, indicating a probable rapid infilling. We finally processed a Monte-Carlo inversion. This inversion helps taking into account the post-deposition muonic production of cosmogenic nuclides. Inversion results is dependent on the muonic production scheme. Interestingly, the similarity in concentrations from bottom to top pleads for quite low production at depth. Our data finally indicates a quick infilling between 12.5 and 10 Ma BP accounting for ˜100 m of deposition (minimum sedimentation rate of 40 m/Ma).

  11. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  12. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko; Matsubara, Akihiro; Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki; Hanaki, Tatsumi

    2015-10-01

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency's Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 (14C) mainly for 14C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA's research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of 14C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 (10Be) and aluminum-26 (26Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The 10Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the 26Al-AMS system.

  13. Progress on multi-nuclide AMS of JAEA-AMS-TONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Yoko, E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Matsubara, Akihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Miyake, Masayasu; Nishizawa, Akimitsu; Ohwaki, Yoshio; Nishio, Tomohiro; Sanada, Katsuki [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Hanaki, Tatsumi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO (Japan Atomic Energy Agency’s Accelerator Mass Spectrometer established at the Tono Geoscience Center) facility has been used for the dating of geological samples. The AMS system is versatile, based on a 5 MV tandem Pelletron-type accelerator. Since its establishment in 1997, the AMS system has been used for measurement of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) mainly for {sup 14}C dating studies in neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of JAEA’s research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. Results of the measurement of {sup 14}C in soils and plants has been applied to the dating of fault activity and volcanism. Development of beryllium-10 ({sup 10}Be) and aluminum-26 ({sup 26}Al) AMS systems are now underway to enhance the capability of the multi-nuclide AMS in studies of dating by cosmogenic nuclides. The {sup 10}Be-AMS system has already been used for routine measurements in applied studies and improvements of the measurement technique have been made. Now we plan to fine tune the system and perform test measurements to develop the {sup 26}Al-AMS system.

  14. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author)

  15. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Olivares, A.; Aguero, A.; Pinedo, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs

  16. DRENA: A model for the transport of nuclides in drainage slopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Olivares, A; Aguero, A; Pinedo, P

    1994-07-01

    This report presents documentation and a user's manual for program DRENA, a mathematical model of nuclides transfer in simple slopes and sections of a drainage catchment. Mathematical equations and physical principles utilized to develop the code are presented in section 2. The flowchart and some mathematic and numerical details are presented in Section 3. Section 4 presents an overview of how problems should be set up to properly use the code as well as the detailed input instructions and output results formats. One example problem, including sample input data sets and output data, are presented in Section 5. The complete program listings including comments are presented in the Appendices. Nuclides are assumed to enter the catchment via atmospheric deposition and then carried by the water runoff and the dragged sediments. The desorption/adsorption dynamics between water and sediments are considered to be in the equilibrium given by a Kd parameter, a distribution coefficient. Codell's and Einstein expressions for the caudal and concentration of dragged sediments are utilized. (Author) 36 refs.

  17. Utilizing Monte-Carlo radiation transport and spallation cross sections to estimate nuclide dependent scaling with altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, D.; Reedy, R. C.; Stone, J.

    2010-12-01

    possible sampling altitude), the apparent attenuation lengths become 171 g/cm2, 174 g/cm2 and 165 g/cm2 respectively, a difference of +/-5%. Based on this preliminary data, there may be up to 6% error in production rate scaling. Proton spallation is a small, yet important component of spallation events. This data will be also be presented along with the neutron results. While the differences between attenuation length for individual nuclides are small at sea-level, they are systematic and exacerbate with altitude. Until now, there has been no numeric analysis of this phenomenon, therefore the global scaling schemes for CNs have been missing an aspect of physics critical for achieving close agreement between empiric calibration data and physics based models. [1] T. J. Dunai, "Cosmogenic Nuclides: Principles, Concepts and Applications in the Earth Surface Sciences", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2010 [2] D. Lal, Annual Rev of Earth Planet Sci, 1988, p355-388 [3] J. Gosse and F. Phillips, Quaternary Science Rev, 2001, p1475-1560 [4] F. Phillips et al.,(Proposal to the National Science Foundation), 2003 [5] K. Nishiizumi etal., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 2009, p2163-2176 [6] R. C. Reedy, personal com.

  18. Elemental Mercury Diffusion Processes and Concentration at the Lunar Poles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Frederick; Killen, Rosemary M.; Hurley, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project (LAMP) spectrograph onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft made the first detection of element mercury (Hg) vapor in the lunar exosphere after the Lunar Crater Observing and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) Centaur rocket impacted into the Cabeus crater in the southern polar region of the Moon. The lunar regolith core samples from the Apollo missions determined that Hg had a devolatilized pattern with a concentration gradient increasing with depth, in addition to a layered pattern suggesting multiple episodes of burial and volatile loss. Hg migration on the lunar surface resulted in cold trapping at the poles. We have modeled the rate at which indigenous Hg is lost from the regolith through diffusion out of lunar grains. We secondly modeled the migration of Hg vapor in the exosphere and estimated the rate of cold-trapping at the poles using a Monte Carlo technique. The Hg vapor may be lost from the exosphere via ionization, Jeans escape, or re-impact into the surface causing reabsorption.

  19. A multi-nuclide approach to quantify long-term erosion rates and exposure history through multiple glacial-interglacial cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strunk, Astrid; Larsen, Nicolaj Krog; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    Cosmogenic nuclides are traditionally used to either determine the glaciation history or the denudation history of the most recent exposure period. A few studies use the cosmogenic nuclides to determine the cumulative exposure and burial durations of a sample. However, until now it has not been...... possible to resolve the complex pattern of exposure history under a fluctuating ice sheet. In this study, we quantify long-term erosion rates along with durations of multiple exposure periods in West Greenland by applying a novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion approach to existing 10Be and 26Al....... The new MCMC approach allows us to constrain the most likely landscape history based on comparisons between simulated and measured cosmogenic nuclide concentrations. It is a fundamental assumption of the model that the exposure history at the site/location can be divided into two distinct regimes: i...

  20. Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides in phosphate rocks and phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komura, K; Yanagisawa, M; Sakurai, J; Sakanoue, M

    1985-10-01

    Uranium, thorium and potassium contents and radioactive equilibrium states of the uranium and thorium series nuclides have been studied for 2 phosphate rocks and 7 phosphate fertilizers. Uranium contents were found to be rather high (39-117 ppm) except for phosphate rock from Kola. The uranium series nuclides were found to be in various equilibration states, which can be grouped into following three categories. Almost in the equilibrium state, 238U approximately 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra and 238U greater than 230Th greater than 210Pb greater than 226Ra. Thorium contents were found to be, in general, low and appreciable disequilibrium of the thorium series nuclides was not observed except one sample. Potassium contents were also very low (less than 0.3% K2O) except for complex fertilizers. Based on the present data, discussions were made for the radiation exposure due to phosphate fertilizers.

  1. Calculation device for amount of heavy element nuclide in reactor fuels and calculation method therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Takafumi; Yamamoto, Munenari.

    1995-01-01

    When there are two or more origins of deuterium nuclides in reactor fuels, there are disposed a memory device for an amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin in a noted fuel segment at a certain time point, a device for calculating the amount of nuclides for every origin and current neutron fluxes in the noted fuel segment, and a device for separating and then displaying the amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. Equations for combustion are dissolved for every origin of the deuterium nuclides based on the amount of the deuterium nuclides for every origin and neutron fluxes, to calculate the current amount of deuterium nuclides for every origin. The amount of deuterium nuclides originated from uranium is calculated ignoring α-decay of curium, while the amount of deuterium nuclides originated from plutonium is calculated ignoring the generation of plutonium formed from neptunium. Deuterium nuclides can be measured and controlled accurately for every origin of the reactor fuels. Even when nuclear fuel materials have two or more nationalities, the measurement and control thereof can be conducted for every country. (N.H.)

  2. Chronology of early lunar crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasch, E.J.; Nyquist, L.E.; Ryder, G.

    1988-01-01

    The chronology of lunar rocks is summarized. The oldest pristine (i.e., lacking meteoritic contamination of admixed components) lunar rock, recently dated with Sm-Nd by Lugmair, is a ferroan anorthosite, with an age of 4.44 + 0.02 Ga. Ages of Mg-suite rocks (4.1 to 4.5 Ga) have large uncertainties, so that age differences between lunar plutonic rock suites cannot yet be resolved. Most mare basalts crystallized between 3.1 and 3.9 Ga. The vast bulk of the lunar crust, therefore, formed before the oldest preserved terrestrial rocks. If the Moon accreted at 4.56 Ga, then 120 Ma may have elapsed before lunar crust was formed

  3. Lunar Regolith Particle Shape Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekhaefer, Rebecca; Hardy, Sandra; Rickman, Douglas; Edmunson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Future engineering of structures and equipment on the lunar surface requires significant understanding of particle characteristics of the lunar regolith. Nearly all sediment characteristics are influenced by particle shape; therefore a method of quantifying particle shape is useful both in lunar and terrestrial applications. We have created a method to quantify particle shape, specifically for lunar regolith, using image processing. Photomicrographs of thin sections of lunar core material were obtained under reflected light. Three photomicrographs were analyzed using ImageJ and MATLAB. From the image analysis measurements for area, perimeter, Feret diameter, orthogonal Feret diameter, Heywood factor, aspect ratio, sieve diameter, and sieve number were recorded. Probability distribution functions were created from the measurements of Heywood factor and aspect ratio.

  4. Lunar Circular Structure Classification from Chang 'e 2 High Resolution Lunar Images with Convolutional Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X. G.; Liu, J. J.; Zuo, W.; Chen, W. L.; Liu, Y. X.

    2018-04-01

    Circular structures are widely distributed around the lunar surface. The most typical of them could be lunar impact crater, lunar dome, et.al. In this approach, we are trying to use the Convolutional Neural Network to classify the lunar circular structures from the lunar images.

  5. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as 3 He and 4 He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The 130 Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of 130 Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of 15 N, 13 C, and 2 H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of 86 Kr, 134 Xe, and 136 Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles

  6. Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of Nuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive nuclide chart, and a command line interface. The nuclide chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the nuclides and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.

  7. NASA Lunar Impact Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert M.; Moser, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    The MSFC lunar impact monitoring program began in 2006 in support of environment definition for the Constellation (return to Moon) program. Work continued by the Meteoroid Environment Office after Constellation cancellation. Over 330 impacts have been recorded. A paper published in Icarus reported on the first 5 years of observations and 126 calibrated flashes. Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0019103514002243; ArXiv: http://arxiv.org/abs/1404.6458 A NASA Technical Memorandum on flash locations is in press

  8. Lunar architecture and urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    1992-01-01

    Human civilization and architecture have defined each other for over 5000 years on Earth. Even in the novel environment of space, persistent issues of human urbanism will eclipse, within a historically short time, the technical challenges of space settlement that dominate our current view. By adding modern topics in space engineering, planetology, life support, human factors, material invention, and conservation to their already renaissance array of expertise, urban designers can responsibly apply ancient, proven standards to the exciting new opportunities afforded by space. Inescapable facts about the Moon set real boundaries within which tenable lunar urbanism and its component architecture must eventually develop.

  9. Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Hazard Assessments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B. L.; McKay, D. S.; Taylor, L. A.; Wallace, W. T.; James, J.; Riofrio, L.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2009-12-01

    The Lunar Airborne Dust Toxicity Assessment Group (LADTAG) is developing data to set the permissible limits for human exposure to lunar dust. This standard will guide the design of airlocks and ports for EVA, as well as the requirements for filtering and monitoring the atmosphere in habitable vehicles, rovers and other modules. LADTAG’s recommendation for permissible exposure limits will be delivered to the Constellation Program in late 2010. The current worst-case exposure limit of 0.05 mg/m3, estimated by LADTAG in 2006, reflects the concern that lunar dust may be as toxic as quartz dust. Freshly-ground quartz is known to be more toxic than un-ground quartz dust. Our research has shown that the surfaces of lunar soil grains can be more readily activated by grinding than quartz. Activation was measured by the amount of free radicals generated—activated simulants generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) i.e., production of hydroxyl free radicals. Of the various influences in the lunar environment, micrometeorite bombardment probably creates the most long-lasting reactivity on the surfaces of grains, although solar wind impingement and short-wavelength UV radiation also contribute. The comminution process creates fractured surfaces with unsatisfied bonds. When these grains are inhaled and carried into the lungs, they will react with lung surfactant and cells, potentially causing tissue damage and disease. Tests on lunar simulants have shown that dissolution and leaching of metals can occur when the grains are exposed to water—the primary component of lung fluid. However, simulants may behave differently than actual lunar soils. Rodent toxicity testing will be done using the respirable fraction of actual lunar soils (particles with physical size of less than 2.5 micrometers). We are currently separating the fine material from the coarser material that comprises >95% of the mass of each soil sample. Dry sieving is not practical in this size range, so a new system

  10. Chlorine isotopic compositions of apatite in Apollo 14 rocks: Evidence for widespread vapor-phase metasomatism on the lunar nearside ∼4 billion years ago

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potts, Nicola J.; Barnes, Jessica J.; Tartèse, Romain; Franchi, Ian A.; Anand, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    Compared to most other planetary materials in the Solar System, some lunar rocks display high δ37Cl signatures. Loss of Cl in a H Cl environment has been invoked to explain the heavy signatures observed in lunar samples, either during volcanic eruptions onto the lunar surface or during large scale

  11. Nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyborowski, S.; Scheler, R.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure has been proposed for setting nuclide-related exemption limits for radioactive materials. It consists in grading the radionuclides into 4 groups of radiotoxicity and assigning only one activity limit to each of them. Examples are given for about 200 radionuclides. The radiation exposures resulting from a continuous steady release of activity fractions or from short-period release of the entire activity were assessed to remain below 0.1 ALI in both of these borderline cases, thus justifying the license-free utilization of radioactive materials below the exemption limits. (author)

  12. Atomic and nuclear parameters of single electron capture decaying nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.

    1981-01-01

    Atomic and nuclear parameters of the following nuclides which decay by electron capture have been calculated: 37 A r, 41 C a, 49 V , 53 M n, 55 F e,59 N i, 68Ge,82 S r, 97 T c, 118 T e, 131 C s, 137 L a, 140 N d, 157 T b, 165 E r, 193 p t, 194 H g, and 205 P h The evaluation rules are included in the first part of the paper. The values and the associated uncertainties of the following parameters have been tabulated: decay energy, electron capture probabilities, fluorescence yield, electron emission and X-ray emission. (Author) 27 refs

  13. On the measurement of cosmogenic nuclides in cometary materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, G.F.; Englert, P.A.J.; Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C.P.; Arnold, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Determinations of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in cometary material will help to define the recent surface history of the comet and its exposure to cosmic rays. In particular, the rates for the removal or mixing of surface material could be studied, and any variations in cosmic-ray intensity implied by the data could be used to infer orbital changes during the last few million years. The measurement of the shorter-lived isotopes poses technical challenges that should be addressed now. The measurement of longer-lived isotopes will be straightforward provided that rates of mass loss are not too high. 46 refs., 2 figs

  14. The Lunar Phases Project: A Mental Model-Based Observational Project for Undergraduate Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Mon, Manuel J.; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2011-01-01

    We present our Lunar Phases Project, an ongoing effort utilizing students' actual observations within a mental model building framework to improve student understanding of the causes and process of the lunar phases. We implement this project with a sample of undergraduate, nonscience major students enrolled in a midsized public university located…

  15. Hydrogen Distribution in the Lunar Polar Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanin, A. B.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Bakhtin, B. N.; Bodnarik, J. G.; Boynton, W. V.; Chin, G.; Evans, L. G.; Harshmann, K.; Fedosov, F.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present a method of conversion of the lunar neutron counting rate measured by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) instrument collimated neutron detectors, to water equivalent hydrogen (WEH) in the top approximately 1 m layer of lunar regolith. Polar maps of the Moon’s inferred hydrogen abundance are presented and discussed.

  16. Lunar Topography: Results from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) has been operating nearly continuously since July 2009, accumulating over 6 billion measurements from more than 2 billion in-orbit laser shots. LRO's near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, with full coverage at the equator from more than 12000 orbital tracks averaging less than 1 km in spacing at the equator. LRO has obtained a global geodetic model of the lunar topography with 50-meter horizontal and 1-m radial accuracy in a lunar center-of-mass coordinate system, with profiles of topography at 20-m horizontal resolution, and 0.1-m vertical precision. LOLA also provides measurements of reflectivity and surface roughness down to its 5-m laser spot size. With these data LOLA has measured the shape of all lunar craters 20 km and larger. In the proposed extended mission commencing late in 2012, LOLA will concentrate observations in the Southern Hemisphere, improving the density of the polar coverage to nearly 10-m pixel resolution and accuracy to better than 20 m total position error. Uses for these data include mission planning and targeting, illumination studies, geodetic control of images, as well as lunar geology and geophysics. Further improvements in geodetic accuracy are anticipated from the use of re ned gravity fields after the successful completion of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission in 2012.

  17. Alpha-emitting nuclides in commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of Windscale, United Kingdom, and their radiological significance to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentreath, R.J.; Lovett, M.B.; Harvey, B.R.; Ibbett, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    The concentrations of a number of alpha-emitting nuclides have been determined in the tissues of several commercial fish species caught in the vicinity of the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale. All tissues analysed were found to contain 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am, but 242 Cm and 244 Cm could only be reliably detected in the liver samples of some fish. Fish of the same species, but taken from the North Sea, have also been analysed for some naturally occurring alpha-emitting nuclides. Whereas uranium ( 238 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) could be detected in bone samples of fish, neither could be reliably detected in samples of muscle: in contrast, 210 Po was readily detected in samples of liver, muscle and bone. Commercial fish fillets from the Irish Sea, including the Windscale area, are also routinely monitored for alpha-emitting nuclides, and their radiological significance to man is briefly discussed. Comments are also made on the significance of the naturally occurring nuclides. (author)

  18. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  19. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography: January 1974--June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, K.I.; Christman, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    This bibliography (Volume II) follows the format of the first bibliography. Nuclides used therapeutically have not been included. References to medical application of the various nuclides of iodine, gallium, and indium have been excluded as being beyond the scope of this bibliography (and to keep its size to manageable proportions). For nuclides having fifteen or fewer references there is no breakdown into subcategories. For the others they have been subdivided as follows: (1) Production methods, (2) Compound syntheses, and (3) Medical uses. The first part of the bibliography contains references of general interest of various types. Where specific nuclides are involved, these references are also cross-indexed to each nuclide. The original reference number is always used for cross-indexing. The nuclide section is arranged in alphabetical order, and within each section alphabetically by first author. The author index lists each reference once for each author, with no indication of cross-referencing given

  20. Chemical concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide from solutions with low salt background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, Yu.S.; Ter-Akop'yan, G.M.; Popeko, A.G.; Drobina, T.P.; Zhuravleva, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of experiments on further concentration of a new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide, the concentrates of which form the Cheleken geothermal brines have been obtained, are presented. The conclusions are drown about the chemical nature of a new spontaneously fissionable nuclide. It is a chalcophile element which copreipitates with sulphides of copper, lead, arsenic and mercury from weakly acid solutions. The behaviour of the new nuclide in sulphide systems in many respects is similar to the behaviour of polonium, astatine and probably of bismuth. The most probable stable valence of the new nuclide varies from +1 up to +3. The data available on the chemical behaviour of the new nuclide as well as the analysis over contamination by spontaneously fissionable isotopes permit to state that the new natural spontaneously fissionable nuclide does not relate to the known isotopes

  1. Multi-pathway model of nuclide transport in fractured media and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xun; Yang Zeping; Li Jinxuan

    2010-01-01

    In order to know the law of nuclide transport in fracture system, the basic differential equations of nuclide transport in fracture and matrix were obtained based on the dual media theory, and the general analytic solutions of nuclide transport in single fractured media with exponential attenuation source in fracture were deduced by Laplace transform, and one-dimensional multi-pathway model of nuclide transport was proposed based on dual media theory and stochastic distribution of fracture parameters. The transport of Th-229, Cs-135 and Se-79 were simulated with this model, the relative concentration of these nuclides in fracture system were predicted. Further more, it was deduced that aperture and velocity can distinctly influence transport of nuclide by comparing with the results which were simulated by single fracture model. (authors)

  2. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  3. Sample Acquisition for Materials in Planetary Exploration (SAMPLE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ORBITEC proposes to analyze, design, and develop a device for autonomous lunar surface/subsurface sampling and processing applications. The Sample Acquisition for...

  4. Pressurized Lunar Rover (PLR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Kenneth; Frampton, Jeffrey; Honaker, David; McClure, Kerry; Zeinali, Mazyar; Bhardwaj, Manoj; Bulsara, Vatsal; Kokan, David; Shariff, Shaun; Svarverud, Eric

    The objective of this project was to design a manned pressurized lunar rover (PLR) for long-range transportation and for exploration of the lunar surface. The vehicle must be capable of operating on a 14-day mission, traveling within a radius of 500 km during a lunar day or within a 50-km radius during a lunar night. The vehicle must accommodate a nominal crew of four, support two 28-hour EVA's, and in case of emergency, support a crew of six when near the lunar base. A nominal speed of ten km/hr and capability of towing a trailer with a mass of two mt are required. Two preliminary designs have been developed by two independent student teams. The PLR 1 design proposes a seven meter long cylindrical main vehicle and a trailer which houses the power and heat rejection systems. The main vehicle carries the astronauts, life support systems, navigation and communication systems, lighting, robotic arms, tools, and equipment for exploratory experiments. The rover uses a simple mobility system with six wheels on the main vehicle and two on the trailer. The nonpressurized trailer contains a modular radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) supplying 6.5 kW continuous power. A secondary energy storage for short-term peak power needs is provided by a bank of lithium-sulfur dioxide batteries. The life support system is partly a regenerative system with air and hygiene water being recycled. A layer of water inside the composite shell surrounds the command center allowing the center to be used as a safe haven during solar flares. The PLR 1 has a total mass of 6197 kg. It has a top speed of 18 km/hr and is capable of towing three metric tons, in addition to the RTG trailer. The PLR 2 configuration consists of two four-meter diameter, cylindrical hulls which are passively connected by a flexible passageway, resulting in the overall vehicle length of 11 m. The vehicle is driven by eight independently suspended wheels. The dual-cylinder concept allows articulated as well as double

  5. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  6. Exact error estimation for solutions of nuclide chain equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachihara, Hidekazu; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    The exact solution of nuclide chain equations within arbitrary figures is obtained for a linear chain by employing the Bateman method in the multiple-precision arithmetic. The exact error estimation of major calculation methods for a nuclide chain equation is done by using this exact solution as a standard. The Bateman, finite difference, Runge-Kutta and matrix exponential methods are investigated. The present study confirms the following. The original Bateman method has very low accuracy in some cases, because of large-scale cancellations. The revised Bateman method by Siewers reduces the occurrence of cancellations and thereby shows high accuracy. In the time difference method as the finite difference and Runge-Kutta methods, the solutions are mainly affected by the truncation errors in the early decay time, and afterward by the round-off errors. Even though the variable time mesh is employed to suppress the accumulation of round-off errors, it appears to be nonpractical. Judging from these estimations, the matrix exponential method is the best among all the methods except the Bateman method whose calculation process for a linear chain is not identical with that for a general one. (author)

  7. The clinical application of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Xing; Tang Mingdeng; Lin Duanyu; Ni Leichun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application value of nuclide bone imaging in malignant lymphoma. Methods: 71 cases of patients were diagnosed by pathology as malignant lymphoma, among whom there were 8 cases of Hodgkin disease (HL) and 63 cases of non-Hodgkin disease (NHL). The examinations were performed from 2.5 to 6 hours later after the intravenous injection of 99m Tc-MDP (555-925 MBq). Results: 31 cases were bone-infiltrating lesions, including 3 cases of HL and 28 cases of NHL. The total number of the focus was 103, except 2 cases of bone lack, including 35 foci in vertebral column (34.65%), 30 foci in limb and joint (29.70%), 14 foci in rib (13.86%), 13 foci in elvis (12.0%), 5 foci in skull (4.95%) and 4 foci in sternum (3.96%). Conclusion: The nuclide bone imaging has a high value in the clinical stage, therapeutic observation and prognosis of bone-infiltrating malignant lymphoma. (authors)

  8. Contribution of short-lived nuclides to decay heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katakura, Jun-ichi

    1987-01-01

    Comments are made on the calculation of decay heat, centering on evaluation of average decay energy. It is difficult to obtain sufficiently useful decay diagrams of short lived nucleides. High-energy levels are often missing in inferior decay diagrams, leading to an overestimation of the intensity of beta-rays at low-energy levels. Such an overestimation or underestimation due to the inferiority of a decay diagram is referred to as pandemonium effect. The pandemonium effect can be assessed by means of the ratio of the measured energy of the highest level of the daughter nuclide to the Q β -value of the beta-decay. When a satisfactory decay diagram cannot be obtained, the average decay energy has to be estimated by theoretical calculation. The gross theory for beta-decay proposed by Yamada and Takahashi is employed for the calculation. To carry out the calculation according to this theory, it is required to determine the value for the parameter Q 00 , the lowest energy of the daughter nuclide that meets the selection rule for beta-decay. Currently, Q 00 to be used for this purpose is estimated from data on the energy of the lowest level found in a decay diagram, even if it is inferior. Some examples of calculation of decay heat using the average beta- or gamma-ray energy are shown and compared with measurements. (author)

  9. Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.

  10. Study on the environmental movements and distributions of natural radioactive nuclides on the granite area (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    1999-03-01

    The natural radionuclides as K-40, uranium decay series and thorium decay series etc. are widely distributed on environment, but are not uniformly. These have various forms as the sources of terrestrial environmental γ radiation and of radon and make wide fluctuation seasonal and spatially on the environment. We have selected Ikeda mineral spring district, Shimane pref., Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Muro district, Hachibuse district, Nara pref. and Arima spa district, Hyogo-pref. for HBRA, and Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref. as CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon and decay nuclides. Radon measurements have been carried using cup typed radon and thoron monitors, pico-rad method by active charcoal sampling and Pilon scintillation-cell by grub sampling. Accumulated radon monitors have been used with cellulose nitrate as solid state track detector. Rn-222 concentrations in air at Misasa spa ranged 2 - 150 Bq/m 3 outdoor and 8 - 194 Bq/m 3 indoor. Rn-222 concentrations on Misasa district, Asahi district and Takeda district geologically formed from granite strata are high, and those on Osika district and Mitoku district formed from volcanic rocks (Andesite and Basalt) are low level. Rn-222 concentration variations in well water used as drinking water were 2 - 138 Bq/l (mean value 31 Bq/l) and those in ground waters varied from non detectable to 4620 Bq/l (mean 875 Bq/l) on sampling time and places. Mean Rn-222 concentration in the spring water at Arima spa area, Hyogo prefecture is 26 Bq/l at Tansan spring source and the other spring sources are comparatively low level. (J.P.N.)

  11. Validation of spent nuclear fuel nuclide composition data using percentage differences and detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Cheol [Chung-Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). School of Energy Systems Engineering

    2017-06-15

    Nuclide composition data of spent nuclear fuels are important in many nuclear engineering applications. In reactor physics, nuclear reactor design requires the nuclide composition and the corresponding cross sections. In analyzing the radiological health effects of a severe accident on the public and the environment, the nuclide composition in the reactor inventory is among the important input data. Nuclide composition data need to be provided to analyze the possible environmental effects of a spent nuclear fuel repository. They will also be the basis for identifying the origin of unidentified spent nuclear fuels or radioactive materials.

  12. Application of the activation analysis using the method of retarded fission neutrons counting for the determination of some fissionable nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, M.J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A system for the detection and counting of delayed neutrons which allows the analysis of some fissile and fertile nuclides, in samples of milligram size, was developed. This was applied for the analysis of natural uranium and thorium and also for determining the 235 U/ 238 U ratio in non-irradiated samples which contain uranium with different degrees of enrichment in 235 U. The spectrum of activated neutrons was varied in order to discriminate the nuclides, by covering or not the sample with a material (cadmium or boron) able to absorb low energy neutrons. Determination of 235 U/ 238 U ratios, through the number of delayed neutrons, was made by drawing a calibration curve using standards ranging from 0.5% to 93% on 235 U; the accuracy of the method was also examined. In a first step, conditions for a simultaneous and non-destructive analysis of uranium and thorium were developed. The interference between these two nuclides was studied, using simulated samples. Real samples were provided by Nuclemon and IAEA. For samples with uranium concentration in the range of percentages and thorium concentration of some ppm, uranium interferes in the determination of thorium through the non-destructive analytical method. For this case, a fast and quantitative chemical method was studied which allows for the separation of thorium from uranium before the determination of throrium concentration by counting the delayed fission neutrons. It was found that the results obtained by both destructive and non-destructive methods are very consistent and can be considered statistically equivalent within a confidence level of 95%. (Author) [pt

  13. Academic aspects of lunar water resources and their relevance to lunar protolife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 10(9) metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My). Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino acids. Soluble

  14. Academic Aspects of Lunar Water Resources and Their Relevance to Lunar Protolife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Green

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water ice has been discovered on the moon by radar backscatter at the North Pole and by spectrometry at the South Pole in the Cabeus crater with an extrapolated volume for both poles of conservatively 109 metric tons. Various exogenic and endogenic sources of this water have been proposed. This paper focuses on endogenic water sources by fumaroles and hot springs in shadowed polar craters. A survey of theoretical and morphological details supports a volcanic model. Release of water and other constituents by defluidization over geological time was intensified in the Hadean Eon (c.a. 4600 to 4000 My. Intensification factors include higher heat flow by now-extinct radionuclides, tidal flexing and higher core temperatures. Lesser gravity would promote deeper bubble nucleation in lunar magmas, slower rise rates of gases and enhanced subsidence of lunar caldera floors. Hadean volcanism would likely have been more intense and regional in nature as opposed to suture-controlled location of calderas in Phanerozoic Benioff-style subduction environments. Seventy-seven morphological, remote sensing and return sample features were categorized into five categories ranging from a volcano-tectonic origin only to impact origin only. Scores for the most logical scenario were 69 to eight in favor of lunar volcanism. Ingredients in the Cabeus plume analysis showed many volcanic fluids and their derivatives plus a large amount of mercury. Mercury-rich fumaroles are well documented on Earth and are virtually absent in cometary gases and solids. There are no mercury anomalies in terrestrial impact craters. Volcanic fluids and their derivatives in lunar shadow can theoretically evolve into protolife. Energy for this evolution can be provided by vent flow charging intensified in the lunar Hadean and by charge separation on freezing fumarolic fluids in shadow. Fischer-Tropsch reactions on hydrothermal clays can yield lipids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and amino

  15. Tests of the lunar hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The concept that the Moon was fissioned from the Earth after core separation is the most readily testable hypothesis of lunar origin, since direct comparisons of lunar and terrestrial compositions can be made. Differences found in such comparisons introduce so many ad hoc adjustments to the fission hypothesis that it becomes untestable. Further constraints may be obtained from attempting to date the volatile-refractory element fractionation. The combination of chemical and isotopic problems suggests that the fission hypothesis is no longer viable, and separate terrestrial and lunar accretion from a population of fractionated precursor planetesimals provides a more reasonable explanation.

  16. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of building an infrastructure on the moon is discussed, assuming that earth-to-moon and moon-to-earth transport will be available. The sequence of events which would occur in the process of building an infrastructure is examined. The human needs which must be met on a lunar base are discussed, including minimal life support, quality of life, and growth stages. The technology available to meet these needs is reviewed and further research in fields related to a lunar base, such as the study of the moon's polar regions and the limits of lunar agriculture, is recommended.

  17. Year 3 LUNAR Annual Report to the NASA Lunar Science Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jack; Lazio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar University Network for Astrophysics Research (LUNAR) is a team of researchers and students at leading universities, NASA centers, and federal research laboratories undertaking investigations aimed at using the Moon as a platform for space science. LUNAR research includes Lunar Interior Physics & Gravitation using Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR), Low Frequency Cosmology and Astrophysics (LFCA), Planetary Science and the Lunar Ionosphere, Radio Heliophysics, and Exploration Science. The LUN...

  18. Communications Relay and Human-Assisted Sample Return from the Deep Space Gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichan, T.; Hopkins, J. B.; Bierhaus, B.; Murrow, D. W.

    2018-02-01

    The Deep Space Gateway can enable or enhance exploration of the lunar surface through two capabilities: 1. communications relay, opening up access to the lunar farside, and 2. sample return, enhancing the ability to return large sample masses.

  19. Late Bombardment of the Lunar Highlands Recorded in MIL 090034, MIL 090036 and MIL 090070 Lunar Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Herzog, G. F.; Yamaguchi, A.; Shirai, N.; Ebihara, M.; Lindsay, F. N.; Delaney, J.; Turrin, B.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Kaguya mission detected small but widespread outcrops of nearly pure ferroan anorthosite in and around large impact basins on the Moon. Along with certain lunar rocks, highly feldspathic lunar meteorites such as MIL 090034 (M34), 090036 (M36), and 090070 (M70) may provide samples of this material. We have measured the Ar-40/Ar-39 release patterns and cosmogenic Ar-38 concentrations of several small (<200 microg) samples separated from M34,36, and 70. From petrographic observations concluded that "some of the clasts and grains experienced generations of modifications," a conclusion that we examine in light of our data.

  20. NASA Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling Portals provide web-based suites of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, and Vesta. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look forward to the results of the exciting work currently being undertaken. Additional data products and tools continue to be added to the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP). These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for the Resource Prospector mission. Current development work on LMMP also includes facilitating mission planning and data management for lunar CubeSat missions, and working with the NASA Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office's Lunar Apollo Sample database in order to help better visualize the geographic contexts from which samples were retrieved. A new user interface provides, among other improvements, significantly enhanced 3D visualizations and navigation. Mars Trek, the project's Mars portal, has now been assigned by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for the Mars 2020 Rover mission as well as for the Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. This effort is concentrating on enhancing Mars Trek with data products and analysis tools specifically requested by the proposing teams for the various sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in these upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. The portals also serve as

  1. Calculations of thermal-reactor spent-fuel nuclide inventories and comparisons with measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.B.; LaBauve, R.J.; England, T.R.

    1982-01-01

    Comparisons with integral measurements have demonstrated the accuracy of CINDER codes and libraries in calculating aggregate fission-product properties, including neutron absorption, decay power, and decay spectra. CINDER calculations have, alternatively, been used to supplement measured integral data describing fission-product decay power and decay spectra. Because of the incorporation of the extensive actinide library and the use of ENDF/B-V data, it is desirable to compare the inventory of individual nuclides obtained from tandem EPRI-CELL/CINDER-2 calculations with those determined in documented benchmark inventory measurements of spent reactor fuel. The development of the popular 148 Nd burnup measurement procedure is outlined, and areas of uncertainty in it and lack of clarity in its interpretation are indicated. Six inventory samples of varying quality and completeness are examined. The power histories used in the calculations have been listed for other users

  2. Prototype of an expert system to help nuclide identification in gamma spectrum analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanthi, Kasi Annapurna; Corcuera, Raquel Paviotti; Oliveira, Gina Maira B.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development and use of IDENT, prototype of an expert system that helps the researcher to identify radionuclides in gamma-ray spectroscopy. Normally the method adopted by the researcher is iterative, time consuming and becomes complicated in the analysis of large and complex gamma-ray spectra. The present expert system is based on the knowledge transmitted by expert and specialists in this area and the results show that it is helpful for researches who perform nuclide identification through gamma-ray spectroscopy. The gamma-ray spectrum of a material sample with about 140 peaks would take about a week or two be analysed by a specialist. The same task can be done in a few minutes using this expert system. (author). 14 refs., 2 figs

  3. Level of natural radiation nuclides in food and water in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Keling; Sun Bangyin; Zhang Xiaozhen; Li Guangming

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the level of natural radiation nuclides in Hubei Province, China. 10 spots were selected in Wuhan, Jiangling etc., 171 samples in 14 kinds of food such as rice, cabbage and tap water, water in Yangtze River and other rivers were analysed.The results show that the values of U, Th, 226 Ra were n x 10 -2 Bq.kg -1 and that of 40 K was n x 10 Bq.kg -1 in food. The values of U, Th, 226 Ra, 40 K were n x 10 -2 Bq.L -1 , and that of 3 H was nBq.L -1 in drinking water. The data investigated indicates that Hubei Province belongs to the region of normal natural radiation. It is found that 226 Ra value in food is higher in general in the county of Tongcheng, and this problem needs further study

  4. Constraining the volatile budget of the lunar interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, N. J.; Bromiley, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of volatiles (F, Cl, S, H2O) in a range of lunar samples confirm the presence of volatile material in lunar magmas. It remains unknown, however, where this volatile material is stored and when it was delivered to the Moon. On Earth, point defects within mantle olivine, and its high-pressure polymorphs, are thought to be the largest reservoir of volatile material. However, as volatiles have been cycled into and out of the Earth's mantle throughout geological time, via subduction and volcanism, this masks any original volatile signatures. As the Moon has no plate tectonics, it is expected that any volatile material present in the deep lunar interior would have been inherited during accretion and differentiation, providing insight into the delivery of volatiles to the early Earth-Moon system. Our aim was, therefore, to test the volatile storage capacity of the deep lunar mantle and determine mineral/melt partitioning for key volatiles. Experiments were performed in a primitive lunar mantle composition and run at relevant T, P, and at fO2 below the IW buffer. Experiments replicated the initial stages of LMO solidification with either olivine + melt, olivine + pyroxene + melt, or pyroxene + melt as the only phases present. Mineral-melt partition coefficients (Dx) derived for volatile material (F, Cl, S, H2O) vary significantly compared to those derived for terrestrial conditions. An order of magnitude more H2O was found to partition into lunar olivine compared to the terrestrial upper mantle. DF derived for lunar olivine are comparable to the highest terrestrial derived values whilst no Cl was found to partition into lunar olivine under these conditions. Furthermore, an inverse trend between DF and DOH hints towards coupled-substitution mechanisms between H and F under low-fO2/lunar bulk composition. These results suggest that if volatile material was present in the LMO a significant proportion could be partitioned into the lower lunar mantle. The

  5. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lunar Workshops for Educators, Year 1 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. P.; Hsu, B. C.; Bleacher, L.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.

    2011-12-01

    This past summer, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) sponsored a series of weeklong professional development workshops designed to educate and inspire grade 6-12 science teachers: the Lunar Workshops for Educators. Participants learned about lunar science and exploration, gained tools to help address common student misconceptions about the Moon, heard some of the latest research results from LRO scientists, worked with LRO data, and learned how to bring these data to their students using hands-on activities aligned with grade 6-12 National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks. Where possible, the workshops also included tours of science facilities or field trips intended to help the teachers better understand mission operations or geologic processes relevant to the Moon. The workshops were very successful. Participants demonstrated an improved understanding of lunar science concepts in post-workshop assessments (as compared to identical pre-assessments) and a greater understanding of how to access and productively share data from LRO with their students and provide them with authentic research experiences. Participant feedback on workshop surveys was also enthusiastically positive. 5 additional Lunar Workshops for Educators will be held around the country in the summer of 2012. For more information and to register, visit http://lunar.gsfc.nasa.gov/lwe/index.html.

  6. Atmospheric dust contribution to budget of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles. The Mount Cameroon volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, E.; Chabaux, F. J.; Innocent, C.; Ghaleb, B.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of U-series nuclides in weathering profiles is developed today for constraining time scale of soil and weathering profile formation (e.g., Chabaux et al., 2008). These studies require the understanding of U-series nuclides sources and fractionation in weathering systems. For most of these studies the impact of aeolian inputs on U-series nuclides in soils is usually neglected. Here, we propose to discuss such an assumption, i.e., to evaluate the impact of dust deposition on U-series nuclides in soils, by working on present and paleo-soils collected on the Mount Cameroon volcano. Recent Sr, Nd, Pb isotopic analyses performed on these samples have indeed documented significant inputs of Saharan dusts in these soils (Dia et al., 2006). We have therefore analyzed 238U-234U-230Th nuclides in the same samples. Comparison of U-Th isotopic data with Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data indicates a significant impact of the dust input on the U and Th budget of the soils, around 10% for both U and Th. Using Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of Saharan dusts given by Dia et al. (2006) we estimate U-Th concentrations and U-Th isotope ratios of dusts compatible with U-Th data obtained on Saharan dusts collected in Barbados (Rydell H.S. and Prospero J.M., 1972). However, the variations of U/Th ratios along the weathering profiles cannot be explained by a simple mixing scenario between material from basalt and from the defined atmospheric dust pool. A secondary uranium migration associated with chemical weathering has affected the weathering profiles. Mass balance calculation suggests that U in soils from Mount Cameroon is affected at the same order of magnitude by both chemical migration and dust accretion. Nevertheless, the Mount Cameroon is a limit case were large dust inputs from continental crust of Sahara contaminate basaltic terrain from Mount Cameroon volcano. Therefore, this study suggests that in other contexts were dust inputs are lower, or the bedrocks more concentrated in U and Th

  7. Early lunar magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for investigating paleointensity (the ancient magnetic field) was applied to three subsamples of a single, 1-m homogeneous clast from a recrystallized boulder of lunar breccia. Several dating methods established 4 billion years as the age of boulder assembly. Results indicate that the strength of the ambient magnetic field at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon was about 0.4 oersted at 4 billion years ago. Values as high as 1.2 oersted have been reported (Collison et al., 1973). The required fields are approximately 10,000 times greater than present interplanetary or solar flare fields. It is suggested that this large field could have arisen from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri sun.

  8. Electrochemistry of lunar rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Haskin, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Electrolysis of silicate melts has been shown to be an effective means of producing metals from common silicate materials. No fluxing agents need be added to the melts. From solution in melts of diopside (CaMgSi2O6) composition, the elements Si, Ti, Ni, and Fe have been reduced to their metallic states. Platinum is a satisfactory anode material, but other cathode materials are needed. Electrolysis of compositional analogs of lunar rocks initially produces iron metal at the cathode and oxygen gas at the anode. Utilizing mainly heat and electricity which are readily available from sunlight, direct electrolysis is capable of producing useful metals from common feedstocks without the need for expendable chemicals. This simple process and the products obtained from it deserve further study for use in materials processing in space.

  9. Early Acheulean technology in the Rietputs Formation, South Africa, dated with cosmogenic nuclides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Ryan J; Granger, Darryl E; Kuman, Kathleen; Partridge, Timothy C

    2009-02-01

    An absolute dating technique based on the build-up and decay of (26)Al and (10)Be in the mineral quartz provides crucial evidence regarding early Acheulean hominid distribution in South Africa. Cosmogenic nuclide burial dating of an ancient alluvial deposit of the Vaal River (Rietputs Formation) in the western interior of South Africa shows that coarse gravel and sand aggradation there occurred ca 1.57+/-0.22Ma, with individual ages of samples ranging from 1.89+/-0.19 to 1.34+/-0.22Ma. This was followed by aggradation of laminated and cross-bedded fine alluvium at ca 1.26+/-0.10Ma. The Rietputs Formation provides an ideal situation for the use of the cosmogenic nuclide burial dating method, as samples could be obtained from deep mining pits at depths ranging from 7 to 16 meters. Individual dates provide only a minimum age for the stone tool technology preserved within the deposits. Each assemblage represents a time averaged collection. Bifacial tools distributed throughout the coarse gravel and sand unit can be assigned to an early phase of the Acheulean. This is the first absolute radiometric dated evidence for early Acheulean artefacts in South Africa that have been found outside of the early hominid sites of the Gauteng Province. These absolute dates also indicate that handaxe-using hominids inhabited southern Africa as early as their counterparts in East Africa. The simultaneous appearance of the Acheulean in different parts of the continent implies relatively rapid technology development and the widespread use of large cutting tools in the African continent by ca 1.6Ma.

  10. Google Moon Lunar Mapping Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A collection of lunar maps and charts. This tool is an exciting new way to explore the story of the Apollo missions, still the only time mankind has set foot on...

  11. Thermodynamics of lunar ilmenite reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenberg, B. H.; Franklin, H. A.; Jones, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    With the prospect of returning to the moon, the development of a lunar occupation would fulfill one of the goals of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) of the late 1980's. Processing lunar resources into useful products, such as liquid oxygen for fuel and life support, would be one of many aspects of an active lunar base. ilmenite (FeTiO3) is found on the lunar surface and can be used as a feed stock to produce oxygen. Understanding the various ilmenite-reduction reactions elucidates many processing options. Defining the thermodynamic chemical behavior at equilibrium under various conditions of temperature and pressures can be helpful in specifying optimal operating conditions. Differences between a previous theoretical analysis and experimentally determined results has sparked interest in trying to understand the effect of operating pressure on the hydrogen-reduction-of-ilmenite reaction. Various aspects of this reduction reaction are discussed.

  12. Lunar Health Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the Phase II Lunar Health Monitor program, Orbital Research will develop a second generation wearable sensor suite for astronaut physiologic monitoring. The...

  13. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  14. The Lunar Regolith as a Recorder of Cosmic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Bonnie; McKay, D.; Riofrio, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Moon can be considered a giant tape recorder containing the history of the solar system and Universe. The lunar regolith (soil) has recorded the early history of the Moon, Earth, the solar system and Universe. A major goal of future lunar exploration should be to find and play back existing fragments of that tape . By reading the lunar tape, we can uncover a record of planetary bombardment, as well as solar and stellar variability. The Moon can tell us much about our place in the Universe. The lunar regolith has likely recorded the original meteoritic bombardment of Earth and Moon, a violent cataclysm that may have peaked around 4 Gyr, and the less intense bombardment occurring since that time. This impact history is preserved on the Moon as regolith layers, ejecta layers, impact melt rocks, and ancient impact breccias. The impact history of the Earth and Moon possibly had profound effects on the origin and development of life. Decrease in meteor bombardment allowed life to develop on Earth. Life may have developed first on another body, such as Mars, then arrived via meteorite on Earth. The solar system may have experienced bursts of severe radiation from the Sun, other stars, or from unknown sources. The lunar regolith has recorded this radiation history in the form of implanted solar wind, solar flare materials and radiation damage. Lunar soil can be found sandwiched between layers of basalt or pyroclastic deposits. This filling constitutes a buried time capsule that is likely to contain well-preserved ancient regolith. Study of such samples will show us how the solar system has evolved and changed over time. The lunar tape recorder can provide detailed information on specific portions of solar and stellar variability. Data from the Moon also offers clues as to whether so-called fundamental constants have changed over time.

  15. Lunar Magma Ocean Crystallization: Constraints from Fractional Crystallization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, J. F.; Draper, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    The currently accepted paradigm of lunar formation is that of accretion from the ejecta of a giant impact, followed by crystallization of a global scale magma ocean. This model accounts for the formation of the anorthosite highlands crust, which is globally distributed and old, and the formation of the younger mare basalts which are derived from a source region that has experienced plagioclase extraction. Several attempts at modelling the crystallization of such a lunar magma ocean (LMO) have been made, but our ever-increasing knowledge of the lunar samples and surface have raised as many questions as these models have answered. Geodynamic models of lunar accretion suggest that shortly following accretion the bulk of the lunar mass was hot, likely at least above the solidus]. Models of LMO crystallization that assume a deep magma ocean are therefore geodynamically favorable, but they have been difficult to reconcile with a thick plagioclase-rich crust. A refractory element enriched bulk composition, a shallow magma ocean, or a combination of the two have been suggested as a way to produce enough plagioclase to account for the assumed thickness of the crust. Recently however, geophysical data from the GRAIL mission have indicated that the lunar anorthositic crust is not as thick as was initially estimated, which allows for both a deeper magma ocean and a bulk composition more similar to the terrestrial upper mantle. We report on experimental simulations of the fractional crystallization of a deep (approximately 100km) LMO with a terrestrial upper mantle-like (LPUM) bulk composition. Our experimental results will help to define the composition of the lunar crust and mantle cumulates, and allow us to consider important questions such as source regions of the mare basalts and Mg-suite, the role of mantle overturn after magma ocean crystallization and the nature of KREEP

  16. Lunar Navigation Architecture Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Christopher; Getchius, Joel; Holt, Greg; Moreau, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is aiming to establish a long-term presence on the lunar surface. The Constellation elements (Orion, Altair, Earth Departure Stage, and Ares launch vehicles) will require a lunar navigation architecture for navigation state updates during lunar-class missions. Orion in particular has baselined earth-based ground direct tracking as the primary source for much of its absolute navigation needs. However, due to the uncertainty in the lunar navigation architecture, the Orion program has had to make certain assumptions on the capabilities of such architectures in order to adequately scale the vehicle design trade space. The following paper outlines lunar navigation requirements, the Orion program assumptions, and the impacts of these assumptions to the lunar navigation architecture design. The selection of potential sites was based upon geometric baselines, logistical feasibility, redundancy, and abort support capability. Simulated navigation covariances mapped to entry interface flightpath- angle uncertainties were used to evaluate knowledge errors. A minimum ground station architecture was identified consisting of Goldstone, Madrid, Canberra, Santiago, Hartebeeshoek, Dongora, Hawaii, Guam, and Ascension Island (or the geometric equivalent).

  17. Development of a method to determine the nuclide inventory in bituminized waste packages; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Bestimmung des Nuklidinventars in bituminierten Abfallgebinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesalic, E.; Kortman, F.; Lierse von Gostomski, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Zentrale Technisch-Wissenschaftliche Betriebseinheit Radiochemie Muenchen (RCM)

    2014-01-15

    Until the 1980s, bitumen was used as a conditioning agent for weak to medium radioactive liquid waste. Its use can be ascribed mainly to the properties that indicated that the matrix was optimal. However, fires broke out repeatedly during the conditioning process, so that the method is meanwhile no longer permitted in Germany. There are an estimated 100 waste packages held by the public authorities in Germany that require a supplementary declaration. In contrast to the common matrices, such as for example resins or sludges, there is still no standardized technology for taking samples and subsequently determining the radio-nuclide for bitumen. Aspects, such as the thermoplastic behaviour, make determining the nuclide inventory more difficult in bituminized waste packages. The development of a standardized technology to take samples with a subsequent determination of the radio-nuclide analysis is the objective of a project funded by the BMBF. Known, new methods, specially developed for the project, are examined on inactive bitumen samples and then transferred to active samples. At first non-destructive methods are used. The resulting information forms an important basis to work out and apply destructive strategy for sampling and analysis. Since the project is on-going, this report can only address the development of the sampling process. By developing a sampling system, it will be possible to take samples from an arbitrary selected location of the package across the entire matrix level and thus gain representative analysis material. The process is currently being optimized. (orig.)

  18. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki.

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ( 19 F+ 209 Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient 228 U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by 19 F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous γ-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  19. Method of separating radioactive nuclides from ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazunori; Saikoku, Masami; Taneta, Daisuke; Yagi, Takuro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to safely process radioactive nuclides from spent ion exchange resins by using existent processing facilities. Method: Ion exchange resins in aqueous medium are at first placed to the ultrasonic wave irradiation site and put into such a state where clads and resins are easily separatable from each other by weakening the bonding force between them. Since the clads are magnetic material such as Fe 3 O 4 or NiFe 2 O 4 , the clads can be collected in the direction of the magnetic force by exerting the magnetic field simultaneously. The collected clads are transported by means of the aqueous medium to a collecting tank by removing the effect of magnetic field, for example, by interrupting the current supply to the electromagnet. Finally, they were subjected to stabilization and fixation into inorganic hardening agent such as cement hardener. Thus, processions can be made safely by using existent facilities. (Takahashi, M.)

  20. Nuclide creation and annealing reactor waste in neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, V.N.; Kadenko, I.M.

    2007-01-01

    We consider chemical elements in the Universe (their properties and transmutations) as a fuel powering an evolution of stars, galaxies, etc. The nuclear fusion reactions represent an energy source of stars and, in particular, the Sun fitting the life on the Earth. This brings a question on an origin and conditions for creation of life. We discuss some specific features of nuclear reaction chains at the hydrostatic burning of nuclides in stars and treaties for development of thermonuclear fusion reactors at the Earth based environment. The nova and supernova give promising astrophysical site candidates for synthesis of heavy atomic nuclei and renewing other nuclear components. Such an explosive nucleosynthesis yields the actinides containing basic fuel for nuclear fission reactors, among others. We briefly outline the e-, s-, and r-processes while accounting for ultra-strong stellar magnetization, and discuss some ideas for annealing the radioactive toxic nuclear waste

  1. Radiometric dating by alpha spectrometry on uranium series nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijk, A. van der.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes the analytical and technical procedures that are required for routine application of both the 230 Th/ 234 U disequilibrium dating method for peat and the 210 Pb dating method for lake sediments. Its principal aim is to test, refine and discuss the reliability and validity of these methods. On the other hand, the analytical procedures that were introduced open a wide range of other interesting fields of research that are not necessarily restricted to geological problems only. Chapter 5 reports an obviously not foreseen application: detection of alpha emitting nuclides released in the first weeks of May, 1986 during the accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR. 128 refs.; 43 figs.; 15 tabs

  2. Radioactive fallout nuclides in a peat-bog ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pausch, G.; Hofmann, W.; Steger, F.; Tuerk, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Province of Salzburg belongs to the regions with the highest contamination from the Chernobyl-fallout outside the former USSR. The peat-bog investigated in this study is situated in Koppl, east of Salzburg. A peat-bog is a special example of an ecosystem, which is generally not disturbed by human activities because it is under strict nature-conservation and whose soil structure is not affected by animal activities from moles and earthworms. Peat-bogs are characterized by acidic soils which are high in organic material and low in clay mineral content. A number of previous studies have demonstrated that especially in peat-bogs and especially in the Koppl-peat-bog very high amounts of radioactive fallout nuclides from the Chernobyl accident and from the bomb-testings could be found

  3. Difficulty in the usage of nuclides in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Hideo

    1980-01-01

    In Japan, the uses of radioisotopes in hospitals are increasing year after year. Therefore, the problems of the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are important. The liquid and gaseous wastes with radioactivity concentrations below the maximum permissible levels are allowed to be disposed of on the sites by the law. However, high-level liquid wastes and solid wastes cannot be disposed of on the sites. These wastes stored in steel drums are collected by Japan Radioisotope Association, and finally treated and disposed of on the site of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The nuclides used in hospitals are principally Tc-99m, and also 131 I, 198 Au, 125 I and 3 H. The following matters are described: the present situation, radioactive wastes from medical treatments, and the management of radioactive solid, liquid and gaseous wastes from hospitals. (J.P.N.)

  4. Mechanism of fission of neutron-deficient actinoids nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueki, Keisuke; Nakahara, Hiromichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Hachioji (Japan). Faculty of Science; Tanase, Masakazu; Nagame, Yuichiro; Shinohara, Nobuo; Tsukada, Kazuaki

    1996-01-01

    A heavy ion reaction ({sup 19}F+{sup 209}Bi) is selected. The reaction produces neutron-deficient {sup 228}U which is compound nucleus with a pair of Rb(z=37) and Cs(Z=55). Energy dissipation problem of nucleus was studied by measuring the isotope distribution of two fissile nuclides. Bismuth metal evaporated on aluminium foil was irradiated by {sup 19}F with the incident energy of 105-128 MeV. We concluded from the results that the excess energy of reaction system obtained with increasing the incident energy is consumed by (1) light Rb much more than Cs and (2) about 60% of energy is given to two fission fragments and the rest 40% to the translational kinetic energy or unknown anomalous {gamma}-ray irradiation. (S.Y.)

  5. Lunar Science from and for Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, M. C.; Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2008-09-01

    anniversary in 2007 over the launch of Sputnik (from the former Soviet Union). The ensuing Apollo (US) and Luna (USSR) programs initiated serious exploration of the Moon. The samples returned from those (now historic!) early missions changed our understanding of our place in the universe forever. They were the first well documented samples from an extraterrestrial body and attracted some of the top scientists in the world to extract the first remarkable pieces of information about Earth's nearest neighbour. And so they did - filling bookcases with profound new discoveries about this airless, waterless, and beautifully mysterious ancient world. The Moon was found to represent pure geology for a silicate planetary body - without all the complicating factors of plate tectonics, climate, and weather that recycle or transform Earth materials repeatedly. And then nothing happened. After the flush of reconnaissance, there was no further exploration of the Moon. For several decades scientists had nothing except the returned samples and a few telescopes with which to further study Earth's neighbour. Lack of new information breeds ignorance and can be stifling. Even though the space age was expanding its horizons to the furthest reaches of the solar system and the universe, lunar science moved slowly if at all and was kept in the doldrums. The drought ended with two small missions to the Moon in the 1990's, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. As summarized in the SSB/NRC report (and more completely in Jolliff et al. Eds. 2006, New Views of the Moon, Rev. Min. & Geochem.), the limited data returned from these small spacecraft set in motion several fundamental paradigm shifts in our understanding of the Moon and re-invigorated an aging science community. We learned that the largest basin in the solar system and oldest on the Moon dominates the southern half of the lunar farside (only seen by spacecraft). The age of this huge basin, if known, would constrain the period of heavy bombardment

  6. 10Be concentrations and the long-term fate of particle-reactive nuclides in five soil profiles from California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, M.C.; Krishnaswami, S.; Thomas, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration-depth profiles of cosmic-ray-produced 10 Be(tsub(1/2)=1.5 m.y.) have been measured by accelerator-mass spectrometry in five soil profiles. These measurements were made in an effort (1) to understand the retentivity of soil surfaces for particle-reactive tracers depositing from the atmosphere on time scales of 10 4 -10 6 years, and (2) to explore the application of 10 Be as a chronometer of geomorphic surface age. The profiles sampled are from two wave-cut terraces located near Mendocino, California, a table mountain top and an alluvial fan, both located near Friant, California. The ages of the Mendocino terraces are inferred to be (1-5) x 10 5 years based on amino-stratigraphic correlations and models of terrace evolution; those of the table mountain top and alluvial fan are 9.5 x 10 6 years and 6.0 x 10 5 years, respectively, based on K-Ar analyses. All the surfaces sampled are nearly flat and exhibit few erosional features. In addition to 10 Be we measured 210 Pb, sup(239,) 240 Pu and 7 Be to ascertain the retentivity of the soils for particle-reactive nuclides and to assess the present-day delivery rate of nuclides from the atmosphere. The 7 Be inventory is 4.0 dpm/cm 2 similar to those observed at nearby locations. The inventories of 210 Pb and Pu isotopes conform to those predicted from model calculations and suggest that the soil surfaces sampled retain the entire burden of particle-reactive nuclides delivered to them over short time scales, approx.= 100 years. The 10 Be concentrations in the sample range between (0.2 and 7) x 10 8 atoms/g soil and show strong correlations with leachable Fe and/or Al. (orig./WL)

  7. Lunar Impact Basins: Stratigraphy, Sequence and Ages from Superposed Impact Crater Populations Measured from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Kadish, S. J.; Mazarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2012-01-01

    Impact basin formation is a fundamental process in the evolution of the Moon and records the history of impactors in the early solar system. In order to assess the stratigraphy, sequence, and ages of impact basins and the impactor population as a function of time, we have used topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to measure the superposed impact crater size-frequency distributions for 30 lunar basins (D = 300 km). These data generally support the widely used Wilhelms sequence of lunar basins, although we find significantly higher densities of superposed craters on many lunar basins than derived by Wilhelms (50% higher densities). Our data also provide new insight into the timing of the transition between distinct crater populations characteristic of ancient and young lunar terrains. The transition from a lunar impact flux dominated by Population 1 to Population 2 occurred before the mid-Nectarian. This is before the end of the period of rapid cratering, and potentially before the end of the hypothesized Late Heavy Bombardment. LOLA-derived crater densities also suggest that many Pre-Nectarian basins, such as South Pole-Aitken, have been cratered to saturation equilibrium. Finally, both crater counts and stratigraphic observations based on LOLA data are applicable to specific basin stratigraphic problems of interest; for example, using these data, we suggest that Serenitatis is older than Nectaris, and Humboldtianum is younger than Crisium. Sample return missions to specific basins can anchor these measurements to a Pre-Imbrian absolute chronology.

  8. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a

  9. Cosmic-ray produced nuclides in ground level air and in precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, G.; Roedel, W.; Stoeppler, M.

    1963-11-15

    There are mainly three kinds of radioactive substances in the atmosphere: emanations from the ground and their daughters, nuclides produced in the atmosphere by cosmic rays, and artificial products originating from nuclear weapon tests (and in a very small amount from other nuclear technical applications). This paper deals in particular with some of the cosmic-ray produced nuclides.

  10. Accelerator produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine. A bibliography, 1939--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christman, D.R.; Karlstrom, K.I.; Fowler, J.; Lambrecht, R.; Wolf, A.P.

    1975-04-01

    A bibliography of more than 1300 references on accelerator-produced nuclides for use in biology and medicine is presented. The information is arranged by subject and by specific nuclide. An author index is included. Appendices are provided of medical uses of specific elements and of radioisotopes not included in the main bibliography. (U.S.)

  11. A nuclide transfer model for barriers of the seabed repository using response function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Hahn, Pil Soo

    1996-01-01

    A nuclide transfer by utilizing mass transfer coefficient and barrier response function defined for each barrier is proposed, by which the final nuclide transfer rate into the sea water can be evaluated. When simple and immediate quantification of the nuclide release is necessary in the conservative aspect, using this kind of approach may be advantageous since each layered barrier can be treated separately from other media in series in the repository system, making it possible to apply separate solutions in succession to other various media. Although one disadvantage is that while flux continuity can be maintained at the interface by using the exit nuclide flux from the first medium as the source flux for the next one, there may be no guarantee for concentration continuity, this problem could be eliminated assuming that there is no boundary resistance to mass transfer across the interface. Mass transfer coefficient can be determined by the assumption that the nuclide concentration gradient at the interface between adjacent barriers remains constant and barrier response function is obtained from an analytical expression for nuclide flow rate out of each barrier in response to a unit impulse into the barrier multiplied by mass transfer coefficient. Total time-dependent nuclide transfer rate from the barrier can then be obtained by convoluting the response function for the barrier with a previously calculated set of time-varying input of nuclide flow rate for the previous barrier. 18 refs., 5 figs. (author)

  12. Regolith Formation Rates and Evolution from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, P. O.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Vasavada, A. R.; Williams, J. P.; Siegler, M. A.; Lucey, P. G.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Elder, C. M.; Paige, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Fragmentation and overturn of lunar surface materials produces a layer of regolith, which increases in thickness through time. Experiments on the lunar surface during the Apollo era, combined with remote sensing, found that the upper 10's of cm of regolith exhibit a rapid increase in density and thermal conductivity with depth. This is interpreted to be the signature of impact gardening, which operates most rapidly in the uppermost layers. Gravity data from the GRAIL mission showed that impacts have also extensively fractured the deeper crust. The breakdown and mixing of crustal materials is therefore a central process to lunar evolution and must be understood in order to interpret compositional information from remote sensing and sample analysis. Recently, thermal infrared data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner radiometer were used to provide the first remote observational constraints on the rate of ejecta breakdown around craters L., Campbell, B. A., Allen, C. C., Carter, L. M., & Paige, D. A. (2014). Constraints on the recent rate of lunar ejecta breakdown and implications for crater ages. Geology, 42(12), 1059-1062.

  13. Analyses of uranium series nuclides by alpha spectrometer on the uranium deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wismawati, T.

    2000-01-01

    The research is one of the program which was planned by PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation). In this research the analyses of the uranium series nuclide of rock samples from uranium Tono deposit, Japan have been carried out. The 17 samples were collected from Tsukiyoshi Fault, at Gallery X on Shaft 2 consist of granite, sedimentary rocks and fault area. The aim of the research is to determine the area of U accumulation, equilibrium and leaching. The samples were treated by chemical reagent, separated by ion exchange resin and extracted by organic compounds. The uranium and thorium were deposited on the stainless steel plate surface by the electrolysis process. The activity of uranium and thorium was determined by alpha spectrometer. From the analyses data have been obtained that shows that the maximum activity of 238 U is 3.6798±0.1873 Bq/g, activity 234 U is 3.5450±0.1805 Bq/g and activity 230 Th is 3.6720±0.1868 Bq/g. The ratio figure 234 U/ 238 U versus 2 34 U / 2 30 T h has been drawn. As the conclusion, 6 samples point (No.3, 5, 8, 11, 13 and 16) lied in or on the boundary of the uranium accumulation area, 7 samples (No. 4, 6, 9, 10, 12, 15 and 17) are very close to the equilibrium position, 4 points (No. 1, 2, 7, and 14) in the leaching process. (author)

  14. How We Used NASA Lunar Set in Planetary Material Science Analog Studies on Lunar Basalts and Breccias with Industrial Materials of Steels and Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berczi, S.; Cech, V.; Jozsa, S.; Szakmany, G.; Fabriczy, A.; Foldi, T.; Varga, T.

    2005-01-01

    Analog studies play important role in space materials education. Various aspects of analogies are used in our courses. In this year two main rock types of NASA Lunar Set were used in analog studies in respect of processes and textures with selected industrial material samples. For breccias and basalts on the lunar side, ceramics and steels were found as analogs on the industrial side. Their processing steps were identified on the basis of their textures both in lunar and in industrial groups of materials.

  15. Evaluation of nuclides with closely spaced values of depletion constants in transmutation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukadin, Z.S.

    1977-01-01

    New method of calculating nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is developed in this thesis. Method is based on originally derived recurrence formulas for expansion series of depletion functions and on originally obtained, nonsingular, Bateman coefficients. Explicit expression for the nuclide concentrations in a transmutation chain is obtained. This expression can be used as it stands for arbitrary values of nuclides depletion constants. By computing hypothetical transmutation chains and neptunium series, method is compared with the Bateman analytical solution, with the approximate solutions and with the matrix exponential method. It comes out that the method presented in this thesis is suitable for calculating very long depletion chains even in the case of some closely spaced and/or equal values of nuclide depletion constants. Though, presented method is of great practical applicability in a number of nuclear physics problems that are dealing with the nuclide transmutations: starting from the studies of the stellar evolution up to the design of nuclear reactors (author) [sr

  16. Natural and artificial nuclides in Salesópolis reservoir by gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Semmler, Renato; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Rocha, Flávio R.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br, E-mail: rsemmler@ipen.br, E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br, E-mail: flavio@baquara.com, E-mail: damatto@ipen.br, E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Natural radioactivity is ubiquitous in the environment mainly due to the presence of the nuclides from the uranium and thorium series and {sup 40}K. Although in the South Hemisphere nuclear tests have been fewer in number than that in the North, artificial radionuclides can also be found spread at ground level. In this study, the activity concentrations of natural nuclides from the uranium and thorium series, {sup 40}K and the artificial {sup 137}Cs were determined in a sediment core with 42 cm depth collected in the middle of the Salesópolis reservoir, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city (SPMR). The Usina Parque Rio Tietê reservoir belongs to the Alto do Tietê system for the capture, storage and treatment of water for SPMR. Therefore, the quality of the water and sediments of this dam is of great importance. The activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Samples were measured and saved at regular intervals at a maximum of 160 000 seconds. The gross area were determined for each peak and plotted against time and the counting rate was obtained by the slope of the curve. Background and reference materials were also counted and treated in the same way. Results showed that {sup 226}Ra varied from 45 to 116 Bq kg{sup -1}; {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 165 Bq kg{sup -1}; {sup 40}K, from 155 to 1 187 Bq kg{sup -1} and {sup 137}Cs varied from 0.3 to 7 Bq kg{sup -1}. The methodology applied for determining low levels of {sup 137}Cs in sediment proved to be efficient and reproducible. (author)

  17. Natural and artificial nuclides in Salesópolis reservoir by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Semmler, Renato; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Rocha, Flávio R.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Fávaro, Déborah I.T.

    2017-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is ubiquitous in the environment mainly due to the presence of the nuclides from the uranium and thorium series and 40 K. Although in the South Hemisphere nuclear tests have been fewer in number than that in the North, artificial radionuclides can also be found spread at ground level. In this study, the activity concentrations of natural nuclides from the uranium and thorium series, 40 K and the artificial 137 Cs were determined in a sediment core with 42 cm depth collected in the middle of the Salesópolis reservoir, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city (SPMR). The Usina Parque Rio Tietê reservoir belongs to the Alto do Tietê system for the capture, storage and treatment of water for SPMR. Therefore, the quality of the water and sediments of this dam is of great importance. The activity concentrations were measured by gamma spectrometry. Samples were measured and saved at regular intervals at a maximum of 160 000 seconds. The gross area were determined for each peak and plotted against time and the counting rate was obtained by the slope of the curve. Background and reference materials were also counted and treated in the same way. Results showed that 226 Ra varied from 45 to 116 Bq kg -1 ; 228 Ra, from 80 to 165 Bq kg -1 ; 40 K, from 155 to 1 187 Bq kg -1 and 137 Cs varied from 0.3 to 7 Bq kg -1 . The methodology applied for determining low levels of 137 Cs in sediment proved to be efficient and reproducible. (author)

  18. The Neutral Mass Spectrometer on the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Hodges, R. Richard; Benna, Mehdi; King, Todd; Arvey, Robert; Barciniak, Michael; Bendt, Mirl; Carigan, Daniel; Errigo, Therese; Harpold, Daniel N.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Neutral Mass Spectrometer (NMS) of the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) Mission is designed to measure the composition and variability of the tenuous lunar atmosphere. The NMS complements two other instruments on the LADEE spacecraft designed to secure spectroscopic measurements of lunar composition and in situ measurement of lunar dust over the course of a 100-day mission in order to sample multiple lunation periods. The NMS utilizes a dual ion source designed to measure both surface reactive and inert species and a quadrupole analyzer. The NMS is expected to secure time resolved measurements of helium and argon and determine abundance or upper limits for many other species either sputtered or thermally evolved from the lunar surface.

  19. A Comparison of Anorthositic Lunar Lithologies: Variation on the FAN Theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Yamaguchi, A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Peng, Z. X.; Park, J.; Herzog, G. F.; Shirai, N.

    2014-01-01

    Certain anorthositic rocks that are rare in the returned lunar samples have been identified among lunar meteorites. The variety of anorthosites in the Apollo collection also is more varied than is widely recognized. James eta. identified three lithologies in a composite clast o ferroan anorthosite (FAN)-suite rocks in lunar breccia 64435. They further divided all FANs into four subgroups: anorthositic ferroan (AF), mafic magnesian (MM), mafic ferroan (MF), and anorthositic sodic (AS, absent in the 64435 clast). Here we report Sm-Nd isotopic studies of the lithologies present in the 64435 composite clast and compare the new data to our previous data for lunar anorthosites incuding lunar anorthositic meteorites. Mineralogy-petrography, in situ trace element studies, Sr-isotope studies, and Ar-Ar chronology are included, but only the Nd-isotopic studies are currently complete.

  20. Determination of lunar surface ages from crater frequency–size ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and the images from Apollo missions have been calibrated from the lunar soil samples from Apollo and Luna landing sites (Head 1976; Neukum et al. 1975). ... Table 1 shows the ages as derived for the craters with errors. Mare Humorum is believed to be made up of six ring structures of 210, 340, 425, 570 and 1195km.

  1. Mossbauer analysis of Luna 16 lunar surface material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, D. L.; Cher, L.; Kulcsar, K.

    1974-01-01

    Samples of Apollo 11 lunar surface material were studied by the Mossbauer effect. Owing to the small number of other resonant isotopes, all measurements were made with Fe-57 nuclei. The principal constituents of the material were as follows: Iron containing silicates (olivine, pyroxene, and so on), ilmenite (FeTiO3), and metallic iron.

  2. Lunar Quest in Second Life, Lunar Exploration Island, Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireton, F. M.; Day, B. H.; Mitchell, B.; Hsu, B. C.

    2010-12-01

    Linden Lab’s Second Life is a virtual 3D metaverse created by users. At any one time there may be 40,000-50,000 users on line. Users develop a persona and are seen on screen as a human figure or avatar. Avatars move through Second Life by walking, flying, or teleporting. Users form communities or groups of mutual interest such as music, computer graphics, and education. These groups communicate via e-mail, voice, and text within Second Life. Information on downloading the Second Life browser and joining can be found on the Second Life website: www.secondlife.com. This poster details Phase II in the development of Lunar Exploration Island (LEI) located in Second Life. Phase I LEI highlighted NASA’s LRO/LCROSS mission. Avatars enter LEI via teleportation arriving at a hall of flight housing interactive exhibits on the LRO/ LCROSS missions including full size models of the two spacecraft and launch vehicle. Storyboards with information about the missions interpret the exhibits while links to external websites provide further information on the mission, both spacecraft’s instrument suites, and related EPO. Other lunar related activities such as My Moon and NLSI EPO programs. A special exhibit was designed for International Observe the Moon Night activities with links to websites for further information. The sim includes several sites for meetings, a conference stage to host talks, and a screen for viewing NASATV coverage of mission and other televised events. In Phase II exhibits are updated to reflect on-going lunar exploration highlights, discoveries, and future missions. A new section of LEI has been developed to showcase NASA’s Lunar Quest program. A new exhibit hall with Lunar Quest information has been designed and is being populated with Lunar Quest information, spacecraft models (LADEE is in place) and kiosks. A two stage interactive demonstration illustrates lunar phases with static and 3-D stations. As NASA’s Lunar Quest program matures further

  3. Measurement of Natural Radioactive Nuclide Concentrations and the Dose Estimation of Workers Originated from Radon in Manganese Ore Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.; Hassan, N.M.; Blasy, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Manganese ore is widely used in many industries. Such as ore contain natural radioactive nuclides at various concentrations. If this ore contain high concentrations of natural radioactive nuclides, workers handling them might be exposed to significant levels of radiation. Therefore it is important to determine the radioactive nuclides in this ore. Also the regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Nevertheless, at this time there is no globally accepted workplace protocol that sets out safe radon concentration values. In this study the radon concentration measured by using an Alpha Guard radon monitor, the equilibrium factor which was greater than the value given in literature, effective radiation dose, which are necessary for the exact estimation of the radiation dose originating from radon. The regulation of radon concentration at workplaces has gained an accentuated importance in all countries. Approach: The natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) contents of manganese ore samples collected from Umm Bogma, southwest Sinai and from the mountain access Hamid South Eastern Desert, Egypt have been determined by low background spectroscopy using hyper-pure germanium (HPGe) detector. Results: The mean activities due to the three radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) were found to be 1500±65, 490±65 and 364±45 Bqkg -1 , respectively. The absorbed dose rate due to the natural radioactivity in samples under investigation ranged from 1522±45 → 1796±43 nGyh -1 . The radium equivalent activity varied from 3807±114→ 4446±133 Bqkg -1 .The representative external hazard index values for the corresponding samples are also estimated. Conclusion: The results of this assessment obtained by the gamma-ray spectroscopic analysis, have indicated that the levels of natural radioactivity were lower than the international recommended limits.

  4. Precision Lunar Laser Ranging For Lunar and Gravitational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkowitz, S. M.; Arnold, D.; Dabney, P. W.; Livas, J. C.; McGarry, J. F.; Neumann, G. A.; Zagwodzki, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Laser ranging to retroreflector arrays placed on the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts and the Soviet Lunar missions over the past 39 years have dramatically increased our understanding of gravitational physics along with Earth and Moon geophysics, geodesy, and dynamics. Significant advances in these areas will require placing modern retroreflectors and/or active laser ranging systems at new locations on the lunar surface. Ranging to new locations will enable better measurements of the lunar librations, aiding in our understanding of the interior structure of the moon. More precise range measurements will allow us to study effects that are too small to be observed by the current capabilities as well as enabling more stringent tests of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Setting up retroreflectors was a key part of the Apollo missions so it is natural to ask if future lunar missions should include them as well. The Apollo retroreflectors are still being used today, and nearly 40 years of ranging data has been invaluable for scientific as well as other studies such as orbital dynamics. However, the available retroreflectors all lie within 26 degrees latitude of the equator, and the most useful ones within 24 degrees longitude of the sub-earth meridian. This clustering weakens their geometrical strength.

  5. Experimental reduction of simulated lunar glass by carbon and hydrogen and implications for lunar base oxygen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, D.S.; Morris, R.V.; Jurewicz, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    The most abundant element in lunar rocks and soils is oxygen which makes up approximately 45 percent by weight of the typical lunar samples returned during the Apollo missions. This oxygen is not present as a gas but is tightly bound to other elements in mineral or glass. When people return to the Moon to explore and live, the extraction of this oxygen at a lunar outpost may be a major goal during the early years of operation. Among the most studied processes for oxygen extraction is the reduction of ilmenite by hydrogen gas to form metallic iron, titanium oxide, and oxygen. A related process is proposed which overcomes some of the disadvantages of ilmenite reduction. It is proposed that oxygen can be extracted by direct reduction of native lunar pyroclactic glass using either carbon, carbon monoxide, or hydrogen. In order to evaluate the feasibility of this proposed process a series of experiments on synthetic lunar glass are presented. The results and a discussion of the experiments are presented

  6. Lunar Industry & Research Base Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, J.; Kaliapin, M.; Osinovyy, G.

    2017-09-01

    Currently, all main space industry players, such as Europe, USA, Russia, China, etc., are looking back again at the idea of Moon exploration building there a manned lunar base. Alongside with other world spacefaring nations, Yuzhnoye State Design Office with its long-time development experience, technological and intellectual potential, organized its own conceptual work on development of the Lunar Industry & Research Base. In the frames of conceptual project "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" were formed its appearance, preliminary configuration and infrastructure at different stages of operation, trajectory and flight scheme to the Moon, as well as terms of the project's realization, and main technical characteristics of the systems under development, such as space transportation system for crew and cargo delivery to lunar surface and return to Earth, standardized designs of lunar modules, lunar surface vehicles, etc. The "Lunar Industrial & Research Base" project's preliminary risk assessment has shown a high value of its overall risk due to the lack of reliable information about the Moon, technical risks, long-term development of its elements, very high financial costs and dependence on state support. This points to the fact that it is reasonable to create such a global project in cooperation with other countries. International cooperation will expand the capabilities of any nation, reduce risks and increase the success probability of automated or manned space missions. It is necessary to create and bring into operation practical mechanisms for long-term space exploration on a global scale. One of the ways to do this is to create a multinational agency which would include both state enterprises and private companies.

  7. Lunar Rocks: Available for Year of the Solar System Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    NASA is actively exploring the moon with our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the Grail Discovery Mission will launch next year, and each year there is an International Observe the Moon Night providing many events and lunar science focus opportunities to share rocks from the moon with students and the public. In our laboratories, we have Apollo rocks and soil from six different places on the moon, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable ground truth to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information and actual lunar samples are available for public display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach. The lunar rocks and soils continue to be studied intensively by scientists around the world. Descriptions of the samples, research results, thousands of photographs, and information on how to request research samples are on the JSC Curation website: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/ NASA is eager for scientists and the public to have access to these exciting Apollo samples through our various loan procedures. NASA provides a limited number of Moon rock samples for either short-term or long-term displays at museums, planetariums, expositions, and professional events that are open to the public. The JSC Public Affairs Office handles requests for such display samples. Requestors should apply in writing to Mr. Louis Parker, JSC Exhibits Manager. Mr. Parker will advise successful applicants regarding provisions for receipt, display, and return of the samples. All loans will be preceded by a signed loan agreement executed between NASA and the requestor's organization. Email address: louis.a.parker@nasa.gov Sets of twelve thin sections of Apollo lunar samples are available for short-term loan from JSC Curation. The thin

  8. View of the Lunar Module 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle during first EVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A view of the Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' and Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), as photographed by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Descates landing site. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen directly behind the LRV. The lunar surface feature in the left background is Stone Mountain.

  9. Simulation of the Chang'E-5 mission contribution in lunar long wavelength gravity field improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianguo; Yang, Xuan; Ping, Jinsong; Ye, Mao; Liu, Shanhong; Jin, Weitong; Li, Fei; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2018-06-01

    The precision of lunar gravity field estimation has improved by means of three to five orders of magnitude since the successful GRAIL lunar mission. There are still discrepancies however, in the low degree coefficients and long wavelength components of the solutions developed by two space research centers (JPL and GSFC). These discrepancies hint at the possibilities for improving the accuracy in the long wavelength part of the lunar gravity field. In the near future, China will launch the Chang'E-5 lunar mission. In this sample-return mission, there will be a chance to do KBRR measurements between an ascending module and an orbiting module. These two modules will fly around lunar at an inclination of ˜49 degrees, with an orbital height of 100 km and an inter-satellite distance of 200 km. In our research, we simulated the contribution of the KBRR tracking mode for different GRAIL orbital geometries. This analysis indicated possible deficiencies in the low degree coefficient solutions for the polar satellite-to-satellite tracking mode at various orbital heights. We also investigated the potential contributions of the KBRR to the Chang'E-5 mission goal of lunar gravity field recovery, especially in the long wavelength component. Potential improvements were assessed using various power spectrums of the lunar gravity field models. In addition, we also investigated possible improvements in solving lunar tidal Love number K2. These results may assist the implementation of the Chang'E-5 mission.

  10. Cataclysm No More: New Views on the Timing and Delivery of Lunar Impactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Nicolle E B

    2017-09-01

    If properly interpreted, the impact record of the Moon, Earth's nearest neighbour, can be used to gain insights into how the Earth has been influenced by impacting events since its formation ~4.5 billion years (Ga) ago. However, the nature and timing of the lunar impactors - and indeed the lunar impact record itself - are not well understood. Of particular interest are the ages of lunar impact basins and what they tell us about the proposed "lunar cataclysm" and/or the late heavy bombardment (LHB), and how this impact episode may have affected early life on Earth or other planets. Investigations of the lunar impactor population over time have been undertaken and include analyses of orbital data and images; lunar, terrestrial, and other planetary sample data; and dynamical modelling. Here, the existing information regarding the nature of the lunar impact record is reviewed and new interpretations are presented. Importantly, it is demonstrated that most evidence supports a prolonged lunar (and thus, terrestrial) bombardment from ~4.2 to 3.4 Ga and not a cataclysmic spike at ~3.9 Ga. Implications for the conditions required for the origin of life are addressed.

  11. Trace elements of coal, coal ashes and fly ashes by activation analysis with shor-lived nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.; Sarac, I.; Grass, F.

    1981-01-01

    On irradiation with neutrons, some of the interesting trace elements in coal, coal ash and fly ash produce short-lived nuclides which may be determined - together with some of the matrix elements - by activation analysis. This enables the characterization of samples. To find out the distribution of elements in the gaseous or aerosol exhaust of fossil-fired power plants, the authors simulated the combustion in a quartz apparatus containing a cold trap, using the combustion temperature (780 deg C) employed for the standard ash determination. High Se values were found in the cold trap deposits of black coal from Poland. Halogens were also found in the deposits. (authors)

  12. Geochemistry of uranium and thorium series nuclides and of plutonium in the Gulf of Mexico: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    This project focussed on the question of the transport of plutonium by the Mississippi River and the subsequent fate of that material when it entered the ocean. Samples were collected from the Mississippi and its tributaries, and from other rivers spanning a gradation in climate from the arid Rio Grande region to the subtropical Suwannee River. Plutonium analyses of water and of suspended and bottom sediments were complemented with Fe, Mn, Al, CaCO 3 , and organic matter measurements. Analyses of uranium and thorium isotopes, 210 Pb, and 226 Ra were made to serve both as tracers for transport processes, and (for the reactive nuclides) as steady state chemical analogues for plutonium

  13. Two lunar global asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The Moon's center of mass is displaced from its center of figure about 2 km in a roughly earthward direction. Most maria are on the side of the Moon which faces the Earth. It is assumed that the Moon was initially spherically symmetric. The emplacement of mare basalts transfers mass which produces most of the observed center of mass displacement toward the Earth. The cause of the asymmetric distribution of lunar maria was examined. The Moon is in a spin orbit coupled relationship with the Earth and the effect of the Earth's gravity on the Moon is asymmetric. The earth-facing side of the Moon is a gravitational favored location for the extrusion of mare basalt magma in the same way that the topographically lower floor of a large impact basin is a gravitationally favored location. This asymmetric effect increases inversely with the fourth power of the Earth Moon distance. The history of the Earth-Moon system includes: formation of the Moon by accretion processes in a heliocentric orbit ner that of the Earth; a gravitational encounter with the Earth about 4 billion years ago resulting in capture of the Moon into a geocentric orbit and heating of the Moon through dissipation of energy related to tides raised during close approaches to the Earth(5) to produce mare basalt magma; and evolution of the Moon's orbit to its present position, slowly at first to accommodate more than 500 million years during which magmas were extruded.

  14. The Stratigraphy and Evolution of the Lunar Crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, I. Stewart

    1998-01-01

    Reconstruction of stratigraphic relationships in the ancient lunar crust has proved to be a formidable task. The intense bombardment during the first 700 m.y. of lunar history has severely perturbed the original stratigraphy and destroyed the primary textures of all but a few nonmare rocks. However, a knowledge of the crustal stratigraphy as it existed prior to the cataclysmic bombardment about 3.9 Ga is essential to test the major models proposed for crustal origin, i.e., crystal fractionation in a global magmasphere or serial magmatism in a large number of smaller bodies. Despite the large difference in scale implicit in these two models, both require an efficient separation of plagioclase and mafic minerals to form the anorthositic crust and the mafic mantle. Despite the havoc wreaked by the large body impactors, these same impact processes have brought to the lunar surface crystalline samples derived from at least the upper half of the lunar crust, thereby providing an opportunity to reconstruct the stratigraphy in areas sampled by the Apollo missions. As noted, ejecta from the large multiring basins are dominantly, or even exclusively, of crustal origin. Given the most recent determinations of crustal thicknesses, this implies an upper limit to the depth of excavation of about 60 km. Of all the lunar samples studied, a small set has been recognized as "pristine", and within this pristine group, a small fraction have retained some vestiges of primary features formed during the earliest stages of crystallization or recrystallization prior to 4.0 Ga. We have examined a number of these samples that have retained some record of primary crystallization to deduce thermal histories from an analysis of structural, textural, and compositional features in minerals from these samples. Specifically, by quantitative modeling of (1) the growth rate and development of compositional profiles of exsolution lamellae in pyroxenes and (2) the rate of Fe-Mg ordering in

  15. Lunar surface engineering properties experiment definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Goodman, R. E.; Hurlbut, F. C.; Houston, W. N.; Willis, D. R.; Witherspoon, P. A.; Hovland, H. J.

    1971-01-01

    Research on the mechanics of lunar soils and on developing probes to determine the properties of lunar surface materials is summarized. The areas of investigation include the following: soil simulation, soil property determination using an impact penetrometer, soil stabilization using urethane foam or phenolic resin, effects of rolling boulders down lunar slopes, design of borehole jack and its use in determining failure mechanisms and properties of rocks, and development of a permeability probe for measuring fluid flow through porous lunar surface materials.

  16. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  17. Lunar power systems. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The findings of a study on the feasibility of several methods of providing electrical power for a permanently manned lunar base are provided. Two fundamentally different methods for lunar electrical power generation are considered. One is the use of a small nuclear reactor and the other is the conversion of solar energy to electricity. The baseline goal was to initially provide 300 kW of power with growth capability to one megawatt and eventually to 10 megawatts. A detailed, day by day scenario for the establishment, build-up, and operational activity of the lunar base is presented. Also presented is a conceptual approach to a supporting transportation system which identifies the number, type, and deployment of transportation vehicles required to support the base. An approach to the use of solar cells in the lunar environment was developed. There are a number of heat engines which are applicable to solar/electric conversions, and these are examined. Several approaches to energy storage which were used by the electric power utilities were examined and those which could be used at a lunar base were identified

  18. Monitoring of Radio-nuclides in the Vicinities of Finnish Nuclear Power Plants in 2002-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Klemola, S.; Vartti, V.-P.; Mattila, J.; Ikaeheimonen, T.K.

    2000-03-01

    The monitoring of radioactive substances round Finnish nuclear power plants continued in 2002-2004 in accordance with the regular environmental monitoring programmes. Altogether, some 1000 samples are analysed annually from the terrestrial and aquatic environs of the two power plants. Trace amounts of activation products originating from airborne releases from the local power plants were detected in several air and deposition samples taken from the close vicinities of the power plants. At Loviisa, observations were made in two; at Olkiluoto in three aerosol samples during the reporting period. Except for the naturally occurring beryllium-7, the concentrations of all radionuclides in the air samples were very low; from few microbequerels to few tens of microbequerels per cubic metre. A similar pattern was tenable for the deposition samples as well. The activity concentrations of cobalt-60 of local origin were at their highest 0.3 bequerels per square metre in one sample taken from Loviisa and in one sample taken from Olkiluoto. No traces of local discharge nuclides were detected in foodstuffs, drinking water or garden products. In mushrooms and wild berries picked up in 2004 from the Loviisa area, only Chernobyl-derived caesium isotopes and natural potassium-40 were detected. Local discharge nuclides were more abundant in the aquatic environment, especially in samples of indicator organisms, sinking matter and sediments, which effectively accumulate radioactive substances. Besides tritium originating from local discharges, the most significant artificial radionuclide in the samples taken from the aquatic environs of the power plants was still caesium-137 originating from the Chernobyl accident (potassium-40 is a naturally occurring radionuclide). Elevated tritium concentrations were more frequent in the water samples from Loviisa. In indicator organisms and sinking matter, the observed concentrations of local discharge nuclides were generally somewhat higher and

  19. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  20. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Marinus Jan; Falcke, Heino

    2014-01-01

    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  1. Status and Future of Lunar Geoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986

    A review of the status, progress, and future direction of lunar research is presented in this report from the lunar geoscience working group of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Information is synthesized and presented in four major sections. These include: (1) an introduction (stating the reasons for lunar study and identifying…

  2. Nanophase Fe0 in lunar soils

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    globules that occur in the rinds of many soil grains and in the ... tinitic glass is a quenched product of silicate melts, also produced by micrometeorite impacts on lunar soils ..... stand impact processes and their products. ... cules at night; the earth's atmosphere by con- .... deep lunar interior from an inversion of lunar free oscil-.

  3. A simulation of the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode for the Chang'E-5 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Ye, Mao; Yan, Jianguo; Hao, Weifeng; Barriot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The Chang'E-5 mission is the third phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program and will collect and return lunar samples. After sampling, the Orbiter and the ascent vehicle will rendezvous and dock, and both spacecraft will require high precision orbit navigation. In this paper, we present a novel tracking mode-Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking that possibly can be employed during the Chang'E-5 mission. The mathematical formulas for the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking mode are given and implemented in our newly-designed lunar spacecraft orbit determination and gravity field recovery software, the LUnar Gravity REcovery and Analysis Software/System (LUGREAS). The simulated observables permit analysis of the potential contribution Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter tracking could make to precision orbit determination for the Orbiter. Our results show that the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate has better geometric constraint on the orbit, and is more sensitive than the traditional two-way range rate that only tracks data between the Earth station and lunar Orbiter. After combining the Four-way lunar Lander-Orbiter Range Rate data with the traditional two-way range rate data and considering the Lander position error and lunar gravity field error, the accuracy of precision orbit determination for the Orbiter in the simulation was improved significantly, with the biggest improvement being one order of magnitude, and the Lander position could be constrained to sub-meter level. This new tracking mode could provide a reference for the Chang'E-5 mission and have enormous potential for the positioning of future lunar farside Lander due to its relay characteristic.

  4. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  5. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  6. Lunar heat-flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, M. G.

    1977-01-01

    The principal components of the experiment were probes, each with twelve thermometers of exceptional accuracy and stability, that recorded temperature variations at the surface and in the regolith down to 2.5 m. The Apollo 15 experiment and the Apollo 17 probes recorded lunar surface and subsurface temperatures. These data provided a unique and valuable history of the interaction of solar energy with lunar surface and the effects of heat flowing from the deep interior out through the surface of the moon. The interpretation of these data resulted in a clearer definition of the thermal and mechanical properties of the upper two meters of lunar regolith, direct measurements of the gradient in mean temperature due to heat flow from the interior and a determination of the heat flow at the Apollo 15 and Apollo 17 sites.

  7. Nuclide release from the near-field of a L/ILW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, L.G.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Pers, K.

    1986-12-01

    For Project Gewaehr 1985, the release of nuclides from a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste is calculated. The calculations are made for a reference design repository located in the marl host rock at the Oberbauen Stock reference site. The results are limited to the release of the nuclides from the waste through the engineered barriers into the surrounding host rock and will, therefore, constitute a source term for the far-field and biosphere calculations. The most probable nuclide transport mechanism is diffusion and releases are thus influenced by the nuclide diffusivities in the barriers, nuclide sorption and nuclide solubility limits. Degradation of the engineered concrete barriers is taken into account. The effects of convective flow through the barriers are described elsewhere. A near-field release model is presented. It consists of a set of computer programs suited to handel different repository designs, solubility limitations and the different waste categories. The release calculations were made for a base case in which best estimates of the parameters were used. Sensitivity to the choice of the most important parameters was tested by parameter variations. The numerical models used were checked by comparative calculations with different codes and similar data. The results of the base calculations show that near-field barriers will cause both a delay of the release to the far-field and a reduced rate of release. The sorbed nuclides, comprising the actinides and some activation and fission products, will be delayed by 10'000 years and have a maximum release rate of less than 10 -3 Ci/a each. The non-sorbed nuclides are delayed by only about 100 years and the maximum release rate is less than 10 -2 Ci per year and nuclide. The parameter variations and the design model tests gave only limited deviations from the base case results. (author)

  8. A pyroloysis technique for determining microamounts of hydrogen in lunar soil using the helium ionization detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustin, R.

    1983-01-01

    A method has been developed which will determine hydrogen in sub-milligram samples of lunar soil. It consists of heating the sample in a pyroprobe followed by the gas chromatographic determination of hydrogen using the helium ionization detector. Using a 7 foot, 1/8 OD stainless steel column packed with Carbosieve S, 120/140 mesh, hydrogen was well-separated from the other gases released from lunar soil. Standards of hydrogen in helium were used for calibration. The limit to detection under the conditions used was about 2 ng. The method was linear from 2 ng to 270 ng. The method was checked using some actual lunar samples. Results were typical of those obtained for lunar soils using other methods.

  9. Light element geochemistry and spallogenesis in lunar rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Marais, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The abundances and isotopic compositions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur were measured in eleven lunar rocks. Samples were combusted sequentially at three temperatures to resolve terrestrial contamination from indigenous volatiles. Sulfur abundances in Apollo 16 highland rocks range from 73 to 1165 μg/g, whereas sulfur contents in Apollo 15 and 17 basalts range from 719 to 1455 μg/g and correlate with TiO 2 content. Lunar rocks as a group have a remarkably uniform sulfur isotopic composition, which may reflect the low oxygen fugacity of the basaltic magmas. Much of the range of reported delta 34 Ssub(CD) values is caused by systematic analytical discrepancies between laboratories. Lunar rocks very likely contain less than 0.1 μg/g of nitrogen. The measured spallogenic production rate, 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y., agrees remarkably closely with previous estimates. An estimate which includes all available data is 3.7 x 10 -6 μg 15 N/g sample/m.y. Lunar basalts may contain no indigenous lunar carbon in excess of procedural blank levels. Highland rocks consistently release about 1 to 5 μg/g of carbon in excess of blank levels, but this carbon might either derive from ancient meteoritic debris or be a mineralogic product of terrestrial weathering. The average measured spallogenic 13 C production rate is 4.1 x 10 -6 μg 13 C/g sample/m.y. (author)

  10. Decontamination of contaminated oils with radio nuclides using magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez R, C. E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is focused in to find a solution to the wastes treatment that are generated during the maintenance to the nuclear power industry, the specify case of the contaminated oils with radio nuclides, for this purpose was necessary to make a meticulous characterization of the oils before the treatment proposal using advanced techniques, being determined the activity of them, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics. By means of the developed procedure that combines the use of magnetic fields and filtration to remove the contaminated material with radioactive particles, is possible to diminish the activity of the oils from values that oscillate between 6,00 and 10,00 up to 0,00 to 0,0003 Bq/ml. The decontamination factor of the process is of 99.00%. The proposal of the necessary technology for to decontaminate the oils is also made and is carried out the economic analysis based on the reuse of these, as well as the calculation of the avoided damages. (Author)

  11. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark R.; Fleming, Michael; Sublet, Jean-Christophe

    2017-09-01

    The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel) activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results - most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal - standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots. Note to the reader: the pdf file has been changed on September 22, 2017.

  12. Inventory simulation tools: Separating nuclide contributions to radiological quantities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The activation response of a material is a primary factor considered when evaluating its suitability for a nuclear application. Various radiological quantities, such as total (becquerel activity, decay heat, and γ dose, can be readily predicted via inventory simulations, which numerically evolve in time the composition of a material under exposure to neutron irradiation. However, the resulting data sets can be very complex, often necessarily resulting in an over-simplification of the results – most commonly by just considering total response metrics. A number of different techniques for disseminating more completely the vast amount of data output from, in particular, the FISPACT-II inventory code system, including importance diagrams, nuclide maps, and primary knock-on atom (PKA spectra, have been developed and used in scoping studies to produce database reports for the periodic table of elements. This paper introduces the latest addition to this arsenal – standardised and automated plotting of the time evolution in a radiological quantity for a given material separated by contributions from dominant radionuclides. Examples for relevant materials under predicted fusion reactor conditions, and for bench-marking studies against decay-heat measurements, demonstrate the usefulness and power of these radionuclide-separated activation plots.

  13. User manual of nuclide dispersion in phreatic aquifers model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Nuclide Dispersion in Phreatic Aquifers (DRAF) model was developed in the 'Division Estudios Ambientales' of the 'Gerencia de Seguridad Radiologica y Nuclear, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica' (1991), for the Safety Assessment of Near Surface Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. Afterwards, it was modified in several opportunities, adapting it to a number of application conditions. The 'Manual del usuario del codigo DRAF' here presented is a reference document for the use of the last three versions of the code developed for the 'Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear' between 1995 and 1996. The DRAF model solves the three dimension's solute transport equation for porous media by the finite differences method. It takes into account the advection, dispersion, radioactive decay, and retention in the solid matrix processes, and has multiple possibilities for the source term. There are three versions of the model, two of them for the saturated zone and one for the unsaturated zone. All the versions have been verified in different conditions, and have been applied in exercises of the International Atomic Energy Agency and also in real cases. (author)

  14. Development of radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Nobuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    A radioactivity estimation system considering radioactive nuclide movement is developed to integrate the established codes and the code system for decommissioning of sodium cooled fast reactor (FBR). The former are the codes for estimation of radioactivity movement in sodium coolant of fast reactor which are named SAFFIRE, PSYCHE and TTT. The latter code system is to estimate neutron irradiation activity (COSMARD-RRADO). It is paid special attention to keep the consistency of input data used among these codes and also the simplification of their interface. A new function is added to the estimation system, to estimate minor FP inventory caused by the fission of impurities contained in the coolant and slight fuel material attached on the fuel cladding. To check the evaluation system, the system is applied with radioactivity data of the preceding FBR such as BN-350, JOYO and Monju. Agreement between the analysis results and the measurement is well satisfactory. The uncertainty of the code system is within several tens per cent for the activation of primary coolant (Na-22) and factor of 2-4 for the estimation of radioactivity inventory in sodium coolant. (author)

  15. Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery

    2007-01-01

    An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive nuclides, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)

  16. A comprehensive fuel nuclide analysis at the reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenz, H.J.; Koch, L.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of spent fuel can be determined by various methods. They rely partially on different information. Therefore the synopsis of the results of all methods permits a detection of systematic errors and their explanation. Methods for determining the masses of fuel nuclides at the reprocessing input point range from pure calculations (shipper data) to mere experimental determinations (volumetric analysis). In between, a mix of ''fresh'' experimental results and ''historical'' data is used to establish a material balance. Deviations in the results obtained by the individual methods can be attributed to the information source, which is unique for the method in question. The methodology of the approach consists of three steps: by paired comparison of the operator analysis (usually volumetric or gravimetric) with remeasurements the error components are determined on a batch-by-batch basis. Using the isotope correlation technique the operator data as well as the remeasurements are checked on an inter-batch basis for outliers, precision and bias. Systematic errors can be uncovered by inter-lab comparison of remeasurements and confirmed by using historical information. Experience collected during the reprocessing of LWR fuel at two reprocessing plants prove the flexibility and effectiveness of this approach. An example is presented to demonstrate its capability in detecting outliers and determining systematic errors. (author)

  17. PRODUCTION AND RECOIL LOSS OF COSMOGENIC NUCLIDES IN PRESOLAR GRAINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic nuclides. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3 He, 6,7 Li, and 21,22 Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3 He and 21 Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2 σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.

  18. Baseline concentrations of nuclear fuel waste nuclides in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiro, B.D.

    1992-04-01

    Protection of the environment is a key issue in the disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes. To assess the implications of undergound disposal, transport models are commonly used to predict radionuclide concentrations in soil and water. However, an appropriate framework needs to be established to ensure that the predicted concentrations do not impose unacceptable environmental impacts. Here, we suggest baseline environmental concentrations of the most important radionuclides in nuclear fuel waste. We summarize background concentrations of the nuclides in soil and surface water, and suggest Environmental Increments (EI) that could be added to soil and water without causing detectable effects. The EI values are based mostly on natural variability, but some alternative methods are used for radionuclides that are very rare in nature. The background concentrations and EI values are most useful as a screening tool to help identify potentially unacceptable concentrations arising from a disposal concept. When available, we also report data on concentrations that have been measured in the environment without causing an observable effect. This review focuses especially on concentrations applicable to the Canadian Precambrian Shield, as part of the Canadian concept of nuclear fuel waste disposal in a deep, stable geological formation

  19. Lunar Base Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Fischbach, D.; Tetreault, R.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to investigate the feasibility of constructing a heat pump suitable for use as a heat rejection device in applications such as a lunar base. In this situation, direct heat rejection through the use of radiators is not possible at a temperature suitable for lde support systems. Initial analysis of a heat pump of this type called for a temperature lift of approximately 378 deg. K, which is considerably higher than is commonly called for in HVAC and refrigeration applications where heat pumps are most often employed. Also because of the variation of the rejection temperature (from 100 to 381 deg. K), extreme flexibility in the configuration and operation of the heat pump is required. A three-stage compression cycle using a refrigerant such as CFC-11 or HCFC-123 was formulated with operation possible with one, two or three stages of compression. Also, to meet the redundancy requirements, compression was divided up over multiple compressors in each stage. A control scheme was devised that allowed these multiple compressors to be operated as required so that the heat pump could perform with variable heat loads and rejection conditions. A prototype heat pump was designed and constructed to investigate the key elements of the high-lift heat pump concept. Control software was written and implemented in the prototype to allow fully automatic operation. The heat pump was capable of operation over a wide range of rejection temperatures and cooling loads, while maintaining cooling water temperature well within the required specification of 40 deg. C +/- 1.7 deg. C. This performance was verified through testing.

  20. Uses for lunar crawler transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaden, Richard A.

    This article discusses state-of-the-art crawler transporters and expresses the need for additional research and development for lunar crawlers. The thrust of the paper illustrates how the basic crawler technology has progressed to a point where extremely large modules can be shop fabricated and move to some distant location at a considerable savings. Also, extremely heavy loads may be lifted by large crawler cranes and placed in designed locations. The Transi-Lift Crawler crane with its traveling counterweight is an attractive concept for lunar construction.

  1. Building lunar roads - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Bennett

    The problems involved in constructing lunar roads are explored. The main challenges are airlessness, low gravity, and solar effects, especially temperature extremes. Also involved are the expense of delivering equipment and material to the job site (especially for bridges and other structures), obtaining skilled labor, and providing maintenance. The lunar road will most likely be gravel, but with the size of the material closer to cobblestone to reduce scattering. They will probably be very winding, even on the flats, and feature numerous bridges and some cuts. This traffic will be mostly automatic or teleoperated cargo carriers with a handful of shirtsleeve-pressurized 'passenger cars' large enough to live in for several days.

  2. Separation of mobile long-lived nuclides in a simplified reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Sachio; Uchiyama, Gunzo; Kihara, Takehiro; Asakura, Toshihide; Sakurai, Tsutomu

    1997-01-01

    Enhancing confinement efficiency of long-lived nuclides in a simplified Purex process is the primary subject of our PARC (Partitioning Conundrum Key) R and D project. Nuclides focused here are all susceptible to diffuse into the environment and highly concerned as potential hazard among the long-lived nuclides in spent fuels. New functions in PARC concept are designed to mitigate the environmental impacts of reprocessing wastes and also to improve the economy of reprocessing in the future. Experimental work has been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. (author)

  3. A model on valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in reprocessing solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Gunzo; Fujine, Sachio; Yoshida, Zenko; Maeda, Mitsuru; Motoyama, Satoshi.

    1998-02-01

    A mathematical model was developed to evaluate the valence state of TRU nuclides in reprocessing process solutions. The model consists of mass balance equations, Nernst equations, reaction rate equations and electrically neutrality equations. The model is applicable for the valence state evaluation of TRU nuclides in both steady state and transient state conditions in redox equilibrium. The valence state which is difficult to measure under high radiation and multi component conditions is calculated by the model using experimentally measured data for the TRU nuclide concentrations, nitric acid and redox reagent concentrations, electrode potential and solution temperature. (author)

  4. A study on nuclide migration in buffer materials and rocks for geological disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Haruo

    1998-01-01

    This thesis summarizes the results investigated in order to establish a basic theory on the predictive method of diffusion coefficients of nuclides in compacted sodium bentonite which is a candidate buffer material and in representative rocks for the geological disposal of radioactive waste by measuring the pore structural factors of the compacted bentonite and rocks such as porosity and tortuosity, measuring diffusion coefficients of nuclides in the bentonite and rocks, acquiring basic data on diffusion and developing diffusion models which can quantitatively predict nuclide migration in long-term. (J.P.N.). 117 refs

  5. Constraining Quaternary ice covers and erosion rates using cosmogenic 26Al/10Be nuclide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Mads Faurschou; Egholm, David Lundbek

    2018-02-01

    Paired cosmogenic nuclides are often used to constrain the exposure/burial history of landforms repeatedly covered by ice during the Quaternary, including tors, high-elevation surfaces, and steep alpine summits in the circum-Arctic regions. The approach generally exploits the different production rates and half-lives of 10Be and 26Al to infer past exposure/burial histories. However, the two-stage minimum-limiting exposure and burial model regularly used to interpret the nuclides ignores the effect of variable erosion rates, which potentially may bias the interpretation. In this study, we use a Monte Carlo model approach to investigate systematically how the exposure/burial and erosion history, including variable erosion and the timing of erosion events, influence concentrations of 10Be and 26Al. The results show that low 26Al/10Be ratios are not uniquely associated with prolonged burial under ice, but may as well reflect ice covers that were limited to the coldest part of the late Pleistocene combined with recent exhumation of the sample, e.g. due to glacial plucking during the last glacial period. As an example, we simulate published 26Al/10Be data from Svalbard and show that it is possible that the steep alpine summits experienced ice-free conditions during large parts of the late Pleistocene and varying amounts of glacial erosion. This scenario, which contrasts with the original interpretation of more-or-less continuous burial under non-erosive ice over the last ∼1 Myr, thus challenge the conventional interpretation of such data. On the other hand, high 26Al/10Be ratios do not necessarily reflect limited burial under ice, which is the common interpretation of high ratios. In fact, high 26Al/10Be ratios may also reflect extensive burial under ice, combined with a change from burial under erosive ice, which brought the sample close to the surface, to burial under non-erosive ice at some point during the mid-Pleistocene. Importantly, by allowing for variable

  6. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  7. What is a lunar standstill III?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Duke Sims

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Prehistoric monument alignments on lunar standstills are currently understood for horizon range, perturbation event, crossover event, eclipse prediction, solstice full Moon and the solarisation of the dark Moon. The first five models are found to fail the criteria of archaeoastronomy field methods. The final model of lunar-solar conflation draws upon all the observed components of lunar standstills – solarised reverse phased sidereal Moons culminating in solstice dark Moons in a roughly nine-year alternating cycle between major and minor standstills. This lunar-solar conflation model is a syncretic overlay upon an antecedent Palaeolithic template for lunar scheduled rituals and amenable to transformation.

  8. The negligible chondritic contribution in the lunar soils water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephant, Alice; Robert, François

    2014-10-21

    Recent data from Apollo samples demonstrate the presence of water in the lunar interior and at the surface, challenging previous assumption that the Moon was free of water. However, the source(s) of this water remains enigmatic. The external flux of particles and solid materials that reach the surface of the airless Moon constitute a hydrogen (H) surface reservoir that can be converted to water (or OH) during proton implantation in rocks or remobilization during magmatic events. Our original goal was thus to quantify the relative contributions to this H surface reservoir. To this end, we report NanoSIMS measurements of D/H and (7)Li/(6)Li ratios on agglutinates, volcanic glasses, and plagioclase grains from the Apollo sample collection. Clear correlations emerge between cosmogenic D and (6)Li revealing that almost all D is produced by spallation reactions both on the surface and in the interior of the grains. In grain interiors, no evidence of chondritic water has been found. This observation allows us to constrain the H isotopic ratio of hypothetical juvenile lunar water to δD ≤ -550‰. On the grain surface, the hydroxyl concentrations are significant and the D/H ratios indicate that they originate from solar wind implantation. The scattering distribution of the data around the theoretical D vs. (6)Li spallation correlation is compatible with a chondritic contribution lunar surface, and (ii) the postulated chondritic lunar water is not retained in the regolith.

  9. Infrared spectra of lunar soils. [using a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, J. R.; Emslie, A. G.; Smith, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Measured data obtained by Michelson interferometer spectrometer were stored in a computer file and smoothed by being passed forward and backward through a digital four-pole low pass filter. Infrared spectra of the 10 lunar samples are presented in the format of brightness temperature versus frequency. The mol % of feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, ilmenite and ferromagnetic silicate in each sample is presented in tables. The reflectance spectra of ilmenite and enstatite are shown in graphs.

  10. Mechanical properties of lunar regolith and lunar soil simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Steven W.

    1989-01-01

    Through the Surveyor 3 and 7, and Apollo 11-17 missions a knowledge of the mechanical properties of Lunar regolith were gained. These properties, including material cohesion, friction, in-situ density, grain-size distribution and shape, and porosity, were determined by indirect means of trenching, penetration, and vane shear testing. Several of these properties were shown to be significantly different from those of terrestrial soils, such as an interlocking cohesion and tensile strength formed in the absence of moisture and particle cementation. To characterize the strength and deformation properties of Lunar regolith experiments have been conducted on a lunar soil simulant at various initial densities, fabric arrangements, and composition. These experiments included conventional triaxial compression and extension, direct tension, and combined tension-shear. Experiments have been conducted at low levels of effective confining stress. External conditions such as membrane induced confining stresses, end platten friction and material self weight have been shown to have a dramatic effect on the strength properties at low levels of confining stress. The solution has been to treat these external conditions and the specimen as a full-fledged boundary value problem rather than the idealized elemental cube of mechanics. Centrifuge modeling allows for the study of Lunar soil-structure interaction problems. In recent years centrifuge modeling has become an important tool for modeling processes that are dominated by gravity and for verifying analysis procedures and studying deformation and failure modes. Centrifuge modeling is well established for terrestrial enginering and applies equally as well to Lunar engineering. A brief review of the experiments is presented in graphic and outline form.

  11. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  12. Phase II Nuclide Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of Nuclides from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence nuclide fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on nuclide transport are not well established

  13. New approaches investigating production rates of in-situ produced terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merchel, Silke [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France); FZD, Dresden (Germany); Braucher, Regis; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier [CEREGE, CNRS-IRD-Universite Aix-Marseille, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2010-07-01

    In-situ produced cosmogenic nuclides have proved to be valuable tools for environmental and Earth sciences. However, accurate application of this method is only possible, if terrestrial production rates in a certain environment over a certain time period and their depth-dependence within the exposed material are exactly known. Unfortunately, the existing data and models differ up to several tens of percent. Thus, one of the European project CRONUS-EU goals is the high quality calibration of the {sup 36}Cl production rate by spallation at independently dated surfaces. As part of fulfilling this task we have investigated calcite-rich samples from four medieval landslide areas in the Alps: Mont Granier, Le Claps, Dobratsch, and Veliki Vrh (330-1620 m, 1248-1442 AD). For investigating the depth-dependence of the different nuclear reactions, especially, the muon- and thermal neutron-induced contributions, we have analysed mixtures of carbonates and siliceous conglomerate samples - for {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 36}Cl - exposed at different shielding depths and taken from a core drilled in 2005 at La Ciotat, France (from surface to 11 m shielding). AMS of {sup 36}Cl was performed at LLNL and ETH, {sup 10}Be and {sup 26}Al at ASTER.

  14. NASA Lunar Base Wireless System Propagation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Upanavage, Matthew; Sham, Catherine C.

    2007-01-01

    There have been many radio wave propagation studies using both experimental and theoretical techniques over the recent years. However, most of studies have been in support of commercial cellular phone wireless applications. The signal frequencies are mostly at the commercial cellular and Personal Communications Service bands. The antenna configurations are mostly one on a high tower and one near the ground to simulate communications between a cellular base station and a mobile unit. There are great interests in wireless communication and sensor systems for NASA lunar missions because of the emerging importance of establishing permanent lunar human exploration bases. Because of the specific lunar terrain geometries and RF frequencies of interest to the NASA missions, much of the published literature for the commercial cellular and PCS bands of 900 and 1800 MHz may not be directly applicable to the lunar base wireless system and environment. There are various communication and sensor configurations required to support all elements of a lunar base. For example, the communications between astronauts, between astronauts and the lunar vehicles, between lunar vehicles and satellites on the lunar orbits. There are also various wireless sensor systems among scientific, experimental sensors and data collection ground stations. This presentation illustrates the propagation analysis of the lunar wireless communication and sensor systems taking into account the three dimensional terrain multipath effects. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are significantly affected by the presence of the lunar terrain. The obtained results indicate the lunar surface material, terrain geometry and antenna location are the important factors affecting the propagation characteristics of the lunar wireless systems. The path loss can be much more severe than the free space propagation and is greatly affected by the antenna height, surface material and operating frequency. The

  15. Lunar Gene Bank for Endangered Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Ramakrushna

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Before the dawn of the 22nd century, we face the huge risk of losing our genetic heritage accumulated during aeons of evolution. The losses include hundreds of vertebrates, human gene pools, hundreds of thousands of plants and over a million insect species. As we have observed, adequate conservation of habitat is unfeasible and active breeding programs cover only a handful of the many thousand species threatened. We propose cryopreservation of germplasms by constructing a cDNA library based gene bank for endangered species in the permanently shadowed polar lunar craters that would provide immunity from both natural disadvantages and humanitarian intrusions. Rationale: Under such alarming circumstances, we turned to cryopreservation as an option but over thousands of years economic depression, sabotage, conflicts, warfare or even a brief disruption to the precise cryopreservation can hamper the storage of genetic samples.When we are considering conservation it is always preferable to go for a more secure and permanent solution. It was found out that the climatic and strategic location of the lunar polar craters are adequately hospitable, remote and free of maintenance and human observation as they provide naturally cryogenic temperature, reduced gravity and vacuum environment, non-reactive surface, safety from celestial intrusion and permanent shadow which doesn't allow the temperature to fluctuate thus providing most suitable storage facilities for the germplasms. PSRs provide steady temperature of 40- 60K and immunity to earthquakes due to low seismic activity. At these sites, burial in one meter or more of the regolith will provide protection against the solar wind, solar and galactic cosmic rays and micrometeorite impact. It provides the minimum necessary barrier from human intervention and at the same time enables easy retrieval for future usage. Genetic samples of endangered species can enable restoration even after its extinction. Preserved

  16. Residual Nuclides Induced in Cu Target by a 250 MeV Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hong-Bin; Zhang Xue-Ying; Ma Fei; Ju Yong-Qin; Ge Hong-Lin; Chen Liang; Zhang Yan-Bin; Li Yan-Yan; Luo Peng; Wang Jian-Guo; Wan Bo; Xu Xiao-Wei; Wei Ji-Fang; Zhou Bin

    2015-01-01

    Residual nuclide production is studied experimentally by bombarding a Cu target with a 250 MeV proton beam. The data are measured by the off-line γ-spectroscopy method. Six nuclides are identified and their cross sections are determined. The corresponding calculated results by the MCNPX and GEANT4 codes are compared with the experimental data to check the validity of the codes. A comparison shows that the MCNPX simulation has a better agreement with the experiment. The energy dependence of residual nuclide production is studied with the aid of MCNPX simulation, and it is found that the mass yields for the nuclides in the light mass region increase significantly with the proton energy. (paper)

  17. Nuclides.net: An integrated environment for computations on radionuclides and their radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galy, J.; Magill, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclides.net computational package is of direct interest in the fields of environment monitoring and nuclear forensics. The 'integrated environment' is a suite of computer programs ranging from a powerful user-friendly interface, which allows the user to navigate the nuclide chart and explore the properties of nuclides, to various computational modules for decay calculations, dosimetry and shielding calculations, etc. The main emphasis in Nuclides.net is on nuclear science applications, such as health physics, radioprotection and radiochemistry, rather than nuclear data for which excellent sources already exist. In contrast to the CD-based Nuclides 2000 predecessor, Nuclides.net applications run over the internet on a web server. The user interface to these applications is via a web browser. Information submitted by the user is sent to the appropriate applications resident on the web server. The results of the calculations are returned to the user, again via the browser. The product is aimed at both students and professionals for reference data on radionuclides and computations based on this data using the latest internet technology. It is particularly suitable for educational purposes in the nuclear industry, health physics and radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, etc. The Nuclides.net software suite contains the following modules/features: a) A new user interface to view the nuclide charts (with zoom features). Additional nuclide charts are based on spin, parity, binding energy etc. b) There are five main applications: (1) 'Decay Engine' for decay calculations of numbers, masses, activities, dose rates, etc. of parent and daughters. (2) 'Dosimetry and Shielding' module allows the calculation of dose rates from both unshielded and shielded point sources. A choice of 10 shield materials is available. (3) 'Virtual Nuclides' allows the user to do decay and dosimetry and shielding calculations on mixtures of

  18. Fate of nuclides in natural water systems. Annual progress report, April 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turekian, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    This study of the behavior of nuclides in natural water systems is divided into studies of atmospheric aerosols, soils, groundwater, rivers, estuaries and coastal zones, the carbon cycle and the growth rates of marine organisms

  19. Nuclide identifier and grat data reader application for ORIGEN output file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif Isnaeni

    2011-01-01

    ORIGEN is a one-group depletion and radioactive decay computer code developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORIGEN takes one-group neutronics calculation providing various nuclear material characteristics (the buildup, decay and processing of radioactive materials). ORIGEN output is a text-based file, ORIGEN output file contains only numbers in the form of group data nuclide, nuclide identifier and grat. This application was created to facilitate data collection nuclide identifier and grat, this application also has a function to acquire mass number data and calculate mass (gram) for each nuclide. Output from these applications can be used for computer code data input for neutronic calculations such as MCNP. (author)

  20. Attempt to enrich of a new spontaneous fissioning nuclide by evaporation of natural brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamek, A.; Zhuravleva, E.L.; Constantinescu, M.; Constantinescu, o.; Chuburkov, Yu.T.

    1983-01-01

    The enrichment of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide discovered in the Cheleken brine, was made by evaporation. The purpose of this work was the comparison of behaviour of the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide with that of the known elements in the formation processes of the high concentration brines. Spontaneous fission of the nuclide was measured by means of the counters for multiple emission of neutrons. It is shown that the new spontaneous fissioning nuclide was enriched as well as other trace elements (Hg, Tl, Bi and Pb) in a solution remained after the evaporation of the initial solution. The conclusion is drawn that from the sea water brines could be obtained by evaporation which are enriched in trace elements with an enrichment degree higher than the natural brines

  1. Modeling for Colloid and Chelator Facilitated Nuclide Transport in Radioactive Waste Disposal System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Myoung; Jeong, Jong Tae

    2010-08-01

    A modeling study and development of a total system performance assessment (TSPA) program template, by which assessment of safety and performance for a radioactive waste repository with normal and/or abnormal nuclide release cases can be made has been developed. Colloid and chelator facilitated transport that is believed to result for faster nuclide transport in various mediabothinthegeosphereandbiospherehas been evaluated deterministically and probabilistically to demonstrate the capability of the template developed through this study. To this end colloid and chelator facilitated nuclide transport has been modeled rather strainghtforwardly with assumed data through this study by utilizing some powerful function offered by GoldSim. An evaluation in view of apparent influence of colloid and chelator on the nuclide transport in the various media in and around a repository system with data assumed are illustrated

  2. Concept of Lunar Energy Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niino, Masayuki; Kisara, Katsuto; Chen, Lidong

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents a new concept of energy supply system named Lunar Energy Park (LEP) as one of the next-generation clean energy sources. In this concept, electricity is generated by nuclear power plants built on the moon and then transmitted to receiving stations on the earth by laser beam through transporting systems situated in geostationary orbit. The lunar nuclear power plants use a high-efficiency composite energy conversion system consisting of thermionic and thermoelectric generators to change nuclear thermal energy into electricity directly. The nuclear resources are considered to be available from the moon, and nuclear fuel transport from earth to moon is not necessary. Because direct energy conversion systems are employed, the lunar nuclear plants can be operated and controlled by robots and are maintenance-free, and so will cause no pollution to humans. The key technologies for LEP include improvements of conversion efficiency of both thermionic and thermoelectric converters, and developments of laser-beam power transmission technology as well. The details, including the construction of lunar nuclear plants, energy conversion and energy transmission systems, as well as the research plan strategies for this concept are reviewed.

  3. Perspectives on Lunar Helium-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1999-01-01

    Global demand for energy will likely increase by a factor of six or eight by the mid-point of the 21st Century due to a combination of population increase, new energy intensive technologies, and aspirations for improved standards of living in the less-developed world (1). Lunar helium-3 (3He), with a resource base in the Tranquillitatis titanium-rich lunar maria (2,3) of at least 10,000 tonnes (4), represents one potential energy source to meet this rapidly escalating demand. The energy equivalent value of 3He delivered to operating fusion power plants on Earth would be about 3 billion per tonne relative to today's coal which supplies most of the approximately 90 billion domestic electrical power market (5). These numbers illustrate the magnitude of the business opportunity. The results from the Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (6) suggests that 3He also may be concentrated at the lunar poles along with solar wind hydrogen (7). Mining, extraction, processing, and transportation of helium to Earth requires new innovations in engineering but no known new engineering concepts (1). By-products of lunar 3He extraction, largely hydrogen, oxygen, and water, have large potential markets in space and ultimately will add to the economic attractiveness of this business opportunity (5). Inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion technology appears to be the most attractive and least capital intensive approach to terrestrial fusion power plants (8). Heavy lift launch costs comprise the largest cost uncertainty facing initial business planning, however, many factors, particularly long term production contracts, promise to lower these costs into the range of 1-2000 per kilogram versus about 70,000 per kilogram fully burdened for the Apollo Saturn V rocket (1). A private enterprise approach to developing lunar 3He and terrestrial IEC fusion power would be the most expeditious means of realizing this unique opportunity (9). In spite of the large, long-term potential

  4. A Multispectral Micro-Imager for Lunar Field Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Jorge; Farmer, Jack; Sellar, Glenn; Allen, Carlton

    2009-01-01

    Field geologists routinely assign rocks to one of three basic petrogenetic categories (igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic) based on microtextural and mineralogical information acquired with a simple magnifying lens. Indeed, such observations often comprise the core of interpretations of geological processes and history. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) uses multi-wavelength, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and a substrate-removed InGaAs focal-plane array to create multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples (FOV 32 X 40 mm). Each pixel (62.5 microns) of an image is comprised of 21 spectral bands that extend from 470 to 1750 nm, enabling the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases. MMI images provide crucial context information for in situ robotic analyses using other onboard analytical instruments (e.g. XRD), or for the selection of return samples for analysis in terrestrial labs. To further assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image a variety of Apollo samples housed at the Lunar Experiment Laboratory, NASA s Johnson Space Center. MMI images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end member mapping methods revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples. Samples included a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the Lunar Sample Compendium, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration.

  5. Element distribution and noble gas isotopic abundances in lunar meteorite Allan Hills A81005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

    1986-01-01

    Antarctic meteorite ALLAN HILLS A81005, an anorthositic breccia, is recognized to be of lunar origin. The noble gases in this meteorite were analyzed and found to be solar-wind implanted gases, whose absolute and relative concentrations are quite similar to those in lunar regolith samples. A sample of this meteorite was obtained for the analysis of the noble gas isotopes, including Kr(81), and for the determination of the elemental abundances. In order to better determine the volume derived from the surface correlated gases, grain size fractions were prepared. The results of the instrumental measurements of the gamma radiation are listed. From the amounts of cosmic ray produced noble gases and respective production rates, the lunar surface residence times were calculated. It was concluded that the lunar surface time is about half a billion years

  6. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  7. Some notes on experiments measuring diffusion of sorbed nuclides through porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1986-11-01

    Various experimental techniques for measuring the important parameters governing diffusion of sorbed nuclides through water-saturated porous media are described, and the particular parameters obtained from each technique are discussed. Recent experiments in which diffusive transport takes place more rapidly than expected are reviewed. The author recommends that through-transport diffusion experiments are the most satisfactory method of determining whether this arises from surface diffusion of sorbed nuclides. (author)

  8. Novel reprocessing methods with nuclide separation for volume reduction of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tatsuya

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed the reprocessing system with nuclide separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposing system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the MA separation process, and nuclide separation processes. In our proposing processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. We expect that our proposing will contribute to that volume reduction of high level radioactive waste by combining the transmutation techniques, usage of valuable elements, and so on. (author)

  9. The extraction behavior of some noticeable nuclides in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanouchi, T.; Sasao, N.; Ozawa, M.; Yamana, H.

    1987-01-01

    The extraction behavior of some TRU nuclides and Ru-106 were investigated on the basis of the process analytical data obtained during this decade of the hot operation in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant. Some characteristics of their extraction behavior under Tokai-flowsheet became clear. They were explainable by the chemical features of these nuclides in conjunction with the chemical conditions of the process. Some extraction-simulation calculations were performed to supplement the understanding of their characteristic behaviors

  10. Device for determining the gross weight, dose rate, surface contamination and/or nuclide inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Barrels with low nuclide inventories (about 1E6 Bq) and with high inventories (1E13 Bq) are inspected with the barrel inspection system. The system provides a rotating plate, which is part of some scales and a measuring sensor arrangement for this purpose. The surface contamination and nuclide inventories of the 200 litre barrels can be calculated from the weight and radiation detector values. (DG) [de

  11. Field tests on migration of TRU-nuclide, (1). General introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Tadao; Mukai, Masayuki

    2003-01-01

    The field migration test using TRU nuclide was carried out as a cooperative research project between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute) and CIRP (China Institute for Radiation Protection). This report introduced the out-line of the field migration test and described the outline of the series of 'Field Test on Migration of TRU-nuclide' and main results as a summary report. (author)

  12. Radioactivity nuclide identification based on BP and LM algorithm neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jihong; Sun Jian; Wang Lianghou

    2012-01-01

    The paper provides the method which can identify radioactive nuclide based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network. Then, this paper compares the above-mentioned method with FR algorithm. Through the result of the Matlab simulation, the method of radioactivity nuclide identification based on the BP and LM algorithm neural network is superior to the FR algorithm. With the better effect and the higher accuracy, it will be the best choice. (authors)

  13. Nuclide separation modeling through reverse osmosis membranes in radioactive liquid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byung-Sik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the transport mechanism of radioactive nuclides through the reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and to estimate its effectiveness for nuclide separation from radioactive liquid waste. An analytical model is developed to simulate the RO separation, and a series of experiments are set up to confirm its estimated separation behavior. The model is based on the extended Nernst–Plank equation, which handles the convective flux, diffusive flux, and electromigration f...

  14. Integrated lunar materials manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Michael A. (Inventor); Knudsen, Christian W. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A manufacturing plant and process for production of oxygen on the moon uses lunar minerals as feed and a minimum of earth-imported, process materials. Lunar feed stocks are hydrogen-reducible minerals, ilmenite and lunar agglutinates occurring in numerous, explored locations mixed with other minerals in the pulverized surface layer of lunar soil known as regolith. Ilmenite (FeTiO.sub.3) and agglutinates contain ferrous (Fe.sup.+2) iron reducible by hydrogen to yield H.sub.2 O and metallic Fe at about 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. The H.sub.2 O is electrolyzed in gas phase to yield H.sub.2 for recycle and O.sub.2 for storage and use. Hydrogen losses to lunar vacuum are minimized, with no net hydrogen (or any other earth-derived reagent) consumption except for small leaks. Feed minerals are surface-mined by front shovels and transported in trucks to the processing area. The machines are manned or robotic. Ilmenite and agglutinates occur mixed with silicate minerals which are not hydrogen-reducible at 700.degree.-1,200.degree. C. and consequently are separated and concentrated before feeding to the oxygen generation process. Solids rejected from the separation step and reduced solids from the oxygen process are returned to the mine area. The plant is powered by nuclear or solar power generators. Vapor-phase water electrolysis, a staged, countercurrent, fluidized bed reduction reactor and a radio-frequency-driven ceramic gas heater are used to improve thermal efficiency.

  15. A Study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baik, Min Hoon; Park, Chung Kyun; Kim, Seung Soo

    2010-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the properties of geochemical reactions and sorption of high-level radionuclides (U, Th, Am, and Np), constructed databases for the geochemical reactions and sorption of the high-level radionuclides, and developed application methodologies of the databases. For the investigation on the nuclide migration and retardation through fractured rocks in KURT, in-situ solute migration system and on-line monitoring system were installed. The migration and retardation behaviors of nuclides were investigated annually for non-sorbing, simply sorbing and multi-valent sorbing nuclides, respectively, and interactions with fracture-filling materials were also analyzed. Besides, researches difficult to perform in KURT were carried out in foreign underground research facilities as joint studies for nuclide and colloid migration. The results from domestic and foreign underground facilities were compared each other and the reliability of the domestic results were assured from this. Diffusion depths of high-level radionuclides into rock matrix were measured in KURT conditions and their diffusion properties were analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the effects of bio-mineralization and redox reactions of a nuclide and microbe on nuclide behaviors were carried out to study the effects of combined interactions between minerals and microbes on the radionuclide migration and retardation

  16. Effects of Apollo 12 lunar material on lipid levels of tobacco tissue and slash pine cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Investigations of the lipid components of pine tissues (Pinus elloitii) are discussed, emphasizing fatty acids and steroids. The response by slash pine tissue cultures to growth in contact with Apollo lunar soil, earth basalt, and Iowa soil is studied. Tissue cultures of tobacco grown for 12 weeks in contact with lunar material from Apollo 12 flight contained 21 to 35 percent more total pigment than control tissues. No differences were noted in the fresh or dry weight of the experimental and control samples.

  17. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  18. Dust particles investigation for future Russian lunar missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnikov, Gennady; Horanyi, Mihaly; Esposito, Francesca; Zakharov, Alexander; Popel, Sergey; Afonin, Valeri; Borisov, Nikolay; Seran, Elena; Godefroy, Michel; Shashkova, Inna; Kuznetsov, Ilya; Lyash, Andrey; Vorobyova, Elena; Petrov, Oleg; Lisin, Evgeny

    emission. Dust analyzer instrument PmL for future Russian lender missons intends for investigation the dynamics of dusty plasma near lunar surface. PmL consist of three blocks: Impact Sensor and two Electric Field Sensors. Dust Experiment goals are: 1) Impact sensor to investigate the dynamics of dust particles near the lunar surface (speed, charge, mass, vectors of a fluxes) a) high speed micrometeorites b) secondary particles after micrometeorites soil bombardment c) levitating dust particles due to electrostatic fields PmL instrument will measure dust particle impulses. In laboratory tests we used - min impulse so as 7•10-11 N•c, by SiO2 dust particles, 20-40 µm with velocity about 0,5 -2,5 m/c, dispersion 0.3, and - max impulse was 10-6 N•c with possibility increased it by particles Pb-Sn 0,7 mm with velocity 1 m/c, dispersion ±0.3. Also Impact Sensor will measure the charge of dust particle as far as 10-15 C ( 1000 electrons). In case the charge and impulse of a dust particle are measured we can obtain velocity and mass of them. 2) Electric field Sensor will measure the value and dynamics of the electric fields the lunar surface. Two Electric Field Sensors both are measured the concentration and temperature of charged particles (electrons, ions, dust particles). Uncertainty of measurements is 10%. Electric Field Sensors contain of Lengmure probe. Using Lengmure probe to dark and light Moon surface we can obtain the energy spectra photoelectrons in different period of time. PmL instrument is developing, working out and manufacturing in IKI. Simultaneously with the PmL dust instrument to study lunar dust it would be very important to use an onboard TV system adjusted for imaging physical properties of dust on the lunar surface (adhesion, albedo, porosity, etc), and to collect dust particles samples from the lunar surface to return these samples to the Earth for measure a number of physic-chemical properties of the lunar dust, e.g. a quantum yield of

  19. Digging Deep: Is Lunar Mantle Excavated Around the Imbrium Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Bretzfelder, J.; Buczkowski, D.; Ernst, C. M.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Petro, N. E.; Shusterman, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Moon has experienced over a dozen impacts resulting in basins large enough to have excavated mantle material. With many of those basins concentrated on the lunar near side, and extensive regolith mixing since the lunar magma ocean crystallized, one might expect that some mantle material would have been found among the lunar samples on Earth. However, so far, no mantle clasts have been definitively identified in lunar samples [1]. From orbit, a number of olivine-bearing localities, potentially sourced from the mantle, have been identified around impact basins [2]. Based on analysis of near-infrared (NIR) and imaging data, [3] suggest that roughly 60% of these sites represent olivine from the mantle. If this is the case and the blocks are coherent and not extensively mixed into the regolith, these deposits should be ultramafic, containing olivine and/or pyroxenes and little to no plagioclase. In the mid-infrared, they would thus exhibit Christiansen features at wavelengths in excess of 8.5 μm, which has not been observed in global studies using the Diviner Lunar Radiometer [4]. We present an integrated study of the massifs surrounding the Imbrium basin, which, at over 1000 km wide, is large enough to have penetrated through the lunar crust and into the mantle. These massifs are clearly associated with the Imbrium basin-forming impact, but existing geological maps do not distinguish between whether they are likely ejecta or rather uplifted from beneath the surface during crustal rebound [5]. We examine these massifs using vis, NIR and Mid IR data to determine the relationships between and the bulk mineralogy of local lithologies. NIR data suggest that the massifs contain exposures of four dominant minerals: olivine, Mg-rich orthopyroxene, a second low-Ca pyroxene, and anorthite. Mid IR results suggest that though many of these massifs are plagioclase-rich, portions of some may be significantly more mafic. We will present our growing mineralogical map of the

  20. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  1. Determination of k0-factors of short-lived nuclides and application of k0-NAA to selected trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, R.; Holzbecher, J.; Chatt, A.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the standardization program of k 0 -based NAA (k 0 -NAA) methods at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor (DUSR) facility, the k 0 -factors of 15 analytically important short-lived nuclides (half-life 197 Au). The elemental standards used were prepared mostly from their primary standard solutions. The samples were irradiated in both inner and outer pneumatic sites of the DUSR facility and counted using an HPGe-detector coupled to an ORTEC’s digital gamma-ray spectrometer. The k 0 -factors determined using both inner and outer irradiation sites were found to be within ±5% with respect to either recommended or literature values in most cases. The Z-score values at 95% confidence level were found to be in the range of ±0.03–1.6. The k 0 -NAA method was applied to three different NIST standard reference materials (SRMs) and concentrations of six elements, namely Ag, F, Hf, Rb, Sc, and Se were determined using their short-lived nuclides. The concentrations of these elements were also determined by relative NAA method for comparison purposes.

  2. Transfer Factors of Nuclides for Five Fish Species Inhabiting the Sea near the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kwangmuk; Choi, Yongho; Jun, In; Kim, Byungho; Keum, Dongkwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The IAEA is going to publish a handbook of the TF values of various radionuclides for a number of plant and animal species. However, it is recommended that they be used in case there is no site-specific data. This is because TF values can vary considerably with wild-life species and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to urgently establish our own database of wild-life transfer factors for use in the wild-life dose assessment probably in the near future. In the present study, TF values of various radionuclides were investigated for several marine fish species living around the Younggwang NPP. It was done by measuring the concentrations of stable isotopes in fish and seawater samples. TF values of 21 nuclides were measured for five fish species inhabiting the sea near the Younggwang NPP. They showed considerable variations with the nuclides and fish species. Determination of TF values needs to be extended to various kinds of domestic wild lives so as to establish an input data file for a Korean assessment model such as K-BIOTA.

  3. The Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) Paradigm Versus the Realities of Lunar Anorthosites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, A. H.; Gross, J.

    2018-05-01

    The paradigm of the Lunar Magma Ocean (LMO) is inconsistent with much chemical and compositional data on lunar anorthosites. The paradigm of serial anorthosite diapirism is more consistent, though not a panacea.

  4. Survey of reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Stone, S.F.; Bel-Amakeletch, T.; Zeisler, R.

    1998-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), in co-operation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), has recently prepared a survey on internationally available analytical reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic contaminants in biological, environmental and related matrices. The purpose is to help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be measured. The present version of the survey, which is available in the form of two cost-free printed volumes [1], contains over 10,000 certified and information values in 650 reference materials from 27 different producers. The 455 measurands listed include trace elements, major and minor elements, organic contaminants, organometallic compounds, radionuclides and stable isotopes. Currently, the database from which the survey has been produced is being modified and extended so as to make the data available in electronic form via the Internet. (orig.)

  5. A new approach to estimate nuclide ratios from measurements with activities close to background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, G.; Steiner, M.; Zaehringer, M.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of low-level radioactivity often give results of the order of the detection limit. For many applications, interest is not only in estimating activity concentrations of a single radioactive isotope, but focuses on multi-isotope analyses, which often enable inference on the source of the activity detected (e.g. from activity ratios). Obviously, such conclusions become questionable if the measurement merely gives a detection limit for a specific isotope. This is particularly relevant if the presence of an isotope, which shows a low signal only (e.g. due to a short half-life or a small transition probability), is crucial for gaining the information of interest. This paper discusses a new approach which has the potential to solve these problems. Using Bayesian statistics, a method is presented which allows statistical inference on nuclide ratios taking into account both prior knowledge and all information collected from the measurements. It is shown that our method allows quantitative conclusion to be drawn if counts of single isotopes are low or become even negative after background subtraction. Differences to the traditional statistical approach of specifying decision thresholds or detection limits are highlighted. Application of this new approach is illustrated by a number of examples of environmental low-level radioactivity measurements. The capabilities of our approach for spectrum interpretation and source identification are demonstrated with real spectra from air filters, sewage sludge and soil samples.

  6. Lunar domes properties and formation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Raffaello; Phillips, Jim; Chiocchetta, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Lunar domes are structures of volcanic origin which are usually difficult to observe due to their low heights. The Lunar Domes Handbook is a reference work on these elusive features. It provides a collection of images for a large number of lunar domes, including telescopic images acquired with advanced but still moderately intricate amateur equipment as well as recent orbital spacecraft images. Different methods for determining the morphometric properties of lunar domes (diameter, height, flank slope, edifice volume) from image data or orbital topographic data are discussed. Additionally, multispectral and hyperspectral image data are examined, providing insights into the composition of the dome material. Several classification schemes for lunar domes are described, including an approach based on the determined morphometric quantities and spectral analyses. Furthermore, the book provides a description of geophysical models of lunar domes, which yield information about the properties of the lava from which the...

  7. Natural radioactive nuclides 138La and 176Lu in rare earth ore samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weiping; Shen Jianfeng; Lu Zhaolun; Jiang Rangrong

    1993-01-01

    The contents of 1 '3 8 La and 176 Lu in some rare earth mines have been measured with a HPGE γ spectrometer. The measurements show that the contents of 138 La and 176 Lu in one rare earth mine are remarkably different from those in the other and they do not display a proportional relation, and that the contents of 40 K in this mine are very low

  8. Assessment of gamma, beta and alpha-particle-emitting nuclides in marine samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    Depending on the physical properties of radionuclides different systems must be used for their measurement. Most convenient is if gamma spectrometry can be used by germanium, Silicon or Scintillation detectors (eg. NaI). If, however, the main emission consists of beta or alpha particles or low-energy photons as is the case for radionuclides decaying by electron capture, radiochemical separation and specific source preparations must be undertaken. In such cases also the radiochemical yield must be determined. The radiochemical part mainly follows the lines presented by prof. T. Jaakkola, Department of Radiochemistry, Helsinki, Finland, at a course in radioecology in Lurid, 1991. For very long-lived radionuclides other methods such as mass spectrometry are superior although often associated with sophisticated expensive instrumentation. (author)

  9. Removal of round off errors in the matrix exponential method for solving the heavy nuclide chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man; Joo, Hyung Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many nodal codes for core simulation adopt the micro-depletion procedure for the depletion analysis. Unlike the macro-depletion procedure, the microdepletion procedure uses micro-cross sections and number densities of important nuclides to generate the macro cross section of a spatial calculational node. Therefore, it needs to solve the chain equations of the nuclides of interest to obtain their number densities. There are several methods such as the matrix exponential method (MEM) and the chain linearization method (CLM) for solving the nuclide chain equations. The former solves chain equations exactly even when the cycles that come from the alpha decay exist in the chain while the latter solves the chain approximately when the cycles exist in the chain. The former has another advantage over the latter. Many nodal codes for depletion analysis, such as MASTER, solve only the hard coded nuclide chains with the CLM. Therefore, if we want to extend the chain by adding some more nuclides to the chain, we have to modify the source code. In contrast, we can extend the chain just by modifying the input in the MEM because it is easy to implement the MEM solver for solving an arbitrary nuclide chain. In spite of these advantages of the MEM, many nodal codes adopt the chain linearization because the former has a large round off error when the flux level is very high or short lived or strong absorber nuclides exist in the chain. In this paper, we propose a new technique to remove the round off errors in the MEM and we compared the performance of the two methods

  10. Investigation on the movements and the distributions of radon, thoron and their decay nuclides on the life circumstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko

    2001-03-01

    UNSCEAR (2000) reported that the effective doses due to the inhalation of radon and its decay nuclides account on average of the all world for about one-half of all natural sources of radiation. These have great influences on various forms as the sources of terrecial environmental γ radiation and of radon on our life circumstances. Radon and thoron, which are natural gaseous radioactive nuclides released out of rocks and soil etc. are chemical inert and electrically uncharged, but they in the air can spontaneously decay to other metal atoms. And they made a wide fluctuation seasonally and spatially on the environment, but these are not uniformly. We have selected and observed on Misasa spa district, Tottori pref., Kawanishi-shi, Hyogo pref. and Masutomi spa, Yamanashi pref., for HBRA, and Higashi-osaka-shi, Osaka pref., for CA. We have carried out the study on the environmental movement and distribution of natural radioactive nuclides containing radon, thoron and their decay nuclides, and reported these results on following; (1) Radon measurements have been carried using a small pico-rad detector and many sampling points and Pilon scintillation-cell with 300 ml volume by grub sampling. Mean radon concentrations of get briefly for 24 hours are measured to be available on draw of the concentration distribution map. (2) We continued time cource variation of mean radon concentrations on same private house of Misasa spa district. Mean radon concentrations in air for 6 years were fluctuated 6.7-50 Bq/m 3 and 23-170 Bq/m 3 indoor. The mean concentrations on summer and rain season is low level at open-door situation and that on winter is high, as same as these on Kawanishi Hyogo pref.. It was shown that radon outdoor concentrations variation in time course almost have a similar tendency with indoor and the life situation of air ventilation and conditioning are more influenced than variation on area condition. (3) Radon concentrations on Masutomi spa districts, Yamanashi

  11. Infrared Lunar Laser Ranging at Calern : Impact on Lunar Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vishnu; Fienga, Agnes; Manche, Herve; Gastineau, Mickael; Courde, Clement; Torre, Jean Marie; Exertier, Pierre; Laskar, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    Introduction: Since 2015, in addition to the traditional green (532nm), infrared (1064nm) has been the preferred wavelength for lunar laser ranging at the Calern lunar laser ranging (LLR) site in France. Due to the better atmospheric transmission of IR with respect to Green, nearly 3 times the number of normal points have been obtained in IR than in Green [1]. Dataset: In our study, in addition to the historical data obtained from various other LLR sites, we include the recent IR normal points obtained from Calern over the 1 year time span (2015-2016), constituting about 4.2% of data spread over 46 years of LLR. Near even distribution of data provided by IR on both the spatial and temporal domain, helps us to improve constraints on the internal structure of the Moon modeled within the planetary ephemeris : INPOP [2]. Data reduction: IERS recommended models have been used in the data reduction software GINS (GRGS,CNES) [3]. Constraints provided by GRAIL [4], on the Lunar gravitational potential and Love numbers have been taken into account in the least-square fit procedure. Earth orientation parameters from KEOF series have been used as per a recent study [5]. Results: New estimates on the dynamical parameters of the lunar core will be presented. Acknowledgements: We thank the lunar laser ranging observers at Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France, McDonald Observatory, Texas, Haleakala Observatory, Hawaii, and Apache Point Observatory in New Mexico for providing LLR observations that made this study possible. The research described in this abstract was carried out at Geoazur-CNRS, France, as a part of a PhD thesis funded by Observatoire de Paris and French Ministry of Education and Research. References: [1] Clement C. et al. (2016) submitted to A&A [2] Fienga A. et al. (2015) Celest Mech Dyn Astr, 123: 325. doi:10.1007/s10569-015-9639-y [3] Viswanathan V. et al. (2015) EGU, Abstract 18, 13995 [4] Konopliv A. S. et al. (2013) J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 1415

  12. Partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus and fluorine in some lunar lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, W. P.; Hausel, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar sample 14310 is a feldspar-rich basalt which shows no evidence of shock deformation or recrystallization. Pyroxenes include Mg-rich orthopyroxene, pigeonite and augite; pyroxferroite occurs in the interstitial residuum. Plagioclase feldspars are zoned from An(96) to An(67), and variations in feldspar compositions do not necessarily indicate loss of Na during eruption of the lava. Opaque phases include ilmenite, ulvospinel, metallic iron, troilite, and schreibersite. Both whitlockite and apatite are present, and the interstitial residua contain baddeleyite, tranquillityite and barium-rich sanidine. Theoretical calculations provide estimates of partial pressures of oxygen, phosphorus, and fluorine in lunar magmas. In general, partial pressures of oxygen are restricted by the limiting assemblages of iron-wuestite and ilmenite-iron-rutile; phosphorus partial pressures are higher in lunar magmas than in terrestrial lavas. The occurrence of whitlockite indicates significantly lower fugacities of fluorine in lunar magmas than in terrestrial magmas.

  13. Alteration of Lunar Rock Surfaces through Interaction with the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frushour, A. M.; Noble, S. K; Christoffersen, R.; Keller, L P.

    2014-01-01

    Space weathering occurs on all ex-posed surfaces of lunar rocks, as well as on the surfaces of smaller grains in the lunar regolith. Space weather-ing alters these exposed surfaces primarily through the action of solar wind ions and micrometeorite impact processes. On lunar rocks specifically, the alteration products produced by space weathering form surface coatings known as patina. Patinas can have spectral reflectance properties different than the underlying rock. An understanding of patina composition and thickness is therefore important for interpreting re-motely sensed data from airless solar system bodies. The purpose of this study is to try to understand the physical and chemical properties of patina by expanding the number of patinas known and characterized in the lunar rock sample collection.

  14. Effects of soil properties on natural radio-nuclides concentration in arid environment: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, A.F.M.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.I.; Al-Saif, A.S.; Diab, H.I.

    2008-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from an arid environment in the central region of Saudi Arabia, 28 samples from selected 14 locations in an agricultural farm. Two samples, one from cultivated land and the second from uncultivated land, of the same origin were collected from each location. This work aims at investigating the changes of soil properties due to dry-land use and its effects on naturally occurring radio-nuclides (NOR) concentration and distribution. The specific activity, in Bq/kg, of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 228 gRa ( 232 Th series), 40 K and 137 Cs were measured using calibrated gamma-ray spectrometer. The soil physical and chemical properties [e.g. pH, EC, particle size distribution (clay, silt and sand percentages), CaCO 3 %, soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na and K) and soluble anions (CO 3 , HCO 3 , Cl and SO 4 )] were determined. The radium equivalent activity, in Bq/kg, and absorbed dose rate one meter above the ground, in nGy/y, were calculated. Generally, there are not noticeable changes in soil properties due to agricultural activities or strong correlations between soil properties and NOR specific activities. That could be due to the sandy nature of the soil and the effects of adsorption-filtration processes on the behavior and the distribution pattern of NOR in arid environment. Therefore, the environmental impacts of different man-made activities on underground resources should be carefully considered due to the possible filtration behavior of different pollutants in dry-land environment. (author)(tk)

  15. Energy for lunar resource exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Peter E.

    1992-02-01

    Humanity stands at the threshold of exploiting the known lunar resources that have opened up with the access to space. America's role in the future exploitation of space, and specifically of lunar resources, may well determine the level of achievement in technology development and global economic competition. Space activities during the coming decades will significantly influence the events on Earth. The 'shifting of history's tectonic plates' is a process that will be hastened by the increasingly insistent demands for higher living standards of the exponentially growing global population. Key to the achievement of a peaceful world in the 21st century, will be the development of a mix of energy resources at a societally acceptable and affordable cost within a realistic planning horizon. This must be the theme for the globally applicable energy sources that are compatible with the Earth's ecology. It is in this context that lunar resources development should be a primary goal for science missions to the Moon, and for establishing an expanding human presence. The economic viability and commercial business potential of mining, extracting, manufacturing, and transporting lunar resource based materials to Earth, Earth orbits, and to undertake macroengineering projects on the Moon remains to be demonstrated. These extensive activities will be supportive of the realization of the potential of space energy sources for use on Earth. These may include generating electricity for use on Earth based on beaming power from Earth orbits and from the Moon to the Earth, and for the production of helium 3 as a fuel for advanced fusion reactors.

  16. Production of Synthetic Lunar Simulants, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Zybek Advanced Products has proven the ability to produce industrial quantities of lunar simulant materials, including glass, agglutinate and melt breccias. These...

  17. Development of a lunar infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J. D.

    If humans are to reside continuously and productively on the Moon, they must be surrounded and supported there by an infrastructure having some attributes of the support systems that have made advanced civilization possible on Earth. Building this lunar infrastructure will, in a sense, be an investment. Creating it will require large resources from Earth, but once it exists it can do much to limit the further demands of a lunar base for Earthside support. What is needed for a viable lunar infrastructure? This question can be approached from two directions. The first is to examine history, which is essentially a record of growing information structures among humans on Earth (tribes, agriculture, specialization of work, education, ethics, arts and sciences, cities and states, technology). The second approach is much less secure but may provide useful insights: it is to examine the minimal needs of a small human community - not just for physical survival but for a stable existence with a net product output. This paper presents a summary, based on present knowledge of the Moon and of the likely functions of a human community there, of some of these infrastructure requirements, and also discusses possible ways to proceed toward meeting early infrastructure needs.

  18. Topography of the Lunar Poles and Application to Geodesy with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Rowlands, David D.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2012-01-01

    The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) [1] onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) [2] has been operating continuously since July 2009 [3], accumulating approx.5.4 billion measurements from 2 billion on-orbit laser shots. LRO s near-polar orbit results in very high data density in the immediate vicinity of the lunar poles, which are each sampled every 2h. With more than 10,000 orbits, high-resolution maps can be constructed [4] and studied [5]. However, this requires careful processing of the raw data, as subtle errors in the spacecraft position and pointing can lead to visible artifacts in the final map. In other locations on the Moon, ground tracks are subparallel and longitudinal separations are typically a few hundred meters. Near the poles, the track intersection angles can be large and the inter-track spacing is small (above 80 latitude, the effective resolution is better than 50m). Precision Orbit Determination (POD) of the LRO spacecraft [6] was performed to satisfy the LOLA and LRO mission requirements, which lead to a significant improvement in the orbit position knowledge over the short-release navigation products. However, with pixel resolutions of 10 to 25 meters, artifacts due to orbit reconstruction still exist. Here, we show how the complete LOLA dataset at both poles can be adjusted geometrically to produce a high-accuracy, high-resolution maps with minimal track artifacts. We also describe how those maps can then feedback to the POD work, by providing topographic base maps with which individual LOLA altimetric measurements can be contributing to orbit changes. These direct altimetry constraints improve accuracy and can be used more simply than the altimetric crossovers [6].

  19. Study of the acceleration of nuclide burnup calculation using GPU with CUDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okui, S.; Ohoka, Y.; Tatsumi, M.

    2009-01-01

    The computation costs of neutronics calculation code become higher as physics models and methods are complicated. The degree of them in neutronics calculation tends to be limited due to available computing power. In order to open a door to the new world, use of GPU for general purpose computing, called GPGPU, has been studied [1]. GPU has multi-threads computing mechanism enabled with multi-processors which realize mush higher performance than CPUs. NVIDIA recently released the CUDA language for general purpose computation which is a C-like programming language. It is relatively easy to learn compared to the conventional ones used for GPGPU, such as OpenGL or CG. Therefore application of GPU to the numerical calculation became much easier. In this paper, we tried to accelerate nuclide burnup calculation, which is important to predict nuclides time dependence in the core, using GPU with CUDA. We chose the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method to solve the nuclide burnup equation. The nuclide burnup calculation and the 4.-order Runge-Kutta method were suitable to the first step of introduction CUDA into numerical calculation because these consist of simple operations of matrices and vectors of single precision where actual codes were written in the C++ language. Our experimental results showed that nuclide burnup calculations with GPU have possibility of speedup by factor of 100 compared to that with CPU. (authors)

  20. News from the Library: The 8th edition Karlsruhe nuclide chart has been released

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2012-01-01

    The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data not found in the 7th edition.   Since 1958, the well-known Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart has provided scientists with structured, valuable information on the half-lives, decay modes and energies of radioactive nuclides. The chart is used in many disciplines in physics (health physics, radiation protection, nuclear and radiochemistry, astrophysics, etc.) but also in the life and earth sciences (biology, medicine, agriculture, geology, etc.). The 8th edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart contains new data on 737 nuclides not found in the 7th edition. In total, nuclear data on 3847 experimentally observed ground states and isomers are presented. A new web-based version of this chart is in the final stages of development for use within the Nucleonica Nuclear Science Portal - a portal for which CERN has an institutional license. The chart is also available in paper format.   If you want to buy a paper version of the chart, ple...